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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Property:BrineConstituents | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

BrineConstituents BrineConstituents Jump to: navigation, search Property Name BrineConstituents Property Type String Description Describes major elements, compounds in geothermal brine This is a property of type Page. Subproperties This property has the following 1 subproperty: V Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal Area Pages using the property "BrineConstituents" Showing 2 pages using this property. N North Brawley Geothermal Area + Chlorine, sodium, potassium, and calcium. Silica concentrations are 527 mg/l and total dissolved solids measure 82,900 mg/l. + S Salt Wells Geothermal Area + Cl, Na, SO4, SiO2, HCO3, and minor Ca, K + Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Property:BrineConstituents&oldid=598832#SMWResults" Category: Properties

2

Emplacement and release of brines from subsurface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Groundwater contamination by dense brines is addressed fromgroundwater contamination where dense brines might have beenbrines can become long-term sources of groundwater contamination

Hunt, James R; Flowers, Tracey C

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Brining studies at Pepper Products Inc.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Department) A. B. Childers (Member) V. E. Sweat (Member) December 1988 Abstract Optimum brining conditions, causes of secondary fermentation, and salt fluctuation were investigated. Jalapeno peppers held in brine solution undergo lactic acid... fermentation, controlled by level of acidification and concentration of salt. Only brining at 7. 5% NaCl, with no added acetic acid, resulted in loss of all fermentable sugars. However, salt concentration fluctuated widely in this sample. Brining in 25...

Okoro, John Daniel

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

4

Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program, 1991 report  

SciTech Connect

The data presented in this report are the result of Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program (BSEP) activities at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) during 1991. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the WIPP. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. Brine studies began as part of the Site Validation Program and were formalized as a program in its own right in 1985. During nine years of observations (1982--1991), evidence has mounted that the amount of brine seeping into the WIPP excavations is limited, local, and only a small fraction of that required to produce hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. The data through 1990 is discussed in detail and summarized by Deal and others (1991). The data presented in this report describes progress made during the calendar year 1991 and focuses on four major areas: (1) quantification of the amount of brine seeping across vertical surfaces in the WIPP excavations (brine ``weeps); (2) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes; (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) preliminary quantification of the amount of brine that might be released by squeezing the underconsolidated clays present in the Salado Formation.

Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J.; Myers, J.; Martin, M.L.; Milligan, D.J.; Sobocinski, R.W.; Lipponer, P.P.J. [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [International Technology Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.] [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Div.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification  

SciTech Connect

Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California Abstract N/A Authors Whitescarver and Olin D. Published U.S. Department of Energy, 1984 Report Number N/A DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California Citation Whitescarver, Olin D.. 1984. Development Operations Hypersaline Geothermal Brine Utilization Imperial County, California. (!) : U.S. Department of Energy. Report No.: N/A. Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Development_Operations_Hypersaline_Geothermal_Brine_Utilization_Imperial_County,_California&oldid=682648

7

The Brine Shrimp's Butterfly Stroke  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the fluid dynamics of brine shrimp larvae swimming in this gallery of fluid motion video. Time resolved particle image velocimetry was performed using nano-particles as seeding material to measure the time dependent velocity and vorticity fields. The Reynolds number of the flow was roughly 8 and the Womerseley number (ratio of periodic forcing to viscous forcing) was about 5. Vorticity dynamics reveals the formation of a vortex ring structure at the tip of each arm at the beginning of the power stroke. This two vortex system evolves dramatically with time as the stroke progresses. The outer circulation is noted to weaken while the inner circulation strengthens over the power stroke. The gaining strength of the inner vortex correlates with the acceleration and forward movement of the larvae.

Johnson, Brennan; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Sampling procedure for atmospheric geothermal brines  

SciTech Connect

Thermodynamic and chemical changes can alter the characteristics of geothermal brine samples significantly. A procedure which minimizes these changes has been developed for sampling atmospheric geothermal brines. The method is fast with minimal cooling and yields representative samples which have been stabilized to preserve their integrity. The procedure provides reliable suspended solids data and both the solid and liquid samples are suitable for elemental analysis. The procedure is also a valuable tool to aid in monitoring a geothermal brine conditioning system. Data are included from a flow test at an MCR Geothermal well in the Imperial Valley area of California to illustrate the utility of the sampling procedure.

Kochelek, J.T.; Zienty, D.F.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Integrated process for coalbed brine disposal  

SciTech Connect

A brine disposal process is described that converts the brine stream of a coalbed gas producing site into clean water for agricultural use, combustion products and water vapor that can be released into the atmosphere and dry solids that can be recycled for industrial consumption. The process uses a reverse osmosis unit, a submerged combustion evaporator and a pulse combustion dryer. Pretreatment of the brine feedstream is necessary to prevent fouling of the membranes of the reverse osmosis unit and to separate from the brine stream hazardous metal and other constituents that may make the permeate from the reverse osmosis unit unsuitable for agricultural or other use. A chemical modeling code is used to calculate the saturation states of solids that may precipitate and foul the reverse osmosis membranes. Sodium carbonate is added to the brine to precipitate carbonates of Ba, Ca, Mg and Sr prior to filtration, acidification, and passage into the reverse osmosis unit. Optimization of the process in terms of types and amounts of additives is possible with analysis using the modeling code. The minimum amounts of additives to prevent scaling are calculated. In a typical operation, a brine feedstream of 1,000 m{sup 3}/day (6,290 bpd) that may have a total dissolved salt concentration (TDS) of 7,000 ppm will be separated into a permeate stream of 750 m{sup 3}/day (4,718 bpd) with a TDS of 400 ppm and a concentrated brine stream of 250 m{sup 3}/day (1,573 bpd) with a TDS of 26,800 ppm. The submerged combustion evaporator will concentrate this latter stream to a concentration of 268,000 ppm and reduce the volume to 25 m{sup 3}/day (158 bpd). The pulse combustion dryer can dry the concentrated brine mixture to a low moisture salt. Energy costs to operate the reverse osmosis unit are primarily the pumping costs.

Brandt, H. [AQUATECH Services, Inc., Fair Oaks, CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Bourcier, W.L.; Jackson, K.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Volatility of HCl and the thermodynamics of brines during brine dryout  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory measurements of liquid-vapor partitioning (volatility) of chlorides from brines to steam can be used to indicate the potential for corrosion problems in geothermal systems. Measurements of volatilities of solutes in chloride brines have established a possible mechanism for the production of high-chloride steam from slightly acidic high temperature brines. Questions concerning the fate of NaCl in the steam production process have been addressed through extensive measurements of its volatility from brines ranging in concentration from dilute solutions to halite saturation. Recent measurements of chloride partitioning to steam over brines in contact with Geysers rock samples are consistent with our concept of the process for production of high-chloride steam.

Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Brine flow in heated geologic salt.  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes' governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

13

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Economic  Geology Billion  Gallons  per  Year Brine  Use  Sequence Carbon  dioxide  Capture  and  Storage Carbon  Dioxide Coal-­?

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Brine tolerant polymer for oil recovery applications  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a beta-alanine-type branched partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, which is added to an aqueous injection fluid to increase the viscosity of the fluid. The polymer resists plugging of the wellbore face and/or matrix pores and is brine tolerant when injected into a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing formation.

Tackett, J.E.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

15

Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

data was generated by t e CFE Laioratory a t Cerro Prietowere performed a t the CFE Laboratory a t Cerro P r i e t oe h e l p of J,. Fausto L of CFE. Brine from Cerro P r i e t

Weres, Oleh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

data was generated by t e CFE Laioratory a t Cerro Prietowere performed a t the CFE Laboratory a t Cerro P r i e t oe h e l p of J,. Fausto L of CFE. Brine from Cerro P r i e t

Weres, O.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Polyacrylamide polymer viscosity as a function of brine composition  

SciTech Connect

A computer model has been developed which predicts the viscosity of polymer and oil field brine mixtures. The polymers used were Amoco- Sweepaid 103 and Dow- Pusher 500 polyacrylamide polymers. All of the experiments were conducted at 1200 ppM polymer concentration. The computer input consists of the ionic strength of the brine in the mixture and the fraction of that ionic strength due to sodium ions. The computer program makes predictions of viscosity by referencing a family of viscosity curves for various mixtures of sodium chloride and calcium chloride in 1200 ppM polymer solutions. The model has been tested using 59 mixtures of brines and polymers. The ionic strength of the brine in the mixtures varied from 0.0018 to 0.025. The fraction of the brines' total ionic strength due to sodium ions varied from 0.22 to 0.49. The brines consisted predominantly of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate and sulfate ions.

French, T.R.; Stacy, N.; Collins, A.G.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

OUT Success Stories: Chemical Treatments for Geothermal Brines  

SciTech Connect

DOE research helped develop the large, untapped geothermal resource beneath the Salton Sea in California's Imperial Valley. The very hot brines under high pressure make them excellent for electric power production. The brines are very corrosive and contain high concentrations of dissolved silica. DOE worked with San Diego Gas and Electric Company to find a solution to the silica-scaling problem. This innovative brine treatment eliminated scaling and made possible the development of the Salton Sea geothermal resource.

Burr, R.

2000-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

19

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

brine  management  or   extracted  water  management  infrastructure  or  where  nearby  fresh  water  resources  need  to  be   carefully  monitored  for  later  contamination.  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Origin, distribution, and movement of brine in the Permian Basin (U. S. A. ). A model for displacement of connate brine  

SciTech Connect

Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs.

Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine  

SciTech Connect

The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0)/sup 3/), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl/sub 2/ showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85/sup 0/C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste.

Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Evaporite diagenesis driven by synsedimentary evolution of brines  

SciTech Connect

Back-reaction of brines has modified cyclic shallow water carbonate-sulfate-halite sequences (Permian) in the Palo Duro basin, Texas Panhandle. Successive parts of regressive evaporite cycles were deposited from progressively more highly evaporated seawater. The reaction of the brine with sediments deposited during earlier parts of each cycle was the major force criving diagenetic reactions and determining the final mineralogy. Normal marine limestones at the base of cycles were dolomitized in the shallow subsurface environments by brines that precipitated brine-pool evaporites in the upper parts of cycles. Gypsum dehydrated to anhydrite at burial depths of 1-2m beneath the brine-pool floor as brine salinity increased toward halite saturation. Diagenetic limpid dolomite and anhydrite replacing halite were probably derived from mixed meteoric and evaporated-marine brines squeezed from mudstone beds during compaction in the shallow subsurface. Anhydrite and halite pervasively cemented and partly replaced carbonates and gypsum. The resulting low permeability limited later diagenetic alteration, so that the early diagenetic textures and mineralogy were preserved in the burial environment. Reduction in permeability occurred before the transgression initiating the next cycle; the only major result of the introduction of seawater into the evaporite environment was dissolution of the last-deposited few meters of halite.

Hovorka, S.D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Origin and geochemical evolution of the Michigan basin brine  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and isotopic data were collected on 126 oil field brine samples and were used to investigate the origin and geochemical evolution of water in 8 geologic formations in the Michigan basin. Two groups of brine are found in the basin, the Na-Ca-Cl brine in the upper Devonian formations, and Ca-Na-Cl brine from the lower Devonian and Silurian aged formations. Water in the upper Devonian Berea, Traverse, and Dundee formations originated from seawater concentrated into halite facies. This brine evolved by halite precipitation, dolomitization, aluminosilicate reactions, and the removal of SO{sub 4} by bacterial action or by CaSO{sub 4} precipitation. The stable isotopic composition (D, O) is thought to represent dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by meteoric water. Water in the lower Devonian Richfield, Detroit River Group, and Niagara-Salina formations is very saline Ca-Na-Cl brine. Cl/Br suggest it originated from seawater concentrated through the halite and into the MgSO{sub 4} salt facies, with an origin linked to the Silurian and Devonian salt deposits. Dolomitization and halite precipitation increased the Ca/Na, aluminosilicate reactions removed K, and bacterial action or CaSO{sub 4} precipitation removed SO{sub 4} from this brine. Water chemistry in the Ordovician Trenton-Black River formations indicates dilution of evapo-concentrated seawater by fresh or seawater. Possible saline end-members include Ordovician seawater, present-day upper Devonian brine, or Ca-Cl brine from the deeper areas in the basin.

Wilson, T.P.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Integrated process for coalbed brine and methane disposal  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a technology and project to demonstrate and commercialize a brine disposal process for converting the brine stream of a coalbed gas producing site into clean water for agricultural use and dry solids that can be recycled for industrial consumption. The process also utilizes coalbed methane (CBM) released from coal mining for the combustion process thereby substantially reducing the potential for methane emissions to the atmosphere. The technology is ideally suited for the treatment and disposal of produced brines generated from the development of coal mines and coalbed methane resources worldwide. Over the next 10 to 15 years, market potential for brine elimination equipment and services is estimated to be in the range of $1 billion.

Byam, J.W. Jr.; Tait, J.H.; Brandt, H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

ABSORBING WIPP BRINES: A TRU WASTE DISPOSAL STRATEGY  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250- liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WIPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $311k in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

Yeamans, D. R.; Wrights, R. S.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

26

Absorbing WIPP brines : a TRU waste disposal strategy.  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has completed experiments involving 15 each, 250-liter experimental test containers of transuranic (TRU) heterogeneous waste immersed in two types of brine similar to those found in the underground portion of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). To dispose of the waste without removing the brine from the test containers, LANL added commercially available cross-linked polyacrylate granules to absorb the 190 liters of brine in each container, making the waste compliant for shipping to the WlPP in a Standard Waste Box (SWB). Prior to performing the absorption, LANL and the manufacturer of the absorbent conducted laboratory and field tests to determine the ratio of absorbent to brine that would fully absorb the liquid. Bench scale tests indicated a ratio of 10 parts Castile brine to one part absorbent and 6.25 parts Brine A to one part absorbent. The minimum ratio of absorbent to brine was sought because headspace in the containers was limited. However, full scale testing revealed that the ratio should be adjusted to be about 15% richer in absorbent. Additional testing showed that the absorbent would not apply more than 13.8 kPa pressure on the walls of the vessel and that the absorbent would still function normally at that pressure and would not degrade in the approximately 5e-4 Sv/hr radioactive field produced by the waste. Heat generation from the absorption was minimal. The in situ absorption created a single waste stream of 8 SWBs whereas the least complicated alternate method of disposal would have yielded at least an additional 2600 liters of mixed low level liquid waste plus about two cubic meters of mixed low level solid waste, and would have resulted in higher risk of radiation exposure to workers. The in situ absorption saved $3 1 lk in a combination of waste treatment, disposal, material and personnel costs compared to the least expensive alternative and $984k compared to the original plan.

Yeamans, D. R. (David R.); Wright, R. (Robert)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Strontium isotopic study of subsurface brines from Illinois basin  

SciTech Connect

The abundance of the radiogenic isotope /sup 87/Sr in a subsurface brine can be used as a tracer of brine origin, evolution, and diagenetic effects. The authors have determined the /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of over 60 oil-field waters from the Illinois basin, where brine origin is perplexing because of the absence of any significant evaporite strata. Initially, they analyzed brines from 15 petroleum-producing sandstone and carbonate units; waters from Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, and Mississippian strata have /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios in the range 0.7079-0.7108. All but those from the Ste. Genevieve Limestone (middle Mississippian) are more radiogenic in /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr than seawater values for this interval of geologic time. The detrital source of the more radiogenic /sup 87/Sr may be the New Albany Shale group, considered to be a major petroleum source rock in the basin. The /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios of Ste. Genevieve brines apparently evolved without a contribution from fluid-shale interaction.

hetherington, E.A.; Stueber, A.M.; Pushkar, P.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Experiments were used to examine water content in Permian salt samples (Salado Formation) collected from the WIPP site. The profile of water release and movement is recognized as a function of temperature from 30 to 275 oC using classical gravimetric methods to measure weight loss as a result of heating. The amount of water released from heating the salt was found to be correlated with the salts accessory mineral content (clay, other secondary minerals lost up to 3 wt % while pure halite salt lost less than 0.5 wt % water). Water released from salt at lower temperature was reversible and is attributed to clay hydration and dehydration processes. The analysis

29

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Brine Migration Experimental Studies for Salt Repositories Experiments were used to examine water content in Permian salt samples (Salado Formation) collected from the WIPP site. The profile of water release and movement is recognized as a function of temperature from 30 to 275 oC using classical gravimetric methods to measure weight loss as a result of heating. The amount of water released from heating the salt was found to be correlated with the salts accessory mineral content (clay, other secondary minerals lost up to 3 wt % while pure halite salt lost less than 0.5 wt % water). Water released from salt at lower temperature was reversible and is attributed to clay hydration and dehydration processes. The analysis

30

Actinide (III) solubility in WIPP Brine: data summary and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of actinides in the +3 oxidation state is an important input into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) performance assessment (PA) models that calculate potential actinide release from the WIPP repository. In this context, the solubility of neodymium(III) was determined as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and WIPP brine composition. Additionally, we conducted a literature review on the solubility of +3 actinides under WIPP-related conditions. Neodymium(III) was used as a redox-invariant analog for the +3 oxidation state of americium and plutonium, which is the oxidation state that accounts for over 90% of the potential release from the WIPP through the dissolved brine release (DBR) mechanism, based on current WIPP performance assessment assumptions. These solubility data extend past studies to brine compositions that are more WIPP-relevant and cover a broader range of experimental conditions than past studies.

Borkowski, Marian; Lucchini, Jean-Francois; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Cementation process for minerals recovery from Salton Sea geothermal brines  

SciTech Connect

The potential for minerals recovery from a 1000-MWe combined geothermal power and minerals recovery plant in the Salton Sea is examined. While the possible value of minerals recovered would substantially exceed the revenue from power production, information is insufficient to carry out a detailed economic analysis. The recovery of precious metals - silver, gold, and platinum - is the most important factor in determining the economics of a minerals recovery plant; however, the precious metals content of the brines is not certain. Such a power plant could recover 14 to 31% of the US demand for manganese and substantial amounts of zinc and lead. Previous work on minerals extraction from Salton Sea brines is also reviewed and a new process, based on a fluidized-bed cementation reaction with metallic iron, is proposed. This process would recover the precious metals, lead, and tin present in the brines.

Maimoni, A.

1982-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

32

Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential January 3, 2014 - 9:05am Addthis John Fox, CEO of Electratherm,...

33

Uranium (VI) solubility in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine  

SciTech Connect

When present, uranium is usually an element of importance in a nuclear waste repository. In the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), uranium is the most prevalent actinide component by mass, with about 647 metric tons to be placed in the repository. Therefore, the chemistry of uranium, and especially its solubility in the WIPP conditions, needs to be well determined. Long-term experiments were performed to measure the solubility of uranium (VI) in carbonate-free ERDA-6 brine, a simulated WIPP brine, at pC{sub H+} values between 8 and 12.5. These data, obtained from the over-saturation approach, were the first repository-relevant data for the VI actinide oxidation state. The solubility trends observed pointed towards low uranium solubility in WIPP brines and a lack of amphotericity. At the expected pC{sub H+} in the WIPP ({approx} 9.5), measured uranium solubility approached 10{sup -7} M. The objective of these experiments was to establish a baseline solubility to further investigate the effects of carbonate complexation on uranium solubility in WIPP brines.

Lucchini, Jean-francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khaing, Hnin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

2 INVESTIGATION OF CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION 2.1 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRUDE/BRINE/ROCK INTERACTION AT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTERACTION AT RESERVOIR CONDITIONS 2.1.1 Introduction In the previous section, the fluid/rock interactions in this section and expand the understanding of the interactions of the Spraberry reservoir rock, oil and brine, brine displacement and rock wettability using low permeability Spraberry cores. A schematic

Schechter, David S.

36

Characterization of a soil contaminated by oilfield brine  

SciTech Connect

Brine contamination of soil is a common environmental problem associated with the onshore production of oil and gas. A site of extensive contamination in Oklahoma has been characterized using conductimetry, direct potentiometry (pH- and chloride-selective electrodes), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (for Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}) to determine the extent of the contamination and the efficacy of various remediation technologies.

Al-Mutairi, K.; Harris, T. [Univ. of Tulsa, OH (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not represent expected conditions in an emplacement drift, but nevertheless illustrate the potential for acid-gas generation at moderate temperatures (<150 C).

Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

38

Nanofiltration separation of polyvalent and monovalent anions in desalination brines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work, as part of a global membrane process for the recovery of alkali and acids from reverse osmosis (RO) desalination brines, focuses on the nanofiltration (NF) separation of polyvalent and monovalent anions, more specifically sulfate and chloride. This pretreatment stage plays a key role in the whole recovery process. Working with model brines simulating the concentration of RO concentrates, 0.2–1.2 M chloride concentration and 0.1 M sulfate concentration, the experimental performance and modeling of the NF separation is reported. The study has been carried out with the NF270 (Dow Filmtec) membrane. The effect of operating pressure (500–2000 kPa), ionic strength (0.4–1.3 M) and chloride initial concentration (0.2–1.2 M) on the membrane separation capacity has been investigated. Finally, the Donnan Steric Pore Model (DSPM) together with experimentally determined parameters, effective pore radius (rp), thickness of the membrane effective layer (?) and effective membrane charge density (Xd), was proved accurate enough to satisfactorily describe the experimental results. In this work we provide for the first time the analysis of partitioning effects and transport mechanism in the NF separation of sulfate and chloride anions in concentrations that simulate those found in RO desalination brines.

A. Pérez-González; R. Ibáñez; P. Gómez; A.M. Urtiaga; I. Ortiz; J.A. Irabien

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Brine pH Modification Scale Control Technology. 2. A Review.pdf Abstract A variety of processes has been deployed at geothermalfields to inhibit or control siliceous scale deposition. It has beenknown for decades that the kinetics of silicic acid polymerizationis retarded when the pH of an aqueous solution is decreased.Therefore, a potential method for controlling siliceous scalingfrom geothermal brine is treatment with acid. Early attempts tocontrol siliceous scaling in geothermal brine-handling equipmentby retarding polymerization led to the belief that the pHhad to be reduced to < 4. Acidifying brine was discourageddue to corrosion concerns.

40

Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Near-surface CaCl2-brine feeding Earth's most saline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Don Juan Pond, Antarctica: Near-surface CaCl2-brine feeding Earth's most saline lake for RSL formation, CaCl2 brines and chloride deposits in basins may provide clues to the origin of ancient,2,10­14 , the composition of the brine is unlike any other body of water in the world, as ,90% of the salt is CaCl2 1

Marchant, David R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

A cost-effective statistical screening method to detect oilfield brine contamination  

SciTech Connect

A statistical screening method has been developed using Tolerance Limits for barium (Ba{sup +2}) to identify contamination of a fresh-water aquifer by oilfield brines. The method requires an understanding of the local hydrochemistry of oilfield brines, inexpensive, Publicly available hydrochemical data, a single sample analysis from the suspect well and the application of a simple statistical procedure. While this method may not provide absolute evidence of oilfield brine contamination of a fresh-water aquifer, it does identify conditions where brine contamination is a strong probability over other possible sources of chlorides.

