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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Characterization of a soil contaminated by oilfield brine  

SciTech Connect

Brine contamination of soil is a common environmental problem associated with the onshore production of oil and gas. A site of extensive contamination in Oklahoma has been characterized using conductimetry, direct potentiometry (pH- and chloride-selective electrodes), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (for Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}) to determine the extent of the contamination and the efficacy of various remediation technologies.

Al-Mutairi, K.; Harris, T. [Univ. of Tulsa, OH (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Remediation of brine-contaminated soil using calcium nitrate, gypsum, and straw.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Salt-affected soils from point source brine contamination are common in the active oil field in SE Saskatchewan. A remediation process that included dewatering by sub-surface… (more)

Nielsen, Jennifer I.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

A cost-effective statistical screening method to detect oilfield brine contamination  

SciTech Connect

A statistical screening method has been developed using Tolerance Limits for barium (Ba{sup +2}) to identify contamination of a fresh-water aquifer by oilfield brines. The method requires an understanding of the local hydrochemistry of oilfield brines, inexpensive, Publicly available hydrochemical data, a single sample analysis from the suspect well and the application of a simple statistical procedure. While this method may not provide absolute evidence of oilfield brine contamination of a fresh-water aquifer, it does identify conditions where brine contamination is a strong probability over other possible sources of chlorides.

Alyanak, N.; Grace, J.T.; Campbell, M.D. [United Resources International, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

In cooperation with Fort Peck Tribes Office of Environmental Protection Delineation of Brine Contamination in and near the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;#12;Delineation of Brine Contamination in and near the East Poplar Oil Field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation citation: Thamke, J.N., and Smith, B.D., 2014, Delineation of brine contamination in and near the EastIn cooperation with Fort Peck Tribes Office of Environmental Protection Delineation of Brine

Torgersen, Christian

5

Review of soil contamination guidance  

SciTech Connect

A review of existing and proposed radioactive soil contamination standards and guidance was conducted for United Nuclear Corporation (UNC), Office of Surplus Facilities Management. Information was obtained from both government agencies and other sources during a literature survey. The more applicable standards were reviewed, evaluated, and summarized. Information pertaining to soil contamination for both facility operation and facility decommissioning was obtained from a variety of sources. These sources included: the Code of Federal Regulations, regulatory guides, the Federal Register, topical reports written by various government agencies, topical reports written by national laboratories, and publications from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It was difficult to directly compare the standards and guidance obtained from these sources since each was intended for a specific situation and different units or bases were used. However, most of the information reviewed was consistent with the philosophy of maintaining exposures at levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

Mueller, M.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Emplacement and release of brines from subsurface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Groundwater contamination by dense brines is addressed fromgroundwater contamination where dense brines might have beenbrines can become long-term sources of groundwater contamination

Hunt, James R; Flowers, Tracey C

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Bioaugmentation of TNT-contaminated soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microbial transformation of trinitrotoluene (TNT) in phics. contaminated soil was investigated in this research. A Bacillus sp., isolated from soil obtained from an army ammunition facility, was used to enhance the rate of TNT removal over a 360 day...

Bokelmann, Annamarie

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

In situ removal of contamination from soil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination. The process also uses further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed. 5 figs.

Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V.

1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

9

Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants  

SciTech Connect

A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

Shinn, J.H.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility  

SciTech Connect

The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation.

Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

At one installation, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of the research program in which twenty-one surfactants were screened for possible use to mobilize the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on actual contaminated soil samples obtained from the site. 18 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Lewis, B.A. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage.

Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

13

Microbiological and physicochemical changes occurring in a contaminated soil after surfactant-enhanced soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...contaminated soil after surfactant-enhanced soil washing R. Iturbe 1 J. Lopez...augmented because of the surfactant soil washing. However, statistical...etc. INTRODUCTION Surfactant-enhanced soil washing has become a very important...

R. Iturbe; J. Lopez; L. G. Torres

14

Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described.

Fleischhauer, H.L.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Coupling Sorption to Soil Weathering during Reactive Transport: Impacts of Mineral Transformation and Sorbate Aging on Contaminant Speciation and Mobility  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford subsurface has become contaminated with highly alkaline, radioactive waste generated as a result of weapons production. The radioactive brine was stored in underground storage tanks, a number of which developed leaks and contaminated the surrounding subsurface. The high pH and ionic strength of these wastes has been predicted to accelerate the degree of soil weathering to produce new mineral phases--cancrinite and sodalite among the most abundant. Previous work has demonstrated that Cs and Sr, which along with I represent the most radioactive components in the waste, are sequestered by these neo-formed solids. The present work is aimed at assessing the stability of these neo-formed solids, with special emphasis on the degree of Cs, Sr and I release under ambient (neutral pH, low ionic strength) conditions expected to return to the Hanford area after the caustic radioactive brine waste is removed.

Carl I. Steefel; Aaron Thompson; Jon Chorover

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil March 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis An aerial view of Hanford’s D Area shows the D Reactor (lower left) and DR Reactor. Workers are digging 85 feet to groundwater at two sites there to remove chromium contamination. An aerial view of Hanford's D Area shows the D Reactor (lower left) and DR Reactor. Workers are digging 85 feet to groundwater at two sites there to remove chromium contamination. Workers remove soil contaminated with sodium dichromate to prevent the chemical from reaching the groundwater and eventually the Columbia River. Workers remove soil contaminated with sodium dichromate to prevent the chemical from reaching the groundwater and eventually the Columbia River.

17

Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil Hanford Deep Dig Removes Contaminated Soil March 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis An aerial view of Hanford’s D Area shows the D Reactor (lower left) and DR Reactor. Workers are digging 85 feet to groundwater at two sites there to remove chromium contamination. An aerial view of Hanford's D Area shows the D Reactor (lower left) and DR Reactor. Workers are digging 85 feet to groundwater at two sites there to remove chromium contamination. Workers remove soil contaminated with sodium dichromate to prevent the chemical from reaching the groundwater and eventually the Columbia River. Workers remove soil contaminated with sodium dichromate to prevent the chemical from reaching the groundwater and eventually the Columbia River.

18

Carbonate Leaching of Uranium from Contaminated Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Uranium (U) was successfully removed from contaminated soils from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site near Fernald, Ohio. ... The concentrations of uranium and other metals in the effluent were analyzed using a Varian Liberty 200 inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES) or a kinetic phosphorescence analyzer (KPA). ... When 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was added prior to the carbonate solution, no increase in the removal of uranium was detected (data not shown) due to effervescence with heating, liberating carbon dioxide, and thus preventing uniform distribution of H2O2. ...

C. F. V. Mason; W. R. J. R. Turney; B. M. Thomson; N. Lu; P. A. Longmire; C. J. Chisholm-Brause

1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

19

Surfactant-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Concern over soil and groundwater contamination has created a demand for new and efficient remediation technologies. Surfactant-enhanced electrokinetic remediation is an innovative technique which has… (more)

Thomas, Steven P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Electron Microbeam Investigation of Uranium-Contaminated Soils from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research Electron Microbeam Investigation of Uranium-Contaminated Soils from Oak Ridge, TN, USA J O Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, Department of Geological Sciences, Indiana University, 1001 East 10th Street, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 Two samples of uranium-contaminated soil from the Department of Energy

Zhu, Chen

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Chemical and radiochemical characterization of depleted uranium in contaminated soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main results of chemical and radiochemical characterization and fractionation of depleted uranium in soils contaminated during the Balkan conflict ... the paper. Alpha-spectrometric analysis of used depleted

M. B. Radenkovi?; A. B. Kandi?; I. S. Vukana?…

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Depleted uranium mobility and fractionation in contaminated soil (Southern Serbia)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the Balkan conflict in 1999, soil in contaminated areas was enriched in depleted uranium (DU) isotopic signature, relative to the in-situ natural uranium present. After the military activities, most...

Mirjana B. Radenkovi?; Svjetlana A. Cupa?…

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

An integrated treatment methodology for PCB-contaminated soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study proposed coupling two different treatment technologies, chemical dehalogenation using potassium polyethylene glycol (KPEG) and bioremediation, to optimize the destruction and detoxification of PCB-contaminated soil. Changes in toxicity...

Garcia, Shannon S

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils and groundwaters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An in situ method is described for extraction of arsenic contaminants from a soil medium and remediation of the medium including contacting the medium with an extractant solution, directing the solution within and through the medium, and collecting the solution and contaminants. The method can also be used for arsenate and/or arsenite removal. 8 figs.

Peters, R.W.; Frank, J.R.; Feng, X.

1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

25

In-Situ Thermal Remediation of Contaminated Soil1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

differentials at the electrodes. Water is also pumped into the soil via the injection well and out of the groundChapter 1 In-Situ Thermal Remediation of Contaminated Soil1 Written by Huaxiong Huang,2 Serguei meters under the ground) has been proposed by McMillan-McGee Corp. The process can be described

Lapin, Sergey

26

Surfactant-enhanced remediation of organic contaminated soil and water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Surfactant based remediation technologies for organic contaminated soil and water (groundwater or surface water) is of increasing importance recently. Surfactants are used to dramatically expedite the process, which in turn, may reduce the treatment time of a site compared to use of water alone. In fact, among the various available remediation technologies for organic contaminated sites, surfactant based process is one of the most innovative technologies. To enhance the application of surfactant based technologies for remediation of organic contaminated sites, it is very important to have a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in this process. This paper will provide an overview of the recent developments in the area of surfactant enhanced soil and groundwater remediation processes, focusing on (i) surfactant adsorption on soil, (ii) micellar solubilization of organic hydrocarbons, (iii) supersolubilization, (iv) density modified displacement, (v) degradation of organic hydrocarbon in presence surfactants, (vi) partitioning of surfactants onto soil and liquid organic phase, (vii) partitioning of contaminants onto soil, and (viii) removal of organics from soil in presence of surfactants. Surfactant adsorption on soil and/or sediment is an important step in this process as it results in surfactant loss reduced the availability of the surfactants for solubilization. At the same time, adsorbed surfactants will retained in the soil matrix, and may create other environmental problem. The biosurfactants are become promising in this application due to their environmentally friendly nature, nontoxic, low adsorption on to soil, and good solubilization efficiency. Effects of different parameters like the effect of electrolyte, pH, soil mineral and organic content, soil composition etc. on surfactant adsorption are discussed here. Micellar solubilization is also an important step for removal of organic contaminants from the soil matrix, especially for low aqueous solubility organic contaminants. Influences of different parameters such as single and mixed surfactant system, hydrophilic and hydrophobic chain length, HLB value, temperature, electrolyte, surfactant type that are very important in micellar solubilization are reviewed here. Microemulsion systems show higher capacity of organic hydrocarbons solubilization than the normal micellar system. In the case of biodegradation of organic hydrocarbons, the rate is very slow due to low water solubility and dissolution rate but the presence of surfactants may increase the bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds by solubilization and hence increases the degradation rate. In some cases the presence of it also reduces the rate. In addition to fundamental studies, some laboratory and field studies on removal of organics from contaminated soil are also reviewed to show the applicability of this technology.

Santanu Paria

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Optimization of surfactant-aided remediation of industrially contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Soil matrices contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) abound at the sites of coke-oven gas plants, refineries, and many other major chemical industries. The removal of PAHs from soil using pure water, via soil washing (ex situ) or soil flushing (in situ), is quite ineffective due to their low solubility and hydrophobicity. However, addition of suitable surfactant(s) has been shown to increase the removal efficiency several fold. For the present work, the removal of PAHs occurring in industrially contaminated soil was studied. The objective was to use a nonionic surfactant solution for in situ soil flushing and to evaluate the optimal range of process parameters that can significantly increase the removal efficiency. The process parameters chosen were surfactant concentration, ratio of washing solution volume to soil weight, and temperature of washing solution. These parameters were found to have a significant effect on PAH removal from the contaminated soil and an optimal range was determined for each parameter under given washing conditions.

Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Use of passive sampling devices to determine soil contaminant concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The effective remediation of contaminated sites requires accurate identification of chemical distributions. A rapid sampling method using passive sampling devices (PSDs) can provide a thorough site assessment. We have been pursuing their application in terrestrial systems and have found that they increase the ease and speed of analysis, decrease solvent usage and overall cost, and minimize the transport of contaminated soils. Time and cost savings allow a higher sampling frequency than is generally the case using traditional methods. PSDs have been used in the field in soils of varying physical properties and have been successful in estimating soil concentrations ranging from 1 {mu}g/kg (parts per billion) to greater than 200 mg/kg (parts per million). They were also helpful in identifying hot spots within the sites. Passive sampling devices show extreme promise as an analytical tool to rapidly characterize contaminant distributions in soil. There are substantial time and cost savings in laboratory personnel and supplies. By selectively excluding common interferences that require sample cleanup, PSDs can be retrieved from the field and processed rapidly (one technician can process approximately 90 PSDs in an 8-h work day). The results of our studies indicate that PSDs can be used to accurately estimate soil contaminant concentrations and provide lower detection limits. Further, time and cost savings will allow a more thorough and detailed characterization of contaminant distributions. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Johnson, K.A. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Hooper, M.J. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); Weisskopf, C.P. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

29

Vitrification testing of soil fines from contaminated Hanford 100 Area and 300 Area soils  

SciTech Connect

The suitability of Hanford soil for vitrification is well known and has been demonstrated extensively in other work. The tests reported here were carried out to confirm the applicability of vitrification to the soil fines (a subset of the Hanford soil potentially different in composition from the bulk soil) and to provide data on the performance of actual, vitrified soil fines. It was determined that the soil fines were generally similar in composition to the bulk Hanford soil, although the fraction <0.25 mm in the 100 Area soil sample appears to differ somewhat from the bulk soil composition. The soil fines are readily melted into a homogeneous glass with the simple additions of CaO and/or Na{sub 2}O. The vitrified waste (plus additives) occupies only 60% of the volume of the initial untreated waste. Leach testing has shown the glasses made from the soil fines to be very durable relative to natural and man-made glasses and has demonstrated the ability of the vitrified waste to greatly reduce the release of radionuclides to the environment. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements indicate that the soil fines will be readily processable, although with levels of additives slightly greater than used in the radioactive melts. These tests demonstrate the applicability of vitrification to the contaminated soil fines and the exceptional performance of the waste form resulting from the vitrification of contaminated Hanford soils.

Ludowise, J.D.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Application of Ultrasonic for Decontamination of Contaminated Soil - 13142  

SciTech Connect

The trials of soil decontamination were carried out with the help of a pilot ultrasonic installation in different modes. The installation included a decontamination bath equipped with ultrasonic sources, a precipitator for solution purification from small particles (less than 80 micrometer), sorption filter for solution purification from radionuclides washing out from soil, a tank for decontamination solution, a pump for decontamination solution supply. The trials were carried out on artificially contaminated sand with specific activity of 4.5 10{sup 5} Bk/kg and really contaminated soil from Russian Scientific Center 'Kurchatovsky Institute' (RSC'KI') with specific activity of 2.9 10{sup 4} Bk/kg. It was established that application of ultrasonic intensify the process of soil reagent decontamination and increase its efficiency. The decontamination factor for the artificially contaminated soil was ?200 and for soil from RSC'KI' ?30. The flow-sheet diagram has been developed for the new installation as well as determined the main technological characteristics of the equipment. (authors)

Vasilyev, A.P. [JRC 'NIKIET', Moscow (Russian Federation)] [JRC 'NIKIET', Moscow (Russian Federation); Lebedev, N.M. [LLC 'Aleksandra-Plus', Vologda (Russian Federation)] [LLC 'Aleksandra-Plus', Vologda (Russian Federation); Savkin, A.E. [SUE SIA 'Radon', Moscow (Russian Federation)] [SUE SIA 'Radon', Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

In situ recycling of contaminated soil uses bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

OxyChem Pipeline Operations, primarily an ethylene and propylene products mover, has determined that substantial savings can be realized by adopting a bioremediation maintenance and recycling approach to hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. By this method, the soil can be recycled in situ, or in containers. To implement the soil-recycling program, OxyChem elected to use a soil remediator and natural absorbent product, Oil Snapper. This field maintenance material, based on an Enhanced Urea Technology, provides a diet to stimulate the growth of hydrocarbon-eating microbes. It works well either with indigenous soil microbes or with commercial microbes. The product is carried in field vehicles, which makes it immediately available when leaks or spills are discovered. Procedure for clean-up is to apply product and mix it into affected soil. Thus the contaminant is contained, preventing further migration; the contaminant is dispersed throughout the product, making it more accessible to the microbes; nutrients are immediately available to the microbes; and the material contributes aeration and moisture-retention properties.

Shevlin, P.J.; Reel, D.A.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Studies Estimating the Dermal Bioavailability of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Manufactured Gas Plant Tar-Contaminated Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In vitro percutaneous absorption studies were performed with contaminated soils or organic extracts of contaminated soils collected at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. The MGP tar contaminated soils were found to contain a group of targeted polynuclear ...

Timothy A. Roy; Andrew J. Krueger; Barbara B. Taylor; David M. Mauro; Lawrence S. Goldstein

1998-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

33

Remediation of contaminated soils and sediments using Daramend bioremediation  

SciTech Connect

Soils and sediments containing polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy oils, chlorinated phenols, pesticides, herbicides and phthalates, either individually or in combination, have been difficult to remediate in the past. Not only the species of contaminant, but contaminant concentrations were roadblocks to successful use of bioremediation. Daramend{sup Tm} remediation has removed many of these obstacles through extensive research. Bench-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale demonstrations have been conducted at a variety of industrial sites. At a manufactured gas site, 295 days of Daramend remediation reduced concentrations of chrysene and fluoranthene from 38.9 mg/kg to 5.9 mg/kg and 84.6 mg/kg to 7.8 mg/kg respectively. Elsewhere, the total PAH concentration in a silty soil was reduced from 1,442 mg/kg to 36 mg/kg. Concentrations of even the most refractory PAHs (e.g. pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene) were reduced to below the established clean-up guidelines. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel fuel) have also been reduced from 8,700 mg/kg to 34 mg/kg after 182 days of treatment. Similarly, in a clay soil contaminated by crude oil processing, the concentrations of high molecular weight aliphatic hydrocarbons were rapidly reduced (138 days) to below the remediation criteria. Demonstrations with wood treatment site soils have proven Daramend remediation effective in enhancing the target compound degradation rates. Soils containing 2170 mg PCP/kg were shown to contain only 11 mg PCP/kg after 280 days of Darmend remediation. The issue of toxicity of soil containing increased amounts of pentachlorophenols was solved. Performance data collected during these projects indicate that Daramend remediation provides a cost effective method for clean-up of soils and sediments containing a variety of organic compounds.

Burwell, S.W.; Bucens, P.G.; Seech, A.G.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Remediation of a Diesel Contaminated, Sandy-Loam Soil Using Low Concentrated Surfactant Solutions (5 pp)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Surfactant enhanced ex-situ soil washing can be used to remediate diesel contaminated soils. Surfactants enhance the diesel removal from soils by ... processes: mobilization and solubilization. Mobilization occu...

Steven Vreysen; André Maes

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Hanford Site surface soil radioactive contamination control plan, March 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Program is responsible to the US Department of Energy Richland Field Office, for the safe and cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 closures at the Hanford Site. This program also manages the Radiation Area Remedial Action that includes the surveillance, maintenance, decontamination, and/or interim stabilization of inactive burial grounds, cribs, ponds, trenches, and unplanned release sites. This plan addresses only the Radiation Area Remedial Action activity requirements for managing and controlling the contaminated surface soil areas associated with these inactive sites until they are remediated as part of the Hanford Site environmental restoration process. All officially numbered Radiation Area Remedial Action and non-Radiation Area Remedial Action contaminated surface soil areas are listed in this document so that a complete list of the sites requiring remediation is contained in one document.

Mix, P.D.; Winship, R.A.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

37

Development of an on-site ex-situ unsaturated-flow remediation process for trace metal contaminated soils.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Innovative means and methods were tested to develop an economical, pragmatic and environmentally sustainable soil remediation process for heavy metal contaminated soils. An unsaturated-flow soil… (more)

Andrade, Marc-David

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON CONTENT FLY ASH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON CONTENT FLY ASH the stabilization of petroleum- contaminated soils (PCSs) using another recycled material, high carbon content fly; however, the level of petroleum contamination has a significant effect on the leaching properties

Aydilek, Ahmet

39

Initial-phase optimization for bioremediation of munition compound-contaminated soils.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the aqueous phase and washing of the residue with methanol...COMPOUND-CONTAMINATED SOIL 2175 TABLE 1. '4C label...1992. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with 2-sec-butyl-4...6-Trinitrotoluene- surfactant complexes: decomposition, mutagenicity, and soil leaching studies. Environ...

S B Funk; D J Roberts; D L Crawford; R L Crawford

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Uranium-contaminated soils: Ultramicrotomy and electron beam analysis  

SciTech Connect

Uranium contaminated soils from the Fernald Operation Site, Ohio, have been examined by a combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron detection (SEM/BSE), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM). A method is described for preparing of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) thin sections by ultramicrotomy. By using these thin sections, SEM and TEM images can be compared directly. Uranium was found in iron oxides, silicates (soddyite), phosphates (autunites), and fluorite. Little uranium was associated with clays. The distribution of uranium phases was found to be inhomogeneous at the microscopic level.

Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Physical properties of soils contaminated by oil lakes, Kuwait  

SciTech Connect

In preparation for a marine assault by the coalition forces, the Iraqi Army heavily mined Kuwait`s coastal zone and the oil fields. Over a million mines were placed on the Kuwait soil. Burning of 732 oil wells in the State of Kuwait due to the Iraqi invasion caused damages which had direct and indirect effect on environment. A total of 20-22 million barrels of spilled crude oil were collected in natural desert depressions and drainage network which formed more than 300 oil lakes. The total area covered with oil reached 49 km{sup 2}. More than 375 trenches revealed the existence of hard, massive caliche (CaCO{sub 3}) subsoil which prevent leached oil from reaching deeper horizons, and limited the maximum depth of penetration to 1.75 m. Total volume of soil contaminated reached 22,652,500 m{sup 3} is still causing environmental problems and needs an urgent cleaning and rehabilitation. Kuwait Oil Company has recovered approximately 21 million barrels from the oil lakes since the liberation of Kuwait. In our examined representative soil profiles the oil penetration was not deeper than 45 cm. Infiltration rate, soil permeability, grain size distribution, aggregates formation and water holding capacity were assessed. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Mohammad, A.S. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait); Wahba, S.A.; Al-Khatieb, S.O. [Arabian Gulf Univ. (Bahrain)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Phytoremediation combined with mycorrhizal fungi of soil contaminated by heavy oil.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study is to investigate efficiencies of phytoremediation for heavy oil contaminated soils by plants infected with mycorrhizal fungi. Plants inoculated with… (more)

Kuo, Hsiu-Chi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

The atmospheric release of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene from contaminated soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the remediation of gasoline contaminated soils. Excavation and removal of soils containing hydrocarbons is the most widely used remediation technique because of immediate and total site cleanup. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) combined are from...

Ramsey, Ronald Roland

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Integrated Remediation Process for a High Salinity Industrial Soil Sample Contaminated with Heavy Oil and Metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A highly saline industrial soil sample contaminated with heavy oils and several heavy metals, was tested for remediation using NRC’s Solvent Extraction Soil Remediation (SESR) process. The sample was provided ...

Abdul Majid; Bryan D. Sparks

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Initial-phase optimization for bioremediation of munition compound-contaminated soils.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...for the first stage of remediation was between 6.5 and...of the first stage of remediation of munition compound-contaminated...bioremediation explosives ground water herbicides Oregon organic...pollutants pollution remediation soil treatment soils...

S B Funk; D J Roberts; D L Crawford; R L Crawford

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

brine  management  or   extracted  water  management  infrastructure  or  where  nearby  fresh  water  resources  need  to  be   carefully  monitored  for  later  contamination.  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Stabilization and solidification of chromium-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

Chromium-contaminated soil is a common environmental problem in the United States as a result of numerous industrial processes involving chromium. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is the species of most concern because of its toxicity and mobility in groundwater. One method of diminishing the environmental impact of chromium is to reduce it to a trivalent oxidation state [Cr(III)], in which it is relatively insoluble and nontoxic. This study investigated a stabilization and solidification process to minimize the chromium concentration in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract and to produce a solidified waste form with a compressive strength in the range of 150 to 300 pounds per square inch (psi). To minimize the chromium in the TCLP extract, the chromium had to be reduced to the trivalent oxidation state. The average used in this study was an alluvium contaminated with chromic and sulfuric acid solutions. The chromium concentration in the in the in situ soil was 1212 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) total chromium and 275 mg/kg Cr(VI). The effectiveness of iron, ferrous sulfate to reduce Cr(VI) was tested in batch experiments.

Cherne, C.A.; Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Civil Engineering Dept.; Conway, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Ultrasonically Enhanced Effectiveness of Various Surfactants on Diesel Removal from Contaminated Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of ultrasound to enhance the efficiency of surfactant-aided soil washing was investigated with a series of laboratory tests on diesel-contaminated soil. Test conditions included the power and duration of sonic energy, the surfactant type, and mixing time. The results of the study show that the use of ultrasound in the soil washing process significantly enhanced the remediation of the contaminated soil. The degree of enhancement varied with sonication energy, treatment time, and mixing duration.

Young Uk Kim; Sang Hyun Park; Jun Ho Moon; Soon Mo Jang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Phytoremediation of the Nitrogen-Contaminated Subpile Soil at the Former  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Phytoremediation of the Nitrogen-Contaminated Subpile Soil at the Phytoremediation of the Nitrogen-Contaminated Subpile Soil at the Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Monument Valley, Arizona, 2004 Status Report Phytoremediation of the Nitrogen-Contaminated Subpile Soil at the Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Monument Valley, Arizona, 2004 Status Report Phytoremediation of the Nitrogen-Contaminated Subpile Soil at the Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Monument Valley, Arizona, 2004 Status Report Phytoremediation of the Nitrogen-Contaminated Subpile Soil at the Former Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Monument Valley, Arizona, 2004 Status Report More Documents & Publications Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Soil and Groundwater at the Monument Valley, Arizona, DOE Legacy Waste Site EA-1313: Final Environmental Assessment

50

Chelant extraction and REDOX manipulation for mobilization of heavy metals from contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Was the result of open burning and open detonation of chemical agents and munitions in the Toxic Burning Pits area at J-Field, located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland, soils have been contaminated with heavy metals. Simultaneous extraction is complicated because of the multitude of contaminant forms that exist. This paper uses data from a treatability study performed at Argonne National Laboratory to discuss and compare several treatment methods that were evaluated for remediating metals-contaminated soils. J-Field soils were subjected to a series of treatability experiments designed to determine the feasibility of using soil washing/soil flushing, enhancements to soil washing/soil flushing, solidification/stabilization, and electrokinetics for remediating soils contaminated with metals. Chelating and mobilizing agents evaluated included ammonium acetate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, citric acid, Citranox, gluconic acid, phosphoric acid, oxalic acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid, in addition to pH-adjusted water. REDOX manipulation can maximize solubilities, increase desorption, and promote removal of heavy metal contaminants. Reducing agents that were studied included sodium borohydride, sodium metabisulfite, and thiourea dioxide. The oxidants studied included hydrogen peroxide, sodium percarbonate, sodium hypochlorite, and potassium permanganate. This paper summaries the results from the physical/chemical characterization, soil washing/soil flushing, and enhancements to soil washing/soil flushing portions of the study.

Brewster, M.D.; Peters, R.W.; Miller, G.A.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

The Source of Airborne Lead: Recycling Pb-Contaminated Soils  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Source of Airborne Lead: Recycling The Source of Airborne Lead: Recycling Pb-Contaminated Soils Starting in the 1970s, federal regulatory control and eventual elimination of lead-based "anti-knock" additives in gasoline decreased the level of airborne Pb in the USA by two orders-of-magnitude [1]. Blood lead levels of the USA figure 1 Figure 1. The good, the bad, and the ugly. Ambient airborne particulate matter captured on filters of woven silica fiber (large strips) and TeflonTM (round). Clean fiber filter at bottom for comparison. Take a deep breath? population decreased correspondingly [2,3]. Despite this dramatic improvement in both exposure risk and body burden of Pb, the sources and health threat of the low levels of lead in our "unleaded" air remain topics

52

Bioremediation of soil contaminated with hydrocarbons and heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

This investigation showed that a soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals had sufficient indigenous microbial activity for hydrocarbon biodegradation under nonlimiting conditions. Nutrient supplementation with nitrogen and phosphate, together with aeration, seemed to be the most important factors for enhancing biodegradation. Hydrocarbon biodegradation occurred to a much greater extent under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions. Biodegradation did, however, induce low pH conditions and thus caused high heavy-metal concentrations in the leachate. Anaerobic conditions inhibited hydrocarbon biodegradation with no subsequent drop in pH and low heavy-metal concentrations in the leachate. Thus, anaerobic conditions were shown to facilitate less metal mobility than low pH conditions. Air sparging did not cause a significant increase in biodegradation. Adsorption of heavy-fraction hydrocarbons (> C{sub 20}) to microorganisms and colloidal material in the leachate was suspected of facilitating mobility of these fractions and thus their subsequent detection in the leachate.

Plessis, C.A. du; Phaal, C.B.; Senior, E. [Univ. of Natal, Scottsville (South Africa)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

53

Removal of Contaminants from Soils by Electric Fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...CONTAMINANTS FROM GROUNDWATER, GROUND WATER MONITORING AND REMEDIATION 6 : 85 ( 1986 ). SEGALL...electrode pairs placed in the ground. The contaminants in a liquid...be classified as ubiquitous ground-water contaminants (7). These...

Ronald F. Probstein; R. Edwin Hicks

1993-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

54

Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques.

Francis, C. W.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

brine in the wellbore up to the base of the freshwater aquifer and would thereby lead to contamination.

Birkholzer, J.T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Agencies Decide to Dig Up Contaminated Soil at Hanford Site - Federal and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Agencies Decide to Dig Up Contaminated Soil at Hanford Site - Agencies Decide to Dig Up Contaminated Soil at Hanford Site - Federal and state agencies determine cleanup plans for four areas near central Hanford Agencies Decide to Dig Up Contaminated Soil at Hanford Site - Federal and state agencies determine cleanup plans for four areas near central Hanford October 7, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Geoff Tyree, DOE Geoffrey.Tyree@rl.doe.gov 509-376-4171 Emerald Laija, EPA Laija.Emerald@epamail.epa.gov 509-376-4919 Dieter Bohrmann, Ecology Dieter.Bohrmann@ecy.wa.gov 509-372-7954 RICHLAND, Wash. -The Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in coordination with the Washington Department of Ecology, have made plans for remediating contaminated soil at four locations in the center of the Hanford Site. The agencies have chosen

57

UNIT N.-\\1\\1fE. Soil Contamination S~ REGLTLATORY STATUS. AOC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 095 UNIT NUMBER. 2QQ '--' UNIT N.-11fE. Soil Contamination S REGLTLATORY STATUS. AOC LOCA TION Inside Plant Security Fence, South ofC- 746-8 APPROXIMA TE DIMENSION. 282 feet...

58

UNIT NAME: C-4l0-D ARE A SOIL CONTAMINATION REGULATORY STATUS...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 02 28 9 4 UNIT NAME: C-4l0-D ARE A SOIL CONTAMINATION REGULATORY STATUS: AOC -- LOCATION : Inside Plant Security Fence, west of C-4l0-D . APPROXIMATE DIMENSION :...

59

ARSENIC UPTAKE BY TWO HYPERACCUMULATOR FERNS FROM FOUR ARSENIC CONTAMINATED SOILS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Cai et al., 2002). Smelting and mining sites are often significant sources Water, Air, and Soil Pollution (2005) 168: 71­89 C Springer 2005 #12;72 A. O. FAYIGA AND L. Q. MA of arsenic contamination

Ma, Lena

60

Assessing the Effect of Mercury Emissions from Contaminated Soil at Natural Gas Gate Stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of mercury emissions from contaminated soil at natural gas distribution stations is presented. The effects were estimated as part of a risk assessment that included inhalation and multimedia exposure pathways. The purpose of the paper ...

A. Roffman; K. Macoskey; R. P. Shervill

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil using carvone and surfactant-grown bacteria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Partial bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil was achieved by repeated applications of PCB-degrading bacteria and a surfactant applied 34 times over an 18-week period. Two bacteri...

A. C. Singer; E. S. Gilbert; E. Luepromchai…

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

An innovative stabilization/solidification treatment For contaminated soil remediation: demonstration project results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An innovative stabilization/solidification (S/S) process using high-performance additivated concrete technology was developed for remediating soil contaminated by metals from abandoned industrial sites. In ord...

Petra Scanferla; Giorgio Ferrari; Roberto Pellay…

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Zn Speciation in the Organic Horizon of a Contaminated Soil by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, California 94720 Soils that have been acutely contaminated by heavy metals show to metal toxicity (5). Similar organic layers have been reported in many other contaminated sites (6 distinct characteristics, such as colonization by metal-tolerant plant species and topsoil enrichment

64

Developing effective removal of caesium, strontium and uranium from contaminated soils and sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of radioactively contaminated ground (1, 2) . An immediate priority is the remediation of high activity fission their migration from the source. One of the handful of contaminated soil and water remediation technologies being immobilise the radionuclides within the sediment (4, 5) . In order to remediate this sediment associated

Burke, Ian

65

Phytoremediation of radiocesium-contaminated soil in the vicinity of Chernobyl, Ukraine  

SciTech Connect

Remediation of soil contaminated with {sup 137}Cs remains one of the most challenging tasks after the Chernobyl 1986 accident. The objectives of this research were to (1) identify extractants that may be used to solubilize {sup 137}Cs in soil solution, (2) study the effect of soil amendments on {sup 137}Cs accumulation by plants, and (3) evaluate the applicability of phytoextraction for environmental restoration of soil contaminated with {sup 137}Cs. The availability of {sup 137}Cs to the plants in Chernobyl soil was limited, because this radionuclide was tightly bound to exchange sites of soil particles or incorporated into the crystalline structure of primary and secondary minerals. Out of 20 soil amendments tested to increase {sup 137}Cs desorption/solubility in the soil, ammonium salts were found to be the most practical soil amendment that can potentially increase {sup 137}Cs bioavailability. Among the screened plants, Amaranth cultivars had the highest {sup 137}Cs accumulation. Three sequential crops of Indian mustard grown in one vegetation season at the experimental plot resulted in a small decrease of {sup 137}Cs specific activity within the top 15 cm of soil. Further improvements are necessary to make phytoremediation technology a feasible option for restoration of {sup 137}Cs-contaminated territories.

Dushenkov, S. [Phytotech, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States)] [Phytotech, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States); Mikheev, A.; Prokhnevsky, A.; Ruchko, M.; Sorochinsky, B. [National Academy of Science, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering] [National Academy of Science, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Microbial Biomass and Activity in Lead-Contaminated Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Perspectives on risks of soil pollution and experience with innovative remediation technologies . Kuperman R. G. Carreiro M. M...acids organic compounds pH pollutants pollution remediation RNA soils toxic materials waste disposal sites GeoRef...

A. Konopka; T. Zakharova; M. Bischoff; L. Oliver; C. Nakatsu; R. F. Turco

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Metal Removal from Contaminated Soil and Sediments by the Biosurfactant Surfactin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Batch soil washing experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of using surfactin from Bacillus subtilis, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, for the removal of heavy metals from a contaminated soil and sediments. ... A study was conducted on the effect of two different biological factors, microbial surfactants and biodegradation, on the kinetics of partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from nonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs). ...

Catherine N. Mulligan; Raymond N. Yong; Bernard F. Gibbs; Susan James; H. P. J. Bennett

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

68

Workers Will Clean Up Groundwater Contamination Source With Deep Soil Mixing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

PADUCAH, Ky. – Beginning in January 2015, EM and its Paducah site cleanup contractor, LATA Environmental Services of Kentucky, LLC (LATA Kentucky), will treat groundwater contamination with deep soil mixing, which uses an eight-foot-diameter auger to mix the soil to a depth of about 60 feet.

69

Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Populations in Contaminated and Pristine Alpine Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...oil biodegradation in freshly diesel oil-contaminated soils...48). Numbers of culturable diesel oil degraders were determined...cold-adapted oil degraders were in general greater than the numbers of...able to utilize hexadecane and diesel oil. In 17 soils, 13 to 92...

R. Margesin; D. Labbé; F. Schinner; C. W. Greer; L. G. Whyte

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Assessment of Dioxin-Like Soil Contamination in Mexico by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessment of Dioxin-Like Soil Contamination in Mexico by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay E describe the results of a pre- liminary soil assessment program for the detection of dioxins at different sources of dioxins: Anaversa and Tekchem industrial areas where organochlorine pesticides were

Hammock, Bruce D.

71

Operating and life-cycle costs for uranium-contaminated soil treatment technologies  

SciTech Connect

The development of a nuclear industry in the US required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To avoid disposal of these soils in low-level radioactive waste burial sites, increasing emphasis has been placed on the remediating soils contaminated with uranium and other radionuclides. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) evaluates and compares the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium-contaminated soils. Each technology must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Stewart, R.N. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Activities of Pu and Am Isotopes and Isotopic Ratios in a Soil Contaminated by Weapons-Grade Plutonium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Radiation Division of the Surveillance Directorate for the U.S. Air Force Institute for Environment, Safety and Occupational Health Risk Analysis collected soil samples at the BOMARC site in June, 2000. ... with a mean value of 0.19, which is close to the value reported from the BOMARC WGP contaminated soil (6) and the Rocky Flats WGP contaminated soil (27). ...

