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1

Property:BrineConstituents | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BrineConstituents BrineConstituents Jump to: navigation, search Property Name BrineConstituents Property Type String Description Describes major elements, compounds in geothermal brine This is a property of type Page. Subproperties This property has the following 1 subproperty: V Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area Pages using the property "BrineConstituents" Showing 2 pages using this property. N North Brawley Geothermal Area + Chlorine, sodium, potassium, and calcium. Silica concentrations are 527 mg/l and total dissolved solids measure 82,900 mg/l. + S Salt Wells Geothermal Area + Cl, Na, SO4, SiO2, HCO3, and minor Ca, K + Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Property:BrineConstituents&oldid=598832#SMWResults" Category: Properties

2

Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Trace metal speciation in saline waters affected by geothermal brines. [GEOCHEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A description is given of the chemical equilibrium computer program GEOCHEM, which has been developed to calculate trace element speciation in soil, irrigation, drainage, or Salton Sea waters affected by geothermal brine. GEOCHEM is applied to irrigation water-brine mixtures and to Salton Sea water-brine mixtures in order to compute the chemical speciation of the elements Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn, along with the oxyanions of As and B. The results suggest that the computer simulation can have an important effect on a program for managing brine spills. Appendices include published papers on related research.

Sposito, G.; Page, A.L.

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Trace metal speciation in saline waters affected by geothermal brines. Final technical report. [GEOCHEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The computer program GEOCHEM was developed and applied to calculate the speciation of trace elements, such as Li, B, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and As, in mixtures of geothermal brines with soil waters. A typical speciation calculation involved the simultaneous consideration of about 350 inorganic and organic complexes and about 80 possible solid phases that could form among the macro- and microconstituents in the mixtures. The four geothermal brines chosen for study were from the East Mesa, Heber, and Salton Sea KGRA's. Two examples of East Mesa brine were employed in order to illustrate the effect of brine variability within a given KGRA. The soil waters chosen for study were the Holtville, Rosita, and Vint soil solutions and the Vail 4 drain water. These waters were mixed with the four brines to produce 1%, 5%, and 10% brine combinations. The combinations then were analyzed with the help of GEOCHEM and were interpreted in the context of two proposed general contamination scenarios. The results of the speciation calculations pointed to the great importance, in brine, of sulfide as a precipitating agent for trace metals and of borate as a trace metal-complexing ligand. In general, precipitation and/or exchange adsorption in soil were found to reduce the levels of trace metals well below harmful concentrations. The principal exceptions were Li and B, which did not precipitate and which were at or very hear harmful levels in the soil water-brine mixtures.

Sposito, G.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

Wahl, III, Edward F. (Claremont, CA); Boucher, Frederic B. (San Juan Capistrano, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine  

SciTech Connect

This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of produced water per year. Internationally, three barrels of water are produced for each barrel of oil. Production in the United States is more mature; the US average is about 7 barrels of water per barrel of oil. Closer to home, in Texas the Permian Basin produces more than 9 barrels of water per barrel of oil and represents more than 400 million gallons of water per day processed and re-injected.

David B. Burnett

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

7

Analysis of hydrocarbon removal methods for the management of oilfield brines and produced waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According to the Texas Railroad Commission (TRC), ????over 250 billion gallons of produced water is taken out of Texas Soil every year, and more than 35% of this water is not currently fit to use.?? Therefore, it can be assumed that domestically and globally, the petroleum industries challenge has been to develop a high-tech and cost effective method to purify the large volumes of oilfield brines and produced water. Currently, most of the produced water requires several pre- and post- treatment methods to aide in reducing fouling of membranes, separation of components, increasing influent and effluent quality, and preventing unwanted work stoppage during the desalination process. As a result, the pre- and post- treatment conditioning of the produced water affects the economics and scale-up (i.e. residence times, absorption capacity, etc??) of the varying processes parameters. Therefore, this research focuses on developing an economic analysis and determining the adsorption capacity of an organoclay system to remove oil.

Furrow, Brendan Eugene

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Effect of shale-water recharge on brine and gas recovery from geopressured reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The concept of shale-water recharge has often been discussed and preliminary assessments of its significance in the recovery of geopressured fluids have been given previously. The present study uses the Pleasant Bayou Reservoir data as a base case and varies the shale formation properties to investigate their impact on brine and gas recovery. The parametric calculations, based on semi-analytic solutions and finite-difference techniques, show that for vertical shale permeabilities which are at least of the order of 10/sup -5/ md, shale recharge will constitute an important reservoir drive mechanism and will result in much larger fluid recovery than that possible in the absence of shale dewatering.

Riney, T.D.; Garg, S.K.; Wallace, R.H. Jr.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations  

SciTech Connect

Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

2006-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

10

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

11

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

12

Impact-driven pressure management via targeted brine extraction Conceptual studies of CO2 storage in saline formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combining Brine Extraction, desalination, and Residual-Brinebeneficial use such as desalination for drinking water

Birkholzer, J.T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

WETTING BEHAVIOR OF SELECTED CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of aging and displacement temperatures, and brine and oil composition on wettability and the recovery of crude oil by spontaneous imbibition and waterflooding has been investigated. This study is based on displacement tests in Berea Sandstone using three distinctly different crude oils and three reservoir brines. Brine concentration was varied by changing the concentration of total dissolved solids of the synthetic brine in proportion to give brine of twice, one tenth, and one hundredth of the reservoir brine concentration. Aging and displacement temperatures were varied independently. For all crude oils, water-wetness and oil recovery increased with increase in displacement temperature. Tests on the effect of brine concentration showed that salinity of the connate and invading brines can have a major influence on wettability and oil recovery at reservoir temperature. Oil recovery increased over that for the reservoir brine with dilution of both the initial (connate) and invading brine or dilution of either. Removal of light components from the crude oil resulted in increased water-wetness. Addition of alkanes to the crude oil reduced the water-wetness, and increased oil recovery. Relationships between waterflood recovery and wettability are summarized.

G.Q. Tang; N.R. Morrow

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Origin, distribution, and movement of brine in the Permian Basin (U. S. A. ). A model for displacement of connate brine  

SciTech Connect

Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs.

Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINE TREATMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL's Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; ZHOU,W.; SHELENKOVA,L.; WILKE,R.

1998-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

16

Biochemical processes for geothermal brine treatment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL`s Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines, (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Zhou, W.; Shelenkova, L.; Wilke, R.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Treatment methods for geothermal brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A survey is made of commercially available methods currently in use as well as those which might be used to prevent scaling and corrosion in geothermal brines. More emphasis is placed on scaling. Treatments are classified as inhibitors, alterants and coagulants; they are applied to control scaling and corrosion in fresh and waste geothermal brines. Recommendations for research in brine treatment are described.

Phillips, S.L.; Mathur, A.K.; Garrison, W.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Unconventional gas sources. Volume IV. Geopressured brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following topics are covered: study objectives, regional geology and prospect evaluation, reservoir engineering, drilling and well costs, production and water disposal facilities, pressure maintenance, geothermal and hydraulic energy assessment, operating expense, economic evaluation, environmental considerations, legal considerations, and risks analysis. The study addresses only sandstone brine reservoirs in the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast onshore areas. (MHR)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Origin and geochemical evolution of the Michigan basin brine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical and isotopic data were collected on 126 oil field brine samples and were used to investigate the origin and geochemical evolution of water in 8 geologic formations in the Michigan basin. Two groups of brine are found in the basin, the Na-Ca-Cl brine in the upper Devonian formations, and Ca-Na-Cl brine from the lower Devonian and Silurian aged formations. Water in the upper Devonian Berea, Traverse, and Dundee formations originated from seawater concentrated into halite facies. This brine evolved by halite precipitation, dolomitization, aluminosilicate reactions, and the removal of SO{sub 4} by bacterial action or by CaSO{sub 4} precipitation. The stable isotopic composition (D, O) is thought to represent dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by meteoric water. Water in the lower Devonian Richfield, Detroit River Group, and Niagara-Salina formations is very saline Ca-Na-Cl brine. Cl/Br suggest it originated from seawater concentrated through the halite and into the MgSO{sub 4} salt facies, with an origin linked to the Silurian and Devonian salt deposits. Dolomitization and halite precipitation increased the Ca/Na, aluminosilicate reactions removed K, and bacterial action or CaSO{sub 4} precipitation removed SO{sub 4} from this brine. Water chemistry in the Ordovician Trenton-Black River formations indicates dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by fresh or seawater. Possible saline end-members include Ordovician seawater, present-day upper Devonian brine, or Ca-Cl brine from the deeper areas in the basin.

Wilson, T.P.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake river Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from nine irrigation wells, three domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, one commercial well, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. Additional sampling at six sites was done to complete the third round of sampling. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [Idaho Dept. of Water Resources, Boise, ID (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence  

SciTech Connect

The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture are about NO{sub 3}:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005).

Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

2005-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

22

Case Study of Water-Soluble Metal Containing Organic Constituents of Biomass Burning Aerosol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Natural and prescribed biomass fires are a major source of atmospheric aerosols that can persist in the atmosphere for long periods of time. Biomass burning aerosols (BBA) can be associated with long range transport of water soluble N?, S?, P?, and metal?containing species. In this study, BBA samples were collected using a particle?into?liquid sampler (PILS) from laboratory burns of vegetation collected on military bases in the southeastern and southwestern United States. The samples were then analyzed using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/HR?MS) that enabled accurate mass measurements for hundreds of species with m/z values between 70 and 1000 and assignment of probable elemental formulae. Mg, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Ba?containing organometallic species were identified. The results suggest that the biomass may have accumulated metal?containing species that were reemitted during biomass burning. Further research into the sources, persistence, and dispersion of metal?containing aerosols as well as their environmental effects is needed.

Chang-Graham, Alexandra L.; Profeta, Luisa Tm; Johnson, Timothy J.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

23

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Experiments were used to examine water content in Permian salt samples (Salado Formation) collected from the WIPP site. The profile of water release and movement is recognized as a function of temperature from 30 to 275 oC using classical gravimetric methods to measure weight loss as a result of heating. The amount of water released from heating the salt was found to be correlated with the salts accessory mineral content (clay, other secondary minerals lost up to 3 wt % while pure halite salt lost less than 0.5 wt % water). Water released from salt at lower temperature was reversible and is attributed to clay hydration and dehydration processes. The analysis

24

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Experiments were used to examine water content in Permian salt samples (Salado Formation) collected from the WIPP site. The profile of water release and movement is recognized as a function of temperature from 30 to 275 oC using classical gravimetric methods to measure weight loss as a result of heating. The amount of water released from heating the salt was found to be correlated with the salts accessory mineral content (clay, other secondary minerals lost up to 3 wt % while pure halite salt lost less than 0.5 wt % water). Water released from salt at lower temperature was reversible and is attributed to clay hydration and dehydration processes. The analysis

25

Hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this research is to determine the concentration of the cryocondensates in fluids of the various USDOE Geopressured wells as a function of production volume, to correlate the production of these compounds with reservoir and well production characteristics, to precisely measure solubilities of cryocondensates components in water and sodium chloride solutions (brines) as a function of ionic strength and temperature and the component's distribution coefficients between these solutions and oil, to develop models of the reservoir which are consistent with the data obtained, to monitor the wells for the production of aliphatic oils and relate any such production with the data obtained, and to develop a harsh environment pH probe for use in well brines. Results are summarized.

Not Available

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Gas evolution from geopressured brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The process of gas evolution from geopressured brine is examined using as a basis the many past studies of gas evolution from liquids in porous media. A discussion of a number of speculations that have been made concerning gas evolution from geopressured brines is provided. According to one, rapid pressure reduction will cause methane gas to evolve as when one opens a champagne bottle. It has been further speculated that evolved methane gas would migrate up to form an easily producible cap. As a result of detailed analyses, it can be concluded that methane gas evolution from geopressured brines is far too small to ever form a connected gas saturation except very near to the producing well. Thus, no significant gas cap could ever form. Because of the very low solubility of methaned in brine, the process of methane gas evolution is not at all analogous to evolution of carbon dioxide from champagne. A number of other speculations and questions on gas evolution are analyzed, and procedures for completing wells and testing geopressured brine reservoirs are discussed, with the conclusion that presently used procedures will provide adequate data to enable a good evaluation of this resource.

Matthews, C.S.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominant brine was simulateddistillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated

Zhang, Guoxiang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Chemistry of silica in Cerro Prieto brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The precipitation of amorphous silica from synthetic geothermal brines which resemble the flashed brine at Cerro Prieto has been studied. It was found that part of the dissolved silica quickly polymerizes to form suspended colloidal silica. The colloidal silica flocculates and settles slowly at unmodified brine pH values near 7.35. Raising the pH of the brine to about 7.8 by adding base and stirring for a few minutes causes rapid and complete flocculation and settling. These results have been confirmed in the field using actual Cerro Prieto brine. Both in the laboratory and in the field quaternary amines were found to be effective with some brine compositions but not with others. Polyacrylamides do not work at all. These results suggest the following simple preinjection brine treatment process: age the brine for 10 to 20 minutes in a covered holding tank, add 20 to 30 ppM lime (CaO), stir for 5 minutes, and separate the flocculated silica from the brine using a conventional clarifier. The brine coming out of such a process will be almost completely free of suspended solids. The pilot plant tests needed to reduce this conceptual process to practice are discussed. The rate of deposition of silica scale from synthetic brines was separately studied. It was found that a modest decrease in pH could significantly reduce the scaling rate at a reasonable cost. The equilibrium chemistry of Cerro Prieto brine was studied theoretically. These calculations indicate that increasing the brine pH to remove silica might cause some precipitation of carbonate minerals, but also that this problem could easily be eliminated at a reasonable cost if it did arise.

Weres, O.; Tsao, L.; Iglesias, E.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The precipitation of amorphous silica from synthetic geothermal, brines which resemble the flashed brine at Cerro Prieto has been studied. It was found that part of the dissolved silica quickly polymerizes to form suspended colloidal silica. The colloidal silica flocculates and settles slowly at unmodified brine pH values near 7.35. Raising the pH of the brine to about 7.8 by adding base and stirring for a few minutes causes rapid and complete flocculation and settling. these results have been confirmed in the field using actual Cerro Prieto brine. Both in the laboratory and in the field quaternary amines were found to be effective with some brine compositions but not with others. Polyacrylamides do not work at all. These results suggest the following simple preinjection brine treatment process: age the brine for 10-20 minutes in a covered holding tank, add 20-30 ppm lime (CaO), stir for 5 minutes, and separate the flocculated silica from the brine using a conventional clarifier. The brine coming out of such a process will be almost completely free of suspended solids. The pilot plant tests needed to reduce this conceptual process to practice are discussed. The rate of deposition of silica scale from synthetic brines was separately studied. It was found that a modest decrease in pH could significantly reduce the scaling rate at a reasonable cost. The equilibrium chemistry of Cerro Prieto brine was studied theoretically. These calculations indicate that increasing the brine pH to remove silica might cause some precipitation of carbonate minerals, but also that this problem could easily be eliminated at a reasonable cost if it did arise.

Weres, Oleh; Iglesias, Eduardo; Tsao, Leon

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California Abstract N/A Authors Whitescarver and Olin D. Published U.S. Department of Energy, 1984 Report Number N/A DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California Citation Whitescarver, Olin D.. 1984. Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California. (!) : U.S. Department of Energy. Report No.: N/A. Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Development_Operations_Hypersaline_Geothermal_Brine_Utilization_Imperial_County,_California&oldid=682648

32

Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report  

SciTech Connect

This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

None

1980-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

33

Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Number NA DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial...

34

Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water More Documents & Publications Application of Environmental Isotopes to the Evaluation of the Origin of Contamination in a Desert Arroyo: Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale

35

Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water Characterization and Isolation of Constituents Causing Red Coloration in Desert Arroyo Seepage Water More Documents & Publications Natural Contamination from the Mancos Shale Application of Environmental Isotopes to the Evaluation of the Origin of Contamination in a Desert Arroyo: Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico

36

Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent expected conditions in an emplacement drift, but nevertheless illustrate the potential for acid-gas generation at moderate temperatures (<150 C).

Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

37

Buoyancy effects on upward brine displacement caused by CO2 injection  

SciTech Connect

Upward displacement of brine from deep reservoirs driven by pressure increases resulting from CO{sub 2} injection for geologic carbon sequestration may occur through improperly sealed abandoned wells, through permeable faults, or through permeable channels between pinch-outs of shale formations. The concern about upward brine flow is that, upon intrusion into aquifers containing groundwater resources, the brine may degrade groundwater. Because both salinity and temperature increase with depth in sedimentary basins, upward displacement of brine involves lifting fluid that is saline but also warm into shallower regions that contain fresher, cooler water. We have carried out dynamic simulations using TOUGH2/EOS7 of upward displacement of warm, salty water into cooler, fresher aquifers in a highly idealized two-dimensional model consisting of a vertical conduit (representing a well or permeable fault) connecting a deep and a shallow reservoir. Our simulations show that for small pressure increases and/or high-salinity-gradient cases, brine is pushed up the conduit to a new static steady-state equilibrium. On the other hand, if the pressure rise is large enough that brine is pushed up the conduit and into the overlying upper aquifer, flow may be sustained if the dense brine is allowed to spread laterally. In this scenario, dense brine only contacts the lower-most region of the upper aquifer. In a hypothetical case in which strong cooling of the dense brine occurs in the upper reservoir, the brine becomes sufficiently dense that it flows back down into the deeper reservoir from where it came. The brine then heats again in the lower aquifer and moves back up the conduit to repeat the cycle. Parameter studies delineate steady-state (static) and oscillatory solutions and reveal the character and period of oscillatory solutions. Such oscillatory solutions are mostly a curiosity rather than an expected natural phenomenon because in nature the geothermal gradient prevents the cooling in the upper aquifer that occurs in the model. The expected effect of upward brine displacement is either establishment of a new hydrostatic equilibrium or sustained upward flux into the bottom-most region of the upper aquifer.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Rinaldi, A.

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Organic constituents in process water from the in-situ retorting of oil from oil-shale kerogen  

SciTech Connect

Capillary-column gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) was performed on the acid, base, and neutral fractions of liquid- and particulate-phase methylene chloride extracts of a composite sample of raw process water collected from separator Tank 6 by the Laramie Energy Technology Center. Of the 160 extractable and chromatographable organic compounds tentatively identified, the following compound classes were found (listed in decreasing order of abundance): quinolines and lower fatty acids, aminoindoles, neutral oxygenated heterocyclics, pyridines, pyrroles, pyrazoles, phenols, and alkanes. Noticeably absent or in low concentration were alkyl benzenes and alkenes. Assuming 100% extraction efficiency, these organics constitute approximately 0.035% of the retort water; approximately 50% of this amount is represented by the quinolines, fatty acids, aminoindoles, and oxygenated heterocyclics. The following differences were noted in the composition of the particulate and liquid extracts of the neutral and base fractions, respectively: (1) alkanes are a major portion of the particulates, whereas oxygenated hereocyclics are most prominent in the liquid; and (2) aminoindoles are only a minor portion of the particulates, but are prominent in the liquid phase. The concentration of a compound occurring in both the liquid and particulate extracts is approximately 40 to 100 times higher in the liquid than in the particulate extract.

Raphaelian, L A; Harrison, W

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Hydrocarbon content of geopressured brines. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Design Well data (bottomhole pressure minus wellhead pressure, GWR, and hydrocarbon composition) is presented as a function of producing conditions. These are examined in conjunction with the following models to attempt to deduce the reservoir brine saturation level: (1) reservoir contains gas dispersed in the pores and the gas saturation is greater than critical; (2) reservoir brine is gas-saturated; (3) bubble point below hydrostatic pressure; and (4) bubble point between hydrostatic pressure and reservoir pressure. 24 figs., 10 tabs. (ACR)

Osif, T.L.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Study of thermal-gradient-induced migration of brine inclusions in salt. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural salt deposits, which are being considered for high-level waste disposal, contain a small volume fraction of water in the form of brine inclusions distributed throughout the salt. Radioactive decay heating of the nuclear wastes will impose a temperature gradient on the surrounding salt which mobilizes the brine inclusions. Inclusions filled completely with brine (the all-liquid inclusions) migrate up the temperature gradient and eventually accumulate brine near the buried waste forms. The brine may slowly corrode or degrade the waste forms, which is undesirable. Therefore it is important to consider the migration of brine inclusions in salt under imposed temperature gradients to properly evaluate the performance of a future salt repository for nuclear wastes. The migration velocities of the inclusions were found to be dependent on temperature, temperature gradient, and inclusion shape and size. The velocities were also dictated by the interfacial mass transfer resistance at brine/solid interface. This interfacial resistance depends on the dislocation density in the crystal, which in turn, depends on the axial compressive loading of the crystal. At low axial loads, the dependence between the velocity and temperature gradient is nonlinear. At high axial loads, the interfacial resistance is reduced and the migration velocity depends linearly on the temperature gradient. All-liquid inclusions filled with mixed brines were also studied. For gas-liquid inclusions, helium, air and argon were compared. Migration studies were also conducted on single crystallites of natural salt as well as in polycrystalline natural salt samples. The behavior of the inclusions at large-ange grain boundaries was observed.

Olander, D.R.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Comparison of selected oil-field brines from fields in the Permian basin, West Texas-southeast New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Stiff diagrams of oil-field brines from the west Texas Permian basin are identifiable within the geological framework. Plotted from a simple analysis of three cations and three anions, older Paleozoic waters can be categorized as either 'pristine' or modified, usually by a later influx of Permian or early Pennsylvanian water. These different plots can be segregated by geologic province. The Permian brines differ by age and also by environment (shelf, basin, etc.).

White, H.G. III

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Power Production from Geothermal Brine with the Rotary Separator Turbine  

SciTech Connect

The rotary separator turbine is a new turbine device that operates with gas-liquid mixtures. This device achieves complete gas-liquid separation, generates power from the liquid and repressurizes the liquid. The use of the rotary separator turbine for geothermal power generation was investigated on this program. A pilot scale unit was designed and tested. Tests were conducted with a clean water/steam mixture and with geothermal brine/steam flows at East Mesa, California; Raft River, Idaho; and Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah. The test results were used to calculate the performance advantage of a rotary separator turbine power system compared to a flash steam power system and a binary power system. The calculated performance advantages were then used to estimate market potential for wellhead and central station Biphase units. The measured performance in the laboratory and in the field agreed to within {+-} 10% of the predicted values. The design goal of 20 kWe was generated both in the laboratory and from brine. Separated steam quality was measured to be greater than 99.96% at all three geothermal resources and in the laboratory. Brine pressure leaving the test unit was greater than reinjection pressure requirements. Maximum brine outlet pressure of 90 psig was demonstrated. The measured performance values would result in a 34% increase in electric power production above a single stage flash steam system. Increasing the size from the pilot size unit (20kWe) to a wellhead unit (2000 kWe) gave a calculated performance advantage of 40%. Based on these favorable results, design, construction and testing of a full-size well-head unit was initiated.

Cerini, Donald J.; Hays, Lance G.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Salt effects on stable isotope partitioning and their geochemical implications for geothermal brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It has long been recognized that dissolved salts in water can change oxygen and hydrogen isotope partitioning between water and other phases (i.e., vapor, minerals) due to the hydration of ions upon the dissolution of salts in water. However, their effects have not been well determined at elevated temperatures. We are currently conducting a series of hydrothermal experiments of the system brine-vapor or minerals to 350{degrees}C, in order to determine precisely the effects of dissolved salts abundant in brines on isotope partitioning at temperatures encountered in geothermal systems. The so-called ``isotope salt effect`` has important implications for the interpretation and modeling of isotopic data of brines and rocks obtained from geothermal fields. We will show how to use our new results of isotopic partitioning to help better evaluate energy resources of many geothermal fields.

Horita, J.; Cole, D.R.; Wesolowski, D.J.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Membrane distillation of concentrated brines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Salinity is one of the most critical environmental problems for water scarce countries, deteriorating water quality and threatening economic and social consequences. This research encompasses… (more)

Mariah, Lynette.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Geothermal Power Production from Brine Co-Produced from Oil and Gas Wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Millions of barrels of water (brine) per day are co-produced from oil and gas wells. Currently, the oil and gas industry views this as a waste stream that costs millions of dollars per year to manage, through either treatment or disposal/reinjection. A significant percentage of the co-produced brine, however, flows at sufficient rate and temperature to generate power using a binary power plant, and this is viewed by some as a potential value stream. The value lies in that the co-produced water is "free" ...

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

46

Stability of plutonium(VI) in WIPP brine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The redox stability of plutonium (VI) in WIPP brine was investigated by monitoring the oxidation state as a function of time using a combination of absorption spectrometry, radiochemical counting and filtration. Studies were performed with Pu-239 and Pu-238 in four WIPP brines at concentrations between 10{sup {minus}3} and 10{sup {minus}8} M for durations as long as two years. Two synthetic brines, Brine A and ERDA-6, and two underground collected brines, DH-36 and G-Seep, were used. The stability of Pu(VI) depended on the brine composition and the speciation of the plutonium in that brine. When carbonate was present, a Pu(VI)-carbonate complex was observed that was stable. In the absence of carbonate, Pu(VI) hydrolytic species predominated which had a wide range of stability in the brines investigated. The results reported will help define the speciation of plutonium in WIPP brine and hence its potential for migration.

Reed, D.T.; Okajima, S.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Volatility of HCl and the thermodynamics of brines during brine dryout  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory measurements of liquid-vapor partitioning (volatility) of chlorides from brines to steam can be used to indicate the potential for corrosion problems in geothermal systems. Measurements of volatilities of solutes in chloride brines have established a possible mechanism for the production of high-chloride steam from slightly acidic high temperature brines. Questions concerning the fate of NaCl in the steam production process have been addressed through extensive measurements of its volatility from brines ranging in concentration from dilute solutions to halite saturation. Recent measurements of chloride partitioning to steam over brines in contact with Geysers rock samples are consistent with our concept of the process for production of high-chloride steam.

Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Brine flow in heated geologic salt.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

50

Silica scaling in simulated geothermal brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 6.3 1/sec (100 GPM) titanium corrosion test loop was modified to provide a dynamic facility for studying the formation of silica deposits, their properties and fates, as a function of brine composition, temperature, and flow conditions. Scale formation was studied in a segmented heat exchanger operating under realistic conditions; the segmented design permitted examination of scale formations in five temperature regimes. The program was terminated after minimal exploratory operation because of reduced sponsor perceptions of the need for concern with scaling problems. The runs which were completed dealt cursorily with brine concentration and pH effects. Results are presented.

Bohlmann, E.G.; Shor, A.J.; Berlinski, P.; Mesmer, R.E.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites  

SciTech Connect

The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Geothermal brines and sludges: a new resource  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of cost efficient biochemical processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges is the main thrust of a major R&D effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This effort has led to the design of an environmentally acceptable, technically and economically feasible new technology which converts geothermal wastes into products with significant commercial potential. These include valuable metals recovery with a metal extraction and recovery efficiency of better then 80% over short periods of time (5-25 hours). The new technology also yields valuable salts, such as potassium chloride and generates high quality pigment free silica. The basic technology is versatile and can, with slight modifications, be used in the treatment of hypersaline as well as low salinity brines and sludges. Concurrently traces of toxic metals, including radium are removed to levels which are within regulatory limits. The current status of the new biochemical technology will be discussed in this paper.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, H.; Miltenberger, R.P.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Approach to recover strategic metals from brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the proposed research is to evaluate hypersaline brines from geothermal sources and salt domes as possible sources for some strategic metals. This research is suggested because several previous analyses of brine from geothermal wells in the Imperial Valley, California, and from Gulf Coast salt domes, indicate near commercial values for platinum as well as other metals (i.e., gold, silver). Extraction of the platinum should be technically feasible. A research program should include more complete systematic sampling and analysis for resource delineation, followed by bench-scale investigation of several potential extraction processes. This could be followed by engineering feasibility and design studies, for extraction of the metals either as a by-product of other operations or in a stand-alone process.

Raber, E.; Harrar, J.; Gregg, D.

1981-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

54

Models of Geothermal Brine Chemistry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many significant expenses encountered by the geothermal energy industry are related to chemical effects. When the composition, temperature of pressure of the fluids in the geological formation are changed, during reservoir evolution, well production, energy extraction or injection processes, the fluids that were originally at equilibrium with the formation minerals come to a new equilibrium composition, temperature and pressure. As a result, solid material can be precipitated, dissolved gases released and/or heat lost. Most geothermal energy operations experience these phenomena. For some resources, they create only minor problems. For others, they can have serious results, such as major scaling or corrosion of wells and plant equipment, reservoir permeability losses and toxic gas emission, that can significantly increase the costs of energy production and sometimes lead to site abandonment. In future operations that exploit deep heat sources and low permeability reservoirs, new chemical problems involving very high T, P rock/water interactions and unknown injection effects will arise.

Nancy Moller Weare; John H. Weare

2002-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

55

Technical and economic feasibility of salt-gradient solar ponds at the Truscott Brine Lake of the Red River Chloride Control Project. A report to the House-Senate Committee on Appropriations of the Ninety-Seventh Congress  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Truscott Brine Lake is being constructed to impound highly brackish water from a number of sources which would normally flow into the Wichita River, a tributary of the Red River in Knox County, Texas. A 35.4-km (22-mile) pipeline is being constructed to carry the brines from their primary source to the Truscott Brine Lake site. The reservoir is designed to contain 100 years of brine emissions from three chloride emission areas in the Wichita River Basin. The solar ponds and power generating facilities would be located in the Bluff Creek Arm of Truscott Brine Lake. The Truscott Brine Lake study includes: survey of suitability of Truscott Lake site, review of solar pond technology, preconceptual design of solar salt pond power plant, and economic evaluation.

Not Available

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Sustainable Carbon Sequestration: Increasing CO2-Storage Efficiency through a CO2-Brine Displacement Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CO2 sequestration is one of the proposed methods for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and therefore mitigating global climate change. Few studies on storing CO2 in an aquifer have been conducted on a regional scale. This study offers a conceptual approach to increasing the storage efficiency of CO2 injection in saline formations and investigates what an actual CO2 storage project might entail using field data for the Woodbine aquifer in East Texas. The study considers three aquifer management strategies for injecting CO2 emissions from nearby coal-fired power plants into the Woodbine aquifer. The aquifer management strategies studied are bulk CO2 injection, and two CO2-brine displacement strategies. A conceptual model performed with homogeneous and average reservoir properties reveals that bulk injection of CO2 pressurizes the aquifer, has a storage efficiency of 0.46% and can only last for 20 years without risk of fracturing the CO2 injection wells. The CO2-brine displacement strategy can continue injecting CO2 for as many as 240 years until CO2 begins to break through in the production wells. This offers 12 times greater CO2 storage efficiency than the bulk injection strategy. A full field simulation with a geological model based on existing aquifer data validates the storage capacity claims made by the conceptual model. A key feature in the geological model is the Mexia-Talco fault system that serves as a likely boundary between the saline aquifer region suitable for CO2 storage and an updip fresh water region. Simulation results show that CO2 does not leak into the fresh water region of the iv aquifer after 1000 years of monitoring if the faults have zero transmissibility, but a negligible volume of brine eventually gets through the mostly sealing fault system as pressure across the faults slowly equilibrates during the monitoring period. However, for fault transmissibilities of 0.1 and 1, both brine and CO2 leak into the fresh water aquifer in increasing amounts for both bulk injection and CO2-brine displacement strategies. In addition, brine production wells draw some fresh water into the saline aquifer if the Mexia-Talco fault system is not sealing. A CO2 storage project in the Woodbine aquifer would impact as many as 15 counties with high-pressure CO2 pipelines stretching as long as 875 km from the CO2 source to the injection site. The required percentage of power plant energy capacity was 7.43% for bulk injection, 7.9% for the external brine disposal case, and 10.2% for the internal saturated brine injection case. The estimated total cost was $0.00132–$0.00146/kWh for the bulk injection, $0.00191–$0.00211/kWh for the external brine disposal case, and $0.0019–$0.00209/kWh for the internal saturated brine injection case.

Akinnikawe, Oyewande

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

West Hackberry Brine Disposal Project pre-discharge characterization. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The physical, chemical and biological attributes are described for: (1) a coastal marine environment centered about a Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) brine disposal site 11.4 km off the southwest coast of Louisiana; and (2) the lower Calcasieu and Sabine estuarine systems that provide leach waters for the SPR project. A three month sampling effort, February through April 1981, and previous investigations from the study area are integrated to establish baseline information for evaluation of impacts from brine disposal in the nearshore marine waters and from freshwater withdrawal from the coastal marsh of the Chenier Plain. January data are included for some tasks that sampled while testing and mobilizing their instruments prior to the February field effort. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, estuarine hydrology and hydrography, water and sediment quality, benthos, nekton, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C. (eds.) [eds.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Comparison of elementary geothermal-brine power-production processes  

SciTech Connect

From applied technology geothermal committee meeting; Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA (7 Aug 1973). A comparison of three simple geothermal power- production systems shows that the flashed steam and the compound systems are favored for use with high-temperature brines. The binary system becomes economically competitive only when used on low-temperature brines (enthalpies less than 350 Btu/lb). Geothermal power appears to be economically attractive even when low-temperature brines are used. (auth)

Green, M.A.; Laird, A.D.K.

1973-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Aromatic hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells. Annual report, fiscal 1985  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Samples of cryocondensates - materials condensed at - 78.5/sup 0/C were taken on a regular basis from the gas stream for the USDOE geopressured wells. Most of the data has been taken from the Gladys McCall well as it has flowed on a regular and almost continous basis. The cryocondensates, not the ''condensate'' from gas wells, are almost exclusively aromatic hydrocarbons, primarily benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylenes, but contain over 95 compounds, characterized using gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopy. The solubility in water and brine of benezene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene, some of the components of the cryocondensate, as well as distribution coefficients between water or brine and a standard oil have been measured. 25 refs.

Keeley, D.F.; Meriwether, J.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Scientific Considerations Related to Regulation Development for CO2 Sequestration in Brine Formations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SCIENTIFIC CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO REGULATION SCIENTIFIC CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO REGULATION DEVELOPMENT FOR CO 2 SEQUESTRATION IN BRINE FORMATIONS Chin-Fu Tsang (cftsang@lbl.gov; (510) 486-5782) Sally M. Benson (smbenson@lbl.gov; (510) 486-7071) Earth Sciences Division, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory One Cyclotron Road, MS 90-1116, Berkeley, CA 94720 Bruce Kobelski (kobelski.bruce@epa.gov) Robert Smith (smith.robert-eu@epamail.epa.gov) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Drinking Water and Ground Water, Washington D.C. Introduction Reduction of atmospheric emissions of CO 2 (DOE, 1999a) through injection of CO 2 into in deep brine formations is being actively studied both in the U.S. and internationally. If this technology is to be employed broadly enough to make a significant impact on global

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Resource Recovery of Coal Bed Methane Formation Water.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??During the excavation of natural gas, petroleum hydrocarbon-polluted brine water, termed production water, is drawn from the coal bed methane formations (CBMF) along with the… (more)

Bishop, Catherine Elizabeth

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Use of inhibitors for scale control in brine-producing gas and oil wells  

SciTech Connect

Field and laboratory work have shown that calcium-carbonate scale formation in waters produced with natural gas and oil can be prevented by injection of phosphonate inhibitor into the formation, even if the formation is sandstone without calcite binging material. Inhibitor squeeze jobs have been carried out on DOE's geopressured-geothermal Gladys McCall brine-gas well and GRI's co-production wells in the Hitchcock field. Following the inhibitor squeeze on Gladys McCall, the well produced over five million barrels of water at a rate of approximately 30,000 BPD without calcium-carbonate scaling. Before the inhibitor squeeze, the well could not be produced above 15,000 BPD without significant scale formation. In the GRI brine-gas co-production field tests, inhibitor squeezes have been used to successfully prevant scaling. Laboratory work has been conducted to determine what types of oil field waters are subject to scaling. This research has led to the development of a saturation index and accompanying nomographs which allow prediction of when scale will develop into a problem in brine production.