Alyanak, N.; Grace, J.T.; Campbell, M.D. [United Resources International, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

The development of appropriate brine electrolysers for disinfection of rural water supplies .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A comparative study of electrolysers using different anodic materials for the electrolysis of brine (sodium chloride) for the production of sodium hypochlorite as a source… (more)

Siguba, Maxhobandile

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Conclusions after eleven years of studying brine at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was established to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in the United States. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. WIPP performance assessment activities raised the concern that the brine could cause anoxic corrosion of metal in the waste storage drums and waste inventory, potentially producing large quantities of hydrogen gas, which would affect the long-term performance of Thee repository. Th WIPP Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program was developed to investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences. The WIPP is excavated in the Salado Formation, which is bedded salt of Permian age. The sediments exposed in the excavations consist of clear halite and polyhalitic halite, halite containing clay, thin clay seams, and interbedded anhydrite layers. The clear halite beds contain little brine and are effectively impermeable. The clay within the salt and in the clay seams contains brine that is released to the excavations, although virtually all of the brine release occurs within the first few years of mining. Consequently, by the time the waste storage rooms at the WIPP are filled and sealed, most of the brine that can be derived from the clay will have evaporated. These is no observed evidence from the WIPP excavations that brine will seep into the working from the anhydrite beds. It has been postulated, however, that brine could seep through the underlying anhydrite Marker Bed 139 (MB139). Recently acquired data on the hydrologic properties of MB139 show that, even if flow through the anhydrite occurs, the brine released to the storage rooms could only corrode a small percentage of the susceptible metal in the repository.

Deal, D.E. [IT Corporation, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bills, R.A. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

Isolation of Halobacterium salinarum retrieved directly from halite brine inclusions  

SciTech Connect

Halite crystals were selected from a 186m subsurface core taken from the Badwater salt pan, Death Valley, California to ascertain if halophilic Archaea and their associated 16S rDNA can survive over several tens of thousands of years. Using a combined microscope microdrill/micropipette system, fluids from brine inclusions were aseptically extracted from primary, hopper texture, halite crystals from 8 and 85 metres below the surface (mbls). U-Th disequilibrium dating indicates that these halite layers were deposited at 9600 and 97000 years before present (ybp) respectively.

Mormile, Melanie R.; Biesen, Michelle A.; Gutierrez, M. Carmen; Ventosa, Antonio; Pavlovich, Justin B.; Onstott, T C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Reverse osmosis process successfully converts oil field brine into freshwater  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art process in the San Ardo oil field converted produced brine into freshwater. The conversion process used chemical clarification, softening, filtration, and reverse osmosis (RO). After extensive testing resolved RO membrane fouling problems, the pilot plant successfully handled water with about 7,000 mg/l. of total dissolved solids, 250 mg/l. silica, and 170 mg/l. soluble oil. The treated water complies with the stringent California drinking water standard. The paper describes water reclamation, the San Ardo process, stability, reverse osmosis membrane fouling, membranes at high pH, water quality, and costs.

Tao, F.T.; Curtice, S.; Hobbs, R.D.; Sides, J.L.; Wieser, J.D. (Texaco Inc., Bellaire, TX (United States)); Dyke, C.A.; Tuohey, D. (Texaco Inc., Beacon, NY (United States)); Pilger, P.F. (Texaco E and P Inc., Denver, CO (United States))

1993-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

46

Geochemistry of Salado Formation brines recovered from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository  

SciTech Connect

Intergranular brines recovered from the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) have major- and trace-element compositions that reflect seawater evaporation and diagenetic processes. Brines obtained from repository drill holes are heterogenous with respect to composition, but their compositional fields are distinct from those obtained from fluid inclusions in WIPP halite. The heterogeneity of brine compositions within the drill-hole population indicates a lack of mixing and fluid homogenization within the salt at the repository level. Compositional differences between intergranular (drill hole) and intragranular (fluid inclusions) brines is attributed to isolation of the latter from diagenetic fluids that were produced from dehydration reactions involving gypsum and clay minerals. Modeling of brine-rock equilibria indicates that equilibration with evaporite minerals controls the concentrations of major elements in the brine. Drill-hole brines are in equilibrium with the observed repository minerals halite, anhydrite, magnesite, polyhalite and quartz. The equilibrium model supports the derivation of drill-hole brines from near-field fluid, rather than large-scale vertical migration of fluids from the overlying Rustler or underlying Castile Formations. 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Abitz, R.; Myers, J.; Drez, P.; Deal, D.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Dynamics and storage of brine in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamics and storage of brine in mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems Fabrice J. Fontaine1 substantially different from seawater as a result of phase separation and segregation of the resulting vapor below seawater for over a decade, which raises important questions concerning the fate of brines

Wilcock, William

48

NEW MARINE DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS FROM WATERS INFLUENCED BY HYDROmERMAL DISCHARGE, BRINE, AND HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and waters influenced by brine and hydrocarbon seeps continue to yield species new to science. Such enNEW MARINE DECAPOD CRUSTACEANS FROM WATERS INFLUENCED BY HYDROmERMAL DISCHARGE, BRINE, AND HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE AUSTIN B. WILLIAMS} ABSTRACT Five species of decapod crustaceans new to science

49

RIS-M-2260 HEAT GRADIENT INDUCED MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN ROCK SALT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;#12;- 5 - 1. INTRODUCTION The storage of heat producing radioactive waste in rock salt, will produce of the brine migration under influence of the decreasing heat production in the waste. A general expressionRISÃ?-M-2260 HEAT GRADIENT INDUCED MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN ROCK SALT Mathematical treatment

50

Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

brine in the wellbore up to the base of the freshwater aquifer and would thereby lead to contamination.

Birkholzer, J.T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Origin of the oil-field brines in the Paris basin  

SciTech Connect

From Br{sup {minus}}/Cl{sup {minus}} ratios coupled with stable-isotope compositions, the components of deep sedimentary brines - namely, primary and secondary brines (from dissolving evaporites) and diluting waters of meteoric origin - can be identified, and in favorable cases, their respective proportions can be quantified. Dilution of primary marine brines (mother liquors of halite) by meteoric waters has occurred in the Dogger and the Keuper aquifers. The presence of highly saline brines (molality of Cl{sup {minus}} = 3.9) in the Rhaetian aquifer may be due to dissolution of primary marine halite by sea water with minor contributions of primary brines. The resulting mixture is diluted by meteoric circulation.

Matray, J.M. (Service Geochimie Minerale, Pau (France)); Fontes, J.C. (Universite de Paris-Sud, Orsay (France))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

In cooperation with Fort Peck Tribes Office of Environmental Protection Delineation of Brine Contamination in and near the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;#12;Delineation of Brine Contamination in and near the East Poplar Oil Field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation citation: Thamke, J.N., and Smith, B.D., 2014, Delineation of brine contamination in and near the EastIn cooperation with Fort Peck Tribes Office of Environmental Protection Delineation of Brine

Torgersen, Christian

53

The brine underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee, USA: Characterization, genesis, and environmental implications  

SciTech Connect

The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Atomic Reservation contains brine. Its origin was assessed using existing and newly acquired chemical and isotopic data. The proposed model which best fits the data is modification of residual brine from which halite has been precipitated. Potential sources for this brine are in the Appalachian Mountains in the east, where bedded halite is documented, and where the hydraulic gradient needed to move the residual brine exists. Other models, such as ultrafiltration and halite dissolution, were also evaluated. In places, contaminants such as radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds have reached the deep system. The chemical and isotopic features of the brine were examined with respect to its potential discharge, contaminated in places, into shallow, freshwater systems. The observations suggest that whereas the origin of the salts in the brine may be very old, influx of recent water takes place. Consequently, the brine is not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and fresh-water-bearing units. 78 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Nativ, R. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)] [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Brine inclusions in halite and the origin of the Middle Devonian Prairie evaporites of Western Canada  

SciTech Connect

Brines were extracted from fluid inclusions in Lower Salt halite of the Middle Devonian Prairie Formation in Saskatchewan, Canada. The brines were analyzed by ion chromatography and were found to be of the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl type. They do not fall along a simple evaporation trend. Brines from clear, diagenetic halite are significantly lower in Na{sup +} and higher in Mg{sup 2+}, and Cl{sup {minus}} than brines from cloudy, subaqueously formed halite with chevron structures. The isotopic composition of strontium and sulfur in anhydrite associated with the halites was found to be the same as that of Middle Devonian seawater. The composition of the inclusion brines can be derived from that of modern seawater by evaporation, extensive dolomitization of limestone, and albitization of clay minerals. Other evolution paths are, however, also feasible, and it is impossible to rule out effects due to the addition of nonmarine waters (hydrothermal solutions, surface runoff, and groundwater), or dissolutional recycling of existing evaporites within the Prairie evaporite basin. These analyses and published data on brine inclusions in halite from a number of Phanerozoid evaporite deposits show that the Na-K-Mg-Ca-Cl type brine is more common than the Na-K-Mg-Cl-SO{sub 4} type, which is expected from evaporation of modern seawater.

Horita, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.; Weinberg, A.; Das, N.; Holland, H.D. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Experience with minerals recovery from geothermal and other brines  

SciTech Connect

The commercial extraction of minerals from geothermal fluids is not a novelty, although there appear to be no current commercial activities. Products which have been commercially recovered from geothermal fluids include NaC1, CaC1/sub 2/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, and NH/sub 3/. Sites of significant commercial activity include Larderello, Italy and the Imperial Valley in California. Furthermore, a few pilot-plant systems have been tested for this purpose. Commercial recovery from natural non-geothermal brines has a long history, which may have implications for geothermal energy applications. The technical feasibility and economic benefits of large-scale minerals production in conjunction with geothermal energy exploitation remain speculative. In any case, the uncertainties can be resolved only on a site- and product-specific basis.

Crane, C.H.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Efficacy of Ultraviolet Light and Antimicrobials to Reduce Listeria monocytogenes in Chill Brines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Chill brines used in ready-to-eat meat processing may be an important source of post-processing contamination by Listeria monocytogenes. The purpose of this study was to… (more)

Parikh, Priti P.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Remediation of brine-contaminated soil using calcium nitrate, gypsum, and straw.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Salt-affected soils from point source brine contamination are common in the active oil field in SE Saskatchewan. A remediation process that included dewatering by sub-surface… (more)

Nielsen, Jennifer I.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Hybrid electrodialysis reverse osmosis system design and its optimization for treatment of highly saline brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The demand is rising for desalination technologies to treat highly saline brines arising from hydraulic fracturing processes and inland desalination. Interest is growing in the use of electrical desalination technologies ...

McGovern, Ronan Killian

59

E-Print Network 3.0 - acartia tonsa brine Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for: acartia tonsa brine Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Vol. 114: 203-208,1994 MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Summary: . divergens attacking it. Ingestion rates of P, cf....

60

Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.  

SciTech Connect

Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Proper use of sodium bisulfite with minimal salt penetration during brine immersion freezing of shrimp  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PROPER USE OF SODIUM BISULFITE WITH MINIMAL SALT PENETRATION DURING BRINE IMMERSION FREEZING OF SHRIMP A Thesis by SUZANNE RENE BROUSSARD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the reguirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE MAY 1988 OC o Z m Z IJ III s Z Major Subject: Food Science and Technology PROPER USE OF SODIUM BISULFITE WITH MINIMAL SALT PENETRATION DURING BRINE IMMERSION FREEZING OF SHRIMP A Thesis by SUZANNE RENE...

Broussard, Suzanne Rene

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

62

The effects of an ambient salinity gradient on the dilution of dense brine jets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECTS OF AN AMBIENT SALINITY GRADIENT ON THE DILUTION OF DENSE BRINE JETS A Thesis by GARY WAYNE MCCULLOUGH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Ocean Engineering THE EFFECTS OF AN AMBIENT SALINITY GRADIENT ON THE DILUTION OF DENSE BRINE JETS A Thesis by GARY NAYNE MCCULLOUGH Approved as to style and content by: Robert E. Randall (Chair of Committee...

McCullough, Gary Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

63

New Energy Efficient Method for Cleaning Oilfield Brines with Carbon Dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NEW ENERGY EFFICIENT METHOD FOR CLEANING OILFIELD BRINES WITH CARBON DIOXIDE C. T. LITTLE A. F. SEIBERT Research Engineer Technical Manager Amoco Oil Company Separations Research Program Naperville, Illinois The University of Texas Austin... dioxide to clean oilfield brines. The new treatment method, described in this work, is actually an enhancement of existing gas flotation technology. The enhancement results from the use of carbon dioxide as the sweeping gas combined with its ability...

Little, C. T.; Seibert, A. F.; Bravo, J. L.; Fair, J. R.

64

Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

Wahl, III, Edward F. (Claremont, CA); Boucher, Frederic B. (San Juan Capistrano, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Numerical simulations of lab-scale brine-water mixing experiments.  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-scale experiments simulating the injection of fresh water into brine in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern were performed at Sandia National Laboratories for various conditions of injection rate and small and large injection tube diameters. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code FLUENT was used to simulate these experiments to evaluate the predictive capability of FLUENT for brine-water mixing in an SPR cavern. The data-model comparisons show that FLUENT simulations predict the mixing plume depth reasonably well. Predictions of the near-wall brine concentrations compare very well with the experimental data. The simulated time for the mixing plume to reach the vessel wall was underpredicted for the small injection tubes but reasonable for the large injection tubes. The difference in the time to reach the wall is probably due to the three-dimensional nature of the mixing plume as it spreads out at the air-brine or oil-brine interface. The depth of the mixing plume as it spreads out along the interface was within a factor of 2 of the experimental data. The FLUENT simulation results predict the plume mixing accurately, especially the water concentration when the mixing plume reaches the wall. This parameter value is the most significant feature of the mixing process because it will determine the amount of enhanced leaching at the oil-brine interface.

Khalil, Imane; Webb, Stephen Walter

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Chemical analyses of geothermal waters and Strategic Petroleum Reserve brines for metals of economic importance  

SciTech Connect

Waters from seven hydrothermal-geothermal, one geopressured-geothermal, and six Strategic Petroleum Reserve wells have been surveyed for 12 metals of economic importance using trace chemical analysis techniques. The elements sought were Cr, Co, Mn, Ta, Sn, V, Nb, Li, Sr, Pt, Au and Ag. Platinum was found at a concentration of approx. 50 ppb in a brine from the Salton Sea geothermal area. Brine from this region, as has been known from previous studies, is also rich in Li, Sr and Mn. Higher concentrations (approx. 900 ppm) of Sr are found in the high-salinity geopressured brines. None of the fluids contained interesting concentrations of the other metals. Good recovery of precious metals at sub-ppm concentrations from synthetic high salinity brines was achieved using Amborane reductive resin, but similar recovery in the laboratory using real brines could not be demonstrated. Several analytical techniques were compared in sensitivity for the determination of the precious metals; neutron activation analysis with carrier separation is the best for gold and platinum in geothermal brines. 26 references, 7 tables.

Harrar, J.E.; Raber, E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program 1992--1993 report and summary of BSEP data since 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report is the last one that is currently scheduled in the sequence of reports of new data, and therefore, also includes summary comments referencing important data obtained by BSEP since 1983. These BSEP activities document and investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences in the Permian Salado Formation and seepage of that brine into the excavations at the (WIPP) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. A project concern is that enough brine might be present after sealing and closure to generate large quantities of hydrogen gas by corroding the metal in the waste drums and waste inventory. This report describes progress made during the calendar years 1992 and 1993 and focuses on four major areas: (1) monitoring of brine inflow, e.g., measuring brines recovered from holes drilled downward from the underground drifts (downholes), upward from the underground drifts (upholes), and from subhorizontal holes from the underground drifts; (2) observations of weeps in the Air Intake Shaft (AIS); (3) further characterization of brine geochemistry; and (4) additional characterization of the hydrologic conditions in the fractured zone beneath the excavations.

Deal, D.E.; Abitz, R.J. [I. T. Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Belski, D.S. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Carlsbad, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Office

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Brine clarity maintenance in salinity-gradient solar ponds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brine transparency is an important part of the maintenance of a salinity-gradient solar pond as it affects the amount of solar radiation reaching the storage zone and hence has an influence on the thermal performance. There is a wide range of factors that can hinder the transmission of light in a solar pond. Algal and microbial growths are the most common problems encountered in working solar ponds and control of their densities is essential to maintain transparency. Two different chemical treatment methods for algae growth prevention are described in this paper: chlorine and a novel chemical product – copper ethylamine complex. The latter method has never been implemented previously in a working pond. This paper discusses the theory of the algae control methods used and presents the experimental results of the chemical treatments. The results showed that Cupricide is more effective than chlorine and is therefore the recommended chemical for algae control in solar ponds; it improves the water transparency especially in the upper convective zone and lower convective zone with all measurement values less than 1 NTU. Chlorine was found to be more corrosive than Cupricide due to the acidic effect it has on the pH. The preliminary cost analysis showed that granular chlorine is the cheapest chemical. A more detailed financial analysis is nevertheless required to refine these costs.

Neus Gasulla; Yusli Yaakob; Jimmy Leblanc; Aliakbar Akbarzadeh; Jose Luis Cortina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume III. Biological oceanography. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL, LBNL and SNL for the Used Fuel Disposition Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The report summarizes laboratory and field observations and numerical modeling related to coupledprocesses involving brine and vapor migration in geologic salt, focusing on recent developments and...

71

The depth of the oil/brine interface and crude oil leaks in SPR caverns  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring wellhead pressure evolution is the best method of detecting crude oil leaks in SPR caverns while oil/brine interface depth measurements provide additional insight. However, to fully utilize the information provided by these interface depth measurements, a thorough understanding of how the interface movement corresponds to cavern phenomena, such as salt creep, crude oil leakage, and temperature equilibration, as well as to wellhead pressure, is required. The time evolution of the oil/brine interface depth is a function of several opposing factors. Cavern closure due to salt creep and crude oil leakage, if present, move the interface upward. Brine removal and temperature equilibration of the oil/brine system move the interface downward. Therefore, the relative magnitudes of these factors determine the net direction of interface movement. Using a mass balance on the cavern fluids, coupled with a simplified salt creep model for closure in SPR caverns, the movement of the oil/brine interface has been predicted for varying cavern configurations, including both right-cylindrical and carrot-shaped caverns. Three different cavern depths and operating pressures have been investigated. In addition, the caverns were investigated at four different points in time, allowing for varying extents of temperature equilibration. Time dependent interface depth changes of a few inches to a few feet were found to be characteristic of the range of cases studied. 5 refs, 19 figs., 1 tab.

Heffelfinger, G.S.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Fate of Brine Applied to Unpaved Roads at a Radioactive Waste Subsurface Disposal Area  

SciTech Connect

Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl– might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl– in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl– concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl– concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl– was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl– remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl– in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface disposal area.

Larry C. Hull; Carolyn W. Bishop

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Evaporative Evolution of Carbonate-Rich Brines from Synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff Pore Water, Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The evaporation of a range of synthetic pore water solutions representative of the potential high-level-nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV is being investigated. The motivation of this work is to understand and predict the range of brine compositions that may contact the waste containers from evaporation of pore waters, because these brines could form corrosive thin films on the containers and impact their long-term integrity. A relatively complex synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff pore water was progressively concentrated by evaporation in a closed vessel, heated to 95 C in a series of sequential experiments. Periodic samples of the evaporating solution were taken to determine the evolving water chemistry. According to chemical divide theory at 25 C and 95 C our starting solution should evolve towards a high pH carbonate brine. Results at 95 C show that this solution evolves towards a complex brine that contains about 99 mol% Na{sup +} for the cations, and 71 mol% Cl{sup -}, 18 mol% {Sigma}CO{sub 2}(aq), 9 mol%SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for the anions. Initial modeling of the evaporating solution indicates precipitation of aragonite, halite, silica, sulfate and fluoride phases. The experiments have been used to benchmark the use of the EQ3/6 geochemical code in predicting the evolution of carbonate-rich brines during evaporation.

Sutton, M; Alai, M; Carroll, S A

2004-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

74

Developing a process for commercial silica production from Salton Sea brines  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this joint LLNL-CalEnergy project is to develop a method for precipitating marketable silica from spent Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) brines. Many markets for silica exist. We have initially targeted production of silica as a rubber additive. Silica reinforced rubber gives tires less rolling resistance, greater tear strength, and better adhesion to steel belts. Previous silica precipitates produced by CalEnergy from Salton Sea brines were not suitable as rubber additives. They did not to disperse well in the rubber precursors and produced inferior rubber. CalEnergy currently minimizes silica scaling in some of their production facilities by acidifying the brine pH. The rate of silica precipitation slows down as the pH is lowered, so that energy extraction and brine reinfection are possible without unacceptable amounts of scaling even with more than 700 ppm SiO{sub 2} in solution. We are adding a step in which a small amount of base is added to the acidified brine to precipitate silica before reinfection. By carefully controlling the type, rate, and amount of base addition, we can optimize the properties of the precipitate to approach those of an ideal rubber additive.

Bourcier, W; McCutcheon, M; Leif, R; Bruton, C

2000-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

75

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine Fields  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine Fields Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine Fields M. Ferer, (mferer@wvu.edu) Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315, Grant S. Bromhal, (bromhal@netl.doe.gov) US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880; and Duane H. Smith, (dsmith@netl.doe.gov) US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 & Department of Physics, West Virginia University. Underground injection of gas is a common practice in the oil and gas industry. Injection into deep, brine-saturated formations is a commercially proven method of sequestering CO 2 . However, it has long been known that displacement of a connate fluid by a less viscous fluid produces unstable displacement fronts with significant fingering. This fingering allows only a

76

Modeling gas and brine migration for assessing compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the WIPP Project Integration Office (WPIO) of the DOE, the WIPP Performance Assessment (PA) Department of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has completed preliminary uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration away from the undisturbed repository. This paper contains descriptions of the numerical model and simulations, including model geometries and parameter values, and a summary of major conclusions from sensitivity analyses. Because significant transport of contaminants can only occur in a fluid (gas or brine) medium, two-phase flow modeling can provide an estimate of the distance to which contaminants can migrate. Migration of gas or brine beyond the RCRA ``disposal-unit boundary`` or the Standard`s accessible environment constitutes a potential, but not certain, violation and may require additional evaluations of contaminant concentrations.