M. H. Lee; S. B. Clark

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

73

Lead contamination in soil and groundwater in and around a lead processing industry: a case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Environmental pollution is of major concern across the world, which is affected by a variety of contaminants. Lead is one of the major heavy metals used in industrial activity. Unscientific handling and disposal of lead bearing residues or lead waste has led to contamination of the surrounding soil and water environment. A detailed investigation of soil and groundwater was carried out in and around a selected lead processing industry located in a designated industrial area in Bangalore, India. The results of the investigations carried out indicated that there is no groundwater contamination, but lead concentration in top soil is found to exceed the prescribed standard limits at many places within the industrial premises. Considering the site condition and extent of contamination ex-situ remediation can be considered as the feasible remedial option.

A. Ramesh; P.V. Sivapullaiah; H. Lakshmi Kantha; B.S. Nangendra Prakesh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites  

SciTech Connect

Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Natsis, M.E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Walker, J.S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites  

SciTech Connect

Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Natsis, M.E. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)); Walker, J.S. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Hazard Estimation of Two Emittents as Component Parts of the Data -Combination System “Existing Contamination Load — Soil- Ground Water”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After the expert survey of the Saar’s waste deposits -1984- the department Soil of the company ÖKOFEP has recorded by electronic data processing the data combinations of contamination load investigations, soil be...

R. Knop Dipl.-Ing.; K. T. Kirsch Dipl.-Geol.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Surfactant-enhanced bioremediation of PAH- and PCB-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

The role of surfactants in the desorption of soil-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated. The solubilization of individual PAHs in an extract of a weathered, coal tar-contaminated soil containing a mixture of PAHs and other petroleum derivatives was found to be significantly less than that for pure compounds. Batch soil washing with Triton X-100 (a commercial, nonionic alkyl phenol ethoxylate) was found to increase the effective diffusion rate of PAHs from the contaminated soil by four orders of magnitude compared to that obtained by gas purging when the results were analyzed using a radial diffusion model. At concentrations of up to 24 times its critical micelle concentration (CMC), Triton X-100 did not seem to enhance hydrocarbon degradation in the coal tar-contaminated soil; however, the biosurfactant rhamnolipid R1, at a concentration of 50x CMC, increased the rate of mineralization of 4,4{prime}-chlorinated biphenyl mobilized from a laboratory-contaminated soil by more than 60 times.

Ghosh, M.M.; Yeom, I.T.; Shi, Z.; Cox, C.D.; Robinson, K.G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

Sequential anaerobic-aerobic degradation of indigenous PCBs in a contaminated soil matrix  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges; however, a practicable remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. A biological treatment technology is likely to consist of an anaerobic fermentation step in which PCB dechlorination takes place producing PCBs with fewer chlorines. These products are then more susceptible to aerobic mineralization. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River and Woods Pond have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs in soil slurry reactors. The anaerobic dechlorination was followed by qualitative estimation of the effect of aerobic fermentation of the dechlorination products based on literature data. The sequential anaerobic-(simulated) aerobic treatment constituted an improvement compared anaerobic treatment alone.

Klasson, K.T.; Reeves, M.E.; Evans, B.S.; Dudley, C.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

79

Contaminant bioavailability in soils, sediments, and aquatic environments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...well as in surface and ground water, typically are regulated...assessment and environmental remediation. Adoption of an environmental...allows one to consider remediation strategies based...including surface and ground waters and soil solutions, as well as gastrointestinal...

Samuel J. Traina; Valérie Laperche

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Permeable Environmental Leaching Capsules (PELCAPs) for in Situ Evaluation of Contaminant Immobilization in Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As a proof-of-principle, soils contained within these permeable environmental leaching capsules (PELCAPs) were labeled with either 85Sr or 134Cs and were leached in both laboratory tests and continuously in situ with ground and streamwaters at two field sites on the Oak Ridge reservation. ... One of the challenging problems for any advocate of contaminant immobilization in soil is to assess the long-term effectiveness of the immobilization either by a remedial technology or by natural attenuation (1). ... The objective of this investigation was to develop and demonstrate a proof-of-principle for an inexpensive, direct, and effective in situ technique to monitor soil contaminant immobilization nondestructively in the field using radioisotope-spiked soil contained within a permeable polymer matrix. ...

B. P. Spalding; S. C. Brooks

2005-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Chapter 14 - Phytoremediation of Pb-Contaminated Soils Using Synthetic Chelates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Although industrialization and high input agriculture has led to improvements in standards of human life on earth, it has resulted in multifarious problems for all inhabitants of this blue planet. Among many others, enrichment of water–soil–plant ecosystem with potentially toxic elements is considered to be one of the most serious threats due to ill effects over all living organisms including humans. As compared to other toxic elements, soil contamination due to Pb warrants special attention because of its long retention in soil and lethal effects on crop growth and human health. A number of techniques have been developed and devised to lower the total and / or available Pb concentration in soils and in turn their accumulation the food chain. However, phytoextraction has attracted tremendous attention from the scientific community due to its lower cost, less disruptive effects on soil and the surrounding environment, and wider acceptance in society. The total concentration of Pb in contaminated soils may not be truly representative of its bioavailability because the major portions of Pb in soil occur in the unavailable forms. Therefore, certain types of chemicals are applied to soil to increase the mobility and phytoavailabilty of Pb to help improve phytoremediative ability of plants to clean up soil within a reasonable time frame. Synthetic and natural organic ligands, such as EDTA, ethylene diamine disuccinate (EDDS), low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and humic substances (HSs) have been used extensively in Pb remediation techniques. With increasing use of synthetic chelants for remediation techniques, detailed understanding of key factors and mechanisms behind this technology is needed before its application on a commercial basis. The present manuscript, therefore, highlights the role of synthetic chelators in the remediation of Pb contaminated soils and also critically assesses the risks and limitations associated with this technology.

Saifullah; Muhammad Shahid; Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman; Muhammad Sabir; Hamaad Raza Ahmad

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Alcohol flushing for enhanced removal of coal tar from contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Alcohol flushing for enhancing the removal of coal tar from contaminated soils and reducing coal tar concentrations in the aqueous-phase leachate was investigated. Four soil columns were packed with relatively undisturbed coal tar contaminated soils collected from a former coal gasification site. These columns were leached with water and then flushed with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) solutions. Initially, total coal tar concentrations in water leachate ranged from = 0.1 to 150 mg/L for the four columns. Coal tar concentrations in the column effluent generally increased three to five orders of magnitude during the initial IPA flush. Each column was flushed with 1-3 pore volumes of an IPA solution. Reduction of coal tar concentrations in water leachate, attributed to the alcohol flushing, was noted in three of the four columns. The total coal tar removed from the soil columns during the IPA flushes constituted from 54 to 97% of the total coal tar removed during both water leaching (240-800 pore volumes) and alcohol flushing (1-3 pore volumes). The alcohol flushing removed from 3 to 19 % of the total coal tar in the various soil columns. Results indicated that alcohol flushing can enhance the removal of coal tar from contaminated soils and can reduce the aqueous-phase coal tar concentrations in the leachate. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Hayden, N.J. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Van der Hoven, E.J. [Living Technologies, Inc., Burlington, VT (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Identification of 300 Area Contaminants of Potential Concern for Soil  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the process used to identify source area contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) in support of the 300 Area remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan. This report also establishes the exclusion criteria applicable for 300 Area use and the analytical methods needed to analyze the COPCs.

R.W. Ovink

2010-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

84

Plant Mounds as Concentration and Stabilization Agents for Actinide Soil Contaminants in Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Plant mounds or blow-sand mounds are accumulations of soil particles and plant debris around the base of shrubs and are common features in deserts in the southwestern United States. An important factor in their formation is that shrubs create surface roughness that causes wind-suspended particles to be deposited and resist further suspension. Shrub mounds occur in some plant communities on the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR), including areas of surface soil contamination from past nuclear testing. In the 1970s as part of early studies to understand properties of actinides in the environment, the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) examined the accumulation of isotopes of Pu, 241Am, and U in plant mounds at safety experiment and storage-transportation test sites of nuclear devices. Although aerial concentrations of these contaminants were highest in the intershrub or desert pavement areas, the concentration in mounds were higher than in equal volumes of intershrub or desert pavement soil. The NAEG studies found the ratio of contaminant concentration of actinides in soil to be greater (1.6 to 2.0) in shrub mounds than in the surrounding areas of desert pavement. At Project 57 on the NTTR, 17 percent of the area was covered in mounds while at Clean Slate III on the TTR, 32 percent of the area was covered in mounds. If equivalent volumes of contaminated soil were compared between mounds and desert pavement areas at these sites, then the former might contain as much as 34 and 62 percent of the contaminant inventory, respectively. Not accounting for radionuclides associated with shrub mounds would cause the inventory of contaminants and potential exposure to be underestimated. In addition, preservation of shrub mounds could be important part of long-term stewardship if these sites are closed by fencing and posting with administrative controls.

D.S. Shafer; J. Gommes

2009-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

85

Investigation of soil contamination at the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

A remedial investigation was conducted to identify soil contamination in the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The investigation included geophysical surveys to delineate the filled section of the pit, soil-gas surveys to locate the organic contamination area, field X-ray fluorescence measurements along the burning pit to identify the major metal contamination, and surface and subsurface soil analyses to investigate the nature and extent of contamination. This paper presents the results of this investigation

Wang, Ying-Ya; Yuen, C.R.; Martino, L.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Washing studies for PCP and creosote-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to evaluate the feasibility of washing pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote from the soil at an abandoned wood-treatment Superfund site in Pensacola, FL. The high sand content and low silt/fines content of the soil made soil washing a promising alternative to incineration. The bench-scale tests confirmed the feasibility of washing the PCP and the carcinogenic creosote compounds from the soil using a nonionic surfactant at the pH of nine to ten and a water temperature of approximately 120 F. The target concentrations for total creosote were not achieved, but the results were sufficiently close to warrant further testing. The pilot-scale tests using the EPA's mobile Volume Reduction Unit produced residual PCP, carcinogenic creosote, and total creosote levels below the target levels. The tests also produced comparison data on the effects of surfactant concentration, pH, temperature, and liquid:solid ratio. (Copyright (c) 1994 Elsevier Science B.V.)

Tobia, R.J.; Camacho, J.M.; Augustin, P.; Griffiths, R.A.; Frederick, R.M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Macroscopic and molecular-scale assessment of soil lead contamination impacted by seasonal dove hunting activities  

SciTech Connect

Environmental contamination of lead (Pb) in soils and sediments poses serious threats to human and ecological health. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of seasonal dove sports hunting activities on Pb contamination in acid forest soils. A grid sampling method was used to investigate the spatial distribution of Pb contamination in surface soils. Soils were analyzed for total metal(loid) concentration and characterized for physicochemical properties and mineralogy. Adsorption isotherm experiments were also conducted to understand the reactivity and retention capacity of Pb(II) in soils. Finally, synchrotron-based X-ray microprobe and X-ray absorption spectroscopy were used to understand the chemical speciation of Pb that controls the retention/release mechanisms of Pb in soils. There was no excessive accumulation of Pb at the site. However, the concentration of Pb in surface soils was greater than the background level (<16 mg kg{sup -1}). The contamination level of Pb was as high as 67 mg kg{sup -1} near a patch of corn field where lime was frequently applied. A microfocused X-ray microprobe analysis showed the presence of Pb pellet fragments that predominantly contain oxidized Pb(II), suggesting that oxidative dissolution was occurring in soils. Dissolved Pb(II) can be readily retained in soils up to {approx}3,600 mg kg{sup -1} via inner-sphere and outer-sphere surface complexation on carbon and aluminol functional groups of soil components, suggesting that partitioning reactions control the concentration of Pb in soil solution. The fate of Pb is likely to be controlled by (1) oxidative dissolution process of Pb(0) pellets and (2) the release of outer-sphere and/or inner-sphere Pb surface complexes in humic substances and aluminosilicate/Al oxyhydroxides. Although no remedial actions are immediately required, the long-term accumulation of Pb in soils should be carefully monitored in protecting ecosystem and water quality at the dove hunting field.

Arai, Y.; Tappero, R.; Rick, A.R.; Saylor, T.; Faas, E. & Lanzirotti, A.

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

88

Impact of Long-Term Diesel Contamination on Soil Microbial Community Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...5261-5267. 26. Price, MN , PS Dehal and...R Duran. 2007. Effects of heavy fuel oil on the bacterial...Hernandez. 2007. Effect of hydrocarbon pollution...Crawford. 1995. Effects of oxygen, nitrogen...Bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated soil...

Nora B. Sutton; Farai Maphosa; Jose A. Morillo; Waleed Abu Al-Soud; Alette A. M. Langenhoff; Tim Grotenhuis; Huub H. M. Rijnaarts; Hauke Smidt

2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

89

Phytoremediation offers an ecologically and economically attractive remediation technique for soils contaminated with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

decade, phytoremediation of contaminated soils, sediments, and ground water has emerged1439 Phytoremediation offers an ecologically and economically attractive remediation technique Kow 3­5) and are more water soluble and bioavailable than the high MW PAHs, and are thus moderately

90

Phytoremediation of Radiocesium-Contaminated Soil in the Vicinity of Chernobyl, Ukraine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phytoremediation of Radiocesium-Contaminated Soil in the Vicinity of Chernobyl, Ukraine ... Phytotech, Inc., 1 Deer Park Drive, Suite I, Monmouth Junction, New Jersey 08852, and Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, National Academy of Science, 148 Zabolotnogo Street, Kiev, 252143, Ukraine ...

Slavik Dushenkov; Alexander Mikheev; Alexei Prokhnevsky; Michael Ruchko; Boris Sorochinsky

1998-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

91

The physiology of mycorrhizal Lolium multiflorum in the phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and water systems (SEMARNAT, 2004). In Tabasco, Mexico which is one of the most important Mexican States for petroleum extraction and distribution, the extent of contaminated soil surface by oil spills is approximately 0.07% of the total area of the state...

Alarcon, Alejandro

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

92

Bioremediation of poly-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil by composting  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a comprehensive and critical review of research on different co-composting approaches to bioremediate hydrocarbon contaminated soil, organisms that have been found to degrade PAHs, and PAH breakdown products. Advantages and limitations of using certain groups of organisms and recommended areas of further research effort are identified. Studies investigating the use of composting techniques to treat contaminated soil are broad ranging and differ in many respects, which makes comparison of the different approaches very difficult. Many studies have investigated the use of specific bio-additives in the form of bacteria or fungi with the aim of accelerating contaminant removal; however, few have employed microbial consortia containing organisms from both kingdoms despite knowledge suggesting synergistic relationships exist between them in contaminant removal. Recommendations suggest that further studies should attempt to systemize the investigations of composting approaches to bio-remediate PAH-contaminated soil, to focus on harnessing the biodegradative capacity of both bacteria and fungi to create a cooperative environment for PAH degradation, and to further investigate the array of PAHs that can be lost during the composting process by either leaching or volatilization.

Loick, N.; Hobbs, P.J.; Hale, M.D.C.; Jones, D.L. [University of Wales, Bangor (United Kingdom). School of Environmental & Natural Resources

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

94

Formation of Chloropyromorphite in a Lead-Contaminated Soil Amended with Hydroxyapatite  

SciTech Connect

To confirm conversion of soil Pb to pyromorphite [Pb{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl], a Pb contaminated soil collected adjacent to a historical smelter was reacted with hydroxyapatite in slurries of soil and hydroxyapatite separated by a dialysis membrane and incubated. A crystalline precipitate formed on the dialysis membrane in the slurry systems was identified as chloropyromorphite. Soluble species measured in the soil slurry indicated that dissolution of solid-phase soil Pb was the rate-limiting step for pyromorphite formation. Additionally samples reacted with hydroxyapatite were incubated at field-capacity moisture content. The sequential chemical extraction used to identify species in the field-moist soil incubation experiment showed that hydroxyapatite treatment reduced the first four fractions of extractable Pb and correspondingly increased the recalcitrant extraction residue fraction by 35% of total Pb at 0 d incubation and by 45% after 240 d incubation. the increase in the extraction residue fraction in the 240 d incubation as compared to the 0 d incubation implies that the reaction occurs in the soil but the increase in the hydroxyapatite amended 0 d incubated soil as compared to the control soil illustrates the chemical extraction procedure caused changes in the extractability. Thus, the chemical extraction procedure cannot easily be utilized to confirm changes occurring in the soil as a result of incubation. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy indicated that the 240 d incubated hydroxyapatite treatment caused a change in the average, local molecular bonding environment of soil Pb. Low-temperature EXAFS spectra (chi data and radial structure functions - RSFs) showed a high degree of similarity between the chemical extraction residue and synthetic pyromorphite. Thus, confirming that the change of soil Pb to pyromorphite is possible by simple amendments of hydroxyapatite to soil.

RYAN,JAMES A.; ZHANG,PENGCHU; HESTERBERG,DEAN; ZHOU,WEIQING; SAYERS,DALE E.

2000-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

95

In situ chemical fixation of arsenic-contaminated soils: Anexperimental study  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the results of an experimentalstudytesting a low-cost in situ chemical fixation method designed to reclaimarsenic-contaminated subsurface soils. Subsurface soils from severalindustrial sites in southeastern U.S. were contaminated with arsenicthrough heavy application of herbicide containing arsenic trioxide. Themean concentrations of environmentally available arsenic in soilscollected from the two study sites, FW and BH, are 325 mg/kg and 900mg/kg, respectively. The soils are sandy loams with varying mineralogicaland organic contents. The previous study [Yang L, Donahoe RJ. The form,distribution and mobility of arsenic in soils contaminated by arsenictrioxide, at sites in Southeast USA. Appl Geochem 2007;22:320 341]indicated that a large portion of the arsenic in both soils is associatedwith amorphous aluminum and iron oxyhydroxides and shows very slowrelease against leaching by synthetic precipitation. The soil's amorphousaluminum and iron oxyhydroxides content was found to have the mostsignificant effect on its ability to retain arsenic.Based on thisobservation, contaminated soils were reacted with different treatmentsolutions in an effort to promote the formation of insolublearsenic-bearing phases and thereby decrease the leachability of arsenic.Ferrous sulfate, potassium permanganate and calcium carbonate were usedas the reagents for the chemical fixation solutions evaluated in threesets of batch experiments: (1) FeSO4; (2) FeSO4 and KMnO4; (3) FeSO4,KMnO4 and CaCO3. The optimum treatment solutions for each soil wereidentified based on the mobility of arsenic during sequential leaching oftreated and untreated soils using the fluids described in EPA Method 1311[USEPA. Method 1311: toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. Testmethods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed.Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of SolidWaste. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992]toxic characteristicsleaching procedure (TCLP) and EPA Method 1312 [USEPA.Method 1312:synthetic precipitation leaching procedure. Test methods for evaluatingsolid waste, physical/chemical methods. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: U.S.Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste. U.S. GovernmentPrinting Office; 1994]synthetic precipitation leaching procedure(SPLP).Both FW and BH soils showed significant decreases in arsenicleachability for all three treatment solutions, compared to untreatedsoil. While soils treated with solution (3) showed the best results withsubsequent TCLP sequential leaching, SPLP sequential leaching of treatedsoils indicated that lowest arsenic mobility was obtained using treatmentsolution (1). Treatment solution (1) with only FeSO4 is considered thebest choice for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soil because SPLPsequential leaching better simulates natural weathering. Analysis oftreated soils produced no evidence of newly-formed arsenic-bearing phasesin either soil after treatment. Sequential chemical extractions oftreated soils indicate that surface complexation of arsenic on ferrichydroxide is the major mechanism for the fixation process.

Yang, Li; Donahoe, Rona J.; Redwine, James C.

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

96

Predicting dioxin-like \\{PCBs\\} soil contamination levels using milk of grazing animal as indicator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dioxin-like \\{PCBs\\} (dl-PCBs) are ubiquitous persistent organic pollutants of recognized negative effects on human health. Assessing highly polluted areas should be an important public health issue. This study proposes to use the milk of grazing animals as a bioindicator of dl-PCB contamination in the environment. The hypothesis is that milk concentration of dl-PCBs are related to soil concentrations of these compounds, and that soils are generally reflective of a larger environmental issue of dl-PCB contamination. In this study, we evaluate the possibility of predicting soil concentrations using milk of sheep, cows and buffalos in a spatial model. For this purpose, samples of soil and milk collected in Campania (Italy) were introduced in a GIS platform to perform geostatistical analysis for building a simple predictive model. The ordinary least squares regressions (OLS) showed a statistically significant correlation (p PCBs using sheep’s, cow’s and buffalo’s milk showed a mean error of 23%, 25% and 36% respectively. According to these results the sheep’s milk can be considered the best bioindicator of dl-PCBs contamination among the three species. The results of this project evidence the potentialities of the proposed approach to assess bioindicator performance in a spatial predictive model.

Monia Perugini; Esteban Gabriel Herrera Nuñez; Loredana Baldi; Mauro Esposito; Francesco Paolo Serpe; Michele Amorena

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site  

SciTech Connect

As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station.

Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Does hydrocarbon contamination induce water repellency and changes in hydraulic properties in inherently wettable tropical sandy soils?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Hydrophobicity influences soil hydrological and ecological functions. Compared to naturally-occurring and fire-induced hydrophobicity, limited information is available on the impacts of hydrocarbon contamination on water repellency and hydraulic properties. Water repellency and hydraulic properties were measured on laboratory simulated, and field contaminated soils, 1 and 5 years after an accidental petroleum hydrocarbon spill. The objectives were; (1) to compare the water droplet penetration test (WDPT) to the molarity of ethanol droplet (MED) test, (2) to investigate the effect of hydrocarbon contamination on water repellency and hydraulic properties, and (3) to evaluate the performance of pedotransfer functions for hydraulic properties. The WDPT and MED tests gave qualitatively similar water repellency results as evidenced by a significant positive correlation (p hydrocarbon contamination induced soil water repellency. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) increased linearly with level of contamination (p water attributed to a reduction of the dielectric constant, and hence water–soil matrix interactions. No water repellency was observed in contaminated field soils (WDPT hydrocarbon contamination was evident in other soil properties particularly electrical conductivity. This indicates that natural soils were inherently wettable and that hydrocarbon-induced hydrophobicity could be transient. This non-persistence was attributed to high decomposition rates stimulated by tropical conditions and nutrients added to promote revegetation. Predictions of pedotransfer functions were comparable to measured hydraulic data (p  0.8), confirming their general validity for water and solute transport modeling even on contaminated soils. The study confirmed the hypothesis that hydrocarbon contamination induces water repellency and reduces soil moisture retention at low suction (water repellency and hydraulic properties under field conditions.

Ammishaddai Takawira; Willis Gwenzi; Phillip Nyamugafata

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PLUTONIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE (NTS)  

SciTech Connect

The Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL) was contracted by the National Energy Technology Center to evaluate technologies that might be used to reduce the volume of plutonium-contaminated soil at the Nevada Test Site. The project has been systematically approached. A thorough review and summary was completed for: (1) The NTS soil geological, geochemical and physical characteristics; (2) The characteristics and chemical form of the plutonium that is in these soils; (3) Previous volume reduction technologies that have been attempted on the NTS soils; (4) Vendors with technology that may be applicable; and (5) Related needs at other DOE sites. Soils from the Nevada Test Site were collected and delivered to the CETL. Soils were characterized for Pu-239/240, Am-241 and gross alpha. In addition, wet sieving and the subsequent characterization were performed on soils before and after attrition scrubbing to determine the particle size distribution and the distribution of Pu-239/240 and gross alpha as a function of particle size. Sequential extraction was performed on untreated soil to provide information about how tightly bound the plutonium was to the soil. Magnetic separation was performed to determine if this could be useful as part of a treatment approach. Using the information obtained from these reviews, three vendors were selected to demonstration their volume reduction technologies at the CETL. Two of the three technologies, bioremediation and soil washing, met the performance criteria. Both were able to significantly reduce the concentration plutonium in the soil from around 1100 pCi/g to 200 pCi/g or less with a volume reduction of around 95%, well over the target 70%. These results are especially encouraging because they indicate significant improvement over that obtained in these earlier pilot and field studies. Additional studies are recommended.

Steve Hoeffner

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

100

Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1  

SciTech Connect

Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60[degree]C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO[sub 4] in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Selective leaching of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils: Progress report 1  

SciTech Connect

Three soils and a sediment contaminated with uranium were used to determine the effectiveness of sodium carbonate and citric acid leaching to decontaminated or remove uranium to acceptable regulatory levels. Two of the soils were surface soils from the DOE facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. This facility is presently called the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Carbonate extractions generally removed from 70 to 90% of the uranium from the Fernald storage pad soil. Uranium was slightly more difficult to extract from the Fernald incinerator and the Y-12 landfarm soils. Very small amounts of uranium could be extracted from the storm sewer sediment. Extraction with carbonate at high solution-to-soil ratios were as effective as extractions at low solution-to-soil ratios, indicating attrition by the paddle mixer was not significantly different than that provided in a rotary extractor. Also, pretreatments such as milling or pulverizing the soil sample did not appear to increase extraction efficiency when carbonate extractions were carried out at elevated temperatures (60{degree}C) or long extraction times (23 h). Adding KMnO{sub 4} in the carbonate extraction appeared to increase extraction efficiency from the Fernald incinerator soil but not the Fernald storage pad soil. The most effective leaching rates (> 90 % from both Fernald soils) were obtained using a citrate/dithionite extraction procedure designed to remove amorphous (noncrystalline) iron/aluminum sesquioxides from surfaces of clay minerals. Citric acid also proved to be a very good extractant for uranium.

Francis, C.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Farr, L.L.; Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Copenhaver, Sally C. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Surfactant flooding technology for in situ cleanup of contaminated soils and aquifers---A feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

The process of in situ, surfactant-enhanced soil washing has been investigated to determine its usefulness and limitations. Previous work on this subject has been reviewed critically. Entrapment/displacement mechanisms of nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in porous media have been identified and are discussed. The effect of surfactant on each of these mechanisms has been investigated. A joint research project has been initiated with Howard University personnel to determine the effect of surfactant on contaminants that have sorbed onto soil surfaces. Results of this research are necessary to more fully determine the limitations of in situ, surfactant-enhanced soil washing. However, based on field observations of NAPLs and modification of an existing mass-transfer-based model, it is apparent that in situ, surfactant-enhanced soil washing alone will not be a sufficient remedial action plan because it cannot displace enough contaminant to clean the soil to within the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) guidelines of cleanliness. The process shows the most promise when it is used in conjunction with another remedial action plan such as biorestoration. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Porzucek, C.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Separation of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the applicable separation technologies relating to removal of heavy metals from solution and from soils in order to present the state-of-the-art in the field. Each technology is briefly described and typical operating conditions and technology performance are presented. Technologies described include chemical precipitation (including hydroxide, carbonate, or sulfide reagents), coagulation/flocculation, ion exchange, solvent extraction, extraction with chelating agents, complexation, electrochemical operation, cementation, membrane operations, evaporation, adsorption, solidification/stabilization, and vitrification. Several case histories are described, with a focus on waste reduction techniques and remediation of lead-contaminated soils. The paper concludes with a short discussion of important research needs in the field.

Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Hydrogel-Encapsulated Soil: A Tool to Measure Contaminant Attenuation In Situ  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To illustrate how potential remedial techniques can be compared to natural attenuation, thermal stabilization of one soil increased the size of its long-term in situ retained fraction from 50% to 88% of the total uranium and increased the half-life of that long-term retained fraction from 990 to 40000 days. ... Although natural attenuation is being increasingly selected as a preferred alternative for remediation of many hazardous waste sites, the Committee on Intrinsic Remediation of the National Research Council (2) has warned, “... that rigorous protocols are needed to ensure that natural attenuation potential is analyzed properly, and that natural attenuation should be accepted as a formal remedy for contamination only when the processes are documented to be working and are sustainable.” ... To establish the potential of the hydrogel-encapsulation technique as a valid tool to study contaminant interactions with groundwater in situ, our investigation focused on several proof-of-principle objectives using uranium as a model contaminant. ...

Brian P. Spalding; Scott C. Brooks; David B. Watson

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Contamination of Soil by Crude Oil and Drilling Muds. Use of Wastes by Production of Road Construction Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A thermal method of separating wastes into organic and mineral parts is proposed for processing crude oil sludges and oil-contaminated soils accumulated in operation of oil fields and oil pipelines. After expo...

Z. A. Mansurov; E. K. Ongarbaev…

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Contaminated soil and sediments in a highly developed catchment-estuary system (Sydney estuary, Australia): an innovative stormwater remediation strategy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of the current research was to provide a strategy to remediate stormwater from an old, high-developed catchment dominated (94%) by diffuse sources. Contaminated catchment soils, a dense road netw...

Gavin F. Birch

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Washing of field weathered crude oil contaminated soil with an environmentally compatible surfactant, alkyl polyglucoside  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Weathered crude oil contaminated soils (COCSs), which are much more difficult to remediate than those freshly contaminated, are widespread especially at the sites of oil fields and industries. Surfactant enhanced ex situ soil washing could be used to remediate COCSs, but surfactant toxicity becomes one of the major concerns. In this study, a class of green surfactants, alkyl polyglucosides (APGs), were tested in washing the field weathered COCS with relatively high oil concentration (123 mg g?1 dry soil) from Jilin Oilfield, Northeastern China. APG1214, characterized with longer alkyl chain, was more effective than APG0810 in crude oil removal. Adding inorganic sodium salts into APG1214 solution further improved the crude oil removal efficiency (CORE). Washing parameters (temperature, washing time, agitation speed and solution/soil ratio) were investigated and further optimized integratedly with an orthogonal design. At the optimum conditions, the CORE reached 97%. GC/MS analysis showed that the proportion of small n-alkanes (C16–C23) in residual crude oil gradually increased, which was helpful to interpret the oil removal mechanism. Moreover, eminent effect on removal of large n-alkanes was achieved from the synergy between APG1214 and inorganic salts, which was opposite to the effect when they were added separately. This study demonstrated a promising way to remediate COCS with ecologically compatible surfactant and provided guidelines for its practical application.

Mei Han; Guodong Ji; Jinren Ni

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Aqueous biphasic extraction of uranium and thorium from contaminated soils. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) process for soil decontamination involves the selective partitioning of solutes and fine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The biphase system is generated by the appropriate combination of a water-soluble polymer (e.g., polyethlene glycol) with an inorganic salt (e.g., sodium carbonate). Selective partitioning results in 99 to 99.5% of the soil being recovered in the cleaned-soil fraction, while only 0.5 to 1% is recovered in the contaminant concentrate. The ABE process is best suited to the recovery of ultrafine, refractory material from the silt and clay fractions of soils. During continuous countercurrent extraction tests with soil samples from the Fernald Environmental Management Project site (Fernald, OH), particulate thorium was extracted and concentrated between 6- and 16-fold, while the uranium concentration was reduced from about 500 mg/kg to about 77 mg/kg. Carbonate leaching alone was able to reduce the uranium concentration only to 146 mg/kg. Preliminary estimates for treatment costs are approximately $160 per ton of dry soil. A detailed flowsheet of the ABE process is provided.

Chaiko, D.J.; Gartelmann, J.; Henriksen, J.L.; Krause, T.R.; Deepak; Vojta, Y.; Thuillet, E.; Mertz, C.J.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Characterization of the Contaminated Soil Under the Hanford 324 Building B Cell, Washington, USA - 12182  

SciTech Connect

The 324 Building on the Hanford site played a key role in radiochemical and metallurgical research programs conducted by DOE. The B hot cell in the 324 Building was the site of high-level waste vitrification research. During clean-out operations in November 2009, a tear was noted in the stainless steel liner on the floor of B Cell. Exposure rate readings taken at various locations in the soil about 0.5 meters below B Cell reached 8,900 Roentgen (R) per hour, confirming the existence of a significant soil contamination field. The source of the radioactive material was likely a 510 L spill from the Canister Fabrication Project, consisting of purified, concentrated Cs-137 and Sr-90 solutions totaling 48,000 TBq (1.3 MCi). MCNP modeling was used to estimate that the measured exposure rates were caused by 5,900 TBq (160 kCi) of Sr- 90 and Cs-137, although additional contamination was thought to exist deeper in the soil column. Two physical soil samples were obtained at different depths, which helped verify the contamination estimates. A detailed exposure rate survey inside B Cell was combined with additional MCNP modeling to estimate that an additional 1,700 TBq (460 kCi) is present just below the floor. Based on the results of the sampling campaign, it is likely that the radioactive material below B Cell is primarily consists of feed solutions from the FRG Canister Fabrication Project, and that it contains purified Sr-90 and Cs-137 with enough actinide carryover to make some of the soil transuranic. The close agreement between the Geoprobe calculations and the physical samples adds confidence that there are more than 3700 TBq (100,000 Ci) of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in the soil approximately 1 meter below the cell floor. The majority of the Cs-137 is contained in the first meter of soil, while significant Sr-90 contamination extends to 10 meters below the cell floor. It is also likely that an additional 15,000 TBq (400,000 Ci) of Cs-137 and Sr-90 activity is present directly below the floor of the cell, and that the residual activity inside the cell is only half of the previous estimates. However, the partitioning of activity between residuals in the cell and in the soil below the floor is much more uncertain than the activity calculations associated with the Geoprobe measurements. Taken together, the calculated soil activities represent about half of the spill associated with the FRG Canister Fabrication project. The remainder of the spill is believed to have remained in the cell, where the majority has been removed as part of cell cleanup activities. The magnitude of the soil contamination below 324 B Cell is sobering, and it represents one of the most challenging remediation activities in the DOE complex. Of course, safe remediation begins with a good understanding of the magnitude of the problem. As a result, additional modeling and cross-comparison efforts are planned for 2012. (authors)

Josephson, Walter S. [Worley Parsons Polestar, 601 Williams Boulevard, Suite 4A, Richland WA 99352 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine spill (Hunan, China)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metal contamination of soils and crops affected by the Chenzhou lead/zinc mine spill (Hunan, China Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France b Department of Environmental Science, Hunan Agricultural polluted with As, Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. The contamination levels were in the order of GYBNSZYNJTC showing

Mailhes, Corinne

112

Assessing nickel bioavailability in smelter-contaminated soils Jeffrey L. Everhart a,, David McNear Jr. a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessing nickel bioavailability in smelter-contaminated soils Jeffrey L. Everhart a,, David Mc Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA Received 10 October 2005; received in revised form 6 in soil environments derived from industrial pollution have clearly established the need for research

Sparks, Donald L.

113

Sparingly-Soluble Phosphate Rock Induced Significant Plant Growth and Arsenic Uptake by Pteris vittata from Three Contaminated Soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vittata from Three Contaminated Soils Jason T. Lessl and Lena Q. Ma,, * Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, United States State Key Lab of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 210046, China; *S Supporting

Ma, Lena

114

Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Arsenic speciation in multiple metal environments: II. Micro-spectroscopic investigation of a CCA contaminated soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The speciation of arsenic (As) in a copper-chromated-arsenate (CCA) contaminated soil was investigated using micro-focused X-ray fluorescence ( ? XRF ) and micro-focused X-ray absorption fine structure ( ? XAFS ) spectroscopies to determine if and how the co-contaminating metal cations (Cu, Zn, Cr) influenced the speciation of As. 15 ? XRF images were collected on 30-?m polished thin sections and powder-on-tape samples from which Pearson correlation coefficients ( ? ) between As and various metal species were determined based on the fluorescence intensity of each element in each image pixel. 29 ? XAFS and two bulk-XAFS spectra were collected from depths of 0–20 cm (LM-A) and 20–40 cm (LM-B) to determine the chemical speciation of As in the soil by target analyses of principal components with circa 52 reference spectra and linear least-square combination fitting of individual experimental spectra with a refined reference phase list (32) of likely As species. Arsenic and metal cations (Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) accumulated in distinct, isolated areas often not larger than 50 × 50 ?m in which the Pearson correlation between the elements was strongly positive ( ? > 0.75 ) . The correlation of As to Zn and Cr decreased from >0.9 to 0.8 with depth. Arsenic occurred predominantly in the +5 oxidation state. Abstract factor analysis and linear least square combination fit analysis suggested that As occurred as a continuum of fully and poorly-ordered copper-arsenate precipitates with additional components being characterized by surface adsorption complexes on goethite and gibbsite in the presence and absence of Zn. Precipitates other than copper-based ones, e.g., scorodite, adamite and ojuelaite were also identified. The significant co-localization and chemical speciation of As with Cu suggest that the speciation of As in a contaminated soils is not solely controlled by surface adsorption reactions, but significantly influenced by the co-contaminating metal cation fraction. Future studies into As contaminated soil therefore need to focus on identifying the speciation of As and the co-localizing metal cations.