Tomson, M.B.; Prestwich, S.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Experimental testing of a direct contact heat exchanger for geothermal brine. Final report, July 1, 1978-February 1, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of direct contact heat exchanger (DCHX) experiments were conducted at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site during the period July 1, 1978 to February 1, 1979. The purpose of these tests was to provide additional data necessary to better understand the thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the DCHX binary cycle loop components that may be used to extract energy from geothermal brines. Isobutane and Isopentane were tested as secondary working fluids. The analytical and experimental efforts were directed at the problems of working fluid loss in the effluent brine, carryover of water vapor with the vaporized secondary fluid and the free CO/sub 2/ content of the feed brine. The tests aimed at evaluating the heat transfer performance of various type tubes installed in vertical shell-and-tube secondary fluid condensers. Data was collected while operating a low temperature isopentane cycle with brine preflashed to 210 to 212/sup 0/F; the objective being to gain insight to waste heat recovery applications such as the Arkansas Power and Light project. Possible alternatives for isobutane recovery from the spent brine were investigated. A system was designed and the economic aspects studied.

Urbanek, M.W.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Modeling of an adiabatic packed bed brine-air contactor for use in a solar energy driven food processing system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mathematical model was developed for a packed bed brine-air contacting system which has applications in a solar energy driven food processing system. The model considers mass transfer resistances of both phases, but neglects the heat transfer resistance of the liquid phase. It takes into account the large heat effects associated with water absorption into and desorption from the brine. A computational method was also developed to calculate the minimum air flow rate which would prevent a pinch. A packed bed brine-air contactor was built, and experiments were conducted for a range of brine and air conditions. Good agreement between the computed and experimental results warrants use of the model to design and optimize the packed bed water stripping process. A periodic-flow packed bed heat regenerator was built to recover heat from the exit air of the contactor so as to improve the energy efficiency of the system. It was possible to preheat the inlet air to a temperature close to that of the exit air. The inlet air, however, during its passage through the regenerator picked up the condensate deposited from the exit air. This led to a decrease in the driving potential to mass transfer in the contactor. Optimization studies show that using a combined solar driven boiler and air assisted packed bed water stripper would be more economical than using a solar driven boiler alone or using flat plate solar collectors to drive the water stripper.

Biswal, R.N.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Study and testing of direct contact heat exchangers for geothermal brines. Final report, June 1975--July 1976  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The object of the work reported herein was to assess the technical and economic feasibility of preheating and evaporating a secondary fluid via direct contact with hot geothermal brine. The work covered a period of 12 months and included the design, construction, and testing of a unit which heats and vaporizes 10 gpm of isobutane by direct contact with 325/sup 0/F brine. The analytical and experimental efforts explored design and economic characteristics, including anticipated problem areas such as working fluid loss in the brine, production of a stable dispersion of the working fluid in brine, fluids separation, axial mixing and carry-over of water vapor with the working fluid. Isobutane was selected as the working fluid for tests primarily because of the favorable amount of net work produced per pound of geothermal brine and the low amount and cost of working fluid lost in the heat exchange process. The Elgin Spray Tower concept was selected for the preheater and boiler. The test apparatus includes a separate boiler and a separate preheater, each 6'' diameter by 6' high. Brine enters the top of each vessel and leaves the bottom. Isobutane enters the bottom of the preheater through a distributor plate to produce 0.15 inch diameter drops. The experimental unit operated with no major problems and demonstrated its hydraulic and thermal capabilities. Volumetric heat transfer coefficients obtained ranged up to 4000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/. Boiling heat transfer coefficients of as high as 17,000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/ were obtained with a design value of 10,000 BTU/hr /sup 0/F ft/sup 3/. Amount of isobutane in a 21 percent NaCl solution leaving the preheater was less than 40 ppM. A conceptual design and cost estimate was prepared for a direct contact heat exchange system sized for a 50 MW power plant.

Suratt, W.B.; Hart, G.K.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

ABSORBING WIPP BRINES: A TRU WASTE DISPOSAL STRATEGY  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250- liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WIPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $311k in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

Yeamans, D. R.; Wrights, R. S.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

67

Absorbing WIPP brines : a TRU waste disposal strategy.  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250-liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WlPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $3 1 lk in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

Yeamans, D. R. (David R.); Wright, R. (Robert)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Recovery of alkali metal constituents from catalytic coal conversion residues  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal gasification operation (32) or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by contacting them (46, 53, 61, 69) with water or an aqueous solution to remove water-soluble alkali metal constituents and produce an aqueous solution enriched in said constituents. The aqueous solution thus produced is then contacted with carbon dioxide (63) to precipitate silicon constituents, the pH of the resultant solution is increased (81), preferably to a value in the range between about 12.5 and about 15.0, and the solution of increased pH is evaporated (84) to increase the alkali metal concentration. The concentrated aqueous solution is then recycled to the conversion process (86, 18, 17) where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

Soung, Wen Y. (Houston, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

How to treat and recycle heavy clear brine fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clear brine fluids, such as CaCl/sub 2/, are replacing muds in well completions and workovers. These ''solids-free'' fluids have caused increases in well productivity of as much as 850%. To use the fluids in higher density ranges, it is necessary to blend the CaCl/sub 2/ brines with the more expensive bromide fluids. This, in turn, has increased the importance of reclaiming weighted brines to make their use more cost effective. To reclaim clear fluids, the solids picked up during use are removed and the fluid is reused or reweighted. A common problem though is the post-precipitation of dissolved contaminants that may appear in the used brines after several days or weeks in storage. Precipitation also may occur if other heavy fluids are added to adjust density before reuse. Laboratory tests have identified the solids as primarily iron hydroxides and halides. (Halides are salts containing a halogen-flourine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine.) Additional experimentation has shown that pH adjustment at the well site or before transfer to storage facilities can provide a simple and effective way of controlling the precipitation of metal hydroxides and halides. This article discusses methods of pH control, measurement, and adjustment, which will allow for optimum use of clear brine fluids.

Pasztor, A.J.; Snover, J.S.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Cementation process for minerals recovery from Salton Sea geothermal brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential for minerals recovery from a 1000-MWe combined geothermal power and minerals recovery plant in the Salton Sea is examined. While the possible value of minerals recovered would substantially exceed the revenue from power production, information is insufficient to carry out a detailed economic analysis. The recovery of precious metals - silver, gold, and platinum - is the most important factor in determining the economics of a minerals recovery plant; however, the precious metals content of the brines is not certain. Such a power plant could recover 14 to 31% of the US demand for manganese and substantial amounts of zinc and lead. Previous work on minerals extraction from Salton Sea brines is also reviewed and a new process, based on a fluidized-bed cementation reaction with metallic iron, is proposed. This process would recover the precious metals, lead, and tin present in the brines.

Maimoni, A.

1982-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

71

Actinide (III) solubility in WIPP Brine: data summary and recommendations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The solubility of actinides in the +3 oxidation state is an important input into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performance assessment (PA) models that calculate potential actinide release from the WIPP repository. In this context, the solubility of neodymium(III) was determined as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and WIPP brine composition. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on the solubility of +3 actinides under WIPP-related conditions. Neodymium(III) was used as a redox-invariant analog for the +3 oxidation state of americium and plutonium, which is the oxidation state that accounts for over 90% of the potential release from the WIPP through the dissolved brine release (DBR) mechanism, based on current WIPP performance assessment assumptions. These solubility data extend past studies to brine compositions that are more WIPP-relevant and cover a broader range of experimental conditions than past studies.

Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Brine and gas recovery from geopressured systems. I. Parametric calculations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of parametric calculations was run with the S-CUBED geopressured-geothermal simulator MUSHRM to assess the effects of important formation, fluid and well parameters on brine and gas recovery from geopressured reservoir systems. The specific parameters considered are formation permeability, pore-fluid salinity, temperature and gas content, well radius and location with respect to reservoir boundaries, desired flow rate, and possible shale recharge. It was found that the total brine and gas recovered (as a fraction of the resource in situ) were most sensitive to formation permeability, pore-fluid gas content, and shale recharge.

Garg, S.K.; Riney, T.D.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Conditioning of geothermal brine effluents for injection: use of coagulants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of various chemical coagulants and flocculants with spent geothermal brine for enhancing the removal of colloidal solids prior to injection was studied. Brine at 80 to 85/sup 0/C was obtained from the injection line of the SDG and E/DOE Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility during a period of operation with Magmamax No. 1 Fluid. The solids consist primarily of an iron-rich amorphous silica and heavy metal sulfides, principally lead. Standard jar testing equipment was used to carry out the tests.

Quong, R.; Shoepflin, F.; Stout, N.D.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Analysis and Modelling of Desalination Brines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Seawater desalination constitutes an important water supply to the population bordering the Arabian Gulf, the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. The three regions represent… (more)

Bashitialshaaer, Raed

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Demonstration of a rotary separator for two-phase brine and steam flows. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of a two-phase rotary separator for geothermal energy conversion was demonstrated. Laboratory tests were conducted with clean water and steam at Biphase Energy Systems, Inc., Santa Monica, California. Field tests were conducted at the Union Oil Co., Tow No. 1 wellsite near Brawley, California. The system tested consisted of the major components of a total flow rotary separator/turbine conversion system. A nozzle converted the brine wellhead enthalpy to two-phase flow kinetic by impinging the nozzle flow tangentially on the inside of the separator. The flow was therefore subjected to the high centrifugal force field in the separator. This caused the liquid phase to collect as a film on the separator drum with very little energy loss. The steam was allowed to flow radially inward to the central steam discharge. Potable water was obtained by condensing the steam exhaust. The brine collection system converted the liquid film kinetic energy to static pressure head. The system was operated for 116 hours in a high salinity environment (115,000 ppM TDS). The system operated properly with no adverse effects from solids precipitation or scale buildup. The rotary separator produced separate flows of pure liquid and steam of greater than 99.5% quality.

Cerini, D.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Wetting behavior of selected crude oil/brine/rock systems. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) and related ensembles showed that wettability and its effect on oil recovery depend on numerous complex interactions. In the present work, the wettability of COBR ensembles prepared using Prudhoe Bay crude oil, a synthetic formation brine, and Berea Sandstone was varied by systematic change in initial water saturation and length of aging time at reservoir temperature (88 C). All displacement tests were run at ambient temperature. Various degrees of water wetness were achieved and quantified by a modified Amott wettability index to water, the relative pseudo work of imbibition, and a newly defined apparent advancing dynamic contact angle. Pairs of spontaneous imbibition (oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition of water) and waterflood (oil recovery vs. pore volumes of water injected) curves were measured for each of the induced wetting states. Several trends were observed. Imbibition rate, and hence water wetness, decreased with increase in aging time and with decrease in initial water saturation. Breakthrough recoveries and final oil recovery by waterflooding increased with decrease in water wetness. Correlations between water wetness and oil recovery by waterflooding and spontaneous imbibition are presented.

Zhou, X.; Morrow, N.R.; Ma, S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

77

Uranium (VI) solubility in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When present, uranium is usually an element of importance in a nuclear waste repository. In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), uranium is the most prevalent actinide component by mass, with about 647 metric tons to be placed in the repository. Therefore, the chemistry of uranium, and especially its solubility in the WIPP conditions, needs to be well determined. Long-term experiments were performed to measure the solubility of uranium (VI) in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine, a simulated WIPP brine, at pC{sub H+} values between 8 and 12.5. These data, obtained from the over-saturation approach, were the first repository-relevant data for the VI actinide oxidation state. The solubility trends observed pointed towards low uranium solubility in WIPP brines and a lack of amphotericity. At the expected pC{sub H+} in the WIPP ({approx} 9.5), measured uranium solubility approached 10{sup -7} M. The objective of these experiments was to establish a baseline solubility to further investigate the effects of carbonate complexation on uranium solubility in WIPP brines.

Lucchini, Jean-francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khaing, Hnin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines current developments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which deals with the development and application of processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges has led to the identification and design of cost-efficient and environmentally friendly treatment methodology. Initially the primary goal of the processing was to convert geothermal wastes into disposable materials whose chemical composition would satisfy environmental regulations. An expansion of the R&D effort allowed to identify a combination of biochemical and chemical processes which became a basis for the development of a technology for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges. The new technology satisfies environmental regulatory requirements and concurrently converts the geothermal brines and sludges into commercially promising products. Because the chemical composition of geothermal wastes depends on the type of the resource and therefore differs, the emerging technology has to be also flexible so that it can be readily modified to suit the needs of a particular type of resource. Recent conceptional designs for the processing of hypersaline and low salinity brines and sludges will be discussed.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.

1997-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

79

Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines: Current developments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which deals with the development and application of processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges has led to the identification and design of cost-efficient and environmentally friendly treatment methodology. Initially the primary goal of the processing was to convert geothermal wastes into disposable materials whose chemical composition would satisfy environmental regulations. An expansion of the r and D effort identified a combination of biochemical and chemical processes which became the basis for the development of a technology for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges. The new technology satisfies environmental regulatory requirements and concurrently converts the geothermal brines and sludges into commercially promising products. Because the chemical composition of geothermal wastes depends on the type of the resource, the emerging technology has to be flexible so that it can be readily modified to suit the needs of a particular type of resource. Recent conceptional designs for the processing of hypersaline and low salinity brines and sludges will be discussed.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Energy Science and Technology Div.; Bajsarowicz, V. [CET Environmental Services, Inc., Richmond, CA (United States); McCloud, M. [C.E. Holt/California Energy, Pasadena, CA (United States)

1997-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

80

Processing of high salinity brines for subsurface injection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Different chemical pretreatments and filtration methods were evaluated as a possible means of clarifying and improving the injectivity of hypersaline brines. Six different downflow media combinations were evaluated over three geopressurized sites, using test data from 4 inch diameter filters. Also, tests were conducted with one hollow fiber ultrafilter unit and two types of disposable cartridge filters. The test procedures are mentioned briefly. (MHR)

Thompson, R.E.; Raber, E.

1979-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Evaporative evolution of a Na–Cl–NO 3–K–Ca–SO 4–Mg–Si brine at 95 °C: Experiments and modeling relevant to Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff water representative of one type of pore water at Yucca Mountain, NV was evaporated at 95 °C in a series of experiments to determine the geochemical controls for brines that may form on, and possibly impact upon the long-term integrity of waste containers and drip shields at the designated high-level, nuclear-waste repository. Solution chemistry, condensed vapor chemistry, and precipitate mineralogy were used to identify important chemical divides and to validate geochemical calculations of evaporating water chemistry using a high temperature Pitzer thermodynamic database. The water evolved toward a complex “sulfate type ” brine that contained

Maureen Alai; A Mark Sutton; Susan Carroll

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Estimation Of Retained Crude Oil Associated With Crushed Salt And Salt Cores In The Presence Of Near-Saturated Brine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes three experiments whose purpose is to determine the amount of retained oil on massive salt surfaces and in crushed salt in the presence of water and brine. These experiments have application to the decommissioning process for the Weeks Island mine. In the first experiment, oil-coated salt cores were immersed in either fresh water or in 85% brine. In the case of both fluids, the oil was completely removed from the cores within several hours. In the second experiment, oil-coated salt pieces were suspended in air and the oil was allowed to drain. The weight of retained oil clinging to the salt was determined. This experiment was used to estimate the total amount of oil clinging to the roofs of the mine. The total amount of oil clinging to the roofs of the mine is estimated to be between 240 and 400 m 3 (1500 and 2500 BBL). In the third experiment, a pan of oil-soaked crushed salt was immersed in 85% brine, and oil removal from the salt was monitored as a function of...

Timothy Hern Energetic; Timothy J. O’hern; Thomas E. Hinkebein; Thomas W. Grasser

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, 1 October 1990--30 December 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this research is to determine the concentration of the cryocondensates in fluids of the various USDOE Geopressured wells as a function of production volume, to correlate the production of these compounds with reservoir and well production characteristics, to precisely measure solubilities of cryocondensates components in water and sodium chloride solutions (brines) as a function of ionic strength and temperature and the component`s distribution coefficients between these solutions and oil, to develop models of the reservoir which are consistent with the data obtained, to monitor the wells for the production of aliphatic oils and relate any such production with the data obtained, and to develop a harsh environment pH probe for use in well brines. Results are summarized.

Not Available

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

Report on design, construction, and testing of CO/sub 2/ breakout system for geothermal brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A skid mounted test facility has been built for determining conditions at which CO/sub 2/ flashes from geothermal brines. The system has been checked and operated at one geothermal plant. It performed as designed. The equipment is designed to operate at temperatures and pressures typical of wells near Heber, California. (Nominally 180/sup 0/C and 300 to 500 psig). It has heat exchangers which can cool the brine to less than 70/sup 0/C. (The cooling water is recirculated after being cooled by a forced air heat exchanger). Breakout pressures can be determined for any temperature between 70/sup 0/C and wellhead temperature. An adjustable orifice provides final control on pressure required to initiate flashing. The orifice is at the bottom of a sight glass. A light beam shines through the sight glass and focuses on a photoelectric cell. The presence of bubbles scatters light and decreases the output of the cell. Results using the cell were more reproducible than those using the naked eye. Results from one test show a smooth curve over the temperature range 75/sup 0/C to 165/sup 0/C. Agreement between the experimental values and calculated ones is discussed.

Robertus, R.J.; Shannon, D.W.; Sullivan, R.G.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Evaluation of materials for systems using cooled, treated geothermal or high-saline brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lack of adequate quantities of clean surface water for use in wet (evaporative) cooling systems indicates the use of high-salinity waste waters, or cooled geothermal brines, for makeup purposes. High-chloride, aerated water represents an extremely corrosive environment. In order to determine metals suitable for use in such an environment, metal coupons were exposed to aerated, treated geothermal brine salted to a chloride concentration of 10,000 and 50,000 ppM (mg/L) for periods of up to 30 days. The exposed coupons were evaluated to determine the general, pitting, and crevice corrosion characteristics of the metals. The metals exhibiting corrosion resistance at 50,000 ppM chloride were then evaluated at 100,000 and 200,000 ppM chloride. Since these were screening tests to select materials for components to be used in a cooling system, with primary emphasis on condenser tubing, several materials were exposed for 4 to 10 months in pilot cooling tower test units with heat transfer for further corrosion evaluation. The results of the screening tests indicate that ferritic stainless steels (29-4-2 and SEA-CURE) exhibit excellent corrosion resistance at all levels of chloride concentration. Copper-nickel alloys (70/30 and Monel 400) exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the high-saline water. The 70/30 copper-nickel alloy, which showed excellent resistance to general corrosion, exhibited mild pitting in the 30-day tests. This pitting was not apparent, however, after 6 months of exposure in the pilot cooling tower tests. The nickel-base alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance, but their high cost prevents their use unless no other material is found feasible. Other materials tested, although unsuitable for condenser tubing material, would be suitable as tube sheet material.

Suciu, D.F.; Wikoff, P.M.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Analysis of anions in geological brines using ion chromatography  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ion chromatographic procedures for the determination of the anions bromide, sulfate, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and iodide in brine samples have been developed and are described. The techniques have been applied to the analysis of natural brines, and geologic evaporites. Sample matrices varied over a range from 15,000 mg/L to 200,000 mg/L total halogens, nearly all of which is chloride. The analyzed anion concentrations ranged from less than 5 mg/L in the cases of nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate, to 20,000 mg/L in the case of sulfate. A technique for suppressing chloride and sulfate ions to facilitate the analysis of lower concentration anions is presented. Analysis times are typically less than 20 minutes for each procedure and the ion chromatographic results compare well with those obtained using more time consuming classical chemical analyses. 10 references, 14 figures.

Merrill, R.M.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Solute-travel time estimates for tile-drained fields. III. Removal of a geothermal brine spill from soil by leaching  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The time required to leach a slug of saline, sodic geothermal brine from the point of injection to the tile outlet of an artificially drained field is calculated. Sprinkler, complete, and partial ponding leaching methods are compared as a function of drain spacing and initial location of the spill, with ponding requiring more water but less time to leach brine out of the system for all situations except where the brine spill occurs near the midpoint between tile lines. Calculation results are presented in dimensionless parameters which scale the drainage system dimensions and the soil water transport properties. A simple calculation is proposed to estimate the volume of leaching fluid required to remove excess Na/sup +/ from the exchange complex, and was found to be in good agreement with the results of laboratory soil column experiments. For fine-textured soils in the Imperial Valley of California it may require up to 30 pore volumes of leaching fluid to lower Na/sup +/ concentrations if saturated gypsum solution is used in reclamation. The results of these calculations suggest that reclamation of fine textured soils could require a prohibitive amount of time unless the brine spill is localized around a drain.

Jury, W.A.; Weeks, L.V.

1978-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

88

The feasibility of deep well injection for brine disposal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A generalized methodology for evaluating the technical feasibility of projects involving the disposal of waste brine by injection into deep saline aquifers is developed, primarily from the hydrology and petroleum engineering literature. Data collection, groundwater modeling, and fluid compatibility are discussed in detail. Injection system design, economics, and regulatory considerations are more related to economic than technical feasibility, and are discussed only as they relate to technical feasibility. The methodology is utilized to make a preliminary evaluation of a proposed brine injection project in the Dove Creek area of King and Stonewall Counties, North Central Texas. Four known deep aquifers are modeled, using the SWIFT/486 software, to determine their ability to receive two cfs of brine for a project life of one hundred years. Two aquifers, the Strawn and EUenburger Formations, are predicted to be acceptable for disposal. Each aquifer would require only one disposal well which is favorable for the economics of the project. Additional data, particularly hydraulic conductivity and net aquifer thickness data, are required to make a more definitive technical feasibility determination for this project.

Spongberg, Martin Edward

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Method of recovery of alkali-metal constituents from coal-conversion residues. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coal gasification operation or similar conversion process is carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst producing char particles containing alkali metal residues. Alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by burning the particles to increase their size and density and then leaching the particles of increased size and density with water, to extract the water-soluble alkali metal constituents.

Not Available

1981-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

90

Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Abstract A variety of processes has been deployed at geothermalfields to inhibit or control siliceous scale deposition. It has beenknown for decades that the kinetics of silicic acid polymerizationis retarded when the pH of an aqueous solution is decreased.Therefore, a potential method for controlling siliceous scalingfrom geothermal brine is treatment with acid. Early attempts tocontrol siliceous scaling in geothermal brine-handling equipmentby retarding polymerization led to the belief that the pHhad to be reduced to < 4. Acidifying brine was discourageddue to corrosion concerns.

91

Apparatus and method for separating constituents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A centrifugal separator apparatus and method for improving the efficiency of the separation of constituents in a fluid stream. A cyclone separator includes an assembly for separately discharging both constituents through the same end of the separator housing. A rotary separator includes a rotary housing having a baffle disposed therein for minimizing the differential rotational velocities of the constituents in the housing, thereby decreasing turbulence, and increasing efficiency. The intensity of the centrifugal force and the time which the constituents reside within the housing can be independently controlled to improve efficiency of separation.

Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Study on scale formation and suppression in heat-exchange systems for simulated geothermal brines. Final report, January 12, 1976-March 5, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Control of scale formation in heat exchangers using simulated geothermal waters can be achieved by lowering the pH of the water to pH 6 or lower. This does not, however, appear to be an economic approach for highly buffered geothermal brines and would lead to severe corrosion problems. Two commercial scale control agents, Calgon CL-165 and Monsanto Dequest 2060, showed promise of effecting scaling in a minor way and should be tested further on actual geothermal waters. Other scale control methods tested were unsuccessful. These included seeding experiments, turbulence promotin and electostatic and electromagnetic devices reputated to modify scale formation. The experiments were performed with tube-in-shell heat exchangers using simulated geothermal waters prepared from a salt dome solution based brine. The scale formed was primarily silica with a small percent of calcium carbonate and traces of magnesium and iron. Physically it was a hydrous soft solid adhering only lightly to the heat exchange surface. This is not typical of geothermal water scales encountered in high temperature brine operations and the results of the scale control expeirments should be evaluated with that in mind.

Wilson, J.S.; King, J.E.; Bullard, G.R.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Community Geothermal Technology Program: Electrodeposition of minerals in geothermal brine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective was to study the materials electrodeposited from geothermal brine, from the HGP-A well in Puna, Hawaii. Due to limitations, only one good set of electrodeposited material was obtained; crystallography indicates that vaterite forms first, followed by calcite and then perhaps aragonite as current density is increased. While the cost to weight ratio is reasonable, the deposition rate is very slow. More research is needed, such as reducing the brittleness. The electrodeposited material possibly could be used as building blocks, tables, benches, etc. 49 figs, 4 tabs, 7 refs.

Not Available

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

94

Geothermal Chemical Modeling Project DOE Advanced Brine Chemistry Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The brine-calcite-anhydrite-silica scale model program is ready to be used by the industry at a research level. Versions are already in use in studies of scaling in geothermal and oil production systems. A set of short course notes has been prepared to help perspective users. IBM and Macintosh versions of the model are available. The gas phase models have been incorporated in the general package for distribution. Both mainframe (SUN) and PC versions (MacIntosh and IBM) of the code have been distributed.

Moeller, N.; Weare, J.H.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Kinetics of silica deposition from simulated geothermal brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Supersaturated brines were passed through columns packed with several forms of silica (crystalline ..cap alpha.. quartz, polycrystalline ..cap alpha.. quartz, and porous Vycor). Also, silica deposition on ThO/sub 2/ microspheres and titanium powder was studied under controlled conditions of supersaturation, pH, temperature, and salinity. The residence time was varied by adjustments of flow rate and column length. The silica contents of the input and effluent solutions were determined colorimetrically by a molybdate method which does not include polymers without special pretreatment. Essentially identical deposition behavior was observed once the substrate was thoroughly coated with amorphous silica and the BET surface area of the coated particles was taken into account. The reaction rate is not diffusion limited in the columns. The silica deposition is a function of the monomeric Si(OH)/sub 4/ concentration in the brine. The deposition on all surfaces examined was spontaneously nucleated. The dependence on the supersaturation concentration, hydroxide ion concentration, surface area, temperature and salinity were examined. Fluoride was shown to have no effect at pH 5.94 and low salinity. The empirical rate law which describes the data in 1 m NaCl in the pH range 5-7 and temperatures from 60 to 120/sup 0/C is given.

Bohlmann, E.G.; Mesmer, R.E.; Berlinski, P.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Improving the performance of brine wells at Gulf Coast strategic petroleum reserve sites  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the request of the Department of Energy, field techniques were developed to evaluate and improve the injection of brine into wells at Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) sites. These wells are necessary for the disposal of saturated brine removed from salt domes where oil is being stored. The wells, which were accepting brine at 50 percent or less of their initial design rates, were impaired by saturated brine containing particulates that deposited on the sand face and in the geologic formation next to the wellbore. Corrosion of the brine-disposal pipelines and injection wells contributed to the impairment by adding significant amounts of particulates in the form of corrosion products. When tests were implemented at the SPR sites, it was found that the poor quality of injected brines was the primary cause of impaired injection; that granular-media filtration, when used with chemical pretreatment, is an effective method for removing particulates from hypersaline brine; that satisfactory injection-well performance can be attained with prefiltered brines; and that corrosion rates can be substantially reduced by oxygen-scavenging.

Owen, L.B.; Quong, R. (eds.)

1979-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

97

Studies of brine chemistry, precipitation of solids, and scale formation at the Salton Sea geothermal field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Factors affecting the precipitation of solids and deposition of scale from the hypersaline brines of the Salton Sea geothermal field - two potential problems in the proposed utilization of these brines for electric power generation - were investigated. The average physical and chemical composition of the fluid from Magmamax No. 1 well was noted and the effects of changes in well flowrate on the chemistry of the brine and the formation of solids were determined. The effects of pH on the process stream chemistry and on the composition and rates of formation of solids and scale that precipitated from this brine were studied. Reduction of the pH from 6 to 4-5 decreased the scaling rates and increased the proportions of bariun sulfate and calcium fluoride in the scales and precipitated solids. These studies were conducted using a small-scale four-stage brine flash system constructed at the site.

Harrar, J.E.; Otto, C.H. Jr.; Deutscher, S.B.; Ryon, R.W.; Tardiff, G.E.

1979-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

98

POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE-RICH POLYPHENLENESULFIDE BLEND TOP COATINGS FOR MITIGATING CORROSION OF CARBON STEEL IN 300 DEGREE CELCIUS BRINE.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We evaluated usefulness of a coating system consisting of an underlying polyphenylenesulfide (PPS) layer and top polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-blended PPS layer as low friction, water repellent, anti-corrosion barrier film for carbon steel steam separators in geothermal power plants. The experiments were designed to obtain information on kinetic coefficient of friction, surface free energy, hydrothermal oxidation, alteration of molecular structure, thermal stability, and corrosion protection of the coating after immersing the coated carbon steel coupons for up to 35 days in CO{sub 2}-laden brine at 300 C. The superficial layer of the assembled coating was occupied by PTFE self-segregated from PPS during the melt-flowing process of this blend polymer; it conferred an outstanding slipperiness and water repellent properties because of its low friction and surface free energy. However, PTFE underwent hydrothermal oxidation in hot brine, transforming its molecular structure into an alkylated polyfluorocarboxylate salt complex linked to Na. Although such molecular transformation increased the friction and surface free energy, and also impaired the thermal stability of PTFE, the top PTFE-rich PPS layer significantly contributed to preventing the permeation of moisture and corrosive electrolytes through the coating film, so mitigating the corrosion of carbon steel.

SUGAMA, T.; JUNG, D.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Frio II Brine Pilot: Report on GEOSEQ Activities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

LBNL's GEOSEQ project is a key participant in the Frio IIbrine pilot studying geologic sequestration of CO2. During During theinjection phase of the Frio-II brine pilot, LBNL collected multiple datasets including seismic monitoring, hydrologic monitoring and geochemicalsampling. These data sets are summarized in this report including allCASSM (continuous active source seismic monitoring) travel time data,injection pressure and flow rate data and gaseous sampling and tracerdata. Additional results from aqueous chemistry analysis performed by theU. S. Geological Survey (USGS) are summarized. Post injectionmodification of the flow model for Frio II is shown. Thesemodificationsare intended to facilitate integration with the monitoring data andincorporation of model heterogeneity. Current activities of LBNL's GEOSEQproject related to the Frio II test are shown, including development of anew petrophysical model for improved interpretation of seismic monitoringdata and integration of this data with flow modeling.

Daley, T.M.; Freifeld, B.M.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Doughty, C.; Benson, S.M.

2007-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

100

Methane extraction from geopressured-geothermal brine at wellhead conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Disposal of geopressured-geothermal brine effluents by injection is expected to be costly, even into shallow aquifers. If injection into the production reservoir becomes necessary to maintain productivity and to minimize subsidence, the injection pumping costs can become overwhelming. An option aimed at reducing injection pump operating costs is to maintain a higher than normal pressure at the production wellhead to reduce the injection pumping load. The crucial element, however, is that a significant portion of CH/sub 4/ remains in solution and must be recovered in order for the pressure maintenance option to be cost effective. A laboratory and field test capability has been established, and several methods for extracting dissolved CH/sub 4/ at high temperature and pressure are being evaluated. Solvent extraction and use of hydraulic motors or turbines coupled to CH/sub 4/ recovery systems are the leading candidate methods.

Quong, R.; Owen, L.B.; Locke, F.E.; Otto, C.H.; Netherton, R.; Lorensen, L.E.

1980-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Nucleic Acid Standards - Sugar and Phosphate Constituents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sugar and Phosphate Constituents Sugar and Phosphate Constituents The following tables contain the complete references for the structures used in a statistical survey of well-refined mononucleoside, mononucleotide, dinucleoside monophosphate, and trinucleoside diphosphate crystal structures found in the Cambridge Structural Database and the Nucleic Acid Database that appeared in The Journal of the American Chemical Society (Anke Gelbin, Bohdan Schneider, Lester Clowney, Shu-Hsin Hsieh, Wilma K. Olson, and Helen M. Berman. "Geometric Parameters in Nucleic Acids: Sugar Phosphate Constituents" (1996) 118, 519-529.) Table 1: References for Mononucleoside and Mononucleotide Structures Table 2: References for Dinucleoside Monophosphate and Trinucleoside Diphosphate Structures The following tables are summaries of the bond lengths, angles, and torsion

102

Improving the injectability of high-salinity brines for disposal or waterflooding operations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work is part of a study conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to improve the performance of brine injection wells at Gulf Coast Strategic Petroleum Reserve Sites. Our involvement established that granular media filtration, when used with proper chemical pretreatments, provides an effective and economical method for removing particulates from hypersaline brines. This treatment allows for the injection of 200,000 B/D with significantly increased well half-lives of 30 years.

Raber, E.; Thompson, R.E.; Smith, F.H.

1981-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

103

Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines: Annual operating plan, FY 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An R and D program to identify methods for the utilization and/or low cost of environmentally acceptable disposal of toxic geothermal residues has been established at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Laboratory work has shown that a biochemical process developed at BNL, would meet regulatory costs and environmental requirements. In this work, microorganisms which can convert insoluble species of toxic metals, including radionuclides, into soluble species, have been identified. These organisms serve as models in the development of a biochemical process in which toxic metals present in geothermal residual sludges are converted into water soluble species. The produced solution can be reinjected or processed further to concentrate and recover commercially valuable metals. After the biochemical detoxification of geothermal residual sludges, the end-products are non-toxic and meet regulatory requirements. The overall process is a technically and environmentally acceptable cost-efficient process. It is anticipated that the new biotechnology will reduce the cost of surface disposal of sludges derived from geothermal brines by 25% or better.

Premuzic, E.T.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

The implications of UIC and NPDES regulations on selection of disposal options for spent geothermal brine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reviews and evaluates the various options for the disposal of geothermal wastewater with respect to the promulgated regulations for the protection of surface and groundwaters. The Clean Water Act of 1977 and the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments are especially important when designing disposal systems for geothermal fluids. The former promulgates regulations concerning the discharge of wastewater into surface waters, while the latter is concerned with the protection of ground water aquifers through the establishment of underground injection control (UIC) programs. There is a specific category for geothermal fluid discharge if injection is to be used as a method of disposal. Prior to February 1982, the UIC regulations required geothermal power plant to use Class III wells and direct use plants to use Class V wells. More stringent regulatory requirements, including construction specification and monitoring, are imposed on the Class III wells. On February 3, 1982, the classification of geothermal injection wells was changed from a Class III to Class V on the basis that geothermal wells do not inject for the extraction of minerals or energy, but rather they are used to inject brines, from which heat has been extracted, into formations from which they were originally taken. This reclassification implies that a substantial cost reduction will be realized for geothermal fluid injection primarily because well monitoring is no longer mandatory. The Clean Water Act of 1977 provides the legal basis for regulating the discharge of liquid effluent into the nation's surface waters, through a permitting system called the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge quantities, rates, concentrations and temperatures are regulated by the NPDES permits. These permits systems are based upon effluent guidelines developed by EPA on an industry by industry basis. For geothermal energy industry, effluent guidelines have not been formulated and are not currently scheduled. There, are however, water quality standards that control the quantity and quality of wastewaters discharged into surface waters. These standards are established by the states in concert with EPA, and frequently result in NPDES conditions more restrictive than those based on effluent guidelines.