Vaughn, P. [Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Butcher, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Helton, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Swift, P. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Exposure and effects of oilfield brine discharges on western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) in Nueces Bay, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Discharge of oilfield brines into fresh and estuarine waters is a common disposal practice in Texas. Petroleum crude oil (PCO) extraction from underground stores includes the removal of a significant amount of water along with the oil. Several methods may be used to separate the oil and water fractions, including tank batteries, heat separation, and skimming ponds. Disposal of the resultant produced water (oilfield brine) may be accomplished by deep-well injection or discharge to surface waters. In Texas, an estimated 766,000 barrels of oilfield brine were discharged daily into tidal waters in 1979. The maximum concentration for oil and grease in these discharges permitted by the Texas Railroad Commission is 25 ppm. Several studies have shown that oilfield brines are toxic to a wide range of marine life, yet little is known about their effects on birds and mammals. Exposure to petroleum in oilfield wastes could evoke toxicological effects in some waterbird species. Avian responses to PCO exposure are highly variable, including cessation of growth, osmoregulatory impairment, endocrine dysfunction, hemolytic anemia, altered blood chemistry, cytochrome P450 induction, reduced reproductive success, and mortality. Oilfield brine discharges may soon be the largest and most pervasive source of contaminants entering Texas estuaries. Migratory and resident birds feeding in the vicinity of discharge sites may be ingesting food items contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals and salts in sufficient quantities to evoke toxicity. The present study of wintering western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that feed and roost near discharge sites sought to examine oilfield brine exposure and effects through quantification of contaminant burdens, morphological characteristics, and cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J. [National Biological Survey, Laurel, MD (United States); Capizzi, J.L. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); King, K.A. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Phoenix, AZ (United States); LeCaptain, L.J. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Spokane, WA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Validation of classical density-dependent solute transport theory for stable, high-concentration-gradient brine displacements in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-concentration-gradient brine displacements in coarse and medium sands S.J. Watson a,1 , D.A. Barry a,1 , R.J. Schotting b,*, S.M. Hassanizadeh b a School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation by a brine solution, under either constant head or constant volume flux conditions. The experimental data

Hassanizadeh, S. Majid

79

Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations  

SciTech Connect

Industrial-scale storage of CO{sub 2} in saline sedimentary basins will cause zones of elevated pressure, larger than the CO{sub 2} plume itself. If permeable conduits (e.g., leaking wells) exist between the injection reservoir and overlying shallow aquifers, brine could be pushed upwards along these conduits and mix with groundwater resources. This paper discusses the potential for such brine leakage to occur in temperature- and salinity-stratified systems. Using static mass-balance calculations as well as dynamic well flow simulations, we evaluate the minimum reservoir pressure that would generate continuous migration of brine up a leaking wellbore into a freshwater aquifer. Since the brine invading the well is denser than the initial fluid in the wellbore, continuous flow only occurs if the pressure perturbation in the reservoir is large enough to overcome the increased fluid column weight after full invasion of brine into the well. If the threshold pressure is exceeded, brine flow rates are dependent on various hydraulic (and other) properties, in particular the effective permeability of the wellbore and the magnitude of pressure increase. If brine flow occurs outside of the well casing, e.g., in a permeable fracture zone between the well cement and the formation, the fluid/solute transfer between the migrating fluid and the surrounding rock units can strongly retard brine flow. At the same time, the threshold pressure for continuous flow to occur decreases compared to a case with no fluid/solute transfer.

Birkholzer, J.T.; Nicot, J.-P.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Zhou, Q.; Kraemer, S.; Bandilla, K.W.

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Formation of Thetis Deep metal-rich sediments in the absence of brines, Red Sea M.C. Pierret a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation of Thetis Deep metal-rich sediments in the absence of brines, Red Sea M.C. Pierret a , N October 2009 Available online 23 October 2009 Keywords: Pb­Sr­Nd isotopes REE Metal-rich sediments-rich sediments covered by brine pools. It is generally agreed that these metal-rich deposits precipitated from

Demouchy, Sylvie

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF TEMPERATURE EFFECTS DURING THE INJECTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE INTO BRINE for the simulation of carbon dioxide injection into geological formations is currently an intensive field of research for the balance of thermal energy, we can investigate numerically the effects of temperature variations during

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

82

Sulfate Removal from Reject Brined in Inland Desalination with Zero Liquid Discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sulfate is one of the most problematic ions present in reject brine in desalination systems due to its high potential of scale formation and membrane fouling; making it an obstacle in the application of zero liquid discharge. The ultra-high lime...

Almasri, Dema A

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

83

Author's personal copy Fossil brines preserved in the St-Lawrence Lowlands,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

halite disso- lution. 87 Sr/86 Sr ratios and Ca excess indicate prolonged interactions with silicate degassing, are identical to their production ratios in rocks. The source of salinity (halite dissolution during Devonian­Silurian time. Brines might result from infiltration of Devonian water leaching halite

Long, Bernard

84

Accurate Thermodynamic Model for the Calculation of H2S Solubility in Pure Water and Brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accurate Thermodynamic Model for the Calculation of H2S Solubility in Pure Water and Brines Zhenhao, 2007 A thermodynamic model calculating the solubility of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in pure water phase. With this specific interaction approach, this model is able to predict H2S solubility in other

Zhu, Chen

85

Brine Assemblages of Ultrasmall Microbial Cells within the Ice Cover of Lake Vida, Antarctica  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Antarctica, is one of the largest lakes in the McMurdo...the abundance of the larger cells, consists of...vol) (30). After drilling, brine infiltrated the borehole until it reached a...107 cells ml1, while larger cells (0.2 to 1...

Emanuele Kuhn; Andrew S. Ichimura; Vivian Peng; Christian H. Fritsen; Gareth Trubl; Peter T. Doran; Alison E. Murray

2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

86

Analysis of hydrocarbon removal methods for the management of oilfield brines and produced waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and globally, the petroleum industries challenge has been to develop a high-tech and cost effective method to purify the large volumes of oilfield brines and produced water. Currently, most of the produced water requires several pre- and post- treatment methods...

Furrow, Brendan Eugene

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Operation of a mineral-recovery unit on brine from the Salton Sea known geothermal resource area  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines operated a mineral recovery unit to recover metal values from post-flash geothermal brines from the Salton Sea known geothermal resource area as part of its research into the use of plentiful resources. The brine was available for metals recovery after its heat content had been used to generate electricity. The brine source was treated with lime to precipitate the contained iron, manganese, lead, and zinc before injection of the heat-depleted brine into the underground reservoir. Data are presented on the effects of process variables, such as rate and method of lime addition and air oxidation versus air exclusion. Variations in precipitation of metal values, composition of precipitates, effectiveness of slurry thickeners, and methods of treating the precipitates to recover metal values are discussed.

Schultze, L.E.; Bauer, D.J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

The effect of stratigraphic dip on brine inflow and gas migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The natural dip of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), although regionally only about 111, has the potential to affect brine inflow and gas-migration distances due to buoyancy forces. Current models, including those in WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, assume a perfectly horizontal repository and stratigraphy. With the addition of buoyancy forces due to the dip, brine and gas flow patterns can be affected. Brine inflow may increase due to countercurrent flow, and gas may preferentially migrate up dip. This scoping study has used analytical and numerical modeling to evaluate the impact of the dip on brine inflow and gas-migration distances at the WIPP in one, two, and three dimensions. Sensitivities to interbed permeabilities, two-phase curves, gas-generation rates, and interbed fracturing were studied.

Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Larson, K.W. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Corrosion of selected metals and a high-temperature thermoplastic in hypersaline geothermal brine. Report of investigations/1983  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines conducted corrosion research to determine suitable construction materials for geothermal resource recovery plants. Weight loss, pitting and crevice corrosion, U-bend stress corrosion, and electrochemical polarization measurements were made on selected metals in brine and steam process environments produced from high-enthalpy hypersaline brine from geothermal well Magmamax No. 1 at the Salton Sea Known Geothermal Resources Area, Imperial Valley, Calif.

Conrad, R.K.; Carter, J.P.; Cramer, S.D.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Sorption of lithium from a geothermal brine by pelletized mixed aluminum-lithium hydrous oxides  

SciTech Connect

An inorganic ion exchanger was evaluated by the Bureau of Mines for recovering lithium from geothermal brines. The ion exchanger or sorbent was mixed hydrous oxide of aluminum and lithium that had been dried at 100 C. The dried precipitate was pelletized with a sodium silicate binder to improve flow rates in sorption tests. The sorbent was loaded to 2 mg Li/g of pellets and sorption from the solution was independent of the concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mn, and Zn. Manganese and zinc were sorbed by the pellets but did not suppress lithium sorption. Lithium was desorbed with water, but none of the washing solutions investigated removed entrained brine without stripping lithium. The complex nature of the sorption mechanisms is discussed.

Schultze, L.E.; Bauer, D.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Re-assessing the impact of desalination plants brine discharges on eroding beaches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sea outfall discharge is a practical way to dispose of brine waste stream from a coastal desalination plant. However, sandy beaches are changing as a result of coastal erosion. Coastline urban developments are the manmade permanent changing of beaches, where the coastlines are being dredged and reclaimed as artificial land. Therefore, if a plant is built and operated with an outfall to satisfy the imposed site's environmental regulation compliance but the beach is subsequently being eroded, what action needs to be done to make sure the imposed criteria that minimize the impact on the marine environment can still be met? A mathematical model is presented that accounts the effect of beach erosion for estimating the brine's outfall adverse impact on the environment.

H.H. Al-Barwani; Anton Purnama

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Scientific Considerations Related to Regulation Development for CO2 Sequestration in Brine Formations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SCIENTIFIC CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO REGULATION SCIENTIFIC CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO REGULATION DEVELOPMENT FOR CO 2 SEQUESTRATION IN BRINE FORMATIONS Chin-Fu Tsang (cftsang@lbl.gov; (510) 486-5782) Sally M. Benson (smbenson@lbl.gov; (510) 486-7071) Earth Sciences Division, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory One Cyclotron Road, MS 90-1116, Berkeley, CA 94720 Bruce Kobelski (kobelski.bruce@epa.gov) Robert Smith (smith.robert-eu@epamail.epa.gov) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Drinking Water and Ground Water, Washington D.C. Introduction Reduction of atmospheric emissions of CO 2 (DOE, 1999a) through injection of CO 2 into in deep brine formations is being actively studied both in the U.S. and internationally. If this technology is to be employed broadly enough to make a significant impact on global

93

Hydrogeologic aspects of brine disposal in the East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, northeastern Montana  

SciTech Connect

The East Poplar Oil Field encompasses about 70 square miles in the south-central part of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation. Oil production began in 1952 from the Mississippian Madison Group. Production depths range from about 5,500 to 6,000 feet below land surface. Large quantities of brine (water having a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 35,000 milligrams per liter) have been produced with the oil. The brine has a dissolved-solids concentration of as much as 160,000 milligrams per liter. Most of the brine has been disposed of by injection into shallower subsurface formations (mainly the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone at depths of about 3,300 feet and the Upper Cretaceous Judith River Formation at depths of about 1,000 feet). Smaller quantities of brine have been directed to storage and evaporation pits. Handling, transport, and disposal of the brine have resulted in its movement into and migration through shallow Quaternary alluvial and glacial deposits along the Poplar River valley. Locally, domestic water supplies are obtained from these deposits. The major point, sources of shallow ground-water contamination probably is leakage of brine from corroded disposal-well casing and pipelines. Using electromagnetic geophysical techniques and auger drilling, three saline-water plumes in alluvial deposits and one plum in glacial deposits have been delineated. Dominant constituents in plume areas are sodium and chloride, whereas those in nonplume areas are sodium and bicarbonate.

Craigg, S.D.; Thamke, J.N. (Geological Survey, Helena, MT (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

A model for the evolution of brines in salt from the lower Salado Formation, southeastern New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Fluid inclusions were collected from a bedded salt horizon in the lower Permian Salado Formation in the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico. The sampling horizon, at a depth of approximately 645 meters, consists primarily of recrystallized halite, with thin layers of anhydrite. Other trace minerals, dispersed throughout the salt, include quartz, polyhalite, gypsum, K-feldspar, magnesite, and clays. The chemistry of the inclusion fluids and the associated mineralogy suggest that these brines represent Permian seawater that has undergone evaporation and subsequent modification by diagenetic reactions, dominated by the alteration of calcium sulfate to polyhalite and magnesite formation. The range of fluid inclusion compositions suggests a significant departure from a simple seawater evaporation model. Other brines from the same horizon in the Salado Formation were sampled and analyzed for the same elements as the fluid inclusions, and differed significantly from them primarily by the depletion of Mg relative to K. The association of these brines with argillaceous and/or anhydritic halite containing a suite of authigenic minerals (quartz, magnesite, and Mg-rich clays) suggests that these are intergranular brines with compositions determined over a much longer time scale than that required by the fluid inclusions. The principal reactions affecting intergranular brine chemistry are dehydration of gypsum, dewatering of detrital clays, and uptake of Mg during clay diagenesis. Overall, the observed variation in brine compositions implies that, if large-scale hydrologic circulation is occurring in the Salado halite, the time scale is limited by the rate required for low-temperature silicate diagenesis.

Stein, C.L.; Krumhansl, J.L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Hydrological and geochemical monitoring for a CO2 sequestration pilot in a brine formation  

SciTech Connect

Hydrological and geochemical monitoring are key components of site characterization and CO2 plume monitoring for a pilot test to inject CO2 into a brine-bearing sand of the fluvial-deltaic Frio formation in the upper Texas Gulf Coast. In situ, injected CO2 forms a supercritical phase that has gas-like properties (low density and viscosity) compared to the surrounding brine, while some CO2 dissolves in the brine. The pilot test employs one injection well and one monitor well, with continuous pressure and flow-rate monitoring in both wells, and continuous surface fluid sampling and periodic down-hole fluid sampling from the monitor well. Pre-injection site-characterization includes pump tests with pressure-transient analysis to estimate single-phase flow properties, establish hydraulic connectivity between the wells, determine appropriate boundary conditions, and analyze ambient phase conditions within the formation. Additionally, a pre-injection tracer test furnishes estimates of kinematic porosity and the geometry of flow paths between injection and monitor wells under single-phase conditions. Pre-injection geochemical sampling provides a baseline for subsequent geochemical monitoring and helps determine the optimal tracers to accompany CO2 injection. During CO2 injection, hydrological monitoring enables estimation of two-phase flow properties and helps track the movement of the injected CO2 plume, while geochemical sampling provides direct evidence of the arrival of CO2 and tracers at the monitor well. Furthermore, CO2-charged water acts as a weak acid, and reacts to some extent with the minerals in the aquifer, producing a distinct chemical signature in the water collected at the monitor well. Comparison of breakthrough curves for the single-phase tracer test and the CO2 (and its accompanying tracers) illuminates two-phase flow processes between the supercritical CO2 and native brine, an area of current uncertainty that must be better understood to effectively sequester CO2 in saline aquifers.

Doughty, Christine; Pruess, Karsten; Benson, Sally M.; Freifeld, Barry M.; Gunter, William D.

2004-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

96

Salt Brine Blending to Optimize Deicing and Anti-icing Performance and Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chloride (MgCl2) w/additives ·Envirotech Serv., Scotwood Ind., NA Salt ·Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) ·Tiger 135% 90% 115% Thawrox Gold Treated MgCl2 150% 120% 115% Ice Slicer CaCl2 130% 95% 70% Ice Bite @ 3 gal to Salt Brine Material Base @ 12 F @20 F @ 28 F Calcium Chloride CaCl2 160% 185% 135% RGP-8 CaCl2 170% 80

Minnesota, University of

97

Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed. The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts. For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates. 54 figs.

Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

98

Evidence for ground-water circulation in the brine-filled aquitard, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Various geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical methods were used to assess active ground-water circulation in a brine-filled, deep (> 50 m below land surface) aquitard underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. In places, the brine which was presumed to be stagnant in the past, contains various contaminants. If ground-water circulation is viable in the brine-containing formations, then remediation or containment of the deep-seated contaminants should be considered a high priority. Data used to determine this included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the aquitard, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) vertical temperature gradients, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline ground water. Conclusions suggest that the saline water contained at depth is not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and fresh-water-(< 500 mg/l) bearing units. Consequently, influx of young water (and contamination) from land surface does occur. Potential discharge into the shallow aquifers was assumed where the hydraulic head of the saline water was higher than that in the shallow aquifers, accounting for temperature and salinity anomalies observed close to land surface. The confined water (and dissolved solutes) move along open conduits at relatively high velocity into adjacent, more permeable units.

Nativ, R. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Soil and Water Sciences; Halleran, A.; Hunley, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Recovering lithium chloride from a geothermal brine. Report of investigations/1984  

SciTech Connect

The Bureau of Mines has devised techniques to recover lithium from geothermal brines as the chloride. More than 99 pct of the lithium was precipitated from a brine containing 170 mg/L Li by adding a solution of A1C13 and increasing the pH to 7.5 with lime slurry. The Li-Al precipitate was dissolved in HCl and sparged with gaseous HC1 to recover the A1C13; this resulted in a solution containing LiCl and CaC12. The solution was evaporated at 100C to obtain a mixture of the chlorides from which 97 pct of the lithium was recovered and 90 pct of the calcium was rejected by leaching with tetrahydrofuran. The LiC1 recovered by evaporation of the tetrahydrofuran was purified by dissolution in water and treatment with oxalic acid. The final LiC1 solution contained 89 pct of the lithium originally present in the brine and had a purity of 99.9 pct.

Schultze, L.E.; Bauer, D.J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Evaporative evolution of Martian brines based on halogens in nakhlites and MER samples  

SciTech Connect

Comparison of Cl and Br from Nakhla viens to MER samples suggests two kinds of brine solutions existed on Mars, one early and one late in the evaporation sequence. These solutions precipitated the secondary salts at the Meridiani and Gusev sites. We have recently reported the Cl and Br abundances determined by APS X-ray Microprobe and EMPA analyses of secondary aqueous minerals in Nakhla veins and discussed the significance of Cl-Br correlations with respect to the evolution of brine solutions on Mars. In that study, we suggested that the low Br concentration ({approx}10 ppm) in Lafayette Iddingsite is indicative of early stage of evaporation during progressive evolution of Martian brine solutions, which is, in turn, consistent with the petrographic evidence of early deposition of salt sequence of carbonate-sulfate- and no halite in Lafayette. We showed that the high Br concentrations of {approx}240 ppm in secondary salts in Nakhla veins similarly indicate late stages of evaporation in evolving Martian brine solutions which is again consistent with petrographic evidence of late stage deposition of salt sequence i.e. carbonate-sulfate-halite in Nakhla. When sea water evaporates under equilibrium conditions, the most insoluble carbonates (siderite and calcite) deposit first, followed by sulfates (gypsum and anhydrite) and finally the water-soluble halides are precipitated when the water content is sufficiently low. In the present study, we make a detailed comparison of Cl/Br ratios in secondary minerals in nakhlites with those in MER soils and rocks at Gusev and Meridiani and show that the compositions of solutions that inundated Lafayette iddingsite (early stage) and Nakhla veins (late stage) include the range of solution-compositions that gave rise to a variety of secondary salts at Gusev and Meridiani sites. Further, the results obtained here suggest that two kinds of brine solutions (one, late and the other, early or intermediate stage) seem to have inundated most of the rocks and soils to varying degrees and precipitated the secondary salts at Meridiani and Gusev sites.

Rao, M.N.; Sutton, S.R.; McKay, D.S. (Lockheed); (UC); (NASA)

2005-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Boron isotope geochemistry as a tracer for the evolution of brines and associated hot springs from the Dead Sea, Israel  

SciTech Connect

A boron isotope study combined with analyses of elemental boron, lithium, and chlorine is used to suggest that brines from the Dead Sea and on-shore hypersaline thermal springs (Hamme Yesha, Hamme Zohar, and Hamme Mazor) are the products of interaction of evaporated seawater with detrital sediments. The high {delta}{sup 11}B values of the Dead Sea brines (55.7 to 57.4{per thousand} versus NBS-951) and the hot springs (52.2 to 55.7{per thousand}), and low B/Li ratios (2.0 to 2.3 and 2.5 to 2.7, respectively), relative to seawater, indicate preferential removal of {sup 10}B from the brines and hence boron adsorption onto clay minerals. The brackish 'En Feshcha springs and the freshwater 'En Dawid and Nahal Arugot springs yield lower B contents and {delta}{sup 11}B values (37.7 to 40.6{per thousand} and 33.8 to 36.9{per thousand}, respectively). The {delta}{sup 11}B values and B contents of diluted Dead Sea brines lie on calculated mixing lines between the composition of the brackish and freshwater springs with the composition of the Dead Sea. The {delta}{sup 11}B values of the hot springs, however, given their boron content, are significantly lower than those of the mixing lines. Thus, waters from the hot springs cannot be a mixing product of the Dead Sea brine with freshwater. Instead, the Dead Sea brine has evolved from the brines of the hot springs through further isotopic fractionation and boron adsorption onto detrital sediments.