Markus Gräfe; Ryan V. Tappero; Matthew A. Marcus; Donald L. Sparks

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

On the use of biosurfactants for the removal of heavy metals from oil-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using biodegradable biosurfactants to remove heavy metals from an oil-contaminated soil was evaluated by batch washes with surfactin, a rhamnolipid and a sophorolipid. The soil contained 890 mg/kg of zinc and 420 mg/kg of copper with a 12.6% oil and grease content. Highest levels of zinc removal were obtained using 12% rhamnolipid and 4% sophorolipid/0.7% HCl. Highest copper removal rates were achieved with 12% rhamnolipid or with 2% rhamnolipid/1% NaOH or 0.25% surfactin/1% NaOH. A series of five batch washes removed 70% of the copper with 0.1% surfactin/1% NaOH while 4% sophorolipid/0.7% HCl was able to remove 100% of the zinc. Sequential extraction procedures showed that the carbonate and oxide fractions accounted for over 90% of the zinc present in the soil and the organic fraction in the soil constituted over 70% of the copper. Sequential extraction of the soil after washing with the surfactin or rhamnolipid indicated that these surfactants could remove the organically-bound copper and that the sophorolipid with acid could remove the carbonate and oxide-bound zinc. In conclusion, the results clearly indicated the feasibility of removing the metals with the anionic biosurfactants tested even though the exchangeable metal fractions were very low.

Mulligan, C.N. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering] [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering; Yong, R.N. [Univ. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Gibbs, B.F. [Bivan Consultants Inc., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Environmental Div.] [Bivan Consultants Inc., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Environmental Div.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

An Investigation of the Efficiency of a Non-Ionic Surfactant to Remove Flourene and Phenanthrene from Crude Oil Contaminated Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents an evaluation of the ability of a non-ionic surfactant solution (Triton X100) for removal of Flourene, Phenanthrene from soil artificially contaminated with crude oil supplied from Tehran refinery. PAHs fractions were gained in accord ... Keywords: PAHs Removal, Crude Oil Contaminated Soil, Soil Washing, Surfactant, Triton X100

Seyed Hossein Andalib Moghadam; Bardia Tabiatnejad; Afshin Khoshand

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Chapter 13 - Remediating Cadmium-Contaminated Soils by Growing Grain Crops Using Inorganic Amendments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is gaining more and more concern owing to the fact that it is one of the most ecotoxic heavy metals which could exhibit highly adverse effects on soil biological activity, biodiversity, plant metabolism, and the health of humans and animals. This metal is not required for any known biological functions, but owing to its higher mobility in soils, it could easily be absorbed by grain crops and contaminate groundwaters. Cadmium could accumulate in plants, which is not toxic to them, but it could be quite toxic to animals and humans eating such plants. Cadmium pollution is of concern in many industrialized communities around the globe, particularly where untreated waste water is released from industry and cities, and used to raise agriculture crops. The uptake of Cd even in low concentrations is known to be harmful to most plants since it can cause a reduction in growth, and even result in plant death in extreme cases. It can also interfere with photosynthesis, respiration, water relations, reproduction, and can cause changes in organelles by disruption of membrane structure and functions, oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation and alteration in chlorophyll contents. Plant concentration of Cd varies with plant species, age, tissue type and the forms of Cd in soils. Major factors affecting the mobility and phytoavailability of Cd include soil pH, total amount of Cd in soils, source of Cd, complementary ions, organic matter and soil type. Conversely, some investigations demonstrated that plant types differed considerably for mobilizing metals bound in soils and their subsequent absorption by plants. Chemical immobilization is an in situ remediation strategy where inexpensive and easily available chemicals are used to decrease plant availability of metals in contaminated soils. These chemical amendments include Ca- and P-compounds and some other alkaline-stabilizing solids which are quite effective at immobilizing metals, thereby decreasing their bioavailability to plants. These materials include phosphate (P) compounds like rock phosphate, apatites, diammonium phosphate (DAP) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4), phosphogypsum and dolomitic (CaCO3 + MgCO3) residue. It also includes liming agents like CaCO3 and CaO and S-containing compounds like ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4, gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) and elemental sulphur (S), etc. These materials could help the transformation of metals into such forms which have low solubility owing to precipitation as sparingly soluble compounds, thus decreasing metal absorption by plants. This chapter covers the aspects of how to restrict the entry of cadmium in grain crops by the use of different chemicals.

Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman; Muhammad Sabir; Muhammad Rizwan; Saifullah; Hamaad Raza Ahmed; Muhammad Nadeem

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Removal of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn from a highly contaminated industrial soil using surfactant enhanced soil washing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Surfactant enhanced soil washing (SESW) was applied to an industrial contaminated soil. A preliminary characterization of the soil regarding the alkaline-earth metals, Na, K, Ca and Mg took values of 2866, 2036, 2783 and 4149 mg/kg. The heavy metals As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, had values of 4019, 14, 35582, 70, 2603, and 261 mg/kg, respectively. When using different surfactants, high removal of Cu, Ni and Zn were found, and medium removals for Pb, As and Cd. In the case of these three metals, tap water removed more than the surfactant solutions, except for the case of As. There were surfactants with average removals (this is, the removal for all the metals studied) of 67.1% (Tween 80), 64.9% (Surfacpol 14104) and 61.2% (Emulgin W600). There were exceptional removals using Texapon N-40 (83.2%, 82.8% and 86.6% for Cu, Ni and Zn), Tween 80 (85.9, 85.4 and 81.5 for Cd, Zn and Cu), Polafix CAPB (79%, 83.2% and 49.7% for Ni, Zn and As). The worst results were obtained with POLAFIX LO with a global removal of 45%, well below of the average removal with tap water (50.2%).All removal efficiencies are reported for a one step washing using 0.5% surfactant solutions, except for the case of mezquite gum, where a 0.1% solution was employed.

Luis G. Torres; Rosario B. Lopez; Margarita Beltran

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on soil and litter invertebrates and heterotrophic process  

SciTech Connect

One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessments for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as {open_quotes}contaminants of potential concern.{close_quotes} This process is termed {open_quotes}contaminant screening.{close_quotes} It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to soil- and litter-dwelling invertebrates, including earthworms, other micro- and macroinvertebrates, or heterotrophic bacteria and fungi. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose, sets of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil on invertebrates and soil microbial processes, and benchmarks for chemicals potentially associated with United States Department of Energy sites. In addition, literature describing the experiments from which data were drawn for benchmark derivation. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the benchmarks and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern.

Will, M.E.; Suter, G.W. II

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Isolation and Characterization of Chlorothalonil-Degrading Bacterial Strain H4 and Its Potential for Remediation of Contaminated Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A chlorothalonil (CTN)-degrading bacterial strain H4 was isolated in this study from a contaminated soil by continuous enrichment culture to identify its characteristics and to investigate its potential for remediation of CTN in contaminated soil. Based on the morphological, physiological and biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the strain was identified as Stenotrophomonas sp. After liquid culture for 7 d, 82.2% of CTN was removed by strain H4. The isolate could degrade CTN over a broad range of temperatures and pH values, and the optimum conditions for H4 degradation were pH 7.0 and 30 °C. Reintroduction of the bacteria into artificially contaminated soil resulted in substantial removal of CTN (> 50%) after incubation for 14 d. Soil samples treated by H4 showed significant increases (P < 0.05) in soil dehydrogenase activity, soil polyphenol oxidase activity, average well-color development obtained by the Biolog Eco plateTM assay and Shannon-Weaver index, compared with the control. Strain H4 might be a promising candidate for application in the bioremediation of CTN-contaminated soils.

Man-Yun ZHANG; Ying TENG; Ye ZHU; Jun WANG; Yong-Ming LUO; P. CHRISTIE; Zhen-Gao LI; T.K. UDEIGWE

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Treatability studies for uranium and plutonium contaminated soils using physical separation methods. Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Field Office of the Department of Energy (DOE/NV) has stated in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) Site Specific Plan for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that DOE/NV is committed to achieving compliance with all applicable environmental laws, regulations, guidelines, and agreements covering operations at the NTS. The primary DOE/NV objective identified by the Site-Specific Plan is to comply with all laws and regulations aimed at protecting human health and the environment. These include Nevada statutes and regulations which may be applicable, including federally delegated authorities. This environmental assessment discusses limited bench-scale soil treatability testing of physical processes for decontamination of plutonium- and uranium-contaminated soil. The proposed location of these studies would be the Treatability Testing Facility (TTF), Building 3124 at Test Cell ``All in Area 25 of the NTS.

none,

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Strategies for Treating and Dewatering Contaminated Soils and Sediments Simultaneously - 13389  

SciTech Connect

MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) was asked to perform a series of treatability studies by Global Technologies, Inc. (Global) and M{sup 2} Polymer Technologies, Inc. (M{sup 2} Polymer) using Global's metal treatment agent, Molecular Bonding System (MBS) and M{sup 2} Polymer's super-absorbent polymer, Waste Lock 770 (WL-770). The primary objective of the study was to determine if the two products could be used as a one-step treatment process to reduce the leachability of metals and de-water soils and/or sediments simultaneously. Three phases of work were performed during the treatability study. The first phase consisted of generating four bench-scale samples: two treated using only MBS and two treated using only WL- 770, each at variable concentrations. The second phase consisted of generating nine bench-scale samples that were treated using MBS and WL-770 in combination with three different addition techniques. The third phase consisted of generating four intermediate-scale samples that were treated using MBS and WL-770 simultaneously. The soils used in the treatability study were collected at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center in Butte, Montana. The collected soils were screened at 4 mesh (4.75 millimeters (mm)) to remove the coarse fraction of the soil and spiked with metallic contaminants of lead, cadmium, nickel, mercury, uranium, chromium, and zinc. (authors)

Bickford, Jody; Foote, Martin [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., 200 Technology Way, Butte, MT 59701 (United States)] [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., 200 Technology Way, Butte, MT 59701 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Accumulation of Organic Contamination in Plant roots and the Influence of Plant Rhizosphere on Removal of PAH, TPH and Heavy Oil Fractions from Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Contamination of soil with petroleum is an environmental problem affecting many industries, including the petroleum industry, gas stations, car services, cokeries and many others [1].

A. Malachowska-Jutsz; K. Miksch

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Recycling non-hazardous industrial wastes and petroleum contaminated soils into structural clay ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Cherokee Environmental Group (CEG)--a subsidiary of the Cherokee Sanford Group, Inc. (CSG)--has developed a system to beneficially reuse non-hazardous industrial wastes and petroleum contaminated soils into the recycling process of CSG`s structural clay ceramics manufacturing operation. The wastes and soils are processed, screened, and blended with brickmaking raw materials. The resulting material is formed and fired in such a way that the bricks still exceed American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) quality standards. Prior to usage, recycled materials are rigorously tested for ceramic compatibility and environmental compliance. Ceramic testing includes strength, shrinkage, and aesthetics. Environmental compliance is insured by testing for both organic and inorganic constituents. This recycling process has been fully permitted by all required state regulatory agencies in North Carolina, Maryland, and South Carolina where facilities are located. This inter-industrial synergy has eliminated landfill reliance and liability for many companies and property owners. The recycling volume of wastes and soils is high because CSG is one of the largest brick manufacturers in the nation. Together, CEG and CSG have eliminated more than 1 billion pounds of material from landfills by beneficially reusing the non-hazardous wastes.

MacRunnels, Z.D.; Miller, H.B. Jr. [Cherokee Environmental Group, Sanford, NC (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

Efficacy of Ultraviolet Light and Antimicrobials to Reduce Listeria monocytogenes in Chill Brines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Chill brines used in ready-to-eat meat processing may be an important source of post-processing contamination by Listeria monocytogenes. The purpose of this study was to… (more)

Parikh, Priti P.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Remediation of a diesel-contaminated soil from a pipeline accidental spill: enhanced biodegradation and soil washing processes using natural gums and surfactants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is a strong evidence of contamination caused by the presence of TPH-diesel at a concentration of 32,100 mg/kg, which is above the legal limit of 1,200 mg/kg for agricultural soils in Mexico. Regarding the surfactant

Antonio Hernández-Espriú; Emilio Sánchez-León…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Characterization of Pu-contaminated soils from Nuclear Site 201 at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Distribution and characteristics of Pu-bearing radioactive particles throughout five soil profiles from Nuclear Site (NS) 201 were investigated. Concentrations of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu and /sup 241/Am decreased with depth and most of the contamination was contained in the top 5 cm except in profile 4 where it extended to 10 cm. The mean activity ratio of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu to /sup 241/Am and its standard error were 5.8 +- 0.3 (N=42). Most of the total radioactivity of the soils was contributed by 0.25 to 2 mm sand size fraction which comprised 20 to 50% by weight of the soils. The radioactive particles in the 0.25 to 2 mm size fraction occurred as spherical glass particles or as glass coatings on sand particles. The glass coatings had gas voids in the matrix but were not as porous as the radioactive particles from NS 219. After impact grinding the >0.25-mm size fractions for one hour, 85% of the initial activity in a NS 201 sample remained with the particles on the 0.25 mm sieve, whereas in the NS 219 sample only 10% remained. The results show that the radioactive particles from NS 201 were much more stable against the impact grinding force than those from NS 219. Therefore, the NS 201 soils would be expected to have a lower probability of producing respirable-size radioactive particles by saltation during wind erosion. 19 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Lee, S.Y.; Tamura, T.; Larsen, I.L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

701 TFJD590-01-175138 May 25, 2006 14:9 Soil & Sediment Contamination, 15:113, 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/kg) were measured over a period of 1115 months. Leachable chromium concentrations (mg/L) were assessed arsenate, CCA, soil contamination Introduction Chromium has been widely used in a variety of industrial. This research was sponsored by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the Florida Center

Florida, University of

130

Complete Genome Sequence of Rahnella sp Strain Y9602, a Gammaproteobacterium Isolate from Metal- and Radionuclide-Contaminated Soil  

SciTech Connect

Rahnella sp. strain Y9602 is a gammaproteobacterium isolated from contaminated subsurface soils that is capable of promoting uranium phosphate mineralization as a result of constitutive phosphatase activity. Here we report the first complete genome sequence of an isolate belonging to the genus Rahnella.

Martinez, Robert J [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Held, Brittany [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Len [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Sobeckya, Patricia A. [University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Uptake of ?DDT, Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, and Lead by Lettuce and Radish Grown in Contaminated Horticultural Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Uptake of ?DDT, Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, and Lead by Lettuce and Radish Grown in Contaminated Horticultural Soils ... Supplementary lighting was not used, and the temperature was maintained between 10 and 25 °C with an average minimum temperature of 14 °C and an average maximum temperature of 24 °C obtained for the duration of the trial. ... horticulture ...

S. K. Gaw; N. D. Kim; G. L. Northcott; A. L. Wilkins; G. Robinson

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

132

The science of global soil change: Networking for our future  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that showcases more than 150 long-term studies and encourages scientists from around the world to collaborate in new ways (http://ltse.env.duke.edu). At the workshop, researchers presented results from long-term studies of soil fertility and contamination... model parameters based on observations. Processes of vertical and lat- eral mixing and the parameterization of eddies, plumes, freshwater and heat fluxes, the cold shallow halocline, and brine forma- tion also require refinement and validation...

Billings, Sharon A.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Remediation of Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Soils by STAR Technology using Vegetable Oil Smoldering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (Trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the relationship between key outcomes (TCE destruction, rate of remediation) to initial conditions (vegetable oil type, oil:TCE mass ratio, neat versus emulsified oils). Several vegetable oils and emulsified vegetable oil formulations were shown to support remediation of TCE via self-sustaining smoldering. A minimum concentration of 14,000 mg/kg canola oil was found to treat sand exhibiting up to 80,000 mg/kg TCE. On average, 75% of the TCE mass was removed due to volatilization. This proof-of-concept study suggests that injection and smoldering of vegetable oil may provide a new alternative for driving volatile contaminants to traditional vapour extraction systems without supplying substantial external energy.

Madiha Salman; Jason I. Gerhard; David W. Major; Paolo Pironi; Rory Hadden

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Mercury speciation in floodplain soils and sediments along a contaminated river transect  

SciTech Connect

A novel mercury-specific sequential extraction procedure (SEP) for the assessment of mercury (Hg) speciation in soils and sediments, with emphasis on studying the interaction between Hg and organic matter (OM), was developed and tested. It was applied to determine Hg speciation in floodplain topsoils and surface sediments along the Hg-contaminated part of the river Elbe, and to simultaneously derive some information on the (re)mobilization potentials for Hg from these matrices. The majority of the total Hg in the ecosystem today is bound in the floodplains, which also still geographically reflect the historic emission record. Most of the Hg in both matrices is bound strongly to OM, suggesting low availability. However, distinct differences between Hg speciation in the floodplain soils and sediments were also discovered. Mercury deposited in the floodplains shows speciation patterns that indicate stronger fixation compared with Hg in the sediments. This difference is attributed to the association of Hg with larger quantities of OM, which presumably also has higher molecular weight (MW). By comparison, Hg in the sediments was distributed among weaker binding forms, which are more likely to liberate Hg. Particularly, sediments showed a total lack of sulfidic binding forms for Hg. Pronounced geographical trends were detected in the Hg speciation along the river transect, with a general downstream shift from weaker to stronger binding forms, probably due to increased association with OM. These studies indicate that Hg speciation in riverine ecosystems is dynamic and reflects the chemical mechanisms underlying (bio) geochemical processes like distribution and transport.

Wallschlaeger, D.; Desai, M.V.M.; Spengler, M. [GKSS Forschungszentrum GmbH, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik; Wilken, R.D. [Johannes-Gutenberg-Univ., Mainz (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Treatability of PCB-contaminated soils with quicklime (CaO)  

SciTech Connect

The possibility that quicklime (calcium oxide, CaO) can destroy PCBs has received much attention over the past year. Observations at an EPA remediation site, where lime-containing kiln dusts were used for interim stabilization of PCB-containing wastes prompted the EPA to sponsor a small research project to investigate quicklime-PCB interactions. That study reported decreases in PCB content in synthetic, PCB-spiked soil following the application of quicklime and heat. META Environmental, Inc., as a contractor to EPRI, recently completed research designed to evaluate the effectiveness of quicklime for treating PCBs in soil and sand matrices under several reaction conditions, and to examine the underlying dechlorination chemistry involved, if any. Experiments were run with PCB-spiked sand and with actual PCB-contaminated soil. A variety of experimental conditions were employed including tests in open and closed containers, at ambient and elevated temperatures, and over a range of one hour to four days. Granular quicklime, fly ash, and kiln dust were all tested for reaction with PCBs. Early experiments showed that a mixture of sand/quicklime/water at 1:3:1.5 by weight, placed in an insulated container reached a maximum temperature of 216[degree]C. Treatability experiments were subsequently run under controlled heat at room temperature, at 80[degree]C, and at 200[degree]C (following the initial temperature increase which occurs when water is added to quicklime). Little or no loss of PCBs was observed in open or closed containers at ambient or at 800[degree]C over any period of time studied. A significant decrease of PCBs levels was observed only in the high temperature experiments (above 200[degree]C), however the fate of the PCBs in those experiments was not determined. The conditions and the results of the PCB treatment tests are presented in this report, as well as recommendations for further studies.

Mauro, D.; Taylor, B.B. (Meta Environmental, Inc., Watertown, MA (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Soil Nitrogen Mineralization Potential for Improved Fertilizer Recommendations and Decreased Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to determine optimum conditions for estimating soil microbial biomass (SMB) from previously dried soils and to identify a quick, reliable biochemical predictor of soil N mineralization potential. Initial evaluations were conducted on a Weswood silty clay loam...

Franzluebbers, Alan; Haney, Richard; Hons, Frank

137

Validation of classical density-dependent solute transport theory for stable, high-concentration-gradient brine displacements in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-concentration-gradient brine displacements in coarse and medium sands S.J. Watson a,1 , D.A. Barry a,1 , R.J. Schotting b,*, S.M. Hassanizadeh b a School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation by a brine solution, under either constant head or constant volume flux conditions. The experimental data

Hassanizadeh, S. Majid

138

Optimizing a Washing Procedure To Mobilize Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a Field-Contaminated Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soil washing was combined with surfactant regeneration and detoxification steps to generate innocuous products. ... Yet guidance in selecting surfactants for ex situ soil washing remains somewhat fragmentary. ...

Tao Yuan; William D. Marshall

2007-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

139

E-Print Network 3.0 - artificially contaminated soil Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

12;Urban Soil - Compaction 12;Urban... Engineering Urban Soils to Improve Landscape Tree Performance P. Eric Wiseman, Ph.D. Assistant... .cnr.vt.eduurbanforestry...

140

E-Print Network 3.0 - actinide soil contaminants Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

12;Urban Soil - Compaction 12;Urban... Engineering Urban Soils to Improve Landscape Tree Performance P. Eric Wiseman, Ph.D. Assistant... .cnr.vt.eduurbanforestry...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha contaminated soils Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

12;Urban Soil - Compaction 12;Urban... Engineering Urban Soils to Improve Landscape Tree Performance P. Eric Wiseman, Ph.D. Assistant... .cnr.vt.eduurbanforestry...

142

E-Print Network 3.0 - agricultural soil contaminated Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AgronomyCrop, Soil, and EnvironmEntal SCi... . DarrellSchulze,PurdueAgronomy Rural Wastewater Shrinking and swelling soils can damage homes, roads Source:...

143

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

soil... hydrocarbon degraders, and polycyclic aromatic ... Source: Ma, Lena - Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida Collection: Environmental Sciences and...

144

How humic substances dominate mercury geochemistry in contaminated floodplain soils and sediments  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of mercury (Hg) and humic substances (hs) was studied in floodplain topsoils and surface sediments of the contaminated German river Elbe. An intimate coupling exists between the geochemical cycles of Hg and organic carbon (OC) in this ecosystem. Humic substances exert a dominant influence on several important parallel geochemical pathways of Hg, including binding, transformation, and transport processes. Significant differences exist between the Hg-hs associations in floodplains and sediments. Both humic acids (ha) and fulvic acids (fa) contribute to Hg binding in the sediments. In contrast, ultrafiltration experiments proved that Hg in the floodplain soils is almost exclusively bound to very large humic acids (ha) with a nominal molecular weight (MW) > 300,000. Successive cation and anion exchange experiments demonstrated that those Hg-ha complexes are inert toward competition by other cations, and also apparently predominantly electroneutral. Speciation transformation reactions in the solid phase were investigated by sequential extraction and thermal release experiments. Upon addition of Hg model compounds to a sediment matrix, all species were transformed to the same new speciation pattern, regardless of their original speciation. The accompanying alterations in availability and solubility were partially due to interconversion between the different Hg redox states, including Hg(I). Simultaneously, partial transformation of added Hg{sup 2+} into volatile Hg compounds (35% in 10 d) was observed. Finally, Hg association with water-soluble ha continuously increased downstream, indicating that hs play a key role in both lateral and longitudinal Hg transport in the Elbe ecosystem.

Wallschlaeger, D.; Desai, M.V.M.; Spengler, M.; Windmoeller, C.C.; Wilken, R.D. [GKSS Forschungszentrum GmbH, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Toxicological benchmarks for potential contaminants of concern for effects on soil and litter invertebrates and heterotrophic process  

SciTech Connect

An important step in ecological risk assessments is screening the chemicals occur-ring on a site for contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by comparing reported ambient concentrations to a set of toxicological benchmarks. Multiple endpoints for assessing risks posed by soil-borne contaminants to organisms directly impacted by them have been established. This report presents benchmarks for soil invertebrates and microbial processes and addresses only chemicals found at United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. No benchmarks for pesticides are presented. After discussing methods, this report presents the results of the literature review and benchmark derivation for toxicity to earthworms (Sect. 3), heterotrophic microbes and their processes (Sect. 4), and other invertebrates (Sect. 5). The final sections compare the benchmarks to other criteria and background and draw conclusions concerning the utility of the benchmarks.

Will, M.E.; Suter, G.W. II

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Modeling Elution Histories of Copper and Lead from Contaminated Soil Treated by Poly,,amidoamine... Dendrimers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

procedures; Heavy metals; Soil pollution; Soil treatment. In recent years, extraction of heavy metals from transport models do not simulate the dynamic leaching process of heavy metals desorbed by the water soluble soil treated by poly amidoamine dendrimers. In the model, the metal sorption sites of the soil were

Clement, Prabhakar

147

Relationship between the {sup 137}Cs whole-body counting results and soil and food contamination in farms near Chernobyl  

SciTech Connect

The authors measured the radioactivity in the soil and child food samples from farms near Mogilev (56--270 GBq km{sup {minus}2} {sup 137}Cs), Gomel (36--810 GBq km{sup {minus}2} {sup 137}Cs), and Klincy (59--270 GBq km{sup {minus}2} {sup 137}Cs), who had whole-body {sup 137}Cs counting results measured as part of a health examination in the Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project. Soil contamination on the family farm seems to be the main source of human contamination because most of the people in the area live on small farms and they and their domestic animals eat crops from the farms. A clear correlation was found between the children's whole-body {sup 137}Cs counting results and the radioactivity in their food (correlation coefficient: 0.76; confidence level of correlation: 3.2 x 10{sup {minus}9}). There were also significant correlations between the whole-body {sup 137}Cs counting results and both the radioactivity of the soil samples (correlation coefficient: 0.22; confidence level of correlation: 0.0107) and the average contamination level of their current residence (correlation coefficient: 0.20; confidence level of correlation: 0.0174).

Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Sato, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun [and others] [and others

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Successful Characterization and Remedial Contour of Highly Contaminated Mercury Soil at the Y-12 National Security Complex - 13593  

SciTech Connect

An area known as the 81-10 pad within the footprint of the Y-12 National Security Complex, suspected to be heavily contaminated with mercury, was slated for characterization in support of a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) milestone to be accomplished by September 30, 2012. A full remedial design report (RDR) required the soil in Exposure Unit -9 (EU-9) to be fully characterized for a number of contaminates of concern including mercury. The goal of this characterization effort was to determine what soil, if any, would need to be removed for the protection of industrial workers and impacts to the surface and ground water. Funding for this project was made available using buy-back scope under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The EU-9 soil unit involved 3 different classifications which were determined as follows: Class 1: Known to have been impacted, contamination is likely; Class 2: Suspected to have been impacted, contamination is unknown; Class 3: Area not known to have been impacted, contamination unlikely. Due to various sampling and analysis events since the 1980's, significant mercury contamination was expected under the concrete pad of an area known as 81-10. Mercury contamination outside of the boundary of this pad within the EU-9 footprint was not known and therefore an original planned estimate of 1,461 cubic meters of material were expected to be heavily contaminated with mercury requiring removal, treatment and disposal. Through the use of a highly effective nature and extent sampling and analysis design that involved a hybrid of statistically-based and judgmental sampling, the actual remedial contour requiring removal was approximately 717 cubic meters, roughly 12% of the original estimate. This characterization approach was executed in full compliance with the Record of Decision (ROD) [1] documents that were agreed upon by the U.S. Department of Energy, Environmental Protection Agency and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. In addition, the RDR was completed ahead of the FFA milestone date of September 30, 2012. (authors)

White, Aaron; Rigas, Michael [U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Birchfield, Joseph W. III [1528 Paxton Drive Knoxville, TN 37918 (United States)] [1528 Paxton Drive Knoxville, TN 37918 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Characterization of Cultures Enriched from Acidic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil for Growth on Pyrene at Low pH  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Belgium 2 Bacteriology and Immunology, Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Groeselenberg 99, B-1180 Brussels...Verstraete, and D. Springael. 2005. Occurrence and community composition of fast growing Mycobacterium in soils contaminated with...

Maarten Uyttebroek; Steven Vermeir; Pierre Wattiau; Annemie Ryngaert; Dirk Springael

2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

150

The brine underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, USA: Characterization, genesis, and environmental implications  

SciTech Connect

The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Atomic Reservation contains brine. Its origin was assessed using existing and newly acquired chemical and isotopic data. The proposed model which best fits the data is modification of residual brine from which halite has been precipitated. Potential sources for this brine are in the Appalachian Mountains in the east, where bedded halite is documented, and where the hydraulic gradient needed to move the residual brine exists. Other models, such as ultrafiltration and halite dissolution, were also evaluated. In places, contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds have reached the deep system. The chemical and isotopic features of the brine were examined with respect to its potential discharge, contaminated in places, into shallow, freshwater systems. The observations suggest that whereas the origin of the salts in the brine may be very old, influx of recent water takes place. Consequently, the brine is not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and fresh-water-bearing units. 78 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Nativ, R. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)] [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Removal of Cu, Pb and Zn by foam fractionation and a soil washing process from contaminated industrial soils using soapberry-derived saponin: A comparative effectiveness assessment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The feasibility of using the eco-friendly biodegradable surfactant saponin (a plant-based surfactant) from soapberry and surfactin from Bacillus subtilis (BBK006) for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated industrial soil (6511 mg kg?1 copper, 4955 mg kg?1 lead, and 15 090 mg kg?1 zinc) by foam fractionation and a soil flushing process was evaluated under variation of fundamental factors (surfactant concentration, pH, temperature and time). The results of latter process showed that 1–2% Pb, 16–17% Cu and 21–24% Zn was removed by surfactin after 48 h, whereas the removal of Pb, Cu and Zn was increased from 40% to 47%, 30% to 36% and 16% to 18% in presence of saponin with an increase from 24 to 72 h at room temperature by the soil washing process at pH 4. In the foam fractionation process, the metal removal efficiencies were increased with increases in the saponin concentration (0.075–0.15 g L?1) and time (24–72 h), whereas the efficiency was decreased with increasing pH (4–10) and temperature (>40 °C). The removal efficiencies of Pb, Cu and Zn were increased significantly from 57% to 98%, 85% to 95% and 55% to 56% with an increase in the flow rate from 0.2 to 1.0 L min?1 at 0.15 g L?1 saponin (pH 4 and 30 °C). The present investigation indicated that the foam fractionation process is more efficient for the removal of heavy metal from contaminated industrial soil in comparison to the soil washing process. The plant-based eco-friendly biodegradable biosurfactant saponin can be used for environmental cleanup and pollution management.

Jyoti Prakash Maity; Yuh Ming Huang; Chun-Mei Hsu; Ching-I Wu; Chien-Cheng Chen; Chun-Yi Li; Jiin-Shuh Jean; Young-Fo Chang; Chen-Yen Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Measurement of Isotope Ratios in Depleted Uranium Contaminated Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser ablation of pressed soil pellets was examined as a means of direct sample introduction to enable inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) screening of soils for...

Seltzer, Michael D

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

154

Combined use of a transformed red mud reactive barrier and electrokinetics for remediation of Cr/As contaminated soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A reactive barrier (RB) of transformed red mud (TRM), a by-product of the refinement of bauxite in alumina production, was placed adjacent to the anode of an electrokinetic (EK) system with the aim of enhancing removal of chromium or arsenic, added singly to a low permeability clayey soil, and favouring entrapment. The innovative study focused on evaluation of the synergic interaction between the EK system and the RB, and of the efficiency when compared to traditional EK remediation (control tests). The results obtained underlined the successful outcome of treatment of the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. In presence of the TRM RB, 19.4% wt. of total Cr content was detected in the anolyte and 20.6% wt. trapped in the anodic RB after 6 d, versus 6.6% wt. in the anolyte and 8.8% wt. in the soil adjacent to the anode following the control run without RB. On increasing duration of treatment up to 12 d, 60.8% wt. of total initial Cr was found in the anolyte and 25.5% wt. trapped in the RB, versus 9.1% wt. and 5.3% wt., respectively, after a control run of the same duration. Finally, on increasing the mass of TRM in the RB, 60.6% wt. of initial Cr content was found to have accumulated in the RB, with Cr being completely absent from the anodic chamber. Conversely, combined treatment was much less effective on As contaminated soil, at least under the operative conditions applied. Low initial As concentration and interference with iron oxides in the soil were likely the reasons underlying low efficiency while attempting As decontamination.

G. Cappai; G. De Gioannis; A. Muntoni; D. Spiga; J.J.P. Zijlstra

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Brining studies at Pepper Products Inc.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Department) A. B. Childers (Member) V. E. Sweat (Member) December 1988 Abstract Optimum brining conditions, causes of secondary fermentation, and salt fluctuation were investigated. Jalapeno peppers held in brine solution undergo lactic acid... fermentation, controlled by level of acidification and concentration of salt. Only brining at 7. 5% NaCl, with no added acetic acid, resulted in loss of all fermentable sugars. However, salt concentration fluctuated widely in this sample. Brining in 25...

Okoro, John Daniel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

156

The use of a combined process of surfactant-aided soil washing and coagulation for PAH-contaminated soils treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) persist in soils due to their low volatility, low water solubility and low biodegradability, all of which make it difficult to remove this type of compound from soils. The work described here involved the study of a combined surfactant-aided soil washing (SASW) process and coagulation treatment, using iron and aluminium salts, to remediate a low-permeability PAH-polluted soil. Phenanthrene was selected as the model PAH and three different types of surfactants (anionic, cationic, and non-ionic) were used as washing agents. The results show that the anionic surfactant is the most effective washing fluid because efficiencies higher than 90% can be achieved. Non-ionic and cationic surfactant efficiencies were 70% and 30%, respectively. In addition, only the anionic wastewater can be satisfactorily treated with this technology, with COD removals greater than 90% achieved. Variation of pH, zeta-potential and the dose of aluminium required seem to indicate that a charge-neutralization mechanism is the main process involved in the emulsion break-up obtained in the treatment of aqueous surfactant wastes. In addition, the effects of surfactant concentration and that of the pH of the soil-washing wastewater seem to have a greater influence on the performance of the coagulation process.

R. López-Vizcaíno; C. Sáez; P. Cañizares; M.A. Rodrigo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Modeling gas and brine migration for assessing compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the WIPP Project Integration Office (WPIO) of the DOE, the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has completed preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration away from the undisturbed repository. This paper contains descriptions of the numerical model and simulations, including model geometries and parameter values, and a summary of major conclusions from sensitivity analyses. Because significant transport of contaminants can only occur in a fluid (gas or brine) medium, two-phase flow modeling can provide an estimate of the distance to which contaminants can migrate. Migration of gas or brine beyond the RCRA ``disposal-unit boundary`` or the Standard`s accessible environment constitutes a potential, but not certain, violation and may require additional evaluations of contaminant concentrations.

Vaughn, P. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Butcher, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Swift, P. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report  

SciTech Connect

The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.] [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Soil & Sediment Contamination, 17:619629, 2008 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

contamination, sewage lagoon Introduction Heavy metal pollution is one of the most pervasive and serious-0383 print / 1549-7887 online DOI: 10.1080/15320380802425121 Fate of Heavy Metal Contaminants in a Former in 1999, was an- alyzed to determine the subsequent mobility of heavy metals and their relationship

Neher, Deborah A.

160

DOE/LX/07-0246&D1 Secondary Document Contaminated Soil Area South...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Soil Area South of Outfall 011 Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) Assessment Report SWMUAOC NUMBER: 541 DATE OF ORIGINAL SAR: 011503 DATE OF SAR REVISIONS: 061009 REGULATORY...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenic-contaminated soils anexperimental...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

University of Florida Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology ; Environmental Management and Restoration Technologies 2 Soil and Water Science Department University of...

162

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenic contaminated soils Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

University of Florida Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology ; Environmental Management and Restoration Technologies 2 Soil and Water Science Department University of...

163

Surfactantligand systems for the simultaneous remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ligand I- along with nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100 or anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were applied as soil washing agents to desorb Cd from… (more)

Shin, Mari

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Mine waste contamination limits soil respiration rates: a case study using quantile regression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the toxicity of heavy metals depends on soil acidity and organic matter because these factors strongly an environmental gradient. We quantified in situ soil respiration, pH, and heavy metal concentrations across a mine was limited with respect to both heavy metals and pH, and that both increased metals and increased acidity

Rilli, Matthias C.

165

Application of colloidal gas aphron suspensions produced from Sapindus mukorossi for arsenic removal from contaminated soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Colloidal gas aphron dispersions (CGAs) can be described as a system of microbubbles suspended homogenously in a liquid matrix. This work examines the performance of \\{CGAs\\} in comparison to surfactant solutions for washing low levels of arsenic from an iron rich soil. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and saponin, a biodegradable surfactant, obtained from Sapindus mukorossi or soapnut fruit were used for generating \\{CGAs\\} and solutions for soil washing. Column washing experiments were performed in down-flow and up flow modes at a soil pH of 5 and 6 using varying concentration of SDS and soapnut solutions as well as CGAs. Soapnut \\{CGAs\\} removed more than 70% arsenic while SDS \\{CGAs\\} removed up to 55% arsenic from the soil columns in the soil pH range of 5–6. \\{CGAs\\} and solutions showed comparable performances in all the cases. \\{CGAs\\} were more economical since it contains 35% of air by volume, thereby requiring less surfactant. Micellar solubilization and low pH of soapnut facilitated arsenic desorption from soil column. FT-IR analysis of effluent suggested that soapnut solution did not interact chemically with arsenic thereby facilitating the recovery of soapnut solution by precipitating the arsenic. Damage to soil was minimal arsenic confirmed by metal dissolution from soil surface and SEM micrograph.

Soumyadeep Mukhopadhyay; Sumona Mukherjee; Mohd. Ali Hashim; Bhaskar Sen Gupta

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Radiochemical determination of 237Np in soil samples contaminated with weapon grade plutonium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Palomares terrestrial ecosystem (Spain) constitutes a natural laboratory to study transuranics. This scenario is partially contaminated with weapon-grade plutonium since the burnout and fragmentation...237Np ...