None

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Chemical Speciation of Heterogeneously Reduced Pu in Synthetic Brines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy has been used to determine the speciation of Pu precipitates prepared by the heterogeneous reduction of Pu(VI) with Al and Fe in 5M NaCl and an ERDA-6 brine, a simulant from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico. NaOCl was added to some of these solutions to determine its effect on Pu speciation. Analysis of the Pu LIII spectra showed that all solids consisted of PuO2+x?y(OH)2y •zH2O, compounds with characteristics identical to those prepared by hydrolysis and with Pu?O and Pu?Pu distances identical to those treated at elevated temperature. Additionally, reduction with Al gave compounds with different site distributions than reduction with Fe, and reduction with Al or the addition of NaOCl appeared to suppress the formation of oxo groups and their associated Pu(V) sites.

Ding, Mei; Conca, James L.; Den Auwer, Christophe J.; Gabitov, Rinat I.; Hess, Nancy J.; Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Palmer, Phillip D.; LoPresti, Vin; Conradson, Steven D.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Membrane Desalination of Agricultural Drainage Water: Water Recovery Enhancement and Brine Minimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Program, 2002. Desalination Demonstration Report for Buenaprior to RO membranes for surface seawater desalination,Desalination, 144 (2002) 353. P. Cote, J. Cadera, J. Coburn,

Cohen, Yoram

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Transport Modeling of Reactive and Non-Reactive Constituents from Summitville,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Survey (USGS) began water- quality investigations at Summitville, Terrace #12;Figure 2. Aerial photographTransport Modeling of Reactive and Non- Reactive Constituents from Summitville, Colorado in the Wightman Fork/Alamosa River system downstream of the Summitville Mine, south-central Colorado, were

108

Baryon Spectroscopy and the Constituent Quark Model  

SciTech Connect

We explore further the idea that the lattice QCD data for hadron properties in the region m[^2][_pi] > 0.2GeV^2 can be described by the constituent quark model. This leads to a natural explanation of the fact that nucleon excited states are generally stable for pion masses greater than their physical excitation energies. Finally, we apply these same ideas to the problem of how pentaquarks might behave in lattice QCD, with interesting conclusions.

A.W. Thomas; R.D. Young

2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

109

The depth of the oil/brine interface and crude oil leaks in SPR caverns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monitoring wellhead pressure evolution is the best method of detecting crude oil leaks in SPR caverns while oil/brine interface depth measurements provide additional insight. However, to fully utilize the information provided by these interface depth measurements, a thorough understanding of how the interface movement corresponds to cavern phenomena, such as salt creep, crude oil leakage, and temperature equilibration, as well as to wellhead pressure, is required. The time evolution of the oil/brine interface depth is a function of several opposing factors. Cavern closure due to salt creep and crude oil leakage, if present, move the interface upward. Brine removal and temperature equilibration of the oil/brine system move the interface downward. Therefore, the relative magnitudes of these factors determine the net direction of interface movement. Using a mass balance on the cavern fluids, coupled with a simplified salt creep model for closure in SPR caverns, the movement of the oil/brine interface has been predicted for varying cavern configurations, including both right-cylindrical and carrot-shaped caverns. Three different cavern depths and operating pressures have been investigated. In addition, the caverns were investigated at four different points in time, allowing for varying extents of temperature equilibration. Time dependent interface depth changes of a few inches to a few feet were found to be characteristic of the range of cases studied. 5 refs, 19 figs., 1 tab.

Heffelfinger, G.S.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laws Envirosearch Institutional Controls NEPA Activities RCRA RQ*Calculator Water HSS Logo Water Laws Overview of water-related legislation affecting DOE sites Clean...

111

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine Fields  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine Fields Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine Fields M. Ferer, (mferer@wvu.edu) Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315, Grant S. Bromhal, (bromhal@netl.doe.gov) US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880; and Duane H. Smith, (dsmith@netl.doe.gov) US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 & Department of Physics, West Virginia University. Underground injection of gas is a common practice in the oil and gas industry. Injection into deep, brine-saturated formations is a commercially proven method of sequestering CO 2 . However, it has long been known that displacement of a connate fluid by a less viscous fluid produces unstable displacement fronts with significant fingering. This fingering allows only a

112

Evaluation of Membrane Treatment Technology to Optimize and Reduce Hypersalinity Content of Produced Brine for Reuse in Unconventional Gas Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over 18 billion barrels of waste fluids are generated annually from oil and gas production in the United States. As a large amount of water is used for oilfield operations, treating and reusing produced water can cut the consumption of fresh water in well sites. This research has helped to develop a membrane process train for a mobile produced water treatment unit for treating oilfield produced brine for reuse. To design the process train, over 30 sets of combination tests at pilot laboratory scale were performed using pretreatment, microfiltration and nanofiltration processes. Membrane performance was selected based on high flux separation efficiency, high tolerance for solids and fluid treatments. Over 95 % solids rejection and greater than 80 % oil removal efficiency were obtained in all these tests. Process train (pre-treatment and membrane) performance was monitored by chemical analysis of permeate and models fitting experimental data for the process. From the results, hydrocarbon rejection was analyzed; total organic carbon rejection was 47.9 %, total carbon content averaged 37.3 % rejection and total inorganic carbon rejection was at 3.66 %. BTEX removal efficiency ranged from 0.98 % to 52.7 % with the progressive pretreatment methods of using cartridge filters. The nanofiltration membrane showed significant reduction in total dissolved solids and in both anionic and cationic species. The process train is seen to follow a sequence of treatment from cartridge and oil removal filter treatment to microfiltration treatment to ultrafiltration, followed by nanofiltration for the purpose of this research. Further research still needs to be done on to determine the kind of analytical test which will give real time feedback on effectiveness of filters. In summary, the process train developed by TAMU-GPRI possesses distinct advantages in treating oilfield produced brine using membrane technology. These advantages include high quality of permeate, reduced sludge and the possibility of total recycle water systems. The small space requirement, moderate capital costs and ease of operation associated with the use of the mobile unit membrane technology also makes it a very competitive alternative to conventional technologies.

Eboagwu, Uche

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

CO2–brine–caprock interaction: Reactivity experiments on Eau Claire shale and a review of relevant literature  

SciTech Connect

Long term containment of stored CO2 in deep geological reservoirs will depend on the performance of the caprock to prevent the buoyant CO2 from escaping to shallow drinking water aquifers or the ground surface. Here we report new laboratory experiments on CO2-brine-caprock interactions and a review of the relevant literature. The Eau Claire Formation is the caprock overlying the Mount Simon sandstone formation, one of the target geological CO2 storage reservoirs in the Midwest USA region. Batch experiments of Eau Claire shale dissolution in brine were conducted at 200 C and 300 bars to test the extent of fluid-rock reactions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicate minor dissolution of K-feldspar and anhydrite, and precipitation of pore-filling and pore-bridging illite and/or smectite, and siderite in the vicinity of pyrite. We also reviewed relevant reactivity experiments, modeling work, and field observations in the literature in an attempt to help define the framework for future studies on the geochemical systems of the caprock overlain on geological CO2 storage formations. Reactivity of the caprock is generally shown to be low and limited to the vicinity of the CO2-caprock interface, and is related to the original caprock mineralogical and petrophysical properties. Stable isotope studies indicate that CO2 exists in both free phase and dissolved phase within the caprock. Carbonate and feldspar dissolution is reported in most studies, along with clay and secondary carbonate precipitation. Currently, research is mainly focused on the micro-fracture scale geochemistry of the shaly caprock. More attention is required on the potential pore scale reactions that may become significant given the long time scale associated with geological carbon storage

Liua, Faye; Lua, Peng; Griffith, Craig; Hedges, Sheila W.; Soong, Yee; Hellevang, Helge; Zhua,Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Technology transfer report: feasibility study for the use of geothermal brine in the Ashdod area, Israel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hydrothermal potential of the Ashdod area, Israel, was evaluated to determine its suitability as the low grade energy source required to operate the Ashdod desalination plant. An estimated 1250 cubic meters per hour of 120/sup 0/C brine would be adequate to supply the hot water necessary for operating the desalination plant. Considerable interest in oil exploration in the Ashdod area resulted in the drilling of six wells into the Jurassic formations by Oil Exploration (Investments) Ltd. (OEL) in 1976-1980. A small amount of oil was found in two wells, Ashdod 2 and 5. The remaining wells were abandoned as ''dry holes''. Evaluation of the drill cuttings, cores, and the electric logs defined two lithologic units of potential interest for hydrothermal exploitation, the Zohar and Shderot Dolomites. Investigation of the hydrothermal potential of the Jurassic formations underlying the Ashdod area has revealed that the aquifer temperatures range between 85 and 92/sup 0/C. The hydrologic parameters are not well defined; however the matrix permeability of the dolomites and limestones is probably between 1 and 10 md. This is insufficient permeability for a large scale pumping operation such as the one required to operate the desalination plant. Therefore, successful utilization of the resource requires the presence of significant fractures and/or connected vugs in the formation. The very low well productivity and formation plugging may indicate that permeability of the fracture zones may easily be impaired, suggesting that the fracture zones are not suitable production intervals. Until a test is conducted on a properly completed well, it is not possible to evaluate the deliverability of wells tapping these aquifers. 14 refs., 8 figs.

Benson, S.M.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

ASSESSMENT OF TECHNETIUM LEACHABILITY IN CEMENT STABILIZED BASIN 43 GROUNDWATER BRINE  

SciTech Connect

This report is an initial report on the laboratory effort executed under RPP-PLAN-33338, Test Plan for the Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This report delineates preliminary data obtained under subcontract 21065, release 30, from the RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences. The report is predicated on CLS RPT-816, Draft Report: Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This document will be revised on receipt of the final RJ Lee Group, Inc., Center for Laboratory Sciences report, which will contain data subjected to quality control and quality assurance criteria.

COOKE GA; DUNCAN JB; LOCKREM LL

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations  

SciTech Connect

Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Calcium Isotopic Variation in Marine Evaporites and Carbonates: Applications to Late Miocene Mediterranean Brine Chemistry and Late Cenozoic Calcium Cycling in the Oceans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Field: Geochemistry Studies in Isotope Geology Professors J.Isotopes and Brine Evolution ……………………………………………………………….. 3.2.1 General geology andIsotopes and Brine Evolution 3.2.1 General geology and

Hensley, Tabitha Michele

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

504 SOME PHENOLIC CONSTITUENTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PHENOLS have long been recognised as constituents of tobacco smoke although the conditions employed in obtaining the samples were in some cases very unlike those occurring in normal human smoking. Phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, catechol,. guaiacol and less well defined constituents designated as polyphenols, phenolic acids and creosote have been identified and in some cases determined. Of this earlier work the most significant was that in which phenol, o-cresol and guaiacol were separated and determined by paper chromatography of the azo-dyes formed with p-nitraniline (Rayburn, Harlan and Hanmer, 1953). A well-designed smoking machine was employed to produce the smoke condensate in this investigation. The new method for determination of phenols (Commins and Lindsey, 1956) is especially suitable to separations on a microgram scale and depends upon the quantitative conversion of phenols into their methyl ethers by dimethyl sulphate in the presence of alkali, followed by chromatographic separation in cyclohexane solution on alumina columns. The detection and determination of the ethers in successive eluates is effected by the recognition of characteristic absorption peaks

B. T. Commins; A. J. Lindsey

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Automatic Extraction of English-Korean Translations for Constitu-ents of Technical Terms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Automatic Extraction of English-Korean Translations for Constitu- ents of Technical Terms Jong* Technical terms are linguistic realiza- tion of a domain concept and their con- stituents are a component used for representing the concept. Many techni- cal terms are usually multi-word terms

120

A study of hydrocarbons associated with brines from DOE geopressured wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Accomplishments are summarized on the following tasks: distribution coefficients and solubilities, DOE design well sampling, analysis of well samples, review of theoretical models of geopressured reservoir hydrocarbons, monitor for aliphatic hydrocarbons, development of a ph meter probe, DOE design well scrubber analysis, removal and disposition of gas scrubber equipment at Pleasant Bayou Well, and disposition of archived brines.

Keeley, D.F.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A study of hydrocarbons associated with brines from DOE geopressured wells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Accomplishments are summarized on the following tasks: distribution coefficients and solubilities, DOE design well sampling, analysis of well samples, review of theoretical models of geopressured reservoir hydrocarbons, monitor for aliphatic hydrocarbons, development of a ph meter probe, DOE design well scrubber analysis, removal and disposition of gas scrubber equipment at Pleasant Bayou Well, and disposition of archived brines.

Keeley, D.F.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Recovery 2011 CSPG CSEG CWLS Convention 1 Brine-methane Substitution: The Seismic Response of Coalbeds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an important source of natural gas (Shi and Durucan, 2005). The production of the CBM takes place when coal seam using a tank model which assumes that there is no variation of the reservoir properties). For the Gassmann fluid substitution, we assume a pore fluid of 100% brine as the initial condition and calculate

Ferguson, Robert J.

123

Corrosivity of geothermal brines. Progress report for period ending June 1976  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Studies carried out during FY 1976 on the corrosivity of ferrous materials in synthetic geothermal brines are described. Electrochemical measurements on the spontaneous corrosion potentials and corrosion rates, and on the kinetics of the anodic and cathodic corrosion reactions of iron and carbon steel were made in 4 M NaCl solution over the pH range from 1 to 11 at temperatures up to 100/sup 0/C in a conventional Pyrex electrochemical cell. A refreshed, stirred titanium autoclave system was designed, constructed, and tested, and will be used for making electrochemical measurements in synthetic brines up to at least 200/sup 0/C. The effect of pH on hydrolysis, precipitation, and electrochemical reactivity of ferrous and ferric ions in 4 M NaCl at 25/sup 0/C was studied, and implications for plant operation are discussed. The pitting potential of type 304 stainless steel in synthetic brine was measured as a function of temperature from 25 to 85/sup 0/C. Plans for research on electrochemical aspects of the corrosion of iron and carbon steel in synthetic geothermal brines during FY1977 are presented. 14 fig. (auth)

Posey, F.A.; Palko, A.A.

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

when steam flows through a condenser with incomplete or pooral. [6]). A water-cooled condenser was attached at the topin both the flask and condenser. Towards the end of the

Zhang, Guoxiang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Corrosion testing of carbon steel in aereated geothermal brine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two major problems are associated with the use of cooled geothermal water as coolant for the 5 MW(e) Pilot Power Plant at Raft River. They are: (1) a scaling potential owing to the chemical species present in solution, and (2) the corrosive nature of the geothermal water on carbon steel. A water treatment test program was established to reduce or eliminate these problems. Data show that scale can be prevented by a combination of dispersants and controlling the concentration of scaling species in the circulating water. Corrosion cannot be controlled without a pretreatment of tubing material. With the pretreatment, a protective gamma iron oxide film is laid down on the tube surface, that with proper corrosion inhibitor additives, significantly reduces both general and pitting corrosion. However, longer term testing is required to determine protection of pitting corrosion.

Suciu, D.F.; Wikoff, P.M.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Particle measurement and brine chemistry at the Salton Sea Deep Well  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Advanced Brine Chemistry Project, a part of the US Department of Energy's Geothermal Energy Program, is addressing operating problems associated with scaling and corrosion at geothermal power plants. Under this project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of tests at the Salton Sea Deep Well, which has one of the highest solids contents in the world. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate monitoring instrumentation under field conditions and relate particulate formation to the brine chemistry. The instrumentation, was evaluated under scaling geothermal conditions using two different principles: ultrasonic reflection and laser light scattering. The following conclusions were drawn from the instrumentation testing and brine chemistry and particulate analyses. (1) Using reflected ultrasonic impulses to detect suspended particles has been demonstrate for on-line application in a geothermal brine with strong scaling tendencies. Advantages over laser light scattering include improved high-temperature durability for the transducer and longer operation with less maintenance. (2) Counting and sizing particles using laser light scattering requires constant maintenance in geothermal applications. (3) Silica is the dominant scale species and appears in amounts orders of magnitude greater than other minor species such as barium sulfate. (4) The silica that formed at high temperatures and short residence times is very gelatinous and difficult to filter out of the brine. (5) Correlation of instrument readings with particle collection data was difficult because conditions on the filter (i.e., temperature, flowrate, and pressure) could not be maintained constant for long enough intervals to obtain comparable information. 5 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.

Robertus, R.J.; Kindle, C.H.; Sullivan, R.G.; Shannon, D.W.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Method and apparatus for tritiated water separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a membrane method and apparatus for separating isotopic water constituents from light water. The method involves providing a supported membrane of an aromatic polyphosphazene and pressurizing the water on one side of the membrane thereby forcing the light water through the supported membrane while isotopic water constituents are retained or vice versa. The apparatus of the present invention includes an aromatic polyphosphazene placed on a porous support and means for pressurizing water through the membrane while certain isotopic water constituents are retained.

Nelson, David A. (Richland, WA); Duncan, James B. (Kennewick, WA); Jensen, George A. (Richland, WA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flow model for carbon dioxide and brine, in Proceedings 9 thGeological Storage of Carbon Dioxide, in: S.J. Baines andGeological Storage of Carbon Dioxide, Geological Society,

Birkholzer, J.T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Recovery Act: Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine CO2 Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

To further our understanding and develop the method for measuring the DICs under geological sequestration conditions, we studied the infrared spectra of DICs under high pressure and temperature conditions. First principles simulations of DICs in brine conditions were performed using a highly optimized ReaxFF-DIC forcefield. The thermodynamics stability of each species were determined using the 2PT method, and shown to be consistent with the Reax simulations. More importantly, we have presented the IR spectra of DIC in real brine conditions as a function of temperature and pressure. At near earth conditions, we find a breaking of the O-C-O bending modes into asymmetric and symmetric modes, separated by 100cm{sup -1} at 400K and 5 GPa. These results can now be used to calibrate FTIR laser measurements.

Goddard, William

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

130

Prelimiary investigation desalting of geothermal brines in the Imperial Valley of California  

SciTech Connect

The Imperial Valley Project is an applied research program to provide geologic, hydrologic, engineering, and economic information necessary for development of the geothermal resources of the delta of the lower Colorado River. It is suggested that a desalting pilot plant be associated with the project to develop an economic desalting process if 2 to 3% geothermal brine is produced. The process will be unconventional in that waste heat must be rejected to atmosphere in wet or dry cooling towers. The presence of large amounts of CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S, and silica will require gas removal and silicascale control equipment. The plant would process up to 75,000 gallons of brine per day. (MCW)

Spiewak, I.; Hise, E.C.; Reed, S.A.; Thompson, S.A.

1970-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Geochemistry and petrology of surface samples, six boreholes and brines from the Salton Sea geothermal field: A natural analog of a nuclear waste repository in salt: Report No. 3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cuttings from six wells in the Salton Sea geothermal field, and rocks at outcrop that are correlative in age with those encountered at depth in the wells were analyzed in detail. Mineralogy, petrography, x-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, instrumental neutron activation analysis, fission track radiography, oxygen and stable carbon isotopic, uranium-thorium series disequilibrium, and fluid inclusion analyses are reported. Where fluids were being produced from wells, brine chemistry as well as stable isotope and uranium-thorium series analyses are reported. Particular attention has been paid to defining zones of fluid-rock interaction in which analyses of coexisting geothermal reservoir brine and hydrothermally altered sediments could be acquired. A wide span of temperatures, from surficial to greater than 300/degree/C, and salinities ranging from relatively dilute ground waters up to brines of 25 wt% total dissolved solids, span a range of environments that might be encountered in a waste repository in salt. Progressive hydrothermal alteration, mineral formation and element mobility are documented in the data presented. 52 refs., 25 figs., 49 tabs.

Not Available

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Properties of Geopressured Brines and Wells in the Gulf Coast and Opportunities for Industrial/Research Participation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geopressured reservoirs exhibit pressure gradients in excess of the normal hydrostatic gradient. In the Gulf Coast area the normal gradient is 0.465 psi/ft. Pressures may approach lithostatic pressure and have been measured as high as 1.05 psi/ft in the Gulf Coast area. Geopressured basins exist worldwide and in a number of U.S. locations, east, west, north and south. The Gulf Coast area has been studied extensively and is the subject of the DOE geopressured-geothermal research at present. The assumed ranges in resource characteristics include: depth from -12,000 to > -20,000 feet, brine flow rate from 20,000 to 40,000 bpd, temperature from 300 to 400 F, bottomhole pressure from 12,000 to 18,500 psi; salinity from 20,000 to 200,000 mg/L, gas-water ratio from 40 to 80 scf/bbl., and condensate from a trace to production. Energy in the geopressured resource includes gas, thermal, and hydraulic energy. It has been estimated that there are 6,000 quads of methane and 11,000 quads of thermal energy in the Gulf Coast area geopressured-geothermal reservoirs. Estimates run as high as 50,000 quad for the thermal energy (Wallace et al, 1978). Present industrial interest in the Pleasant Bayou and Hulin wells includes: desalination plants, an economic study by a power company for regional use, use of generated electricity by a coalition of towns, aquaculture (catfish farming) research program, and an unsolicited proposal for enhanced oil recovery of heavy oil. Direct uses of the hot brine cover dozens of industries and processes. An example of multiple uses in the USSR is shown. Outside agency interest includes the U.S.G.S., N.S.F., G.R.I., and possibly other areas within DOE. A research spin-off: a sensitive in-line benzene monitor has been designed by USL and will be tested in the near future. An in-line pH monitor is also under development for the harsh conditions of the geopressured-geothermal wells.

Wys, J. Nequs- de

1989-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

133

Energy optimization in ice hockey halls I. The system COP as a multivariable function, brine and design choices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is the first in a series of articles addressing the energy optimization in ice hockey halls. Here we adopt an analytical method, called functional optimization, to find which design and operating conditions maximize the Coefficient Of Performance of the entire cooling system (brine pumps and cooling tower), which we call ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$. This is addressed as a function of several variables, like electric consumption and brine physical properties. By maximizing such function, the best configuration and brine choices for the system can thus be determined accurately and rigorously. We investigate the importance of pipe diameter, depth and brine type (ethylene glycol and ammonia) for average-sized ice rinks. An optimal brine density is found, and we compute the weight of the electric consumption of the brine pumps on ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$. Our formulas are validated with heat flow measurement data obtained at an ice hockey hall in Finland. They are also confronted with technical and cost-related constraints, and implemented by simulations with the program COMSOL Multiphysics. The multivariable approach here discussed is general, and can be applied to the rigorous preliminary study of diverse situations in building physics and in many other areas of interest.

Andrea Ferrantelli; Paul Melóis; Miska Räikkönen; Martti Viljanen

2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

134

Chemical Constituents in Coal Combustion Products: Molybdenum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides comprehensive information on the environmental occurrence and behavior of molybdenum (Mo), with specific emphasis on Mo derived from coal combustion products (CCPs). Included are discussions of Mo's occurrence in water and soil, potential human health and ecological effects, geochemistry, occurrence in CCPs, leaching characteristics from CCPs, measurement techniques, and treatment/remediation options.

2011-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

135

Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was limited to sediment depths of 10 cm or greater, which is outside of the primary zone of biological activity. Further, exposure to site sediments did not have any effects on test organisms, and macroinvertebrate communities did not indicate impairment at the oil production site as compared to a reference site. In situ experiments with H. azteca and C. fluminea, indicated a sublethal site effect (on growth of both species), but these could not be definitively linked with produced water infiltration. Severe weather conditions (drought followed by flooding) negatively influenced the intensity of lake sampling aimed at delineating produced water infiltration. Due to the lack of clear evidence of produced water infiltration into the sub-littoral zone of the lake, it was not possible to assess whether the laboratory bioassays of produced water effectively indicate risk in the receiving system. However, the acutely toxic nature of the produced water and general lack of biological effects in the lake at the oil production site suggest minimal to no produced water infiltration into surficial lake sediments and the near-shore water column. This study was able to demonstrate the utility of ion toxicity modeling to support data from toxicity identification evaluations aimed at identifying key toxic constituents in produced water. This information could be used to prioritize options for treating produced water in order to reduce toxic constituents and enhance options for reuse. The study also demonstrated how geographic information systems, toxicity modeling, and toxicity assessment could be used to facilitate future site assessments.

Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

136

Parallel Implementation of a Kalman Filter for Constituent Data Assimilation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Kalman filter for the assimilation of long-lived atmospheric chemical constituents was developed for two-dimensional transport models on isentropic surfaces over the globe. Since the Kalman filter calculates the error covariances of the ...

P. M. Lyster; S. E. Cohn; R. Ménard; L-P. Chang; S-J. Lin; R. G. Olsen

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Event:Expanded Constituency Workshop for West Africa | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Expanded Constituency Workshop for West Africa Expanded Constituency Workshop for West Africa Jump to: navigation, search Calendar.png Expanded Constituency Workshop for West Africa: on 2012/09/04 The Global Environment Facility (GEF) is holding an Expanded Constituency Workshop (ECW) for West Africa, as part of the GEF Country Support Programme, including participants from Benin, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra leone, Guinea and Togo. The workshop will bring together representatives from civil society, the GEF Secretariat and GEF Agencies, with focal points of the biodiversity, desertification, climate change, and chemicals conventions to discuss activities with global environmental benefits. Civil society organizations are invited to register at the meeting website. Runs September 4 - 6

138

Theory and practice of brine processing by industrial-scale magnetic ion polarization and optimization of personal-scale passive solar desalination.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the first section of this work we hope to add to the science of brine management in desalination. We have undertaken a feasibility analysis… (more)

Wofsey, Michael Henry

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Innovative MIOR Process Utilizing Indigenous Reservoir Constituents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work is underway. Microbial cultures have been isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Field pilot studies are underway.

D. O. Hitzman; A. K. Stepp; D. M. Dennis; L. R. Graumann

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

140

Thermal denitration and mineralization of waste constituents  

SciTech Connect

In order to produce a quality grout from LLW using hydraulic cements, proper conditioning of the waste is essential for complete cement curing. Several technologies were investigated as options for conditions. Since the LLW is dilute, removal of all, or most, of the water will significantly reduce the final waste volume. Neutralization of the LLW is also desirable since acidic liquids to not allow cement to cure properly. The nitrate compounds are very soluble and easily leached from solid waste forms; therefore, denitration is desirable. Thermal and chemical denitration technologies have the advantages of water removal, neutralization, and denitration. The inclusion of additives during thermal treatment were investigated as a method of forming insoluable waste conditions.

Nenni, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

UCSD Geothermal Chemical Modeling Project: DOE Advanced Brine Chemistry Program. [University of California at San Diego (UCSD)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DOE funding to the UCSD Chemical Modeling Group supports research to provide computer models which will reliably characterize the equilibrium chemistry of geothermal brines (solution, solid and gas phases) under variable thermodynamic conditions. With this technology, it will be possible to rapidly and inexpensively predict the chemical behavior of geothermal brines during various resource recovery stages; exploration, production, plant energy extraction and rejection as well as in ancillary programs such as mineral recovery. Our modeling technology is based on recent progress in the physical chemistry of concentrated aqueous solutions. The behavior of these fluids has not been predicted from first principle theories. However, because of the importance of concentrated brines to many industrial and natural processes, there have been numerous efforts to develop accurate phenomenological expressions for predicting the chemical behavior of these brines. One of the most successful of these efforts is that of Pitzer and coworkers. Incorporating the semiempirical equations of Pitzer, we have shown at UCSD that we can create highly accurate models of brine-solid-gas chemistry.

Moeller, N.; Weare, J.H.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Effect of Sea Ice on the Salinity of Antarctic Bottom Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Brine rejection during the formation of Antarctic sea ice is known to enhance the salinity of dense shelf waters in the Weddell and Ross Seas. As these shelf waters flow off the shelves and descend to the bottom, they entrain ambient deep water ...

J. R. Toggweiler; B. Samuels

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Development of direct heat exchangers for geothermal brines. Final report, October 4, 1977--June 30, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of experiments during a period of eight months was conducted with the existing Direct Contact Heat Exchanger (DCHX) Loop in order to better understand the thermal and hydraulic characteristics of the equipment. Modifications were made to the equipment which were designed to improve heat transfer and reduce the cost of the heat exchangers. Additional changes were made to the equipment to conduct turbine experiments, condenser experiments, and carryover tests. Further studies of the amounts of dissolved isobutane in the geothermal brine and methods of recovering this dissolved isobutane were also made. The procedures used and the results of the tests performed are presented.

Urbanek, M.W.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Radiation chemistry of salt-mine brines and hydrates. [Gamma radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Certain aspects of the radiation chemistry of NaCl-saturated MgCl/sub 2/ solutions and MgCl/sub 2/ hydrates at temperatures in the range of 30 to 180/sup 0/C were investigated through experiments. A principal objective was to establish the values for the yields of H/sub 2/ (G(H/sub 2/)) and accompanying oxidants in the gamma-ray radiolysis of concentrated brines that might occur in waste repositories in salt. We concluded that G(H/sub 2/) from gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated, deaerated atmosphere above the solution is between 0.48 and 0.49 over most of the range 30 to 143/sup 0/C. The yield is probably somewhat lower at the lower end of this range, averaging 0.44 at 30 to 45/sup 0/C. Changes in the relative amounts of MgCl/sub 2/ and NaCl in the NaCl-saturated solutions have negligible effects on the yield. The yield of O/sub 2/ into the same atmosphere averages 0.13, independent of the temperature and brine composition, showing that only about 50% of the radiolytic oxidant that was formed along with the H/sub 2/ was present as O/sub 2/. We did not identify the species that compose the remainder of the oxidant. We concluded that the yield of H/sub 2/ from a gamma-irradiated brine solution into a simultaneously irradiated atmosphere containing 5 to 8% air in He may be greater than the yield in deaerated systems by amounts ranging from 0% for temperatures of 73 to 85/sup 0/C, to about 30 and 40% for temperatures in the ranges 100 to 143/sup 0/C and 30 to 45/sup 0/C, respectively. We did not establish the mechanism whereby the air affected the yields of H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/. The values found in this work for G(H/sub 2/) in deaerated systems are in approximate agreement with the value of 0.44 for the gamma-irradiation yield of H/sub 2/ in pure H/sub 2/O at room temperature. They are also in agreement with the values predicted by extrapolation from the findings of previous researchers for the value for G(H/sub 2/) in 2 M NaCl solutions at room temperature.

Jenks, G.H.; Walton, J.R.; Bronstein, H.R.; Baes, C.F. Jr.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Electric power generation using geothermal brine resources for a proof-of-concept facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A report is given of the initial phase of a proof-of-concept project to establish the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of utilizing hot brine resources for electric energy production and other industrial applications. Included in the report are the following: summary, conclusions, and recommendations; site selection; Heber site description; development of design bases for an experimental facility and a 10 MWe(Net) generating unit; description of facilities; safety analysis; environmental considerations; implementation plan and schedule; and conceptual capital cost estimate.

Not Available

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Application of freshwater and brine polymer flooding in the North Burbank Unit, Osage County, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

A freshwater polymer-flood project was implemented in a 1,440-acre area of the North Burbank Unit (NBU) in 1980 with sequential injection of 4.2 million Ibm of polyacrylamide and 4.0 million Ibm of a 2.9% aluminum citrate crosslinking solution. Response to polymer flooding has been very pronounced, with ultimate incremental oil recovery projected to exceed 2.5 MMSTB of oil and total project oil expected to be 4.5 MMSTB. A crosslinked polymer-flood process for use in brine was developed that displays equally favorable performance characteristics as the freshwater polymer-flooding system.

Moffitt, P.D.; Zornes, D.R.; Moradi-Araghi, A.; McGovern, J.M. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research program was directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions and technologies for improving oil production. The goal was to identify and utilize indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery. This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil-releasing agents. Experimental laboratory work in model sandpack cores was conducted using microbial cultures isolated from produced water samples. Comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents were conducted in sand packs with natural field waters using cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs. Increased oil recovery in multiple model sandpack systems was achieved and the technology and results were verified by successful field studies. Direct application of the research results has lead to the development of a feasible, practical, successful, and cost-effective technology which increases oil recovery. This technology is now being commercialized and applied in numerous field projects to increase oil recovery. Two field applications of the developed technology reported production increases of 21% and 24% in oil recovery.

D.O. Hitzman; A.K. Stepp; D.M. Dennis; L.R. Graumann

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

INNOVATIVE MIOR PROCESS UTILIZING INDIGENOUS RESERVOIR CONSTITUENTS  

SciTech Connect

This research program is directed at improving the knowledge of reservoir ecology and developing practical microbial solutions for improving oil production. The goal is to identify indigenous microbial populations which can produce beneficial metabolic products and develop a methodology to stimulate those select microbes with inorganic nutrient amendments to increase oil recovery.This microbial technology has the capability of producing multiple oil releasing agents. The potential of the system will be illustrated and demonstrated by the example of biopolymer production on oil recovery. Research has begun on the program and experimental laboratory work is underway. Polymer-producing cultures have been isolated from produced water samples and initially characterized. Concurrently, a microcosm scale sand-packed column has been designed and developed for testing cultures of interest, including polymer-producing strains. In research that is planned to begin in future work, comparative laboratory studies demonstrating in situ production of microbial products as oil recovery agents will be conducted in sand pack and cores with synthetic and natural field waters at concentrations, flooding rates, and with cultures and conditions representative of oil reservoirs.

D.O. Hitzman; S.A. Bailey

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Capacity Investigation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation for Geologic Sequestration of CO2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capacity Investigation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Capacity Investigation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation for Geologic Sequestration of CO 2 Christine Doughty (cadoughty@lbl.gov; 510-486-6453) Karsten Pruess (k_pruess@lbl.gov; 510-486-6732) Sally M. Benson (smbenson@lbl.gov; 510-486-5875) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 90-1116 Berkeley, CA 94720 Susan D. Hovorka (susan.hovorka@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-4863) Paul R. Knox (paul.knox@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-7313) Bureau of Economic Geology P.O. Box X, The University of Texas Austin, TX 78713 Christopher T. Green (ctgreen@ucdavis.edu; 530-752-1372) University of California, Hydrologic Sciences 1 Shields Ave. Davis, CA 95616 Abstract The capacity of fluvial brine-bearing formations to sequester CO 2 is investigated using numerical simulations of CO

151

Demystifying water treatment  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly accountable for the environmental quality and cost of managing their waste and process water streams, customers require more precise data about the constituents in their water. This has forced suppliers to unlock some of the secrets of water treatment. In the open exchange of information, users are trading in esoteric formulations for products that are more chemical efficient and environmentally benign. Factoring more prominently in the water treatment equation are service and supply. This paper reviews some of these simpler treatments.

Hairston, D.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Brine migration test report: Asse Salt Mine, Federal Republic of Germany: Technical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of Brine Migration Tests which were undertaken at the Asse mine of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) under a bilateral US/FRG agreement. This experiment simulates a nuclear waste repository at the 800-m (2624-ft) level of the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. This report describes the Asse salt mine, the test equipment, and the pretest properties of the salt in the mine and in the vicinity of the test area. Also included are selected test data (for the first 28 months of operation) on the following: brine migration rates, thermomechaical behavior of the salt (including room closure, stress reading, and thermal profiles), borehole gas pressures, and borehole gas analyses. In addition to field data, laboratory analyses of pretest salt properties are included in this report. The operational phase of these experiments was completed on October 4, 1985, with the commencement of cooldown and the start of posttest activities. 7 refs., 68 figs., 48 tabs.