Vengosh, A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia) Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Starinsky, A.; Kolodny, Y. ( Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Chivas, A.R. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

PILOT TESTING: PRETREATMENT OPTIONS TO ALLOW RE-USE OF FRAC FLOWBACK AND PRODUCED BRINE FOR GAS SHALE RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the A&M DOE NETL Project No. DE-FE0000847 was to develop a mobile, multifunctional water treatment capability designed specifically for “pre-treatment” of field waste brine. The project consisted of constructing s mobile “field laboratory” incorporating new technology for treating high salinity produced water and using the lab to conduct a side-by-side comparison between this new technology and that already existing in field operations. A series of four field trials were performed utilizing the mobile unit to demonstrate the effectiveness of different technology suitable for use with high salinity flow back brines and produced water. The design of the mobile unit was based on previous and current work at the Texas A&M Separation Sciences Pilot Plant. The several treatment techniques which have been found to be successful in both pilot plant and field tests had been tested to incorporate into a single multifunctional process train. Eight different components were evaluated during the trials, two types of oil and grease removal, one BTEX removal step, three micro-filters, and two different nanofilters. The performance of each technique was measured by its separation efficiency, power consumption, and ability to withstand fouling. The field trials were a success. Four different field brines were evaluated in the first trial in New York. Over 16,000 gallons of brine were processed. Using a power cost of $.10 per kWh, media pretreatment power use averaged $0.004 per barrel, solids removal $.04 per barrel and brine “softening” $.84 per barrel. Total power cost was approximately $1.00 per barrel of fluid treated. In Pennsylvania, brines collected from frac ponds were tested in two additional trials. Each of the brines was converted to an oil-free, solids-free brine with no biological activity. Brines were stable over time and would be good candidates for use as a make-up fluid in a subsequent fracturing fluid design. Reports on all of the field trials and subcontractor research have been summarized in this Final Report. Individual field trial reports and research reports are contained in the companion volume titled “Appendices”

Burnett, David

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

103

Fate of Magnesium Chloride Brine Applied to Suppress Dust from Unpaved Roads at the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area  

SciTech Connect

Between 1984 and 1993, MgCl2 brine was used to suppress dust on unpaved roads at a radioactive waste subsurface disposal area. Because Cl– might enhance corrosion of buried metals in the waste, we investigated the distribution and fate of Cl– in the vadose zone using pore water samples collected from suction lysimeters and soluble salt concentrations extracted from sediment samples. The Cl/Br mass ratio and the total dissolved Cl– concentration of pore water show that brine contamination occurs primarily within 13 m of treated roads, but can extend as much as 30 m laterally in near-surface sedimentary deposits. Within the deep vadose zone, which consists of interlayered basalt lava flows and sedimentary interbeds, brine has moved up to 110 m laterally. This lateral migration suggests formation of perched water and horizontal transport during periods of high recharge. In a few locations, brine migrated to depths of 67 m within 3 to 5 yr. Elevated Cl– concentrations were found to depths of 2 m in roadbed material. In drainage ditches along roads, where runoff accumulates and recharge of surface water is high, Cl– was flushed from the sediments in 3 to 4 yr. In areas of lower recharge, Cl– remained in the sediments after 5 yr. Vertical brine movement is directly related to surface recharge through sediments. The distribution of Cl– in pore water and sediments is consistent with estimates of vadose zone residence times and spatial distribution of surface water recharge from other investigations at the subsurface

Larry Hull; Carolyn Bishop

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Geochemistry of two pressurized brines from the Castile Formation in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site  

SciTech Connect

The major and minor element data and isotopic data from the ERDA-6 and WIPP-12 testing indicate that the brine reservoirs encountered in the Upper Castile Formation are largely in equilibrium with their surrounding host rock environment. This contention is supported by thermodynamic and stable isotope data. It is not possible to assign an absolute age to the brine based on uranium disequilibrium considerations, but the data do indicate that the brine reequilibrated with a new rock environment at least two million years ago. Information and data evaluated herein indicate the likelihood that the brines encountered are predominantly, if not entirely, derived from a trapped seawater source subsequently modified by diagenesis. Major ion/bromide ratios indicate that halite dissolution has occurred to some extent subsequent to deposition of the Castile anhydrites and entrapment of the seawater brine. Mechanisms for additional halite dissolution are discussed. Based on the degree of present halite saturation, it is concluded that the potential for future dissolution of halite is minimal.

Faith, S.; Spiegler, P.; Rehfeldt, K.R.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Integrated modeling and experimental programs to predict brine and gas flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the performance of the WIPP repository involves modeling of brine and gas flow in the host rocks of the Salado Formation, which consist of halite and anhydrite interbeds. Numerous physical, chemical, and structural processes, must be understood to perform this modeling. Gas generation within the repository is strongly coupled to the amount of brine inflow to the repository because brine aids in the corrosion of metals and associated generation of hydrogen gas. Increasing gas pressure in the repository decreases the rate of brine inflow. Ultimately, the gas pressure may exceed the brine pressure and gas may flow out of the repository. Relative-permeability curves and a correlation between threshold pressure and permeability taken from studies reported in the literature were used in PA models prior to being experimentally verified as appropriate for WIPP. In addition, interbed permeabilities were treated as constant and independent of effective stress in early models. Subsequently, the process of interbed fracturing (or fracture dilation) was recognized to limit gas pressures in the repository to values below lithostatic, and assumed (and unverified) relationships between porosity, permeability, and pore pressure were employed. Parameter-sensitivity studies performed using the simplified models identified important parameters for which site-specific data were needed. Unrealistic modeling results, such as room pressures substantially above lithostatic, showed the need to include additional processes in the models. Field and laboratory experimental programs have been initiated in conjunction with continued model development to provide information on important processes and parameters.

Beauheim, R.L.; Howarth, S.M.; Vaughn, P.; Webb, S.W.; Larson, K.W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

CFD Simulation of Brine-Seawater Mixing in a Rotary Energy Recovery Device  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CFD Simulation of Brine-Seawater Mixing in a Rotary Energy Recovery Device ... The effects of operational conditions on the mixing behavior of rotary energy recovery device have been systematically investigated through the combined methods of computational fluid dynamics and validating experiments in this paper. ... The obtained formulas between mixing and dimensionless flow length provide a simple way to calculate and predict the mixing of device, which will be beneficial to design and operate the rotary energy recovery device in a lower mixing level. ...

Enle Xu; Yue Wang; Liming Wu; Shichang Xu; Yuxin Wang; Shichang Wang

2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

107

Capacity Investigation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation for Geologic Sequestration of CO2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capacity Investigation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Capacity Investigation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation for Geologic Sequestration of CO 2 Christine Doughty (cadoughty@lbl.gov; 510-486-6453) Karsten Pruess (k_pruess@lbl.gov; 510-486-6732) Sally M. Benson (smbenson@lbl.gov; 510-486-5875) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 90-1116 Berkeley, CA 94720 Susan D. Hovorka (susan.hovorka@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-4863) Paul R. Knox (paul.knox@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-7313) Bureau of Economic Geology P.O. Box X, The University of Texas Austin, TX 78713 Christopher T. Green (ctgreen@ucdavis.edu; 530-752-1372) University of California, Hydrologic Sciences 1 Shields Ave. Davis, CA 95616 Abstract The capacity of fluvial brine-bearing formations to sequester CO 2 is investigated using numerical simulations of CO

108

Spontaneous Imbibition of Aqueous Surfactant Solutions into Neutral to Oil-Wet Carbonate Cores:? Effects of Brine Salinity and Composition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Knowing that the brine salinity of carbonate reservoirs can vary in the range of salinity range than what was done in the previous experiments (salinities of 1?5 g/L). ... Thus, the increase in temperature seemed to make the effect of the salinity gradient observed at 40 °C vanish. ... Even though the increase in temperature from 40 °C to 70 °C make the effect of the salinity gradient of 1.0?10 wt % vanish, the final oil recovery was significantly lower (?45%, from Figure 3), compared to brine that contains sulfate at similar salinities (?70%, from Figure 6). ...

Skule Strand; Dag C. Standnes; Tor Austad

2003-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

109

Summary Results for Brine Migration Modeling Performed by LANL LBNL and SNL for the UFD Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes laboratory and field observations and numerical modeling related to coupled processes involving brine and vapor migration in geologic salt, focusing on recent developments and studies conducted at Sandia, Los Alamos, and Berkeley National Laboratories. Interest into the disposal of heat-generating waste in salt has led to interest into water distribution and migration in both run-of-mine crushed and intact geologic salt. Ideally a fully coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical-chemical simulation is performed using numerical models with validated constitutive models and parameters. When mechanical coupling is not available, mechanical effects are prescribed in hydraulic models as source, boundary, or initial conditions. This report presents material associated with developing appropriate initial conditions for a non-mechanical hydrologic simulation of brine migration in salt. Due to the strong coupling between the mechanical and hydrologic problems, the initial saturation will be low for the excavation disturbed zone surrounding the excavation. Although most of the material in this report is not new, the author hopes it is presented in a format making it useful to other salt researchers.

Kuhlman, Kristopher L.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

A XANES study of Cu speciation in high-temperature brines using synthetic fluid inclusions  

SciTech Connect

Cu K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were recorded from individual synthetic brine fluid inclusions as a function of temperature up to 500 C. The inclusions serve as sample cells for high-temperature spectroscopic studies of aqueous Cu-Cl speciation. Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup 2+} can both be identified from characteristic pre-edge features. Mixed oxidation states can be deconvoluted using linear combinations of Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup 2+} spectra. This work illustrates how complex Cu XANES spectra can be interpreted successfully. Cu{sup 2+} is the stable oxidation state in solution at room temperature and Cu{sup +} at high temperatures. The change in oxidation state with temperature was completely reversible. Cu{sup +} was found to occur exclusively as the linear species [CuCl{sub 2}]{sup -} in solutions containing KCl with Cu:Cl ratios up to 1:6. In the absence of K{sup +}, there is evidence for higher order coordination of Cu{sup +}, in particular the tetrahedral complex [CuCl{sub 4}]{sup 3-}. The importance of such complexes in natural ore-forming fluids is yet to be determined, but may explain the vapor-phase partitioning of Cu as a Cl complex from a Cl-rich brine.

Berry, Andrew J.; Hack, Alistair C.; Mavrogenes, John A.; Newville, Matthew; Sutton, Stephen R. (UC); (ANU)

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

111

Report on design, construction, and testing of CO/sub 2/ breakout system for geothermal brines  

SciTech Connect

A skid mounted test facility has been built for determining conditions at which CO/sub 2/ flashes from geothermal brines. The system has been checked and operated at one geothermal plant. It performed as designed. The equipment is designed to operate at temperatures and pressures typical of wells near Heber, California. (Nominally 180/sup 0/C and 300 to 500 psig). It has heat exchangers which can cool the brine to less than 70/sup 0/C. (The cooling water is recirculated after being cooled by a forced air heat exchanger). Breakout pressures can be determined for any temperature between 70/sup 0/C and wellhead temperature. An adjustable orifice provides final control on pressure required to initiate flashing. The orifice is at the bottom of a sight glass. A light beam shines through the sight glass and focuses on a photoelectric cell. The presence of bubbles scatters light and decreases the output of the cell. Results using the cell were more reproducible than those using the naked eye. Results from one test show a smooth curve over the temperature range 75/sup 0/C to 165/sup 0/C. Agreement between the experimental values and calculated ones is discussed.

Robertus, R.J.; Shannon, D.W.; Sullivan, R.G.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Sensitivity study of CO2 storage capacity in brine aquifers withclosed boundaries: Dependence on hydrogeologic properties  

SciTech Connect

In large-scale geologic storage projects, the injected volumes of CO{sub 2} will displace huge volumes of native brine. If the designated storage formation is a closed system, e.g., a geologic unit that is compartmentalized by (almost) impermeable sealing units and/or sealing faults, the native brine cannot (easily) escape from the target reservoir. Thus the amount of supercritical CO{sub 2} that can be stored in such a system depends ultimately on how much pore space can be made available for the added fluid owing to the compressibility of the pore structure and the fluids. To evaluate storage capacity in such closed systems, we have conducted a modeling study simulating CO{sub 2} injection into idealized deep saline aquifers that have no (or limited) interaction with overlying, underlying, and/or adjacent units. Our focus is to evaluate the storage capacity of closed systems as a function of various reservoir parameters, hydraulic properties, compressibilities, depth, boundaries, etc. Accounting for multi-phase flow effects including dissolution of CO{sub 2} in numerical simulations, the goal is to develop simple analytical expressions that provide estimates for storage capacity and pressure buildup in such closed systems.

Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.

2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

113

Phase-field theory of brine entrapment in sea ice: Short-time frozen microstructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the early phase of brine entrapment in sea ice, using a phase field model. This model for a first-order phase transition couples non-conserved order parameter kinetics to salt diffusion. The evolution equations are derived from a Landau-Ginzburg order parameter gradient dynamics together with salinity conservation. The numerical solution of model equations by an exponential time differencing scheme describes the time evolution of phase separation between liquid water with high salinity and the ice phase with low salinity. The numerical solution in one and two dimensions indicates the formation of one dominant wavelength which sets the length scale of short-time frozen structures. A stability analysis provides the phase diagram in terms of two Landau parameters. It is distinguished an uniform ice phase, a homogeneous liquid saline water solution and a phase where solidification structures can be formed. The Landau parameters are extracted from the supercooling and superheating as well as the freezing point temperature of water. With the help of realistic parameters the distribution of brine inclusions is calculated and found in agreement with the measured samples. The size of the ice domains separating regions of concentrated seawater depends on salinity and temperature and corresponds to the size of sea ice platelets obtained from a morphological stability analysis for the solidification of salt water.

Silke Thoms; Bernd Kutschan; Klaus Morawetz

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Modeling Coupled THMC Processes and Brine Migration in Salt at High Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we present FY2014 progress by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) related to modeling of coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. LBNL’s work on the modeling of coupled THMC processes in salt was initiated in FY2012, focusing on exploring and demonstrating the capabilities of an existing LBNL modeling tool (TOUGH-FLAC) for simulating temperature-driven coupled flow and geomechanical processes in salt. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. we provide more details on the FY2014 work, first presenting updated tools and improvements made to the TOUGH-FLAC simulator, and the use of this updated tool in a new model simulation of long-term THM behavior within a generic repository in a salt formation. This is followed by the description of current benchmarking and validations efforts, including the TSDE experiment. We then present the current status in the development of constitutive relationships and the dual-continuum model for brine migration. We conclude with an outlook for FY2015, which will be much focused on model validation against field experiments and on the use of the model for the design studies related to a proposed heater experiment.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

115

Brine and Gas Flow Patterns Between Excavated Areas and Disturbed Rock Zone in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for a Single Drilling Intrusion that Penetrates Repository and Castile Brine Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is located in southeastern New Mexico, is being developed for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Waste disposal will take place in panels excavated in a bedded salt formation approximately 2000 ft (610 m) below the land surface. The BRAGFLO computer program which solves a system of nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow, was used to investigate brine and gas flow patterns in the vicinity of the repository for the 1996 WIPP performance assessment (PA). The present study examines the implications of modeling assumptions used in conjunction with BRAGFLO in the 1996 WIPP PA that affect brine and gas flow patterns involving two waste regions in the repository (i.e., a single waste panel and the remaining nine waste panels), a disturbed rock zone (DRZ) that lies just above and below these two regions, and a borehole that penetrates the single waste panel and a brine pocket below this panel. The two waste regions are separated by a panel closure. The following insights were obtained from this study. First, the impediment to flow between the two waste regions provided by the panel closure model is reduced due to the permeable and areally extensive nature of the DRZ adopted in the 1996 WIPP PA, which results in the DRZ becoming an effective pathway for gas and brine movement around the panel closures and thus between the two waste regions. Brine and gas flow between the two waste regions via the DRZ causes pressures between the two to equilibrate rapidly, with the result that processes in the intruded waste panel are not isolated from the rest of the repository. Second, the connection between intruded and unintruded waste panels provided by the DRZ increases the time required for repository pressures to equilibrate with the overlying and/or underlying units subsequent to a drilling intrusion. Third, the large and areally extensive DRZ void volumes is a significant source of brine to the repository, which is consumed in the corrosion of iron and thus contributes to increased repository pressures. Fourth, the DRZ itself lowers repository pressures by providing storage for gas and access to additional gas storage in areas of the repository. Fifth, given the pathway that the DRZ provides for gas and brine to flow around the panel closures, isolation of the waste panels by the panel closures was not essential to compliance with the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's regulations in the 1996 WIPP PA.

ECONOMY,KATHLEEN M.; HELTON,JON CRAIG; VAUGHN,PALMER

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Neptunium(V) and neptunium(VI) solubilities in synthetic brines of interest to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of Np(V) and Np(VI) has been measured in three synthetic Na-K-Mg-Cl brines in the presence of CO{sub 2}(g). Experiments were prepared from oversaturation by adding an excess of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} or NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+} to the brines and allowing the neptunium solids to precipitate. Vessels were maintained in contact with fixed CO{sub 2}(g) partial pressures at constant pH and 24 {+-} 1 C. Dissolved Np(V) concentrations decreased several orders of magnitude within the first 100 days of the experiment, while dissolved Np(VI) concentrations decreased initially but then remained relatively constant for more than 400 days. The solid phases formed in all experiments were identified by X-ray powder diffraction as KNpO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O(s). Steady state concentrations for Np(V) are similar to those observed for Pu(V) in the same brines under the same conditions, where Pu occurs predominantly as Pu(V). Similarly, steady state concentrations for Np(VI), which was not reduced over a two year period, compare well with measured Pu(VI) concentrations in the same brines before the Pu(VI) was reduced to Pu(V).

Novak, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nitsche, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.]|[Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Silber, H.B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.]|[San Jose State Univ., CA (United States). Chemistry Dept.] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

Energy optimization in ice hockey halls I. The system COP as a multivariable function, brine and design choices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is the first of a series of articles addressing the energy optimization in ice hockey halls. Here we outline an analytic method to predict in which design and operating conditions the COP of the entire cooling system (refrigerator and cooling tower) ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is maximum. ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$ is investigated as a function of several variables, like electric consumption and brine physical properties. With this method, the best configuration and brine choices for the system can therefore be determined in advance. We estimate the optimal design of an average-sized ice rink, including pipe diameter, depth and brine type (ethylene glycol and ammonia). We also single out an optimal brine density and show the impact of the electric consumption of the pump on ${\\rm COP}_{sys}$. Our theoretical predictions are validated with heat flow measurement data obtained at an ice hockey hall in Finland. They are also confronted with technical and cost-related constraints, and implemented by simulations with the pr...

Ferrantelli, Andrea; Räikkönen, Miska; Viljanen, Martti

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

A Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO2 with Brine-Rock Mixtures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO Methodology for Measuring the Rate of Reaction of CO 2 with Brine-Rock Mixtures Nicholas B. Janda (nbj2@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-2648) Philip W. Morrison, Jr. (pwm5@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-4238) Department of Chemical Engineering Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-7217 Beverly Z. Saylor (bzs@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-3763) Gerald Matisoff (gxm4@po.cwru.edu; 216-368-3677) Department of Geological Sciences Case Western Reserve University 10900 Euclid Avenue Cleveland, OH 44106-7216 Introduction Storage of carbon dioxide in deep, porous, and permeable reservoir rocks is one of the most promising technologies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Although oil and gas reservoirs are a sensible first step for sequestration of carbon dioxide in geologic

119

Reducing Foreign Lithium Dependence through Co-Production of Lithium from Geothermal Brine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Foreign Lithium Dependence through Co-Production of Lithium from Foreign Lithium Dependence through Co-Production of Lithium from Geothermal Brine Kerry Klein 1 , Linda Gaines 2 1 New West Technologies LLC, Washington, DC, USA 2 Center for Transportation Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA KEYWORDS Mineral extraction, zinc, silica, strategic metals, Imperial Valley, lithium ion batteries, electric- drive vehicles, battery recycling ABSTRACT Following a 2009 investment of $32.9 billion in renewable energy and energy efficiency research through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, President Obama in his January 2011 State of the Union address promised deployment of one million electric vehicles by 2015 and 80% clean energy by 2035. The United States seems poised to usher in its bright energy future,

120

Phase-field theory of brine entrapment in sea ice: Short-time frozen microstructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the early phase of brine entrapment in sea ice, using a phase field model. This model for a first-order phase transition couples non-conserved order parameter kinetics to salt diffusion. The evolution equations are derived from a Landau-Ginzburg order parameter gradient dynamics together with salinity conservation. The numerical solution of model equations by an exponential time differencing scheme describes the time evolution of phase separation between liquid water with high salinity and the ice phase with low salinity. The numerical solution in one and two dimensions indicates the formation of one dominant wavelength which sets the length scale of short-time frozen structures. A stability analysis provides the phase diagram in terms of two Landau parameters. It is distinguished an uniform ice phase, a homogeneous liquid saline water solution and a phase where solidification structures can be formed. The Landau parameters are extracted from the supercooling and superheating as well as the freezin...

Thoms, Silke; Morawetz, Klaus

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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121

Light hydrocarbon geochemistry of brines and sediments of the red sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1LGTIT II'YDROC/', REIGN GEOCIII'IITS'IRY GI' BTITNES IIND SRuZSIRNIS O? YIIR RZD SRR . T'. 1'. Sl S RO(cRR rII, DQN !' iT RRR AI!pcoverl s. s 'o style and cootent hyr 'o-Cheittreri ol Corrrrci tt. ee) r, rrr rl!I! e: ) j Deccr, het 1'rI79... The Ai 7 antis II Deep has i. &o ? tin& ! ay) . = !if i!& s-:I:, oif icar . 7y rii '. ferenL lig!it hydrocarbon con&sr:i ar. i&n . The l, a c. , in tbe iso layers a7so aprirertly come fro. d'I'&c:&nt sources. Tli. . up!&cr. brine (Ti50'0, Cl s /3...

Burke, Roger Allen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

122

Radioactive waste isolation in salt: geochemistry of brine in rock salt in temperature gradients and gamma-radiation fields - a selective annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the extensive research concerning brine geochemistry and transport is critically important to successful exploitation of a salt formation for isolating high-level radioactive waste. This annotated bibliography has been compiled from documents considered to provide classic background material on the interactions between brine and rock salt, as well as the most important results from more recent research. Each summary elucidates the information or data most pertinent to situations encountered in siting, constructing, and operating a mined repository in salt for high-level radioactive waste. The research topics covered include the basic geology, depositional environment, mineralogy, and structure of evaporite and domal salts, as well as fluid inclusions, brine chemistry, thermal and gamma-radiation effects, radionuclide migration, and thermodynamic properties of salts and brines. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Hull, A.B.; Williams, L.B.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Experimental and Computational Studies of Fluid Flow Phenomena in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Brine and Oil Fields  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES OF FLUID EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES OF FLUID FLOW PHENOMENA IN CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN BRINE AND OIL FIELDS Chuang Ji ( chuang.ji@netl.doe.gov ) National Energy Technology Laboratory Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 BOX 5725 Clarkson University Potsdam, NY 13699 Goodarz Ahmadi ( ahmadi@clarkson.edu ) BOX 5725 Clarkson University Potsdam, NY 13699 Duane H. Smith ( duane.smith@netl.doe.gov ) National Energy Technology Laboratory Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 2 INTRODUCTION Sequestration of CO 2 by injection into deep geological formations is a method to reduce CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere. However, when CO 2 is injected underground, it forms fingers extending into the rock pores saturated with brine or petroleum. This flow

124

Evaluation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast for Geological Sequestration of CO2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Evaluation of Brine-Bearing Sands of the Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast for Geological Sequestration of CO 2 S. D. Hovorka (susan.hovorka@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-4863) Bureau of Economic Geology, P.O. Box X, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 C. Doughty (CADoughty@lbl.gov; 510-486-6453 ) Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road Mailstop 90-1116, Berkeley, CA 94720 P. R. Knox (paul.knox@beg.utexas.edu; 512-471-7313), Bureau of Economic Geology, P.O. Box X, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 C. T. Green (ctgreen@ucdavis.edu; 510-495-2461) University of California, Hydrologic Sciences, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 K. Pruess(K_Pruess@lbl.gov; 510-486-6732) Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road Mailstop 90-1116,

125

Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

SciTech Connect

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These results indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities.

Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Understanding Long-Term Solute Transport in Sedimentary Basins: Simulating Brine Migration in the Alberta Basin. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Mass transport in deep sedimentary basins places important controls on ore formation, petroleum migration, CO2 sequestration, and geochemical reactions that affect petroleum reservoir quality, but large-scale transport in this type of setting remains poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is highlighted in the resource-rich Alberta Basin, where geochemical and hydrogeologic studies have suggested residence times ranging from hundreds of millions of years to less than 5 My, respectively. Here we developed new hydrogeologic models that were constrained by geochemical observations to reconcile these two very different estimates. The models account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, sediment deposition and erosion, sediment compressibility, and dissolution of salt deposits, including Cl/Br systematics. Prior interpretations of Cl/Br ratios in the Alberta Basin concluded that the brines were derived from evaporatively-concentrated brines that were subsequently diluted by seawater and freshwater; models presented here show that halite dissolution must have contributed strongly as well, which implies significantly greater rates of mass transport. This result confirms that Cl/Br ratios are subject to significant non-uniqueness and thus do not provide good independent indicators of the origin of brines. Salinity and Cl/Br ratios provided valuable new constraints for basin-scale models, however. Sensitivity studies revealed that permeabilities obtained from core- and field-scale tests were appropriate for basin-scale models, despite the differences in scale between the tests and the models. Simulations of groundwater age show that the residence time of porefluids in much of the basin is less than 100 My. Groundwater age increases with depth and approaches 200 My in the deepest part of the basin, but brines are significantly younger than their host rocks throughout the basin.

Alicia M. Wilson

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound site of the strategic petroleum reserve program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

On March 10, 1980, the Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began leaching the Bryan Mound salt dome and discharging the resulting brine into the coastal waters off Freeport, Texas. During the months of March and April, a team of scientists and engineers from Texas A and M University conducted an intensive environmental study of the area surrounding the diffuser site. A pipeline has been laid from the Bryan Mound site to a location 12.5 statute miles (20 km) offshore. The last 3060 ft (933 m) of this pipeline is a 52-port diffuser through which brine can be discharged at a maximum rate of 680,000 barrels per day. Initially, 16 ports were open which permitted a maximum discharge rate of 350,000 barrels per day and a continuous brine discharge was achieved on March 13, 1980. The purpose of this report is to describe the findings of the project team during the intensive postdisposal study period of March and April, 1980. The major areas of investigation are physical oceanography, analysis of the discharge plume, water and sediment quality, nekton, benthos, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

Case, Robert J.; Chittenden, Jr, Mark E.; Harper, Jr, Donald E.; Kelly, Jr, Francis J.; Loeblich, Laurel A.; McKinney, Larry D.; Minello, Thomas J.; Park, E. Taisoo; Randall, Robert E.; Slowey, J. Frank

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations  

SciTech Connect

Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the removal of hydrocarbons from produced water. The results of these experiments show that hydrocarbons from produced water can be reduced from 200 ppm to below 29 ppm level. Experiments were also done to remove the dissolved solids (salts) from the pretreated produced water using desalination membranes. Produced water with up to 45,000 ppm total dissolved solids (TDS) can be treated to agricultural water quality water standards having less than 500 ppm TDS. The Report also discusses the results of field testing of various process trains to measure performance of the desalination process. Economic analysis based on field testing, including capital and operational costs, was done to predict the water treatment costs. Cost of treating produced water containing 15,000 ppm total dissolved solids and 200 ppm hydrocarbons to obtain agricultural water quality with less than 200 ppm TDS and 2 ppm hydrocarbons range between $0.5-1.5 /bbl. The contribution of fresh water resource from produced water will contribute enormously to the sustainable development of the communities where oil and gas is produced and fresh water is a scarce resource. This water can be used for many beneficial purposes such as agriculture, horticulture, rangeland and ecological restorations, and other environmental and industrial application.

David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

2006-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

129

Testing efficiency of storage in the subsurface: frio brine pilot experiment  

SciTech Connect

Can we demonstrate that subsurface storage is an effective method of reducing emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere? The Frio Brine Pilot Experiment is designed to test storage performance of a typical subsurface environment in an area where large-volume sources and sinks are abundant, near Houston, Texas, USA. We employed extensive pre-experiment characterization and modeling to identify significant factors that increase or decrease risk of leakage from the injection zone. We then designed the experiment to focus on those factors, as well as to test for presence or absence of events that are not expected. A fully developed reservoir model of heterogeneous reworked fluvial sandstones of the Frio Formation documents three-dimensional compartmentalization of the injection horizon by faulting associated with salt-dome intrusion and growth. Modeling using the TOUGH2 simulator showed that a significant source of uncertainty for subsurface performance of injected CO2 is residual CO2 saturation during storage. If initial displacement of water during injection is efficient and capillary effects create the expected residual saturation of 30 percent CO2, the volume occupied by the plume will be limited, and long-term storage can be expected even in an open system. If, however, during injection, CO2 moves out from the injection well along high-permeability pathways, it may not contact most pores, and residual saturation will have a smaller effect on storage. Our experiment is therefore designed to monitor plume geometry and CO2 saturation near the injection well and closely spaced observation well. Leakage out of the injection zone as a result of well engineering or other flaws in the seal is also monitored in the sandstone immediately overlying the injection zone and at the surface using multiple techniques. Permitting strategies include cooperation among two State agencies, as well as Federal NEPA assessment, because of the innovative aspects of the experiment.

Hovorka, Susan D.; Doughty, Christine; Holtz, Mark

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

130

Technology transfer report: feasibility study for the use of geothermal brine in the Ashdod area, Israel  

SciTech Connect

The hydrothermal potential of the Ashdod area, Israel, was evaluated to determine its suitability as the low grade energy source required to operate the Ashdod desalination plant. An estimated 1250 cubic meters per hour of 120/sup 0/C brine would be adequate to supply the hot water necessary for operating the desalination plant. Considerable interest in oil exploration in the Ashdod area resulted in the drilling of six wells into the Jurassic formations by Oil Exploration (Investments) Ltd. (OEL) in 1976-1980. A small amount of oil was found in two wells, Ashdod 2 and 5. The remaining wells were abandoned as ''dry holes''. Evaluation of the drill cuttings, cores, and the electric logs defined two lithologic units of potential interest for hydrothermal exploitation, the Zohar and Shderot Dolomites. Investigation of the hydrothermal potential of the Jurassic formations underlying the Ashdod area has revealed that the aquifer temperatures range between 85 and 92/sup 0/C. The hydrologic parameters are not well defined; however the matrix permeability of the dolomites and limestones is probably between 1 and 10 md. This is insufficient permeability for a large scale pumping operation such as the one required to operate the desalination plant. Therefore, successful utilization of the resource requires the presence of significant fractures and/or connected vugs in the formation. The very low well productivity and formation plugging may indicate that permeability of the fracture zones may easily be impaired, suggesting that the fracture zones are not suitable production intervals. Until a test is conducted on a properly completed well, it is not possible to evaluate the deliverability of wells tapping these aquifers. 14 refs., 8 figs.

Benson, S.M.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume II. Physical and chemical oceanography. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine-disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume IV. Bibliography and supporting data for physical oceanography. Final report. [421 references  

SciTech Connect

This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.

DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.) [eds.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

The implications of UIC and NPDES regulations on selection of disposal options for spent geothermal brine  

SciTech Connect

This document reviews and evaluates the various options for the disposal of geothermal wastewater with respect to the promulgated regulations for the protection of surface and groundwaters. The Clean Water Act of 1977 and the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments are especially important when designing disposal systems for geothermal fluids. The former promulgates regulations concerning the discharge of wastewater into surface waters, while the latter is concerned with the protection of ground water aquifers through the establishment of underground injection control (UIC) programs. There is a specific category for geothermal fluid discharge if injection is to be used as a method of disposal. Prior to February 1982, the UIC regulations required geothermal power plant to use Class III wells and direct use plants to use Class V wells. More stringent regulatory requirements, including construction specification and monitoring, are imposed on the Class III wells. On February 3, 1982, the classification of geothermal injection wells was changed from a Class III to Class V on the basis that geothermal wells do not inject for the extraction of minerals or energy, but rather they are used to inject brines, from which heat has been extracted, into formations from which they were originally taken. This reclassification implies that a substantial cost reduction will be realized for geothermal fluid injection primarily because well monitoring is no longer mandatory. The Clean Water Act of 1977 provides the legal basis for regulating the discharge of liquid effluent into the nation's surface waters, through a permitting system called the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Discharge quantities, rates, concentrations and temperatures are regulated by the NPDES permits. These permits systems are based upon effluent guidelines developed by EPA on an industry by industry basis. For geothermal energy industry, effluent guidelines have not been formulated and are not currently scheduled. There, are however, water quality standards that control the quantity and quality of wastewaters discharged into surface waters. These standards are established by the states in concert with EPA, and frequently result in NPDES conditions more restrictive than those based on effluent guidelines.

None

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Modifications of Carbonate Fracture Hydrodynamic Properties by CO{sub 2}-Acidified Brine Flow  

SciTech Connect

Acidic reactive flow in fractures is relevant in subsurface activities such as CO{sub 2} geological storage and hydraulic fracturing. Understanding reaction-induced changes in fracture hydrodynamic properties is essential for predicting subsurface flows such as leakage, injectability, and fluid production. In this study, x-ray computed tomography scans of a fractured carbonate caprock were used to create three dimensional reconstructions of the fracture before and after reaction with CO{sub 2}-acidified brine (Ellis et al., 2011, Greenhouse Gases: Sci. Technol., 1:248-260). As expected, mechanical apertures were found to increase substantially, doubling and even tripling in some places. However, the surface geometry evolved in complex ways including ‘comb-tooth’ structures created from preferential dissolution of calcite in transverse sedimentary bands, and the creation of degraded zones, i.e. porous calcite-depleted areas on reacted fracture surfaces. These geometric alterations resulted in increased fracture roughness, as measured by surface Z{sub 2} parameters and fractal dimensions D{sub f}. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify the changes in hydraulic aperture, fracture transmissivity and permeability. The results show that the effective hydraulic apertures are smaller than the mechanical apertures, and the changes in hydraulic apertures are nonlinear. Overestimation of flow rate by a factor of two or more would be introduced if fracture hydrodynamic properties were based on mechanical apertures, or if hydraulic aperture is assumed to change proportionally with mechanical aperture. The differences can be attributed, in part, to the increase in roughness after reaction, and is likely affected by contiguous transverse sedimentary features. Hydraulic apertures estimated by the 1D statistical model and 2D local cubic law (LCL) model are consistently larger than those calculated from the CFD simulations. In addition, a novel ternary segmentation method was devised to handle the degraded zones, allowing for a bounding analysis of the effects on hydraulic properties. We found that the degraded zones account for less than 15% of the fracture volume, but cover 70% to 80% of the fracture surface. When the degraded zones are treated as part of the fracture, the fracture transmissivities are two to four times larger because the fracture surfaces after reaction are not as rough as they would be if one considers the degraded zone as part of the rock. Therefore, while degraded zones created during geochemical reactions may not significantly increase mechanical aperture, this type of feature cannot be ignored and should be treated with prudence when predicting fracture hydrodynamic properties.

Deng, Hang; Ellis, Brian R.; Peters, Catherine A.; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; Crandall, Dustin; Bromhal, Grant S.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

EVALUATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OF URANIUM, THORIUM, AND RADIUM ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCED FLUIDS, PRECIPITATES, AND SLUDGES FROM OIL, GAS, AND OILFIELD BRINE INJECTION WELLS IN MISSISSIPPI  

SciTech Connect

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are known to be produced as a byproduct of hydrocarbon production in Mississippi. The presence of NORM has resulted in financial losses to the industry and continues to be a liability as the NORM-enriched scales and scale encrusted equipment is typically stored rather than disposed of. Although the NORM problem is well known, there is little publically available data characterizing the hazard. This investigation has produced base line data to fill this informational gap. A total of 329 NORM-related samples were collected with 275 of these samples consisting of brine samples. The samples were derived from 37 oil and gas reservoirs from all major producing areas of the state. The analyses of these data indicate that two isotopes of radium ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) are the ultimate source of the radiation. The radium contained in these co-produced brines is low and so the radiation hazard posed by the brines is also low. Existing regulations dictate the manner in which these salt-enriched brines may be disposed of and proper implementation of the rules will also protect the environment from the brine radiation hazard. Geostatistical analyses of the brine components suggest relationships between the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, between the Cl concentration and {sup 226}Ra content, and relationships exist between total dissolved solids, BaSO{sub 4} saturation and concentration of the Cl ion. Principal component analysis points to geological controls on brine chemistry, but the nature of the geologic controls could not be determined. The NORM-enriched barite (BaSO{sub 4}) scales are significantly more radioactive than the brines. Leaching studies suggest that the barite scales, which were thought to be nearly insoluble in the natural environment, can be acted on by soil microorganisms and the enclosed radium can become bioavailable. This result suggests that the landspreading means of scale disposal should be reviewed. This investigation also suggests 23 specific components of best practice which are designed to provide a guide to safe handling of NORM in the hydrocarbon industry. The components of best practice include both worker safety and suggestions to maintain waste isolation from the environment.

Charles Swann; John Matthews; Rick Ericksen; Joel Kuszmaul

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Effects of a sulfide system produced by a natural brine seep on sandy-bottom community structure at the East Flower Garden Bank, northwest Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EFFECTS OF A SULFIDE SYSTEM PRODUCED BY A NATURAL BRINE SEEP ON SANDY-BOTTOM COI'1MUNITY STRUCTURE AT THE EAST FLOWER GARDEN BANK, NORTHWEST GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by EDWARD ANDREW WOODS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM... University in partia 1 fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Oceanography EFFECTS OF A SULFIDE SYSTEM PRODUCED BY A NATURAL BRINE SEEP ON SANDY-BOTTOM COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AT THE EAST FLOWER...

Woods, Edward Andrew

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

137

Environmental assessment of the brine pipeline replacement for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Facility in Brazoria County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0804, for the proposed replacement of a deteriorated brine disposal pipeline from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Bryan Mound storage facility in Brazoria County, Texas, into the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the ocean discharge outfall would be moved shoreward by locating the brine diffuser at the end of the pipeline 3.5 miles offshore at a minimum depth of 30 feet. The action would occur in a floodplain and wetlands; therefore, a floodplain/wetlands assessment has been prepared in conjunction with this EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 USC. 4321, et seg.). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). This FONSI also includes a Floodplain Statement of Findings in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1022.

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Metamorphosed Plio-Pleistocene evaporites and the origins of hypersaline brines in the Salton Sea geothermal system, California: Fluid inclusion evidence  

SciTech Connect

The Salton Sea geothermal system (SSGS) occurs in Plio-Pleistocene deltaic-lacustrine-evaporite sediments deposited in the Salton Trough, an active continental rift zone. Temperatures up to 365{degree}C and hypersaline brines with up to 26 wt.% TDS are encountered at 1-3 km depth in the sediments, which are undergoing active greenschist facies hydrothermal metamorphism. Previous models for the origins of the Na-Ca-K-Cl brines have assumed that the high salinities were derived mainly from the downward percolation of cold, dense brines formed by low-temperature dissolution of shallow non-marine evaporites. New drillcores from the central part of the geothermal field contain metamorphosed, bedded evaporites at 1 km depth consisting largely of hornfelsic anhydrite interbedded with anhydrite-cemented solution-collapse shale breccias. Fluid inclusions trapped within the bedded and breccia-cementing anhydrite homogenize at 300{degree}C and contain saline Na-Ca-K-Cl brines. Some of the inclusions contain up to 50 vol.% halite, sylvite and carbonate crystals at room temperature, and some halite crystals persist to above 300{degree}C upon laboratory heating. The data are consistent with the trapping of halite-saturated Na-Ca-K-Cl fluids during hydrothermal metamorphism of the evaporites and accompanying solution collapse of interbedded shales. The authors conclude that many of the slat crystals in inclusions are the residuum of bedded evaporitic salt that was dissolved during metamorphism by heated connate fluids.

McKibben, M.A.; Williams, A.E.; Okubo, Susumu (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA))

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Results of brine flow testing and disassembly of a crushed salt/bentonite block seal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Small-Scale Seal Performance Tests, Series C, a set of in situ experiments conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, are designed to evaluate the performance of various seal materials emplaced in large (0.9-m-diameter) boreholes. This report documents the results of fluid (brine) flow testing and water and clay content analyses performed on one emplaced seal comprised of 100% salt blocks and 50%/50% crushed salt/bentonite blocks and disassembled after nearly three years of brine injection testing. Results from the water content analyses of 212 samples taken from within this seal show uniform water content throughout the 50%/50% salt/bentonite blocks with saturations about 100%. Clay content analyses from the 100% salt endcaps of the seal show a background clay content of about 1% by weight uniformly distributed, with the exception of samples taken at the base of the seal at the borehole wall interface. These samples show clay contents up to 3% by weight, which suggests some bentonite may have migrated under pressure to that interface. Results of the brine-flow testing show that the permeability to brine for this seal was about 2 to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} darcy (2 to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} m{sup 2}).

Finley, R.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, R.L. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Potential for the localized corrosion of alloy 22 Waste Packages in Multiple-Salt Deliquescent Brines in the Yucca Mountain Repository  

SciTech Connect

It has been postulated that the deliquescence of multiple-salt systems in dust deposits and the consequent localized corrosion in high-temperature brines could lead to premature failure of the Alloy 22 waste packages in the Yucca Mountain repository. EPRI has developed a decision tree approach to determine if the various stages leading to waste package failure are possible and whether the safety of the repository system could be compromised as a result. Through a series of arguments, EPRI has shown that it is highly unlikely that the multiple-salt deliquescent brines will form in the first place and, even if they did, that they would not be thermodynamically stable, that the postulated brines are not corrosive and would not lead to the initiation of localized corrosion of Alloy 22, that even if localized corrosion did initiate that the propagation would stifle and cease long before penetration of the waste package outer barrier, and that even if premature waste package failures did occur from this cause that the safety of the overall system would not be compromised. EPRI concludes, therefore, that the postulated localized corrosion of the waste packages due to high-temperature deliquescent brines is neither a technical nor a safety issue of concern for the Yucca Mountain repository. (authors)

King, F. [Integrity Corrosion Consulting, Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Arthur, R.; Apted, M. [Monitor Scientific LLC, Denver, CO (United States); Kessler, J.H. [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I brine pilot  

SciTech Connect

To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO{sub 2} was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO{sub 2} injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO{sub 2} injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO{sub 2} breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H{sub 2}O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO{sub 2} plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO{sub 2} concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO{sub 2} could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals.

Kharaka, Y.K; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.; Xu, T.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Economic and thermal feasibility of multi stage flash desalination plant with brine–feed mixing and cooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Improving the performance of MSF (multi stage flash) desalination plants is a major challenge for desalination industry. High feed temperature in summer shortens the evaporation range of MSF plants and limits their yield. Installing a cooler at the feed intake expands the evaporation range of MSF plants and increases their yield. Adding a cooler and a mixing chamber increases the capital and operational costs of MSF plants. This paper presents thermal and economic analysis of installing a feed cooler at the plant intake. The profit of selling the additionally produced water must cover the cost of the cooling system. The selling prices for a reasonable breakeven depend on the selected cooling temperature. The cost of installing coolers capable of maintaining feed–brine mixture temperatures of 18–20 °C shows breakeven selling prices of 0.5–0.9 $/m3. These prices fall within the current range of potable water selling prices.

Majed M. Alhazmy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Interpretation of brine-permeability tests of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: First interim report  

SciTech Connect

Pressure-pulse tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Hydraulic conductivities ranging from about 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}11} m/s (permeabilities of about 10{sup {minus}21} to 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2}) have been interpreted from nine tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within eleven meters of the WIPP underground excavations. Tests of a pure halite layer showed no measurable permeability. Pore pressures in the stratigraphic intervals range from about 0.5 to 9.3 MPa. An anhydrite interbed (Marker Bed 139) appears to be one or more orders of magnitude more permeable than the surrounding halite. Hydraulic conductivities appear to increase, and pore pressures decrease, with increasing proximity to the excavations. These effects are particularly evident within two to three meters of the excavations. Two tests indicated the presence of apparent zero-flow boundaries about two to three meters from the boreholes. The other tests revealed no apparent boundaries within the radii of influence of the tests, which were calculated to range from about four to thirty-five meters from the test holes. The data are insufficient to determine if brine flow through evaporites results from Darcy-like flow driven by pressure gradients within naturally interconnected porosity or from shear deformation around excavations connecting previously isolated pores, thereby providing pathways for fluids at or near lithostatic pressure to be driven towards the low-pressure excavations. Future testing will be performed at greater distances from the excavations to evaluate hydraulic properties and processes beyond the range of excavation effects.

Beauheim, R.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Saulnier, G.J. Jr.; Avis, J.D. (INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Semi-analytical model of brine and CO2 leakage through an abandoned plugged well. Applications for determining an Area of Review and CO2 leakage rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Semi-analytical model of brine and CO2 leakage through an abandoned plugged well. Applications for determining an Area of Review and CO2 leakage rate Arnaud Réveillère, Jérémy Rohmer, Frédéric Wertz / contact the leak, and of CO2,g as a first approach. Compared to the state of the art, it adds the possibility

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

145

INTRAVAL Phase 2 WIPP 1 test case report: Modeling of brine flow through halite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the WIPP 1 test case studied as part of INTRAVAL, an international project to study validation of geosphere transport models. The WIPP 1 test case involved simulation of measured brine-inflow rates to boreholes drilled into the halite strata surrounding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository. The goal of the test case was to evaluate the use of Darcy`s law to describe brine flow through halite. The general approach taken was to try to obtain values of permeability and specific capacitance that would be: (1) consistent with other available data and (2) able to provide reasonable simulations of all of the brine-inflow experiments performed in the Salado Formation. All of the teams concluded that the average permeability of the halite strata penetrated by the holes was between approximately 10{sup {minus}22} and 10{sup {minus}21} m{sup 2}. Specific capacitances greater than 10{sup {minus}10} Pa{sup {minus}1} are inconsistent with the known constitutive properties of halite and are attributed to deformation, possibly ongoing, of the halite around the WIPP excavations. All project teams found that Darcy-flow models could replicate the experimental data in a consistent and reasonable manner. Discrepancies between the data and simulations are attributed to inadequate representation in the models of processes modifying the pore-pressure field in addition to the experiments themselves, such as ongoing deformation of the rock around the excavations. Therefore, the conclusion from the test case is that Darcy-flow models can reliably be used to predict brine flow to WIPP excavations, provided that the flow modeling is coupled with measurement and realistic modeling of the pore-pressure field around the excavations. This realistic modeling of the pore-pressure field would probably require coupling to a geomechanical model of the stress evolution around the repository.

Beauheim, R.L. [ed.] [ed.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Water quality in the vicinity of Mosquito Creek Lake, Trumbull County, Ohio, in relation of the chemistry of locally occurring oil, natural gas, and brine  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe current water quality and the chemistry of oil, natural gas, and brine in the Mosquito Creek Lake area. Additionally, these data are used to characterize water quality in the Mosquito Creek Lake area in relation to past oil and natural gas well drilling and production. To meet the overall objective, several goals for this investigation were established. These include (1) collect water-quality and subsurface-gas data from shallow sediments and rock that can be used for future evaluation of possible effects of oil and natural gas well drilling and production on water supplies, (2) characterize current surface-water and ground-water quality as it relates to the natural occurrence and (or) release of oil, gas, and brine (3) sample and chemically characterize the oil in the shallow Mecca Oil Pool, gas from the Berea and Cussewago Sandstone aquifers, and the oil, gas, and brine from the Clinton sandstone, and (4) identify areas where aquifers are vulnerable to contamination from surface spills at oil and natural gas drilling and production sites.