M. P. Antón; A. Espinosa; A. Aragón

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Radiochemical determination of 237NP in soil samples contaminated with weapon grade plutonium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Palomares terrestrial ecosystem (Spain) constitutes a natural laboratory to study transuranics. This scenario is partially contaminated with weapon-grade plutonium since the burnout and fragmentation...237Np ...

M. P. Antón; A. Espinosa; A. Aragón

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Plant-Based Plume-Scale Mapping of Tritium Contamination in Desert Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...interred at radioactive-waste disposal sites. Because tritiated water...contaminants, the associated site disturbance and costs of equipment...subsurface tritium movement from the Maxey Flats, KY LLRW disposal site (Rickard and Kirby, 1987 Kalisz...

B. J. Andraski; D. A. Stonestrom; R. L. Michel; K. J. Halford; J. C. Radyk

169

Impact of Long-Term Diesel Contamination on Soil Microbial Community Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...followed by 30 cycles of 98C for 5 s...the number of PCR cycles was reduced to...AND DISCUSSION General characteristics...degradation processes. Diesel concentrations...composition of diesel contamination in general and, more specifically...

Nora B. Sutton; Farai Maphosa; Jose A. Morillo; Waleed Abu Al-Soud; Alette A. M. Langenhoff; Tim Grotenhuis; Huub H. M. Rijnaarts; Hauke Smidt

2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

170

In Situ Vitrification an Innovative Melting Technology for the Remediation of Contaminated Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The remediation of contaminated sites is an increasingly serious problem in industrialised countries. There is a growing need for efficient techniques for remedial actions, especially for on-site treatment of ...

Dipl.-Ing. Hans Joachim Hampel; V. F. Fitzpatrick

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Mineralogical and chemical characterization of Joule heated soil contaminated by ceramics industry sludge with high Pb contents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This research deals with the first attempt to vitrify by a Joule heating process soils contaminated by Pb (2.85 wt.%) from ceramic industry sludges. Physical, mineralogical, and chemical characterization of the glasses were obtained by using several imaging and analytical techniques, namely Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with coupled Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and by a specifically built-in sensor for “in-situ” temperature measurements of the melt. The chemical stability of the glass produced by the process was determined by leaching tests. The progressive heating and successive melting of the soil led to decomposition of organic compounds and removal of volatile metals. The cooling of the melt formed a monolithic glass with the aim of immobilizing the heavy metals and inorganic contaminants. All the glasses were found, on a macroscopic scale, mineralogically, chemically and morphologically homogeneous independent of the starting composition. However, on a microscopic scale an inhomogeneous glass matrix was observed. SEM-EDS and XRD revealed the presence of micro-sized Pb particles and Zr2SiO4 (zircon) crystals. In agreement with the microscopical observations, leaching tests indicated high leaching behaviour for Pb. These results should be considered as a general study of the technological effectiveness of vitrification by Joule heating technology with a view to scaling up the process on a field scale and to the treatment of large amount of inorganic industrial wastes containing high amounts of Pb.

Francesco Dellisanti; Piermaria L. Rossi; Giovanni Valdrè

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Magnetic signature of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and sediments at the former oil field Hänigsen, Germany  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetic properties of hydrocarbon (HC) containing soils and sediments from two sites (Site A and B) of the former oil-field Hänigsen were analyzed in order to determine whether magnetic methods can be employe...

Moti L. Rijal; Katharina Porsch; Erwin Appel…

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Heavy Metal Contamination In Soil Under The Application Of Polluted Sewage Water Across Vrishabhavathi River  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main aim in this study is to assess the level of heavy metals concentration in soil profile and their mobility in the presence of pH and organic carbon,where polluted water is used in agriculture. The samples of soil collected at different sites across Vrishabhavathi river valley have been analyzed for heavy metals, viz. Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe and Mn using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. These values assessed with respect to reference soil taken from unpolluted soil profile. The heavy metals studied at all sampling sites compared with Indian Standards and all heavy metals are below permissible limits. The concentration of all the metals is high compared to the soil sample taken from unpolluted site shows the build up of heavy metal concentration using polluted water in irrigation. The % of organic carbon varies from 1.9 to 2.9 % in top layer and 1 to 1.6 % in the subsequent layer. The pH value is higher on top layer soil and decreases in subsequent layer.

Jayadev E. T. Puttaih

174

Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification  

SciTech Connect

Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Application of inorganic-contaminated groundwater to surface soils and compliance with toxicity characteristic (TCLP) regulations  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is currently implementing a Purged Water Management Program (PWMP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. A variety of constituents and disposal strategies are being considered. Constituents investigated in the PWMP include radionuclides, organics, and inorganics (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag). One practical disposal alternative is to discharge purged water (all constituents below regulatory levels) to the ground surface near the monitoring well that is being purged. The purpose of this investigation is to determine if long-term application of purged water that contains inorganic constituents (below regulatory levels) to surface soils will result in the accumulation of inorganics such that the soil becomes a hazardous waste according to the Toxicity Characteristic regulations (40 CFR Part 261.24). Two study soils were selected that encompass the range of soils found at the SRS: Lakeland and Orangeburg. Laboratory batch equilibrium studies indicate that the soils, although able to retain a large amount of inorganics, will not exceed Toxicity Characteristic concentrations when subjected to the TCLP. Field studies are underway to confirm this.

Bergren, C.L.; Flora, M.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jackson, J.L.; Hicks, E.M. [Sirrine Environmental Consultants, Greenville, SC (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

176

Application of inorganic-contaminated groundwater to surface soils and compliance with toxicity characteristic (TCLP) regulations  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is currently implementing a Purged Water Management Program (PWMP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. A variety of constituents and disposal strategies are being considered. Constituents investigated in the PWMP include radionuclides, organics, and inorganics (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag). One practical disposal alternative is to discharge purged water (all constituents below regulatory levels) to the ground surface near the monitoring well that is being purged. The purpose of this investigation is to determine if long-term application of purged water that contains inorganic constituents (below regulatory levels) to surface soils will result in the accumulation of inorganics such that the soil becomes a hazardous waste according to the Toxicity Characteristic regulations (40 CFR Part 261.24). Two study soils were selected that encompass the range of soils found at the SRS: Lakeland and Orangeburg. Laboratory batch equilibrium studies indicate that the soils, although able to retain a large amount of inorganics, will not exceed Toxicity Characteristic concentrations when subjected to the TCLP. Field studies are underway to confirm this.

Bergren, C.L.; Flora, M.A. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Jackson, J.L.; Hicks, E.M. (Sirrine Environmental Consultants, Greenville, SC (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Thermal Desorption Treatment of Contaminated Soils in a Novel Batch Thermal Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1) Flare pit material (Domtar refinery, Alberta, Canada) contaminated up to 20 wt % with hydrocarbons ranging from C8 to C60 with particularly large quantities of xylene, toluene, and C13?C28 compounds. ... (4)?Hsieh, H. N.; Yu, Q. R.; Chang, J.; Burn, T. Thermal Treatment and Stabilization of the BTM. ...

Marline T. Smith; Franco Berruti; Anil K. Mehrotra

2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

178

Property:BrineConstituents | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BrineConstituents BrineConstituents Jump to: navigation, search Property Name BrineConstituents Property Type String Description Describes major elements, compounds in geothermal brine This is a property of type Page. Subproperties This property has the following 1 subproperty: V Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area Pages using the property "BrineConstituents" Showing 2 pages using this property. N North Brawley Geothermal Area + Chlorine, sodium, potassium, and calcium. Silica concentrations are 527 mg/l and total dissolved solids measure 82,900 mg/l. + S Salt Wells Geothermal Area + Cl, Na, SO4, SiO2, HCO3, and minor Ca, K + Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Property:BrineConstituents&oldid=598832#SMWResults" Category: Properties

179

Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California Abstract N/A Authors Whitescarver and Olin D. Published U.S. Department of Energy, 1984 Report Number N/A DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California Citation Whitescarver, Olin D.. 1984. Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California. (!) : U.S. Department of Energy. Report No.: N/A. Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Development_Operations_Hypersaline_Geothermal_Brine_Utilization_Imperial_County,_California&oldid=682648

180

Task 15 -- Remediation of organically contaminated soil using hot/liquid (subcritical) water. Semi-annual report, April 1--September 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This activity involves a pilot-scale demonstration of the use of hot/liquid water for the removal of organic contaminants from soil at the pilot (20 to 40 kg) scale. Lab-scale studies are being performed to determine the optimum temperature, contact time, and flow rates for removal of the organic contaminants. Initial investigations into using carbon sorbents to clean the extractant water for recycle use and to concentrate the extracted contaminants in a small volume for disposal are also being performed. Liquid water is normally considered to be too polar a solvent to be effective for removal of organic contaminants from contaminated soils and sludges. However, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has demonstrated that the polarity of liquid water can be changed from that of a very polar solvent at ambient conditions to that of an organic solvent (e.g., ethanol or acetonitrile) by simply raising the temperature. The EERC has exploited this unique property of liquid water to obtain highly selective extractions of polar (at lower temperatures) to nonpolar (at 200 to 250 C) organics from contaminated soils and sludges. Only moderate pressures (a maximum of about 45 atm at 250 C and lower pressures at lower temperatures) are required. With this procedure, all detectable hazardous organics were removed from the sludge, thus making the remaining material (about 99% of the original mass) a nonhazardous material. The present understanding of hot/liquid water extraction for the removal of hazardous organics from contaminated soils and sludges is being used to develop the engineering parameters needed to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the remediation technology. Progress during the report period is summarized.

Hawthorne, S.B.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

SOILS, SEC 3 REMEDIATION AND MANAGEMENT OF CONTAMINATED OR DEGRADED LANDS RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of environmental concern. Repeated applications of Cu-containing fungicides have resulted in a large scale of Cu Accumulation and availability of copper in citrus grove soils as affected by fungicide application Jinghua Fan production and control fungus diseases in vines, citrus, coffee, and other fruit plants (Epstein and Bassein

Ma, Lena

182

Crude oil contaminated soil washing in air sparging assisted stirred tank reactor using biosurfactants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigated the removal of crude oil from soil using air sparging assisted stirred tank reactors. Two surfactants (rhamnolipid and sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) were tested and the effects of different parameters (i.e. temperature, surfactant concentrations, washing time, volume/mass ratio) were investigated under varying washing modes namely, stirring only, air sparging only and the combination of stirring and air sparging. The results showed that SDS removed more than 80% crude oil from non-weathered soil samples, whist rhamnolipid showed similar oil removal at the third and fourth levels of the parameters tested. The oil removal ability of the seawater prepared solutions were better than those of the distilled water solutions at the first and second levels of temperature and concentration of surfactant solutions. This approach of soil washing was noted to be effective in reducing the amount of oil in soil. Therefore we suggested that a field scale test be conducted to assess the efficiency of these surfactants.

Kingsley Urum; Turgay Pekdemir; David Ross; Steve Grigson

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Relation between Bioavailability and Fuel Oil Hydrocarbon Composition in Contaminated Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The lysimeters were constructed of concrete and insulated with polystyrene foam plates, and a drain was installed in a 0.30-m sand layer. ... In lysimeter A, the lower boundary temperature of the soil could was controlled at 35 °C using a heating cable. ...

H. de Jonge; J. I. Freijer; J. M. Verstraten; J. Westerveld; F. W. M. van der Wielen

1997-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

184

Extraction and direct detection of metals in contaminated soils using supercritical fluid extraction - atomic emission spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes the determination of metal complexes that are directly extracted from sedimentary material using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) coupled with a microwave induced plasma (MIP) for direct elemental determination. The metal complexes studied are: tris (1,1,1 triofluoro 2,4-pentanediono) Iron (III), Cobalt (II) Acetylacetonate, Copper (II) Acetylacetonate, Zinc (II) Acetylacetonate, and Ni (II) Acetylacetonate. These complexes were spiked directly onto cleaned sea sand. Static extractions were performed using SO-CO{sub 2} modified with 5% methanol. The SFE was interfaced to the MIP by integrating the restrictor into the plasma torch assembly. A 100 W Ar plasma was sustained in a highly efficient TM{sub 010} cavity with the atomic emission signal being viewed in an axial manner. Results of these direct determinations herald the possibility of the extraction and determination of surface bound contaminants in one unified procedure, thereby reducing the risk of sample loss, sample contamination, and sample analysis time.

Lancaster, E.D.; Long, G.L.; Ducatte, G.R. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

185

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.08.024 Zinc mobility and speciation in soil covered by contaminated dredged sediment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sediment using micrometer-scale and bulk-averaging X-ray fluorescence, absorption and diffraction in a pseudogley soil (pH 8.2­8.3) before and after contamination by land-disposition of a dredged sediment ([Zn and the laboratory using state-of-the-art synchrotron- based techniques. Sediment disposition on land caused

186

Remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soil using chelant extraction: Feasibility studies  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of a laboratory investigation conducted to determine the efficacy of using chelating agents to extract heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ba, Cu, and Zn) from soil, the primary focus being on the extraction of lead from the soil. Results from the batch-shaker studies and emphasizes the columnar extraction studies are described. The chelating agents studied included ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid, in addition to water. Concentrations of the chelants ranged from 0.01 to 0.05 M; the suspension pH was varied between 3 and 8. Results showed that the removal of lead using citric acid and water was somewhat pH-dependent. For the batch-shaker studies, the results indicated that EDTA was more effective at removing Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than was citric acid (both present at 0.01 M). EDTA and citric acid were equally effective in mobilizing Cr and Ba from the soil. Heavy metals removal was slightly more effective in the more acidic region (pH {le} 5).

Peters, R.W.; Miller, G.; Taylor, J.D.; Schneider, J.F.; Zellmer, S.; Edgar, D.E.; Johnson, D.O.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford Tank Initiative: Applications to the AX tank farm  

SciTech Connect

This report investigates five technical areas for stabilization of decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the Hanford Site AX Farm. The investigations are part of a preliminary evacuation of end-state options for closure of the AX Tanks. The five technical areas investigated are: (1) emplacement of cementations grouts and/or other materials; (2) injection of chemicals into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing); (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks; (4) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur; and (5) combined geochemical and hydrological modeling. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five areas. Detailed cost-benefit analyses of the technologies are not provided. This investigation was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during FY 1997 by tank Focus Area (EM-50) funding.

Becker, D.L.

1997-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

188

Exposure and effects of oilfield brine discharges on western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in Nueces Bay, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Discharge of oilfield brines into fresh and estuarine waters is a common disposal practice in Texas. Petroleum crude oil (PCO) extraction from underground stores includes the removal of a significant amount of water along with the oil. Several methods may be used to separate the oil and water fractions, including tank batteries, heat separation, and skimming ponds. Disposal of the resultant produced water (oilfield brine) may be accomplished by deep-well injection or discharge to surface waters. In Texas, an estimated 766,000 barrels of oilfield brine were discharged daily into tidal waters in 1979. The maximum concentration for oil and grease in these discharges permitted by the Texas Railroad Commission is 25 ppm. Several studies have shown that oilfield brines are toxic to a wide range of marine life, yet little is known about their effects on birds and mammals. Exposure to petroleum in oilfield wastes could evoke toxicological effects in some waterbird species. Avian responses to PCO exposure are highly variable, including cessation of growth, osmoregulatory impairment, endocrine dysfunction, hemolytic anemia, altered blood chemistry, cytochrome P450 induction, reduced reproductive success, and mortality. Oilfield brine discharges may soon be the largest and most pervasive source of contaminants entering Texas estuaries. Migratory and resident birds feeding in the vicinity of discharge sites may be ingesting food items contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals and salts in sufficient quantities to evoke toxicity. The present study of wintering western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that feed and roost near discharge sites sought to examine oilfield brine exposure and effects through quantification of contaminant burdens, morphological characteristics, and cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J. [National Biological Survey, Laurel, MD (United States); Capizzi, J.L. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); King, K.A. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Phoenix, AZ (United States); LeCaptain, L.J. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Spokane, WA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Plutonium contamination in soils in open space and residential areas near Rocky Flats, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Spatial analysis of the {sup 240}Pu:{sup 239}Pu isotopic ratio of 42 soil samples collected around Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado, was conducted to assess the effect of Rocky Flats Plant activity on the soil environment. Two probability maps that quantified the uncertainty of the spatial distribution of plutonium isotopic ratios were constructed using the sequential Gaussian simulation technique (sGs). Assuming a plutonium isotopic ratio range of 0.152 {+-} 0.003 to 0.169 {+-} 0.009 is characteristic to global fallout in Colorado, and a mean value of 0.155 is representative for the Rocky Flats Plant area, the main findings of the current work were (1) the areas northwest and southwest of Rocky Flats Plant exhibited a plutonium ratio {ge}0.155, this were minimally impacted by the plant activity; (2) he study area east of Rocky Flats Plant exhibited a plutonium isotopic ratio {le}0.155, which is a definitive indicator of Rocky Flats Plant-derived plutonium; and (3) inventory calculations across the study area exhibited large standard error of estimates. These errors were originated from the high variability in plutonium activity over a small sampling scale and the uncertainty in the global fallout isotopic ratio. Using the mean simulated estimates of plutonium isotopic ratio, coupled with plutonium activity measured at 11 soil pits and additional plutonium information published elsewhere, the plutonium loading on the open space and residential areas amounted to 111.2 GBq, with a standard error of estimate of 50.8 GBq.

Litaor, M.I. [Tel-Hai Rodman Coll., Upper Galilee (Israel). Dept. of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Analytical electron microscopy characterization of uranium-contaminated soils from the Fernald Site, FY1993 report  

SciTech Connect

A combination of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron detection (SEM/BSE), and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) is being used to determine the nature of uranium in soils from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The information gained from these studies is being used to develop and test remediation technologies. Investigations using SEM have shown that uranium is contained within particles that are typically 1 to 100 {mu}m in diameter. Further analysis with AEM has shown that these uranium-rich regions are made up of discrete uranium-bearing phases. The distribution of these uranium phases was found to be inhomogeneous at the microscopic level.

Buck, E.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Critical micellar concentrations for three surfactants and their diesel-removal efficiencies in petroleum-contaminated soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2001) studied the surfactant-aided soil washing. They proposed the following...Modeling two stages of surfactant aided soil washing: Water Research, v...2001) studied the surfactant-aided soil washing. They proposed the following...

Luis G. Torres; José Luis Orantes; Rosario Iturbe

192

The Brine Shrimp's Butterfly Stroke  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the fluid dynamics of brine shrimp larvae swimming in this gallery of fluid motion video. Time resolved particle image velocimetry was performed using nano-particles as seeding material to measure the time dependent velocity and vorticity fields. The Reynolds number of the flow was roughly 8 and the Womerseley number (ratio of periodic forcing to viscous forcing) was about 5. Vorticity dynamics reveals the formation of a vortex ring structure at the tip of each arm at the beginning of the power stroke. This two vortex system evolves dramatically with time as the stroke progresses. The outer circulation is noted to weaken while the inner circulation strengthens over the power stroke. The gaining strength of the inner vortex correlates with the acceleration and forward movement of the larvae.

Johnson, Brennan; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbo-contaminated soils, comprehensive report, December 1999  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU), Katowice, Poland have been cooperating in the development and implementation of innovative environmental remediation technologies since 1995. A major focus of this program has been the demonstration of bioremediation techniques to cleanup the soil and sediment associated with a waste lagoon at the Czechowice Oil Refinery (CZOR) in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization (ESC), treatability study, and risk assessment study, a remediation system was designed that took advantage of local materials to minimize cost and maximize treatment efficiency. U.S. experts worked in tandem with counterparts from the IETU and CZOR throughout this project to characterize, assess and subsequently, design, implement and monitor a bioremediation system. The CZOR, our industrial partner for this project, was chosen because of their foresight and commitment to the use of new approaches for environmental restoration. This program sets a precedent for Poland in which a portion of the funds necessary to complete the project were provided by the company responsible for the problem. The CZOR was named by PIOS (State Environmental Protection Inspectorate of Poland) as one of the top 80 biggest polluters in Poland. The history of the CZOR dates back more than 100 years to its establishment by the Vacuum Oil Company (a U.S. company and forerunner of Standard Oil). More than a century of continuous use of a sulfuric acid-based oil refining method by the CZOR has produced an estimated 120,000 tons of acidic, highly weathered, petroleum sludge. This waste has been deposited into three open, unlined process waste lagoons, 3 meters deep, now covering 3.8 hectares. Initial analysis indicated that the sludge was composed mainly of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The overall objective of this full-scale demonstration project was to characterize, assess and remediate one of these lagoons. The remediation tested and evaluated a combination of U.S. and Polish-developed biological remediation technologies. Specifically, the goal of the demonstration was to reduce the environmental risk from PAH compounds in soil and to provide a green zone (grassy area) adjacent to the site boundary. The site was characterized using the DOE-developed Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) methodology. Based on the results of the ESC, a risk assessment was conducted using established U.S. procedures. Based on the results of the ESC and risk assessment, a 0.3-hectare site, the smallest of the waste lagoons, was selected for a modified aerobic biopile demonstration. This Executive Summary and the supporting report and appendices document the activities and results of this cooperative venture.

Hazen, Terry

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Comparative plant uptake and microbial degradation of trichloroethylene in the rhizospheres of five plant species-- implications for bioremediation of contaminated surface soils  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to collect data that would provide a foundation for the concept of using vegetation to enhance in situ bioremediation of contaminated surface soils. Soil and vegetation (Lespedeza cuneata, Paspalum notatum, Pinus taeda, and Solidago sp.) samples from the Miscellaneous Chemicals Basin (MCB) at the Savannah River Site were used in tests to identify critical plant and microbiological variables affecting the fate of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the root zone. Microbiological assays including phospholipid acid analyses, and {sup 14}C-acetate incorporation were conducted to elucidate differences in rhizosphere and nonvegetated soil microbial communities from the MCB. The microbial activity, biomass, and degradation of TCE in rhizosphere soils were significantly greater than corresponding nonvegetated soils. Vegetation had a positive effect on microbial degradation of {sup 14}C-TCE in whole-plant experiments. Soils from the MCB containing Lespedeza cuneata, Pinus taeda, and Glycine max mineralized greater than 25% of the {sup 14}C- TCE added compared with less than 20% in nonvegetated soils. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the positive role of vegetation in enhancing biodegradation.

Anderson, T.A. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Sampling procedure for atmospheric geothermal brines  

SciTech Connect

Thermodynamic and chemical changes can alter the characteristics of geothermal brine samples significantly. A procedure which minimizes these changes has been developed for sampling atmospheric geothermal brines. The method is fast with minimal cooling and yields representative samples which have been stabilized to preserve their integrity. The procedure provides reliable suspended solids data and both the solid and liquid samples are suitable for elemental analysis. The procedure is also a valuable tool to aid in monitoring a geothermal brine conditioning system. Data are included from a flow test at an MCR Geothermal well in the Imperial Valley area of California to illustrate the utility of the sampling procedure.

Kochelek, J.T.; Zienty, D.F.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Fate of Brine Applied to Unpaved Roads at a Radioactive Waste Subsurface Disposal Area  

SciTech Connect

Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl– might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl– in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl– concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl– concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl– was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl– remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl– in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface disposal area.

Larry C. Hull; Carolyn W. Bishop

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Integrated process for coalbed brine disposal  

SciTech Connect

A brine disposal process is described that converts the brine stream of a coalbed gas producing site into clean water for agricultural use, combustion products and water vapor that can be released into the atmosphere and dry solids that can be recycled for industrial consumption. The process uses a reverse osmosis unit, a submerged combustion evaporator and a pulse combustion dryer. Pretreatment of the brine feedstream is necessary to prevent fouling of the membranes of the reverse osmosis unit and to separate from the brine stream hazardous metal and other constituents that may make the permeate from the reverse osmosis unit unsuitable for agricultural or other use. A chemical modeling code is used to calculate the saturation states of solids that may precipitate and foul the reverse osmosis membranes. Sodium carbonate is added to the brine to precipitate carbonates of Ba, Ca, Mg and Sr prior to filtration, acidification, and passage into the reverse osmosis unit. Optimization of the process in terms of types and amounts of additives is possible with analysis using the modeling code. The minimum amounts of additives to prevent scaling are calculated. In a typical operation, a brine feedstream of 1,000 m{sup 3}/day (6,290 bpd) that may have a total dissolved salt concentration (TDS) of 7,000 ppm will be separated into a permeate stream of 750 m{sup 3}/day (4,718 bpd) with a TDS of 400 ppm and a concentrated brine stream of 250 m{sup 3}/day (1,573 bpd) with a TDS of 26,800 ppm. The submerged combustion evaporator will concentrate this latter stream to a concentration of 268,000 ppm and reduce the volume to 25 m{sup 3}/day (158 bpd). The pulse combustion dryer can dry the concentrated brine mixture to a low moisture salt. Energy costs to operate the reverse osmosis unit are primarily the pumping costs.

Brandt, H. [AQUATECH Services, Inc., Fair Oaks, CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Bourcier, W.L.; Jackson, K.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

The form, distribution and mobility of arsenic in soils contaminated by arsenic trioxide, at sites in southeast USA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

trioxide, at sites in southeast USA Li Yang, and Rona J.industrial sites in southeastern USA are contaminated with

Yang, Li; Donahoe, Rona J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Effects of local microbial bioaugmentation and biostimulation on the bioremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in crude oil contaminated soil based on laboratory and field observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study investigated factors enhancing the performance of the bioremediation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) in crude oil-contaminated soil in laboratory and field observations. The bioaugmentation process used local microbial consortia (MC1, MC2 and MC3) combined with the biostimulation processes of nutrient addition (mineral–salt medium, MSM and NPK) and enhanced air stimulation (air supply and Oxygen Releasing Compound (ORC™)). The microcosm tests were conducted in tank and soil column setups, whereas the field test was performed in test plots inside an oil and gas facility in Malaysia. In the microcosm tank experiment, the combination of bioaugmentation (10% inoculum size of MC3) and MSM biostimulation yielded the highest TPH degradation of 79% of the total. In the column experiments, the degradation of \\{TPHs\\} in the top soil was highest in columns combining bioaugmentation and nutrient addition, whereas in the bottom soil, the degradation of \\{TPHs\\} was highest in columns combining bioaugmentation with the addition of both nutrients and ORCs. In the field demonstration, 97% of the \\{TPHs\\} were degraded in the top soil (0–1 m) when bioaugmented with MC2. The kinetic analysis study of the microcosm tank showed that a combination of both biostimulation and bioaugmentation in the soil column achieved the fastest rate constant of 0.0390 day?1. The field test also demonstrated a comparable rate constant of 0.0339 day?1. The kinetic rate constants in both the laboratory and field indicated that the best treatment method for the contaminated site is a combination of MC3 bioaugmentation and nutrient biostimulation.

Fatihah Suja; Fazli Rahim; Mohd Raihan Taha; Nuraini Hambali; M. Rizal Razali; Alia Khalid; Ainon Hamzah

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Volatility of HCl and the thermodynamics of brines during brine dryout  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory measurements of liquid-vapor partitioning (volatility) of chlorides from brines to steam can be used to indicate the potential for corrosion problems in geothermal systems. Measurements of volatilities of solutes in chloride brines have established a possible mechanism for the production of high-chloride steam from slightly acidic high temperature brines. Questions concerning the fate of NaCl in the steam production process have been addressed through extensive measurements of its volatility from brines ranging in concentration from dilute solutions to halite saturation. Recent measurements of chloride partitioning to steam over brines in contact with Geysers rock samples are consistent with our concept of the process for production of high-chloride steam.

Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Hydrogeologic aspects of brine disposal in the East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana  

SciTech Connect

The East Poplar Oil Field encompasses about 70 square miles in the south-central part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Oil production began in 1952 from the Mississippian Madison Group. Production depths range from about 5,500 to 6,000 feet below land surface. Large quantities of brine (water having a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 35,000 milligrams per liter) have been produced with the oil. The brine has a dissolved-solids concentration of as much as 160,000 milligrams per liter. Most of the brine has been disposed of by injection into shallower subsurface formations (mainly the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone at depths of about 3,300 feet and the Upper Cretaceous Judith River Formation at depths of about 1,000 feet). Smaller quantities of brine have been directed to storage and evaporation pits. Handling, transport, and disposal of the brine have resulted in its movement into and migration through shallow Quaternary alluvial and glacial deposits along the Poplar River valley. Locally, domestic water supplies are obtained from these deposits. The major point, sources of shallow ground-water contamination probably is leakage of brine from corroded disposal-well casing and pipelines. Using electromagnetic geophysical techniques and auger drilling, three saline-water plumes in alluvial deposits and one plum in glacial deposits have been delineated. Dominant constituents in plume areas are sodium and chloride, whereas those in nonplume areas are sodium and bicarbonate.

Craigg, S.D.; Thamke, J.N. (Geological Survey, Helena, MT (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Evidence for ground-water circulation in the brine-filled aquitard, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Various geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical methods were used to assess active ground-water circulation in a brine-filled, deep (> 50 m below land surface) aquitard underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. In places, the brine which was presumed to be stagnant in the past, contains various contaminants. If ground-water circulation is viable in the brine-containing formations, then remediation or containment of the deep-seated contaminants should be considered a high priority. Data used to determine this included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the aquitard, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) vertical temperature gradients, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline ground water. Conclusions suggest that the saline water contained at depth is not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and fresh-water-(< 500 mg/l) bearing units. Consequently, influx of young water (and contamination) from land surface does occur. Potential discharge into the shallow aquifers was assumed where the hydraulic head of the saline water was higher than that in the shallow aquifers, accounting for temperature and salinity anomalies observed close to land surface. The confined water (and dissolved solutes) move along open conduits at relatively high velocity into adjacent, more permeable units.

Nativ, R. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Soil and Water Sciences; Halleran, A.; Hunley, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Using Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Nitrate to Distinguish Contaminant Sources in Hanford Soil and Groundwater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

stable isotopes at the Hanford Site, WA: Environ. Sci.Contaminant Transport at the Hanford Site, WA: Vadose ZoneRev. 0, Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, Richland, WA.

Conrad, Mark

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Brine flow in heated geologic salt.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Stabilization and reuse of heavy metal contaminated soils by means of quicklime sulfate salt treatment. Final report, September 1992--February 1995  

SciTech Connect

Capillary and hydraulic flows of water in porous media contaminated by heavy metal species often result in severe aquifer contamination. In the present study a chemical admixture stabilization approach is proposed, where heavy metal stabilization/immobilization is achieved by means of quicklime-based treatment. Both in-situ treatment by injection and on-site stabilization by excavation, mixing, and compaction will be investigated. In addition, the potential to reuse the resulting stabilized material as readily available construction material will also be investigated. The heavy metals under study include: arsenic, chromium, lead, and mercury. The proposed technical approach consists of three separate phases. During phase A, both artificial and naturally occurring contaminated soil mixes were treated, and then tested for stress-strain properties, leachability, micromorphology, mineralogical composition, permeability, setting time, and durability. In such a way, the effectiveness of the proposed remediation technology was verified, the treatment approach was optimized, and the underlying mechanisms responsible for stabilization were established. During phase B, the proposed technology will be tested for two DOE-site subscale systems, involving naturally occurring contaminated soil, using the same testing methodology as the one outlined for phase A. Provided that the proposed technology is proven effective for the subscale systems, a field application will be demonstrated. Again process quality monitoring will be performed by testing undisturbed samples collected from the treated sites, in the same fashion as for the previous phases. Following completion of the proposed study, a set of comprehensive guidelines for field applications will be developed. 42 refs., 196 figs., 26 tabs.

Dermatas, D.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economic  Geology Billion  Gallons  per  Year Brine  Use  Sequence Carbon  dioxide  Capture  and  Storage Carbon  Dioxide Coal-­?

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Removing Radium-226 Contamination From Ion Exchange Resins Used in Drinking Water Treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Removing Radium-226 Contamination From Ion Exchange Resins Used in Drinking Water Treatment P r o b of groundwater containing high levels of radium-226 activity (Objective 1) were regenerated with prescribed brine that the concentration of salt in the brine cleaning solution was the most influential factor in the resin regeneration

208

Brine tolerant polymer for oil recovery applications  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a beta-alanine-type branched partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, which is added to an aqueous injection fluid to increase the viscosity of the fluid. The polymer resists plugging of the wellbore face and/or matrix pores and is brine tolerant when injected into a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing formation.

Tackett, J.E.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

209

Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

data was generated by t e CFE Laioratory a t Cerro Prietowere performed a t the CFE Laboratory a t Cerro P r i e t oe h e l p of J,. Fausto L of CFE. Brine from Cerro P r i e t

Weres, Oleh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

data was generated by t e CFE Laioratory a t Cerro Prietowere performed a t the CFE Laboratory a t Cerro P r i e t oe h e l p of J,. Fausto L of CFE. Brine from Cerro P r i e t

Weres, O.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from Unpaved Roads at the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area  

SciTech Connect

Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl– might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl– in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl– concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl– concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl– was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl– remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl– in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface

Larry Hull; Carolyn Bishop

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Acceptance of Soil from Off Site Sources In order to guard against receiving contaminated soils to used as fill material on campus,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this guideline document in order to provide information for acceptance of clean imported fill material from off regulations governing the remediation of site, and hazardous chemical disposal. Local Oversight Program Agency, auto repair facilities and sites containing petroleum impacted soils and disposal and transportation

de Lijser, Peter

213

Albert Munsell and His Impact on Soil Science and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mill tailings, radium processing residues, oil field brines, and indoor radon. He has participated in the IAEA International Chernobyl Project, and in studies of radionuclide contaminants in the Arctic regions

Zanibbi, Richard

214

Apparent Contradiction: Psychrotolerant Bacteria from Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Arctic Tundra Soils That Degrade Diterpenoids Synthesized by Trees  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...important in the global carbon cycle and may have applications in...were contaminated with arctic diesel fuel, which contains about...degraders on hydrocarbons. In general, the 11 previously isolated...important in the global carbon cycle and may have applications in...

Zhongtang Yu; Gordon R. Stewart; William W. Mohn

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of dioxins in contaminated sediment and soil samples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of dioxins in contaminated sediment-derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin values and log- transformed GC/HRMS-derived TEQ values were. Keywords: PCDD; PCDF; 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; TCDD; GC/HRMS; Immunoassay 1. Introduction

Hammock, Bruce D.

216

Polyacrylamide polymer viscosity as a function of brine composition  

SciTech Connect

A computer model has been developed which predicts the viscosity of polymer and oil field brine mixtures. The polymers used were Amoco- Sweepaid 103 and Dow- Pusher 500 polyacrylamide polymers. All of the experiments were conducted at 1200 ppM polymer concentration. The computer input consists of the ionic strength of the brine in the mixture and the fraction of that ionic strength due to sodium ions. The computer program makes predictions of viscosity by referencing a family of viscosity curves for various mixtures of sodium chloride and calcium chloride in 1200 ppM polymer solutions. The model has been tested using 59 mixtures of brines and polymers. The ionic strength of the brine in the mixtures varied from 0.0018 to 0.025. The fraction of the brines' total ionic strength due to sodium ions varied from 0.22 to 0.49. The brines consisted predominantly of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate and sulfate ions.

French, T.R.; Stacy, N.; Collins, A.G.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Sustainable Soil Remediation:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...wastes and creating new markets for the end products...study of the treatment of diesel-contaminated soil indicated...size and location of markets relative to waste production...remediation scenario for a diesel-contaminated site using...catabolic activity in diesel contaminated soil following...

David L. Jones; John R. Healey

218

OUT Success Stories: Chemical Treatments for Geothermal Brines  

SciTech Connect

DOE research helped develop the large, untapped geothermal resource beneath the Salton Sea in California's Imperial Valley. The very hot brines under high pressure make them excellent for electric power production. The brines are very corrosive and contain high concentrations of dissolved silica. DOE worked with San Diego Gas and Electric Company to find a solution to the silica-scaling problem. This innovative brine treatment eliminated scaling and made possible the development of the Salton Sea geothermal resource.

Burr, R.

2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

219

Origin, distribution, and movement of brine in the Permian Basin (U. S. A. ). A model for displacement of connate brine  

SciTech Connect

Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs.

Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine  

SciTech Connect

The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0)/sup 3/), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl/sub 2/ showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85/sup 0/C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste.

Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Evaporative evolution of Martian brines based on halogens in nakhlites and MER samples  

SciTech Connect

Comparison of Cl and Br from Nakhla viens to MER samples suggests two kinds of brine solutions existed on Mars, one early and one late in the evaporation sequence. These solutions precipitated the secondary salts at the Meridiani and Gusev sites. We have recently reported the Cl and Br abundances determined by APS X-ray Microprobe and EMPA analyses of secondary aqueous minerals in Nakhla veins and discussed the significance of Cl-Br correlations with respect to the evolution of brine solutions on Mars. In that study, we suggested that the low Br concentration ({approx}10 ppm) in Lafayette Iddingsite is indicative of early stage of evaporation during progressive evolution of Martian brine solutions, which is, in turn, consistent with the petrographic evidence of early deposition of salt sequence of carbonate-sulfate- and no halite in Lafayette. We showed that the high Br concentrations of {approx}240 ppm in secondary salts in Nakhla veins similarly indicate late stages of evaporation in evolving Martian brine solutions which is again consistent with petrographic evidence of late stage deposition of salt sequence i.e. carbonate-sulfate-halite in Nakhla. When sea water evaporates under equilibrium conditions, the most insoluble carbonates (siderite and calcite) deposit first, followed by sulfates (gypsum and anhydrite) and finally the water-soluble halides are precipitated when the water content is sufficiently low. In the present study, we make a detailed comparison of Cl/Br ratios in secondary minerals in nakhlites with those in MER soils and rocks at Gusev and Meridiani and show that the compositions of solutions that inundated Lafayette iddingsite (early stage) and Nakhla veins (late stage) include the range of solution-compositions that gave rise to a variety of secondary salts at Gusev and Meridiani sites. Further, the results obtained here suggest that two kinds of brine solutions (one, late and the other, early or intermediate stage) seem to have inundated most of the rocks and soils to varying degrees and precipitated the secondary salts at Meridiani and Gusev sites.

Rao, M.N.; Sutton, S.R.; McKay, D.S. (Lockheed); (UC); (NASA)

2005-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

222

Studies on the Applicability of Biomarkers in Estimating the Systemic Bioavailability of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Manufactured Gas Plant Tar-Contaminated Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The systemic bioavailability of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from ingested soils containing manufactured gas plant (MGP) tar was evaluated in mice. Soil and organic extract of each soil were incorporated into a diet and fed to mice for two ...

Aruna Koganti; Deborah A. Spina; Kimberly Rozett; Bing-Li Ma; Eric H. Weyand; Barbara B. Taylor; David M. Mauro

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

223

Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid is selected to stimulate the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid is selected to create a generally aerobic environment for these microorganisms to degrade the contaminants, leaving only pockets that are anaerobic. The nutrient fluid is injected periodically while the oxygenated fluid is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. The nutrient fluid stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodicially forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is reduced to an acceptable, preselected level. The nutrient fluid can be methane and the oxygenated fluid air for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene.

Hazen, Terry C. (Augusta, GA); Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Colloidal Cutin-like Siderophoric Molecules Mobilize Plutonium from Contaminated Soils of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), USA  

SciTech Connect

Relatively recently, inorganic colloids have been invoked to reconcile the apparent contradictions between expectations based on classical dissolved-phase Pu transport and field observations of 'enhanced' Pu mobility (Kersting et al. Nature 1999, 397, 56-59). A new paradigm for Pu transport is mobilization and transport via biologically produced ligands. This study for the first time reports a new finding of Pu being transported, at sub-pM concentrations, by a cutin-like natural substance containing siderophore-like moieties and virtually all mobile Pu. Most likely, Pu is complexed by chelating groups derived from siderophores that are covalently bound to a backbone of cutin-derived soil degradation products, thus revealing the history of initial exposure to Pu. Features such as amphiphilicity and small size make this macromolecule an ideal collector for actinides and other metals and a vector for their dispersal. Cross-linking to the hydrophobic domains (e.g., by polysaccharides) gives this macromolecule high mobility and a means of enhancing Pu transport. This finding provides a new mechanism for Pu transport through environmental systems that would not have been predicted by Pu transport models.

Xu, C.; Santschi, P; Roberts, K; Zhong, J; Hatcher, P; Hung, C; Francis, A; Dodge, C; Honeyman, B

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Influence of plant species and phosphorus amendments on metal speciation and bioavailability in a smelter impacted soil: a case study of food-chain contamination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present research aimed to assess the influence of two phosphorous (P) amendments on metal speciation in rhizosphere soil and the soil–plant transfer of metals.

Muhammad Shahid; Tiantian Xiong; Nasir Masood…

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Annotated bibliography of literature relating to wind transport of plutonium-contaminated soils at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

During the period from 1954 through 1963, a number of tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to determine the safety of nuclear devices with respect to storage, handling, transport, and accidents. These tests were referred to as ``safety shots.`` ``Safety`` in this context meant ``safety against fission reaction.`` The safety tests were comprised of chemical high explosive detonations with components of nuclear devices. The conduct of these tests resulted in the dispersion of plutonium, and some americium over areas ranging from several tens to several hundreds of hectares. Of the various locations used for safety tests, the site referred to as ``Plutonium Valley`` was subject to a significant amount of plutonium contamination. Plutonium Valley is located in Area 11 on the eastern boundary of the NTS at an elevation of about 1036 m (3400 ft). Plutonium Valley was the location of four safety tests (A,B,C, and D) conducted during 1956. A major environmental, health, and safety concern is the potential for inhalation of Pu{sup 239,240} by humans as a result of airborne dust containing Pu particles. Thus, the wind transport of Pu{sup 239,240} particles has been the subject of considerable research. This annotated bibliography was created as a reference guide to assist in the better understanding of the environmental characteristics of Plutonium Valley, the safety tests performed there, the processes and variables involved with the wind transport of dust, and as an overview of proposed clean-up procedures.

Lancaster, N.; Bamford, R.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume of the Systems Design Study contain four Appendixes that were part of the study. Appendix A is an EG G Idaho, Inc., report that represents a review and compilation of previous reports describing the wastes and quantities disposed in the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains the process flowsheets considered in this study, but not selected for detailed analysis. Appendix C is a historical tabulation of radioactive waste incinerators. Appendix D lists Department of Energy facilities where cementation stabilization systems have been used.

Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Evaporite diagenesis driven by synsedimentary evolution of brines  

SciTech Connect

Back-reaction of brines has modified cyclic shallow water carbonate-sulfate-halite sequences (Permian) in the Palo Duro basin, Texas Panhandle. Successive parts of regressive evaporite cycles were deposited from progressively more highly evaporated seawater. The reaction of the brine with sediments deposited during earlier parts of each cycle was the major force criving diagenetic reactions and determining the final mineralogy. Normal marine limestones at the base of cycles were dolomitized in the shallow subsurface environments by brines that precipitated brine-pool evaporites in the upper parts of cycles. Gypsum dehydrated to anhydrite at burial depths of 1-2m beneath the brine-pool floor as brine salinity increased toward halite saturation. Diagenetic limpid dolomite and anhydrite replacing halite were probably derived from mixed meteoric and evaporated-marine brines squeezed from mudstone beds during compaction in the shallow subsurface. Anhydrite and halite pervasively cemented and partly replaced carbonates and gypsum. The resulting low permeability limited later diagenetic alteration, so that the early diagenetic textures and mineralogy were preserved in the burial environment. Reduction in permeability occurred before the transgression initiating the next cycle; the only major result of the introduction of seawater into the evaporite environment was dissolution of the last-deposited few meters of halite.

Hovorka, S.D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The mission of the Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative is to control the flux of contaminants in soil and water environments for the purpose of...

230

Origin and geochemical evolution of the Michigan basin brine  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and isotopic data were collected on 126 oil field brine samples and were used to investigate the origin and geochemical evolution of water in 8 geologic formations in the Michigan basin. Two groups of brine are found in the basin, the Na-Ca-Cl brine in the upper Devonian formations, and Ca-Na-Cl brine from the lower Devonian and Silurian aged formations. Water in the upper Devonian Berea, Traverse, and Dundee formations originated from seawater concentrated into halite facies. This brine evolved by halite precipitation, dolomitization, aluminosilicate reactions, and the removal of SO{sub 4} by bacterial action or by CaSO{sub 4} precipitation. The stable isotopic composition (D, O) is thought to represent dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by meteoric water. Water in the lower Devonian Richfield, Detroit River Group, and Niagara-Salina formations is very saline Ca-Na-Cl brine. Cl/Br suggest it originated from seawater concentrated through the halite and into the MgSO{sub 4} salt facies, with an origin linked to the Silurian and Devonian salt deposits. Dolomitization and halite precipitation increased the Ca/Na, aluminosilicate reactions removed K, and bacterial action or CaSO{sub 4} precipitation removed SO{sub 4} from this brine. Water chemistry in the Ordovician Trenton-Black River formations indicates dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by fresh or seawater. Possible saline end-members include Ordovician seawater, present-day upper Devonian brine, or Ca-Cl brine from the deeper areas in the basin.

Wilson, T.P.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

CharacteristicGalerkin and Mixed Finite Element Approximation of Contamination by Compressible  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characteristic­Galerkin and Mixed Finite Element Approximation of Contamination by Compressible­disposal contamination in porous media is modeled by a coupled system of partial differential equations for the brine, radionuclides, and heat and by a mixed finite element method for the pressure and velocity

Chou, So-Hsiang

232

Integrated process for coalbed brine and methane disposal  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a technology and project to demonstrate and commercialize a brine disposal process for converting the brine stream of a coalbed gas producing site into clean water for agricultural use and dry solids that can be recycled for industrial consumption. The process also utilizes coalbed methane (CBM) released from coal mining for the combustion process thereby substantially reducing the potential for methane emissions to the atmosphere. The technology is ideally suited for the treatment and disposal of produced brines generated from the development of coal mines and coalbed methane resources worldwide. Over the next 10 to 15 years, market potential for brine elimination equipment and services is estimated to be in the range of $1 billion.

Byam, J.W. Jr.; Tait, J.H.; Brandt, H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

233

Subsurface contaminants focus area  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Enregy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is developing technologies to address environmental problems associated with hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil and groundwater that exist throughout the DOE complex, including radionuclides, heavy metals; and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). More than 5,700 known DOE groundwater plumes have contaminated over 600 billion gallons of water and 200 million cubic meters of soil. Migration of these plumes threatens local and regional water sources, and in some cases has already adversely impacted off-site rsources. In addition, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is responsible for supplying technologies for the remediation of numerous landfills at DOE facilities. These landfills are estimated to contain over 3 million cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous buried Technology developed within this specialty area will provide efective methods to contain contaminant plumes and new or alternative technologies for development of in situ technologies to minimize waste disposal costs and potential worker exposure by treating plumes in place. While addressing contaminant plumes emanating from DOE landfills, the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is also working to develop new or alternative technologies for the in situ stabilization, and nonintrusive characterization of these disposal sites.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an apparatus and method for in situ remediation of contaminated subsurface soil or groundwater contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons. A nutrient fluid (NF) is selected to simulated the growth and reproduction of indigenous subsurface microorganisms capable of degrading the contaminants; an oxygenated fluid (OF) is selected to create an aerobic environment with anaerobic pockets. NF is injected periodically while OF is injected continuously and both are extracted so that both are drawn across the plume. NF stimulates microbial colony growth; withholding it periodically forces the larger, healthy colony of microbes to degrade the contaminants. Treatment is continued until the subsurface concentration of contaminants is acceptable. NF can be methane and OF be air, for stimulating production of methanotrophs to break down chlorohydrocarbons, especially TCE and tetrachloroethylene.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

ABSORBING WIPP BRINES: A TRU WASTE DISPOSAL STRATEGY  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250- liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WIPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $311k in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

Yeamans, D. R.; Wrights, R. S.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

236

Absorbing WIPP brines : a TRU waste disposal strategy.  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250-liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WlPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $3 1 lk in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

Yeamans, D. R. (David R.); Wright, R. (Robert)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Contaminant Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Contaminant sources include almost every component in the manufacturing process: people, materials, processing equipment, and manufacturing environments. People can generate contaminating particles, gases, conden...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Strontium isotopic study of subsurface brines from Illinois basin  

SciTech Connect

The abundance of the radiogenic isotope /sup 87/Sr in a subsurface brine can be used as a tracer of brine origin, evolution, and diagenetic effects. The authors have determined the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of over 60 oil-field waters from the Illinois basin, where brine origin is perplexing because of the absence of any significant evaporite strata. Initially, they analyzed brines from 15 petroleum-producing sandstone and carbonate units; waters from Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian strata have /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios in the range 0.7079-0.7108. All but those from the Ste. Genevieve Limestone (middle Mississippian) are more radiogenic in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr than seawater values for this interval of geologic time. The detrital source of the more radiogenic /sup 87/Sr may be the New Albany Shale group, considered to be a major petroleum source rock in the basin. The /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of Ste. Genevieve brines apparently evolved without a contribution from fluid-shale interaction.

hetherington, E.A.; Stueber, A.M.; Pushkar, P.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha contaminated wastes Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and solid radioactively contaminated wastes in unlined... that uses electrical power to heat and melt contaminated soil, fusing the ... Source: Pint, Bruce A. - Materials...

240

The use of radon (Rn-222) and volatile organic compounds in monitoring soil gas to localize NAPL contamination at a gas station in Rio Claro, São Paulo State, Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study focuses on the presence of radon (222Rn) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil gases at a gas station located in the city of Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil, where a fossil fuel leak occurred. The spatial distribution results show a correlation between 222Rn and VOCs, consistent with the fact that radon gas has a greater chemical affinity with organic phases than with water. This finding demonstrates that the presence of a residual hydrocarbon phase in an aquifer can retain radon, leading to a reduced radon content in the soil gas. The data in this study confirm the results of previous investigations, in which the method used in this study provided a preliminary fingerprint of a contaminated area. Furthermore, the data analysis time is brief, and only simple equipment is required.

E.Q. Barbosa; J.A. Galhardi; D.M. Bonotto

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

In situ bioremediation of petrol contaminated groundwater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) Bacterial Diversity and Aerobic Biodegradation Potential in a BTEX-Contaminated Aquifer Water Air Soil21/11/08 1 In situ bioremediation of petrol contaminated groundwater Guido Miguel Delgadillo EVS and facts · Likelihood of contamination · Benefits of in situ bioremediation So... Ask not what groundwater

Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

242

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Experiments were used to examine water content in Permian salt samples (Salado Formation) collected from the WIPP site. The profile of water release and movement is recognized as a function of temperature from 30 to 275 oC using classical gravimetric methods to measure weight loss as a result of heating. The amount of water released from heating the salt was found to be correlated with the salts accessory mineral content (clay, other secondary minerals lost up to 3 wt % while pure halite salt lost less than 0.5 wt % water). Water released from salt at lower temperature was reversible and is attributed to clay hydration and dehydration processes. The analysis

243

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Experiments were used to examine water content in Permian salt samples (Salado Formation) collected from the WIPP site. The profile of water release and movement is recognized as a function of temperature from 30 to 275 oC using classical gravimetric methods to measure weight loss as a result of heating. The amount of water released from heating the salt was found to be correlated with the salts accessory mineral content (clay, other secondary minerals lost up to 3 wt % while pure halite salt lost less than 0.5 wt % water). Water released from salt at lower temperature was reversible and is attributed to clay hydration and dehydration processes. The analysis

244

Actinide (III) solubility in WIPP Brine: data summary and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of actinides in the +3 oxidation state is an important input into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performance assessment (PA) models that calculate potential actinide release from the WIPP repository. In this context, the solubility of neodymium(III) was determined as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and WIPP brine composition. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on the solubility of +3 actinides under WIPP-related conditions. Neodymium(III) was used as a redox-invariant analog for the +3 oxidation state of americium and plutonium, which is the oxidation state that accounts for over 90% of the potential release from the WIPP through the dissolved brine release (DBR) mechanism, based on current WIPP performance assessment assumptions. These solubility data extend past studies to brine compositions that are more WIPP-relevant and cover a broader range of experimental conditions than past studies.

Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Cementation process for minerals recovery from Salton Sea geothermal brines  

SciTech Connect

The potential for minerals recovery from a 1000-MWe combined geothermal power and minerals recovery plant in the Salton Sea is examined. While the possible value of minerals recovered would substantially exceed the revenue from power production, information is insufficient to carry out a detailed economic analysis. The recovery of precious metals - silver, gold, and platinum - is the most important factor in determining the economics of a minerals recovery plant; however, the precious metals content of the brines is not certain. Such a power plant could recover 14 to 31% of the US demand for manganese and substantial amounts of zinc and lead. Previous work on minerals extraction from Salton Sea brines is also reviewed and a new process, based on a fluidized-bed cementation reaction with metallic iron, is proposed. This process would recover the precious metals, lead, and tin present in the brines.

Maimoni, A.

1982-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

246

Effect of dilution and contaminants on strength and hydraulic conductivity of sand grouted with colloidal silica gel  

SciTech Connect

Colloidal silica (CS) is a low-viscosity liquid that can be made to gel by addition of brine. This property allows it to be injected into, or mixed with, soil, so that after gelling the colloidal silica blocks the pore space in the soil and forms a barrier to the flow of contaminated groundwater or non-aqueous liquids (NAPLs). Gelled-in-place CS was first studied for the petroleum industry and later for protecting groundwater quality. Noll investigated the use of colloidal silica diluted so that its solids content was reduced from 30% (a typical nominal value for material as delivered) to values as low as 5%. The more dilute colloids could still be made to gel, although more slowly, and the resulting gel was weaker. Because the proposed application of colloidal silica grout involves emplacing it in the subsurface by permeation, jet grouting, or soil mixing where its role as a barrier will be to resist flow of contaminants, the effects of these contaminants on the properties of the grouted soil is also of interest. This work comprised four tasks. In Task 1, samples of grouted sand were prepared with a range of CS dilutions, for measurement of hydraulic conductivity and unconfined-compressive strength. In Task 2, these properties were measured on samples of grouted sand that incorporated 5% volumetric saturation of NAPLs. In Task 3, samples, prepared without any contaminants, were immersed in contaminant liquids and tested after 30 and 90 days. Task 4 was added because NAPL contamination in the samples of Tasks 2 and 3 impelled modifications in the test methods, and comparison of the results of Task 2 and Task 1 suggested that these modifications had introduced errors. In Task 4, samples were tested both ways, to confirm that in Tasks 2 and 3 strength was underestimated and hydraulic conductivity was overestimated. Despite the existence of these known systematic errors, the inclusion of control samples in Tasks 2 and 3 permits conclusions to be drawn from these data.

Persoff, P.; Apps, J.A.; Moridis, G.J. [and others

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential January 3, 2014 - 9:05am Addthis John Fox, CEO of Electratherm,...

248

EVALUATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OF URANIUM, THORIUM, AND RADIUM ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCED FLUIDS, PRECIPITATES, AND SLUDGES FROM OIL, GAS, AND OILFIELD BRINE INJECTION WELLS IN MISSISSIPPI  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are known to be produced as a byproduct of hydrocarbon production in Mississippi. The presence of NORM has resulted in financial losses to the industry and continues to be a liability as the NORM-enriched scales and scale encrusted equipment is typically stored rather than disposed of. Although the NORM problem is well known, there is little publically available data characterizing the hazard. This investigation has produced base line data to fill this informational gap. A total of 329 NORM-related samples were collected with 275 of these samples consisting of brine samples. The samples were derived from 37 oil and gas reservoirs from all major producing areas of the state. The analyses of these data indicate that two isotopes of radium ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) are the ultimate source of the radiation. The radium contained in these co-produced brines is low and so the radiation hazard posed by the brines is also low. Existing regulations dictate the manner in which these salt-enriched brines may be disposed of and proper implementation of the rules will also protect the environment from the brine radiation hazard. Geostatistical analyses of the brine components suggest relationships between the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, between the Cl concentration and {sup 226}Ra content, and relationships exist between total dissolved solids, BaSO{sub 4} saturation and concentration of the Cl ion. Principal component analysis points to geological controls on brine chemistry, but the nature of the geologic controls could not be determined. The NORM-enriched barite (BaSO{sub 4}) scales are significantly more radioactive than the brines. Leaching studies suggest that the barite scales, which were thought to be nearly insoluble in the natural environment, can be acted on by soil microorganisms and the enclosed radium can become bioavailable. This result suggests that the landspreading means of scale disposal should be reviewed. This investigation also suggests 23 specific components of best practice which are designed to provide a guide to safe handling of NORM in the hydrocarbon industry. The components of best practice include both worker safety and suggestions to maintain waste isolation from the environment.

Charles Swann; John Matthews; Rick Ericksen; Joel Kuszmaul

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Anionic Surfactant Mobility in Unsaturated Soil: The Impact of Molecular Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1994). In situ surfactant washing of polychlorinated biphenyls and soils from a contaminated field...1991). Importance of soil-contaminant-surfactant interactions for in situ soil washing. In D.-W. Tedder...

Barry J. Allred; Glenn O. Brown

250

The performance of blended conventional and novel binders in the in-situ stabilisation/solidification of a contaminated site soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be achieved when the concentrations of organic pollutants are less than 30 mg/L. 2. SITE, MATERIAL AND METHODS The soil strata consisted of top soil, made ground, natural drift deposits and coal bedrock at depth. The top soil has a depth of ~ 0.1-0.35 m... in triplicate based on ASTM D4219 -08 using a Uniframe 70 -T0108/E loading frame. The crushed samples were then subjected to batch leaching following BS 12457 -2 [ 18]. A liquid to solid ratio (L/S) of 10:1 was used by adding 50 g of crushed core sample...

Wang, Fei; Wang, Hailing; Jin, Fei; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

251

Uranium (VI) solubility in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine  

SciTech Connect

When present, uranium is usually an element of importance in a nuclear waste repository. In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), uranium is the most prevalent actinide component by mass, with about 647 metric tons to be placed in the repository. Therefore, the chemistry of uranium, and especially its solubility in the WIPP conditions, needs to be well determined. Long-term experiments were performed to measure the solubility of uranium (VI) in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine, a simulated WIPP brine, at pC{sub H+} values between 8 and 12.5. These data, obtained from the over-saturation approach, were the first repository-relevant data for the VI actinide oxidation state. The solubility trends observed pointed towards low uranium solubility in WIPP brines and a lack of amphotericity. At the expected pC{sub H+} in the WIPP ({approx} 9.5), measured uranium solubility approached 10{sup -7} M. The objective of these experiments was to establish a baseline solubility to further investigate the effects of carbonate complexation on uranium solubility in WIPP brines.

Lucchini, Jean-francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khaing, Hnin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Adsorption and desorption of contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The microbial remediation of sites Contaminated with organics is well documented, however, there are some significant problems that remain to be solved in the areas of contaminants sorbed to soils and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination. Methods of in situ bioremediation techniques employ either the stimulation of indigenous populations by nutrient addition, or the addition of prepared bacterial cultures to the subsurface environment. Problems of contaminant sorption and NAPL`s are related in that both encompass reduced contaminant bioavailability. Non-aqueous phase liquids have been identified as a priority area for research in the In situ Program due to their presence at DOE sites and the lack of adequate technology to effectively treat this contamination. Bioremediation technologies developed as a result of this project are easily transferred to industry.

Palumbo, A.V.; Strong-Gunderson, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); DeFlaun, M.; Ensley, B. [Envirogen, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Mass Transport within Soils  

SciTech Connect

Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated zone with three major horizons, the saturated zone can be further divided into other zones based on hydraulic and geologic conditions. Wetland soils are a special and important class in which near-saturation conditions exist most of the time. When a contaminant is added to or formed in a soil column, there are several mechanisms by which it can be dispersed, transported out of the soil column to other parts of the environment, destroyed, or transformed into some other species. Thus, to evaluate or manage any contaminant introduced to the soil column, one must determine whether and how that substance will (1) remain or accumulate within the soil column, (2) be transported by dispersion or advection within the soil column, (3) be physically, chemically, or biologically transformed within the soil (i.e., by hydrolysis, oxidation, etc.), or (4) be transported out of the soil column to another part of the environment through a cross-media transfer (i.e., volatilization, runoff, ground water infiltration, etc.). These competing processes impact the fate of physical, chemical, or biological contaminants found in soils. In order to capture these mechanisms in mass transfer models, we must develop mass-transfer coefficients (MTCs) specific to soil layers. That is the goal of this chapter. The reader is referred to other chapters in this Handbook that address related transport processes, namely Chapter 13 on bioturbation, Chapter 15 on transport in near-surface geological formations, and Chapter 17 on soil resuspention. This chapter addresses the following issues: the nature of soil pollution, composition of soil, transport processes and transport parameters in soil, transformation processes in soil, mass-balance models, and MTCs in soils. We show that to address vertical heterogeneity in soils in is necessary to define a characteristic scaling depth and use this to establish process-based expressions for soil MTCs. The scaling depth in soil and the corresponding MTCs depend strongly on (1) the composition of the soil and physical state of the soil, (2) the chemical and physic

McKone, Thomas E.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

2 INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRUDE/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION AT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTERACTION AT RESERVOIR CONDITIONS 2.1.1 Introduction In the previous section, the fluid/rock interactions in this section and expand the understanding of the interactions of the Spraberry reservoir rock, oil and brine, brine displacement and rock wettability using low permeability Spraberry cores. A schematic

Schechter, David S.

256

Soil washing: A preliminary assessment of its applicability to Hanford  

SciTech Connect

Soil washing is being considered for treating soils at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. As a result of over 50 years of operations to produce plutonium for the US Department of Defense and research for DOE, soils in areas within the Site are contaminated with hazardous wastes and radionuclides. In the soil washing process, contaminated soil is mixed with a liquid and then physically and/or chemically treated to dissolve the contaminants into solution and/or concentrate them in a small fraction of the soil. The purpose of this procedure is to separate the contaminants from the bulk of the soil. The key to successful application is to match the types of contaminants and soil characteristics with physical-chemical methods that perform well under the existing conditions. The applicability of soil washing to Hanford Site contaminated soils must take into account both the characteristics of the oil and the type of contamination. Hanford soils typically contain up to 90% sand, gravel, and cobbles, which generally are favorable characteristics for soil washing. For example, in soil samples from the north pond in the 300 Area, 80% to 90% of the soil particles were larger than 250 {mu}m. The principal contaminants in the soil are radionuclides, heavy metals, and nitrate and sulfate salts. For most of the sites, organic contaminants are either not present or are found in very low concentration. 28 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

Gerber, M A; Freeman, H D; Baker, E G; Riemath, W F

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent expected conditions in an emplacement drift, but nevertheless illustrate the potential for acid-gas generation at moderate temperatures (<150 C).

Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

258

Nanofiltration separation of polyvalent and monovalent anions in desalination brines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work, as part of a global membrane process for the recovery of alkali and acids from reverse osmosis (RO) desalination brines, focuses on the nanofiltration (NF) separation of polyvalent and monovalent anions, more specifically sulfate and chloride. This pretreatment stage plays a key role in the whole recovery process. Working with model brines simulating the concentration of RO concentrates, 0.2–1.2 M chloride concentration and 0.1 M sulfate concentration, the experimental performance and modeling of the NF separation is reported. The study has been carried out with the NF270 (Dow Filmtec) membrane. The effect of operating pressure (500–2000 kPa), ionic strength (0.4–1.3 M) and chloride initial concentration (0.2–1.2 M) on the membrane separation capacity has been investigated. Finally, the Donnan Steric Pore Model (DSPM) together with experimentally determined parameters, effective pore radius (rp), thickness of the membrane effective layer (?) and effective membrane charge density (Xd), was proved accurate enough to satisfactorily describe the experimental results. In this work we provide for the first time the analysis of partitioning effects and transport mechanism in the NF separation of sulfate and chloride anions in concentrations that simulate those found in RO desalination brines.

A. Pérez-González; R. Ibáñez; P. Gómez; A.M. Urtiaga; I. Ortiz; J.A. Irabien

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Subsurface Gasoline Contamination: An Indoor Air Quality Field Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 Subsurface Gasoline Contamination: An Indoor Air Quality Field Study Schematic of soil-gas and contaminant transport into a slab-on-grade building at a former service station site. Three effects are illustrated that can contribute to reducing the amount of contaminant available for entry into the building: biodegradation by soil microorganisms; a layer of soil that limits diffusive movement of the contaminant; and wind-driven ventilation of the soil below the building. Not illustrated are the effects of ventilation on contaminant concentrations inside the building. The transport of soil-gas-borne contaminants into buildings has been documented as a significant source of human exposure to some pollutants indoors; one example is radon, which has received widespread public

260

Evaluation of in situ catalysed hydrogen peroxide propagation (CHP) for phenanthrene and fluoranthene removals from soil and its associated impacts on soil functionality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extensive contamination of soils by highly recalcitrant contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is an environmental problem arising from rapid industrialisation. This work focusses on the rem...

Venny; Suyin Gan; Hoon Kiat Ng

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

University of Florida Soil and Water Science Department  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to soil properties, water/soil quality, and water/soil management · Highlight important and/or innovative environmental contamination prevention strategies and remediation techniques that serve to protect and promote

Ma, Lena

262

Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Abstract A variety of processes has been deployed at geothermalfields to inhibit or control siliceous scale deposition. It has beenknown for decades that the kinetics of silicic acid polymerizationis retarded when the pH of an aqueous solution is decreased.Therefore, a potential method for controlling siliceous scalingfrom geothermal brine is treatment with acid. Early attempts tocontrol siliceous scaling in geothermal brine-handling equipmentby retarding polymerization led to the belief that the pHhad to be reduced to < 4. Acidifying brine was discourageddue to corrosion concerns.

263

Soil Testing Following Flooding, Overland Flow of Wastewater and other Freshwater Disasters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Freshwater flooding can seriously affect soil fertility and the physical and chemical properties of soil. This publication explains how to reclaim flooded soil. Having the soil tested for microbes, pesticides, hydrocarbons and other contaminants...

Provin, Tony; Feagley, Sam E.; Pitt, John L.; McFarland, Mark L.

2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

264

Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Near-surface CaCl2-brine feeding Earth's most saline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Near-surface CaCl2-brine feeding Earth's most saline lake for RSL formation, CaCl2 brines and chloride deposits in basins may provide clues to the origin of ancient,2,10­14 , the composition of the brine is unlike any other body of water in the world, as ,90% of the salt is CaCl2 1

Marchant, David R.

265

The development of appropriate brine electrolysers for disinfection of rural water supplies .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A comparative study of electrolysers using different anodic materials for the electrolysis of brine (sodium chloride) for the production of sodium hypochlorite as a source… (more)

Siguba, Maxhobandile

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Ultrasound enhanced soil washing  

SciTech Connect

The development of an ultrasonic enhanced soil-washing process requires a comprehensive, well-designed experimental program, with the results carefully analyzed on the basis of known ultrasonic cleaning mechanisms. There has been no systematic work carried out to develop information on the important variables that can affect the efficacy of ultrasonic enhancement of contaminant removal from soil. The goal of this study is to examine the potential of ultrasonic energy to enhance soil washing and to optimize conditions. Ultrasonic energy potentially can be used in enhancing contaminant removal from the entire soil mix, or it can be used as a polishing operation on the fines portion of the soil mixture after traditional soil washing operations. The research study was designed to demonstrate that ultrasonic energy can: improve process performance, e.g., remove contaminants to lower residual concentrations; and improve process economics, e.g., shorter treatment (residence) times, less surfactant use. This process was demonstrated using soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Meegoda, J.; Ho, W.; Bhattacharajee, M.; Wei, C.F.; Cohen, D.M.; Magee, R.S. [New Jersey Inst. of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States); Frederick, R.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

267

Water quality in the vicinity of Mosquito Creek Lake, Trumbull County, Ohio, in relation of the chemistry of locally occurring oil, natural gas, and brine  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe current water quality and the chemistry of oil, natural gas, and brine in the Mosquito Creek Lake area. Additionally, these data are used to characterize water quality in the Mosquito Creek Lake area in relation to past oil and natural gas well drilling and production. To meet the overall objective, several goals for this investigation were established. These include (1) collect water-quality and subsurface-gas data from shallow sediments and rock that can be used for future evaluation of possible effects of oil and natural gas well drilling and production on water supplies, (2) characterize current surface-water and ground-water quality as it relates to the natural occurrence and (or) release of oil, gas, and brine (3) sample and chemically characterize the oil in the shallow Mecca Oil Pool, gas from the Berea and Cussewago Sandstone aquifers, and the oil, gas, and brine from the Clinton sandstone, and (4) identify areas where aquifers are vulnerable to contamination from surface spills at oil and natural gas drilling and production sites.

Barton, G.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Ryder, R.T.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

268

Final soil removal report for the remediation of contaminated soils at the Old Burn Area (site 11), Savannah Air National Guard Base, Savannah International Airport, Savannah, Georgia. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Partial Contents: Source removal requirements, remediation activities, general site activities, excavation and backfilling of pit, excavation and backfilling of PIT, 4.4 off-site soil treatment and disposal, site restoration activities, final site inspection, analytical laboratory results, PIT No. 1, perimeter Sampling - Pit No. 1, Pit Floor Sampling - Pit No. 1, Pit No. 2. Perimeter Sampling - Pit No. 2. Pit Floor Sampling - Pit No. 2. quality assurance/quality control samples.

NONE

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Risk-Based Remediation Approach for Cs-137 Contaminated Sediment/Soils at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Lower Three Runs Tail (U) - 13348 - SRNS-RP-2012-00546  

SciTech Connect

Lower Three Runs is a large blackwater stream that runs through the eastern and southern portion of the Savannah River Site. The Lower Three Runs watershed includes two SRS facility areas: P Area (P Reactor) and R Area (R Reactor) that provided effluent discharges to Lower Three Runs. During reactor operations, effluent discharges were well above natural (pre-industrial) or present day stream discharges. The watershed contains a 2,500-acre mainstream impoundment (PAR Pond), several smaller pre-cooler ponds, and a canal system that connects the pre-cooler ponds and discharges surface water to PAR Pond. From the PAR Pond dam, Lower Three Runs flows approximately 36 kilometers braiding through bottom-land/flood-plain forests before it enters the Savannah River. About eight kilometers downstream from the PAR Pond dam, the SRS boundary narrows (termed the Lower Three Runs tail) providing a limited buffer of DOE property for the Lower Three Runs stream and associated flood-plain. Previous screening characterization efforts revealed Cs-137 contamination in the sediment/soils of the flood-plain. As a part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act stimulus package, a comprehensive characterization effort was executed on the sediment/soils of the Lower Three Runs tail flood-plain providing a comprehensive look at the contaminant signature of the area. As a follow-up to that characterization, a regulatory decision Core Team, comprised of members of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Environmental Protection Agency - Region IV, and DOE, conducted negotiations on a risk-based approach to address the level of contamination found in the tail flood-plain as an early action that provided a long-term solution to exposure scenarios. For evaluation purposes, the adolescent trespasser was selected as the most likely human receptor for the Lower Three Runs tail portion because of the natural attractiveness of the area for recreational activities (i.e., hunting, fishing, hiking etc.) and access from public property. Exposure of the adolescent trespasser to Cs-137 contaminated sediment/soil at concentrations greater than 23.7 pico curies per gram have been calculated to result in an unacceptable cancer risk (> 1 x 10{sup -4}). Comparing the characterization sampling results conducted in 2009 with the benchmark concentration of 23.7 pCi/g, identified elevated risk levels along three sampling areas in the Lower Three Runs tail portion. On January 5, 2012, it was agreed by the core team that a Removal Action in the Lower Three Runs tail was to be conducted for the identified soil/sediment locations in the three identified areas that exceed the 1 x 10{sup -4} risk (23.7 pCi/g) for the adolescent trespasser receptor. The addition of Land Use Controls following the Removal Action was appropriate to protect human health and the environment. A systematic screening matrix was initiated at the identified hot spots (i.e., sampling points with Cs-137 activities greater than 23.7 pCi/g) to identify the limits of the excavation area. Sediment/soil within the defined removal areas would be excavated to the depth necessary to achieve the cleanup goal and disposed of in a CERCLA Off-Site Rule approved disposal facility. It was agreed that this removal action would adequately reduce the volume of available Cs-137 in the Lower Three Runs tail and consequently residual activities of the Cs-137 would decay over time reducing the amount of Cs-137 available in the tail which would curtail risk. The Land Use Controls consist of installation of an additional seven miles of fencing at major road crossings, utility easements, and at areas that showed a higher probability of access. In addition, signs were placed along the entire SRS perimeter of the Lower Three Runs tail approximately every 200 feet. Sign posts included both a No Trespassing sign and a Contaminant Warning sign. The project initiated a subcontract for both the removal action and the installation of fencing and signs on May 1, 2012. All field activities were completed

Freeman, Candice [Department of Energy- Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States)] [Department of Energy- Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC (United States); Bergren, Christopher; Blas, Susan; Kupar, James [Area Completion Projects, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States)] [Area Completion Projects, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Conclusions after eleven years of studying brine at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was established to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in the United States. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. WIPP performance assessment activities raised the concern that the brine could cause anoxic corrosion of metal in the waste storage drums and waste inventory, potentially producing large quantities of hydrogen gas, which would affect the long-term performance of Thee repository. Th WIPP Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program was developed to investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences. The WIPP is excavated in the Salado Formation, which is bedded salt of Permian age. The sediments exposed in the excavations consist of clear halite and polyhalitic halite, halite containing clay, thin clay seams, and interbedded anhydrite layers. The clear halite beds contain little brine and are effectively impermeable. The clay within the salt and in the clay seams contains brine that is released to the excavations, although virtually all of the brine release occurs within the first few years of mining. Consequently, by the time the waste storage rooms at the WIPP are filled and sealed, most of the brine that can be derived from the clay will have evaporated. These is no observed evidence from the WIPP excavations that brine will seep into the working from the anhydrite beds. It has been postulated, however, that brine could seep through the underlying anhydrite Marker Bed 139 (MB139). Recently acquired data on the hydrologic properties of MB139 show that, even if flow through the anhydrite occurs, the brine released to the storage rooms could only corrode a small percentage of the susceptible metal in the repository.