Coyle, A.J.; Eckert, J.; Kalia, H.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Fluid sampling and chemical modeling of geopressured brines containing methane. Final report, March 1980-February 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of a flowthrough sampler capable of obtaining fluid samples from geopressured wells at temperatures up to 400/sup 0/F and pressures up to 20,000 psi is described. The sampler has been designed, fabricated from MP35N alloy, laboratory tested, and used to obtain fluid samples from a geothermal well at The Geysers, California. However, it has not yet been used in a geopressured well. The design features, test results, and operation of this device are described. Alternative sampler designs are also discussed. Another activity was to review the chemistry and geochemistry of geopressured brines and reservoirs, and to evaluate the utility of available computer codes for modeling the chemistry of geopressured brines. The thermodynamic data bases for such codes are usually the limiting factor in their application to geopressured systems, but it was concluded that existing codes can be updated with reasonable effort and can usefully explain and predict the chemical characteristics of geopressured systems, given suitable input data.

Dudak, B.; Galbraith, R.; Hansen, L.; Sverjensky, D.; Weres, O.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

High-pressure solvent extraction of methane from geopressured brines: technical evaluation and cost analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solvent extraction is proposed as a means of recovering dissolved methane from geopressured-geothermal brines at high pressures. The assessment shows that additional investment in a high pressure solvent extraction plant preceding direct injection disposal of brines into isolated aquifers can be profitable. The technical and economic issues are discussed, and compared with other injection methods such as complete depressurization for methane recovery followed by conventional mechanical pumping. The contributions of hydraulic (pressure) energy recovery and geothermal power production are also assessed. For deep injection into the producing formation, it is concluded that methane extraction processes are not applicable, insofar as maintenance of high surface pressures provides no clear-cut energy benefits. As a first step in the evaluation of solvent extraction, the solubility of a promising solvent candidate, n-hexadecane, was measured in 15 wt % NaCl solutions at temperatures up to 150/sup 0/C. The solubility of a potential low cost solvent, No. 2 Diesel fuel, was also measured.

Quong, R.; Otsuki, H.H.; Locke, F.E.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Subsurface Ice and Brine Sampling Using an Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher for Life Detection and Characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is growing evidence for ice and fluids near the surface of Mars with potential discharge of brines, which may preserve a record of past life on the planet. Proven techniques to sample Mars subsurface will be critical for future NASA astrobiology missions that will search for such records. The required technology studies are underway in the McMurdo Dry valleys, Antarctica, which is serving as a Mars analog. The ice layer on Lake Vida in the dry valleys is estimated to be 20-meter thick where below 16-m depth there is a mix of ice and brine, which has never been sampled directly due to logistical constraints. A novel light weight, low power ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer (USDC) mechanism was developed that overcomes the need for high axial loads required by drilling via conventional techniques. The USDC was modified to produce an Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher that is being developed to core down to the 20-m depth for in situ analysis and sample collection. Coring ice at-20 o C as in Lake Vida suggests that it is a greater challenge and current efforts are focused on the problems of ice core cutting, ice chip handling and potential ice melt (and refreezing) during drilling. An analytical model and a prototype are being developed with an effort to

Y. Bar-cohen; S. Sherrit; Z. Chang; L. Wessel; X. Bao; P. T. Doran; C. H. Fritsen; F. Kenig; C. P. Mckay; A. Murray; T. Peterson

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

New constraints on methane fluxes and rates of anaerobic methane oxidation in a Gulf of Mexico brine pool via in situ mass spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New constraints on methane fluxes and rates of anaerobic methane oxidation in a Gulf of Mexico Keywords: Methane flux Mass spectrometer Brine pool Methane oxidation Gulf of Mexico a b s t r a c t Deep report direct measurements of methane concentrations made in a Gulf of Mexico brine pool located

Girguis, Peter R.

157

Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Interim Progress Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine would be reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction. This process provides additional storage space (capacity) in the aquifer, reduces operational risks by relieving overpressure in the aquifer, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations for brines typical of CCS sites. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. This progress report deals mainly with our geochemical modeling of high-salinity brines and covers the first six months of project execution (September, 2008 to March, 2009). Costs and implementation results will be presented in the annual report. The brines typical of sequestration sites can be several times more concentrated than seawater, requiring specialized modeling codes typical of those developed for nuclear waste disposal calculations. The osmotic pressure developed as the brines are concentrated is of particular concern, as are precipitates that can cause fouling of reverse osmosis membranes and other types of membranes (e.g., NF). We have now completed the development associated with tasks (1) and (2) of the work plan. We now have a contract with Perlorica, Inc., to provide support to the cost analysis and nanofiltration evaluation. We have also conducted several preliminary analyses of the pressure effect in the reservoir in order to confirm that reservoir pressure can indeed be used to drive the reverse osmosis process. Our initial conclusions from the work to date are encouraging: (1) The concept of aquifer-pressured RO to provide fresh water associated with carbon dioxide storage appears feasible. (2) Concentrated brines such as those found in Wyoming are amenable to RO treatment. We have looked at sodium chloride brines from the Nugget Formation in Sublette County. 20-25% removal with conventional methods is realistic; higher removal appears achievable with NF. The less concentrated sulfate-rich brines from the Tensleep Formation in Sublette County would support >80% removal with conventional RO. (3) Brines from other proposed sequestration sites can now be analyzed readily. An osmotic pressure curve appropriate to these brines can be used to evaluate cost and equipment specifications. (4) We have examined a range of subsurface brine compositions that is potentially pertinent to carbon sequestration and noted the principal compositional trends pertinent to evaluating the feasibility of freshwater extraction. We have proposed a general categorization for the feasibility of the process based on total dissolved solids (TDS). (5) Withdrawing pressurized brine can have a very beneficial effect on reservoir pressure and total available storage capacity. Brine must be extracted from a deeper location in the aquifer than the point of CO{sub 2} injection to prevent CO{sub 2} from migrating to the brine extraction well.

Aines, R D; Wolery, T J; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W L

2009-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

158

Energy optimization in ice hockey halls I. The system COP as a multivariable function, brine and design choices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is the first of a series of articles addressing the energy optimization in ice hockey halls. Here we outline an analytic method to predict in which design and operating conditions the COP of the entire cooling system (refrigerator and cooling tower) ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is maximum. ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is investigated as a function of several variables, like electric consumption and brine physical properties. With this method, the best configuration and brine choices for the system can therefore be determined in advance. We estimate the optimal design of an average-sized ice rink, including pipe diameter, depth and brine type (ethylene glycol and ammonia). We also single out an optimal brine density and show the impact of the electric consumption of the pump on ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$. Our theoretical predictions are validated with heat flow measurement data obtained at an ice hockey hall in Finland. They are also confronted with technical and cost-related constraints, and implemented by simulations with the pr...

Ferrantelli, Andrea; Räikkönen, Miska; Viljanen, Martti

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Evaporative Evolution of a Na-Cl-NO3-K-Ca-SO4-Mg-Si Brine at 95(degree)C: Experiments and Modeling relevant to Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff water representative of one type of pore water at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (USA) was evaporated at 95 C in a series of experiments to determine the geochemical controls for brines that may form on, and possibly impact upon the long-term integrity of waste containers and drip shields at the designated high-level, nuclear-waste repository. Solution chemistry, condensed vapor chemistry, and precipitate mineralogy were used to identify important chemical divides and to validate geochemical calculations of evaporating water chemistry using a high temperature Pitzer thermodynamic database. The water evolved towards a complex ''sulfate type'' brine that contained about 45 mol% Na, 40 mol% Cl, 9 mol% NO{sub 3}, 5 mol% K, and less than 1 mol% each of SO{sub 4}, Ca, Mg, {Sigma}CO{sub 2}(aq), F, and Si. All measured ions in the condensed vapor phase were below detection limits. The mineral precipitates identified were halite, anhydrite, bassanite, niter and nitratine. Trends in the solution composition and identification of CaSO{sub 4} solids suggest that fluorite, carbonate, sulfate, and magnesium-silicate precipitation control the aqueous solution composition of sulfate type waters by removing fluoride, calcium, and magnesium during the early stages of evaporation. In most cases, the high temperature Pitzer database, used by EQ3/6 geochemical code, sufficiently predicts water composition and mineral precipitation during evaporation. Predicted solution compositions are generally within a factor of two of the experimental values. The model predicts that sepiolite, bassanite, amorphous silica, calcite, halite and brucite are the solubility controlling mineral phases.

Alai, M; Sutton, M; Carroll, S A

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

160

Method for verification of constituents of a process stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method for validating a process stream for the presence or absence of a substance of interest such as a chemical warfare agent; that is, for verifying that a chemical warfare agent is present in an input line for feeding the agent into a reaction vessel for destruction, or, in a facility for producing commercial chemical products, that a constituent of the chemical warfare agent has not been substituted for the proper chemical compound. The method includes the steps of transmitting light through a sensor positioned in the feed line just before the chemical constituent in the input line enters the reaction vessel, measuring an optical spectrum of the chemical constituent from the light beam transmitted through it, and comparing the measured spectrum to a reference spectrum of the chemical agent and preferable also reference spectra of surrogates. A signal is given if the chemical agent is not entering a reaction vessel for destruction, or if a constituent of a chemical agent is added to a feed line in substitution of the proper chemical compound.

Baylor, L.C.; Buchanan, B.R.; O`Rourke, P.E.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Assessment of subsurface salt water disposal experience on the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast for applications to disposal of salt water from geopressured geothermal wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A representative cross section of the literature on the disposal of geothermal brine was perused and some of the general information and concepts is summarized. The following sections are included: disposal statistics--Texas Railroad Commission; disposal statistics--Louisiana Office of Conservation; policies for administering salt water disposal operations; salt water disposal experience of Gulf Coast operators; and Federal Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program's brine disposal operations. The literature cited is listed in the appended list of references. Additional literature is listed in the bibliography. (MHR)

Knutson, C.K.; Boardman, C.R.

1978-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

162

Assessment of subsurface salt water disposal experience on the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast for applications to disposal of salt water from geopressured geothermal wells  

SciTech Connect

A representative cross section of the literature on the disposal of geothermal brine was perused and some of the general information and concepts is summarized. The following sections are included: disposal statistics--Texas Railroad Commission; disposal statistics--Louisiana Office of Conservation; policies for administering salt water disposal operations; salt water disposal experience of Gulf Coast operators; and Federal Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program's brine disposal operations. The literature cited is listed in the appended list of references. Additional literature is listed in the bibliography. (MHR)

Knutson, C.K.; Boardman, C.R.

1978-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

163

A Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO2 with Brine-Rock Mixtures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO 2 with Brine-Rock Mixtures Nicholas B. Janda (nbj2@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-2648) Philip W. Morrison, Jr. (pwm5@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-4238) Department of Chemical Engineering Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-7217 Beverly Z. Saylor (bzs@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-3763) Gerald Matisoff (gxm4@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-3677) Department of Geological Sciences Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-7216 Introduction Storage of carbon dioxide in deep, porous, and permeable reservoir rocks is one of the most promising technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Although oil and gas reservoirs are a sensible first step for sequestration of carbon dioxide in geologic

164

Reducing Foreign Lithium Dependence through Co-Production of Lithium from Geothermal Brine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Foreign Lithium Dependence through Co-Production of Lithium from Foreign Lithium Dependence through Co-Production of Lithium from Geothermal Brine Kerry Klein 1 , Linda Gaines 2 1 New West Technologies LLC, Washington, DC, USA 2 Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA KEYWORDS Mineral extraction, zinc, silica, strategic metals, Imperial Valley, lithium ion batteries, electric- drive vehicles, battery recycling ABSTRACT Following a 2009 investment of $32.9 billion in renewable energy and energy efficiency research through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, President Obama in his January 2011 State of the Union address promised deployment of one million electric vehicles by 2015 and 80% clean energy by 2035. The United States seems poised to usher in its bright energy future,

165

Corrosivity of geothermal brines. Progress report for period ending September 1977. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of studies carried out principally during FY 1976 and FY 1977 on the corrosion of ferrous materials in synthetic geothermal brines are summarized. A survey of prior work on electrochemical aspects of the corrosion of iron and carbon steel in chloride solutions is presented, and some of the results of these investigations are summarized. The principal results of the present studies are then recapitulated. Included are measurements of the corrosion potential, corrosion rate, and polarization behavior of iron and carbon steel in deaerated 4 M NaCl over the pH range from 1 to 11 at temperatures up to 100/sup 0/C in a conventional Pyrex electrochemical cell. The effect of pH on hydrolysis, precipitation, and electrochemical reactivity of ferrous and ferric ions in 4 M NaCl at 25/sup 0/C is presented, and implications for plant operation are discussed. Details of a refreshed, stirred titanium autoclave system are described; the system permits electrochemical measurements to be made up to at least 200/sup 0/in corrosive aqueous saline media. The effect of pH (from pH equals 7 to pH equals 2) and temperature (from 25/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C) on the corrosion rate of type A212B carbon steel in deaerated 4 M NaCl is described. A relatively simple numerical correlation describes the data over the entire temperature and pH range. The spontaneous corrosion potentials and pitting potentials of types 304 and 316 stainless steel were measured in deaerated 4 M NaCl at pH equals 5 from 25/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/C, and the data demonstrate the borderline stability of austenitic stainless steel for brine service. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for further studies are presented.

Posey, F.A.; Palko, A.A.; Bacarella, A.L.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Use of data obtained from core tests in the design and operation of spent brine injection wells in geopressured or geothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effects of formation characteristics on injection well performance are reviewed. Use of data acquired from cores taken from injection horizons to predict injectivity is described. And methods for utilizing data from bench scale testing of brine and core samples to optimize injection well design are presented. Currently available methods and equipment provide data which enable the optimum design of injection wells through analysis of cores taken from injection zones. These methods also provide a means of identifying and correcting well injection problems. Methods described in this report are: bulk density measurement; porosity measurement; pore size distribution analysis; permeability measurement; formation grain size distribution analysis; core description (lithology) and composition; amount, type and distribution of clays and shales; connate water analysis; consolidatability of friable reservoir rocks; grain and pore characterization by scanning electron microscopy; grain and pore characterization by thin section analysis; permeability damage and enhancement tests; distribution of water-borne particles in porous media; and reservoir matrix acidizing effectiveness. The precise methods of obtaining this information are described, and their use in the engineering of injection wells is illustrated by examples, where applicable. (MHR)

Jorda, R.M.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Exploration of hyperfine interaction between constituent quarks via eta productions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, the different exchange freedom, one gluon, one pion or Goldstone boson, in constituent quark model is investigated, which is responsible to the hyperfine interaction between constituent quarks, via the combined analysis of the eta production processes, $\\pi^{-}p\\rightarrow\\eta n$ and $\\gamma p\\rightarrow\\eta p$. With the Goldstone-boson exchange, as well as the one-gluon or one-pion exchange, both the spectrum and observables, such as, the differential cross section and polarized beam asymmetry, are fitted to the suggested values of Particle Data Group and the experimental data. The first two types of exchange freedoms give acceptable description of the spectrum and observables while the one pion exchange can not describe the observables and spectrum simultaneously, so can be excluded. The experimental data for the two processes considered here strongly support the mixing angles for two lowest S11 sates and D13 states as about -30 and 6 degree respectively.

Jun He; S. G. Yuan; H. S. Xu

2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

168

\\Chemical Constituents in Coal Combustion Product Leachate: Selenium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selenium is a common constituent in coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) and can be found in CCP leachate. The chemical profile provided here assembles and summarizes existing information on selenium’s environmental characteristics, which are focused on conditions associated with CCP management. Extensive references provide a means for obtaining more detailed information on specific subject areas. The following topics are covered: 1) occurrence and sources of selenium; 2) environmental ...

2013-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

169

Chemical Source Inversion Using Assimilated Constituent Observations in an Idealized Two-Dimensional System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A source inversion technique for chemical constituents is presented that uses assimilated constituent observations rather than directly using the observations. The method is tested with a simple model problem, which is a two-dimensional Fourier–...

Andrew Tangborn; Robert Cooper; Steven Pawson; Zhibin Sun

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Experimental and Computational Studies of Fluid Flow Phenomena in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine and Oil Fields  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES OF FLUID EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES OF FLUID FLOW PHENOMENA IN CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN BRINE AND OIL FIELDS Chuang Ji ( chuang.ji@netl.doe.gov ) National Energy Technology Laboratory Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 BOX 5725 Clarkson University Potsdam, NY 13699 Goodarz Ahmadi ( ahmadi@clarkson.edu ) BOX 5725 Clarkson University Potsdam, NY 13699 Duane H. Smith ( duane.smith@netl.doe.gov ) National Energy Technology Laboratory Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 2 INTRODUCTION Sequestration of CO 2 by injection into deep geological formations is a method to reduce CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere. However, when CO 2 is injected underground, it forms fingers extending into the rock pores saturated with brine or petroleum. This flow

172

Evaluation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast for Geological Sequestration of CO2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Evaluation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast for Geological Sequestration of CO 2 S. D. Hovorka (susan.hovorka@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-4863) Bureau of Economic Geology, P.O. Box X, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 C. Doughty (CADoughty@lbl.gov; 510-486-6453 ) Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road Mailstop 90-1116, Berkeley, CA 94720 P. R. Knox (paul.knox@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-7313), Bureau of Economic Geology, P.O. Box X, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 C. T. Green (ctgreen@ucdavis.edu; 510-495-2461) University of California, Hydrologic Sciences, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 K. Pruess(K_Pruess@lbl.gov; 510-486-6732) Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road Mailstop 90-1116,

173

Removal of hydrogen sulfide from simulated geothermal brines by reaction with oxygen. Final report, October 6, 1975-February 4, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process for controlling hydrogen sulfide emissions and corrosivity in geothermal systems has been evaluated on a small laboratory pilot plant scale and shown to be technically feasible. The hydrogen sulfide was oxidized by oxygen injected directly into a 11.4-liter-(3-gallon)-per-minute flowing stream of simulated geothermal brine. The oxidation of the sulfide was complete at oxygen:sulfide mole ratios of 1.25:1 to 1.5:1, depending on temperature and total dissolved solids in the brine. The reaction products were free sulfur, sulfite and sulfate. The ratio of these was dependent upon the oxygen:sulfide mole ratios; but, generally, more than 80% of the sulfide was converted to sulfate, approximately 10% to free sulfur and less than 10% to sulfite.

Wilson, J.S.; King, J.E.; Bullard, G.R.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Understanding Long-Term Solute Transport in Sedimentary Basins: Simulating Brine Migration in the Alberta Basin. Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mass transport in deep sedimentary basins places important controls on ore formation, petroleum migration, CO2 sequestration, and geochemical reactions that affect petroleum reservoir quality, but large-scale transport in this type of setting remains poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is highlighted in the resource-rich Alberta Basin, where geochemical and hydrogeologic studies have suggested residence times ranging from hundreds of millions of years to less than 5 My, respectively. Here we developed new hydrogeologic models that were constrained by geochemical observations to reconcile these two very different estimates. The models account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, sediment deposition and erosion, sediment compressibility, and dissolution of salt deposits, including Cl/Br systematics. Prior interpretations of Cl/Br ratios in the Alberta Basin concluded that the brines were derived from evaporatively-concentrated brines that were subsequently diluted by seawater and freshwater; models presented here show that halite dissolution must have contributed strongly as well, which implies significantly greater rates of mass transport. This result confirms that Cl/Br ratios are subject to significant non-uniqueness and thus do not provide good independent indicators of the origin of brines. Salinity and Cl/Br ratios provided valuable new constraints for basin-scale models, however. Sensitivity studies revealed that permeabilities obtained from core- and field-scale tests were appropriate for basin-scale models, despite the differences in scale between the tests and the models. Simulations of groundwater age show that the residence time of porefluids in much of the basin is less than 100 My. Groundwater age increases with depth and approaches 200 My in the deepest part of the basin, but brines are significantly younger than their host rocks throughout the basin.

Alicia M. Wilson

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

175

How Does Labrador Sea Water Enter the Deep Western Boundary Current?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Labrador Sea Water (LSW), a dense water mass formed by convection in the subpolar North Atlantic, is an important constituent of the meridional overturning circulation. Understanding how the water mass enters the deep western boundary current (...

Jaime B. Palter; M. Susan Lozier; Kara L. Lavender

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Study and testing of direct contact heat exchangers for geothermal brines. Phase II, August 1976--June 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The analytical and experimental studies completed under this project have explored several aspects of geothermal binary power cycles and column type direct contact heat exchangers between geothermal brine and isobutane. A major improvement of the heat exchanger was developed by the combination of the preheater and boiler into a single continuous column. At East Mesa, this new direct contact heat exchanger was tested on geothermal brine in order to correlate the experimental heat transfer data with the theoretical model for use in designing larger plants. Experiments also involved a small radial inflow turbine to produce electricity which marked the first generation of electricity from geothermal brine using a binary cycle. In analytical studies, a comparison of the relationship between column diameter and droplet size was made for both Minard--Johnson and Sakiadis--Johnson model. The Letan--Kehat model for relating column height and temperature profile was analyzed and compared with experimental data. It appears that the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical models. A detailed design of a 250 Kw pilot plant incorporating the direct contact heat exchanger was completed. This design with estimated costs for it and a 500 Kw pilot plant is incorporated.

Suratt, W.B.; Lee, C.O.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Brine chemistry: scaling and corrosion. Geothermal research study in the Salton Sea region of California  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to recommend a reasonable program of brine chemistry research that will result in the development of methods for predicting and controlling scale deposition, and in guidelines for the selection of corrosion-resistant construction materials. First, background information, which is necessary for the understanding of the problems of scaling and corrosion in the Salton Sea KGRA, is presented through a review of the history of geothermal exploration and development in the Salton Sea. Second, literature relevant to the geochemistry of the Salton Sea field is reviewed and important results are emphasized. Third, current research efforts directed toward actual power plant construction are summarized and evaluated. Fourth, research which has been proposed but is not currently funded is discussed. Fifth, because silica scaling has been the most troublesome problem in the past, the basic chemistry of silica and its relationship to scaling is discussed. Sixth, recommendations for future research are made in which a fundamental engineering approach is emphasized. In this approach, experiments would be conducted on actual process equipment and detailed chemical analyses would be performed on site in well-equipped field laboratories. 88 references.

Hoffmann, M.R.

1975-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Lattice-Boltzmann modeling of micromodel experiments representing a CO2-brine system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Successful sequestration of CO{sub 2} into deep saline aquifers presents an enormous challenge that requires fundamental understanding of reactive-multi phase flow and transport across many temporal and spatial scales. Of critical importance is accurately predicting the efficiency of CO{sub 2} trapping mechanisms. At the pore scale (e.g., microns to millimeters) the interfacial area between CO{sub 2} and brine, as well as CO{sub 2} and the solid phase, directly influences the amount of CO{sub 2} trapped due to capillary forces, dissolution and mineral precipitation. In this work, we model immiscible displacement micromodel experiments using the lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method. We focus on quantifying interfacial area as a function of capillary numbers and viscosity ratios typically encountered in CO{sub 2} sequestration operations. We show that the LB model adequately predicts the steady-state experimental flow patterns and interfacial area measurements. Based on the steady-state agreement, we use the LB model to investigate interfacial dynamics (e.g., fluid-fluid interfacial velocity and the rate of production of fluid-fluid interfacial area). In addition, we quantify the amount of interfacial area and the interfacial dynamics associated with the capillary trapped nonwetting phase. This is expected to be important for predicting the amount of nonwetting phase subsequently trapped due to dissolution and mineral precipitation.

Porter, Mark L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tarimala, Sowmitri [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abdel - Fattah, Amr I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carey, James W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

179

Time-lapse crosswell seismic and VSP monitoring of injected CO2 ina brine aquifer  

SciTech Connect

Seismic surveys successfully imaged a small scale C02injection (1,600 tons) conducted in a brine aquifer of the Frio Formationnear Houston, Texas. These time-lapse bore-hole seismic surveys,crosswell and vertical seismic profile (VSP), were acquired to monitorthe C02 distribution using two boreholes (the new injection well and apre-existing well used for monitoring) which are 30 m apart at a depth of1500 m. The crosswell survey provided a high-resolution image of the C02distribution between the wells via tomographic imaging of the P-wavevelocity decrease (up to 500 mls). The simultaneously acquired S-wavetomography showed little change in S-wave velocity, as expected for fluidsubstitution. A rock physics model was used to estimate C02 saturationsof 10-20 percent from the P-wave velocity change. The VSP survey resolveda large (-70 percent) change in reflection amplitude for the Friohorizon. This C02 induced reflection amplitude change allowed estimationof the C02 extent beyond the monitor well and on 3 azimuths. The VSPresult is compared with numerical modeling of C02 saturations and isseismically modeled using the velocity change estimated in the crosswellsurvey.

Daley, Thomas M.; Myer, Larry R.; Peterson, J.E.; Majer, E.L.; Hoversten,G.M.

2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

180

Sampling and analysis of natural gas trace constituents  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Major and minor components of natural gas are routinely analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), using a thermal conductivity (TC). The best results obtained by these methods can report no better than 0.01 mole percent of each measured component. Even the extended method of analysis by flame ionization detector (FID) can only improve on the detection limit of hydrocarbons. The gas industry needs better information on all trace constituents of natural gas, whether native or inadvertently added during gas processing that may adversely influence the operation of equipment or the safety of the consumer. The presence of arsenic and mercury in some gas deposits have now been documented in international literature as causing not only human toxicity but also damaging to the field equipment. Yet, no standard methods of sampling and analysis exist to provide this much needed information. In this paper the authors report the results of a three-year program to develop an extensive array of sampling and analysis methods for speciation and measurement of trace constituents of natural gas. A cryogenic sampler operating at near 200 K ({minus}99 F) and at pipeline pressures up to 12.4 {times} 10{sup 6}Pa (1800 psig) has been developed to preconcentrate and recover all trace constituents with boiling points above butanes. Specific analytical methods have been developed for speciating and measurement of many trace components (corresponding to US EPA air toxics) by GC-AED and GC-MS, and for determining various target compounds by other techniques. Moisture, oxygen and sulfur contents are measured on site using dedicated field instruments. Arsenic, mercury and radon are sampled by specific solid sorbents for subsequent laboratory analysis.

Attari, A.; Chao, S.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Involvement of extracellular matrix constituents in breast cancer  

SciTech Connect

It has recently been established that the extracellular matrix is required for normal functional differentiation of mammary epithelia not only in culture, but also in vivo. The mechanisms by which extracellular matrix affects differentiation, as well as the nature of extracellular matrix constituents which have major impacts on mammary gland function, have only now begun to be dissected. The intricate variety of extracellular matrix-mediated events and the remarkable degree of plasticity of extracellular matrix structure and composition at virtually all times during ontogeny, make such studies difficult. Similarly, during carcinogenesis, the extracellular matrix undergoes gross alterations, the consequences of which are not yet precisely understood. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of data suggests that the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-receptors might participate in the control of most, if not all, of the successive stages of breast tumors, from appearance to progression and metastasis.

Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Soybeans: Chemistry, Production, Processing, and UtilizationChapter 10 Minor Constituents and Phytochemicals of Soybeans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soybeans: Chemistry, Production, Processing, and Utilization Chapter 10 Minor Constituents and Phytochemicals of Soybeans Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry Processing eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition -

183

Neutron formation temperature gauge and neutron activation analysis brine flow meter. Final report, October 1, 1976--March 31, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Feasibility studies of nuclear techniques applicable to the determination of geothermal formation temperature and two-phase brine flow downhole have been performed. The formation temperature gauging technique involves injection of fast neutrons into the formation and analysis of the moderated slow neutron energy distribution by appropriately filtered neutron detectors. The scientific feasibility of the method has been demonstrated by analytical computational and experimental evaluation of the system response. A data analysis method has been developed to determine unambiguously the temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power of an arbitrary medium. The initial phase of a program to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of the technique has been performed. A sonde mockup was fabricated and measurements have been performed in a test stand designed to simulate a geothermal well. The results indicate that the formation temperature determined by this method is independent of differences between the temperature in the borehole fluid and the formation, borehole fluid density, and borehole fluid salinity. Estimates of performance specifications for a formation temperature sonde have been made on the basis of information obtained in this study and a conceptual design of a logging system has been developed. The technique for the determination of fluid flow in a well is based on neutron activation analysis of elements present in the brine. An analytical evaluation of the method has been performed. The results warrant further, experimental evaluation.

Vagelatos, N.; Steinman, D.K.; John, J.

1978-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

184

Environmental assessment of the brine pipeline replacement for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Facility in Brazoria County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0804, for the proposed replacement of a deteriorated brine disposal pipeline from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Bryan Mound storage facility in Brazoria County, Texas, into the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the ocean discharge outfall would be moved shoreward by locating the brine diffuser at the end of the pipeline 3.5 miles offshore at a minimum depth of 30 feet. The action would occur in a floodplain and wetlands; therefore, a floodplain/wetlands assessment has been prepared in conjunction with this EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 USC. 4321, et seg.). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). This FONSI also includes a Floodplain Statement of Findings in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1022.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses for gas and brine migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, May 1992  

SciTech Connect

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis, stepwise regression analysis and examination of scatterplots are used in conjunction with the BRAGFLO model to examine two phase flow (i.e., gas and brine) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is being developed by the US Department of Energy as a disposal facility for transuranic waste. The analyses consider either a single waste panel or the entire repository in conjunction with the following cases: (1) fully consolidated shaft, (2) system of shaft seals with panel seals, and (3) single shaft seal without panel seals. The purpose of this analysis is to develop insights on factors that are potentially important in showing compliance with applicable regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (i.e., 40 CFR 191, Subpart B; 40 CFR 268). The primary topics investigated are (1) gas production due to corrosion of steel, (2) gas production due to microbial degradation of cellulosics, (3) gas migration into anhydrite marker beds in the Salado Formation, (4) gas migration through a system of shaft seals to overlying strata, and (5) gas migration through a single shaft seal to overlying strata. Important variables identified in the analyses include initial brine saturation of the waste, stoichiometric terms for corrosion of steel and microbial degradation of cellulosics, gas barrier pressure in the anhydrite marker beds, shaft seal permeability, and panel seal permeability.

Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Bean, J.E. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Butcher, B.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Garner, J.W.; Vaughn, P. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schreiber, J.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, P.N. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

EVALUATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OF URANIUM, THORIUM, AND RADIUM ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCED FLUIDS, PRECIPITATES, AND SLUDGES FROM OIL, GAS, AND OILFIELD BRINE INJECTION WELLS IN MISSISSIPPI  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are known to be produced as a byproduct of hydrocarbon production in Mississippi. The presence of NORM has resulted in financial losses to the industry and continues to be a liability as the NORM-enriched scales and scale encrusted equipment is typically stored rather than disposed of. Although the NORM problem is well known, there is little publically available data characterizing the hazard. This investigation has produced base line data to fill this informational gap. A total of 329 NORM-related samples were collected with 275 of these samples consisting of brine samples. The samples were derived from 37 oil and gas reservoirs from all major producing areas of the state. The analyses of these data indicate that two isotopes of radium ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) are the ultimate source of the radiation. The radium contained in these co-produced brines is low and so the radiation hazard posed by the brines is also low. Existing regulations dictate the manner in which these salt-enriched brines may be disposed of and proper implementation of the rules will also protect the environment from the brine radiation hazard. Geostatistical analyses of the brine components suggest relationships between the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, between the Cl concentration and {sup 226}Ra content, and relationships exist between total dissolved solids, BaSO{sub 4} saturation and concentration of the Cl ion. Principal component analysis points to geological controls on brine chemistry, but the nature of the geologic controls could not be determined. The NORM-enriched barite (BaSO{sub 4}) scales are significantly more radioactive than the brines. Leaching studies suggest that the barite scales, which were thought to be nearly insoluble in the natural environment, can be acted on by soil microorganisms and the enclosed radium can become bioavailable. This result suggests that the landspreading means of scale disposal should be reviewed. This investigation also suggests 23 specific components of best practice which are designed to provide a guide to safe handling of NORM in the hydrocarbon industry. The components of best practice include both worker safety and suggestions to maintain waste isolation from the environment.

Charles Swann; John Matthews; Rick Ericksen; Joel Kuszmaul

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Total Matrix Intercomparison: A Method for Determining the Geometry of Water-Mass Pathways  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ocean tracer distributions have long been used to decompose the deep ocean into constituent water masses, but previous inverse methods have generally been limited to just a few water masses that have been defined by a subjective choice of static ...

Geoffrey Gebbie; Peter Huybers

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Chemical Constituents in Coal Combustion Product Leachate: Beryllium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report profiles the environmental behavior of the element beryllium. It includes discussions of beryllium8217s occurrence in soils and water, concentrations in coal and coal combustion products (CCPs), geochemistry, mobility in groundwater, toxicology, and treatment options for removal from water.

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

189

Chemical Constituents in Coal Combustion Product Leachate: Boron  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report profiles the element boron as it occurs in leachate at coal combustion product management sites. Included are discussions of boron's occurrence in soils and water, concentrations in coal combustion products (CCPs), CCP leaching characteristics, effects on human health and ecology, geochemistry, and treatment options for removal from water.

2005-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

190

Groundwater Remediation of Inorganic Constituents at Coal Combustion Product Management Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report reviews constituents that potentially may trigger groundwater remediation at coal combustion product (CCP) management sites and briefly summarizes various in situ and ex situ remediation technologies and their applicability to treat these constituents. The report provides a more detailed discussion for one potentially promising in situ remediation technology, permeable reactive barriers (PRBs).

2006-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

191

Mercury Species and Other Selected Constituent Concentrations in Water, Sediment, and Biota of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with gravel and some asphalt pavement and used to store bulk materials. About 0.012 km2 in the central PSNS, rubble, spent abrasive grit ("blaster sand" and copper slag), and dredged sediment. In 1998, this area

192

Interpretation of brine-permeability tests of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: First interim report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pressure-pulse tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Hydraulic conductivities ranging from about 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}11} m/s (permeabilities of about 10{sup {minus}21} to 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2}) have been interpreted from nine tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within eleven meters of the WIPP underground excavations. Tests of a pure halite layer showed no measurable permeability. Pore pressures in the stratigraphic intervals range from about 0.5 to 9.3 MPa. An anhydrite interbed (Marker Bed 139) appears to be one or more orders of magnitude more permeable than the surrounding halite. Hydraulic conductivities appear to increase, and pore pressures decrease, with increasing proximity to the excavations. These effects are particularly evident within two to three meters of the excavations. Two tests indicated the presence of apparent zero-flow boundaries about two to three meters from the boreholes. The other tests revealed no apparent boundaries within the radii of influence of the tests, which were calculated to range from about four to thirty-five meters from the test holes. The data are insufficient to determine if brine flow through evaporites results from Darcy-like flow driven by pressure gradients within naturally interconnected porosity or from shear deformation around excavations connecting previously isolated pores, thereby providing pathways for fluids at or near lithostatic pressure to be driven towards the low-pressure excavations. Future testing will be performed at greater distances from the excavations to evaluate hydraulic properties and processes beyond the range of excavation effects.

Beauheim, R.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Saulnier, G.J. Jr.; Avis, J.D. (INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Representing community: knowing users in the face of changing constituencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper traces the use of the concept 'community' by drawing attention to the ways in which it serves as an organizing principle within systems development. The data come from an ethnographic study of participants and their activities in the Water ... Keywords: community, cyberinfrastructure, escience, ethnography, infrastructure, science, studies of user-centered design and requirements engineering

David Ribes; Thomas A. Finholt

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Chemical Constituents in Coal Combustion Product Leachate: Thallium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides comprehensive information on the environmental behavior of thallium. Included are discussions of thallium’s occurrence in soil and water, occurrence in coal and coal combustion products (CCPs), CCP leaching characteristics, effects on human health and ecology, geochemistry, and treatment/remediation options.