Barton, G.J.; Burruss, R.C.; Ryder, R.T.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

147

Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau  

SciTech Connect

Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

Chapman, Elizabeth C.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Hedin, Robert S.; Weaver, Theodore J.; Edenborn, Harry M.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Constraining the reservoir model of an injected CO2 plume with crosswell CASSM at the Frio-II brine plot  

SciTech Connect

Crosswell CASSM (continuous active-source seismic monitoring) data was acquired as part of the Frio-II brine pilot CO{sub 2} injection experiment. To gain insight into the CO{sub 2} plume evolution, we have integrated the 3D multiphase flow modeling code TOUGH2 with seismic simulation codes via a petrophysical model that predicts seismic velocity for a given CO{sub 2} saturation. Results of forward seismic modeling based on the CO{sub 2} saturation distribution produced by an initial TOUGH2 model compare poorly with the CASSM data, indicating that the initial flow model did not capture the actual CO{sub 2} plume dynamics. Updates to the TOUGH2 model required to better match the CASSM field data indicate vertical flow near the injection well, with increased horizontal plume growth occurring at the top of the reservoir sand. The CASSM continuous delay time data are ideal for constraining the modeled spatiotemporal evolution of the CO{sub 2} plume and allow improvement in reservoir model and estimation of CO{sub 2} plume properties.

Daley, T.M.; Ajo-Franklin, J.; Doughty, C.A.

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Effect of explicit representation of detailed stratigraphy on brine and gas flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphic units of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal room horizon includes various layers of halite, polyhalitic halite, argillaceous halite, clay, and anhydrite. Current models, including those used in the WIPP Performance Assessment calculations, employ a ``composite stratigraphy`` approach in modeling. This study was initiated to evaluate the impact that an explicit representation of detailed stratigraphy around the repository may have on fluid flow compared to the simplified ``composite stratigraphy`` models currently employed. Sensitivity of model results to intrinsic permeability anisotropy, interbed fracturing, two-phase characteristic curves, and gas-generation rates were studied. The results of this study indicate that explicit representation of the stratigraphy maintains higher pressures and does not allow as much fluid to leave the disposal room as compared to the ``composite stratigraphy`` approach. However, the differences are relatively small. Gas migration distances are also different between the two approaches. However, for the two cases in which explicit layering results were considerably different than the composite model (anisotropic and vapor-limited), the gas-migration distances for both models were negligible. For the cases in which gas migration distances were considerable, van Genuchten/Parker and interbed fracture, the differences between the two models were fairly insignificant. Overall, this study suggests that explicit representation of the stratigraphy in the WIPP PA models is not required for the parameter variations modeled if ``global quantities`` (e.g., disposal room pressures, net brine and gas flux into and out of disposal rooms) are the only concern.

Christian-Frear, T.L.; Webb, S.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Accident Investigation of the February 7, 2013, Scissor Lift Accident in the West Hackberry Brine Tank-14 Resulting in Injury, Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry, LA  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

On February 15, 2013, an Accident Investigation Board (the Board) was appointed to investigate an accident that resulted in serious injuries caused when a scissor lift tipped over in Brine Tank-14 (WHT-14) at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, West Hackberry, Louisiana, site on February 7, 2013. The Board’s responsibilities have been completed with respect to this investigation. The analysis and the identification of the direct cause, root causes, contributing causes, and judgments of need resulting from this investigation were performed in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 225.1B, Accident Investigations.

151

Estimates of the solubilities of waste element radionuclides in waste isolation pilot plant brines: A report by the expert panel on the source term  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of the long-term performance of the WIPP includes estimation of the cumulative releases of radionuclide elements to the accessible environment. Nonradioactive lead is added because of the large quantity expected in WIPP wastes. To estimate the solubilities of these elements in WIPP brines, the Panel used the following approach. Existing thermodynamic data were used to identify the most likely aqueous species in solution through the construction of aqueous speciation diagrams. Existing thermodynamic data and expert judgment were used to identify potential solubility-limiting solid phases. Thermodynamic data were used to calculate the activities of the radionuclide aqueous species in equilibrium with each solid. Activity coefficients of the radionuclide-bearing aqueous species were estimated using Pitzer`s equations. These activity coefficients were then used to calculate the concentration of each radionuclide at the 0.1 and 0.9 fractiles. The 0.5 fractile was chosen to represent experimental data with activity coefficient corrections as described above. Expert judgment was used to develop the 0.0, 0.25, 0.75, and 1.0 fractiles by considering the sensitivity of solubility to the potential variability in the composition of brine and gas, and the extent of waste contaminants, and extending the probability distributions accordingly. The results were used in the 1991 and 1992 performance assessment calculations. 68 refs.

Hobart, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Glenn T. Seaborg Inst. for Transactinium Science, Livermore, CA (United States); Bruton, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Dept.; Millero, F.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Chou, I.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Trauth, K.M.; Anderson, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Chemistry of fluid inclusions in halite from the Salina group of the Michigan basin: Implications for Late Silurian seawater and the origin of sedimentary brines  

SciTech Connect

Fluid was extracted from 18 fluid inclusions in halite of the Late Silurian Salina Group exposed in the Crystal Mine on the outskirts of Detroit, Michigan. Compared with modern seawater evaporated to the same degree, the inclusion fluids are severely depleted in SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, somewhat depleted in Na{sup +} and Mg{sup +2}, and greatly enriched in Ca{sup +2}. The composition of the inclusion fluids can be derived from Silurian seawater with a composition close to that of modern seawater, if it is assumed that the composition of the Silurian seawater was modified by dolomitizing CaCO{sub 3}-rich sediments and by albitizing silicate minerals during its evolution into evaporite brines. Since the evolution of the brines involved a number of chemical reactions, it is impossible to recover the initial concentration of all of the major ions in the parent Silurian seawater from the composition of the inclusion fluids alone. It is likely, however, that the m{sub K+}/m{sub Br-} ratio and the functions in Late Silurian seawater had values close to those of modern seawater. Measurements of the isotopic composition of sulfur and of Sr in anhydrite within and associated with the halite host of the fluid inclusions are consistent with previous measurements of {delta}{sup 34}S in Silurian marine anhydrites and with the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of Late Silurian marine carbonates.

Das, N.; Horita, J.; Holland, H.D. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Batteries from Brine  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Low-temp geothermal technologies are meeting a growing demand for strategic materials in clean manufacturing.

154

Desalination: Freezing out Brine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... PLANS for a large experimental desalination plant to be built at Ipswich are being considered by the government, Lord Kennet, ... by repeated condensation. This method has been adopted by several countries which have embarked on desalination programmes, but its economic viability has often been questioned. The power consumed by the ...

1970-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

155

An integrated experimental and numerical study: Developing a reaction transport model that couples chemical reactions of mineral dissolution/precipitation with spatial and temporal flow variations in CO2/brine/rock systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Project objectives: Generate and characterize mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions in supercritical CO2/brine/rock systems under pressure-temperature-chemistry conditions resembling CO2injection into EGS. Characterize three-dimensional spatial and temporal distributions of rock structures subject to mineral dissolution/precipitation processes by X-ray tomography, SEM imaging, and Microprobe analysis.

156

Reduced-Order Model for the Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine and Trace Metal Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Carbonate Aquifer, Version 2.1  

SciTech Connect

The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) consists of 5 U.S DOE national laboratories collaborating to develop a framework for predicting the risks associated with carbon sequestration. The approach taken by NRAP is to divide the system into components, including injection target reservoirs, wellbores, natural pathways including faults and fractures, groundwater and the atmosphere. Next, develop a detailed, physics and chemistry-based model of each component. Using the results of the detailed models, develop efficient, simplified models, termed reduced order models (ROM) for each component. Finally, integrate the component ROMs into a system model that calculates risk profiles for the site. This report details the development of the Groundwater Geochemistry ROM for the Edwards Aquifer at PNNL. The Groundwater Geochemistry ROM for the Edwards Aquifer uses a Wellbore Leakage ROM developed at LANL as input. The detailed model, using the STOMP simulator, covers a 5x8 km area of the Edwards Aquifer near San Antonio, Texas. The model includes heterogeneous hydraulic properties, and equilibrium, kinetic and sorption reactions between groundwater, leaked CO2 gas, brine, and the aquifer carbonate and clay minerals. Latin Hypercube sampling was used to generate 1024 samples of input parameters. For each of these input samples, the STOMP simulator was used to predict the flux of CO2 to the atmosphere, and the volume, length and width of the aquifer where pH was less than the MCL standard, and TDS, arsenic, cadmium and lead exceeded MCL standards. In order to decouple the Wellbore Leakage ROM from the Groundwater Geochemistry ROM, the response surface was transformed to replace Wellbore Leakage ROM input parameters with instantaneous and cumulative CO2 and brine leakage rates. The most sensitive parameters proved to be the CO2 and brine leakage rates from the well, with equilibrium coefficients for calcite and dolomite, as well as the number of illite and kaolinite sorption sites proving to be of secondary importance. The Groundwater Geochemistry ROM was developed using nonlinear regression to fit the response surface with a quadratic polynomial. The goodness of fit was excellent for the CO2 flux to the atmosphere, and very good for predicting the volumes of groundwater exceeding the pH, TDS, As, Cd and Pb threshold values.

Bacon, Diana H.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

157

DOE/EA-1482: Environmental Assessment for Pilot Experiment for Geological Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide in Saline Aquifer Brine Formations (October 2003)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

82 82 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PILOT EXPERIMENT FOR GEOLOGICAL SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN SALINE AQUIFER BRINE FORMATIONS FRIO FORMATION, LIBERTY COUNTY, TEXAS OCTOBER 2003 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY ii iii National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Cover Sheet Proposed Action: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide funds for a field test of the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) at The University of Texas at Austin, under contract with DOE, has studied the potential for sequestration of CO 2 in geologic formations of the United States as part of a broader series of DOE-sponsored research projects to

158

A Comparison of the Corrosion Resistance of Iron-Based Amorphous Metals and Austenitic Alloys in Synthetic Brines at Elevated Temperature  

SciTech Connect

Several hard, corrosion-resistant and neutron-absorbing iron-based amorphous alloys have now been developed that can be applied as thermal spray coatings. These new alloys include relatively high concentrations of Cr, Mo, and W for enhanced corrosion resistance, and substantial B to enable both glass formation and neutron absorption. The corrosion resistances of these novel alloys have been compared to that of several austenitic alloys in a broad range of synthetic brines, with and without nitrate inhibitor, at elevated temperature. Linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used for in situ measurement of corrosion rates for prolonged periods of time, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) have been used for ex situ characterization of samples at the end of tests. The application of these new coatings for the protection of spent nuclear fuel storage systems, equipment in nuclear service, steel-reinforced concrete will be discussed.

Farmer, J C

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

159

Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 5, Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance  

SciTech Connect

Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to migration of gas and brine from the undisturbed repository. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B. Volume 2 describes the technical basis for the performance assessment, including descriptions of the linked computational models used in the Monte Carlo analyses. Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect gas and brine migration from the undisturbed repository are: initial liquid saturation in the waste, anhydrite permeability, biodegradation-reaction stoichiometry, gas-generation rates for both corrosion and biodegradation under inundated conditions, and the permeability of the long-term shaft seal.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Session 21: Disposal of Flashed Brine Dosed with CaCO3 Scale Inhibitor: What Happens When the Inhibitor is Exhausted?  

SciTech Connect

Inhibited, flashed brine is thermodynamically poised to deposit CaCO{sub 3}. Eventually the scale inhibitor will be overcome by dilution in native reservoir fluid, sorption on rocks, slow overgrowth of CaCO{sub 3}, decomposition, or some combination of processes. Consequences to the reservoir which receives the fluid apparently have not been previously explored. However, Huff-Puff tests (monitored backflow of injected tracers), carried out at East Mesa in the summer of 1983, have provided a starting point for addressing the questions. An effective lifetime of about 14 hours is indicated for one inhibitor. Additionally, reactions between injected fluid and native resource fluid have been observed in two contexts: (1) the native fluid around the disposal well is the unflashed counterpart of the injectate; (2) the native fluid around the disposal well is chemically distinct from the injectate and from its unflashed counterpart. In the two cases investigated, situation (1) yielded significant reaction (deposition of CaCO{sub 3}) whereas, situation (2) appeared unreactive. These outcomes have important implications regarding the mechanics of reservoir management for long-term electricity production.

Michels, D.E.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Models of Geothermal Brine Chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Many significant expenses encountered by the geothermal energy industry are related to chemical effects. When the composition, temperature of pressure of the fluids in the geological formation are changed, during reservoir evolution, well production, energy extraction or injection processes, the fluids that were originally at equilibrium with the formation minerals come to a new equilibrium composition, temperature and pressure. As a result, solid material can be precipitated, dissolved gases released and/or heat lost. Most geothermal energy operations experience these phenomena. For some resources, they create only minor problems. For others, they can have serious results, such as major scaling or corrosion of wells and plant equipment, reservoir permeability losses and toxic gas emission, that can significantly increase the costs of energy production and sometimes lead to site abandonment. In future operations that exploit deep heat sources and low permeability reservoirs, new chemical problems involving very high T, P rock/water interactions and unknown injection effects will arise.

Nancy Moller Weare; John H. Weare

2002-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

162

Please cite this article in press as: Birkholzer, J.T., et al., Brine flow up a well caused by pressure perturbation from geologic carbon sequestration: Static and dynamic evaluations. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2011), doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2011.01.003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by pressure perturbation from geologic carbon sequestration: Static and dynamic evaluations. Int. J.elsevier.com/locate/ijggc Brine flow up a well caused by pressure perturbation from geologic carbon sequestration: Static carbon sequestration (GCS) has drawn increasing con- sideration as a promising method to mitigate

Zhou, Quanlin

163

CO2-H2O Mixtures in the Geological Sequestration of CO2. II. Partitioning in Chloride Brines at 12-100 °C and 1-600 bar.  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

CO CO 2 -H 2 O Mixtures in the Geological Sequestration of CO 2 . II. Partitioning in Chloride Brines at 12-100°C and up to 600 bar. Nicolas Spycher and Karsten Pruess Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 90-1116, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California, USA September 2004 ABSTRACT Correlations presented by Spycher et al. (2003) to compute the mutual solubilities of CO 2 and H 2 O are extended to include the effect of chloride salts in the aqueous phase. This is accomplished by including, in the original formulation, activity coefficients for aqueous CO 2 derived from several literature sources, primarily for NaCl solutions. Best results are obtained when combining the solubility correlations of Spycher et al. (2003) with the activity coefficient formulation of Rumpf et al. (1994) and Duan and Sun (2003), which

164

Evaporative Evolution of a Na-Cl-NO3-K-Ca-SO4-Mg-Si Brine at 95(degree)C: Experiments and Modeling relevant to Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA  

SciTech Connect

A synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff water representative of one type of pore water at Yucca Mountain, Nevada (USA) was evaporated at 95 C in a series of experiments to determine the geochemical controls for brines that may form on, and possibly impact upon the long-term integrity of waste containers and drip shields at the designated high-level, nuclear-waste repository. Solution chemistry, condensed vapor chemistry, and precipitate mineralogy were used to identify important chemical divides and to validate geochemical calculations of evaporating water chemistry using a high temperature Pitzer thermodynamic database. The water evolved towards a complex ''sulfate type'' brine that contained about 45 mol% Na, 40 mol% Cl, 9 mol% NO{sub 3}, 5 mol% K, and less than 1 mol% each of SO{sub 4}, Ca, Mg, {Sigma}CO{sub 2}(aq), F, and Si. All measured ions in the condensed vapor phase were below detection limits. The mineral precipitates identified were halite, anhydrite, bassanite, niter and nitratine. Trends in the solution composition and identification of CaSO{sub 4} solids suggest that fluorite, carbonate, sulfate, and magnesium-silicate precipitation control the aqueous solution composition of sulfate type waters by removing fluoride, calcium, and magnesium during the early stages of evaporation. In most cases, the high temperature Pitzer database, used by EQ3/6 geochemical code, sufficiently predicts water composition and mineral precipitation during evaporation. Predicted solution compositions are generally within a factor of two of the experimental values. The model predicts that sepiolite, bassanite, amorphous silica, calcite, halite and brucite are the solubility controlling mineral phases.

Alai, M; Sutton, M; Carroll, S A

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

165

String | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

View View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Special page Facebook icon Twitter icon » String Jump to: navigation, search Properties of type "String" Showing 200 properties using this type. (previous 200) (next 200) A Property:Abbreviation Property:Achievement Date Property:Address Property:Agency Property:AlternativeIngredient Property:AreaGeology Property:Audience Property:Author Property:Authority B Property:BLM CaseStatus Property:BLM LeaseStatus Property:Bandwidth(kHz) Property:Beam(m) Property:BrineConstituents Property:Building/Boundaries Property:Building/Category Property:Building/OwnershipCategory Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2AirCompressors Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2CirculationFans

166

Rock-brine chemical interactions. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of experimental interaction of powdered volcanic rock with aqueous solutions are presented at temperatures from 200 to 400/sup 0/C, 500 to 1000 bars fluid pressure, with reaction durations of approximately 30 days under controlled laboratory conditions. The aim of this research is to develop data on the kinetics and equilibria of rock solution interactions that will provide insight into the complex geochemical processes attending geothermal reservoir development, stimulation, and reinjection. The research was done in the Stanford Hydrothermal Lab using gold cell equipment of the Dickson design. This equipment inverts the solution rock mixture several times a minute to ensure thorough mixing. Solution samples were periodically withdrawn without interruption of the experimental conditions. The data from these experiments suggests a path dependent series of reactions by which geothermal fluids might evolve from meteoric or magmatic sources.

Not Available

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1975). When operated without sludge r e c i r c u l a t i ot o c o l l o i d a l silica. sludge accumulation there. thel a t i o n of part of the sludge coming out of The l a r g

Weres, O.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

CHEMISTRY OF SILICA IN CERRO PRIETO BRINES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lfuen operated w:l.thout sludge recirculation, this pilotcould lead to problems with sludge accumulation there. Ifby recirculation of part of the sludge coming out of the

Weres, O.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Chemistry of Silica in Cerro Prieto Brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1975). When operated without sludge r e c i r c u l a t i ot o c o l l o i d a l silica. sludge accumulation there. thel a t i o n of part of the sludge coming out of The l a r g

Weres, Oleh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Effect of Brine on Hydrate Antiagglomeration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

J. Dalton York † and Abbas Firoozabadi *‡ ... Department of Chemical Engineering, Mason Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 ... Energy Fuels, 2009, 23 (6), ...

J. Dalton York; Abbas Firoozabadi

2009-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

171

CHEMISTRY OF SILICA IN CERRO PRIETO BRINES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the chemical researchers at CFE, A. Manon M. , J. Faustodata was generated by the CFE Laboratory at Cerro Prieto andThe staff of the IIE and CFE laboratories at Cerro Prieto

Weres, O.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Regional evaluation of brine management for geologic carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the build decision for carbon capture and sequestrationTenth Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration.be managed early on. Carbon capture technology is water-,

Breunig, H.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Equation  2   5  Carbon  capture  technology  requires  for  Geologic  Carbon  Capture  and   Sequestration."  the  additional  carbon  capture  system  (1.24  assuming  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Regional evaluation of brine management for geologic carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sh aquaculture, and algae biodiesel production; (2) developscould improve joint feasibility: 2.2.4. Algae biodieselproduction Algae biodiesel is an emerging technology, and

Breunig, H.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cycle  analysis  of  algae  biodiesel."   International  aquaculture,   algae  biodiesel  production,  road  de-­?Algae  Biodiesel  ..  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Stress-induced anisotropy in brine saturated shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......multistage triaxial tests The anisotropic nature of shales mainly results from the alignment of anisotropic plate-like clay minerals, which...applied differential stress. The shale is moderately anisotropic, with both velocities and anisotropic......

C. Delle Piane; D. N. Dewhurst; A. F. Siggins; M. D. Raven

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Inversion of heavy crude oil-in-brine emulsions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A large portion of Canada's reserves of crude oil consists of extra heavy crude and natural bitumens. As the reserves of conventional crude oil continue… (more)

Sun, Ruijun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

algae  biodiesel  competitive  against  plant  biodiesels  or  fossil  fuels  Algae  Production  for  Biodiesel   In  2007,  the  US  Renewable  Fuel  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. J. ofwaste emplacement tunnels at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. J. ofScale Heater Test at Yucca Mountain. International Journal

Zhang, Guoxiang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Factor 1E-1 b) CaCl:2H2O Halite Sylvite Fluorite Salt (KNO 3 ), soda niter (NaNO 3 ), halite (NaCl), sylvite (KCl),the precipitation of halite at a concentration factor around

Zhang, Guoxiang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Regional evaluation of brine management for geologic carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal Bed Methane. US DOE, NETL. Ventyx, 2012. Velocity SuiteCarbon Sequestration. NETL. Earles, M.J. , Halog, A. , 2011.

Breunig, H.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fired  Power  Plants”,  DOE/NETL,  2010.   Chelme-­?Ayala,  Capture. ”   RADS  LLC,  DOE/NETL.  2011.   Gong,  Y.  and  Geologic   Formations. ”  NETL.  2009.   Texas  Water  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2012.   DiPippo,  R. ,  “Geothermal  Energy:  Electricity  Utilization  of  Geothermal  Energy."   Energies  2010,  cost  of  using  geothermal  energy  was  calculated  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Regional evaluation of brine management for geologic carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct utilization of geothermal energy. Energies, 1443–EOR) systems; and geothermal energy production. Variousthis paper are: (1) geothermal energy, (2) desalination, (3)

Breunig, H.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using  geothermal  energy  for  district  heating  onsite  District  Heating Greenhouse  Heating Aquaculture  Pond  Heating Geothermal  geothermal   heat  could  be  capture  for  onsite  district  heating  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of  water  use  at  combined-­?cycle  power  plants. ”  Gasification  Combined  Cycle Known  Geothermal  Energy  integrated  gasification  combined   cycle  (IGCC)  CFPP,  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Regional evaluation of brine management for geologic carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metal recovery from reverse osmosis concentrate. Journal ofnanofil- tration and reverse osmosis membranes. Journal ofrecovery [%] Assumed cost reverse osmosis [$/m 3 permeate

Breunig, H.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

18   2.3.2  Reverse  Osmosis  46   4.2.1  Reverse  Osmosis  Relative  Humidity Reverse  Osmosis SERC  Reliability  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Regional evaluation of brine management for geologic carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Gas Exploration and Production Waste: Availability, Options, and Costs.gases, carcinogenic production contaminants, and unpredictable production rates greatly increase the cost and

Breunig, H.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Ion Chromatography of Inorganic Anions in Brine Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......chromatogram of nitrite in the seawater sample. Sample: aquarium...nitrate peak after an extended storage of the sample solution in the...system to nitrite analysis in seawater is shown in Figure 6. A freshly...not be loaded with 100 L of seawater, as seen in Figure 2D, 50......