Deal, D.E. [IT Corporation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bills, R.A. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

271

Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions  

SciTech Connect

Halite crystals were selected from a 186m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9600 and 97000 years before present (ybp) respectively.

Mormile, Melanie R.; Biesen, Michelle A.; Gutierrez, M. Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B.; Onstott, T C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Reverse osmosis process successfully converts oil field brine into freshwater  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art process in the San Ardo oil field converted produced brine into freshwater. The conversion process used chemical clarification, softening, filtration, and reverse osmosis (RO). After extensive testing resolved RO membrane fouling problems, the pilot plant successfully handled water with about 7,000 mg/l. of total dissolved solids, 250 mg/l. silica, and 170 mg/l. soluble oil. The treated water complies with the stringent California drinking water standard. The paper describes water reclamation, the San Ardo process, stability, reverse osmosis membrane fouling, membranes at high pH, water quality, and costs.

Tao, F.T.; Curtice, S.; Hobbs, R.D.; Sides, J.L.; Wieser, J.D. (Texaco Inc., Bellaire, TX (United States)); Dyke, C.A.; Tuohey, D. (Texaco Inc., Beacon, NY (United States)); Pilger, P.F. (Texaco E and P Inc., Denver, CO (United States))

1993-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

273

Microbial Degradation in Soil Microcosms of Fuel Oil Hydrocarbons from Drilling Cuttings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microbial Degradation in Soil Microcosms of Fuel Oil Hydrocarbons from Drilling Cuttings ... Relation between Bioavailability and Fuel Oil Hydrocarbon Composition in Contaminated Soils ...

Claude-Henri. ChaIneau; Jean-Louis. Morel; Jean. Oudot

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository  

SciTech Connect

Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Dynamics and storage of brine in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamics and storage of brine in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems Fabrice J. Fontaine1 substantially different from seawater as a result of phase separation and segregation of the resulting vapor below seawater for over a decade, which raises important questions concerning the fate of brines

Wilcock, William

276

NEW MARINE DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS FROM WATERS INFLUENCED BY HYDROmERMAL DISCHARGE, BRINE, AND HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and waters influenced by brine and hydrocarbon seeps continue to yield species new to science. Such enNEW MARINE DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS FROM WATERS INFLUENCED BY HYDROmERMAL DISCHARGE, BRINE, AND HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE AUSTIN B. WILLIAMS} ABSTRACT Five species of decapod crustaceans new to science

277

RIS-M-2260 HEAT GRADIENT INDUCED MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN ROCK SALT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;#12;- 5 - 1. INTRODUCTION The storage of heat producing radioactive waste in rock salt, will produce of the brine migration under influence of the decreasing heat production in the waste. A general expressionRISÃ?-M-2260 HEAT GRADIENT INDUCED MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN ROCK SALT Mathematical treatment

278

Origin of the oil-field brines in the Paris basin  

SciTech Connect

From Br{sup {minus}}/Cl{sup {minus}} ratios coupled with stable-isotope compositions, the components of deep sedimentary brines - namely, primary and secondary brines (from dissolving evaporites) and diluting waters of meteoric origin - can be identified, and in favorable cases, their respective proportions can be quantified. Dilution of primary marine brines (mother liquors of halite) by meteoric waters has occurred in the Dogger and the Keuper aquifers. The presence of highly saline brines (molality of Cl{sup {minus}} = 3.9) in the Rhaetian aquifer may be due to dissolution of primary marine halite by sea water with minor contributions of primary brines. The resulting mixture is diluted by meteoric circulation.

Matray, J.M. (Service Geochimie Minerale, Pau (France)); Fontes, J.C. (Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Soil washing results for mixed waste pond soils at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

Soil washing technology was assessed as a means for remediating soil contaminated with mixed wastes primarily composed of heavy metals and radionuclides. The soils at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site are considered suitable for soil washing because of their relatively low quantities of silt and clay. However, in a limited number of soil washing experiments using soils from different locations in the north pond of the 300 Area, the degree of decontamination achieved for the coarse fraction of the soil varied considerably. Part of this variation appears to be due to the presence of a discrete layer of contaminated sediment found in some of the samples. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Gerber, M.A.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These results indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities.

Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Summary report of the drilling technologies tested at the Integrated Demonstration Project for cleanup of organic contaminants in soils and groundwater at non-arid sites  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies and systems for cleanup of volatile organic compounds in soil and groundwater at SRS. The overall goal of the program is the demonstration of multiple technologies and systems in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation at a single test bed. Horizontal environmental well installation technology was one of the remediation technologies that was demonstrated at SRS. Four distinctly different systems of directional drilling and horizontal well installations were successfully demonstrated and evaluated. The four systems were developed in the petroleum industry, the river crossing industry, and the utility industry. The transfer of information concerning the horizontal environmental well installations has been facilitated by publishing a series of reports describing each individual demonstration. This is the final report in the series and provides a comprehensive evaluation of all four systems. The objectives of this report are to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of each drilling technology, describe and compare the problems encountered by each drilling technology, compare the compatibility of each technology with varying logistical and geological conditions, and discuss the expense of using each technology. This report is designed to be a horizontal environmental well reference document for the environmental remediation industry. An environmental problem holder may use this report to evaluate a directional drilling technology for use at his/her site.

Not Available

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Soil Decontamination at Rocky Flats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the last few years, many articles have appeared in newspapers and journals concerning radioactive contamination around Rocky Flats.1,2 The amount of plutonium in the soil has been of particular interest. T...

R. L. Olsen; J. A. Hayden; C. E. Alford…

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in contaminated subsurface systems through the introduction of brine solutions remediation of contaminated soils using brine solutions and during the geological sequestration of CO2. The success of such techniques relies on the accurate prediction of the location of the brine during

Anderson, Daniel M.

284

Regional evaluation of brine management for geologic carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Gas Exploration and Production Waste: Availability, Options, and Costs.gases, carcinogenic production contaminants, and unpredictable production rates greatly increase the cost and

Breunig, H.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Brine inclusions in halite and the origin of the Middle Devonian Prairie evaporites of Western Canada  

SciTech Connect

Brines were extracted from fluid inclusions in Lower Salt halite of the Middle Devonian Prairie Formation in Saskatchewan, Canada. The brines were analyzed by ion chromatography and were found to be of the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl type. They do not fall along a simple evaporation trend. Brines from clear, diagenetic halite are significantly lower in Na{sup +} and higher in Mg{sup 2+}, and Cl{sup {minus}} than brines from cloudy, subaqueously formed halite with chevron structures. The isotopic composition of strontium and sulfur in anhydrite associated with the halites was found to be the same as that of Middle Devonian seawater. The composition of the inclusion brines can be derived from that of modern seawater by evaporation, extensive dolomitization of limestone, and albitization of clay minerals. Other evolution paths are, however, also feasible, and it is impossible to rule out effects due to the addition of nonmarine waters (hydrothermal solutions, surface runoff, and groundwater), or dissolutional recycling of existing evaporites within the Prairie evaporite basin. These analyses and published data on brine inclusions in halite from a number of Phanerozoid evaporite deposits show that the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl type brine is more common than the Na-K-Mg-Cl-SO{sub 4} type, which is expected from evaporation of modern seawater.

Horita, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.; Weinberg, A.; Das, N.; Holland, H.D. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Experience with minerals recovery from geothermal and other brines  

SciTech Connect

The commercial extraction of minerals from geothermal fluids is not a novelty, although there appear to be no current commercial activities. Products which have been commercially recovered from geothermal fluids include NaC1, CaC1/sub 2/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, and NH/sub 3/. Sites of significant commercial activity include Larderello, Italy and the Imperial Valley in California. Furthermore, a few pilot-plant systems have been tested for this purpose. Commercial recovery from natural non-geothermal brines has a long history, which may have implications for geothermal energy applications. The technical feasibility and economic benefits of large-scale minerals production in conjunction with geothermal energy exploitation remain speculative. In any case, the uncertainties can be resolved only on a site- and product-specific basis.

Crane, C.H.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Biogenesis (trade name) soil washing technology: Innovative technology evaluation report  

SciTech Connect

Soil washing technologies are designed to transfer contaminants from soil to a liquid phase. The BioGenesis Soil Washing Technology uses soil washing with a proprietary surfactant solution to transfer organic contaminants from soils to wastewater. The BioGenesis soil washing process was evaluated under the SITE program at a refinery where soils were contaminated with crude oil. Results of chemical analyses show that levels of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons (TRPH), an indicator of degraded crude oil, decreased by 65 to 73 percent in washed soils. The TRPH in residual soils were allowed to biodegrade for an additional 120 days. Results indicate that soil washing and biodegradation removed 85 to 88 percent of TRPH in treated soils. The Innovative Technology Evaluation Report provides information on the technology applicability, economic analysis, technology limitations, a technology description, process residuals, site requirements, latest performance data, the technology status, vendors claims, and the source of further information.

Bannerjee, P.

1993-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

288

Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau  

SciTech Connect

Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Hedin, Robert S.; Weaver, Theodore J.; Edenborn, Harry M.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Contamination from a Coal Tar Processing Chemical Industry: Investigations and Remedial Actions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of the major cases of soil contamination in The Netherlands is presented: the site of a coal tar processing chemical industry and its surroundings. The environmental contamination, with PAH’s in particular, i...

Martien W. F. Yland

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Hybrid electrodialysis reverse osmosis system design and its optimization for treatment of highly saline brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The demand is rising for desalination technologies to treat highly saline brines arising from hydraulic fracturing processes and inland desalination. Interest is growing in the use of electrical desalination technologies ...

McGovern, Ronan Killian

291

E-Print Network 3.0 - acartia tonsa brine Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for: acartia tonsa brine Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Vol. 114: 203-208,1994 MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Summary: . divergens attacking it. Ingestion rates of P, cf....

292

Soil Management Plan for the Y-12 Plant  

SciTech Connect

Construction activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant have often required the excavation or other management of soil within the facility. Because some of this soil may be contaminated, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) adopted specific policies to ensure the proper management of contaminated or potentially contaminated soil at the plant. Five types of contaminated or potentially contaminated soil are likely to be present at the Y-12 Plant: Soil that is within the boundaries of a Comprehensive Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Area of Contamination (AOC) or Operable Unit (OU); Soil that contains listed hazardous wastes; Soil that is within the boundaries of a RCRA Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU); Soil that contains polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS); Soil that contains low-level radioactive materials. The regulatory requirements associated with the five types of contaminated soil listed above are complex and will vary according to site conditions. This Soil Management Plan provides a standardized method for managers to determine the options available for selecting soil management scenarios associated with construction activities at the Y-12 Plant.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Removal of cadmium and lead from soil using aescin as a biosurfactant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Remediation of a soil contaminated with cadmium or lead was performed by a soil washing process using aescin as a biosurfactant. The removal of cadmium and lead from the soil was evaluated as a function of aes...

Kyung-Jin Hong; Young-Kook Choi; Shuzo Tokunaga…

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Proper use of sodium bisulfite with minimal salt penetration during brine immersion freezing of shrimp  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PROPER USE OF SODIUM BISULFITE WITH MINIMAL SALT PENETRATION DURING BRINE IMMERSION FREEZING OF SHRIMP A Thesis by SUZANNE RENE BROUSSARD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the reguirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE MAY 1988 OC o Z m Z IJ III s Z Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PROPER USE OF SODIUM BISULFITE WITH MINIMAL SALT PENETRATION DURING BRINE IMMERSION FREEZING OF SHRIMP A Thesis by SUZANNE RENE...

Broussard, Suzanne Rene

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

295

The effects of an ambient salinity gradient on the dilution of dense brine jets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECTS OF AN AMBIENT SALINITY GRADIENT ON THE DILUTION OF DENSE BRINE JETS A Thesis by GARY WAYNE MCCULLOUGH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Ocean Engineering THE EFFECTS OF AN AMBIENT SALINITY GRADIENT ON THE DILUTION OF DENSE BRINE JETS A Thesis by GARY NAYNE MCCULLOUGH Approved as to style and content by: Robert E. Randall (Chair of Committee...

McCullough, Gary Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

296

New Energy Efficient Method for Cleaning Oilfield Brines with Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NEW ENERGY EFFICIENT METHOD FOR CLEANING OILFIELD BRINES WITH CARBON DIOXIDE C. T. LITTLE A. F. SEIBERT Research Engineer Technical Manager Amoco Oil Company Separations Research Program Naperville, Illinois The University of Texas Austin... dioxide to clean oilfield brines. The new treatment method, described in this work, is actually an enhancement of existing gas flotation technology. The enhancement results from the use of carbon dioxide as the sweeping gas combined with its ability...

Little, C. T.; Seibert, A. F.; Bravo, J. L.; Fair, J. R.

297

Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

Wahl, III, Edward F. (Claremont, CA); Boucher, Frederic B. (San Juan Capistrano, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Numerical simulations of lab-scale brine-water mixing experiments.  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-scale experiments simulating the injection of fresh water into brine in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern were performed at Sandia National Laboratories for various conditions of injection rate and small and large injection tube diameters. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code FLUENT was used to simulate these experiments to evaluate the predictive capability of FLUENT for brine-water mixing in an SPR cavern. The data-model comparisons show that FLUENT simulations predict the mixing plume depth reasonably well. Predictions of the near-wall brine concentrations compare very well with the experimental data. The simulated time for the mixing plume to reach the vessel wall was underpredicted for the small injection tubes but reasonable for the large injection tubes. The difference in the time to reach the wall is probably due to the three-dimensional nature of the mixing plume as it spreads out at the air-brine or oil-brine interface. The depth of the mixing plume as it spreads out along the interface was within a factor of 2 of the experimental data. The FLUENT simulation results predict the plume mixing accurately, especially the water concentration when the mixing plume reaches the wall. This parameter value is the most significant feature of the mixing process because it will determine the amount of enhanced leaching at the oil-brine interface.

Khalil, Imane; Webb, Stephen Walter

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Chemical analyses of geothermal waters and Strategic Petroleum Reserve brines for metals of economic importance  

SciTech Connect

Waters from seven hydrothermal-geothermal, one geopressured-geothermal, and six Strategic Petroleum Reserve wells have been surveyed for 12 metals of economic importance using trace chemical analysis techniques. The elements sought were Cr, Co, Mn, Ta, Sn, V, Nb, Li, Sr, Pt, Au and Ag. Platinum was found at a concentration of approx. 50 ppb in a brine from the Salton Sea geothermal area. Brine from this region, as has been known from previous studies, is also rich in Li, Sr and Mn. Higher concentrations (approx. 900 ppm) of Sr are found in the high-salinity geopressured brines. None of the fluids contained interesting concentrations of the other metals. Good recovery of precious metals at sub-ppm concentrations from synthetic high salinity brines was achieved using Amborane reductive resin, but similar recovery in the laboratory using real brines could not be demonstrated. Several analytical techniques were compared in sensitivity for the determination of the precious metals; neutron activation analysis with carrier separation is the best for gold and platinum in geothermal brines. 26 references, 7 tables.

Harrar, J.E.; Raber, E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program 1992--1993 report and summary of BSEP data since 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last one that is currently scheduled in the sequence of reports of new data, and therefore, also includes summary comments referencing important data obtained by BSEP since 1983. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the (WIPP) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. A project concern is that enough brine might be present after sealing and closure to generate large quantities of hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. This report describes progress made during the calendar years 1992 and 1993 and focuses on four major areas: (1) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes from the underground drifts; (2) observations of weeps in the Air Intake Shaft (AIS); (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) additional characterization of the hydrologic conditions in the fractured zone beneath the excavations.

Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J. [I. T. Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Office

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Brine clarity maintenance in salinity-gradient solar ponds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brine transparency is an important part of the maintenance of a salinity-gradient solar pond as it affects the amount of solar radiation reaching the storage zone and hence has an influence on the thermal performance. There is a wide range of factors that can hinder the transmission of light in a solar pond. Algal and microbial growths are the most common problems encountered in working solar ponds and control of their densities is essential to maintain transparency. Two different chemical treatment methods for algae growth prevention are described in this paper: chlorine and a novel chemical product – copper ethylamine complex. The latter method has never been implemented previously in a working pond. This paper discusses the theory of the algae control methods used and presents the experimental results of the chemical treatments. The results showed that Cupricide is more effective than chlorine and is therefore the recommended chemical for algae control in solar ponds; it improves the water transparency especially in the upper convective zone and lower convective zone with all measurement values less than 1 NTU. Chlorine was found to be more corrosive than Cupricide due to the acidic effect it has on the pH. The preliminary cost analysis showed that granular chlorine is the cheapest chemical. A more detailed financial analysis is nevertheless required to refine these costs.

Neus Gasulla; Yusli Yaakob; Jimmy Leblanc; Aliakbar Akbarzadeh; Jose Luis Cortina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Analysis of sediments and soils for chemical contamination for the design of US Navy homeport facility at East Waterway of Everett Harbor, Washington. Final report. [Macoma inquinata; Mytilus edulis  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated sediments in the East Waterway of Everett Harbor, Washington, are extremely localized; they consist of a layer of organically-rich, fine sediments overlying a relatively cleaner, more sandy native material. The contaminated layer varies in thickness throughout the waterway from as much as 2 meters to only a few centimeters. Generally, the layer is thicker and more contaminated at the head of the waterway (northern end) and becomes thinner and less contaminated as one proceeds southerly out of the waterway and into Port Gardner. These sediments contain elevated levels of heavy metals and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and scattered concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Approximately 500,000 cubic yards of material exhibit elevated chemical contamination compared to Puget Sound background levels. The contaminated sediments in this waterway require biological testing before decisions can be made regarding the acceptability of unconfined disposal.

Anderson, J.W.; Crecelius, E.A.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Innovative Remediation Technology for Contaminated Military Sites: A Canadian Perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel and innovative technology has been developed in Canada to clean-up soil contaminated with a wide range of organic pollutants, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated phenols, phthala...

Igor J. Marvan

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Soil & Groundwater Remediation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Soil & Groundwater Soil & Groundwater Remediation Soil & Groundwater Remediation Soil & Groundwater Remediation The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) manages the largest groundwater and soil remediation effort in the world. The inventory at the DOE sites includes 6.5 trillion liters of contaminated groundwater, an amount equal to about four times the daily U.S. water consumption, and 40 million cubic meters of soil and debris contaminated with radionuclides, metals, and organics. The Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation is working with DOE site managers around the country regarding specific technical issues. At the large sites such as Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge, the Office of Groundwater and Soil Remediation has conducted research and demonstration projects to test new technologies and remediation

305

Biomonitoring of the genotoxic potential of aqueous extracts of soils and bottom ash resulting from municipal solid waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wastes and contaminated sites is an important economic and environmental problem. The regula- tions, France Abstract The management of contaminated soils and wastes is a matter of considerable human concern (Xenopus laevis). Soil A was contaminated by residues of solvents and metals and Soil B by polycyclic

Mailhes, Corinne

306

Subsurface and Plant Contamination During Natural Attenuation and Phytoremediation of Silt Loam Contaminated with Chlorinated Organic Compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Root establishment of perennial ryegrass (L. Perenne) in diesel contaminated subsurface soil layers. Environ. Pollut. 145...15226510903353120 USEPA. 1996a. Clean up the nations waste sites: Markets and technology trends. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency...

Changhwan Cho; Soyoung Park; Kijune Sung

307

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Estimates of the solubilities of waste element radionuclides in waste isolation pilot plant brines: A report by the expert panel on the source term  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the long-term performance of the WIPP includes estimation of the cumulative releases of radionuclide elements to the accessible environment. Nonradioactive lead is added because of the large quantity expected in WIPP wastes. To estimate the solubilities of these elements in WIPP brines, the Panel used the following approach. Existing thermodynamic data were used to identify the most likely aqueous species in solution through the construction of aqueous speciation diagrams. Existing thermodynamic data and expert judgment were used to identify potential solubility-limiting solid phases. Thermodynamic data were used to calculate the activities of the radionuclide aqueous species in equilibrium with each solid. Activity coefficients of the radionuclide-bearing aqueous species were estimated using Pitzer`s equations. These activity coefficients were then used to calculate the concentration of each radionuclide at the 0.1 and 0.9 fractiles. The 0.5 fractile was chosen to represent experimental data with activity coefficient corrections as described above. Expert judgment was used to develop the 0.0, 0.25, 0.75, and 1.0 fractiles by considering the sensitivity of solubility to the potential variability in the composition of brine and gas, and the extent of waste contaminants, and extending the probability distributions accordingly. The results were used in the 1991 and 1992 performance assessment calculations. 68 refs.

Hobart, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Glenn T. Seaborg Inst. for Transactinium Science, Livermore, CA (United States); Bruton, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Dept.; Millero, F.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Chou, I.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Trauth, K.M.; Anderson, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations  

SciTech Connect

Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

2006-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

310

Soils and Brine Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Hyperarid Desert Playa, Ouargla Basin,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

controlled by the following precipitation sequence: calcite > gypsum > mirabilite > halite. This sequence ðmirabilite-thenardite-halite paragenesis�, controlling the process of dissolution= precipitation of g

Ahmad, Sajjad

311

Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL, LBNL and SNL for the Used Fuel Disposition Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The report summarizes laboratory and field observations and numerical modeling related to coupledprocesses involving brine and vapor migration in geologic salt, focusing on recent developments and...

312

Applied Soil Ecology 21 (2002) 7188 Soil invertebrate and microbial communities, and decomposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Applied Soil Ecology 21 (2002) 71­88 Soil invertebrate and microbial communities, and decomposition. Spongberg Department of Earth, Ecological and Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 for quantification of ecological impact of chemical contamination of soils. This study examined the effects

Neher, Deborah A.

313

Effect of soil freezing on particulate resuspension  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of small scale laboratory tests that were conducted to determine the effect of soil freezing on soil resuspension. Nontransuranic contaminated soil form the Radioactive Waste Management Complex was subjected to a series of test conditions to determine respirable and nonrespirable fractions of airborne dust. A separate fraction of the same soil was spiked with Pu-239 and subjected to the same test conditions. Concentrations of resuspended soil and Pu in air were determined. Test results show that: (a) the largest fraction of soil resuspended is in the nonrespirable size fraction, (b) the concentration of resuspended soil in air is highly dependent on surface air velocity, and (c) freezing is not as effective at reducing resuspension of fine dry soil as it is with coarse soil, and (d) artificially prepared Pu contaminated soil has a high proportion of the total activity distributed on ultrafine material, reacts inversely to the mass movement of soil, and does not adequately imitate Pu movement in an actual contaminated soil. 26 figs., 3 tabs.

Duce, S.W.; Shaw, P.G.; Winberg, M.R.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Contaminant-Generation Mechanisms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the last chapter, the areas where contaminants are generated were discussed. Knowing the location of contaminant generation is helpful in controlling that contamination, but understanding the mechanisms is ...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

The depth of the oil/brine interface and crude oil leaks in SPR caverns  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring wellhead pressure evolution is the best method of detecting crude oil leaks in SPR caverns while oil/brine interface depth measurements provide additional insight. However, to fully utilize the information provided by these interface depth measurements, a thorough understanding of how the interface movement corresponds to cavern phenomena, such as salt creep, crude oil leakage, and temperature equilibration, as well as to wellhead pressure, is required. The time evolution of the oil/brine interface depth is a function of several opposing factors. Cavern closure due to salt creep and crude oil leakage, if present, move the interface upward. Brine removal and temperature equilibration of the oil/brine system move the interface downward. Therefore, the relative magnitudes of these factors determine the net direction of interface movement. Using a mass balance on the cavern fluids, coupled with a simplified salt creep model for closure in SPR caverns, the movement of the oil/brine interface has been predicted for varying cavern configurations, including both right-cylindrical and carrot-shaped caverns. Three different cavern depths and operating pressures have been investigated. In addition, the caverns were investigated at four different points in time, allowing for varying extents of temperature equilibration. Time dependent interface depth changes of a few inches to a few feet were found to be characteristic of the range of cases studied. 5 refs, 19 figs., 1 tab.

Heffelfinger, G.S.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Evaporative Evolution of Carbonate-Rich Brines from Synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff Pore Water, Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The evaporation of a range of synthetic pore water solutions representative of the potential high-level-nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV is being investigated. The motivation of this work is to understand and predict the range of brine compositions that may contact the waste containers from evaporation of pore waters, because these brines could form corrosive thin films on the containers and impact their long-term integrity. A relatively complex synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff pore water was progressively concentrated by evaporation in a closed vessel, heated to 95 C in a series of sequential experiments. Periodic samples of the evaporating solution were taken to determine the evolving water chemistry. According to chemical divide theory at 25 C and 95 C our starting solution should evolve towards a high pH carbonate brine. Results at 95 C show that this solution evolves towards a complex brine that contains about 99 mol% Na{sup +} for the cations, and 71 mol% Cl{sup -}, 18 mol% {Sigma}CO{sub 2}(aq), 9 mol%SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for the anions. Initial modeling of the evaporating solution indicates precipitation of aragonite, halite, silica, sulfate and fluoride phases. The experiments have been used to benchmark the use of the EQ3/6 geochemical code in predicting the evolution of carbonate-rich brines during evaporation.

Sutton, M; Alai, M; Carroll, S A

2004-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

317

Developing a process for commercial silica production from Salton Sea brines  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this joint LLNL-CalEnergy project is to develop a method for precipitating marketable silica from spent Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) brines. Many markets for silica exist. We have initially targeted production of silica as a rubber additive. Silica reinforced rubber gives tires less rolling resistance, greater tear strength, and better adhesion to steel belts. Previous silica precipitates produced by CalEnergy from Salton Sea brines were not suitable as rubber additives. They did not to disperse well in the rubber precursors and produced inferior rubber. CalEnergy currently minimizes silica scaling in some of their production facilities by acidifying the brine pH. The rate of silica precipitation slows down as the pH is lowered, so that energy extraction and brine reinfection are possible without unacceptable amounts of scaling even with more than 700 ppm SiO{sub 2} in solution. We are adding a step in which a small amount of base is added to the acidified brine to precipitate silica before reinfection. By carefully controlling the type, rate, and amount of base addition, we can optimize the properties of the precipitate to approach those of an ideal rubber additive.

Bourcier, W; McCutcheon, M; Leif, R; Bruton, C

2000-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

318

100 Area Hanford soil washing treatability tests  

SciTech Connect

Soil washing laboratory tests performed at Hanford in support of 100 Area Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) feasibility studies included characterization of soils, physical separation, chemical extraction, and water treatment. Results to date show that < 20 % of the soil is finer than 0.25 mm ({minus}40 mesh). The highest concentration of {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu, and {sup 137}Cs contaminants is generally associated with fine soil particles. However, measurable concentrations of contaminants were found in all sizes of soil particles. In initial testing, attrition scrubbing was generally sufficient to treat soils to meet selected performance levels for {sup 60}Co and {sup 152}Eu. However, more intense attrition scrubbing, autogenous grinding, or chemical extraction was required to enhance removal of {sup 137}Cs. Additional tests and assessment of the feasibility of using soil washing techniques are in progress.

Field, J.G.; Belden, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R.J.; Mattigod, S.V.; Freeman, H.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Scheck, R.W. [Mactec/Dames and Moore (United States); Goller, E.D. [USDOE Richland Operations Office, WA (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine Fields  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine Fields Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine Fields M. Ferer, (mferer@wvu.edu) Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315, Grant S. Bromhal, (bromhal@netl.doe.gov) US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880; and Duane H. Smith, (dsmith@netl.doe.gov) US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 & Department of Physics, West Virginia University. Underground injection of gas is a common practice in the oil and gas industry. Injection into deep, brine-saturated formations is a commercially proven method of sequestering CO 2 . However, it has long been known that displacement of a connate fluid by a less viscous fluid produces unstable displacement fronts with significant fingering. This fingering allows only a

320

Engineered Polymeric Nanoparticles for Soil Remediation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

compds. in soil-water systems in which surfactants play a role in contaminant remediation or facilitated transport. ... (9)?Abdul, A. S.; Ang, C. C. Ground Water 1994, 32, 727. ...

Warapong Tungittiplakorn; Leonard W. Lion; Claude Cohen; Ju-Young Kim

2004-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations  

SciTech Connect

Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Formation of Thetis Deep metal-rich sediments in the absence of brines, Red Sea M.C. Pierret a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation of Thetis Deep metal-rich sediments in the absence of brines, Red Sea M.C. Pierret a , N October 2009 Available online 23 October 2009 Keywords: Pb­Sr­Nd isotopes REE Metal-rich sediments-rich sediments covered by brine pools. It is generally agreed that these metal-rich deposits precipitated from

Demouchy, Sylvie

323

Effect of Ultrasound on Surfactant-Aided Soil Washing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of ultrasound as an enhancement mechanism in the surfactant-aided soil-washing process was examined by conducting desoption tests of soils contaminated with naphthalene or diesel-oil. The experiments were conducted to elucidate the effect of ultrasound on the mass transfer from soil to the aqueous phase using naphthalene-contaminated soil. In addition, the use of ultrasound for the diesel-oil-contaminated soil was investigated under a range of conditions of surfactant concentration, sonication power, duration, soil/liquid ratio, particle size and initial diesel-oil concentration. The ultrasound used in the soil-washing process significantly enhanced the mass transfer rate from the solid phase to the aqueous phase. The removal efficiency of diesel-oil from the soil phase generally increased with longer sonication time, higher power intensity, and large particle size.

Seungmin Na; Yongwoon Park; Anna Hwang; Jeongsook Ha; Younguk Kim; Jeehyeong Khim

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Estimating exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants  

SciTech Connect

This report describes generalized models for the estimation of contaminant exposure experienced by wildlife on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The primary exposure pathway considered is oral ingestion, e.g. the consumption of contaminated food, water, or soil. Exposure through dermal absorption and inhalation are special cases and are not considered hereIN. Because wildlife mobile and generally consume diverse diets and because environmental contamination is not spatial homogeneous, factors to account for variation in diet, movement, and contaminant distribution have been incorporated into the models. To facilitate the use and application of the models, life history parameters necessary to estimate exposure are summarized for 15 common wildlife species. Finally, to display the application of the models, exposure estimates were calculated for four species using data from a source operable unit on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W. II

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Washing of soils spiked with various pollutants by surfactant solutions  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the batch-type of washing with surfactant solutions was employed for the treatment of soils artificially contaminated with various volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals. 15 industrial grade surfactants were tested. Washing was conducing by adding surfactant solution to the soils and mixing for one hour, then centrifuging it and analyzing the supernatant. Deionized water was used for soil washing for comparison. Results indicated that deionized water performed as well as Surfactant No. 1 in washing VOC-contaminated soils. Therefore, it is concluded that the VOCs tested can be easily washed from soils by rain water. In washing PAH-contaminated soils, nonionic surfactants performed better than anionic surfactants in terms of removal efficiency. The amphoteric surfactant performed worst in washing PAH-contaminated soils. Generally, surfactants are useful in removing cadmium from soils, but are not useful for the removal of lead and copper. Amphoteric, anionic, and low pH cationic surfactants were the most effective of those tested. For PAH/heavy metals-contaminated soils, removal efficiencies were lower than that of soils containing a single contaminant.

Yang, G.C.C.; Chang, J.H. [National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

Microsoft Word - Appendix C_DisposalCellContents.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

and entombed in soil. Total occupied volume is below 50 cy. Use 50 cy. 50.00 Brine tanks from SWTP Mixed with soil. Est. conversion factor is 0.430. 25.80 Contaminated Jersey...

327

NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE for the simulation of carbon dioxide injection into geological formations is currently an intensive field of research for the balance of thermal energy, we can investigate numerically the effects of temperature variations during

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

328

Sulfate Removal from Reject Brined in Inland Desalination with Zero Liquid Discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sulfate is one of the most problematic ions present in reject brine in desalination systems due to its high potential of scale formation and membrane fouling; making it an obstacle in the application of zero liquid discharge. The ultra-high lime...

Almasri, Dema A

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

329

Author's personal copy Fossil brines preserved in the St-Lawrence Lowlands,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

halite disso- lution. 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios and Ca excess indicate prolonged interactions with silicate degassing, are identical to their production ratios in rocks. The source of salinity (halite dissolution during Devonian­Silurian time. Brines might result from infiltration of Devonian water leaching halite

Long, Bernard

330

Accurate Thermodynamic Model for the Calculation of H2S Solubility in Pure Water and Brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accurate Thermodynamic Model for the Calculation of H2S Solubility in Pure Water and Brines Zhenhao, 2007 A thermodynamic model calculating the solubility of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in pure water phase. With this specific interaction approach, this model is able to predict H2S solubility in other

Zhu, Chen

331

Brine Assemblages of Ultrasmall Microbial Cells within the Ice Cover of Lake Vida, Antarctica  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Antarctica, is one of the largest lakes in the McMurdo...the abundance of the larger cells, consists of...vol) (30). After drilling, brine infiltrated the borehole until it reached a...107 cells ml1, while larger cells (0.2 to 1...

Emanuele Kuhn; Andrew S. Ichimura; Vivian Peng; Christian H. Fritsen; Gareth Trubl; Peter T. Doran; Alison E. Murray

2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

332

Analysis of hydrocarbon removal methods for the management of oilfield brines and produced waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and globally, the petroleum industries challenge has been to develop a high-tech and cost effective method to purify the large volumes of oilfield brines and produced water. Currently, most of the produced water requires several pre- and post- treatment methods...

Furrow, Brendan Eugene

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Environment - Nano soil science | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environment - Nano soil science Environment - Nano soil science Cross-disciplinary research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is yielding new insight into the carbon cycle, contaminated soils and soil fertility. An ORNL team is using a novel combination of neutron reflectometry experiments and supercomputer simulations to provide a detailed view of the interactions between organic matter and minerals in soil. The research suggests that relationships among these compounds are governed by simpler principles than previously thought. "It changes the whole way we think about how carbon, nutrients and contaminants interact with soils, which therefore affects fertility, water quality, and the terrestrial carbon cycle," said ORNL's Loukas Petridis. "We don't understand these topics very well because until now we haven't had the techniques capable

334

Hydrogeology, chemical and microbial activity measurement through deep permafrost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

illustrated that drill brine contamination in permafrostDespite the contamination of drilling brine in the U-tubepermafrost, contamination with drilling brine can be over-

Stotler, R.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Raman spectroscopy of selected arsenates—implications for soil remediation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The contamination of soils with heavy metals such as As, Cr and Cu is of great importance; the remediation of such soils even more so. Arsenic compounds are prevalent in soils either through leaching of mine tailings, the use of Cu/Cr/As as a wood preservative or through the use of arsenic in cattle dips. The arsenic compounds in soils and leachates can be highly reactive and mobile, resulting in the formation of metal arsenate compounds. Of these compounds, one such set of minerals that can be formed is the vivianite arsenate minerals. Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterise the vivianite arsenates and to identify arsenic contaminants in a soil.

Ray L. Frost; Theo Kloprogge; Matthew L. Weier; Wayde N. Martens; Z. Ding; Howell G.H. Edwards

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Soil to plant transfer of 238 Th on a uranium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil to plant transfer of 238 U, 226 Ra and 232 Th on a uranium mining-impacted soil from species grown in soils from southeastern China contaminated with uranium mine tailings were analyzed The radioactive waste (e.g. tailings) produced by uranium mining activities contains a series of long

Hu, Qinhong "Max"

337

Chemical Leaching of Antimony and Other Metals from Small Arms Shooting Range Soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the development of new technologies for the treatment of contaminated soils (Blais et al. 2010). Few innovative technologies have been developed and applied at commercial scales for the remediation of metals contaminated

Short, Daniel

338

Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry`s Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model.

Binning, P. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia); Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Operations Research

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Contamination Control Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many high-technology products currently manufactured are affected adversely if contamination is deposited in or on the product during manufacture or use. Contamination can be defined as any condition, material, p...

Alvin Lieberman

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Innovative technologies for soil cleanup  

SciTech Connect

These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for soil cleanup. In this context, soil cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal primarily with the vadose zone and with relatively shallow, near-surface contamination of soil or rock materials. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in soil cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the sits-specific technical challenges presented by each sold contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After cataloging a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, Dynamic Underground Stripping, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising soil cleanup technology that is now being field tested.

Yow, J.L. Jr.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and system for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil where the contaminants, such as toxic metals, are carried in a subsurface plume. The method comprises selection and injection into the soil of a fluid that will cause the contaminants to form stable, non-toxic compounds either directly by combining with the contaminants or indirectly by creating conditions in the soil or changing the conditions of the soil so that the formation of stable, non-toxic compounds between the contaminants and existing substances in the soil are more favorable. In the case of non-toxic metal contaminants, sulfides or sulfates are injected so that metal sulfides or sulfates are formed. Alternatively, an inert gas may be injected to stimulate microorganisms in the soil to produce sulfides which, in turn, react with the metal contaminants. Preferably, two wells are used, one to inject the fluid and one to extract the unused portion of the fluid. The two wells work in combination to create a flow of the fluid across the plume to achieve better, more rapid mixing of the fluid and the contaminants.