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

195

Chemical Constituents in Coal Combustion Product Leachate: Arsenic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides comprehensive information on the environmental behavior of arsenic. Included are discussions of arsenic’s occurrence in soil and water, occurrence in coal combustion products (CCPs), CCP leaching characteristics, effects on human health and ecology, geochemistry, and treatment/remediation options.

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

196

2008 SMILE Summer Teacher Workshop High School Club Activities Project Brine Shrimp  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in bold are provided by SMILE) Air Pump Petri Dishes Empty 2-litre Soda Bottle Desk Lamp (with high watt or aged tap water Baking soda 2 Common Pollutants (e.g. motor oil, soap or bleach) pH Paper Non of the base and connect the other end to an air pump, turning the air pump on. Place the air pump

Dever, Edward P.

197

Application of a Monotonic Upstream-biased Transport Scheme to Three-Dimensional Constituent Transport Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of van Leer's scheme, a monotonic, upstream-biased differencing scheme, to three-dimensional constituent transport calculations is shown. The major disadvantage of the scheme is shown to be a self-limiting diffusion. A major ...

Dale J. Allen; Anne R. Douglass; Richard B. Rood; Paul D. Guthrie

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Method and apparatus for the removal of bioconversion of constituents of organic liquids  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for the removal or conversion of constituents from bulk organic liquids. A countercurrent biphasic bioreactor system is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the constituent. Two transient, high-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the constituent to produce a product which is then removed from the bioreactor in the aqueous phase or retained in the organic phase. The organic liquid, now free of the original constituents, is ready for immediate use or further processing.

Scott, Timothy (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Method and apparatus for the removal or bioconversion of constituents of organic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for the removal or conversion of constituents from bulk organic liquids. A countercurrent biphasic bioreactor system is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the constituent. Two transient, high-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the constituent to produce a product which is then removed from the bioreactor in the aqueous phase or retained in the organic phase. The organic liquid, now free of the original constituents, is ready for immediate use or further processing. 1 fig.

Scott, T.; Scott, C.D.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

200

APPLIED PHYTO-REMEDIATION TECHNIQUES USING HALOPHYTES FOR OIL AND BRINE SPILL SCARS  

SciTech Connect

Produced salt water from historical oil and gas production was often managed with inadequate care and unfortunate consequences. In Kansas, the production practices in the 1930's and 1940's--before statewide anti-pollution laws--were such that fluids were often produced to surface impoundments where the oil would segregate from the salt water. The oil was pumped off the pits and the salt water was able to infiltrate into the subsurface soil zones and underlying bedrock. Over the years, oil producing practices were changed so that segregation of fluids was accomplished in steel tanks and salt water was isolated from the natural environment. But before that could happen, significant areas of the state were scarred by salt water. These areas are now in need of economical remediation. Remediation of salt scarred land can be facilitated with soil amendments, land management, and selection of appropriate salt tolerant plants. Current research on the salt scars around the old Leon Waterflood, in Butler County, Kansas show the relative efficiency of remediation options. Based upon these research findings, it is possible to recommend cost efficient remediation techniques for slight, medium, and heavy salt water damaged soil. Slight salt damage includes soils with Electrical Conductivity (EC) values of 4.0 mS/cm or less. Operators can treat these soils with sufficient amounts of gypsum, install irrigation systems, and till the soil. Appropriate plants can be introduced via transplants or seeded. Medium salt damage includes soils with EC values between 4.0 and 16 mS/cm. Operators will add amendments of gypsum, till the soil, and arrange for irrigation. Some particularly salt tolerant plants can be added but most planting ought to be reserved until the second season of remediation. Severe salt damage includes soil with EC values in excess of 16 mS/cm. Operators will add at least part of the gypsum required, till the soil, and arrange for irrigation. The following seasons more gypsum will be added and as the soil EC is reduced, plants can be introduced. If rapid remediation is required, a sufficient volume of topsoil, or sand, or manure can be added to dilute the local salinity, the bulk amendments tilled into the surface with added gypsum, and appropriate plants added. In this case, irrigation will be particularly important. The expense of the more rapid remediation will be much higher.

M.L. Korphage; Bruce G. Langhus; Scott Campbell

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

On-line tests of organic additives for the inhibition of the precipitation of silica from hypersaline geothermal brine II. Tests of nitrogen-containing compounds, silanes, and additional ethoxylated compounds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several new classes of organic compounds have been screened as potential geothermal scale control agents by examining their effect on the precipitation of silica from Magmamax No. 1 brine. The substances were tested using the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Brine Treatment Test System at the Niland, California, Test Site. Solutions of the test substances were injected into flowing brine at 210{sup 0}C, the brine was flashed to 125{sup 0}C, and then the kinetics of solids and silica precipitation from effluent brine held at 90{sup 0}C were measured. Three new types of compounds were shown to have activity as precipitation inhibitors: polyethylene imines, polyethyloxazalines, and quaternary ammonium compounds containing polyoxyethylene. Among the latter, Ethoquad 18/25, which is methyl-polyoxyethylene(15) octadecylammonium chloride, is the leading candidate antiscalant. It is a more powerful inhibitor of silica precipitation than the pure polyoxyethylene polymers, and it apparently has no high temperature solubility limitations. Measurements were made of the concentrations of monomeric silica and the effect of addition of inhibitor at various points in the Brine Treatment Test System. Five different silane compounds showed no activity toward silica.

Harrar, J.E.; Locke, F.E.; Otto, C.H. Jr.; Lorensen, L.E.; Frey, W.P.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Complexation of Nd(III) with tetraborate ion and its effect on actinide (III) solubility in WIPP brine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential importance of tetraborate complexation on lanthanide(III) and actinide(III) solubility is recognized in the literature but a systematic study of f-element complexation has not been performed. In neodymium solubility studies in WIPP brines, the carbonate complexation effect is not observed since tetraborate ions form a moderately strong complex with neodymium(III). The existence of these tetraborate complexes was established for low and high ionic strength solutions. Changes in neodymium(III) concentrations in undersaturation experiments were used to determine the neodymium with tetraborate stability constants as a function of NaCl ionic strength. As very low Nd(III) concentrations have to be measured, it was necessary to use an extraction pre-concentration step combined with ICP-MS analysis to extend the detection limit by a factor of 50. The determined Nd(III) with borate stability constants at infinite dilution and 25 C are equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.55 {+-} 0.06 using the SIT approach, equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.99 {+-} 0.30 using the Pitzer approach, with an apparent log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.06 {+-} 0.15 (in molal units) at I = 5.6 m NaCl. Pitzer ion-interaction parameters for neodymium with tetraborate and SIT interaction coefficients were also determined and reported.

Borkowski, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Richmann, Michael K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yongliang, Xiong [SNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Properties of geopressured brines and wells in the Gulf Coast and opportunities for industrial/research participation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geopressured reservoirs exhibit pressure gradients in excess of the normal hydrostatic gradient. (In the Gulf Coast area the normal gradient is 0.465 psi/ft.) Pressures may approach lithostatic pressure and have been measured as high as 1.05 psi/ft in the Gulf Coast area. Geopressured basins exist worldwide and in a number of US locations, east, west, north and south. The Gulf Coast area has been studied extensively and is the subject of the DOE geopressured-geothermal research at present. Present industrial interest in the Pleasant Bayou and Hulin wells include: desalination plants, an economic study by a power company for regional use, use of generated electricity by a coalition of towns, aquaculture (catfish farming) research program, and an unsolicited proposal for enhanced oil recovery of heavy oil. Direct uses of the hot brine cover dozens of industries and processes. An example of multiple uses in the USSR is shown. A research spin-off: a sensitive in-line benzene monitor has been designed by USL and will be tested in the near future. An in-line pH monitor is also under development for the harsh conditions of the geopressured-geothermal wells. 24 refs., 12 figs.

Negus-de Wys, J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Constraining the reservoir model of an injected CO2 plume with crosswell CASSM at the Frio-II brine plot  

SciTech Connect

Crosswell CASSM (continuous active-source seismic monitoring) data was acquired as part of the Frio-II brine pilot CO{sub 2} injection experiment. To gain insight into the CO{sub 2} plume evolution, we have integrated the 3D multiphase flow modeling code TOUGH2 with seismic simulation codes via a petrophysical model that predicts seismic velocity for a given CO{sub 2} saturation. Results of forward seismic modeling based on the CO{sub 2} saturation distribution produced by an initial TOUGH2 model compare poorly with the CASSM data, indicating that the initial flow model did not capture the actual CO{sub 2} plume dynamics. Updates to the TOUGH2 model required to better match the CASSM field data indicate vertical flow near the injection well, with increased horizontal plume growth occurring at the top of the reservoir sand. The CASSM continuous delay time data are ideal for constraining the modeled spatiotemporal evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume and allow improvement in reservoir model and estimation of CO{sub 2} plume properties.

Daley, T.M.; Ajo-Franklin, J.; Doughty, C.A.

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Effect of explicit representation of detailed stratigraphy on brine and gas flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stratigraphic units of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal room horizon includes various layers of halite, polyhalitic halite, argillaceous halite, clay, and anhydrite. Current models, including those used in the WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, employ a ``composite stratigraphy`` approach in modeling. This study was initiated to evaluate the impact that an explicit representation of detailed stratigraphy around the repository may have on fluid flow compared to the simplified ``composite stratigraphy`` models currently employed. Sensitivity of model results to intrinsic permeability anisotropy, interbed fracturing, two-phase characteristic curves, and gas-generation rates were studied. The results of this study indicate that explicit representation of the stratigraphy maintains higher pressures and does not allow as much fluid to leave the disposal room as compared to the ``composite stratigraphy`` approach. However, the differences are relatively small. Gas migration distances are also different between the two approaches. However, for the two cases in which explicit layering results were considerably different than the composite model (anisotropic and vapor-limited), the gas-migration distances for both models were negligible. For the cases in which gas migration distances were considerable, van Genuchten/Parker and interbed fracture, the differences between the two models were fairly insignificant. Overall, this study suggests that explicit representation of the stratigraphy in the WIPP PA models is not required for the parameter variations modeled if ``global quantities`` (e.g., disposal room pressures, net brine and gas flux into and out of disposal rooms) are the only concern.

Christian-Frear, T.L.; Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

R and D, fabrication and testing of pH and CO/sub 2/ sensors for geothermal brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reduction or elimination of scaling is a mandatory requirement for the operation of geothermal power plants. The use of downhole sampling and subsequent analysis for solution chemistry has many disadvantages. These disadvantages include composition change with cooling, risk of sample contamination, and non real-time indication. The use of in-line sensing of solution chemistry avoids these drawbacks but requires sensors which can survive the extremely harsh environment of brine at high temperatures and elevated pressures. Leeds and Northrup had previously undertaken a contract to develop sensors for pH and pCO/sub 2/ which would withstand these harsh environments. A number of sensors were tested at a field site under actual operating conditions. Field test results indicated that certain facets of the design were inadequate to give accurate long term measurement. The primary areas addressed here are replacement of polymeric seals with anodic bonding where possible, improved methods of lead attachment, improved sealing of the pCO/sub 2/ reference feed-through, H/sub 2/S getter optimization and improved passivation of the sensing head. Each of these areas is addressed in detail in the report along with laboratory test results pertaining to the particular phase.

Baxter, R.D.; Clack, P.J.; Phelan, D.M.; Taylor, R.M.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Geothermal hot water pump. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design, testing and performance capabilities of a Geothermal Hot Water Pumping System being developed are described. The pumping system is intended to operate submerged in geothermal brine wells for extended periods of time. Such a system confines the hot brine in a closed-loop under pressure to prevent the liquid from flashing into steam, in addition to providing a means for reinjecting cooled water and the contaminants into a return well. The system consists of a single-stage centrifugal pump driven by an oil-cooled, high-speed electric motor with integral heat exchanger. For testing purposes a diesel engine driven 400 Hz generator is used for supplying power to the motor. In some areas where commercial power may not be available, the diesel-generator unit or either a rotating or solid state frequency converter may be used to produce the high frequency power required by the motor. Fabrication of a prototype system and testing of the electric motor at frequencies up to 250 Hz was completed. While testing at 275 Hz it was necessary to terminate the testing when the motor stator was damaged as a result of a mechanical failure involving the motor-dynamometer drive adaptor. Test results, although limited, confirm the design and indicate that the performance is as good, or better than predicted. These results also indicate that the motor is capable of achieving rated performance.

Not Available

1977-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

208

Geothermal hot water pump. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The design, testing and performance capabilities of a Geothermal Hot Water Pumping System are described. The pumping system is intended to operate submerged in geothermal brine wells for extended periods of time. Such a system confines the hot brine in a closed-loop under pressure to prevent the liquid from flashing into steam, in addition to providing a means for reinjecting cooled water and the contaminates into a return well. The system consists of a single-stage centrifugal pump driven by an oil-cooled, high-speed electric motor with integral heat exchanger. For testing purposes a diesel engine driven 400 Hz generator is used for supplying power to the motor. In some areas where commercial power may not be available, the diesel-generator unit or either a rotating or solid state frequency converter may be used to produce the high frequency power required by the motor. Fabrication of a prototype system and testing of the electric motor at frequencies up to 250 Hz was completed. While testing at 275 Hz it was necessary to terminate the testing when the motor stator was damaged as a result of a mechanical failure involving the motor-dynamometer drive adaptor.

1977-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

209

Fresh Water Generation from Aquifer-Pressured Carbon Storage: Annual Report FY09  

SciTech Connect

This project is establishing the potential for using brine pressurized by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) operations in saline formations as the feedstock for desalination and water treatment technologies including reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). The aquifer pressure resulting from the energy required to inject the carbon dioxide provides all or part of the inlet pressure for the desalination system. Residual brine is reinjected into the formation at net volume reduction, such that the volume of fresh water extracted balances the volume of CO{sub 2} injected into the formation. This process provides additional CO{sub 2} storage capacity in the aquifer, reduces operational risks (cap-rock fracturing, contamination of neighboring fresh water aquifers, and seismicity) by relieving overpressure in the formation, and provides a source of low-cost fresh water to offset costs or operational water needs. This multi-faceted project combines elements of geochemistry, reservoir engineering, and water treatment engineering. The range of saline formation waters is being identified and analyzed. Computer modeling and laboratory-scale experimentation are being used to examine mineral scaling and osmotic pressure limitations. Computer modeling is being used to evaluate processes in the storage aquifer, including the evolution of the pressure field. Water treatment costs are being evaluated by comparing the necessary process facilities to those in common use for seawater RO. There are presently limited brine composition data available for actual CCS sites by the site operators including in the U.S. the seven regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (CSPs). To work around this, we are building a 'catalog' of compositions representative of 'produced' waters (waters produced in the course of seeking or producing oil and gas), to which we are adding data from actual CCS sites as they become available. Produced waters comprise the most common examples of saline formation waters. Therefore, they are expected to be representative of saline formation waters at actual and potential future CCS sites. We are using a produced waters database (Breit, 2002) covering most of the United States compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In one instance to date, we have used this database to find a composition corresponding to the brine expected at an actual CCS site (Big Sky CSP, Nugget Formation, Sublette County, Wyoming). We have located other produced waters databases, which are usually of regional scope (e.g., NETL, 2005, Rocky Mountains basins).

Wolery, T; Aines, R; Hao, Y; Bourcier, W; Wolfe, T; Haussman, C

2009-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

210

Sizing a water softener for aquifer thermal energy storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) installations, ground water is circulated between an aquifer and heat exchangers via a well field. It is often necessary to soften the water to prevent carbonate scaling in pipes, heat exchangers, and well screens. Most ATES projects requiring water softening will be best served by using synthetic ion-exchange resins. The size of the resin beds, the resin regeneration cycle, and the amount of NaCl brine used in each regeneration depend on several factors. These are (1) the chemistry of the native ground water, (2) allowable residual hardness after softening, (3) the maximum flow rate of water through the ATES plant, and (4) exchange characteristics of the resin. Example calculations are given for a three-bed water softening system.

Hall, S.H.; Jenne, E.A.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Methods of removing a constituent from a feed stream using adsorption media  

SciTech Connect

A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

212

Apparatus for the field determination of concentration of radioactive constituents in a medium  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The instant invention is an apparatus for determining the concentration of radioactive constituents in a test sample; such as surface soils, via rapid real-time analyses, and direct readout on location utilizing a probe made up of multiple layers of detection material used in combination with an analyzer and real-time readout unit. This is accomplished by comparing the signal received from the probe, which can discriminate between types of radiation and energies with stored patterns that are based upon experimental results. This comparison can be used in the calibration of a readout display that reads out in real-time the concentrations of constituents per given volume. For example, the concentration of constituents such as Cs-137, Sr-90, U-238 in the soil, and noble gas radionuclides such as Kr-85 in the atmosphere, can be measured in real-time, on location, without the need for laboratory analysis of samples. 14 figs.

Perkins, R.W.; Schilk, A.J.; Warner, R.A.; Wogman, N.A.

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Corrosion of copper base alloys in a geothermal brine. SPE Paper No. 7881  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The geothermal environment and the experimental procedures and schedules for corrosion tests of copper-base alloys are described. Corrosive attack on these materials was mostly uniform. Some selective leaching of alloying elements was observed, as was crevice corrosion, but the extent of these forms of corrosion was minor. The results of these tests show a trend toward higher corrosion rates with increasing copper content, for the brass alloys. Commercially pure copper, however, showed corrosion rates 20 to 30% of that suggested by the trend in the data. One copper--nickel alloy was tested to verify earlier test data; this alloy showed a corrosion rate about six times that of a brass of similar copper content. The primary agent of the corrosive attack was hydrogen sulfide, present in the water in trace amounts. The primary conclusion from these tests is that copper--zinc alloys are the most economical materials for boiler and preheater construction. The recommendation is made that materials be selected from these brasses: naval brass, yellow brass, admiralty brass, and copper, in this order of decreasing desirability. Aluminum brass and red brass are marginally acceptable. Copper--nickel alloys are unacceptable for boiler and preheater heat exchangers.

Miller, R.L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geothermal reservoir in terms of possible additional drilling and future power plant design. The field activities focused on downhole measurements in four production wells (ZCQ-3, ZCQ-4, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6). The teams took measurements of the wells in both static (shut-in) and flowing conditions, using the high-temperature well logging tools developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two well logging missions were conducted in the Zunil field. In October 1988 measurements were made in well ZCQ-3, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6. In December 1989 the second field operation logged ZCQ-4 and repeated logs in ZCQ-3. Both field operations included not only well logging but the collecting of numerous fluid samples from both thermal and nonthermal waters. 18 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

Adams, A.; Dennis, B.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Goff, F.; Lawton, R.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Archuleta, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Medina, V. (Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Non-destructive method for determining neutron exposure and constituent concentrations of a body  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A non-destructive method for determination of neutron exposure and constituent concentrations in an object, such as a reactor pressure vessel, is based on the observation of characteristic gamma-rays emitted by activation products in the object by using a unique continuous gamma-ray spectrometer. The spectrometer views the object through appropriate collimators to determine the absolute emission rate of these characteristic gamma-rays, thereby ascertaining the absolute activity of given activation products in the object. These data can then be used to deduce the spatial and angular dependence of neutron exposure or the spatial constituent concentrations at regions of interest within the object.

Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.

1984-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

216

Purge water management system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, Joao E. (North Augusta, SC); Williams, Daniel W. (Aiken, SC)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Purge water management system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Inorganic and Organic Constituents in Fossil Fuel Combustion Residues, Volumes 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate prediction of groundwater contamination from solid-waste disposal sites requires leaching rates for fossil fuel combustion waste chemicals. In a wide-ranging literature review, this study obtained data on 28 inorganic constituents and identified the need for new data to improve leachate composition prediction models.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

File-Based storage of digital objects and constituent datastreams: XMLtapes and internet archive ARC files  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces the write-once/read-many XMLtape/ARC storage approach for Digital Objects and their constituent datastreams. The approach combines two interconnected file-based storage mechanisms that are made accessible in a protocol-based manner. ...

Xiaoming Liu; Lyudmila Balakireva; Patrick Hochstenbach; Herbert Van de Sompel

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Interim Report on Cumulative Risk Assessment for Radiological and Chemical Constituents of Concern at Decommissioning Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decommissioning nuclear facilities focus extensive efforts on site characterization to demonstrate regulatory compliance in the termination of site licenses. Many decommissioning sites, while recognizing radiological characterization and assessment needs, lacked experience in chemical risk assessment. This report documents plant approaches for performing cumulative risk assessments of both radiological and non-radiological constituents of concern.

2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Use of electrodialysis for concentrating simulated (Model) drainage collector waters  

SciTech Connect

The volume of mineralized drainage collector waters (DCW) increased as the result of development of soil reclamation. For example, this volume is 0.3 km/sup 3//yr in the Ashkhabad province alone, and the total for the Turkmen SSR is 5 km/sup 3//hr. The degree of mineralization of DCW varies from 2 to 33 g/liter. About 50% of the mineralization of DCW is made up of hardness salts. Desalination of mineralized DCW and their return the water-supply system would decrease consumption of fresh water and diminish salination of existing water sources. The purpose of this work was to examine the possibility of obtaining highly concentrated brines during desalination of simulated DCW without preliminary softening with the use of MK-100M cation-exchange membrane obtained by chemical modification of homogeneous MK-100 cation-exchange membrane with the ethylenediamine.

Grebenyuk, V.D.; Veisov, B.K.; Chebotareva, R.D.; Braude, K.P.; Nefedova, G.Z.

1986-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

222

Evaluation of radionuclide, inorganic constituent, and organic compound data from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1989--1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, evaluated the water quality data collected from 55 wells and springs during 1989 and 1990 through 1992 from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho. Water samples collected in 1989-92 were analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. A statistical comparison between data collected in 1989 and data collected in 1990-92 along with a comparison of replicate pairs was used to evaluate changes in water quality between samples and to assess sampling and analysis precision for individual constituents. The comparisons of radionuclide data showed no pattern of water quality change between samples as concentrations randomly increased or decreased. Tritium concentrations did show a consistent pattern with location in the aquifer. The largest tritium concentrations occurred in water from wells in the Big Wood and Little Wood River drainages and in the southern part of the study area where heavy irrigation occurs. The variability of radionuclide concentrations may be attributed to the change in the contract laboratory used for radiochemical analyses between 1989 and 1990. The replicate data for radionuclides showed better overall reproducibility for data collected in 1990-92 than for 1989, as 70 of 76 replicate pairs were statistically equivalent for 1990-92 data whereas only 55 of 73 replicate pairs were equivalent for 1989 data. The comparisons of most of the inorganic constituent data showed no statistical change between samples. Exceptions include nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen and orthophosphate as phosphorus data. Fifteen sample pairs for nitride plus nitrate and 18 sample pairs for orthophosphate were not statistically equivalent and concentrations randomly increased or decreased.

Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M.; Campbell, L.J.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

On-line tests of organic additives for the inhibition of the precipitation of silica from hypersaline geothermal brine IV. Final tests of candidate additives  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Brine Treatment Test System at Niland, Imperial Valley, California, has been used to evaluate a number of cationic polymers and surfactants as scale control agents. An initial group of compounds was narrowed to four on the basis of their activity as silica precipitation inhibitors. Three of these and certain combinations of compounds were then given a 40-h test to determine their effectiveness in retarding scales formed at 220, 125, and 90/sup 0/C. The best single compound was Corcat P-18 (Cordova Chemical Co. polyethylene imine, M.W. approx. = 1800). It had no effect on the scale at 220/sup 0/C, but it reduced the scales at 125 and 90/sup 0/C by factors of 4 and 18, respectively, and it also has activity as a corrosion inhibitor. Other promising compounds are PAE HCl (Dynapol poly(aminoethylene, HCl salt)), which also somewhat reduces the 220/sup 0/C scale; Ethoquad 18/25 (Armak methyl polyoxyethylene(15) octadecylammonium chloride); and Mirapol A-15 (a Miranol Chemical polydiquaternary compound). The best additive formulation for the brines of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field appears to be a mixture of one of these silica precipitation inhibitors with a small amount of hydrochloric acid and a phosphonate crystalline deposit inhibitor. Speculations are presented as to the mechanism of inhibition of silica precipitation and recommendations for further testing of these additives.

Harrar, J.E.; Locke, F.E.; Otto, C.H. Jr.; Lorensen, L.E.; Frey, W.P.; Snell, E.O.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Constituent Quarks and Gluons, Polyakov loop and the Hadron Resonance Gas Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on first principle QCD arguments, it has been argued in arXiv:1204.2424[hep-ph] that the vacuum expectation value of the Polyakov loop can be represented in the hadron resonance gas model. We study this within the Polyakov-constituent quark model by implementing the quantum and local nature of the Polyakov loop hep-ph/0412308, hep-ph/0607338. The existence of exotic states in the spectrum is discussed.

Megias, E; Salcedo, L L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Constituent Quarks and Gluons, Polyakov loop and the Hadron Resonance Gas Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on first principle QCD arguments, it has been argued in arXiv:1204.2424[hep-ph] that the vacuum expectation value of the Polyakov loop can be represented in the hadron resonance gas model. We study this within the Polyakov-constituent quark model by implementing the quantum and local nature of the Polyakov loop hep-ph/0412308, hep-ph/0607338. The existence of exotic states in the spectrum is discussed.

E. Megias; E. Ruiz Arriola; L. L. Salcedo

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

226

Impact-driven pressure management via targeted brine extraction Conceptual studies of CO2 storage in saline formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Associated with Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage,and Detection of Carbon Dioxide in Dilute Aquifers, 9 thGeological Storage of Carbon Dioxide and Amending Council

Birkholzer, J.T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Process for carbonaceous material conversion and recovery of alkali metal catalyst constituents held by ion exchange sites in conversion residue  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered for the particles by contacting or washing them with an aqueous solution containing calcium or magnesium ions in an alkali metal recovery zone at a low temperature, preferably below about 249.degree. F. During the washing or leaching process, the calcium or magnesium ions displace alkali metal ions held by ion exchange sites in the particles thereby liberating the ions and producing an aqueous effluent containing alkali metal constituents. The aqueous effluent from the alkali metal recovery zone is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

Sharp, David W. (Seabrook, TX)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Characterization of the lateral distribution of fluorescent lipid in binary-constituent lipid monolayers by principal component analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lipid lateral organization in binary-constituent monolayers consisting of fluorescent and nonfluorescent lipids has been investigated by acquiring multiple emission spectra during measurement of each force-area isotherm. The emission spectra reflect ...

István P. Sugár; Xiuhong Zhai; Ivan A. Boldyrev; Julian G. Molotkovsky; Howard L. Brockman; Rhoderick E. Brown

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Uses, and CharacterizationChapter 16 Minor Constituents of Palm Oil: Characterization, Processing, and Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Palm Oil: Production, Processing, Uses, and Characterization Chapter 16 Minor Constituents of Palm Oil: Characterization, Processing, and Application Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry Methods and Analyses eChapters Food Science

230

Turbulent Mixing within Tropopause Folds as a Mechanism for the Exchange of Chemical Constituents between the Stratosphere and Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evidence is presented which illustrates the role of jet stream-frontal zone clear air turbulence (CAT) as a mechanism for the exchange of air and chemical trace constituents between the stratosphere and the troposphere. Three-dimensional air ...

M. A. Shapiro

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Statistical Analysis of Precipitation Chemistry Measurements over the Eastern United States. Part III: The Ionic Balance among Chemical Constituents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationships between acidity and the principal chemical constituents of precipitation (including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride) were investigated using a new archive of daily precipitation chemistry ...

Ronald J. Ferek; Barrett P. Eynon; Roy M. Endlich

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Estimating the Wind Field from Chemical Constituent Observations: Experiments with a One-Dimensional Extended Kalman Filter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern data assimilation algorithms such as the four-dimensional variational algorithm or the extended Kalman filter (EKF) can, in theory, estimate the wind field from chemical constituent observations. This seems to be possible because of the ...

Roger Daley

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Inert Trace Constituent Transport in Sigma and Hybrid Isentropic–Sigma Models. Part I: Nine Advection Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of Wisconsin hybrid isentropic–sigma (?–?) coordinate channel model and the nominally identical sigma (?) model are used to test the relative capabilities of nine trace constituent transport algorithms. The nine are “standard” ...

Fred M. Reames; Tom H. Zapotocny

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Inert Trace Constituent Transport in Sigma and Hybrid Isentropic–Sigma Models. Part II: Twelve Semi-Lagrangian Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Part I of this paper examined nine trace constituent advection algorithms as applied in channel versions of the University of Wisconsin hybrid isentropic–sigma (?–?) and sigma (?) models. This paper examines the performance of 12 semi-Lagrangian ...

Fred M. Reames; Tom H. Zapotocny

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals and five conference presentations.

Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

2004-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

236

Dewetting of silica surfaces upon reactions with supercritical CO2 and brine: Pore-scale studies in micromodels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Stability of Foamy Oil Flow. Pet. Sci. Technol. 2011,2 sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs - caprockCapillarity of the Gas-Crude Oil-Reservoir Water System. J

Kim, Y.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

DOE/EA-1482: Environmental Assessment for Pilot Experiment for Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide in Saline Aquifer Brine Formations (October 2003)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

82 82 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PILOT EXPERIMENT FOR GEOLOGICAL SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN SALINE AQUIFER BRINE FORMATIONS FRIO FORMATION, LIBERTY COUNTY, TEXAS OCTOBER 2003 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY ii iii National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Cover Sheet Proposed Action: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide funds for a field test of the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) at The University of Texas at Austin, under contract with DOE, has studied the potential for sequestration of CO 2 in geologic formations of the United States as part of a broader series of DOE-sponsored research projects to

238

High precision trace element and organic constituent analysis of oil shale and solvent-refined coal materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Broad spectrum inorganic and organic analytical techniques provide the best approach for the initial characterization of the complex samples encountered in working with new energy technologies such as oil shale retorting and solvent refining of coal. In complex samples, analyses are facilitated by techniques, such as neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence, that are relatively insensitive to matrix effects. A comparative organic constituent analysis of the crude shale oil and coal liquid samples analyzed in this study showed that the coal liquids contained higher concentrations of aromatic compounds including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The coal liquids were considerably richer in phenols than was the shale oil. N-heterocyclics were present in higher concentration in shale oil due to the high nitrogen content of the raw shale. Hydroaromatics were found to be common in coal liquids but negligible in this shale oil. Measurable amounts of the heavy elements Hg, As, Zn, and Se were found in effluent streams from oil shale retorting. The process water also contained significant Co, Br, Sb, and U. The raw oil shale was enriched in Se, As and Sb and somewhat enriched in U, Pb, Cs, Hg, and Zn. Solvent-refined coal liquids were found to be relatively low in most trace elements. Most were concentrated in the mineral residue. Only Br was not depleted in solvent-refined coal. Other trace elements remaining in significant amounts were U, Ta, Cr and Zn. We have not yet measured the trace elements and gaseous and particulate samples from the solvent-refined coal plant. 10 tables.

Fruchter, J.S.; Laul, J.C.; Petersen, M.R.; Ryan, P.W.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use By MFI Zeolite Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Desalination of brines produced from oil and gas fields is an attractive option for providing potable water in arid regions. Recent field-testing of subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide for climate management purposes provides new motivation for optimizing efficacy of oilfield brine desalination: as subsurface reservoirs become used for storing CO{sub 2}, the displaced brines must be managed somehow. However, oilfield brine desalination is not economical at this time because of high costs of synthesizing membranes and the need for sophisticated pretreatments to reduce initial high TDS and to prevent serious fouling of membranes. In addition to these barriers, oil/gas field brines typically contain high concentrations of multivalent counter cations (eg. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) that can reduce efficacy of reverse osmosis (RO). Development of inorganic membranes with typical characteristics of high strength and stability provide a valuable option to clean produced water for beneficial uses. Zeolite membranes have a well-defined subnanometer pore structure and extreme chemical and mechanical stability, thus showing promising applicability in produced water purification. For example, the MFI-type zeolite membranes with uniform pore size of {approx}0.56 nm can separate ions from aqueous solution through a mechanism of size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion (Donnan exclusion). Such a combination allows zeolite membranes to be unique in separation of both organics and electrolytes from aqueous solutions by a reverse osmosis process, which is of great interest for difficult separations, such as oil-containing produced water purification. The objectives of the project 'Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use by MFI Zeolite Membranes' are: (1) to conduct extensive fundamental investigations and understand the mechanism of the RO process on zeolite membranes and factors determining the membrane performance, (2) to improve the membranes and optimize operating conditions to enhance water flux and ion rejection, and (3) to perform long-term RO operation on tubular membranes to study membrane stability and to collect experimental data necessary for reliable evaluations of technical and economic feasibilities. Our completed research has resulted in deep understanding of the ion and organic separation mechanism by zeolite membranes. A two-step hydrothermal crystallization process resulted in a highly efficient membrane with good reproducibility. The zeolite membranes synthesized therein has an overall surface area of {approx}0.3 m{sup 2}. Multichannel vessels were designed and machined for holding the tubular zeolite membrane for water purification. A zeolite membrane RO demonstration with zeolite membranes fabricated on commercial alpha-alumina support was established in the laboratory. Good test results were obtained for both actual produced water samples and simulated samples. An overall 96.9% ion rejection and 2.23 kg/m{sup 2}.h water flux was achieved in the demonstration. In addition, a post-synthesis modification method using Al{sup 3+}-oligomers was developed for repairing the undesirable nano-scale intercrystalline pores. Considerable enhancement in ion rejection was achieved. This new method of zeolite membrane modification is particularly useful for enhancing the efficiency of ion separation from aqueous solutions because the modification does not need high temperature operation and may be carried out online during the RO operation. A long-term separation test for actual CBM produced water has indicated that the zeolite membranes show excellent ion separation and extraordinary stability at high pressure and produced water environment.

Robert Lee; Liangxiong Li

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

240

Distribution and geochemistry of contaminated subsurface waters in fissured volcanogenic bed rocks of the Lake Karachai Area, Chelyabinsk, Southern Urals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present investigation is devoted to the study of the distribution and geochemistry of contaminated subsurface waters, beneath the site of temporary storage of liquid radioactive waste known as Lake Karachai. For this purpose a method of hydrogeochemical logging (HGCL) together with standard hydrogeochemical and geophysical methods of uncased hole logging were used. The distribution of sodium nitrate brine plumes in the subsurface was determined by the physical and physico-chemical properties of these brines and by the petrochemical composition of enclosing rocks and the structural setting of the flow paths. The latter is represented by fractures and large faults in the bedrock of volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks of intermediate-to-basic composition. The volcanogenic rocks are overlain in some places by a thin cover of unconsolidated sediments, i.e., by loams and relatively impermeable silts. Contaminated waters flow-in accordance with the eluvium bottom relief towards local areas of natural (Mishelyak and Techa rivers) and artificial (Novogomenskii water intake) discharge of subsurface waters. The large Mishelyak fault, southwest of Lake Karachai and under fluvial sediments of the Mishelyak, is assumed to significantly influence the flow pattern of contaminated waters, diverting them from an intake of drinking water.

Solodov, I.N.; Belichkin, V.I.; Zotov, A.V.; Kochkin, B.T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Drozhko, E.G. [Atomic Energy of Russia (Russian Federation); Glagolev, A.V.; Skokov, A.N. [Russian Federation Committee on Geological and Subsurface Usage (Russian Federation)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Water Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

242

Optical methods and systems for detecting a constituent in a gas containing oxygen in harsh environments  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for detecting a gas phase constituent such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen, or hydrocarbons in a gas comprising oxygen such as air, includes providing a sensing material or film having a metal embedded in a catalytically active matrix such as gold embedded in a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) matrix. The method may include annealing the sensing material at about 900.degree. C., exposing the sensing material and gas to a temperature above 400.degree. C., projecting light onto the sensing material, and detecting a change in the absorption spectrum of the sensing material due to the exposure of the sensing material to the gas in air at the temperature which causes a chemical reaction in the sensing material compared to the absorption spectrum of the sensing material in the absence of the gas. Systems employing such a method are also disclosed.