Precilla F. Subosa; Kazuko Kihara; Souji Rokushika; Hiroyuki Hatano; Takeshi Murayama; Tomoko Kubota; Yuzuru Hanaoka

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and  Land   Cost  of  Geothermal  Energy  Systems   The  in-­?use-­?phase  costs  of  geothermal  energy  capture,  the  cost  and  water  demand  of   geothermal  energy.  

Breunig, Hanna M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Minimum Ultraviolet Light Dose Determination and Characterization of Stress Responses that Affect Dose for Listeria monocytogenes Suspended in Distilled Water, Fresh Brine, and Spent Brine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Foodborne illnesses caused by Listeria monocytogenes have long been associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) meats contaminated after the primary thermal process has been applied. It is… (more)

McKinney, Julie

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Sustainable Carbon Sequestration: Increasing CO2-Storage Efficiency through a CO2-Brine Displacement Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CO2 sequestration is one of the proposed methods for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and therefore mitigating global climate change. Few studies on storing CO2 in an aquifer have been conducted on a regional scale. This study...

Akinnikawe, Oyewande

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

194

Microbial life at ?13 °C in the brine of an ice-sealed Antarctic lake  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...an ice-sealed Antarctic lake 10.1073/pnas.1208607109 Alison E. Murray Fabien Kenig Christian H. Fritsen Christopher P...of 1,188 base pairs. Neighbor-joining trees using pair-wise deletion were calculated in MEGA (v4) (29). UniFrac (30...

Alison E. Murray; Fabien Kenig; Christian H. Fritsen; Christopher P. McKay; Kaelin M. Cawley; Ross Edwards; Emanuele Kuhn; Diane M. McKnight; Nathaniel E. Ostrom; Vivian Peng; Adrian Ponce; John C. Priscu; Vladimir Samarkin; Ashley T. Townsend; Protima Wagh; Seth A. Young; Pung To Yung; Peter T. Doran

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

SciTech Connect: Experimental investigation of brine-CO2 flow...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Content: Close Send 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for pages...

196

The effects of viscosity and subsurface heterogeneity on a brine barrier approach to DNAPL remediation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) are a long-term source of groundwater contamination. Difficulties of current remediation methods have led to the study of a novel… (more)

Murphy, Lauren L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Engineered Treatment of As-laden Regeneration Brine from Ion Exchange Processes .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Arsenic (As) contamination of drinking water sources has been one of the most challenging global environmental issues. In the United States, the newly revised maximum… (more)

STEINWINDER, THOMAS

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Geophysical (time domain electromagnetic model) delineation of a shallow brine beneath a freshwater lake,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al., 1999] and (2) seepage from sediments beneath the lake [Braudo et al., 1970; Stiller et al., 1975; Stiller, 1994]. The average annual contribution of all sources is estimated to be 146,000 tons below lake's bottom, and to 2000­3500 mg/L at 5 m depth [Stiller, 1994]. On the basis of tritium data

Gvirtzman, Haim

199

Sampling and Analysis Procedures for Gas, Condensate, Brine, and Solids: Pleasant Bayou Well Test, 1988-Present  

SciTech Connect

This section covers analyses performed on gas. Chemical analyses can only be related to well performance if the quantity of the various fluids are known. The IGT on-line data computer system measures the flowrate, the pressures, and the temperatures every 10 seconds. These values are automatically recorded over operator selected intervals both on magnetic media and on paper. This allows review of samples versus operating conditions. This paper covers analyses performed on gas, including: An approximate sampling schedule during flow tests; On-site sample handling and storage of gas samples; Addresses of laboratories that perform off site analyses; Sample shipping instructions; Data archiving; and Quality Control/Quality Assurance. It is expected that the above procedures will change as the flow test progresses, but deviations from the written procedures should be approved by C. Hayden of IGT and noted on the results of the analysis.

Hayden, Chris

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Soils and Brine Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Hyperarid Desert Playa, Ouargla Basin,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

controlled by the following precipitation sequence: calcite > gypsum > mirabilite > halite. This sequence ðmirabilite-thenardite-halite paragenesis�, controlling the process of dissolution= precipitation of g

Ahmad, Sajjad

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry  

SciTech Connect

The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geothermal reservoir in terms of possible additional drilling and future power plant design. The field activities focused on downhole measurements in four production wells (ZCQ-3, ZCQ-4, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6). The teams took measurements of the wells in both static (shut-in) and flowing conditions, using the high-temperature well logging tools developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two well logging missions were conducted in the Zunil field. In October 1988 measurements were made in well ZCQ-3, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6. In December 1989 the second field operation logged ZCQ-4 and repeated logs in ZCQ-3. Both field operations included not only well logging but the collecting of numerous fluid samples from both thermal and nonthermal waters. 18 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

Adams, A.; Dennis, B.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Goff, F.; Lawton, R.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Archuleta, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Medina, V. (Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico)

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Gas Content of Gladys McCall Reservoir Brine A Topical Report  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

i g h enough t o i n j e c t t h e b r i n e i n t o the disposal w e l l . There are no pumps t.o push t h e britie down the disposal well. The second c r i t e r i o n i s t h e...

203

Effect of Brine on Hydrate Antiagglomeration J. Dalton York and Abbas Firoozabadi*,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production lines often favor formation of crystalline inclusion compounds known as gas hydrates. Water, 2008. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed March 19, 2009 Natural gas production poses a risk of flow-line hydrate blockage from coproduced water and hydrate- forming species. Our previous studies have focused

Firoozabadi, Abbas

204

Fault Detection and Diagnosis for Brine to Water Heat Pump Systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This research project is part of a wider project called Smart Fault Detection and Diagnosis for HeatPump Systems currently under development by the Royal… (more)

Vecchio, Daniel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Geologic origins of salinization in a semi-arid river: The role of sedimentary basin brines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...as it passes through three large and deep sedimentary...The results of all three isotopic systems exhibit...river, which includes three distinct inputs, a 5...supported by SAHRA (Sustainability of Semi-Arid Hydrology...Postel, S., 1999, Pillar of sand: Can the irrigation...

206

Saturation Kinetics of a Vertical Multilayer Hydraulic Sealing System Exposed to Rock Salt Brine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...issued: 22 Aug. 2002. Pusch, R. 2001. The buffer and backfill handbook. Part 2. Rep. TR-02-12. Svensk Karnbranslehantering AB, Stockholm. Pusch, R. 2003. The buffer and backfill handbook. Part 3. Rep. TR-03-07. Svensk Karnbranslehantering...

Katja Emmerich; Gerhard Kemper; Franz Königer; Stefan Schlaeger; Matthias Gruner; Wolfgang Gaßner; Martin Hofmann; Rolf Nüesch; Rainer Schuhmann

207

Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...opportunities . Environ Sci Technol 44 : 5679 – 5684 . 3 Howarth RW Ingraffea A Engelder T ( 2011 ) Natural gas: Should fracking stop? Nature 477 : 271 – 275 . 4 Osborn SG Vengosh A Warner NR Jackson RB ( 2011 ) Methane contamination of drinking water...

Nathaniel R. Warner; Robert B. Jackson; Thomas H. Darrah; Stephen G. Osborn; Adrian Down; Kaiguang Zhao; Alissa White; Avner Vengosh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

Utilizing EERE funds, ElectraTherm developed a geothermal technology that will generate electricity for less than $0.06 per kilowatt hour.

209

Microbial life at ?13 °C in the brine of an ice-sealed Antarctic lake  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Vida core-DVDP6 . Dry Valley Drilling Project Bulletin 3...Prospects for inferring very large phylogenies by using...indicates the location of the borehole. The white rectangle indicates...shores of Lake Vida showing two large Ferrar dolerite sills (darker...

Alison E. Murray; Fabien Kenig; Christian H. Fritsen; Christopher P. McKay; Kaelin M. Cawley; Ross Edwards; Emanuele Kuhn; Diane M. McKnight; Nathaniel E. Ostrom; Vivian Peng; Adrian Ponce; John C. Priscu; Vladimir Samarkin; Ashley T. Townsend; Protima Wagh; Seth A. Young; Pung To Yung; Peter T. Doran

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- User's Manual for the RealGasBrine...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us | Admin Log On HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot Docs News Related Links You are accessing a document from the...

211

Relative Permeability Experiments of Carbon Dioxide Displacing Brine and Their Implications for Carbon Sequestration.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??To continue running our civilization on fossil fuels while avoiding global warming and ocean acidification, anthropogenic carbon dioxide must be diverted from atmospheric release. For… (more)

Levine, Jonathan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Nevada: Geothermal Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

April at the Florida Canyon Mine, Nevada, marked the beginning of another promising clean energy commercial enterprise. The Geothermal Technologies Office researches, develops, and...

213

Membrane Desalination of Agricultural Drainage Water: Water Recovery Enhancement and Brine Minimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R.J. Petersen, Composite Reverse-Osmosis and NanofiltrationPilot-scale testing of reverse osmosis using conventionalY. Cohen, High- Recovery Reverse Osmosis Using Intermediate

Cohen, Yoram

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

THERMAL GRADIENT MIGRATION OF BRINE INCLUSIONS IN SYNTHETIC ALKALI HALIDE SINGLE CRYSTALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois This work was supported by the Director, Office of Energy Research,

Olander, D.R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Williston Basin: An analysis of salt drilling techniques for brine-based drilling-fluid systems  

SciTech Connect

Williston Basin salt intervals, ranging in depth from 5,000 to 12,500 ft (1525 to 3810 m), have been responsible for widespread casing collapse because of the plastic movement of evaporites and the subsequent point loading of casing. This phenomenon is attributable to poor cement jobs across excessively eroded salt sections. A 2-year study led to the realization that this erosion is a function of not only salt dissolution but also the mechanical action of turbulent flow in the wellbore. A laminar flow regime can be realized and salt enlargement limited by careful control of annular flow rate, jet velocity, and drilling-fluid rheology.

Stash, S.M.; Jones, M.E.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Microbial life at ?13 °C in the brine of an ice-sealed Antarctic lake  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...indicate that these organisms are well represented...last for a prolonged period, well in excess of its ?2,800...reduction in sediments from Gulf of Mexico cold seeps . Chem Geol 205 ( 3-4...Decker ER Bucher GJ ( 1982 ) Geothermal studies...

Alison E. Murray; Fabien Kenig; Christian H. Fritsen; Christopher P. McKay; Kaelin M. Cawley; Ross Edwards; Emanuele Kuhn; Diane M. McKnight; Nathaniel E. Ostrom; Vivian Peng; Adrian Ponce; John C. Priscu; Vladimir Samarkin; Ashley T. Townsend; Protima Wagh; Seth A. Young; Pung To Yung; Peter T. Doran

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Hydrogeology, chemical and microbial activity measurement through deep permafrost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

illustrated that drill brine contamination in permafrostDespite the contamination of drilling brine in the U-tubepermafrost, contamination with drilling brine can be over-

Stotler, R.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

String Phenomenology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Following Dyson's analogy between the quantum field theory and the 19th-century chemistry-both explain how but not why-one could also establish an analogy between atomic physics and string theory. Atomic physics was needed to answer the question why in chemistry, string theory is trying to answer the question why in the standard model. This attempt is very briefly reviewed in this talk. After discussing the phenomenological aspects of string theory, the study of soft terms is emphasized as a possible connection between theory and experiment. Special attention is paid to the issues of flavor changing neutral currents, loop effects, charge and color breaking minima, and M-theory versus weakly coupled string theory.

C. Muñoz

1998-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

219

Electroweak strings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We give detailed calculations showing the existence of string solutions in the Weinberg-Salam model. We argue that there exists a range of parameters for which the solutions are stable under small perturbations. Some properties of the solutions - such as vortex superconductivity and Aharanov-Bohm interactions - are briefly discussed. We also point out some consequences of these solutions.

Tanmay Vachaspati

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

November 21, 2008 To: Donald Reed LA-UR-09-01187  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Actinide(III) case: Americium in WIPP Brine #12;Figure 2 Actinide(V) case: Neptunium in WIPP Brine #12

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Site Characterization for CO2 Geologic Storage and Vice Versa -The Frio Brine Pilot as a Case Study  

SciTech Connect

Careful site characterization is critical for successfulgeologic sequestration of CO2, especially for sequestration inbrine-bearing formations that have not been previously used for otherpurposes. Traditional site characterization techniques such asgeophysical imaging, well logging, core analyses, interference welltesting, and tracer testing are all valuable. However, the injection andmonitoring of CO2 itself provides a wealth of additional information.Rather than considering a rigid chronology in which CO2 sequestrationoccurs only after site characterization is complete, we recommend thatCO2 injection and monitoring be an integral part of thesite-characterization process. The advantages of this approach arenumerous. The obvious benefit of CO2 injection is to provide informationon multi-phase flow properties, which cannot be obtained from traditionalsitecharacterization techniques that examine single-phase conditions.Additionally, the low density and viscosity of CO2 compared to brinecauses the two components to flow through the subsurface differently,potentially revealing distinct features of the geology. Finally, tounderstand sequestered CO2 behavior in the subsurface, there is nosubstitute for studying the movement of CO2 directly. Making CO2injection part of site characterization has practical benefits as well.The infrastructure for surface handling of CO2 (compression, heating,local storage) can be developed, the CO2 injection process can bedebugged, and monitoring techniques can be field-tested. Prior to actualsequestration, small amounts of CO2 may be trucked in. Later, monitoringaccompanying the actual sequestration operations may be used tocontinually refine and improve understanding of CO2 behavior in thesubsurface.

Doughty, Christine

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

222

A comparison of ichthyofaunal communities at two potential brine disposal areas in the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cruises 28 Mean weight (g) of fishes per trawl tow at West Hack- berry and Weeks Island stations during 1978-1979 sea- sonal cruises 29 Mean Shannon-Wiener values per trawl tow at West Hack- berry and Weeks Island stations during 1978-1979 sea- sonal... 28 Table 3 Mean number (n) of individuals per trawl tow at West Hack- cruises. Season West Hackberry All 2 6 8 10 14 Stations Summer Pall Winter Spring All Seasons 291. 0 684. 3 396. 0 2607. 0 242. 0 844. 1 186 3 534. 7 473. 7 219. 0 494...

Beene, Edward Lloyd

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

223

Predicting PVT data for CO2brine mixtures for black-oil simulation of CO2 geological storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

trapping mechanism. In the petroleum industry, compositional reservoir simu- lators use EOS thermodynamic Leonenko a a Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary, Canada b Department of Petroleum Engineering, Kuwait University, Kuwait 1. Introduction The sequestration of anthropogenic CO2

Santos, Juan

224

STUDIES ON THE USE OF CARBON DIOXIDE DISSOLVED IN REFRIGERATED BRINE FOR THE PRESERVATION OF WHOLE FISH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of water by species of low oil content, such as sole and cod, and an increase in total salt. Con- trolling, NO. Z, 1971. Use of carbon dioxide gas dissolved in re- frigerated seawater seemed promising as an in experiments on holding fish in tanks, carbon dioxide decreased the rate at which their quality was degraded

225

SciTech Connect: User's Manual for the RealGasBrine v1.0 Option...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text...

226

Brine flow up a borehole caused by pressure perturbation from CO2 storage: Static and dynamic evaluations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

10.1007/s12665-009-0401-1. NETL (National Energy Technologyfor Storage of CO 2 in Deep Geologic Formations, NETL ReportDOE/NETL-401/090808, November 2010. Nicot, J.P. , 2008.

Birkholzer, J.T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

The role of CO2 in CH4 exsolution from deep brine: Implications for geologic carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spreading under the shale where gas saturation is higher duecomposition of the gas above the shale is mainly CH 4 , andeffect of the shale remains as higher gas saturations are

Oldenburg, C.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Evaluation of Membrane Treatment Technology to Optimize and Reduce Hypersalinity Content of Produced Brine for Reuse in Unconventional Gas Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

scale were performed using pretreatment, microfiltration and nanofiltration processes. Membrane performance was selected based on high flux separation efficiency, high tolerance for solids and fluid treatments. Over 95 % solids rejection and greater...

Eboagwu, Uche

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

229

Dewetting of silica surfaces upon reactions with supercritical CO2 and brine: Pore-scale studies in micromodels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the Gas-Crude Oil-Reservoir Water System. J Chem Eng Datain Naturally Fractured Oil Reservoirs. Energ Fuel 2010, 24,CO 2 injected into depleted oil reservoirs may have faster

Kim, Y.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

String Gas Baryogenesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a possible realization of the spontaneous baryogenesis mechanism in the context of extra-dimensional string cosmology and specifically in the string gas scenario.

G. L. Alberghi

2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

231

Strings as solitons & black holes as strings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Supersymmetric closed string theories contain an infinite tower of BPS-saturated, oscillating, macroscopic strings in the perturbative spectrum. When these theories have dual formulations, this tower of states must exist nonperturbatively as solitons in the dual theories. We present a general class of exact solutions of low-energy supergravity that corresponds to all these states. After dimensional reduction they can be interpreted as supersymmetric black holes with a degeneracy related to the degeneracy of the string states. For example, in four dimensions we obtain a point-like solution which is asymptotic to a stationary, rotating, electrically-charged black hole with Regge-bounded angular momentum and with the usual ring-singularity replaced by a string source. This further supports the idea that the entropy of supersymmetric black holes can be understood in terms of counting of string states. We also discuss some applications of these solutions to string duality.

Atish Dabholkar; Jerome P. Gauntlett; Jeffrey A. Harvey; Daniel Waldram

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

An Open String Landscape  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effect of fluxes on open string moduli is studied by analyzing the constraints imposed by supersymmetry on D-branes in type IIB flux backgrounds. We show that generically the conditions of supersymmetry cannot be maintained when moving along the geometrical moduli space of the brane, so that open string moduli are lifted. We argue that there is a disconnected and discrete set of supersymmetric solutions to the open string equations of motion, which extends the familiar closed string landscape to the open string sector.

Jaume Gomis; Fernando Marchesano; David Mateos

2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

233

Handbook on string decay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explain simple semi-classical rules to estimate the lifetime of any given highly-excited quantum state of the string spectrum in flat spacetime. We discuss both the decays by splitting into two massive states and by massless emission. As an application, we study a solution describing a rotating and pulsating ellipse which becomes folded at an instant of time -- the ``squashing ellipse''. This string interpolates between the folded string with maximum angular momentum and the pulsating circular string. We explicitly compute the quantum decay rate for the corresponding quantum state, and verify the basic rules that we propose. Finally, we give a more general (4-parameter) family of closed string solutions representing rotating and pulsating elliptical strings.

Roberto Iengo; Jorge G. Russo

2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

234

Topics in String Phenomenology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider two questions in string ``phenomenology.'' First, are there any generic string predictions? Second, are there any general lessons which string theory suggests for thinking about low energy models, particularly in the framework of supersymmetry? Among the topics we consider are the squark and slepton spectrum, flavor symmetries, discrete symmetries including $CP$, and Peccei-Quinn symmetries. We also note that in some cases, discrete symmetries can be used to constrain the form of supersymmetry breaking.

Michael Dine

1993-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

235

Arenas for String Phenomenology String Phenomenology 2011, Madison  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Arenas for String Phenomenology String Phenomenology 2011, Madison Michael Dine Department of Physics University of California, Santa Cruz August, 2011 Michael Dine Arenas for String Phenomenology #12;Possible Arenas for a String Phenomenology 1 Hierarchy problem: LHC scale physics: supersymmetry, RS, large

California at Santa Cruz, University of

236

psvtm_model.eps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sandstone ? Brine + GH. Sandstone ? Brine. 200. 200. Sandstone ? Brine. x. z. 800. Vp=2200 m/s. Vs=1250 m/sSigma=1 S/m. Vp=4100 m/s. Vs=2300 ...

santos@gauss ()

237

Strings and Planck Oscillators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We contrast two theories which both start in one dimension at the Planck scale, viz., Quantum SuperString or M-Theory and a theory of Planck oscillations

B. G. Sidharth

2005-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

238

Hydroball string sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydroball string sensing system for a nuclear reactor that includes stainless tubes positioned to guide hydroball strings into and out of the nuclear reactor core. A sensor such as an ultrasonic transducer transmitter and receiver is positioned outside of the nuclear reactor core and adjacent to the tube. The presence of an object such a bullet member positioned at an end a hydroball string, or any one of the hydroballs interrupts the transmission of ultrasound from the transmitter to the receiver. Alternatively, if the bullet member and hydroballs include a ferritic material, either a Hall effect sensor or other magnetic field sensors such as a magnetic field rate of change sensor can be used to detect the location and position of a hydroball string. Placing two sensors along the tube with a known distance between the sensors enables the velocity of a hydroball string to be determined. This determined velocity can be used to control the flow rate of a fluid within the tube so as to control the velocity of the hydroball string.

Hurwitz, Michael J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Ekeroth, Douglas E. (Delmont, PA); Squarer, David (Pittsburgh, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

CX-010404: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination Replace Brine Disposal System Header to West Hackberry Brine Tanks, Government Furnished Equipment CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 04222013 Location(s):...

240

AN INVESTIGATION OF METALLURGICAL FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF ULTRA HIGH STRENGTH STEELS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

c °c Table IV. Ice brine quench cooling data from midsectionthat the ice brine quench results in a faster cooling rate

Wood, William E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Numerical Simulation in Applied Geophysics. From the Mesoscale to ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

due to patchy brine-CO2 saturation .... Case 4: A brine saturated sample with a fractal frame and ..... foods, groundwater flow and contamination among others.

santos

242

Multiscale modeling of surfactant phase behavior in the remediation of DNAPL contamination.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The brine barrier remediation technique (BBRT) has been proposed as a novel Brine barrier remediation techniques (BBRT) that use surfactants have been proposed for remediating… (more)

Fan, Xiangyu.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Acoustics in Porous Media. - Department of Mathematics, Purdue ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Case 4: A brine saturated sample with a fractal frame and ... Brine saturated medium with fractures. 2. .... groundwater flow and contamination among others.

robiel

244

California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

brines in California. Batteries from Brine California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand Mineral Recovery Creates Revenue Stream for Geothermal Energy Development...

245

Microsoft PowerPoint - 4 Chris Camphouse [Compatibility Mode...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

at the WIPP site. Brine inflow to the repository can increase direct brine releases. New data and analyses enabled a refinement to the probability of encountering pressurized...