Corey, John C. (212 Lakeside Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Kaback, Dawn S. (1932 Cottonwood Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Looney, Brian B. (1135 Ridgemont Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and system are presented for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil where the contaminants, such as toxic metals, are carried in a subsurface plume. The method comprises selection and injection into the soil of a fluid that will cause the contaminants to form stable, non-toxic compounds either directly by combining with the contaminants or indirectly by creating conditions in the soil or changing the conditions of the soil so that the formation of stable, non-toxic compounds between the contaminants and existing substances in the soil are more favorable. In the case of non-toxic metal contaminants, sulfides or sulfates are injected so that metal sulfides or sulfates are formed. Alternatively, an inert gas may be injected to stimulate microorganisms in the soil to produce sulfides which, in turn, react with the metal contaminants. Preferably, two wells are used, one to inject the fluid and one to extract the unused portion of the fluid. The two wells work in combination to create a flow of the fluid across the plume to achieve better, more rapid mixing of the fluid and the contaminants. 4 figures.

Corey, J.C.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.

1993-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

343

In situ RF/microwave remediation of soil experiment overview  

SciTech Connect

Contaminant plumes are significant waste problems that require remediation in both the government and private sectors. The authors are developing an in situ process that uses RF/microwave stimulation to remove pollutants from contaminated soils. This process is more efficient than existing technologies, creates less secondary pollution, and is applicable to situations that are not amenable to treatment by existing technologies. Currently, the most commonly used process is soil vapor extraction. However, even when it is successful, this technology is energy inefficient. The authors objective is to combine RF/microwave energy application with soil vapor extraction to help mobilize and efficiently remove the soil contaminants, specifically demonstrating the viability of RF/microwave induced, in situ, soil remediation of light and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL, DNAPL) contaminants.

Regan, A.H.; Palomares, M.E.; Polston, C.; Rees, D.E.; Roybal, W.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ross, T.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Operation of a mineral-recovery unit on brine from the Salton Sea known geothermal resource area  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines operated a mineral recovery unit to recover metal values from post-flash geothermal brines from the Salton Sea known geothermal resource area as part of its research into the use of plentiful resources. The brine was available for metals recovery after its heat content had been used to generate electricity. The brine source was treated with lime to precipitate the contained iron, manganese, lead, and zinc before injection of the heat-depleted brine into the underground reservoir. Data are presented on the effects of process variables, such as rate and method of lime addition and air oxidation versus air exclusion. Variations in precipitation of metal values, composition of precipitates, effectiveness of slurry thickeners, and methods of treating the precipitates to recover metal values are discussed.

Schultze, L.E.; Bauer, D.J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The effect of stratigraphic dip on brine inflow and gas migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The natural dip of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), although regionally only about 111, has the potential to affect brine inflow and gas-migration distances due to buoyancy forces. Current models, including those in WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, assume a perfectly horizontal repository and stratigraphy. With the addition of buoyancy forces due to the dip, brine and gas flow patterns can be affected. Brine inflow may increase due to countercurrent flow, and gas may preferentially migrate up dip. This scoping study has used analytical and numerical modeling to evaluate the impact of the dip on brine inflow and gas-migration distances at the WIPP in one, two, and three dimensions. Sensitivities to interbed permeabilities, two-phase curves, gas-generation rates, and interbed fracturing were studied.

Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Larson, K.W. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Reduced Herbicide Leaching by in Situ Adsorption of Herbicide–Micelle Formulations to Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results obtained are of practical interest for the choice of surfactants for concrete problems involved in the recovery of pesticide-polluted waters using the surfactant-enhanced desorption pumping technique. ... The objective was to study the soil properties that influence the effectiveness of surfactants used to remediate soil contaminated with hydrophobic pesticides, as an example of a more general application for removing strongly sorbing HOCs from contaminated soils via in-situ enhanced sorption, or ex-situ soil washing. ...

Haim Katz; Yael G. Mishael

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

347

Author's personal copy Physica D 239 (2010) 18551866  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, such as those occurring during remediation of contaminated soils using brine solutions and during the geological for containing and/or mobilizing dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in contaminated subsurface systems through the introduction of brine solutions. The success of such techniques relies on the accurate

McLaughlin, Richard M.

348

Corrosion of selected metals and a high-temperature thermoplastic in hypersaline geothermal brine. Report of investigations/1983  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines conducted corrosion research to determine suitable construction materials for geothermal resource recovery plants. Weight loss, pitting and crevice corrosion, U-bend stress corrosion, and electrochemical polarization measurements were made on selected metals in brine and steam process environments produced from high-enthalpy hypersaline brine from geothermal well Magmamax No. 1 at the Salton Sea Known Geothermal Resources Area, Imperial Valley, Calif.

Conrad, R.K.; Carter, J.P.; Cramer, S.D.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of \\{PAHs\\} in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove \\{PAHs\\} from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs.

Ee Von Lau; Suyin Gan; Hoon Kiat Ng; Phaik Eong Poh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Sorption of lithium from a geothermal brine by pelletized mixed aluminum-lithium hydrous oxides  

SciTech Connect

An inorganic ion exchanger was evaluated by the Bureau of Mines for recovering lithium from geothermal brines. The ion exchanger or sorbent was mixed hydrous oxide of aluminum and lithium that had been dried at 100 C. The dried precipitate was pelletized with a sodium silicate binder to improve flow rates in sorption tests. The sorbent was loaded to 2 mg Li/g of pellets and sorption from the solution was independent of the concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mn, and Zn. Manganese and zinc were sorbed by the pellets but did not suppress lithium sorption. Lithium was desorbed with water, but none of the washing solutions investigated removed entrained brine without stripping lithium. The complex nature of the sorption mechanisms is discussed.

Schultze, L.E.; Bauer, D.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Re-assessing the impact of desalination plants brine discharges on eroding beaches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sea outfall discharge is a practical way to dispose of brine waste stream from a coastal desalination plant. However, sandy beaches are changing as a result of coastal erosion. Coastline urban developments are the manmade permanent changing of beaches, where the coastlines are being dredged and reclaimed as artificial land. Therefore, if a plant is built and operated with an outfall to satisfy the imposed site's environmental regulation compliance but the beach is subsequently being eroded, what action needs to be done to make sure the imposed criteria that minimize the impact on the marine environment can still be met? A mathematical model is presented that accounts the effect of beach erosion for estimating the brine's outfall adverse impact on the environment.

H.H. Al-Barwani; Anton Purnama

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Scientific Considerations Related to Regulation Development for CO2 Sequestration in Brine Formations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SCIENTIFIC CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO REGULATION SCIENTIFIC CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO REGULATION DEVELOPMENT FOR CO 2 SEQUESTRATION IN BRINE FORMATIONS Chin-Fu Tsang (cftsang@lbl.gov; (510) 486-5782) Sally M. Benson (smbenson@lbl.gov; (510) 486-7071) Earth Sciences Division, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory One Cyclotron Road, MS 90-1116, Berkeley, CA 94720 Bruce Kobelski (kobelski.bruce@epa.gov) Robert Smith (smith.robert-eu@epamail.epa.gov) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Drinking Water and Ground Water, Washington D.C. Introduction Reduction of atmospheric emissions of CO 2 (DOE, 1999a) through injection of CO 2 into in deep brine formations is being actively studied both in the U.S. and internationally. If this technology is to be employed broadly enough to make a significant impact on global

353

Surface Soil  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface Soil Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal Laboratory operations. April 12, 2012 Farm soil sampling Two LANL environmental field team members take soil samples from a farm. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Measurements are compared to samples from the regional sites and compared to averages over time to see if there are changes in concentrations. Monitoring surface soil LANL has monitored surface soils since the early 1970s. Institutional surface soil samples are collected from 17 on-site, 11 perimeter, and six regional (background) locations every three years.

354

Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Soil Biota  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

powerhouse of soil, include an incredible diversity of organisms. Tons of soil biota, including micro

355

A model for the evolution of brines in salt from the lower Salado Formation, southeastern New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Fluid inclusions were collected from a bedded salt horizon in the lower Permian Salado Formation in the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico. The sampling horizon, at a depth of approximately 645 meters, consists primarily of recrystallized halite, with thin layers of anhydrite. Other trace minerals, dispersed throughout the salt, include quartz, polyhalite, gypsum, K-feldspar, magnesite, and clays. The chemistry of the inclusion fluids and the associated mineralogy suggest that these brines represent Permian seawater that has undergone evaporation and subsequent modification by diagenetic reactions, dominated by the alteration of calcium sulfate to polyhalite and magnesite formation. The range of fluid inclusion compositions suggests a significant departure from a simple seawater evaporation model. Other brines from the same horizon in the Salado Formation were sampled and analyzed for the same elements as the fluid inclusions, and differed significantly from them primarily by the depletion of Mg relative to K. The association of these brines with argillaceous and/or anhydritic halite containing a suite of authigenic minerals (quartz, magnesite, and Mg-rich clays) suggests that these are intergranular brines with compositions determined over a much longer time scale than that required by the fluid inclusions. The principal reactions affecting intergranular brine chemistry are dehydration of gypsum, dewatering of detrital clays, and uptake of Mg during clay diagenesis. Overall, the observed variation in brine compositions implies that, if large-scale hydrologic circulation is occurring in the Salado halite, the time scale is limited by the rate required for low-temperature silicate diagenesis.

Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Hydrological and geochemical monitoring for a CO2 sequestration pilot in a brine formation  

SciTech Connect

Hydrological and geochemical monitoring are key components of site characterization and CO2 plume monitoring for a pilot test to inject CO2 into a brine-bearing sand of the fluvial-deltaic Frio formation in the upper Texas Gulf Coast. In situ, injected CO2 forms a supercritical phase that has gas-like properties (low density and viscosity) compared to the surrounding brine, while some CO2 dissolves in the brine. The pilot test employs one injection well and one monitor well, with continuous pressure and flow-rate monitoring in both wells, and continuous surface fluid sampling and periodic down-hole fluid sampling from the monitor well. Pre-injection site-characterization includes pump tests with pressure-transient analysis to estimate single-phase flow properties, establish hydraulic connectivity between the wells, determine appropriate boundary conditions, and analyze ambient phase conditions within the formation. Additionally, a pre-injection tracer test furnishes estimates of kinematic porosity and the geometry of flow paths between injection and monitor wells under single-phase conditions. Pre-injection geochemical sampling provides a baseline for subsequent geochemical monitoring and helps determine the optimal tracers to accompany CO2 injection. During CO2 injection, hydrological monitoring enables estimation of two-phase flow properties and helps track the movement of the injected CO2 plume, while geochemical sampling provides direct evidence of the arrival of CO2 and tracers at the monitor well. Furthermore, CO2-charged water acts as a weak acid, and reacts to some extent with the minerals in the aquifer, producing a distinct chemical signature in the water collected at the monitor well. Comparison of breakthrough curves for the single-phase tracer test and the CO2 (and its accompanying tracers) illuminates two-phase flow processes between the supercritical CO2 and native brine, an area of current uncertainty that must be better understood to effectively sequester CO2 in saline aquifers.

Doughty, Christine; Pruess, Karsten; Benson, Sally M.; Freifeld, Barry M.; Gunter, William D.

2004-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

357

Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chloride (MgCl2) w/additives ·Envirotech Serv., Scotwood Ind., NA Salt ·Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) ·Tiger 135% 90% 115% Thawrox Gold Treated MgCl2 150% 120% 115% Ice Slicer CaCl2 130% 95% 70% Ice Bite @ 3 gal to Salt Brine Material Base @ 12 F @20 F @ 28 F Calcium Chloride CaCl2 160% 185% 135% RGP-8 CaCl2 170% 80

Minnesota, University of

358

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

359

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): East Multnomah County Ground Water Contamination, Operable Unit 2, Multnomah County, OR, December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the selected remedial action for soil and shallow groundwater contamination within the Troutdale Gravel Aquifer (TGA) at the Cascade Corporation (Cascade) site, in Gresham, Oregon.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Engineered Polymeric Nanoparticles for Bioremediation of Hydrophobic Contaminants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Some investigators have reported increased rates of PAH biodegradation in the presence of surfactant micelles because of enhanced contaminant solubilization (9?11), but others have reported inhibitory effects of surfactants on biodegradation (12?14). ... Alternatively, in pump-and-treat or soil washing type remediation processes, PMUA particles could be applied (in a manner similar to the use of surfactant micelles) to enhance the rate of removal of hydrophobic contaminants. ...

Warapong Tungittiplakorn; Claude Cohen; Leonard W. Lion

2004-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Recovering lithium chloride from a geothermal brine. Report of investigations/1984  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines has devised techniques to recover lithium from geothermal brines as the chloride. More than 99 pct of the lithium was precipitated from a brine containing 170 mg/L Li by adding a solution of A1C13 and increasing the pH to 7.5 with lime slurry. The Li-Al precipitate was dissolved in HCl and sparged with gaseous HC1 to recover the A1C13; this resulted in a solution containing LiCl and CaC12. The solution was evaporated at 100C to obtain a mixture of the chlorides from which 97 pct of the lithium was recovered and 90 pct of the calcium was rejected by leaching with tetrahydrofuran. The LiC1 recovered by evaporation of the tetrahydrofuran was purified by dissolution in water and treatment with oxalic acid. The final LiC1 solution contained 89 pct of the lithium originally present in the brine and had a purity of 99.9 pct.

Schultze, L.E.; Bauer, D.J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

A study of the homogenization of soils  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulations, areas of land that have been contaminated must be returned to an environmental condition that permits less restrictive forms of use. In anticipation of being listed as an EPA Superfund Site, the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS) is evaluating existing the technologies, and supporting the development of new technologies, for the removal of plutonium contaminants from soils. During the 1950s, DOE conducted a series of tests on the NTS wherein attempts were made to detonate nuclear weapons by igniting charges of high explosives packed around the weapons` warheads. While the warheads never achieved criticality, each test disseminated particulate plutonium over several square miles, principally in Area 11 of the NTS.DOE`s Nevada Operations Office has committed to a Plutonium In Soils Integrated Demonstration Project (PuID) to evaluate existing and developmental technologies for the safe removal of plutonium contamination from soils. It is DOE`s intention to provide approximately one ton of Area 11 soil, traced with a non-radioactive plutonium surrogate, to each of several companies with expertise in the removal of soil contaminants. These companies have expressed an interest in contracting with DOE for remediation of NTS soils. DOE wishes to evaluate each company`s process in an unbiased and statistically justifiable manner. For this reason, DOE must provide to each company a large sample of soil for prototype testing. The soil must be homogenized such that the representativeness of each split is well documented and defensible. The process of uniformly mixing large volumes of soil has not been addressed, to our knowledge, in the hydrogeologic, soil science or mining literature. Several mixing devices are currently being evaluated by DOE for use in the PuID. This report describes the results of some initial experimentation with a small cement mixer.

Giovine, L.R.S.; Miller, F.L. Jr.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Contamination analysis unit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

Gregg, Hugh R. (Livermore, CA); Meltzer, Michael P. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Contamination analysis unit  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

365

Surface and Volume Contamination  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Will there be volume contamination/activation guides as well as updated contamination guides? The only guidance being developed for volumetric contamination is a Technical Standard for accelerator facilities. However, a revised version of ANSI N13.12-1999 is expected in the future and it will be assessed to determine its acceptability for use as a pre-approved authorized limit. It is noted that ANSI N13.12-1999 is only applicable to personal property not structures.

366

Volatile organic compound losses from sewage sludge-amended soils  

SciTech Connect

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) applied to soil in sludge have been assumed to disappear quickly and completely. The VOC behavior in sludge-amended soils has been studied previously only in laboratory systems where the sludged soil has been spiked with compounds of interest. Behavior in these systems may not necessarily represent compound behavior in field soils to which contaminated sludge is added. A series of laboratory microcosm experiments were designed therefore to investigate the behavior of toluene, ethyl benzene, o-, m-, and p-xylene applied to soil in contaminated sludge, and factors influencing loss processes. The VOC loss from sludge-amended soil was well described by a simple one step pseudo-first-order model but in certain soils was better described by a two step first-order model. Volatilization was the predominant loss process. Rates of loss depended on sludge application rate, method of sludge application, soil properties, and on compound characteristics. Experiments indicated that spiking sludge-amended soils gave a reasonable indication of VOC loss rates from systems amended with contaminated sludge at least over a period of 23 d. The majority of VOCs applied to soils in sludge volatilizes quickly to the atmosphere over a few to 10s of days with a small fraction lost more slowly. Potential for VOC crop uptake, livestock ingestion, and contamination of ground water is low under routine, managed applications of sewage sludge to agricultural land.

Wilson, S.C.; Jones, K.C.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Multiscale modeling of surfactant phase behavior in the remediation of DNAPL contamination.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The brine barrier remediation technique (BBRT) has been proposed as a novel Brine barrier remediation techniques (BBRT) that use surfactants have been proposed for remediating… (more)

Fan, Xiangyu.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Surface water transport and distribution of uranium in contaminated sediments near a nuclear weapons processing facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The extent of remobilization of uranium from contaminated soils adjacent to a nuclear weapons processing facility during episodic rain events was investigated. In addition, information on the solid phase associations of U in floodplain and suspended...

Batson, Vicky Lynn

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Saxton soil remediation project  

SciTech Connect

The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Facility (SNEF) consists of a 23-MW(thermal) pressurized light water thermal reactor located in south central Pennsylvania. The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC), a wholly owned subsidiary of the General Public Utilities (GPU) Corporation, is the licensee for the SNEF. Maintenance and decommissioning activities at the site are conducted by GPU Nuclear, also a GPU subsidiary and operator of the Three Mile Island and Oyster Creek nuclear facilities. The remediation and radioactive waste management of contaminated soils is described.

Holmes, R.D. [GPU Nuclear Corporation, Middletown, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments April 11, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis The Deep Vadose Zone - Applied Field Research Initiative (DVZ-AFRI) partnered with the Vadose Zone Journal to create a special section of the journal's November 2012 issue. DVZ-AFRI conducted a symposium at the annual American Chemical Society meeting on "Understanding Behavior and Fate of Contaminants in Vadose Zone Environments." They produced 12 papers that present novel approaches to characterize, monitor, remediate and predict the transport and fate of contaminants in vadose zone environments, many of which highlight recent work at the Hanford site. The publications can be accessed here. For more information, contact Skip Chamberlain with the EM's Office of Soil

371

Boron isotope geochemistry as a tracer for the evolution of brines and associated hot springs from the Dead Sea, Israel  

SciTech Connect

A boron isotope study combined with analyses of elemental boron, lithium, and chlorine is used to suggest that brines from the Dead Sea and on-shore hypersaline thermal springs (Hamme Yesha, Hamme Zohar, and Hamme Mazor) are the products of interaction of evaporated seawater with detrital sediments. The high {delta}{sup 11}B values of the Dead Sea brines (55.7 to 57.4{per thousand} versus NBS-951) and the hot springs (52.2 to 55.7{per thousand}), and low B/Li ratios (2.0 to 2.3 and 2.5 to 2.7, respectively), relative to seawater, indicate preferential removal of {sup 10}B from the brines and hence boron adsorption onto clay minerals. The brackish 'En Feshcha springs and the freshwater 'En Dawid and Nahal Arugot springs yield lower B contents and {delta}{sup 11}B values (37.7 to 40.6{per thousand} and 33.8 to 36.9{per thousand}, respectively). The {delta}{sup 11}B values and B contents of diluted Dead Sea brines lie on calculated mixing lines between the composition of the brackish and freshwater springs with the composition of the Dead Sea. The {delta}{sup 11}B values of the hot springs, however, given their boron content, are significantly lower than those of the mixing lines. Thus, waters from the hot springs cannot be a mixing product of the Dead Sea brine with freshwater. Instead, the Dead Sea brine has evolved from the brines of the hot springs through further isotopic fractionation and boron adsorption onto detrital sediments.

Vengosh, A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia) Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Starinsky, A.; Kolodny, Y. ( Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Chivas, A.R. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

WATER AS A REAGENT FOR SOIL REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect

SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, to separate petroleum-related contaminants and other hazardous pollutants from soil and sediments. In this process, water with added electrolytes (inexpensive and environmentally friendly) is used as the extracting solvent under subcritical conditions (150-300 C). The use of electrolytes allows us to operate reactors under mild conditions and to obtain high separation efficiencies that were hitherto impossible. Unlike common organic solvents, water under subcritical conditions dissolves both organics and inorganics, thus allowing opportunities for separation of both organic and inorganic material from soil. In developing this technology, our systematic approach was to (1) establish fundamental solubility data, (2) conduct treatability studies with industrial soils, and (3) perform a bench-scale demonstration using a highly contaminated soil. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise. The next step of the development process is the successful pilot demonstration of this technology. Once pilot tested, this technology can be implemented quite easily, since most of the basic components are readily available from mature technologies (e.g., steam stripping, soil washing, thermal desorption). The implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and will provide a stand-alone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

Indira S. Jayaweera; Montserrat Marti-Perez; Jordi Diaz-Ferrero; Angel Sanjurjo

2001-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

373

Massive Soil Cleanup Effort Concludes at Hanford - Recovery Act Funding  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Massive Soil Cleanup Effort Concludes at Hanford - Recovery Act Massive Soil Cleanup Effort Concludes at Hanford - Recovery Act Funding Pays for Safe Disposal of 20,000 Truckloads of Soil Massive Soil Cleanup Effort Concludes at Hanford - Recovery Act Funding Pays for Safe Disposal of 20,000 Truckloads of Soil August 11, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contacts Andre Armstrong, CH2M HILL Andre_L_Armstrong@rl.gov 509-376-6773 Geoff Tyree, DOE Geoffrey.Tyree@rl.doe.gov 509-376-4171 RICHLAND, Wash. - U.S. Department of Energy contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company removed nearly half a million tons of contaminated soil over the last two years using American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding at the Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. Workers shipped more than 20,000 truckloads of contaminated soil excavated

374

Microsoft Word - 090928KEastSoilCleanup.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

national defense programs from the 1940s to the 1980s. Contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company started excavating contaminated soil yesterday, just two weeks after the...

375

Methods for Determination of Hydrocarbons in Air, Soil & Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many environmental investigations often demand a quick indication of the nature and levels of contamination in air, soil and water. A portable GC for on-site monitoring allows the user to fast screen compounds in...

Hans Ole Andersen

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Soil Minerals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Soil Minerals Soil Minerals Nature Bulletin No. 707 March 2, 1963 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roberts Mann, Conservation Editor SOIL MINERALS We all depend upon the land Our food is obtained from plants and animals -- bread and meat, potatoes and fish, fruit and eggs and milk and the rest of it. Our livestock feed on plants and plant products such as grass and grain. Plants, by means of their root systems, take moisture and nutrients from the soils on which they grow. Their food values, for us or for animals that furnish us food, depend upon the available nutrients in those soils. Soils contain solids, water and air. The solids, the bulk of a soil -- except in purely organic types such as peat and muck -- are mostly mineral materials. Ordinarily they also contain some organic material: decayed and decaying remains of plants and animals.

377

Bioremediation of contaminated sediments  

SciTech Connect

Contaminants in bottom sediments have historically been considered to have minimal environmental impact because they are buried, sorbed or electrostatically bound to clay particles, or incorporated into humus. Physical and chemical conditions such as alkalinity, pH, and redox of the sediments also play a part in sequestering contaminants. As long as the sediments are undisturbed, the contaminants are considered stabilized and not an immediate environmental problem. Resuspension of bottom sediments makes contaminants more available for dispersal into the marine environment. Events that can cause resuspension include storm surges, construction activity, and dredging. During resuspension, sediment particles move from an anaerobic to aerobic environment, changing their redox characteristics, and allowing the indigenous aerobic bacteria to grow and utilize certain classes of contaminants as energy sources. The contaminants are also more available for use because the mixing energy imparted to the particles during resuspension enhances mass transfer, allowing contaminants to enter the aqueous phase more rapidly. The contaminants targeted in this research are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a class of contaminant commonly found in bottom sediments near highly industrialized areas. PAH sources include fossil fuel combustion and petroleum spills. Previous research has shown that PAHs can be biodegraded. Size and structure, i.e., number and configuration of condensed rings, can affect compound disappearance. The focus of this research was to examine the relationship between resuspension and biodegradation of PAHs in lab scale slurry reactors. The rate and extent of contaminant release from the sediments into an uncontaminated water column was determined. Oxygen demand of initially anaerobic sediments were investigated. Then rate and extent of phenanthrene biodegradation was examined.

Hughes, J.B.; Jee, V.; Ward, C.H. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

The potential use of surfactant and cosolvent soil washing as adjuvant for in-situ aquifer restoration.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The use of surfactant and aqueous cosolvent soil washing for the restoration of contaminated aquifers was investigated by laboratory experimentation and literature review. The effect… (more)

Ziegenfuss, Philip Scott

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Field evaluation of a standard test method for screening fuels in soils at a railroad site  

SciTech Connect

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Method D-5831-95 is a standard test method for screening fuel contamination in soils. This method uses low-toxicity chemicals and can be used to screen organic-rich soils. It is also fast, easy, and inexpensive to perform. The screening method calls for extracting a sample of soil with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) following treatment with calcium oxide. The resulting extract is filtered, and the ultraviolet (UV) absorbance of the extract is measured at 254 nm. Depending on the information available concerning the contaminant fuel type and availability of the contaminant fuel for calibration, the method can be used to determine the approximate concentration of fuel contamination, an estimated value of fuel contamination, or an indication of the presence or absence of fuel contamination. Fuels containing aromatic compounds, such as diesel fuel and gasoline, as well as other aromatic-containing hydrocarbon materials, such as motor oil, crude oil, and coal oil can be determined. ASTM Method D-5831 was evaluated by using the method to screen soil samples at an actual field site. Soil contaminated with weathered and fresh diesel fuel was sampled and tested for its contaminant concentration. Soil samples were screened in the field using ASTM Method D-5831 and a portable soil test kit. In addition, splits of the soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory using an extractable petroleum hydrocarbon method. Field and laboratory data were compared and show good correlation between field screening and laboratory results.

Schabron, J.F.; Sorini, S.S. [Western Research Institute, Laramie, WY (United States); Butler, E.L. [Gradient Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States); Frisbie, S. [Johnson Co., Inc., Montpelier, VT (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

380

PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE-USE OF FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED BRINE FOR GAS SHALE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of the field trials and subcontractor research have been summarized in this Final Report. Individual field trial reports and research reports are contained in the companion volume titled “Appendices”

Burnett, David

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Estimation of distribution coefficient of natural radionuclides in soil around uranium mines and its effect with ionic strength of water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......which may contaminate the soil and ground water around uranium mining areas, have been considered. Soil and ground water samples were collected from a...release, accidental, disposal or remediation scenarios requires the availability......

S. Mishra; S. Maity; G. G. Pandit

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Erace--an integrated system for treating organic-contaminated sites  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a suite of electrical technologies for treating sites contaminated with hazardous organic compounds. These include: (1) Six-Phase Soil Heating (SPSH) to remove volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds from soils; (2) In Situ Corona (ISC) to decompose nonvolatile and bound organic contaminants in soils; (3) High-Energy Corona (HEC) to treat contaminated off-gases; and (4) Liquid Corona (LC) to treat contaminated liquids. These four technologies comprise ERACE (Electrical Remediation at Contaminated Environments), an integrated system for accomplishing site remediation with little or no secondary wastes produced that would require off-site treatment or disposal. Each ERACE technology can be employed individually as a stand-alone treatment process, or combined as a system for total site remediation. For example, an ERACE system for treating sites contaminated with volatile organics would integrate SPSH to remove the contaminants from the soil, LC to continuously treat an aqueous stream condensed out of the soil off-gas, and HEC to treat non-condensibles remaining in the off-gas, before atmospheric release.

Caley, S.M.; Heath, W.O.; Bergsman, T.M.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Pillay, C.; Moss, R.W.; Shah, R.R.; Goheen, S.C.; Camiaoni, D.M.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Geochemistry of two pressurized brines from the Castile Formation in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site  

SciTech Connect

The major and minor element data and isotopic data from the ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 testing indicate that the brine reservoirs encountered in the Upper Castile Formation are largely in equilibrium with their surrounding host rock environment. This contention is supported by thermodynamic and stable isotope data. It is not possible to assign an absolute age to the brine based on uranium disequilibrium considerations, but the data do indicate that the brine reequilibrated with a new rock environment at least two million years ago. Information and data evaluated herein indicate the likelihood that the brines encountered are predominantly, if not entirely, derived from a trapped seawater source subsequently modified by diagenesis. Major ion/bromide ratios indicate that halite dissolution has occurred to some extent subsequent to deposition of the Castile anhydrites and entrapment of the seawater brine. Mechanisms for additional halite dissolution are discussed. Based on the degree of present halite saturation, it is concluded that the potential for future dissolution of halite is minimal.

Faith, S.; Spiegler, P.; Rehfeldt, K.R.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Integrated modeling and experimental programs to predict brine and gas flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the performance of the WIPP repository involves modeling of brine and gas flow in the host rocks of the Salado Formation, which consist of halite and anhydrite interbeds. Numerous physical, chemical, and structural processes, must be understood to perform this modeling. Gas generation within the repository is strongly coupled to the amount of brine inflow to the repository because brine aids in the corrosion of metals and associated generation of hydrogen gas. Increasing gas pressure in the repository decreases the rate of brine inflow. Ultimately, the gas pressure may exceed the brine pressure and gas may flow out of the repository. Relative-permeability curves and a correlation between threshold pressure and permeability taken from studies reported in the literature were used in PA models prior to being experimentally verified as appropriate for WIPP. In addition, interbed permeabilities were treated as constant and independent of effective stress in early models. Subsequently, the process of interbed fracturing (or fracture dilation) was recognized to limit gas pressures in the repository to values below lithostatic, and assumed (and unverified) relationships between porosity, permeability, and pore pressure were employed. Parameter-sensitivity studies performed using the simplified models identified important parameters for which site-specific data were needed. Unrealistic modeling results, such as room pressures substantially above lithostatic, showed the need to include additional processes in the models. Field and laboratory experimental programs have been initiated in conjunction with continued model development to provide information on important processes and parameters.

Beauheim, R.L.; Howarth, S.M.; Vaughn, P.; Webb, S.W.; Larson, K.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Decommissioning of the TA-42 plutonium contaminated incinerator facility  

SciTech Connect

During 1978, a plutonium (/sup 239/Pu) contaminated incinerator facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decommissioned. The project involved dismantling the facility and burying the debris at an on-site radioactive solid waste disposal/storage area. Contaminated soil from the 5000 m/sup 2/ area was also buried. The facility was constructed in 1951 to incinerate /sup 239/Pu contaminated wastes. It was later used as a decontamination facility. The major features included a 185-m/sup 2/ floor area control building, incinerator, cyclone dust collector, spray cooler, venturi scrubber, air filter bank, ash separator, and two 140 000-liter ash storage tanks. Six-hundred cubic meters of debris and 1200 m/sup 3/ of soil contaminated with less than 10 nCi /sup 239/Pu per gram of soil were buried at the Laboratory disposal area. Five cubic meters of /sup 239/Pu contaminated ash residues containing more than 10 nCi /sup 239/Pu per gram of waste were packaged and stored to meet the Department of Energy's 20-year retrievable storage criteria. The operation consumed 80 work days and 5800 manhours at a cost of $150 000. This report presents the details concerning decommissioning procedures, the health physics, the waste management, the environmental surveillance results, and a cost breakdown for the operation.

Harper, J.R.; Garde, R.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

CFD Simulation of Brine-Seawater Mixing in a Rotary Energy Recovery Device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CFD Simulation of Brine-Seawater Mixing in a Rotary Energy Recovery Device ... The effects of operational conditions on the mixing behavior of rotary energy recovery device have been systematically investigated through the combined methods of computational fluid dynamics and validating experiments in this paper. ... The obtained formulas between mixing and dimensionless flow length provide a simple way to calculate and predict the mixing of device, which will be beneficial to design and operate the rotary energy recovery device in a lower mixing level. ...

Enle Xu; Yue Wang; Liming Wu; Shichang Xu; Yuxin Wang; Shichang Wang

2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

387

Remaining Sites Verification Package for 100-F-38 Stained Soil Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-093  

SciTech Connect

The 100-F-38 Stained Soil site was an area of yellow stained soil that was discoverd while excavating a trench for the placement of electrical conduit. The 100-F-38 Stained Soil site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils and the contaminant concentrations remaining in the soil are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

R. A. Carlson

2006-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

388

Soil remediation using a coupled process: soil washing with surfactant followed by photo-Fenton oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work the use of a coupled process, soil washing and photo-Fenton oxidation, was investigated for remediation of a soil contaminated with p,p?-DDT (DDT) and p,p?-DDE (DDE), and a soil artificially contaminated with diesel. In the soil washing experiments, Triton X-100 (TX-100) aqueous solutions were used at different concentrations to obtain wastewaters with different compositions. Removal efficiencies of 66% (DDT), 80% (DDE) and 100% (diesel) were achieved for three sequential washings using a TX-100 solution strength equivalent to 12 times the effective critical micelle concentration of the surfactant (12 CMCeff). The wastewater obtained was then treated using a solar photo-Fenton process. After 6 h irradiation, 99, 95 and 100% degradation efficiencies were achieved for DDT, DDE and diesel, respectively. In all experiments, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon decreased by at least 95%, indicating that residual concentration of contaminants and/or TX-100 in the wastewater was very low. The co-extraction of metals was also evaluated. Among the metals analyzed (Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Mn and Co), only Cr and Mn were detected in the wastewater at concentrations above the maximum value permitted by current Brazilian legislation. The effective removal of contaminants from soil by the TX-100 washing process, together with the high degradation efficiency of the solar photo-Fenton process, suggests that this procedure could be a useful option for soil remediation.

Ricardo D. Villa; Alam G. Trovó; Raquel F. Pupo Nogueira

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Capacity Investigation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation for Geologic Sequestration of CO2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capacity Investigation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Capacity Investigation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation for Geologic Sequestration of CO 2 Christine Doughty (cadoughty@lbl.gov; 510-486-6453) Karsten Pruess (k_pruess@lbl.gov; 510-486-6732) Sally M. Benson (smbenson@lbl.gov; 510-486-5875) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 90-1116 Berkeley, CA 94720 Susan D. Hovorka (susan.hovorka@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-4863) Paul R. Knox (paul.knox@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-7313) Bureau of Economic Geology P.O. Box X, The University of Texas Austin, TX 78713 Christopher T. Green (ctgreen@ucdavis.edu; 530-752-1372) University of California, Hydrologic Sciences 1 Shields Ave. Davis, CA 95616 Abstract The capacity of fluvial brine-bearing formations to sequester CO 2 is investigated using numerical simulations of CO

390

Personnel and Contamination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Everyone concerned with contamination control dreams of the day when automation will remove the need for employees to actually handle the wafers. This wish arises from the fact that humans are such a major factor...

M. Kozicki; S. Hoenig; P. Robinson

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Modeling for Airborne Contamination  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Modeling for Airborne Contamination (referred to from now on as ''this report'') is to provide a documented methodology, along with supporting information, for estimating the release, transport, and assessment of dose to workers from airborne radioactive contaminants within the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface during the pre-closure period. Specifically, this report provides engineers and scientists with methodologies for estimating how concentrations of contaminants might be distributed in the air and on the drift surfaces if released from waste packages inside the repository. This report also provides dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways used to derive doses to potentially exposed subsurface workers. The scope of this report is limited to radiological contaminants (particulate, volatile and gaseous) resulting from waste package leaks (if any) and surface contamination and their transport processes. Neutron activation of air, dust in the air and the rock walls of the drift during the preclosure time is not considered within the scope of this report. Any neutrons causing such activation are not themselves considered to be ''contaminants'' released from the waste package. This report: (1) Documents mathematical models and model parameters for evaluating airborne contaminant transport within the MGR subsurface; and (2) Provides tables of dose conversion factors for inhalation, air submersion, and ground exposure pathways for important radionuclides. The dose conversion factors for air submersion and ground exposure pathways are further limited to drift diameters of 7.62 m and 5.5 m, corresponding to the main and emplacement drifts, respectively. If the final repository design significantly deviates from these drift dimensions, the results in this report may require revision. The dose conversion factors are further derived by using concrete of sufficient thickness to simulate the drift walls. The gamma-ray scattering properties of concrete are sufficiently similar to those of the host rock and proposed insert material; use of concrete will have no significant impact on the conclusions. The information in this report is presented primarily for use in performing pre-closure radiological safety evaluations of radiological contaminants, but it may also be used to develop strategies for contaminant leak detection and monitoring in the MGR. Included in this report are the methods for determining the source terms and release fractions, and mathematical models and model parameters for contaminant transport and distribution within the repository. Various particle behavior mechanisms that affect the transport of contaminant are included. These particle behavior mechanisms include diffusion, settling, resuspension, agglomeration and other deposition mechanisms.

F.R. Faillace; Y. Yuan

2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

Minimum Ultraviolet Light Dose Determination and Characterization of Stress Responses that Affect Dose for Listeria monocytogenes Suspended in Distilled Water, Fresh Brine, and Spent Brine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Foodborne illnesses caused by Listeria monocytogenes have long been associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) meats contaminated after the primary thermal process has been applied. It is… (more)

McKinney, Julie

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Spontaneous Imbibition of Aqueous Surfactant Solutions into Neutral to Oil-Wet Carbonate Cores:? Effects of Brine Salinity and Composition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Knowing that the brine salinity of carbonate reservoirs can vary in the range of salinity range than what was done in the previous experiments (salinities of 1?5 g/L). ... Thus, the increase in temperature seemed to make the effect of the salinity gradient observed at 40 °C vanish. ... Even though the increase in temperature from 40 °C to 70 °C make the effect of the salinity gradient of 1.0?10 wt % vanish, the final oil recovery was significantly lower (?45%, from Figure 3), compared to brine that contains sulfate at similar salinities (?70%, from Figure 6). ...