Carpenter, Michael A. (Scotia, NY); Sirinakis, George (Bronx, NY)

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

243

Carbonate scaling - literature review and analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A survey of the literature on carbonate scaling is presented as it affects geothermal fluid systems. The geothermal brine, as the fluid is called, contains a number of chemical constituents which have leached into it from the reservoir rock. As the hot fluid is withdrawn through wells, a flow of steam, water, or a mixture of steam and water, results. If the well flows at a high enough rate, some brine will flash to steam because of the pressure drop, resulting in the steam/water flow mixture. The chemical composition of the brines is tabulated as the composition of the components in the water system before flashing and the composition of the non-condensible gases after flashing. Total dissolved solids vary from that of ordinary well water to concentrated solutions as high as 40% by weight. Calcium is a major cationic constituent, and biocarbonate an important anionic constituent of the brine. Prevention/treatment techniques, specific site experimental results, and computer models are presented.

Pepper, J.C.; Larkin, B.J.

1979-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

244

Experimental investigation of the permeability of Kayenta and St. Peter sandstones to hypersaline brine in the temperature interval 70 to 90/sup 0/C at 10. 3-MPa confining pressure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Permeabilities of 10.2 cm in length, 2.5 cm in diameter Kayenta (porosity, 20.7, +- 1.66%) and St. Peter (porosity, 13.6, +- 0.13%) sandstones to Magmamax No. 1 brine containing suspended solids were determined from 70 to 90/sup 0/C at 10.3-MPa confining pressure. Measurements were performed without filters, with one 10-..mu..m filter, and with two 10-..mu..m filters inserted upstream of the core sample. In all cases, there was a dramatic decrease in permeability within the first hour of flow or few hundred pore volumes of flow through the core. Experiments conducted without filters or with one filter yield permeabilities that represent both the rock and the 2- to 3-mm amorphous silica-iron layer on the top face of the core. The experimental results show that if the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) were composed of porous, sedimentary formations similar to Kayenta sandstone, long-term injection of unmodified Magmamax brine would not be feasible. In the case of acidified brine, most of the permeability decline may result from the mobilization of calcite.

Piwinskii, A.J.; Netherton, R.

1977-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

245

Method for verification of constituents of a process stream just as they go through an inlet of a reaction vessel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for validating a process stream for the presence or absence of a substance of interest such as a chemical warfare agent; that is, for verifying that a chemical warfare agent is present in an input line for feeding the agent into a reaction vessel for destruction, or, in a facility for producing commercial chemical products, that a constituent of the chemical warfare agent has not been substituted for the proper chemical compound. The method includes the steps of transmitting light through a sensor positioned in the feed line just before the chemical constituent in the input line enters the reaction vessel, measuring an optical spectrum of the chemical constituent from the light beam transmitted through it, and comparing the measured spectrum to a reference spectrum of the chemical agent and preferably also reference spectra of surrogates. A signal is given if the chemical agent is not entering a reaction vessel for destruction, or if a constituent of a chemical agent is added to a feed line in substitution of the proper chemical compound.

Baylor, Lewis C. (North Augusta, SC); Buchanan, Bruce R. (Aiken, SC); O' Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

A Phase-Partitioning Model for CO2–Brine Mixtures at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures: Application to CO2-Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CO 2 content in produced ?uid, with water production endingafter 36.5 years, water content in produced CO 2 Applicationeffects on the water content of produced CO 2 . While

Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Analysis of soil and water at the Four Mile Creek seepline near the F- and H-Areas of SRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several soil and water samples were collected along the Four Mile Creek (FMC) seepline at the F and H Areas of the Savannah River Site. The samples were analyzed for concentrations of metals, radionuclides, and inorganic constituents. The results of the analyses are summarized for the soil and water samples.

Haselow, J.S.

2000-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

248

Turbid water Clear water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: The submersible laser bathymetric (LBath) optical system is capable of simultaneously providing visual images- dynamical wing. This underwater package is pulled through the water by a single towed cable with fiber optic special high energy density optical fibers. A remote Pentium based PC also at the surface is used

Jaffe, Jules

249

Design features and equilibrium flash modeling of direct-contact binary-fluid heat exchangers for use with geothermal brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Baseline and preliminary tests of a 500 kW pilot plant were conducted during 1980. The DCHX evaporator, which combines an equilibrium-flash boiler with a countercurrent preheater, met and exceeded the performance of its predecessors, the volumetric and surface type boilers, although only its essential features had been installed. Additional tests to be conducted during 1981 are designed to improve overall tower performance and to create modular designs for a 20-foot diameter column, thereby replacing the plurality of DCHX units otherwise required for commercial-size (>50 MWe) installations. For the preheater-boiler combination, the recommended criterion of performance is the classical steam distillation efficiency, E/sub v/, defined as the ratio of the partial pressure actually exerted by the hydrocarbon to its saturation pressure at the vapor exit temperature. As presently installed, the 500 kW DCHX unit typically generates a working-fluid vapor composed of 5 mole % water and 95% isobutane at 415 psia and 254.2/sup 0/F bubble point. E/sub v/ is 87.6%. However, with the additional improvements planned, 95% should be attainable.

Rapier, P.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Modeling Studies on the Transport of Benzene and H2S in CO2-Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

brines co-produced with crude oil (Zarrella et al. , 1967)brines co-produced with crude oil (Zarrella et al. , 1967)of Production Condensate Crude oil Crude oil Crude oil Crude

Zheng, L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Higher twists in polarized DIS and the size of the constituent quark  

SciTech Connect

The spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry implies the presence of a short-distance scale in the QCD vacuum, which phenomenologically may be associated with the ''size'' of the constituent quark, rho {approx} 0.3 fm. We discuss the role of this scale in the matrix elements of the twist-4 and 3 quark-gluon operators determining the leading power (1/Q{sup 2}-) corrections to the moments of the nucleon spin structure functions. We argue that the flavor-nonsinglet twist-4 matrix element, f{sub 2}{sup u-d}, has a sizable negative value of the order rho{sup -2}, due to the presence of sea quarks with virtualities {approx} rho{sup -2} in the proton wave function. The twist-3 matrix element, d{sub 2}, is not related to the scale rho{sup -2}. Our arguments support the results of previous calculations of the matrix elements in the instanton vacuum model. We show that this qualitative picture is in agreement with the phenomenological higher-twist correction extracted from an NLO QCD fit to the world data on g{sub 1}{sup p} and g{sub 1}{sup n}, which include recent data from the Jefferson Lab Hall A and COMPASS experiments. We comment on the implications of the short-distance scale rho for quark-hadron duality and the x-dependence of higher-twist contributions.

Alexander Sidorov; Christian Weiss

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

252

Process for treating effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to a method for treating and recycling the effluent from a supercritical water oxidation reactor and more specifically to a method for treating and recycling the effluent by expanding the effluent without extensive cooling. Supercritical water oxidation is the oxidation of fuel, generally waste material, in a body of water under conditions above the thermodynamic critical point of water. The current state of the art in supercritical water oxidation plant effluent treatment is to cool the reactor effluent through heat exchangers or direct quench, separate the cooled liquid into a gas/vapor stream and a liquid/solid stream, expand the separated effluent, and perform additional purification on gaseous, liquid, brine and solid effluent. If acid gases are present, corrosion is likely to occur in the coolers. During expansion, part of the condensed water will revaporize. Vaporization can damage the valves due to cavitation and erosion. The present invention expands the effluent stream without condensing the stream. Radionuclides and suspended solids are more efficiently separated in the vapor phase. By preventing condensation, the acids are kept in the much less corrosive gaseous phase thereby limiting the damage to treatment equipment. The present invention also reduces the external energy consumption, by utilizing the expansion step to also cool the effluent.

Barnes, C.M.; Shapiro, C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

253

Water Intoxication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

Lingampalli, Nithya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Pharmaceutical Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Water treatment process for water for injection (WFI)...deionization WFI production Evaporation still or vapor compression...

255

Water Snakes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation WATER SNAKES Contrary to popular belief, the Water Moccasin commonly known as the...

256

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for RCRA Constituent Analysis of Solidified Wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents distributes test samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and metals in solid matrices. Each distribution of test samples is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department. The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the RCRA PDP. Participating laboratories demonstrate acceptable performance by successfully analyzing single- blind performance evaluation samples (subsequently referred to as PDP samples) according to the criteria established in this plan. PDP samples are used as an independent means to assess laboratory performance regarding compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). The concentrations of analytes in the PDP samples address levels of regulatory concern and encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in waste characterization samples. The WIPP requires analyses of homogeneous solid wastes to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by laboratories that demonstrate acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses, and the samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples. Participating laboratories must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

257

Investigating Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This 3-ring binder contains teaching plans for 12 lessons on topics such as "Water in Our Daily Lives," "The Water Cycle," "Amazing Aquifers," "Water and Soil," "Aquatic Ecosystems," and "Water Wise Use." Accompanying each lesson plan are activity and record sheets for hands-on learning experiences. This curriculum is intended for students in about 4th to 8th grades.

Howard Jr., Ronald A.

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

258

Production Test IP-358-AC: Replacement of carbon dioxide with nitrogen as a constituent of the K reactor atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Compensation for the positive long-term reactivity transient associated with Hanford reactor may be accomplished in two ways: The addition of a poisonous material (rods, splines, etc.) to the reactor, or cooling the moderator by changing the gas composition. The objective of this study is to investigate the reactivity and temperature effects and the associated operating problems if any, resulting from the use of nitrogen instead of carbon dioxide as a constituent of the reactor atmosphere.

Bailey, G.F.; Benoliel, R.W.

1960-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

259

Leaching of Inorganic Constituents From Coal Combustion By-Products Under Field and Laboratory Conditions: Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the last two decades, EPRI has sponsored research to develop technical insights into leaching and attenuation processes and the migration of inorganic waste constituents under actual disposal conditions. This report provides an in-depth analysis of leaching data collected from several EPRI field and laboratory studies. These studies can help utilities accurately assess risks from leachate release and migration and determine the need for engineering controls to protect the environment in the vicinity...

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Oceanographic Considerations for Desalination Plants in Southern California Coastal Waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Contents (continued) 4) Event Analysis of Dilution &and Wasyl, 2001). SECTION 4: EVENT ANALYSIS OF DILUTION ANDDISPERSION OF BRINE Event Analysis of Dilution and

Jenkins, Scott A; Wasyl, Joseph

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Water Challenges for Geologic Carbon Capture and Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Finally, a key issue in desalination is brine condensatean opportunity for inland desalination, whereby fresh waterthe inlet pressure for the desalination system, reducing the

Newmark, Robin L.; Friedmann, Samuel J.; Carroll, Susan A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Effect of humic constituents on the transformation of chlorinated phenols and anilines in the presence of oxidoreductive enzymes or birnessite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chlorinated phenols and anilines are transformed and detoxified in soil through oxidative coupling reactions mediated by enzymes or metal oxides. The reactions may be influences by humic constituents, such as syringaldehyde or catechol, that originate from lignin decomposition and are also subject to oxidative coupling. In this study, the effect of humic constituents on xenobiotic transformation was evaluated in vitro based on the determination of unreacted chlorophenols and chloroanilines. In experiments with peroxidase, laccase, and birnessite, the transformation of most chlorophenols was considerably enhanced by the addition of syringaldehyde. Less enhancement was observed using 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and the addition of catechol resulted in a reduction of most transformations. The opposite was observed in experiments with tyrosinase, in which case catechol caused considerable enhancement of chlorophenol transformation. The varying effect of catechol can be explained by different transformation mechanisms involving either o-quinone coupling or free radical coupling. Regardless of the agent used to mediate the reactions, chloroanilines seemed to undergo nucleophilic addition to quinone oligomers, which resulted from coupling of the humic constituents. Catechol, which readily forms quinones and quinone oligomers, was most efficient in enhancing these reactions.

Park, J.W.; Dec, J.; Bollag, J.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)); Kim, J.E. (Kyngpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry)

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and zinc. Similar to FGD waters, produced waters contained contaminants of concern that are predominantly inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chlorides, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, sulfide, zinc, total dissolved solids), but also contained some organics (benzene, PAHs, toluene, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and oil and grease). Constituents of concern that may cause chemical scaling, biofouling and corrosion, such as pH, hardness and ionic strength, and nutrients (P, K, and N) may also be found in all four non-traditional waters. NPDES permits were obtained for these non-traditional waters and these permit limits are summarized in tabular format within this report. These limits were used to establish treatment goals for this research along with toxicity values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, water quality criteria established by the US EPA, irrigation standards established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and reuse standards focused on minimization of damage to the power plant by treated waters. Constructed wetland treatment systems were designed for each non-traditional water source based on published literature reviews regarding remediation of the constituents of concern, biogeochemistry of the specific contaminants, and previous research. During this study, 4 non-traditional waters, which included ash basin water, cooling water, FGD water and produced water (PW) were obtained or simulated to measure constructed wetland treatment system performance. Based on data collected from FGD experiments, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (As, B, Hg, N, and Se). Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 40.1% to 77.7% for As, 77.6% to 97.8% for Hg, 43.9% to 88.8% for N, and no measureable removal to 84.6% for Se. Other constituents of interest in final outflow samples should have aqueous characteristics sufficient for discharge, with the exception of chlorides (<2000 mg/L). Based on total dissolved solids, co-

John Rodgers; James Castle

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

264

A reaction-based river/stream water quality model Part I: Model development and numerical schemes  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the conceptual and mathematical development of a numerical model of sediment and reactive chemical transport in river/streams. The distribution of mobile suspended sediments and immobile bed sediments is controlled by hydrologic transport as well as erosion and deposition processes. The fate and transport of water quality constituents involving a variety of chemical and physical processes is mathematically described by a system of reaction equations for immobile constituents and advective-dispersive-reactive transport equations for constituents. To circumvent stiffness associated with equilibrium reactions, matrix decomposition is performed via Gauss-Jordan column reduction. After matrix decomposition, the system of water quality constituent reactive transport equations is transformed into a set of thermodynamic equations representing equilibrium reactions and a set of transport equations involving no equilibrium reactions. The decoupling of equilibrium and kinetic reactions enables robust numerical integration of the partial differential equations for non-equilibrium-variables. Solving non-equilibrium-variable transport equations instead of individual water quality constituent transport equations also reduces the number of PDEs. A variety of numerical methods are investigated for solving the mixed differential and algebraic equations. Two verification examples are compared with analytical solutions to demonstrate the correctness of the code and to illustrate the importance of employing application-dependent numerical methods to solve specific problems.

Zhang, Fan [ORNL; Gour-Tsyh, Yeh [University of Central Florida, Orlando; Parker, Jack C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Jardine, Philip M [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREACTOR SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from October 2002 to March 2003. In this starting stage of this study, we have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Two saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. Preliminary results suggest that BTEX sorption actually increases with the number of saturation/regeneration cycles. Furthermore, the experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and are currently being assembled to treat the off-gas from the SMZ regeneration process.

Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Origin of fluid inclusion water in bedded salt deposits, Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Salt horizons in the Palo Duro Basin being considered for repository sites contain fluid inclusions which may represent connate water retained in the salt from the time of original salt deposition and/or external waters which have somehow penetrated the salt. The exact origin of this water is important to the question of whether or not internal portions of the salt deposit have been, and are likely to be, isolated from the hydrosphere for long periods of time. The /sup 18/O//sup 16/O and D/H ratios measured for water extracted from solid salt samples show the inclusions to be dissimilar in isotopic composition to meteoric waters and to formation waters above and below the salt. The fluid inclusions cannot be purely external waters which have migrated into the salt. The isotope data are readily explained in terms of mixed meteoric-marine connate evaporite waters which date back to the time of deposition and early diagenesis of the salt (>250 million years). Any later penetration of the salt by meteoric waters has been insufficient to flush out the connate brines.

Knauth, L.P.; Beeunas, M.A.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Ground Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Nature Bulletin No. 408-A February 27, 1971 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation GROUND WATER We take...

268

Water Dogs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NA Question: I'd like to know about the water dogs and their life cycle? Replies: Water dog, or mud puppy, is a common name for a type of salamander that never develops lungs, but...

269

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Storage Water Heaters Tankless Demand Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil & Indirect Water Heaters Water Heating A variety of...

270

A Comparison of Inert Trace Constituent Transport between the University of Wisconsin Isentropic–Sigma Model and the NCAR Community Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five- and 10-day inert trace constituent distributions prognostically simulated with the University of Wisconsin (UW) hybrid isentropic–sigma (?–?) model, the nominally identical UW sigma (?) model, and the National Center for Atmospheric ...

Tom H. Zapotocny; Allen J. Lenzen; Donald R. Johnson; Todd K. Schaack; Fred M. Reames

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the oilfield include calcium carbonates (CaCO3, mainly calcite) and alkaline-earth metal sulfates (barite BaSO4, celestite SrSO4, anhydrite CaSO4, hemihydrate CaSO4 1/2H2O, and gypsum CaSO4 2H2O or calcium sulfate). The cause of scaling can be difficult to identify in real oil and gas wells. However, pressure and temperature changes during the flow of fluids are primary reasons for the formation of carbonate scales, because the escape of CO2 and/or H2S gases out of the brine solution, as pressure is lowered, tends to elevate the pH of the brine and result in super-saturation with respect to carbonates. Concerning sulfate scales, the common cause is commingling of different sources of brines either due to breakthrough of injected incompatible waters or mixing of two different brines from different zones of the reservoir formation. A decrease in temperature tends to cause barite to precipitate, opposite of calcite. In addition, pressure drops tend to cause all scale minerals to precipitate due to the pressure dependence of the solubility product. And we can expect that there will be a pressure drop across the heat exchanger. Weather or not this will be offset by the rise in pressure remains to be seen. It's typically left to field testing to prove out. Progress has been made toward the control and treatment of the scale deposits, although most of the reaction mechanisms are still not well understood. Often the most efficient and economic treatment for scale formation is to apply threshold chemical inhibitors. Threshold scale inhibitors are like catalysts and have inhibition efficiency at very low concentrations (commonly less than a few mg/L), far below the stoichiometric concentrations of the crystal lattice ions in solution. There are many chemical classes of inhibitors and even more brands on the market. Based on the water chemistry it is anticipated that there is a high likelihood for sulfate compound precipitation and scaling. This may be dependent on the temperature and pressure, which vary throughout the system. Therefore, various types and amounts of scaling may occur at different

Daily, W D

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

272

Analysis of gas constituents from sealed containers of plutonium oxide materials.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The safe storage of pure and impure plutonium oxide materials in sealed containers is a current Department of Energy (DOE) concern. Plutonium oxides sorb moisture from the atmosphere, and the subsequent radiolytic and/or chemical decomposition of the water has been thought to generate excessive hydrogen pressures inside sealed containers. Eleven sealed containers with ten grams each of plutonium oxide materials have been studied for up to four years. The sealed materials were representative materials from the DOE complex and contain less than 0.5 weight percent water. The samples were kept at ambient conditions. We report the final gas analysis of the headspace gas of these containers using gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that none of the containers have pressurized significantly, and that hydrogen was not generated in significant quantities.

Worl, L. A. (Laura A.); Veirs, D. K. (Douglas Kirk); Allen, Tom; Berg, J. M. (John M.); Harradine, D. M. (David M.); Padilla, D. D. (Dennis D.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Water Bugs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bugs Bugs Nature Bulletin No. 221-A March 12, 1966 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation WATER BUGS It is fascinating to lie in a boat or on a log at the edge of the water and watch the drama that unfolds among the small water animals. Among the star performers in small streams and ponds are the Water Bugs. These are aquatic members of that large group of insects called the "true bugs", most of which live on land. Moreover, unlike many other types of water insects, they do not have gills but get their oxygen directly from the air. Those that do go beneath the surface usually carry an oxygen supply with them in the form of a shiny glistening sheath of air imprisoned among a covering of fine waterproof hairs. The common water insect known to small boys at the "Whirligig Bug" is not a water bug but a beetle.

274

Evaporative Concentration of 100x J13 Ground Water at 60% Relative Humidity and 90C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In these experiments we studied the behavior of a synthetic concentrated J13 solution as it comes in contact with a Ni-Cr-Mo-alloy selected for waste canisters in the designated high-level nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Concentrated synthetic J13 solution was allowed to drip slowly onto heated test specimens (90 C, 60% relative humidity) where the water moved down the surface of the specimens, evaporated and minerals precipitated. Mineral separation or zoning along the evaporation path was not observed. We infer from solid analyses and geochemical modeling, that the most corrosive components (Ca, Mg, and F) are limited by mineral precipitation. Minerals identified by x-ray diffraction include thermonatrite, natrite, and trona, all sodium carbonate minerals, as well as kogarkoite (Na{sub 3}SO{sub 4}F), halite (NaCl), and niter (KNO{sub 3}). Calcite and a magnesium silicate precipitation are based on chemical analyses of the solids and geochemical modeling. The most significant finding of this study is that sulfate and fluoride concentrations are controlled by the solubility of kogarkoite. Kogarkoite thermodynamic data are needed in the Yucca Mountain Project database to predict the corrosiveness of carbonate brines and to establish the extent to which fluoride is removed from the brines as a solid.

Staggs, K; Maureen Alai,; Hailey, P; Carroll, S A; Sutton, M; Nguyen, Q A

2003-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

275

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies;Water Conservation Initiative 2: Enhancing and protecting water quality, quantity, and supply Priority 1

Slatton, Clint

276

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of potentially hazardous chemicals, and could be readily adapted to an automated system.

Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Chemistry of spring and well waters on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Chemistry of spring and well waters on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, and Chemistry of spring and well waters on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, and vicinity Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Chemistry of spring and well waters on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, and vicinity Abstract Published and new data for chemical and isotopic samples from wells and springson Kilauea Volcano and vicinity are presented. These data are used to understandprocesses that determine the chemistry of dilute meteoric water, mixtures with sea water,and thermal water. Data for well and spring samples of non-thermal water indicate that mixing with sea water and dissolution of rock from weathering are the major processes that determine the composition of dissolved constituents in water. Data from coastal springs demonstrate that there is a large thermal system south of the lower

278

Reusing Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reusing Water Reusing Water Reusing Water Millions of gallons of industrial wastewater is recycled at LANL by virtue of a long-term strategy to treat wastewater rather than discharging it into the environment. April 12, 2012 Water from cooling the supercomputer is release to maintain a healthy wetland. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We reuse the same water up to six times before releasing it back into the environment cleaner than when it was pumped. How many times does LANL reuse water? Wastewater is generated from some of the facilities responsible for the Lab's biggest missions, such as the cooling towers of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, one of the Lab's premier science research

279

Water Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Systems Analyses and Planning EUEC Energy & Environment Conference 2008, EPS,1292008 2 * Water Scarcity Seen Dampening Case...

280

Water and Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water in swimming pool Water and Energy The water and energy technology research focuses on improving the efficiency of energy and water use in water delivery, supply and...

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281

Energy Basics: Water Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

about: Conventional Storage Water Heaters Demand (Tankless or Instantaneous) Water Heaters Heat Pump Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters Tankless Coil and Indirect Water Heaters...

282

CO2-H2O Mixtures in the Geological Sequestration of CO2. II. Partitioning in Chloride Brines at 12-100 °C and 1-600 bar.  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

CO CO 2 -H 2 O Mixtures in the Geological Sequestration of CO 2 . II. Partitioning in Chloride Brines at 12-100°C and up to 600 bar. Nicolas Spycher and Karsten Pruess Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 90-1116, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California, USA September 2004 ABSTRACT Correlations presented by Spycher et al. (2003) to compute the mutual solubilities of CO 2 and H 2 O are extended to include the effect of chloride salts in the aqueous phase. This is accomplished by including, in the original formulation, activity coefficients for aqueous CO 2 derived from several literature sources, primarily for NaCl solutions. Best results are obtained when combining the solubility correlations of Spycher et al. (2003) with the activity coefficient formulation of Rumpf et al. (1994) and Duan and Sun (2003), which

283

Laboratory Report on Performance Evaluation of Key Constituents during Pre-Treatment of High Level Waste Direct Feed  

SciTech Connect

The analytical capabilities of the 222-S Laboratory are tested against the requirements for an optional start up scenario of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant on the Hanford Site. In this case, washed and in-tank leached sludge would be sent directly to the High Level Melter, bypassing Pretreatment. The sludge samples would need to be analyzed for certain key constituents in terms identifying melter-related issues and adjustment needs. The analyses on original tank waste as well as on washed and leached material were performed using five sludge samples from tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AZ-102, 241-AN-106, 241-AW-105, and 241-SY-102. Additionally, solid phase characterization was applied to determine the changes in mineralogy throughout the pre-treatment steps.

Huber, Heinz J.

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

284

TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREATOR SYSTEM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. An efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed to remove these constituents. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from March 2003 through September 2003. We have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Ten saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. The results suggest that BTEX sorption capacity is not lost after ten saturation/regeneration cycles. The composition of produced water from a site operated by Crystal Solutions Ltd. in Wyoming has been characterized and was used to identify key semi-volatile components. Isotherms with selected semi-volatile components have been initiated and preliminary results have been obtained. The experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and assembled to treat the off-gas from the SMZ regeneration process. These columns will be used both in the laboratory and in the proposed field testing to be conducted next year. Innocula for the columns that degrade all of the BTEX columns have been developed.

LYNN E. KATZ; KERRY A. KINNEY; R.S. BOWMAN; E.J. SULLIVAN

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Water pollution  

SciTech Connect

Ballast water, which is sea water that is carried in oil tankers to provide stability, can become contaminated with oil. Alyeska Pipeline Service Company runs a water treatment plant at its pipeline terminal at Prot Valdez, Alaska, to treat ballast water before it is discharged into the sea. GAO reviewed EPA's recently reissued National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit for the Port Valdez facility. In this report, GAO compares the effluent limits and other requirements under the reissued permit with those of the old permit, determines the reasons for changes in the reissued permit, and examines Alyeska's initial efforts to comply with the reissued permit's effluent limits and reporting requirements.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Effect of potential waste constituents on the reactivity of Hanford ferrocyanide wastes: Diluent, catalyst, and initiator studies  

SciTech Connect

During the 1980s, scientists at the Hanford Site began considering disposal options for wastes in underground storage tanks. As a result of safety concerns, it was determined that special consideration should be given to ferrocyanide-bearing wastes to ensure their continued safe storage. In addition, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) chartered Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to determine the conditions necessary for vigorous reactions to occur in the Hanford Site ferrocyanide wastes. As part of those studies, PNL has evaluated the effects of selected potential waste constituents to determine how they might affect the reactivity of the wastes. The authors` investigations of the diluent, catalytic, or initiating effects of potential waste constituents included studies (1) to determine the effect of the oxidant-to-ferrocyanide ratio, (2) to establish the effect of sodium aluminate concentration, (3) to identify materials that could affect the explosivity of a mixture of sodium nickel ferricyanide (a potential aging product of ferrocyanide) and sodium nitrate and nitrite, (4) and to determine the effect of nickel sulfide concentration. They also conducted a thermal sensitivity study and analyzed the results to determine the relative behaviors of sodium nickel ferrocyanide and ferricyanide. A statistical evaluation of the time-to-explosion (TTX) test results from the catalyst and initiator screening study found that the ferricyanide reacted at a faster rate than did the ferrocyanide analog. The thermal analyses indicated that the ferricyanide form is more thermally sensitive, exhibiting exothermic behavior at a lower temperature than the ferrocyanide form. The increased thermal sensitivity of the ferricyanide, which is a potential oxidation product of ferrocyanide, relative to the ferrocyanide analog, does not support the hypothesis that aging independent of the reaction pathway will necessarily reduce the reaction hazard of ferrocyanide wastes.

Scheele, R.D.; Johnston, J.W.; Tingey, J.M.; Burger, L.L.; Sell, R.L.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of 375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (?{sub Sr}{sup SW} = +13.8 to +41.6, where ?{sub Sr}{sup SW} is the deviation of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 10{sup 4}); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

Chapman, Elizabeth C; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Kirby, Carl S.; Hammack, Richard W.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Edenborn, Harry M.

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

288

Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of ?375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (?Sr SW = +13.8 to +41.6, where ?Sr SW is the deviation of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 104); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

Elizabeth C. Chapman,† Rosemary C. Capo,† Brian W. Stewart,*,† Carl S. Kirby,‡ Richard W. Hammack,§ Karl T. Schroeder,§ and Harry M. Edenborn

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

289

In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Brucite Carbonation in Dry to Water-Saturated Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

In geologic carbon sequestration, while part of the injected carbon dioxide will dissolve into host brine, some will remain as neat to water saturated super critical CO2 (scCO2) near the well bore and at the caprock, especially in the short-term life cycle of the sequestration site. Little is known about the reactivity of minerals with scCO2 containing variable concentrations of water. In this study, we used high-pressure infrared spectroscopy to examine the carbonation of brucite (Mg(OH)2) in situ over a 24 hr reaction period with scCO2 containing water concentrations between 0% and 100% saturation, at temperatures of 35, 50, and 70 °C, and at a pressure of 100 bar. Little or no detectable carbonation was observed when brucite was reacted with neat scCO2. Higher water concentrations and higher temperatures led to greater brucite carbonation rates and larger extents of conversion to magnesium carbonate products. The only observed carbonation product at 35 °C was nesquehonite (MgCO3 • 3H2O). Mixtures of nesquehonite and magnesite (MgCO3) were detected at 50 °C, but magnesite was more prevalent with increasing water concentration. Both an amorphous hydrated magnesium carbonate solid and magnesite were detected at 70 °C, but magnesite predominated with increasing water concentration. The identity of the magnesium carbonate products appears strongly linked to magnesium water exchange kinetics through temperature and water availability effects.

Loring, John S.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Zhang, Changyong; Wang, Zheming; Schaef, Herbert T.; Rosso, Kevin M.

2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

290

SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: CBI Na-Con, Inc. Engineering Test Facility problem assessment and lessons learned  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Solar Energy Water Desalination Engineering Test Facility has been undergoing operation and testing in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, as part of of the SOLERAS Program. The facility employs a field of point-focus, distributed receiver, solar thermal collectors operating at 388/degree/C (730/degree/F). Thermal energy is collected using a synthetic heat transfer fluid, stored in dual tank molten salt storage, and utilized on demand to generate steam, which provides both mechanical and thermal energy for refrigeration. The refrigeration drives a unique freeze desalination process in which ice is crystallized from concentrated seawater, pumped as a slurry of ice and brine, rinsed of brine in a countercurrent wash column, and melted to produce fresh water. The report presents an executive summary followed by an overview of the facility design and operation. The plant operation, from start-up in December, 1984 through mid-1986, is then briefly summarized. Key problem areas and areas of concern are identified and discussed; in addition to problems encountered, the discussion details problem causes, problem solutions, and in some cases problem avoidance which was accomplished through preventive measures employed during design and/or operation. The problems are grouped into areas corresponding to the facility's main subsystems: energy collection, energy storage, energy delivery, and desalination. 37 refs., 43 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Water Boatman  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Boatman Water Boatman Name: Joshua Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am doing a research on water boatman. I go through your web, I only find little information about it. Can you give me its habitat, its appearance, life cycles and communication between themselves and they defenses themselves? Replies: Find a good book in the library on insects, also on pond biology/ecology, as boatmen live in ponds and marshes. It should be easy to find. J.Elliott Try this web site: http://www.dnr.state.il.us/ctap.ctaphome.htm or http://www.dnr.state.il.us/nredu/nredpage.htm this is the state of Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources homepage and somewhere on there is a page called "bugpage". They have pictures and characteristics of aquatic insects there. good luck

292

Environmental impacts and sustainability of degraded water reuse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Greater urban demand for finite water resources to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and recreational needs; increased frequency of drought resulting from erratic weather; and continued degradation of available water resources from point and nonpoint sources of pollution have focused attention on the reuse of degraded waters as a potential water source. However, short- and long-term detrimental environmental impacts and sustainability of degraded water reuse are not well known or understood. These concerns led to the organization of the 2007 ASA-CSSA-SSSA Symposium entitled Environmental Impacts and Sustainability of Degraded Water Reuse. Out of this symposium came a special collection of 4 review papers and 12 technical research papers focusing on various issues associated with the reuse of agricultural drainage water, well water generated in the production of natural gas from coalbeds, municipal wastewater and biosolids, wastewater from confined animal operations, urban runoff, and food-processing wastewater. Overviews of the papers, gaps in knowledge, and future research directions are presented. The future prognosis of degraded water reuse is promising, provided close attention is paid to managing constituents that pose short- and long-term threats to the environment and the health of humankind.

Corwin, D.L.; Bradford, S.A. [USDA ARS, Riverside, CA (United States). US Salin Laboratory

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations for residentialgas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations for residential

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Measuring and moderating the water resource impact of biofuel production and trade  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

buildups  in  the  cooling  towers  and  brine  byproduct  evaporation  from  cooling  towers  and  boilers   and  in  flow  through  the  cooling   tower),  and  “blowdown”  of  

Fingerman, Kevin Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Compositional Analysis of Water-Soluble Materials in Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

Corn stover is one of the leading feedstock candidates for commodity-scale biomass-to-ethanol processing. The composition of water-soluble materials in corn stover has been determined with greater than 90% mass closure in four of five representative samples. The mass percentage of water-soluble materials in tested stover samples varied from 14 to 27% on a dry weight basis. Over 30 previously unknown constituents of aqueous extracts were identified and quantified using a variety of chromatographic techniques. Monomeric sugars (primarily glucose and fructose) were found to be the predominant water-soluble components of corn stover, accounting for 30-46% of the dry weight of extractives (4-12% of the dry weight of feedstocks). Additional constituents contributing to the mass balance for extractives included various alditols (3-7%), aliphatic acids (7-21%), inorganic ions (10-18%), oligomeric sugars (4-12%), and a distribution of oligomers tentatively identified as being derived from phenolic glycosides (10-18%).

Chen, S. F.; Mowery, R. A.; Scarlata, C. J.; Chambliss, C. K.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus for analyzing a petroleum-based composition and sensing solidification of constituents therein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method. The apparatus for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition includes at least one acoustic-wave device in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the presence of constituents (e.g. paraffins or petroleum waxes) therein which solidify upon cooling of the petroleum-based composition below a cloud-point temperature. The acoustic-wave device can be a thickness-shear-mode device (also termed a quartz crystal mircrobalance), a surface-acoustic-wave device, an acoustic-plate-mode device or a flexural plate-wave device. Embodiments of the present invention can be used for measuring a cloud point, a pour point and/or a freeze point of the petroleum-based composition, and for determining a temperature characteristic of each point. Furthermore, measurements with the acoustic-wave sensor apparatus can be made off-line by using a sample having a particular petroleum-based composition; or in-situ with the petroleum-based composition contained within a pipeline or storage tank. The acoustic-wave sensor apparatus has uses in many different petroleum technology areas, including the recover transport, storage, refining and use of petroleum and petroleum-based products.

Spates, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM); Mansure, Arthur J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus for analyzing a petroleum-based composition and sensing solidification of constituents therein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method are disclosed. The apparatus for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition includes at least one acoustic-wave device in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the presence of constituents (e.g. paraffins or petroleum waxes) therein which solidify upon cooling of the petroleum-based composition below a cloud-point temperature. The acoustic-wave device can be a thickness-shear-mode device (also termed a quartz crystal microbalance), a surface-acoustic-wave device, an acoustic-plate-mode device or a flexural plate-wave device. Embodiments of the present invention can be used for measuring a cloud point, a pour point and/or a freeze point of the petroleum-based composition, and for determining a temperature characteristic of each point. Furthermore, measurements with the acoustic-wave sensor apparatus can be made off-line by using a sample having a particular petroleum-based composition; or in-situ with the petroleum-based composition contained within a pipeline or storage tank. The acoustic-wave sensor apparatus has uses in many different petroleum technology areas, including the recovery, transport, storage, refining and use of petroleum and petroleum-based products. 7 figs.

Spates, J.J.; Martin, S.J.; Mansure, A.J.

1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

299

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Naturita, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Naturita UMTRA Project processing site in the spring of 1994. No water sampling was performed during 1993 at either the Naturita processing site (NAT-01) or the Dry Flats disposal site (NAT-12). Results of previous water sampling at the Naturita processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities. Baseline ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Dry Flats disposal site. Water sampling activities scheduled for April 1994 include preconstruction sampling of selected monitor wells at the processing site, surface water sampling of the San Miguel River, sampling of several springs/seeps in the vicinity of the disposal site, and sampling of two monitor wells in Coke Oven Valley. The monitor well locations provide sampling points to characterize ground water quality and flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been updated to reflect constituents related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted annually at minimum during the period of construction activities.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Low-head air stripper treats oil tanker ballast water  

SciTech Connect

Prototype tests conducted during the winter of 1989/90 have successfully demonstrated an economical design for air stripping volatile hydrocarbons from oily tanker ballast water. The prototype air stripper, developed for Alyeska's Ballast Water Treatment (BWT) facility in Valdez, Alaska, ran continuously for three months with an average removal of 88% of the incoming volatile organics. Initially designed to remove oil and grease compounds from tanker ballast water, the BWT system has been upgraded to a three-step process to comply with new, stringent regulations. The BWT biological oxidation process enhances the growth of bacteria present in the incoming ballast water through nutrient addition, aeration, and recirculation within a complete-mixed bioreactor. The average removal of BETX is over 95%, however, occassional upsets required the placement of a polishing air stripper downstream of the aeration tanks. Packed-tower air stripping was investigated but deemed economically unfeasible for a facility that would only occasionally be used. Twelve feet of excess gravity head in the existing BWT hydraulic gradeline were employed to drive the air stripper feed. This limited the stripper packing depth to 8 feet and imposed constraints on the design of the inlet water and air distributors. Water distribution, air flow, temperature effects, and fouling from constituents in the ballast water were investigated. The prototype was operated under water and air flow conditions similar to those specified for the full-scale unit, and at a range of test conditions above and below the normal design conditions.

Goldman, M. (Camp Dresser McKee, Cambridge, MA (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Enhanced Oil Recovery of Viscous Oil by Injection of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Made with Used Engine Oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solids-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions have been suggested as a drive fluid to recover viscous oil through a piston-like displacement pattern. While crude heavy oil was initially suggested as the base oil, an alternative oil ? used engine oil was proposed for emulsion generation because of several key advantages: more favorable viscosity that results in better emulsion injectivity, soot particles within the oil that readily promote stable emulsions, almost no cost of the oil itself and relatively large supply, and potential solution of used engine oil disposal. In this research, different types of used engine oil (mineral based, synthetic) were tested to make W/O emulsions simply by blending in brine. A series of stable emulsions was prepared with varied water contents from 40~70%. Viscosities of these emulsions were measured, ranging from 102~104 cp at low shear rates and ambient temperature. Then an emulsion made of 40% used engine oil and 60% brine was chosen for a series of coreflood experiments, to test the stability of this emulsion while flowing through porous media. Limited breakdown of the effluent was observed at ambient injection rates, indicating a stability of the emulsion in porous media. Pressure drops leveled off and remained constant at constant rate of injection, indicating steady-state flows under the experimental conditions. No plug off effect was observed after a large volume of emulsion passed through the cores. Reservoir scale simulations were conducted for the emulsion flooding process based on the emulsion properties tested from the experiments. Results showed significant improvement in both displacement pattern and oil recovery especially compared to water flooding. Economics calculations of emulsion flooding were also performed, suggesting this process to be highly profitable.

Fu, Xuebing

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Geochemistry Of Waters In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region, Alaska  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Waters In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region, Alaska Waters In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region, Alaska Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Geochemistry Of Waters In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes Region, Alaska Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Meteoric waters from cold springs and streams outside of the 1912 eruptive deposits filling the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) and in the upper parts of the two major rivers draining the 1912 deposits have similar chemical trends. Thermal springs issue in the mid-valley area along a 300-m lateral section of ash-flow tuff, and range in temperature from 21 to 29.8°C in early summer and from 15 to 17°C in mid-summer. Concentrations of major and minor chemical constituents in the thermal waters are nearly identical regardless of temperature. Waters in the

303

Microsoft PowerPoint - RCSmyth_SACROC_Water(Smyth).ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in June 2006; SACROC in July 2007, Nov. 2007, March 2008, July 2008, and Nov. 2008 * Total wells - 61 wells and 1 spring (+6 SACROC production and brine injection wells sampled...

304

Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post-reverse osmosis produced water was designed to promote oxidizing conditions within the first wetland cell for nitrification of ammonia, and the subsequent three cells were designed to promote reducing conditions for denitrification of nitrate. By incorporating multiple wetland cells in a CWTS, the conditions within each cell can be modified for removal of specific COCs. In addition, a CWTS designed with multiple cells allows for convenient sample collection points so that biogeochemical conditions of individual cells can be monitored and performance evaluated. Removal rate coefficients determined from the pilot-scale CWTS experiments and confirmed by the demonstration system can be used to calculate HRTs required to treat COCs in full-scale CWTSs. The calculated HRTs can then be used to determine the surface area or ?footprint? of a full-size CWTS for a given inflow rate of produced water.

Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water most of which will contain large quantities of salt and other dissolved minerals. Produced water from oil and gas production also typically contains large quantities of dissolved solids. Therefore, many of the same practices that are established and used for managing produced water also may be applicable for extracted water. This report describes the probable composition of the extracted water that is removed from the formations, options for managing the extracted water, the pros and cons of those options, and some opportunities for beneficial use of the water. Following the introductory material in Chapter 1, the report is divided into chapters covering the following topics: (Chapter 2) examines the formations that are likely candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration and provides a general evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the formations; (Chapter 3) makes some preliminary estimates of the volume of water that could be extracted; (Chapter 4) provides a qualitative review of many potential technologies and practices for managing extracted water and for each technology or management practice, pros and cons are provided; (Chapter 5) explores the potential costs of water management; and (Chapter 6) presents the conclusions.

Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

308

Coalbed Methane Procduced Water Treatment Using Gas Hydrate Formation at the Wellhead  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water associated with coalbed methane (CBM) production is a significant and costly process waste stream, and economic treatment and/or disposal of this water is often the key to successful and profitable CBM development. In the past decade, advances have been made in the treatment of CBM produced water. However, produced water generally must be transported in some fashion to a centralized treatment and/or disposal facility. The cost of transporting this water, whether through the development of a water distribution system or by truck, is often greater than the cost of treatment or disposal. To address this economic issue, BC Technologies (BCT), in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Petroleum Environmental Consortium (IPEC), proposed developing a mechanical unit that could be used to treat CBM produced water by forming gas hydrates at the wellhead. This process involves creating a gas hydrate, washing it and then disassociating hydrate into water and gas molecules. The application of this technology results in three process streams: purified water, brine, and gas. The purified water can be discharged or reused for a variety of beneficial purposes and the smaller brine can be disposed of using conventional strategies. The overall objectives of this research are to develop a new treatment method for produced water where it could be purified directly at the wellhead, to determine the effectiveness of hydrate formation for the treatment of produced water with proof of concept laboratory experiments, to design a prototype-scale injector and test it in the laboratory under realistic wellhead conditions, and to demonstrate the technology under field conditions. By treating the water on-site, producers could substantially reduce their surface handling costs and economically remove impurities to a quality that would support beneficial use. Batch bench-scale experiments of the hydrate formation process and research conducted at ORNL confirmed the feasibility of the process. However, researchers at BCT were unable to develop equipment suitable for continuous operation and demonstration of the process in the field was not attempted. The significant achievements of the research area: Bench-scale batch results using carbon dioxide indicate >40% of the feed water to the hydrate formation reactor was converted to hydrate in a single pass; The batch results also indicate >23% of the feed water to the hydrate formation reactor (>50% of the hydrate formed) was converted to purified water of a quality suitable for discharge; Continuous discharge and collection of hydrates was achieved at atmospheric pressure. Continuous hydrate formation and collection at atmospheric conditions was the most significant achievement and preliminary economics indicate that if the unit could be made operable, it is potentially economic. However, the inability to continuously separate the hydrate melt fraction left the concept not ready for field demonstration and the project was terminated after Phase Two research.

BC Technologies

2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

309

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Falls City, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Surface remedial action will be completed at the Falls City, Texas, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in the spring of 1994. Results of water sampling activity from 1989 to 1993 indicate that ground water contamination occurs primarily in the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer (the uppermost aquifer) and that the contamination migrates along four distinct contaminant plumes. Contaminated ground water from some wells in these regions has significantly elevated levels of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, sulfate, and uranium. Contamination in the Dilworth aquifer was identified in monitor well 977 and in monitor well 833 at the southern edge of former tailings pile 4. There is no evidence that surface water quality in Tordilla and Scared Dog Creeks is impacted by tailings seepage. The following water sampling activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (1) Ground water sampling from 15 monitor wells to monitor the migration of the four major contaminant plumes within the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer. (2) Ground water sampling from five monitor wells to monitor contaminated and background ground water quality conditions in the Dilworth aquifer. Because of disposal cell construction activities, all plume monitor wells screened in the Dilworth aquifer were abandoned. No surface water locations are proposed for sampling. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer downgradient of the disposal cell. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents currently related to uranium processing activities and natural uranium mineralization. Water sampling is normally conducted biannually in late summer and midwinter.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Analysis of water reinjection at the Niland Geothermal Test Site  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The problems associated with reinjecting spent geothermal brines are currently under investigation. This effort has included field tests of injection water to evaluate treating equipment effectiveness at the Niland Geothermal Test Loop. Membrane filter tests were conducted on fluids from the settling tanks, from the test loop, from the clarifier and at the injection well head (Magmamax No. 3). From this and other information concerning the injection interval, pressure, temperature and well history, an attempt to predict a well half life was made. The results of these calculations were not in agreement with observed well performance. An attempt with some apparent success has been made to understand the possible source of these discrepancies. The cyclic nature of the injection history dictated by need for descaling the test loop, followed by apparent partial recovery of injection acceptance, has led to a theory that is under investigation concerning effect of reheating the injection fluid containing amorphous particulate silica by the reservoir rock and fluid during well shut-in. Preliminary tests indicate some of this finely divided silica may be redisolving with consequent reduction in reservoir damage, and that two widely spaced injection wells in an alternating mode may provide low-cost, long-life injection capacity at Niland and similar geothermal projects.

Jorda, R.M.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect on water and gas usage from cross-flow betweencontrols have on water and gas usage over a large number ofsystems, and their water and gas usage. Hourly schedules for

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Efficient Water Use & Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sustainability Goals Water Use Goal 4: Efficient Water Use & Management Aware of the arid climate of northern New Mexico, water reduction and conservation remains a primary...

313

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A white paper describing produced water from production ofCE, Veil JA. 2009. Produced Water Volumes and Managementunderground formations (produced water) are often extracted

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Saving Water Saves Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of California’s Water Conservation Standards for ResidentialCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council, 2006. http://http://www.nrdc.org/water/conservation/edrain/edrain.pdf

McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Texas Hot Water Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

coil hot water storage tank, a backup instantaneous electric water heater, a hydronic fan coil unit for space heating, and an efficient plumbing manifold for domestic hot water...

316

Water Permits (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Water Permits Division authorizes permits administered under the Water Quality Regulations. Louisiana's Water Quality Regulations require permits for the discharge of pollutants from any point...

317

Review and problem definition of water/rock reactions associated with injection of spent geothermal fluids from a geothermal plant into aquifers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Among the technical problems faced by the burgeoning geothermal industry is the disposal of spent fluids from power plants. Except in unusual circumstances the normal practice, especially in the USA, is to pump these spent fluids into injection wells to prevent contamination of surface waters, and possibly in some cases, to reduce pressure drawdown in the producing aquifers. This report is a survey of experience in geothermal injection, emphasizing geochemical problems, and a discussion of approaches to their possible mitigation. The extraction of enthalpy from geothermal fluid in power plants may cause solutions to be strongly supersaturated in various dissolved components such as silica, carbonates, sulfates, and sulfides. Injection of such supersaturated solutions into disposal wells has the potential to cause scaling in the well bores and plugging of the aquifers, leading to loss of injectivity. Various aspects of the geochemistry of geothermal brines and their potential for mineral formation are discussed, drawing upon a literature survey. Experience of brine treatment and handling, and the economics of mineral extraction are also addressed in this report. Finally suggestions are made on future needs for possible experimental, field and theoretical studies to avoid or control mineral scaling.

Elders, W.A.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Utilization of geopressured resources in the oxidation of organic waste in supercritical water. Phase I, Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geopressured resources are geothermal reservoirs containing dissolved methane in hot brine at pressures well in excess of their in situ hydrostatic pressure. In the US, geopressured resources are primarily located in the Gulf (of Mexico) Coast. The wells in this area are characterized by typical bottomhole temperatures of 120-180 C (250-360 F) (Negus-de Wys, 1991a) and bottomhole pressures of 675-1275 bar (9,800-18,500 psia) (Negus-de Wys, 1991b). Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is an emerging technology for the destruction of hazardous organic waste in which oxidation is carried out in a water medium above the critical point of pure water (374 C/705 F, 221 bar/3208 psia) (Tester et al., 1992). Geopressured resources are particularly suitable as an input stream to a SCWO waste treatment process due to the near critical conditions of their hot brine. By using a Rankine-type power cycle, electric power can be generated by capturing the available thermal and hydraulic energy from the geothermal resource and the chemical energy of the dissolved methane released by the oxidation process. In addition to oxidizing the methane to convert the chemical energy to thermal energy, auxiliary fuel in the form of an organic waste can be co-oxidized to increase the energy output to commercially sustainable levels. Coupling the treatment of geopressured brine with an organic waste in a SCWO process synergistically improves power production while providing a means for treating hazardous waste. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of using geopressured resources to simultaneously detoxify hazardous waste and generate electric power. Our ultimate aim is to develop conceptual process designs for above-ground and fully or modified in situ approaches to co-processing organic waste with geopressured brine in supercritical water. As a preparatory step for investigating in situ approaches, a realistic above-ground conceptual design was developed in this study. In that concept, the waste, brine and oxidant (air or oxygen) are introduced into the SCWO reactor at the system pressure of 234 bar (3400 psia). The heat of oxidation raises the temperature of the system to about 600 C (1100 F). Due to the low solubility of inorganic salts in supercritical water (about 200 ppm or less) (Armellini and Tester, 1990, 1991a, 1991b), solid salt forms and falls to the lower section of the reactor, where it is cooled and quenched with water, creating a concentrated (organic-free) brine that would be mixed with brackish water and reinjected back to the geopressured well. Power is generated by the expansion of the products of the SCWO process through a series of multi-stage turboexpanden. A processing capacity of 100,000 gallons per day (gpd) was initially taken as the design basis, following some investigations carried out at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Propp et al., 1990). The process was modeled using the ASPEN PLUS{trademark} process flowsheet simulator and material and energy balances were determined. Both the cases of using air and oxygen as oxidant were investigated. Toluene was chosen as the model compound to represent the organic waste. Turbine design calculations based on the volumetric flowrates obtained for a 100,000 gpd capacity resulted in unrealistically high rotor rotational speeds and small wheel pitch diameters to achieve optimum efficiencies. Higher SCWO effluent flowrates would lower rotor rotational speeds and increase wheel pitch diameters to more practical levels. Thus, a 42-fold larger design capacity of 100,000 barrels per day (bpd) was adopted as the basis for an above-ground base case. The results for the material and energy balances for a processing capacity of 100,000 bpd using air and oxygen as oxidant scale up linearly from the results for the 100,000 gpd case. The best case flowsheet corresponding to a 100,000 bpi case using oxygen as oxidant is given in Figure 1. Our conceptual design study suggests that simultaneous detoxification of hazardous waste and production of power is possible by co-pr

Diaz, Alexander F.; Herzog, Howard J.; Tester, Jefferson W.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Water Beetles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beetles Beetles Nature Bulletin No. 639-A April 29, 1961 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis Supt. of Conservation WATER BEETLES The world is full of beetles. They live everywhere except in the oceans and in the polar regions. There are more of them than any other kind of insect. A quarter of a million species are known and new ones are being discovered every year. Whether it is a microscopic mushroom beetle a hundredth of an inch long, or a giant six-inch Hercules beetle from South America, it can be recognized by its wings. The upper pair forms a hard shell curving like a shield over the thin folded lower wings and the abdomen. In flight, the upper pair is extended like the wings of an airplane and the lower two become buzzing propellers.

320

Water watch  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Hydropower Generation Report provides generation figures for the largest hydropower producers in each of six regions in the US. The report compares, for each month, the amount of hydroelectricity generated (in thousands of megawatt-hours) by each producers in the last two years to the ten-year average for that month. This database is used to figure long-term generation averages and percent of averages. The producers regularly provide current generation data to update the database. This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on winter snow conditions across the US as of mid-January. In addition, the department provides an outlook of spring flood potential. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Water Conservation Tips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gardener Water Conservation Tips fo r t h e UCSC Farm &share some of the water-conservation techniques used at theWinter Squash Water Conservation Mulches will save water,

Brown, Martha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

323

Water Conservation Tips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gardener Water Conservation Tips fo r t h e UCSC Farm &we share some of the water-conservation techniques used atWinter Squash Water Conservation Mulches will save water,

Brown, Martha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

NIST: NIF - Water Sensitivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water Sensitivity. Neutrons are extremely sensitive to small amounts of water. To quantify and calibrate this sensitivity we ...

325

Conventional Storage Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Conventional storage water heaters remain the most popular type of water heating system for homes and buildings.

326

The effects of initial acetate concentration on CO[subscript 2]?brine-anorthite interactions under geologic CO[subscript 2] sequestration conditions  

SciTech Connect

Acetate is one of the most abundant organic compounds in many formation waters and is likely to be present in deep saline aquifers suitable for geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration (GCS). This work studied the effect of initially present acetate on the dissolution of anorthite (CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}) and on subsequent secondary mineral precipitation under GCS conditions (35 C and 74.8 atm). Anorthite was chosen as a model mineral because of the abundance of feldspar in clayey sandstones and the possibility of metal carbonation. In this study, acetate was found to decrease the cumulative aqueous concentrations of Al, Si, and Ca upon CO{sub 2} injection by inhibiting anorthite dissolution and increasing the amount of secondary mineral precipitates. The extent of the effect of acetate on metal concentration changes was element-specific (Al > Si > Ca), and the effect was found to be more significant in systems with lower salinity and lower pH. For anorthite dissolution, acetic acid inhibited the proton-mediated decomposition of the Al/Si-containing feldspar framework, while acetate anions may have facilitated the ion-exchange between interstitial Ca and aqueous cations. For secondary mineral precipitation, stoichiometry analysis of aqueous metal concentrations suggested the formation of Al-containing mineral(s). The presence of kaolinite as a secondary mineral was confirmed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy's electron diffraction data. An increase in the relative amount of precipitation due to the initial presence of acetate was suggested by mass balancing and verified on the cleaved anorthite surfaces by atomic force microscopy analysis. These results provide new insights for understanding and predicting GCS system evolution upon scCO{sub 2} injection in the initial presence of acetate.

Yang, Yi; Ronzio, Christian; Jun, Young-Shin (WU); (Yale)

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

327

EFFECT OF QUARTZ/MULLITE BLEND CERAMIC ADDITIVE ON IMPROVING RESISTANCE TO ACID OF SODIUM SILICATE-ACTIVATED SLAG CEMENT. CELCIUS BRINE.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We evaluated the usefulness of manufactured quartz/mullite blend (MQMB) ceramic powder in increasing the resistance to acid of sodium silicate-activated slag (SSAS) cementitious material for geothermal wells. A 15-day exposure to 90{sup o} CO{sub 2}-laden H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} revealed that the MQMB had high potential as an acid-resistant additive for SSAS cement. Two factors, the appropriate ratio of slag/MQMB and the autoclave temperature, contributed to better performance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement in abating its acid erosion. The most effective slag/MQMB ratio in minimizing the loss in weight by acid erosion was 70/30 by weight. For autoclave temperature, the loss in weight of 100 C autoclaved cement was a less than 2%, but at 300 C it was even lower. Before exposure to acid, the cement autoclaved at 100 C was essentially amorphous; increasing the temperature to 200 C led to the formation of crystalline analcime in the zeolitic mineral family during reactions between the mullite in MQMB and the Na from sodium silicate. In addition, at 300 C, crystal of calcium silicate hydrate (1) (CSH) was generated in reactions between the quartz in MQMB and the activated slag. These two crystalline phases (CSH and analcime) were responsible for densifying the autoclaved cement, conveying improved compressive strength and minimizing water permeability. The CSH was susceptible to reactions with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, forming two corrosion products, bassanite and ionized monosilicic acid. However, the uptake of ionized monosilicic acid by Mg dissociated from the activated slag resulted in the formation of lizardite as magnesium silicate hydrate. On the other hand, the analcime was barely susceptible to acid if at all. Thus, the excellent acid resistance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement was due to the combined phases of lizardite and analcime.

SUGAMA, T.; BROTHERS, L.E.; VAN DE PUTTE, T.R.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

In-Situ, Real-Time Measurement of Melt Constituents in the Aluminum, Glass, and Steel Industries  

SciTech Connect

Energy Research Company (ERCo), with support from DOE’s Industrial Technologies Program, Sensors and Automation has developed a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) probe to measure, in real time and in-situ, the composition of an aluminum melt in a furnace at an industrial plant. The compositional data is provided to the operator continuously allowing the operator to adjust the melt composition, saving energy, increasing production, and maintaining tighter compositional tolerances than has been previously possible. The overall objectives of this project were to: -- design, develop, fabricate, test and project future costs of the LIBS probe on bench-size experiments; - test the unit in a pilot-scaled aluminum furnace under varying operating conditions of temperature and melt constituents; -- determine the instruments needed for use in industrial environment; -- compare LIBS Probe data to readings traditionally taken on the furnace; -- get full-scale data to resolve if, and how, the LIBS Probe design should be modified for operator acceptance. Extensive laboratory tests have proven the concept feasibility. Elemental concentrations below 0.1% wt. have been accurately measured. Further, the LIBS system has now been installed and is operating at a Commonwealth Aluminum plant in Ohio. The technology is crosscutting as it can be used in a wide variety of applications. In the Sensors and Automation Program the application was for the secondary aluminum industry. However, this project spawned a number of other applications, which are also reported here for completeness. The project was effective in that two commercial systems are now operating; one at Commonwealth Aluminum and another at a PPG fiberglass plant. Other commercial installations are being negotiated as of this writing. This project led to the following conclusions: 1. The LIBS System has been developed for industrial applications. This is the first time this has been accomplished. In addition, two commercial installations have been completed; one at Commonwealth and another at PPG. 2. The system is easy to operate and requires no operator training. Calibration is not required. It is certified as eye safe. 3. The system is crosscutting and ERCo is evaluating seven applications, as reported in this report, and other applications to be reported later. 4. A business plan is being completed for each of the near term markets. ERCo is committed to achieving continued commercial success with the LIBS System. 5. A world wide patent has been issued. 6. The energy savings is substantial. The annual energy savings, by 2010, for each industry is estimated as follows: o Secondary Aluminum – 1.44 trillion Btu’s o Glass – 17 to 45 trillion Btu’s o Steel – Up to 26 trillion Btu’s

Robert De Saro

2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

329

WATER AND GROWTH: FUTURE WATER SUPPLIES FOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Reclaimed Water As people use water, a wastewater stream is produced. Once cleaned to acceptable standards and is available as reclaimed water. #12;20 New growth in central Arizona will produce significant quantities to return for wastewater treatment51 . Of the reclaimed water produced, 30% is assumed available to meet

Gelt, Joe

330

ARM: Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Microwave Radiometer data (MWR Profiles - QME), water vapor, temp, cloud liquid water, precip water retrievals

Maria Cadeddu

331

Design concepts for flash steam systems for use with medium temperature geothermal water  

SciTech Connect

Medium temperature water can be utilized for production of electrical energy when it is available in massive quantities. The design concepts herein are to provide a base for feasibility studies and evaluate processes with consideration of the economics of developing this electrical energy on a commercial scale. Two methods of producing electrical energy with geothermal water are being considered. The methods discussed in this document are by the flashing process of producing steam for driving turbine-generators. Flash steam systems were evaluated for use with 300/sup 0/F water. Single and multiflash systems were evaluated and component size sensitivity to operating pressures were studied. It was determined that a double flash system is the most practical system. Net power production of approximately 2.4 megawatts/million pounds per hour of brine is estimated for the double flash system which operates at an initial flash pressure of 30 psia and a second stage pressure of 13 psia. Flash pressures below atmospheric are not recommended due to oxygen leakage into the system. Sensitivity analysis has indicated that the power output is not highly sensitive to the first stage flash pressure. A significant loss in power output occurs if the second stage pressure is increased significantly.

Whitbeck, J.F.

1975-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Partnering to Save Water  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Partnering Partnering to Save Water Phill Consiglio Southern California Edison What We Are Going to Discuss * A Little Bit About Water * The Energy Cost of Water * Water Technologies * What We Have Done * Where We Are Going A Little Bit About Water *The Earth Has A Finite Supply Of Fresh Water. - Water Is Stored In Aquifers, Surface Waters And The Atmosphere - Sometimes Oceans Are Mistaken For Available Water, But The Amount Of Energy Needed To Convert Saline Water To Potable Water Is Prohibitive Today *This Has Created A Water Crisis Due To: - Inadequate Access To Safe Drinking Water For About 884 Million People - Inadequate Access To Water For Sanitation And Waste Disposal For 2.5 Billion People - Groundwater Overdrafting (Excessive Use) Leading To Diminished Agricultural Yields

333

Research into the Characterization of Brackish Water and Disposal of Desalination Reject Water in Saline Aquifers and Depleted Oil and Gas Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Brackish groundwater is a valuable “drought-proof” resource that is plentiful in much of Texas. If treated by available desalination technologies, brackish groundwater resources could help many regions of Texas cope with pressing water shortages. If put to non-potable uses such as waterflooding, streamflow augmentation, and landscape irrigation, brackish groundwater could free up substantial amounts of drinking water supplies now dedicated to these uses. In 2007, the Texas Legislature passed landmark legislation that should provide greatly expanded opportunities to beneficially use concentrates from the desalination of brackish groundwater or to streamline the disposal as a waste product. House Bill 2654 (passed in the 80th Legislative session) has the promise of making it substantially easier to manage concentrates that result from the desalination of brackish groundwater. The bill authorizes the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality to issue a general statewide permit that allows disposal of nonhazardous brine from desalination operations into Class I injection wells. The bill also streamlines the process of using the concentrates in Class II injection wells for enhanced oil and gas recovery operations. However, more still needs to be done in two key areas: * Learning more about the chemical traits of brackish groundwater in specific circumstances to ensure that concentrates from desalting these resources are not a hazardous waste, * Continuing to develop and implement technologies and management strategies that make these programs most cost-efficient.

Jensen, R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Investigation of oil adsorption capacity of granular organoclay media and the kinetics of oil removal from oil-in-water emulsions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Produced water, a byproduct of oil and gas production, includes almost 98% of all waste generated by oil and gas exploration and their production activities. This oil contaminated waste water has a great impact on our environment and is considered to be a high-cost liability. The Department of Energy�s Oil and Gas Environmental Program is concerned with the development of new and affordable technology to clean this produced water. Organically modified clays are proposed as a good option for removal of oil from produced water. Organoclay, incorporated into a treatment process shows promise of being a cost effective method of treatment to remove crude oil from brine either as a final treatment prior to brine disposal at sea or as a precursor to desalination. Organoclay also pre-polishes the waste water before further treatment. This research studies the efficacy of using organoclay to remove oil by measuring its adsorption capacity to remove the oil from a SAE 30 (Golden West Superior) motor oil-water emulsion. A kinetic model was developed to examine the time dependent behavior of the oil adsorbing characteristics of the organoclay and to investigate how closely the experimentally obtained data matches the kinetic model. It was found that organoclay is effective in removing various percentages of oil depending on the concentrations of a SAE 30 (Golden West Superior) motor oil-water emulsion. Moreover, it was found that the experimental data closely follow the kinetic behavior of the organoclay as shown by the kinetic model. Since this research is specific to a particular type of oil, SAE 30, further research is required for verifying the adsorption capacity of organoclay in other types of oils. Moreover, it is also recommended that the adsorption capacity of the organoclay, together with conventional adsorbent such as GAC (Granular Activated Carbon), be investigated to determine if there is any further improvement in the adsorption capacity. Lastly, a detailed investigation using the actual produced water from the oil field should be conducted to determine the efficacy of the organoclay system in removing oil from water produced in the field.

Islam, Sonia

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Distribution System Recommendations for the 2008 Title- 24 Residential Building Energy Efficiency Standards .. 4 Multi-FamilyWater Distribution System Recommendations for the 2008 Title- 24 Residential Building Energy Efficiency Standards 11 Multi-FamilyWater Distribution System Recommendations for the 2008 Title- 24 Residential Building Energy Efficiency Standards 48 Multi-Family

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Water heater heat reclaimer  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to the conservation of energy in a domestic gas water heater by utilizing the hot exhaust gases in a gas water heater for the preheating of the incoming unheated water into the water heater. The exhaust gases from a domestic gas water heater carry wasted heat and the present invention provides a mean to reclaim part of the wasted heat for the preheating of the incoming unheated water during hot water usage periods. During non hot water usage periods the heat in the exhaust gases is not reclaimed to prevent overheating of the water and also to prevent the formation of water deposit in the preheating assembly or heat reclaimer. During the non hot water usage periods the heat produced in the water heater is normally needed only to maintain the desired water temperature of the stored water in the water tank of the water heater. Due to the rapid heating or recovery rate, the present invention enables the use of a smaller water heater. The use of a smaller water heater reduces the normal heat loss from the stored hot water thereby further reduces energy consumption.

Wie, C.T.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

337

Chemistry of spring and well waters on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, and vicinity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Published and new data for chemical and isotopic samples from wells and springs on Kilauea Volcano and vicinity are presented. These data are used to understand processes that determine the chemistry of dilute meteoric water, mixtures with sea water, and thermal water. Data for well and spring samples of non-thermal water indicate that mixing with sea water and dissolution of rock from weathering are the major processes that determine the composition of dissolved constituents in water. Data from coastal springs demonstrate that there is a large thermal system south of the lower east rift of Kilauea. Samples of thermal water from shallow wells in the lower east rift and vicinity have rather variable chemistry indicating that a number of processes operate in the near surface. Water sampled from the available deep wells is different in composition from the shallow thermal water, indicating that generally there is not a significant component of deep water in the shallow wells. Data for samples from available deep wells show significant gradients in chemistry and steam content of the reservoir fluid. These gradients are interpreted to indicate that the reservoir tapped by the existing wells is an evolving vapor-dominated system.

Janik, C.J.; Nathenson, M.; Scholl, M.A.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

338

Feature - WATER Tool Released  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water Assessment for Transportation Energy Resources (WATER) Tool Released Water Assessment for Transportation Energy Resources (WATER) Tool Released Argonne National Laboratory recently released an open access online tool called WATER (Water Assessment for Transportation Energy Resources), which quantifies water footprint of fuel production stages from feedstock production to conversion process for biofuel with county, state, and regional level spatial resolution. WATER provides analysis on water consumption and its impact on water quality. It contains biofuel pathways for corn grain ethanol, soybean biodiesel, and cellulosic ethanol produced from corn stover and wheat straw. Perennial grass (Switchgrass and Miscanthus) and forest wood residue-based biofuel pathways are currently under development. The WATER tool enables users to conduct pathway comparison, scenario development, and regional specific feedstock analysis in supporting of biofuel industry development and planning. It is available at http://water.es.anl.gov/.

339

Tankless Demand Water Heaters  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Demand (tankless or instantaneous) water heaters have heating devices that are activated by the flow of water, so they provide hot water only as needed and without the use of a storage tank. They...

340

Review: Globalization of Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’sAshok K. Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’s140) liters of virtual water (p. 15). This is one of the

Tennant, Matthew Aaron

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Saving Water Saves Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

H. , Groves D. California Water 2030: An Efficient Future,Preemption of California’s Water Conservation Standards for2Epdf Biermayer P. Potential Water and Energy Savings from

McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Water, Water Everywhere: How Can We Understand It?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Science Afternoon. Water, Water Everywhere: How Can We Understand It? An exploration of water using physical models and computer simulation. ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Water Rx - The Problem of Pharmaceuticals in Our Nation's Waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN OUR NATION'S WATERS intake via drinking water wastherapeutic dose and intake via drinking water was 150,000

Leitman, Melanie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Drinking Water Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water, and the potential health effects of each contaminant regulated. People who use water from private sources such as wells can also use these standards as a guide in checking whether their water is safe.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

347

Ultraviolet Water Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

UV Ray of Hope for Safer Drinking Water. ... It is not, however, too soon for the American Water Works Association to express its appreciation. ...

2013-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

348

NETL: Water - Energy Interface  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Water - Energy Interface Innovations for Existing Plants Water - Energy Interface Previous Next...

349

Membranes for Clean Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Membranes for Clean Water. Summary: ... Description: Impact. Access to affordable, clean water is vital to the nation's economic growth and security. ...

2013-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

350

Drinking Water Problems: Copper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp.

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

351

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water and wasted embodied energy. While 5% of California'senergy intensive (94). Water- inefficient fixtures and fittings (toilets, showerheads, urinals, faucets) represent both wasted

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Review: Globalization of Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

using virtual water (e.g. coffee produced in an environmentis produced in an environment in which it takes less water

Tennant, Matthew Aaron

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

High precision trace element and organic constituent analysis of oil shale and solvent-refined coal materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of a number of sensitive and precise methods for the determination of trace elements, heavy element species and organic compounds in materials from an oil shale research retort process and from a solvent-refined coal pilot plant operation are discussed. The methods were chosen both for their sensitivity, and also for their relative freedom from interference effects. Coal liquids contain much higher concentrations of aromatic compounds, including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA's). A larger relative fraction of the pna's in shale oil are alkyl substituted. Coal liquids are also considerably higher in phenols (28 percent) than is shale oil (2 percent). N-heterocyclics are present in higher concentration (greater than 8 percent) in shale oil due to the high nitrogen content of the raw shale. Hydroaromatics are common in coal liquids but negligible in shale oil. Inorganic elements and speciation measurements indicate significant amounts of the toxic heavy elements Hg, As, Zn, and Se in effluent oil water and gas streams. In addition, the process water contains significant Co, Br, Sb, and U. Raw oil shale is highly enriched in Se, As and Sb and somewhat enriched in U, Pb, Cs, Hg and Zn. Solvent-refined coal liquids were found to be relatively low in most trace elements. The majority of trace elements are concentrated by the process into the mineral residue. Only Br and Hg are not depleted in solvent-refined coal. Other trace elements still remaining in significant amounts are U, Ta, Cr, and Zn.

Fruchter, J.S.; Petersen, M.R.; Laul, J.C.; Ryan, P.W.