Skule Strand; Dag C. Standnes; Tor Austad

2003-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

394

Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL LBNL and SNL for the UFD Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes laboratory and field observations and numerical modeling related to coupled processes involving brine and vapor migration in geologic salt, focusing on recent developments and studies conducted at Sandia, Los Alamos, and Berkeley National Laboratories. Interest into the disposal of heat-generating waste in salt has led to interest into water distribution and migration in both run-of-mine crushed and intact geologic salt. Ideally a fully coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical simulation is performed using numerical models with validated constitutive models and parameters. When mechanical coupling is not available, mechanical effects are prescribed in hydraulic models as source, boundary, or initial conditions. This report presents material associated with developing appropriate initial conditions for a non-mechanical hydrologic simulation of brine migration in salt. Due to the strong coupling between the mechanical and hydrologic problems, the initial saturation will be low for the excavation disturbed zone surrounding the excavation. Although most of the material in this report is not new, the author hopes it is presented in a format making it useful to other salt researchers.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

A XANES study of Cu speciation in high-temperature brines using synthetic fluid inclusions  

SciTech Connect

Cu K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were recorded from individual synthetic brine fluid inclusions as a function of temperature up to 500 C. The inclusions serve as sample cells for high-temperature spectroscopic studies of aqueous Cu-Cl speciation. Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup 2+} can both be identified from characteristic pre-edge features. Mixed oxidation states can be deconvoluted using linear combinations of Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup 2+} spectra. This work illustrates how complex Cu XANES spectra can be interpreted successfully. Cu{sup 2+} is the stable oxidation state in solution at room temperature and Cu{sup +} at high temperatures. The change in oxidation state with temperature was completely reversible. Cu{sup +} was found to occur exclusively as the linear species [CuCl{sub 2}]{sup -} in solutions containing KCl with Cu:Cl ratios up to 1:6. In the absence of K{sup +}, there is evidence for higher order coordination of Cu{sup +}, in particular the tetrahedral complex [CuCl{sub 4}]{sup 3-}. The importance of such complexes in natural ore-forming fluids is yet to be determined, but may explain the vapor-phase partitioning of Cu as a Cl complex from a Cl-rich brine.

Berry, Andrew J.; Hack, Alistair C.; Mavrogenes, John A.; Newville, Matthew; Sutton, Stephen R. (UC); (ANU)

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

396

Report on design, construction, and testing of CO/sub 2/ breakout system for geothermal brines  

SciTech Connect

A skid mounted test facility has been built for determining conditions at which CO/sub 2/ flashes from geothermal brines. The system has been checked and operated at one geothermal plant. It performed as designed. The equipment is designed to operate at temperatures and pressures typical of wells near Heber, California. (Nominally 180/sup 0/C and 300 to 500 psig). It has heat exchangers which can cool the brine to less than 70/sup 0/C. (The cooling water is recirculated after being cooled by a forced air heat exchanger). Breakout pressures can be determined for any temperature between 70/sup 0/C and wellhead temperature. An adjustable orifice provides final control on pressure required to initiate flashing. The orifice is at the bottom of a sight glass. A light beam shines through the sight glass and focuses on a photoelectric cell. The presence of bubbles scatters light and decreases the output of the cell. Results using the cell were more reproducible than those using the naked eye. Results from one test show a smooth curve over the temperature range 75/sup 0/C to 165/sup 0/C. Agreement between the experimental values and calculated ones is discussed.

Robertus, R.J.; Shannon, D.W.; Sullivan, R.G.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Sensitivity study of CO2 storage capacity in brine aquifers withclosed boundaries: Dependence on hydrogeologic properties  

SciTech Connect

In large-scale geologic storage projects, the injected volumes of CO{sub 2} will displace huge volumes of native brine. If the designated storage formation is a closed system, e.g., a geologic unit that is compartmentalized by (almost) impermeable sealing units and/or sealing faults, the native brine cannot (easily) escape from the target reservoir. Thus the amount of supercritical CO{sub 2} that can be stored in such a system depends ultimately on how much pore space can be made available for the added fluid owing to the compressibility of the pore structure and the fluids. To evaluate storage capacity in such closed systems, we have conducted a modeling study simulating CO{sub 2} injection into idealized deep saline aquifers that have no (or limited) interaction with overlying, underlying, and/or adjacent units. Our focus is to evaluate the storage capacity of closed systems as a function of various reservoir parameters, hydraulic properties, compressibilities, depth, boundaries, etc. Accounting for multi-phase flow effects including dissolution of CO{sub 2} in numerical simulations, the goal is to develop simple analytical expressions that provide estimates for storage capacity and pressure buildup in such closed systems.

Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.

2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

398

Phase-field theory of brine entrapment in sea ice: Short-time frozen microstructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the early phase of brine entrapment in sea ice, using a phase field model. This model for a first-order phase transition couples non-conserved order parameter kinetics to salt diffusion. The evolution equations are derived from a Landau-Ginzburg order parameter gradient dynamics together with salinity conservation. The numerical solution of model equations by an exponential time differencing scheme describes the time evolution of phase separation between liquid water with high salinity and the ice phase with low salinity. The numerical solution in one and two dimensions indicates the formation of one dominant wavelength which sets the length scale of short-time frozen structures. A stability analysis provides the phase diagram in terms of two Landau parameters. It is distinguished an uniform ice phase, a homogeneous liquid saline water solution and a phase where solidification structures can be formed. The Landau parameters are extracted from the supercooling and superheating as well as the freezing point temperature of water. With the help of realistic parameters the distribution of brine inclusions is calculated and found in agreement with the measured samples. The size of the ice domains separating regions of concentrated seawater depends on salinity and temperature and corresponds to the size of sea ice platelets obtained from a morphological stability analysis for the solidification of salt water.

Silke Thoms; Bernd Kutschan; Klaus Morawetz

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Modeling Coupled THMC Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we present FY2014 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. LBNL’s work on the modeling of coupled THMC processes in salt was initiated in FY2012, focusing on exploring and demonstrating the capabilities of an existing LBNL modeling tool (TOUGH-FLAC) for simulating temperature-driven coupled flow and geomechanical processes in salt. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. we provide more details on the FY2014 work, first presenting updated tools and improvements made to the TOUGH-FLAC simulator, and the use of this updated tool in a new model simulation of long-term THM behavior within a generic repository in a salt formation. This is followed by the description of current benchmarking and validations efforts, including the TSDE experiment. We then present the current status in the development of constitutive relationships and the dual-continuum model for brine migration. We conclude with an outlook for FY2015, which will be much focused on model validation against field experiments and on the use of the model for the design studies related to a proposed heater experiment.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

400

In-situ remediation system for groundwater and soils  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a system for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater and soil. In particular the present invention relates to stabilizing toxic metals in groundwater and soil. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Corey, J.C.; Kaback, D.S.; Looney, B.B.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

A complete remediation process for a uranium-contaminated site and application to other sites  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 1996 the authors were able to test, at the pilot scale, the concept of leaching uranium (U) from contaminated soils. The results of this pilot scale operation showed that the system they previously had developed at the laboratory scale is applicable at the pilot scale. The paper discusses these results, together with laboratory scale results using soil from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Ohio. These FEMP results show how, with suitable adaptations, the process is widely applicable to other sites. The purpose of this paper is to describe results that demonstrate remediation of uranium-contaminated soils may be accomplished through a leach scheme using sodium bicarbonate.

Mason, C.F.V.; Lu, N.; Kitten, H.D.; Williams, M.; Turney, W.R.J.R.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

402

This paper has been downloaded from the Building and Environmental Thermal Systems Research Group at Oklahoma State University (www.hvac.okstate.edu)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

trenches or vertical boreholes. The heat exchange fluid is usually water, brine, or an antifreeze solution and the soil/rock and prevents cross- contamination of groundwater. In nonresidential ground- coupled systems

403

Electrical Properties of SandClay Mixtures Containing Trichloroethylene and Ethanol Jeffery J. Roberts and Dorthe Wildenschild*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and soils and that it is feasible to remotely detect the presence and follow the transport of contaminants and pore fluid. Electrical conduction is also a function of the prevailing fluid saturation. For brine

Wildenschild, Dorthe

404

Interfacial Reduction - Oxidation Mechanisms Governing Fate and Transport of Contaminants in the Vadose Zone  

SciTech Connect

Many soil contamination sites at Department of Energy installations contain radionuclides and toxic metals such as technetium (Tc), uranium (U) and chromium (Cr). In Situ Gaseous Reduction (ISGR) using dilute hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as reductant is a technology uniquely suitable for the vadose zone soil remediation to reduce and immobilize these contaminants. It is conceivable that the ISGR approach can be applied either to immobilize pre-existing contaminants or to create a reductive permeable reactive barrier (PRB) through hydrogen sulfide gas treatment of soils for contaminant interception. This project aims to improve our understanding of the complex interactions among the contaminants (U and Tc), H2S, and various soil constituents. The collaborative effort involving the University of Missouri-Columbia, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Illinois Institute of Technology will provide the knowledge needed to further develop and optimize the ISGR technology. Specific research tasks include: (a) examine the reduction kinetics of Tc(VII) and U(VI) by H2S; (b) measure the reduction kinetics of Tc(VII) and U(VI) by iron sulfides; (c) characterize the speciation of immobilized Tc and U and investigate the immobilization mechanisms; (d) assess the long-term stability of the contaminants immobilized by the ISGR treatment; and (e) validate the pure phase experimental results under natural soil conditions.

Deng, Baolin

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Categorical Exclusion for Pinnacle Peak Substation PCB contaminated Electrical  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion for Pinnacle Peak Substation PCB contaminated Electrical Equipment Removal Project located north of Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona RECORD OF CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION A. Proposed Action: Western proposes drain and dispose of PCB contaminated oil from two bushings, and decontaminate one· bushing and rack, break apart PCB contaminated concrete and excavate PCB contaminated soil at Pinnacle Peak Substation. Western will be use existing access roads and vehicles such as cranes, backhoes, dozers, bucket trucks, crew trucks and pickup trucks to bring personnel and equipment to the work area. This work is necessary to maintain the safety and reliability of the bulk electrical system. The project is located in Maricopa County, Arizona. The attached map shows the

406

USE OF APATITE FOR CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANTS  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater at many Federal and civilian industrial sites is often contaminated with toxic metals at levels that present a potential concern to regulatory agencies. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has some unique problems associated with radionuclides (primarily uranium), but metal contaminants most likely drive risk-based cleanup decisions, from the perspective of human health, in groundwater at DOE and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Sites include lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni). Thus, the regulatory ''drivers'' for toxic metals in contaminated soils/groundwaters are very comparable for Federal and civilian industrial sites, and most sites have more than one metal above regulatory action limits. Thus improving the performance of remedial technologies for metal-contaminated groundwater will have ''dual use'' (Federal and civilian) benefit.

Dr. William D. Bostick

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Risk Reduction and Soil Ecosystem Restoration in an Active Oil Producing Area in an Ecologically Sensitive Setting  

SciTech Connect

The empowerment of small independent oil and gas producers to solve their own remediation problems will result in greater environmental compliance and more effective protection of the environment as well as making small producers more self-reliant. In Chapter 1 we report on the effectiveness of a low-cost method of remediation of a combined spill of crude oil and brine in the Tallgrass Prairie Preserve in Osage County, OK. Specifically, we have used hay and fertilizer as amendments for remediation of both the oil and the brine. No gypsum was used. Three spills of crude oil plus produced water brine were treated with combinations of ripping, fertilizers and hay, and a downslope interception trench in an effort to demonstrate an inexpensive, easily implemented, and effective remediation plan. There was no statistically significant effect of treatment on the biodegradation of crude oil. However, TPH reduction clearly proceeded in the presence of brine contamination. The average TPH half-life considering all impacted sites was 267 days. The combination of hay addition, ripping, and a downslope interception trench was superior to hay addition with ripping, or ripping plus an interception trench in terms of rates of sodium and chloride leaching from the impacted sites. Reductions in salt inventories (36 months) were 73% in the site with hay addition, ripping and an interception trench, 40% in the site with hay addition and ripping only, and < 3% in the site with ripping and an interception trench.

Kerry L. Sublette; Greg Thoma; Kathleen Duncan

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Waste disposal will take place in panels excavated in a bedded salt formation approximately 2000 ft (610 m) below the land surface. The BRAGFLO computer program which solves a system of nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow, was used to investigate brine and gas flow patterns in the vicinity of the repository for the 1996 WIPP performance assessment (PA). The present study examines the implications of modeling assumptions used in conjunction with BRAGFLO in the 1996 WIPP PA that affect brine and gas flow patterns involving two waste regions in the repository (i.e., a single waste panel and the remaining nine waste panels), a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that lies just above and below these two regions, and a borehole that penetrates the single waste panel and a brine pocket below this panel. The two waste regions are separated by a panel closure. The following insights were obtained from this study. First, the impediment to flow between the two waste regions provided by the panel closure model is reduced due to the permeable and areally extensive nature of the DRZ adopted in the 1996 WIPP PA, which results in the DRZ becoming an effective pathway for gas and brine movement around the panel closures and thus between the two waste regions. Brine and gas flow between the two waste regions via the DRZ causes pressures between the two to equilibrate rapidly, with the result that processes in the intruded waste panel are not isolated from the rest of the repository. Second, the connection between intruded and unintruded waste panels provided by the DRZ increases the time required for repository pressures to equilibrate with the overlying and/or underlying units subsequent to a drilling intrusion. Third, the large and areally extensive DRZ void volumes is a significant source of brine to the repository, which is consumed in the corrosion of iron and thus contributes to increased repository pressures. Fourth, the DRZ itself lowers repository pressures by providing storage for gas and access to additional gas storage in areas of the repository. Fifth, given the pathway that the DRZ provides for gas and brine to flow around the panel closures, isolation of the waste panels by the panel closures was not essential to compliance with the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's regulations in the 1996 WIPP PA.

ECONOMY,KATHLEEN M.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; VAUGHN,PALMER

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

The distribution of depleted uranium contamination in Colonie, NY, USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Uranium oxide particles were dispersed into the environment from a factory in Colonie (NY, USA) by prevailing winds during the 1960s and '70s. Uranium concentrations and isotope ratios from bulk soil samples have been accurately measured using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) without the need for analyte separation chemistry. The natural range of uranium concentrations in the Colonie soils has been estimated as 0.7–2.1 ?g g? 1, with a weighted geometric mean of 1.05 ?g g? 1; the contaminated soil samples comprise uranium up to 500 ± 40 ?g g? 1. A plot of 236U/238U against 235U/238U isotope ratios describes a mixing line between natural uranium and depleted uranium (DU) in bulk soil samples; scatter from this line can be accounted for by heterogeneity in the DU particulate. The end-member of DU compositions aggregated in these bulk samples comprises (2.05 ± 0.06) × 10? 3 235U/238U, (3.2 ± 0.1) × 10? 5 236U/238U, and (7.1 ± 0.3) × 10? 6 234U/238U. The analytical method is sensitive to as little as 50 ng g? 1 DU mixed with the natural uranium occurring in these soils. The contamination footprint has been mapped northward from site, and at least one third of the uranium in a soil sample from the surface 5 cm, collected 5.1 km NNW of the site, is DU. The distribution of contamination within the surface soil horizon follows a trend of exponential decrease with depth, which can be approximated by a simple diffusion model. Bioturbation by earthworms can account for dispersal of contaminant from the soil surface, in the form of primary uranium oxide particulates, and uranyl species that are adsorbed to organic matter. Considering this distribution, the total mass of uranium contamination emitted from the factory is estimated to be c. 4.8 tonnes.

N.S. Lloyd; S.R.N. Chenery; R.R. Parrish

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

The effects of viscosity and subsurface heterogeneity on a brine barrier approach to DNAPL remediation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) are a long-term source of groundwater contamination. Difficulties of current remediation methods have led to the study of a novel… (more)

Murphy, Lauren L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Engineered Treatment of As-laden Regeneration Brine from Ion Exchange Processes .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Arsenic (As) contamination of drinking water sources has been one of the most challenging global environmental issues. In the United States, the newly revised maximum… (more)

STEINWINDER, THOMAS

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Neptunium(V) and neptunium(VI) solubilities in synthetic brines of interest to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of Np(V) and Np(VI) has been measured in three synthetic Na-K-Mg-Cl brines in the presence of CO{sub 2}(g). Experiments were prepared from oversaturation by adding an excess of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} or NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+} to the brines and allowing the neptunium solids to precipitate. Vessels were maintained in contact with fixed CO{sub 2}(g) partial pressures at constant pH and 24 {+-} 1 C. Dissolved Np(V) concentrations decreased several orders of magnitude within the first 100 days of the experiment, while dissolved Np(VI) concentrations decreased initially but then remained relatively constant for more than 400 days. The solid phases formed in all experiments were identified by X-ray powder diffraction as KNpO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O(s). Steady state concentrations for Np(V) are similar to those observed for Pu(V) in the same brines under the same conditions, where Pu occurs predominantly as Pu(V). Similarly, steady state concentrations for Np(VI), which was not reduced over a two year period, compare well with measured Pu(VI) concentrations in the same brines before the Pu(VI) was reduced to Pu(V).

Novak, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nitsche, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.]|[Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Silber, H.B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.]|[San Jose State Univ., CA (United States). Chemistry Dept.] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

413

Energy optimization in ice hockey halls I. The system COP as a multivariable function, brine and design choices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is the first of a series of articles addressing the energy optimization in ice hockey halls. Here we outline an analytic method to predict in which design and operating conditions the COP of the entire cooling system (refrigerator and cooling tower) ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is maximum. ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is investigated as a function of several variables, like electric consumption and brine physical properties. With this method, the best configuration and brine choices for the system can therefore be determined in advance. We estimate the optimal design of an average-sized ice rink, including pipe diameter, depth and brine type (ethylene glycol and ammonia). We also single out an optimal brine density and show the impact of the electric consumption of the pump on ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$. Our theoretical predictions are validated with heat flow measurement data obtained at an ice hockey hall in Finland. They are also confronted with technical and cost-related constraints, and implemented by simulations with the pr...

Ferrantelli, Andrea; Räikkönen, Miska; Viljanen, Martti

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Integrated processes for removal of persistent organic pollutants : soil washing and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes combined to a possible biological post-treatment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Soils contaminated by hydrophobic organic pollutants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a common concern since they are extremely difficult to remove and their potential… (more)

Mousset, Emmanuel

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Development of one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code 'GFLOW' for groundwater flow and contaminant transport analysis  

SciTech Connect

Prediction of groundwater movement and contaminant transport in soil is an important problem in many branches of science and engineering. This includes groundwater hydrology, environmental engineering, soil science, agricultural engineering and also nuclear engineering. Specifically, in nuclear engineering it is applicable in the design of spent fuel storage pools and waste management sites in the nuclear power plants. Ground water modeling involves the simulation of flow and contaminant transport by groundwater flow. In the context of contaminated soil and groundwater system, numerical simulations are typically used to demonstrate compliance with regulatory standard. A one-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics code GFLOW had been developed based on the Finite Difference Method for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport through saturated and unsaturated soil. The code is validated with the analytical model and the benchmarking cases available in the literature. (authors)

Rahatgaonkar, P. S.; Datta, D.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G. [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd., R-2, Ent. Block, Nabhikiya Urja Bhavan, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai - 400 094 (India)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

QUANTITATIVE HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT RESULTING FROM GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION OF AN ABANDONED OPEN FIELD CHEMICAL WASTE BURNING SITE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Quantitative human health risk assessment was performed for the evaluation of health threat resulting from the chemical contamination of the soil and groundwater in the area of the former open field pharmaceutica...

GYULA DURA; SANDOR SZOBOSZLAI; BALAZS KRISZT…

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Review of the Vortec soil remediation demonstration program  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of the METC/Vortec program is to develop and demonstrate the effectiveness of the Vortec CMS in remediating soils contaminated with hazardous materials and/or low levels of radionuclides. To convincingly demonstrate the CMS`s capability, a Demonstration Plant will be constructed and operated at a DOE site that has a need for the remediation of contamination soil. The following objectives will be met during the program: (1) establish the glass chemistry requirements to achieve vitrification of contaminated soils found at the selected DOE site; (2) complete the design of a fully integrated soil vitrification demonstration plant with a capacity to process 25 TPD of soil; (3) establish the cost of a fully integrated soil demonstration plant with a capacity to process 25 TPD of soil; (4) construct and operate a fully integrated demonstration plant; (5) analyze all influent and effluent streams to establish the partitioning of contaminants and to demonstrate compliance with all applicable health, safety, and environmental requirements; (6) demonstrate that the CMS technology has the capability to produce a vitrified product that will immobilize the hazardous and radionuclide materials consistent with the needs of the specific DOE waste repositories.

Patten, J.S.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

418

In situ vitrification of soil from the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Contamination associated with seepage basins and other underground structures at US Department of Energy sites may be effectively remediated by application of in situ vitrification (ISV) technology. In situ vitrification converts contaminated soil and buried wastes into a glass and crystalline block, similar to obsidian commingled with crystalline phases. Two bench-scale tests performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in September 1989 demonstrated the feasibility of applying ISV to seepage basin soils at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The two tests were performed on soils spiked with heavy metal and organic contaminants as well as stable radioactive simulants. These soils contain extremely low concentrations of alkali fluxes such as sodium and potassium oxides, which are necessary charge carriers for the ISV process. Tests performed on the low flux-containing soil indicate the soil can be vitrified with special application of the ISV process. Tests showed the hazardous and radioactive simulants were successfully bound in the vitrified product and the organics were mostly destroyed. Additional larger scale testing and evaluation are recommended to further study the feasibility of treating contaminated SRS soil by the ISV process. 13 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

Campbell, B.E.; Buelt, J.L.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

A Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO2 with Brine-Rock Mixtures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO 2 with Brine-Rock Mixtures Nicholas B. Janda (nbj2@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-2648) Philip W. Morrison, Jr. (pwm5@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-4238) Department of Chemical Engineering Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-7217 Beverly Z. Saylor (bzs@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-3763) Gerald Matisoff (gxm4@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-3677) Department of Geological Sciences Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-7216 Introduction Storage of carbon dioxide in deep, porous, and permeable reservoir rocks is one of the most promising technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Although oil and gas reservoirs are a sensible first step for sequestration of carbon dioxide in geologic

420

Reducing Foreign Lithium Dependence through Co-Production of Lithium from Geothermal Brine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Foreign Lithium Dependence through Co-Production of Lithium from Foreign Lithium Dependence through Co-Production of Lithium from Geothermal Brine Kerry Klein 1 , Linda Gaines 2 1 New West Technologies LLC, Washington, DC, USA 2 Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA KEYWORDS Mineral extraction, zinc, silica, strategic metals, Imperial Valley, lithium ion batteries, electric- drive vehicles, battery recycling ABSTRACT Following a 2009 investment of $32.9 billion in renewable energy and energy efficiency research through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, President Obama in his January 2011 State of the Union address promised deployment of one million electric vehicles by 2015 and 80% clean energy by 2035. The United States seems poised to usher in its bright energy future,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.  

SciTech Connect

Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Phase-field theory of brine entrapment in sea ice: Short-time frozen microstructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the early phase of brine entrapment in sea ice, using a phase field model. This model for a first-order phase transition couples non-conserved order parameter kinetics to salt diffusion. The evolution equations are derived from a Landau-Ginzburg order parameter gradient dynamics together with salinity conservation. The numerical solution of model equations by an exponential time differencing scheme describes the time evolution of phase separation between liquid water with high salinity and the ice phase with low salinity. The numerical solution in one and two dimensions indicates the formation of one dominant wavelength which sets the length scale of short-time frozen structures. A stability analysis provides the phase diagram in terms of two Landau parameters. It is distinguished an uniform ice phase, a homogeneous liquid saline water solution and a phase where solidification structures can be formed. The Landau parameters are extracted from the supercooling and superheating as well as the freezin...

Thoms, Silke; Morawetz, Klaus

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Light hydrocarbon geochemistry of brines and sediments of the red sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1LGTIT II'YDROC/', REIGN GEOCIII'IITS'IRY GI' BTITNES IIND SRuZSIRNIS O? YIIR RZD SRR . T'. 1'. Sl S RO(cRR rII, DQN !' iT RRR AI!pcoverl s. s 'o style and cootent hyr 'o-Cheittreri ol Corrrrci tt. ee) r, rrr rl!I! e: ) j Deccr, het 1'rI79... The Ai 7 antis II Deep has i. &o ? tin& ! ay) . = !if i!& s-:I:, oif icar . 7y rii '. ferenL lig!it hydrocarbon con&sr:i ar. i&n . The l, a c. , in tbe iso layers a7so aprirertly come fro. d'I'&c:&nt sources. Tli. . up!&cr. brine (Ti50'0, Cl s /3...

Burke, Roger Allen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

424

Transport in Porous Media 47: 149167, 2002. c 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation Research Centre, coarse sand, least-squares fitting, brine, soil column, mis- cible displacement, sodium chloride can give rise to instability. On the other hand, upward displacements of fresh water by brine

Hassanizadeh, S. Majid

425

Mercury contamination extraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

Fuhrmann, Mark (Silver Spring, MD); Heiser, John (Bayport, NY); Kalb, Paul (Wading River, NY)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Subsurface Contamination Control  

SciTech Connect

There are two objectives of this report, ''Subsurface Contamination Control''. The first is to provide a technical basis for recommending limiting radioactive contamination levels (LRCL) on the external surfaces of waste packages (WP) for acceptance into the subsurface repository. The second is to provide an evaluation of the magnitude of potential releases from a defective WP and the detectability of the released contents. The technical basis for deriving LRCL has been established in ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy for Wp on Pallet'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g, 6.3.1). This report updates the derivation by incorporating the latest design information of the subsurface repository for site recommendation. The derived LRCL on the external surface of WPs, therefore, supercede that described in CRWMS M and O 2000g. The derived LRCL represent the average concentrations of contamination on the external surfaces of each WP that must not be exceeded before the WP is to be transported to the subsurface facility for emplacement. The evaluation of potential releases is necessary to control the potential contamination of the subsurface repository and to detect prematurely failed WPs. The detection of failed WPs is required in order to provide reasonable assurance that the integrity of each WP is intact prior to MGR closure. An emplaced WP may become breached due to manufacturing defects or improper weld combined with failure to detect the defect, by corrosion, or by mechanical penetration due to accidents or rockfall conditions. The breached WP may release its gaseous and volatile radionuclide content to the subsurface environment and result in contaminating the subsurface facility. The scope of this analysis is limited to radioactive contaminants resulting from breached WPs during the preclosure period of the subsurface repository. This report: (1) documents a method for deriving LRCL on the external surfaces of WP for acceptance into the subsurface repository; (2) provides a table of derived LRCL for nuclides of radiological importance; (3) Provides an as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) evaluation of the derived LRCL by comparing potential onsite and offsite doses to documented ALARA requirements; (4) Provides a method for estimating potential releases from a defective WP; (5) Provides an evaluation of potential radioactive releases from a defective WP that may become airborne and result in contamination of the subsurface facility; and (6) Provides a preliminary analysis of the detectability of a potential WP leak to support the design of an airborne release monitoring system.

Y. Yuan

2001-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

427

Addressing Water Contamination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

biobed to become water-logged, which compromises the efficiency of the degradation mechanism. Technology of space. Moreover, the VG Biobed is more efficient. It relies on "evapo- transpiration" of water by plants, rather than simple evaporation, and soil activity, to clean the water; under this approach, efficient

Loewith, Robbie

428

Management of Transuranic Contaminated Material  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To establish guidelines for the generation, treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal of transuranic (TRU) contaminated material.

1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

429

Surface and Soil Cleanup at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Surface and Soil Projects Surface and Soil Projects placeholder Aerial view of capped landfills A major part of the overall site cleanup involved addressing contaminated soils, underground tanks, and waste storage areas. All of the major soil projects have now been completed, with the exception of some soils that will need to be cleaned up during the decommissioning of the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor and High Flux Beam Reactor. Following are a list of major surface and soil cleanup projects that have been completed since 1994: Three out-of-service 100,000 gallon aboveground waste tanks were removed and disposed of at a licensed off-site disposal facility. Sixteen underground storage tanks (USTs) were removed between 1988 and 2005 under the cleanup program. The project included the removal, transportation, and disposal of the tanks and approximately 4,000 cubic yards of soil and debris.

430

Purifying contaminated water  

SciTech Connect

Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Soil Characterization at the Linde FUSRAP Site and the Impact on Soil Volume Estimates  

SciTech Connect

The former Linde site in Tonawanda, New York is currently undergoing active remediation of Manhattan Engineering District's radiological contamination. This remediation is authorized under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The focus of this paper will be to describe the impact of soil characterization efforts as they relate to soil volume estimates and project cost estimates. An additional objective is to stimulate discussion about other characterization and modeling technologies, and to provide a ''Lessons Learned'' scenario to assist in future volume estimating at other FUSRAP sites. Initial soil characterization efforts at the Linde FUSRAP site in areas known to be contaminated or suspected to be contaminated were presented in the Remedial Investigation Report for the Tonawanda Site, dated February 1993. Results of those initial characterization efforts were the basis for soil volume estimates that were used to estimate and negotiate the current remediation contract. During the course of remediation, previously unidentified areas of contamination were discovered, and additional characterization was initiated. Additional test pit and geoprobe samples were obtained at over 500 locations, bringing the total to over 800 sample locations at the 135-acre site. New data continues to be collected on a routine basis during ongoing remedial actions.

Boyle, J.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

432

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors. The interaction of the contaminant/substrate with the particular decontamination technology is also very important. Results of decontamination testing from hundreds of contaminated coupons have lead to certain conclusions about the contamination and the type of decontamination methods being deployed. A recent addition to the DARPA initiated methodology simulates the deposition of nuclear fallout. This contamination differs from previous tests in that it has been developed and validated purely to simulate a 'loose' type of contamination. This may represent the first time that a radiologically contaminated 'fallout' stimulant has been developed to reproducibly test decontamination methods. While no contaminant/methodology may serve as a complete example of all aspects that could be seen in the field, the study of this family of simulation methods provides insight into the nature of radiological contamination.

Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...opportunities . Environ Sci Technol 44 : 5679 – 5684 . 3 Howarth RW Ingraffea A Engelder T ( 2011 ) Natural gas: Should fracking stop? Nature 477 : 271 – 275 . 4 Osborn SG Vengosh A Warner NR Jackson RB ( 2011 ) Methane contamination of drinking water...

Nathaniel R. Warner; Robert B. Jackson; Thomas H. Darrah; Stephen G. Osborn; Adrian Down; Kaiguang Zhao; Alissa White; Avner Vengosh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures  

SciTech Connect

This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Soils | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Soils Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSoils&oldid612253" Category: NEPA Resources...

437

Surfactant-enhanced extraction of hazardous wastes from soils. First report  

SciTech Connect

Through combined efforts, researchers at Clark Atlanta University and Savannah River Site propose to develop improved soil washing techniques for decontaminating soils containing organic, inorganic and radioactive wastes. This project encompasses several tasks including (1) identification of organic, inorganic and radioactive pollutants in selected soils, (2) separation of soils into various fractions and the determination of wastes in each fraction, (3) soil decontamination by washing with surfactants and evaluation of the effectiveness of various types of surfactants in removing contaminants from soils, (4) determination of soil remediation and the effects of the surfactant concentration and wash solution-to-soil ratio on the desorption and removal of organic wastes from soils, (5) assessment of soil particle size distribution on waste efficiency, (6) evaluating the effects of temperature, mixing rates, and extraction times on waste solubilization and extraction, and (7) determination of the influence of surface charge properties and the pHs of the souls slurries on the decontamination efficiency.

Abotsi, G.; Davies, I.; Saha, G.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Experimental and Computational Studies of Fluid Flow Phenomena in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine and Oil Fields  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES OF FLUID EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES OF FLUID FLOW PHENOMENA IN CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN BRINE AND OIL FIELDS Chuang Ji ( chuang.ji@netl.doe.gov ) National Energy Technology Laboratory Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 BOX 5725 Clarkson University Potsdam, NY 13699 Goodarz Ahmadi ( ahmadi@clarkson.edu ) BOX 5725 Clarkson University Potsdam, NY 13699 Duane H. Smith ( duane.smith@netl.doe.gov ) National Energy Technology Laboratory Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 2 INTRODUCTION Sequestration of CO 2 by injection into deep geological formations is a method to reduce CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere. However, when CO 2 is injected underground, it forms fingers extending into the rock pores saturated with brine or petroleum. This flow

440

Evaluation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast for Geological Sequestration of CO2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Evaluation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast for Geological Sequestration of CO 2 S. D. Hovorka (susan.hovorka@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-4863) Bureau of Economic Geology, P.O. Box X, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 C. Doughty (CADoughty@lbl.gov; 510-486-6453 ) Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road Mailstop 90-1116, Berkeley, CA 94720 P. R. Knox (paul.knox@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-7313), Bureau of Economic Geology, P.O. Box X, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 C. T. Green (ctgreen@ucdavis.edu; 510-495-2461) University of California, Hydrologic Sciences, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 K. Pruess(K_Pruess@lbl.gov; 510-486-6732) Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road Mailstop 90-1116,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine contaminated soil" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The potential for solubilizing agents to enhance the remediation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions. [Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the feasibility for use of surfactant solubilizing agents to enhance the solubility and the rate of microbial degradation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions. Hydrophobic organic contaminants are strongly sorbed to soil or sediment material, and as a consequence the rate of microbial degradation may depend greatly on the desorption of the sorbed-phase contaminant and the accessibility of the contaminant to soil microorganisms. Chemical solubilizing agents may enhance the rate of hydrophobic organic solute degradation by increasing the rate of solute desorption from soil and the extent of solute partitioning to the aqueous phase. The presentation will review on-going research on: surfactant solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in clean water, and in soil-water suspensions; and experiments to assess if the addition of surfactant to soil-water suspension results in faster rate of mineralization of PAH compounds in soil.

Laha, S.; Liu, Z.; Edwards, D.; Luthy, R.G.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

The potential for solubilizing agents to enhance the remediation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the feasibility for use of surfactant solubilizing agents to enhance the solubility and the rate of microbial degradation of hydrophobic organic solutes in soil-water suspensions. Hydrophobic organic contaminants are strongly sorbed to soil or sediment material, and as a consequence the rate of microbial degradation may depend greatly on the desorption of the sorbed-phase contaminant and the accessibility of the contaminant to soil microorganisms. Chemical solubilizing agents may enhance the rate of hydrophobic organic solute degradation by increasing the rate of solute desorption from soil and the extent of solute partitioning to the aqueous phase. The presentation will review on-going research on: surfactant solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds in clean water, and in soil-water suspensions; and experiments to assess if the addition of surfactant to soil-water suspension results in faster rate of mineralization of PAH compounds in soil.

Laha, S.; Liu, Z.; Edwards, D.; Luthy, R.G.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Understanding Long-Term Solute Transport in Sedimentary Basins: Simulating Brine Migration in the Alberta Basin. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Mass transport in deep sedimentary basins places important controls on ore formation, petroleum migration, CO2 sequestration, and geochemical reactions that affect petroleum reservoir quality, but large-scale transport in this type of setting remains poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is highlighted in the resource-rich Alberta Basin, where geochemical and hydrogeologic studies have suggested residence times ranging from hundreds of millions of years to less than 5 My, respectively. Here we developed new hydrogeologic models that were constrained by geochemical observations to reconcile these two very different estimates. The models account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, sediment deposition and erosion, sediment compressibility, and dissolution of salt deposits, including Cl/Br systematics. Prior interpretations of Cl/Br ratios in the Alberta Basin concluded that the brines were derived from evaporatively-concentrated brines that were subsequently diluted by seawater and freshwater; models presented here show that halite dissolution must have contributed strongly as well, which implies significantly greater rates of mass transport. This result confirms that Cl/Br ratios are subject to significant non-uniqueness and thus do not provide good independent indicators of the origin of brines. Salinity and Cl/Br ratios provided valuable new constraints for basin-scale models, however. Sensitivity studies revealed that permeabilities obtained from core- and field-scale tests were appropriate for basin-scale models, despite the differences in scale between the tests and the models. Simulations of groundwater age show that the residence time of porefluids in much of the basin is less than 100 My. Groundwater age increases with depth and approaches 200 My in the deepest part of the basin, but brines are significantly younger than their host rocks throughout the basin.

Alicia M. Wilson

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

444

INTERPRETING THE RESULTS OF SOIL TESTS FOR HEAVY METALS Vern Grubinger and Don Ross, University of Vermont  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

toxicity of a heavy metal will be affected by soil texture, organic matter, and pH. The health effects1 INTERPRETING THE RESULTS OF SOIL TESTS FOR HEAVY METALS Vern Grubinger and Don Ross, University of Vermont Agricultural soils normally contain low background levels of heavy metals. Contamination from

Hayden, Nancy J.

445