1976-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4 April, 2013. (4) 2010 Water Use Survey Summary Estimates –State Totals; Texas Water Development Board: Austin, TX,indicators for urban water systems. Urban Water. 2004, 4,

Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers. Ground Water. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2012.00933.x New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). 2010. “Well Development by Hydrofracturing.” http://des.nh.gov/o  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing of deep shale beds to develop natural gas has caused concern regarding the potential for various forms of water pollution. Two potential pathways—advective transport through bulk media and preferential flow through fractures—could allow the transport of contaminants from the fractured shale to aquifers. There is substantial geologic evidence that natural vertical flow drives contaminants, mostly brine, to near the surface from deep evaporite sources. Interpretative modeling shows that advective transport could require up to tens of thousands of years to move contaminants to the surface, but also that fracking the shale could reduce that transport time to tens or hundreds of years. Conductive faults or fracture zones, as found throughout the Marcellus shale region, could reduce the travel time further. Injection of up to 15,000,000 L of fluid into the shale generates high pressure at the well, which decreases with distance from the well and with time after injection as the fluid advects through the shale. The advection displaces native fluids, mostly brine, and fractures the bulk media widening existing fractures. Simulated pressure returns to pre-injection levels in about 300 d. The overall system requires from 3 to 6 years to reach a new equilibrium reflecting the significant changes caused by fracking the shale, which could allow advective transport to aquifers in less than 10 years. The rapid expansion of hydraulic fracturing requires that monitoring systems be employed to track the movement of contaminants and that gas wells have a reasonable offset from faults.

Tom Myers

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: PKI collectors performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The seawater desalination pilot plant at Yanbu in Saudi Arabia is a unique experiment in which an indirect bulk freeze desalination process is integrated with a stand-alone solar cogeneration power plant. Thermal energy is stored in molten salt and is converted into shaft power required for primary refrigeration by a conventional steam engine. An absorption refrigeration unit is thermally driven by the exhaust steam of the engine to produce additional refrigeration. Crystallization of water molecules from the brine into essentially pure water ice is accomplished by the freeze desalination process, which employs indirect heat transfer technique. Solar energy concentrated by the dish collector is transferred to a silicone polymer low-viscosity liquid circulated through the receiver, which is a monotube cavity mounted at the concentrator focal area in a stainless steel encased housing. A flux trap mounted at the mouth of the cavity receiver deflects stray radiation into the cavity. This document concerns itself with the solar collector and the solar collector field subsystem and presents the results of scientific investigations during the past 18 months since the plant installation. 13 refs., 206 figs.

Hamad, G.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

358

Research Addressing Power Plant Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Addressing Power Plant Water Management to Minimize Water Use while Providing Reliable Electricity Generation Water and Energy 2 Water and Energy are inextricably linked. Because...

359

Subsurface Drip Irrigation As a Methold to Beneficiallly Use Coalbed Methane Produced Water: Initial Impacts to Groundwater, Soil Water, and Surface Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coalbed methane (CBM) currently accounts for >8% of US natural gas production. Compared to traditional sources, CBM co-produces large volumes of water. Of particular interest is CBM development in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana, the 2nd largest CBM production field in the US, where CBM produced waters exhibit low to moderate TDS and relatively high sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR) that could potentially impact the surface environment. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is an emerging technology for beneficial use of pre-treated CBM waters (injectate) which are emitted into the root zone of an agricultural field to aid in irrigation. The method is designed to minimize environmental impacts by storing potentially detrimental salts in the vadose zone. Research objectives include tracking the transport and fate of the water and salts from the injected CBM produced waters at an SDI site on an alluvial terrace, adjacent to the Powder River, Johnson County, Wyoming. This research utilizes soil science, geochemical, and geophysical methods. Initial results from pre-SDI data collection and the first 6-months of post-SDI operation will be presented. Substantial ranges in conductivity (2732-9830 {micro}S/cm) and dominant cation chemistry (Ca-SO{sub 4} to Na-SO{sub 4}) have been identified in pre-SDI analyses of groundwater samples from the site. Ratios of average composition of local ground water to injectate demonstrate that the injectate contains lower concentrations of most constituents except for Cr, Zn, and Tl (all below national water quality standards) but exhibits a higher SAR. Composition of soil water varies markedly with depth and between sites, suggesting large impacts from local controls, including ion exchange and equilibrium with gypsum and carbonates. Changes in chemical composition and specific conductivity along surface water transects adjacent to the site are minimal, suggesting that discharge to the Powder River from groundwater underlying the SDI fields is negligible. Findings from this project provide a critical understanding of water and salt dynamics associated with SDI systems using CBM produced water. The information obtained can be used to improve SDI and other CBM produced water use/disposal technologies in order to minimize adverse impacts.

Engle, M.A.: Bern, C: Healy, R: Sams, J: Zupancic, J.: Schroeder, K.

2009-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

360

Hydrocarbons associated with brines from geopressured wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Efforts to determine the concentration of the cryocondensates in fluids of the various USDOE Geopressured wells a function of production volume. The wells are visited monthly as they are operating and samples are reported taken cryogenically during each visit. A gas scrubbing system continuously sample the gas streams of the wells in the intergas scrubbing system continuously sample the gas streams of the wells in the intervals between visit. Results obtained are to correlated the production of the collected compounds with reservoir and well production characteristics.

Not Available

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Geochemistry of Aluminum in High Temperature Brines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

geothermal industry to predict the chemistry ofthe reservoirs; these calculations will be tested for reliability against our laboratory results and field observations. Moreover, based on the success of the experimental methods developed in this program, we intend to use our unique high temperature pH easurement capabilities to make kinetic and equilibrium studies of pH-dependent aluminosilicate transformation reactions and other pH-dependent heterogeneous reactions.

Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

1999-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

362

Rock-brine chemical interactions. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of experimental interaction of powdered volcanic rock with aqueous solutions are presented at temperatures from 200 to 400/sup 0/C, 500 to 1000 bars fluid pressure, with reaction durations of approximately 30 days under controlled laboratory conditions. The aim of this research is to develop data on the kinetics and equilibria of rock solution interactions that will provide insight into the complex geochemical processes attending geothermal reservoir development, stimulation, and reinjection. The research was done in the Stanford Hydrothermal Lab using gold cell equipment of the Dickson design. This equipment inverts the solution rock mixture several times a minute to ensure thorough mixing. Solution samples were periodically withdrawn without interruption of the experimental conditions. The data from these experiments suggests a path dependent series of reactions by which geothermal fluids might evolve from meteoric or magmatic sources.

Not Available

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Lawn Water Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties, management practices and watering techniques.

McAfee, James

2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

364

WaterSense Program: Methodology for National Water Savings Analysis Model Indoor Residential Water Use  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fixtures Market Overview: Water Savings Potential forNew Jersey. American Water Works Association ResearchResidential End Uses of Water (REUWS). 1999. American Water

McNeil, Michael

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Energy Water Linkage: Projected Water Needs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 2004 Executive Summary Thermoelectric generation requires large volumes of water, primarily for cooling. An analysis was conducted to estimate the demand...

366

Service Water Piping Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the years 1988 and 1989, EPRI organized the Service Water Working Group (SWWG) to identify and help resolve the many issues surrounding service water (SW) systems in nuclear power plants. One issue identified by the SWWG was corrosion in service water piping systems. Interest in this issue resulted in the development of several technical reports: Guidelines for the Repair/Replacement Welding of Nuclear Service Water Systems, TR-100386; Guide for the Examination of Service Water System Piping, TR-10206...

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

367

Expanding the potential for saline formations : modeling carbon dioxide storage, water extraction and treatment for power plant cooling.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Water, Energy and Carbon Sequestration simulation model (WECSsim) is being developed to address the question, 'Where in the current and future U.S. fossil fuel based electricity generation fleet are there opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use, and what are the economic and water demand-related impacts of these systems compared to traditional power systems?' The WECSsim collaborative team initially applied this framework to a test case region in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Recently, the model has been expanded to incorporate the lower 48 states of the U.S. Significant effort has been spent characterizing locations throughout the U.S. where CO{sub 2} might be stored in saline formations including substantial data collection and analysis efforts to supplement the incomplete brine data offered in the NatCarb database. WECSsim calculates costs associated with CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) for the power plant to saline formation combinations including parasitic energy costs of CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} pipelines, water treatment options, and the net benefit of water treatment for power plant cooling. Currently, the model can identify the least-cost deep saline formation CO{sub 2} storage option for any current or proposed coal or natural gas-fired power plant in the lower 48 states. Initial results suggest that additional, cumulative water withdrawals resulting from national scale CCS may range from 676 million gallons per day (MGD) to 30,155 MGD depending on the makeup power and cooling technologies being utilized. These demands represent 0.20% to 8.7% of the U.S. total fresh water withdrawals in the year 2000, respectively. These regional and ultimately nation-wide, bottom-up scenarios coupling power plants and saline formations throughout the U.S. can be used to support state or national energy development plans and strategies.

Not Available

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 Posters Toward an Operational Water Vapor Remote Sensing System Using the Global Positioning System S. I. Gutman, (a) R. B. Chadwick, (b) and D. W. Wolf (c) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado A. Simon Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science Boulder, Colorado T. Van Hove and C. Rocken University Navstar Consortium Boulder, Colorado Background Water vapor is one of the most important constituents of the free atmosphere since it is the principal mechanism by which moisture and latent heat are transported and cause "weather." The measurement of atmospheric water vapor is essential for weather and climate research as well as for operational weather forecasting. An important goal in modern weather prediction is to improve the accuracy of short-term

369

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

controls. This response applies to markets that have a demand for central water heating systems Distribution Systems Subtask 2.1 Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability systems in multifamily buildings. This market characterization study is helping HMG develop

370

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Instantaneous gas water heater  

SciTech Connect

Hot water supply temperature is set by a temperature setting device in response to an instantaneous flow rate signal from a water flow rate sensor arranged in a water supply pipe and a feeding water temperature signal from a feeding water temperature sensor which are compared with a predetermined hot water supply temperature and calculated in a control unit. A proportional valve and other devices in a gas supply pipe are controlled in response to the result of the comparison and calculation to define a required volume of gas for ignition and heating. At the same time, a fan damper is controlled by a damper control device so as to adjust the volume of combustion air. A signal representing discharging hot water temperature from a discharging hot water temperature sensor arranged in a hot water feeding pipe is fed back to the control unit and calculated therein, and a valve in the hot water supply pipe is adjusted in response to the result of calculation to attain the desired hot water supply temperature. In order to prevent freezing in the system in winter season, a signal from a thermostat in the water feeding pipe is transmitted to a heater arranged in an air supply chamber so as to heat a heat exchanger pipe and, at the same time, heaters arranged in the water feeding pipe and the hot water supply pipe are also controlled to prevent freezing.

Tsutsui, O.; Kuwahara, H.; Murakami, Sh.; Yasunaga, Sh.

1985-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

372

Determination of elemental constituents in different matrix materials and flow injection studies by the electrolyte cathode glow discharge technique with a new design  

SciTech Connect

An open-to-air type electrolyte cathode discharge (ELCAD) has been developed with a new design. The present configuration leads to a stable plasma even at low flow rates (0.96 mL/min). Plasma fluctuations arising from the variations in the gap between solid anode and liquid cathode were eliminated by providing a V-groove to the liquid glass-capillary. Cathode (ground) connection is given to the solution at the V-groove itself. Interfaced to atomic emission spectrometry (AES), its analytical performance is evaluated. The optimized molarity of the solution is 0.2 M. The analytical response curves for Ca, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Fe, and Zn demonstrated good linearity. The limit of detections of Ca, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Fe, and Zn are determined to be 17, 11, 5, 45, 15, 28, and 3 ng mL{sup -1}. At an integration time of 0.3 s, the relative standard deviation (RSD) values of the acid blank solutions are found to be less than 10% for the elements Ca, Cu, Cd, Hg, Fe, and Zn and 18% for Pb. The method is applied for the determination of the elemental constituents in different matrix materials such as tuna fish (IAEA-350), oyster tissue (NIST SRM 1566a), and coal fly ash (CFA SRM 1633b). The obtained results are in good agreement with the certified values. The accuracy is found to be between 7% and 0.6% for major to trace levels of constituent elements and the precision between 11% and 0.6%. For the injection of 100 {mu} L of 200 ng mL{sup -1} mercury solution at the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, the flow injection studies resulted in the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 8%, concentration detection limit of 10 ng/mL, and mass detection limit of 1 ng for mercury.

Shekhar, R.; Karunasagar, D.; Ranjit, M.; Arunachalam, J. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Hyderabad (India)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

ii Produced Water Pretreatment for Water Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal drilling and slickwater hydrofracturing have enabled shale gas to become a significant contributor to the United States ’ energy supply. Hydrofracturing typically requires 2MM – 6.5MM gallons of water per shale gas well. About 15-25 % of this water returns to the surface as “flowback ” within 30 days after hydrofracturing. “Produced water ” continues to flow at a much reduced rate, e.g. 2-10 bbl/day, for the life of the well. In addition to high salinity and hardness levels (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba), much Marcellus produced water also contains significant levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), particularly radium. The near absence of disposal wells in Pennsylvania initially forced much of the produced water to be trucked into Ohio for disposal by deep-well injection (UIC). Currently up to 95 % of the

Principal Investigator; James M. Silva; James M. Silva; Hope Matis; William L. Kostedt Iv; Vicki Watkins

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Anaerobic fermentation of simulated in-situ oil shale retort water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The feasibility of removing soluble organics from oil shale retort water by anaerobic digestion with methane production was experimentally investigated. The following conclusions were made. The retort water studied had to be pretreated to remove toxic and add deficient constituents before it could be successfully treated with the anaerobic fermentation process. Pretreatment included pH adjustment to 7, ammonia reduction, and nutrient addition. A digested sludge from a conventional municipal sewage treatment plant was successfully acclimated to the retort water studied. A major fraction of the organics in the retort water studied was stabilized by conversion to CH/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/ using the anaerobic fermentation process. BOD/sub 5/ and COD removal efficiences were 76 to 80 percent. The effluent from anaerobic fermentation of the retort water studied (BOD/sub 5/ : 530 to 580 mg/l) may be suitable for treatment by conventional aerobic processes. The growth of the methane formers, which stabilize the organics, is nutrient limited in the retort water studied. The pretreatment of the retort water studied removed 49 percent of the BOD/sub 5/. This was probably due to the reduction in solubility of high molecular weight fatty acids at neutral pHs. A major component removed from the retort water studied during anaerobic fermentation was fatty acids. The long hydraulic residence time used in this study would not be used in practice.

Ossio, E.A.; Fox, J.P.; Thomas, J.F.; Poulson, R.E.

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Energy-Water Overview  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Emerging Issues and Challenges Emerging Issues and Challenges DOE/EIA 2010 Energy Conference Mike Hightower Sandia National Laboratories mmhight@sandia.gov, 505-844-5499 Energy and Water are ... Interdependent Water for Energy and Energy for Water Energy and power production require water: * Thermoelectric cooling * Hydropower * Energy minerals extraction/mining * Fuel Production (fossil fuels, H 2 , biofuels) * Emission control Water production, processing, distribution, and end-use require energy: * Pumping * Conveyance and Transport * Treatment * Use conditioning * Surface and Ground water Water Consumption by Sector U.S. Freshwater Consumption, 100 Bgal/day Livestock 3.3% Thermoelectric 3.3% Commercial 1.2% Domestic 7.1% Industrial 3.3% Mining 1.2% Irrigation 80.6% Energy uses 27 percent of all non-agricultural fresh water

376

Water Management Planning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

water efficiency water efficiency at Federal sites Background The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sponsored a water assessment at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during fiscal year 2010. Driven by mandated water reduction goals of Executive Orders 13423 and 13514, the objective of the water assessment was to develop a comprehensive understanding of the current water-consuming applications and equipment at Y-12 and to identify key areas for water efficiency improvements. The water-assessment team learned key lessons from the Y-12 assessment. Therefore, the aim of this document is to share these key lessons to help other large process-driven sites at the Department of Energy (DOE) and beyond develop a comprehensive

377

Water | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Water Dataset Summary Description This dataset is from the report Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies: a review of existing literature (J. Macknick, R. Newmark, G. Heath and K.C. Hallett) and provides estimates of operational water withdrawal and water consumption factors for electricity generating technologies in the United States. Estimates of water factors were collected from published primary literature and were not modified except for unit conversions. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory Date Released August 28th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords coal consumption csp factors geothermal PV renewable energy technologies Water wind withdrawal Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Operational water consumption and withdrawal factors for electricity generating technologies (xlsx, 77.7 KiB)

378

Boiling Water in Microwave  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Boiling Water in Microwave A 26-year old man decided to have a cup of coffee. He took a cup of water and put it in the microwave to heat it up (something that he had done numerous...

379

A gathering of water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The act of immersion is a powerful catalyst for the affirmation or transformation of identity. How we place ourselves in water expresses cultural valuations of our bodies, water, and social relations, as well as categories ...

Horowitz, Naomi Leah, 1970-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Walking on water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ingenious methods employed by insects and spiders to move across a water surface rely on microphysics that is of little use to larger water walkers but of considerable interest to the microfluidics community.

Bush, John W. M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Madrid Hot Water Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comprehensive Assessment of Hot Water System Page 1 of 2 HOT WATER SYSTEM In general, the plumbing system in MAGIC BOX is designed to concentrate all devices, be they storage,...

382

Water Conservation Tips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Needs breath. Adding compost to sandy soils helps thesoil retain water longer—the compost acts like a sponge,from applications of compost and other organic matter. For

Brown, Martha

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Report on Produced Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

water is the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production. The cost of managing such a large volume of water is a key...

384

Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply.

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2005-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

385

Water Management Planning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

water efficiency water efficiency at Federal sites Background The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sponsored a water assessment at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during fiscal year 2010. Driven by mandated water reduction goals of Executive Orders 13423 and 13514, the objective of the water assessment was to develop a comprehensive understanding of the current water-consuming applications and equipment at Y-12 and to identify key areas for water efficiency improvements. The water-assessment team learned key lessons from the Y-12 assessment. Therefore, the aim of this document is to share these key lessons to help other large process-driven sites at the Department of Energy (DOE) and beyond develop a comprehensive

386

Water-bearing minerals on mars: source of observed mid-latitude water?  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Odyssey spacecraft documented the existence of heterogeneously distributed hydrogen at martian mid-latitudes, suggesting that large areas of the near-equatorial highlands contain near-surface deposits of 'chemically and/or physically bound H20 and/or OH' in amounts up to 3 .8% equivalent H20. Shallow occurrences of water ice are not stable near the martian equator, making the hydrogen deposits at these latitudes somewhat enigmatic. Clay minerals and zeolites have both been proposed as possible water-bearing constituents on Mars, and both are common terrestrial alteration products of hydrovolcanic basaltic ashes and palagonitic material comparable to those that may be widespread on Mars. Smectites within martian meteorites, attributed to hydrous alteration on Mars rather than on Earth, provide direct evidence of clay minerals from Mars. In addition, new thermal emission spectrometer (TES) data provide good evidence for unspecified zeolites in martian surface dust [6] . The nature of the hydrogen-containing material observed in the equatorial martian regolith is of particular importance to the question of whether hydrous minerals have formed in the past on Mars. Also, whether these minerals exist in a hydrated (i .e., containing H2O molecules in their structures) or dehydrated state is a crucial question . The existence of hydrous minerals is also important in connection with their possible role in affecting the diurnal variation of the martian atmosphere, in their potential role in unraveling the paleohydrology and paleobiology of Mars, and in their possible use as a water resource to support exploration of the martian mid-latitudes.

Bish, D. L. (David L.); Carey, J. W. (James W.); Fialips, C. I. (Clair I.)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Water Prism Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the design and implementation of Water Prism, a decision support system that evaluates alternative management plans to obtain water resource sustainability at the regional, watershed or local levels. It considers surface, ground and impoundment waters, and all water using sectors (industrial, agricultural, municipal, electric power and the environment). This report will be of value to environment, generation, and planning managers within power companies, government agencies, ...

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

388

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

History 4 Water Used For Fuel Production.. 4 Coal Production .. 6 Carbon Capture and Sequestration .. 7 Natural Gas

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydroelectricity for agriculture and hydroelectricity. Large volumes of waterElectricity Production Hydroelectricity The most common type

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

What's In My Water?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

You can learn about the quality of your water by sending a sample to a laboratory for analysis. This publication will help you understand the lab report by explaining the properties, components and contaminants often found in water. It describes the sources of water contaminants, problems that can be caused by those contaminants, suggestions for correcting problems, and the safe levels of each contaminant in water for household use, for irrigation and for livestock.

Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

2003-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

391

Energy-Water Nexus  

SciTech Connect

Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

Horak, W.

2010-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

392

Water treatment method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

393

Saving Water Saves Energy  

SciTech Connect

Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

Water treatment on wheels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design options and combinations of fixed and mobile demineralization equipment give power plant operators the flexibility to continually optimize their water treatment system to meet rapidly changing needs. The article classifies water treatment service contracts for demineralized water into four categories and presents associated design, economic and operational advantages to power plant designers, constructors, owners and operators. 1 tab.

Taylor, R.T.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Water treatment method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reducing the concentration of many undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite. 1 tab.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1990-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

396

Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water to remove them.

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

397

Reduction of Water Consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews the various options available: WET-DRY towers, or DRY-WET, or combination WET and DRY towers!

Adler, J.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Corrosion in Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Corrosion of chemical lead in industrial and domestic waters...ppm hardness 22 72 Yes Slow 6.35 0.25 Cooling tower water, oxygenated, from Lake Erie 16â??29 60â??85 Complete None 134.6 5.3 Los Angeles aqueduct water, treated with chlorine

399

Water treatment method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

400

NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS  

SciTech Connect

The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (1) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (2) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (3) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Water-Miscible (Water-Soluble) Fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, algae, and fungi. If disposal is of no concern, phenolics can be used. The soaps, wetting agents, and couplers used as emulsifiers in water-miscible fluids reduce surface

402

Division of Water, Part 675: Great Lakes Water Withdrawal Registration...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

75: Great Lakes Water Withdrawal Registration Regulations (New York) Division of Water, Part 675: Great Lakes Water Withdrawal Registration Regulations (New York) Eligibility...

403

Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5 March 2013. (12) Water Conservation Master Plan; East Baywww.ebmud.com/for-customers/water-conservation- rebates-and-services/water-conservation-master-plan, accessed 15

Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Evaluation of an Absorption Heat Pump to Mitigate Plant Capacity Reduction Due to Ambient Temperature Rise for an Air-Cooled Ammonia and Water Cycle: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air-cooled geothermal plants suffer substantial decreases in generating capacity at increased ambient temperatures. As the ambient temperature rises by 50 F above a design value of 50 F, at low brine-resource temperatures, the decrease in generating capacity can be more than 50%. This decrease is caused primarily by increased condenser pressure. Using mixed-working fluids has recently drawn considerable attention for use in power cycles. Such cycles are more readily amenable to use of absorption ''heat pumps.'' For a system that uses ammonia and water as the mixed-working fluid, this paper evaluates using an absorption heat pump to reduce condenser backpressure. At high ambient temperatures, part of the turbine exhaust vapor is absorbed into a circulating mixed stream in an absorber in series with the main condenser. This steam is pumped up to a higher pressure and heated to strip the excess vapor, which is recondensed using an additional air-cooled condenser. The operating conditions are chosen to reconstitute this condensate back to the same concentration as drawn from the original system. We analyzed two power plants of nominal 1-megawatt capacity. The design resource temperatures were 250 F and 300 F. Ambient temperature was allowed to rise from a design value of 50 F to 100 F. The analyses indicate that using an absorption heat pump is feasible. For the 300 F resource, an increased brine flow of 30% resulted in a net power increase of 21%. For the 250 F resource, the increase was smaller. However, these results are highly plant- and equipment-specific because evaluations must be carried out at off-design conditions for the condenser. Such studies should be carried out for specific power plants that suffer most from increased ambient temperatures.

Bharathan, D.; Nix, G.

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

405

Par Pond water balance  

SciTech Connect

A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Water News | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water News Water News Bioenergy Buildings Geothermal Government Energy Management Homes Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Advanced Manufacturing Solar Vehicles Water Wind Blog Archive Recent...

407

The economic conception of water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

American City: municipal water supply investments. Ph. D.A . (2004). Boosting Water Productivity. In: Worldwatch1975). Issues in Village Water Supply. Washington, D . C ,

Hanemann, W. Michael

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Planning Water Use in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the University of Maryland Water Policy Collaborative, 2006.FURTH ER READ ING California Department of Water Resources.California Water Plan Update 2005: A Framework for Action.

Eisenstein, William; Kondolf, G. Mathias

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Summary Report on CO{sub 2} Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop  

SciTech Connect

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) jointly hosted a workshop on “CO{sub 2} Geologic Sequestration and Water Resources” in Berkeley, June 1–2, 2011. The focus of the workshop was to evaluate R&D needs related to geological storage of CO{sub 2} and potential impacts on water resources. The objectives were to assess the current status of R&D, to identify key knowledge gaps, and to define specific research areas with relevance to EPA’s mission. About 70 experts from EPA, the DOE National Laboratories, industry, and academia came to Berkeley for two days of intensive discussions. Participants were split into four breakout session groups organized around the following themes: Water Quality and Impact Assessment/Risk Prediction; Modeling and Mapping of Area of Potential Impact; Monitoring and Mitigation; Wells as Leakage Pathways. In each breakout group, participants identified and addressed several key science issues. All groups developed lists of specific research needs; some groups prioritized them, others developed short-term vs. long-term recommendations for research directions. Several crosscutting issues came up. Most participants agreed that the risk of CO{sub 2} leakage from sequestration sites that are properly selected and monitored is expected to be low. However, it also became clear that more work needs to be done to be able to predict and detect potential environmental impacts of CO{sub 2} storage in cases where the storage formation may not provide for perfect containment and leakage of CO{sub 2}–brine might occur.

Varadharajan, C.; Birkholzer, J.; Kraemer, S.; Porse, S.; Carroll, S.; Wilkin, R.; Maxwell, R.; Bachu, S.; Havorka, S.; Daley, T.; Digiulio, D.; Carey, W.; Strasizar, B.; Huerta, N.; Gasda, S.; Crow, W.

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Long Term Field Development of a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System for Treatment of Produced Waters for Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using a combined physicochemical/biological treatment system to remove the organic constituents present in saline produced water. In order to meet this objective, a physical/chemical adsorption process was developed and two separate biological treatment techniques were investigated. Two previous research projects focused on the development of the surfactant modified zeolite adsorption process (DE-AC26-99BC15221) and development of a vapor phase biofilter (VPB) to treat the regeneration off-gas from the surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption system (DE-FC26-02NT15461). In this research, the SMZ/VPB was modified to more effectively attenuate peak loads and to maintain stable biodegradation of the BTEX constituents from the produced water. Specifically, a load equalization system was incorporated into the regeneration flow stream. In addition, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was tested for its ability to simultaneously remove the aromatic hydrocarbon and carboxylate components from produced water. The specific objectives related to these efforts included the following: (1) Optimize the performance VPBs treating the transient loading expected during SMZ regeneration: (a) Evaluate the impact of biofilter operating parameters on process performance under stable operating conditions. (b) Investigate how transient loads affect biofilter performance, and identify an appropriate technology to improve biological treatment performance during the transient regeneration period of an SMZ adsorption system. (c) Examine the merits of a load equalization technology to attenuate peak VOC loads prior to a VPB system. (d) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/VPB to remove BTEX from produced water in a field trial. (2) Investigate the feasibility of MBR treatment of produced water: (a) Evaluate the biodegradation of carboxylates and BTEX constituents from synthetic produced water in a laboratory-scale MBR. (b) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/MBR system to remove carboxylates and BTEX from produced water in a field trial. Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide a better understanding of each component of the SMZ/VPB and SMZ/MBR process. Laboratory VPB studies were designed to address the issue of influent variability and periodic operation (see DE-FC26-02NT15461). These experiments examined multiple influent loading cycles and variable concentration loadings that simulate air sparging as the regeneration option for the SMZ system. Two pilot studies were conducted at a produced water processing facility near Farmington, New Mexico. The first field test evaluated SMZ adsorption, SMZ regeneration, VPB buffering, and VPB performance, and the second test focused on MBR and SMZ/MBR operation. The design of the field studies were based on the results from the previous field tests and laboratory studies. Both of the biological treatment systems were capable of removing the BTEX constituents in the laboratory and in the field over a range of operating conditions. For the VPB, separation of the BTEX constituents from the saline aqueous phase yielded high removal efficiencies. However, carboxylates remained in the aqueous phase and were not removed in the combined VPB/SMZ system. In contrast, the MBR was capable of directly treating the saline produced water and simultaneously removing the BTEX and carboxylate constituents. The major limitation of the MBR system is the potential for membrane fouling, particularly when the system is treating produced water under field conditions. The combined process was able to effectively pretreat water for reverse osmosis treatment and subsequent downstream reuse options including utilization in power generation facilities. The specific conclusions that can be drawn from this study are summarized.

Lynn Katz; Kerry Kinney; Robert Bowman; Enid Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig Altare

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

411

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Water Heating Water Heating Infographic: Water Heaters 101 Everything you need to know about saving money on water heating costs Read more Selecting a New Water Heater Tankless? Storage? Solar? Save money on your water heating bill by choosing the right type of energy-efficient water heater for your needs. Read more Sizing a New Water Heater When buying a new water heater, bigger is not always better. Learn how to buy the right size of water heater. Read more You can reduce your monthly water heating bills by selecting the appropriate water heater for your home or pool and by using some energy-efficient water heating strategies. Some simple do-it-yourself projects, like insulating hot water pipes and lowering your water heating temperature, can also help you save money and energy on your water heating.

412

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford Facilities: Progress report for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989 - Volume 1 - Text  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is Volume 1 of a two-volume document that describes the progress of 14 Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period July 1 to September 30, 1989. This volume discusses the projects; Volume 2 provides as-built diagrams, completion/inspection reports, drilling logs, and geophysical logs for wells drilled, completed, or logged during this period. Volume 2 can be found on microfiche in the back pocket of Volume 1. The work described in this document is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the management of Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. Concentrations of ground-water constituents are compared to federal drinking water standards throughout this document for reference purposes. All drinking water supplied from the sampled aquifer meets regulatory standards for drinking water quality.

Smith, R.M.; Bates, D.J.; Lundgren, R.E.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Water Data Report: An Annotated Bibliography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table 5: Public supply water withdrawals, 2000. water withdrawals, 2000. water withdrawals, 2000.

Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Melody, Moya

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

TECHNICAL REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1. Report No.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ecosystem or produce putresible sludge deposits. Water discharged must not cause any substantial water producer must transfer reclaimed water of at least the minimum quality required by the permit responsible for that water source. 2.2.3 Brine water Brine water, formation water, or produced water

Zhang, Yuanlin

415

Water Heating | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Heating Water Heating August 19, 2013 - 11:15am Addthis A variety of systems are available for water heating in homes and buildings. Learn about: Conventional Storage Water...

416

Virginia Tech Hot Water Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The team chose to use a water-to-water heat pump (WWHP) connected to an earth coupled heat exchanger to provide water heating. This system provides not only domestic hot water...

417

Water | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Home Water Power Forum Description: Forum for information related to the Water Power Gateway The Water Power Community Forum provides you with a way to engage with other...

418

Waterflood and Enhanced Oil Recovery Studies using Saline Water and Dilute Surfactants in Carbonate Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water injection has been practiced to displace the hydrocarbons towards adjacent wells and to support the reservoir pressure at or above the bubble point. Recently, waterflooding in sandstone reservoirs, as secondary and tertiary modes, proved to decrease the residual oil saturation. In calcareous rocks, water from various resources (deep formation, seawater, shallow beds, lakes and rivers) is generally injected in different oil fields. The ions interactions between water molecules, salts ions, oil components, and carbonate minerals are still ambiguous. Various substances are usually added before or during water injection to enhance oil recovery such as dilute surfactant. Various methods were used including surface charge (zeta potential), static and dynamic contact angle, core flooding, inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, CAT scan, and geochemical simulation. Limestone and dolomite particles were prepared at different wettability conditions to mimic the actual carbonate reservoirs. In addition to seawater and dilute seawater (50, 20, 10, and 1 vol%), formation brine, shallow aquifer water, deionized water and different crude oil samples were used throughout this study. The crude oil/water/carbonates interactions were also investigated using short and long (50 cm) limestone and dolomite rocks at different wettability and temperature conditions. The aqueous ion interactions were extensively monitored via measuring their concentrations using advanced analytical techniques. The activity of the free ions, complexes, and ion pairs in aqueous solutions were simulated at high temperatures and pressures using OLI electrolyte simulation software. Dilute seawater decreased the residual oil saturation in some of the coreflood tests. Hydration and dehydration processes through decreasing and increasing salinity showed no impact on calcite wettability. Effect of individual ions (Ca, Mg, and Na) and dilute seawater injection on oil recovery was insignificant in compare to the dilute surfactant solutions (0.1 wt%). The reaction mechanisms were confirmed to be adsorption of hydroxide ions, complexes and ion pairs at the interface which subsequently altered the surface potential from positive to negative. Results in this study indicate multistage waterflooding can enhance oil recovery in the field under certain conditions. Mixed streams simulation results suggest unexpected ions interactions (NaCO3-1, HSO4-1, NaSO4-1 and SO4-2) with various activities trends especially at high temperatures.

Alotaibi, Mohammed

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Effect of jets on $v_4/v_2^2$ ratio and constituent quark scaling in relativistic heavy-ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Monte Carlo HYDJET++ model, that combines parametrized hydrodynamics with jets, is employed to study formation of second v_2 and fourth v_4 components of the anisotropic flow in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), sqrt{s}=200 AGeV and sqrt{s}=2.76 ATeV, respectively. It is shown that the quenched jets contribute to the soft part of the v_2(p_T) and v_4(p_T) spectra. The jets increase the ratio v_4/v_2^2 thus leading to deviations of the ratio from the value of 0.5 predicted by the ideal hydrodynamics. Together with the event-by-event fluctuations, the influence of jets can explain quantitatively the ratio v_4/v_2^2 at p_T energies and qualitatively the rise of its high-p_T tail at LHC. Jets are also responsible for violation of the number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ) scaling at LHC despite the fact that the scaling is fulfilled for the hydro-part of particle spectra.

L. Bravina; B. H. Brusheim Johansson; G. Eyyubova; E. Zabrodin

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

420

Effect of jets on $v_4/v_2^2$ ratio and constituent quark scaling in relativistic heavy-ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Monte Carlo HYDJET++ model, that combines parametrized hydrodynamics with jets, is employed to study formation of second v_2 and fourth v_4 components of the anisotropic flow in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), sqrt{s}=200 AGeV and sqrt{s}=2.76 ATeV, respectively. It is shown that the quenched jets contribute to the soft part of the v_2(p_T) and v_4(p_T) spectra. The jets increase the ratio v_4/v_2^2 thus leading to deviations of the ratio from the value of 0.5 predicted by the ideal hydrodynamics. Together with the event-by-event fluctuations, the influence of jets can explain quantitatively the ratio v_4/v_2^2 at p_T energies and qualitatively the rise of its high-p_T tail at LHC. Jets are also responsible for violation of the number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ) scaling at LHC despite the fact that the scaling is fulfilled for the hydro-part of particle spectra.

Bravina, L; Eyyubova, G; Zabrodin, E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine constituents water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Publicly Submitted White Papers - Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

*. Bookmark and Share. Water. Advanced ... Strategies; AQUEOUS PHASE MERCURY REMOVAL: Strategies for a Secure Future Water Supply; ...

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

422