246

Natural analogue synthesis report, TDR-NBS-GS-000027 rev00 icn 02  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Production Casing in Geothermal Wells." Geothermics, 18, (T-1 Typical Salton Sea Geothermal Well Brine6-2. Typical Salton Sea Geothermal Well Brine Composition I

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid rock discharges Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

dioxide from acidic brine. For a brine-rock ... Source: Heller, Paul - Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming Collection: Geosciences 55 Chapter 1....

248

What is Decidable about Strings?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove several decidability and undecidability results for the satisfiability/validity problem of formulas over a language of finite-length strings and integers (interpreted as lengths of strings). The atomic formulas ...

Ganesh, Vijay

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Notes on superconducting cosmic strings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Several problems in string electrodynamics are discussed. Electric currents induced in strings oscillating in stationary electric and magnetic fields are calculated. In some cases the currents grow linearly with time. The rate of pair production in the electromagnetic field of strings is estimated.

Mukunda Aryal; Alexander Vilenkin; Tanmay Vachaspati

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Development of bushings and bearings for use in hot-brine pumps. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, March 1-June 1, 1981  

SciTech Connect

The nature of the problems associated with premature failures of downhole line shaft bearings, especially those tested in the Imperial Valley, was studied. Problem Definition is complete. Phase II, 100-hour Screening Tests, is 80 percent completed with promising results. Significant testing procedure modifications have been made and are presented.

Not Available

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Fractionation of NaCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2 brines with a polyfunctional ion exchange resin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

softening, demineralizat1on, or sim1lar processes in which the objective is to remove undesirable 1ons. Ion exchange as a separation technique, that 1s, the recovery of two or more 1ons, has become 1ncreas1ngly important. Mayer and Tompk1ns (12.... Phys. 20, 1657 (1952). 11. McIlhenny, W. F. , M. S. Thesis, Texas A. and M. College (1958). 12 . Mayer, S. W. , Tompkins, E. R. , J. Am. Chem. Soc . 69, 2866 ( 1947) 1$. Nachod, F. C. , Schubert, J. , Ion Exchange Technolo Academic Press, N ew York...

Baker, Albert Byre

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Modeling CO{sub 2}-Brine-Rock Interaction Including Mercury and H{sub 2}S Impurities in the Context of CO{sub 2} Geologic Storage  

SciTech Connect

This study uses modeling and simulation approaches to investigate the impacts on injectivity of trace amounts of mercury (Hg) in a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) stream injected for geologic carbon sequestration in a sandstone reservoir at ~2.5 km depth. At the range of Hg concentrations expected (7-190 ppbV, or ~ 0.06-1.6 mg/std.m{sup 3}CO{sub 2}), the total volumetric plugging that could occur due to complete condensation of Hg, or due to complete precipitation of Hg as cinnabar, results in a very small porosity change. In addition, Hg concentration much higher than the concentrations considered here would be required for Hg condensation to even occur. Concentration of aqueous Hg by water evaporation into CO{sub 2} is also unlikely because the higher volatility of Hg relative to H{sub 2}O at reservoir conditions prevents the Hg concentration from increasing in groundwater as dry CO{sub 2} sweeps through, volatilizing both H{sub 2}O and Hg. Using a model-derived aqueous solution to represent the formation water, batch reactive geochemical modeling show that the reaction of the formation water with the CO{sub 2}-Hg mixture causes the pH to drop to about 4.7 and then become buffered near 5.2 upon reaction with the sediments, with a negligible net volume change from mineral dissolution and precipitation. Cinnabar (HgS(s)) is found to be thermodynamically stable as soon as the Hg-bearing CO{sub 2} reacts with the formation water which contains small amounts of dissolved sulfide. Liquid mercury (Hg(l)) is not found to be thermodynamically stable at any point during the simulation. Two-dimensional radial reactive transport simulations of CO{sub 2} injection at a rate of 14.8 kg/s into a 400 m-thick formation at isothermal conditions of 106°C and average pressure near 215 bar, with varying amounts of Hg and H{sub 2}S trace gases, show generally that porosity changes only by about ±0.05% (absolute, i.e., new porosity = initial porosity ±0.0005) with Hg predicted to readily precipitate from the CO{sub 2} as cinnabar in a zone mostly matching the single-phase CO{sub 2} plume. The precipitation of minerals other than cinnabar, however, dominates the evolution of porosity. Main reactions include the replacement of primarily Fe-chlorite by siderite, of calcite by dolomite, and of K-feldspar by muscovite. Chalcedony is also predicted to precipitate from the dissolution of feldspars and quartz. Although the range of predicted porosity change is quite small, the amount of dissolution and precipitation predicted for these individual minerals is not negligible. These reactive transport simulations assume that Hg gas behaves ideally. To examine effects of non-ideality on these simulations, approximate calculations of the fugacity coefficient of Hg in CO{sub 2} were made. Results suggest that Hg condensation could be significantly overestimated when assuming ideal gas behavior, making our simulation results conservative with respect to impacts on injectivity. The effect of pressure on Henry’s constant for Hg is estimated to yield Hg solubilities about 10% lower than when this effect is not considered, a change that is considered too small to affect the conclusions of this report. Although all results in this study are based on relatively mature data and modeling approaches, in the absence of experimental data and more detailed site-specific information, it is not possible to fully validate the results and conclusions.

Spycher, N.; Oldenburg, C.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

A Phase-Partitioning Model for CO2–Brine Mixtures at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures: Application to CO2-Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D.W. : A hot dry rock geothermal energy concept utilizinga renewed interest in geothermal energy, and particularly inThe Future of Geothermal Energy. (Massachusetts Institute of

Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

A Phase-Partitioning Model for CO2–Brine Mixtures at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures: Application to CO2-Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulations of dry-out and halite precipitation due to CO 2a reasonable approximation up to halite saturation (Spycher

Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Calcium Isotopic Variation in Marine Evaporites and Carbonates: Applications to Late Miocene Mediterranean Brine Chemistry and Late Cenozoic Calcium Cycling in the Oceans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

O)/anhydrite (CaSO 4 ) and halite (NaCl) have critical usesconsumption in the case of halite. Harvie et al. (1980)the ratio of anhydrite to halite in natural deposits than

Hensley, Tabitha Michele

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Assessing Uncertainty and Repeatability in Time-Lapse VSP Monitoring of CO2 Injection in a Brine Aquifer, Frio Formation, Texas (A Case Study)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to acknowledge Robert Romanosky (NETL Strategic Center forEnergy Technology Laboratory (NETL). It is a multi-national-national laboratories: NETL-RUA, Lawrence Berkeley National

Nazari, S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Capillary pressure saturation relations supercritical CO2 and brine in sand: High-pressure Pc(Sw) controller/meter measurements and capillary scaling predictions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technology Laboratory (NETL), U.S. Department of Energyto acknowledge Robert Romanosky (NETL Strate- gic Center fornational laboratories: NETL, Lawrence Berke- ley National

Tokunaga, T.K.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Integrated hydrothermal model for proposed deep crustal borehole on Texas Gulf Coast - origins of geopressured brines and lead-zinc, uranium, hydrocarbon, and cap-rock deposits  

SciTech Connect

Sediment accumulation over Jurassic salt in the Gulf coast has resulted in an interrelated sequential development of salt domes and diagenetic, hydrothermal, and hydrocarbon generation zones. Primary anhydrites within the salt with high /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios suggest early generation of underlying fluids rich in radiogenic strontium that were incorporated in the salt during its diapiric rise to the surface. Subsequently, late-stage, hydrocarbon-rich, saline hydrothermal fluids migrated up the margins of the salt domes, and caused precipitation of several generation of calcite cements, followed by uranium and Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc-barite deposits near or at salt dome rims. Present fluids in the lower Frio (deeper than 4270 m or 14,000 ft) at the Pleasant Bayou geopressured-geothermal test well (Brazoria County, Texas) are highly saline and enriched in iron, manganese, lead, zinc, and carbon dioxide, and are saturated in methane. These lower Frio waters must have migrated into the area recently because they are not in isotopic equilibrium with diagenetic albite cements formed at temperatures greater than 120/sup 0/C (248/sup 0/F) less than 7.5 million years ago. Isotopic and geochemical data suggest that the fluids trapped by geopressure in the lower Frio at the Pleasant Bayou well are the parent fluids of those causing salt dome cap-rock mineralization.

Light, M.P.R.; Posey, H.H.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

One-flow feed divided electrochemical reactor for indirect electrolytic production of hypochlorite from brine for swimming pool treatment-experimental and theoretical optimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A ‘two-compartment’ asymmetric electrochemical reactor, operating without electrodes polarity inversion, was designed and optimized for the chlorination of swimming pools. Gaseous chlorine, produced at the anode and absorbed in the alkalinized catholyte, provides the hypochlorite solution. Empiric equations providing the chloride concentration dependence on the initial current density magnitude were established. Experimental optimization of the effect of the various operating parameters allows a chloride conversion close to 50% with faradic yields higher than 80%, and a chlorine production of 1 kmol/day/m2 to be achieved. Macroscopic mass balance, was performed and the obtained theoretical results correlate with the experimental ones ( X theor . Cl - - X exper . Cl -  < 10%).

T. Tzedakis; Y. Assouan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Borehole closure and test zone volume determination program for brine-permeability test results within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant underground facility  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, hydrologic characterization in closed sections of boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has relied on measurements of pressure and temperature to establish the permeability of the host geological formations. There were no provisions for monitoring tool compliance and salt creep resulting from borehole closure. The new permeability test tool used to characterize the WIPP underground facility has been equipped with a series of sensors to measure the movement of the tool with respect to the borehole and borehole wall movement. A FORTRAN program can interpret the output data from each test and calculate the change in borehole radius, test zone length, and test zone volume. These values provide a correlation of fluid compressibility and tool compliance with the permeability results derived from the test data. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Jensen, A.L.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A Phase-Partitioning Model for CO2–Brine Mixtures at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures: Application to CO2-Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D.W. : A hot dry rock geothermal energy concept utilizingThe Future of Geothermal Energy. (Massachusetts Institute ofa renewed interest in geothermal energy, and particularly in

Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

CO2-Brine Surface Dissolution and Injection: CO2 Storage Enhancement Paul Emeka Eke, SPE, Mark Naylor, Stuart Haszeldine and Andrew Curtis, Scottish Centre for Carbon Storage,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are population increase, per capita GDP (also known as ``affluence level''), the energy intensity of the economy by the gross domestic product, GDP), energy production, E, carbon-based fuels used for energy production, C (E/GDP) and the carbon intensity of the energy system (C/E). The term E/GDP reflects the sectorial

263

Assessing Uncertainty and Repeatability in Time-Lapse VSP Monitoring of CO2 Injection in a Brine Aquifer, Frio Formation, Texas (A Case Study)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

national laboratories: NETL-RUA, Lawrence Berkeley NationalLaboratory (PNNL). The NETL-RUA is an applied research

Nazari, S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Probing the String Landscape  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

We are currently in the throes of a potentially huge paradigm shift in physics. Motivated by recent developments in string theory and the discovery of the so-called "string landscape", physicists are beginning to question the uniqueness of fundamental theories of physics and the methods by which such theories might be understood and investigated. In this colloquium, I will give a non-technical introduction to the nature of this paradigm shift and how it developed. I will also discuss some of the questions to which it has led, and the nature of the controversies it has spawned.

Keith Dienes

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

265

Current balancing for battery strings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

Galloway, James H. (New Baltimore, MI)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Cosmic strings and superstrings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...different from unity, the standard field-theory value, then...mu and P, hence to rule out standard field-theory cosmic strings...interest, and allow us to plan further observations to probe...Anniversary Series: a collection of reviews celebrating the Royal Societys...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Cosmic String Loop Microlensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cosmic superstring loops within the galaxy microlens background point sources lying close to the observer-string line of sight. For suitable alignments, multiple paths coexist and the (achromatic) flux enhancement is a factor of two. We explore this unique type of lensing by numerically solving for geodesics that extend from source to observer as they pass near an oscillating string. We characterize the duration of the flux doubling and the scale of the image splitting. We probe and confirm the existence of a variety of fundamental effects predicted from previous analyses of the static infinite straight string: the deficit angle, the Kaiser-Stebbins effect, and the scale of the impact parameter required to produce microlensing. Our quantitative results for dynamical loops vary by O(1) factors with respect to estimates based on infinite straight strings for a given impact parameter. A number of new features are identified in the computed microlensing solutions. Our results suggest that optical microlensing can offer a new and potentially powerful methodology for searches for superstring loop relics of the inflationary era.

Jolyon K. Bloomfield; David F. Chernoff

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

268

Cosmic strings from preheating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate nonthermal phase transitions that may occur after post-inflationary preheating in a simple model of a two-component scalar field with the effective potential ?(?i2?v2)2/4, where ?1 is identified with the inflaton field. We use three-dimensional lattice simulations to investigate the full nonlinear dynamics of the model. Fluctuations of the fields generated during and after preheating temporarily make the effective potential convex in the ?1 direction. The subsequent nonthermal phase transition with symmetry breaking leads to formation of cosmic strings even for v?1016 GeV. This mechanism of string formation, in a modulated (by the oscillating field ?1) phase transition, is different from the usual Kibble mechanism.

I. Tkachev; S. Khlebnikov; L. Kofman; A. Linde

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Axions in String Theory  

SciTech Connect

In the context of string theory, axions appear to provide the most plausible solution of the strong CP problem. However, as has been known for a long time, in many string-based models, the axion coupling parameter Fa is several orders of magnitude higher than the standard cosmological bounds. We re-examine this problem in a variety of models, showing that Fa is close to the GUT scale or above in many models that have GUT-like phenomenology, as well as some that do not. On the other hand, in some models with Standard Model gauge fields supported on vanishing cycles, it is possible for Fa to be well below the GUT scale.

Svrcek, Peter; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Witten, Edward; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

2006-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

270

Coulomb string tension, asymptotic string tension, and the gluon chain  

We compute, via numerical simulations, the non-perturbative Coulomb potential and position-space ghost propagator in pure SU(3) gauge theory in Coulomb gauge. We find that that the Coulomb potential scales nicely in accordance with asymptotic freedom, that the Coulomb potential is linear in the infrared, and that the Coulomb string tension is about four times larger than the asymptotic string tension. We explain how it is possible that the asymptotic string tension can be lower than the Coulomb string tension by a factor of four.

Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Dynamics of strings between walls  

SciTech Connect

Configurations of vortex-strings stretched between or ending on domain walls were previously found to be 1/4 BPS states. Among zero modes of string positions, the center of mass of strings in each region between two adjacent domain walls is shown to be non-normalizable whereas the rests are normalizable. We study dynamics of vortex-strings stretched between separated domain walls by using two methods, the moduli space (geodesic) approximation of full 1/4 BPS states and the charged particle approximation for string endpoints in the wall effective action. In the first method we obtain the effective Lagrangian explicitly and find the 90 degree scattering for head-on collision. In the second method the domain wall effective action is assumed to be U(1){sup N} gauge theory, and we find a good agreement between two methods for well separated strings. This talk is based on the work [1].

Eto, Minoru [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo, 3, Ed. C, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nagashima, Takayuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Nitta, Muneto [Department of Physics, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan); Ohashi, Keisuke [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Sakai, Norisuke [Department of Mathematics, Tokyo Woman's Christian University, Tokyo 167-8585 (Japan)

2008-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

272

Comparing Double String Theory Actions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aimed to a deeper comprehension of a manifestly T-dual invariant formulation of string theory, in this paper a detailed comparison between the non-covariant action proposed by Tseytlin and the covariant one proposed by Hull is done. These are obtained by making both the string coordinates and their duals explicitly appear, on the same foot, in the world-sheet action, so "doubling" the string coordinates along the compact dimensions. After a discussion of the nature of the constraints in both the models and the relative quantization, it results that the string coordinates and their duals behave like "non-commuting" phase space type coordinates but their expressions in terms of Fourier modes generate the oscillator algebra of the standard bosonic string formulation. A proof of the equivalence of the two formulations is given. Furthermore, open-string solutions are also discussed.

Luca De Angelis; S. J. Gabriele Gionti; Raffaele Marotta; Franco Pezzella

2013-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

273

From Bosonic Strings to Fermions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Early string theory described Bosonic particles at the real life Compton scale. Later developments to include Fermions initiated by Ramond and others have lead through Quantum Super Strings to M-theory operating at the as yet experimentally unattainable Planck scale. We describe an alternative route from Bosonic Strings to Fermions, by directly invoking a non commutative geometry, an approach which is closer to experiment.

B. G. Sidharth

2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

274

Physics of String Flux Compactifications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide a qualitative review of flux compactifications of string theory, focusing on broad physical implications and statistical methods of analysis.

Frederik Denef; Michael R. Douglas; Shamit Kachru

2007-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

275

The Seductive Melody of the Strings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...behave like mathematical points. String theory says no, there is a...mode of vibration of a minute oscillating string. To use a classical image...mode of vibration of a minute oscillating string. To use a classical image...

Sidney Perkowitz

1999-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

276

INVESTIGATIONS ON THE USE OF ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMMETRY FOR THE ANALYSES OF LEAD IN SALINE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

brines, and volcanic outgassing (Handbook of Geochemistry, 1974, p.82-I-l): (c) industrial contamination

Case, Charles W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

American Mineralogist, Volume 90, pages 371381, 2005 0003-004X/05/0203371$05.00/DOI: 10.2138/am.2005.1599 371  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, amorphous silica is often contaminated with metals in higher salinity brines. The most common metal silicate in geothermal brines commonly range from 0.5 to 20 wt%. When these brines are brought to the surface through of the brines, while concentrat- ing the dissolved solids. Consequently, Ã?ashing usually results

278

LUCI: A facility at DUSEL for large-scale experimental study of geologic carbon sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vertically through unconsolidated porous media, and thewill be filled with unconsolidated quartz sand and brine. A

Peters, C. A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

The vibrating inhomogeneous string  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We solve the integral equation that describes an oscillating inhomogeneous string by using a spectral expansion method in terms of Chebyshev polynomials. The result is compared with the solution of the corresponding differential equation obtained by an expansion into a set of sine-wave functions. The accuracy of the two methods is determined by comparison with an iterative method which allows a precision of one part in 10 11 . This iterative method is based on a method introduced by Hartree and is implemented by using the spectral expansion procedures.

George Rawitscher; Jakob Liss

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Nonlinear resonance in vibrating strings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple stretched string driven sinusoidally is commonly used to illustrate the concepts of resonance and eigenmodes. In practice such a system rarely executes planar oscillation but prefers circular motion. This is shown to be a consequence of the intrinsic nonlinearity of the stretched string oscillator and the associated parametric coupling between the two transverse polarizations.

John A. Elliott

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Subcritical String and Large N QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We pursue the possibility of using subcritical string theory in 4 space-time dimensions to establish a string dual for large N QCD. In particular we study the even G-parity sector of the 4 dimensional Neveu-Schwarz dual resonance model as the natural candidate for this string theory. Our point of view is that the open string dynamics given by this model will {\\it determine} the appropriate subcritical closed string theory, a tree level background of which should describe the sum of planar multi-loop open string diagrams. We examine the one loop open string diagram, which contains information about the closed string spectrum at weak coupling. Higher loop open string diagrams will be needed to determine closed string interactions. We also analyze the field theory limit of the one loop open string diagram and recover the correct running coupling behavior of the limiting gauge theory.

Charles B. Thorn

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

282

Subcritical string and large N QCD  

SciTech Connect

We pursue the possibility of using subcritical string theory in 4 spacetime dimensions to establish a string dual for large N QCD. In particular we study the even G-parity sector of the 4 dimensional Neveu-Schwarz dual resonance model as the natural candidate for this string theory. Our point of view is that the open string dynamics given by this model will determine the appropriate subcritical closed string theory, a tree level background of which should describe the sum of planar multiloop open string diagrams. We examine the one-loop open string diagram, which contains information about the closed string spectrum at weak coupling. Higher loop open string diagrams will be needed to determine closed string interactions. We also analyze the field theory limit of the one-loop open string diagram and recover the correct running coupling behavior of the limiting gauge theory.

Thorn, Charles B. [Institute for Fundamental Theory, Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville Florida 32611 (United States)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

283

Instability of colliding metastable strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The breaking of $U(1)_R$ symmetry plays a crucial role in modeling the breaking of supersymmetry (SUSY). In the models that possess both SUSY preserving and SUSY breaking vacua, tube-like cosmic strings called R-tubes, whose surfaces are constituted by domain walls interpolating a false and a true vacuum with some winding numbers, can exist. Their (in)stability can strongly constrain SUSY breaking models theirselves. In the present study, we investigate the dynamical (in)stability of two colliding metastable tube-like strings by field-theoretic simulations. From them, we find that the strings become unstable, depending on the relative collision angle and speed of two strings, and the false vacuum is eventually filled out by the true vacuum owing to rapid expansion of the strings or unstable bubbles created as remnants of the collision.

Takashi Hiramatsu; Minoru Eto; Kohei Kamada; Tatsuo Kobayashi; Yutaka Ookouchi

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

284

Friction domination with superconducting strings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate the evolution of a superconducting string network with arbitrary, constant string current in the friction dominated regime. In the absence of an external magnetic field the network always reaches a scaling solution. However, for string current stronger than a critical value, it is different than the usual horizon scaling of the nonsuperconducting string case. In this case the friction domination era never ends. Whilst the superconducting string network can be much denser than usually assumed, it can never dominate the universe energy density. It can, however, influence the cosmic microwave background radiation and the formation of large scale structure. When embedded in a primordial magnetic field of sufficient strength, the network never reaches scaling and, thus, eventually dominates the universe evolution.

Konstantinos Dimopoulos and Anne-Christine Davis

1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Dynamical String Tension in String Theory with Spacetime Weyl Invariance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fundamental string length, which is an essential part of string theory, explicitly breaks scale invariance. However, in field theory we demonstrated recently that the gravitational constant, which is directly related to the string length, can be promoted to a dynamical field if the standard model coupled to gravity (SM+GR) is lifted to a locally scale (Weyl) invariant theory. The higher gauge symmetry reveals previously unknown field patches whose inclusion turn the classically conformally invariant SM+GR into a geodesically complete theory with new cosmological and possibly further physical consequences. In this paper this concept is extended to string theory by showing how it can be Weyl lifted with a local scale symmetry acting on target space background fields. In this process the string tension (fundamental string length) is promoted to a dynamical field, in agreement with the parallel developments in field theory. We then propose a string theory in a geodesically complete cosmological stringy background which suggests previously unimagined directions in the stringy exploration of the very early universe.

Itzhak Bars; Paul Steinhardt; Neil Turok

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

286

Emergence String and Mass Formulas of Hadrons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assume that hadrons are formed from the emergence string. Usual string should possess two moving states: oscillation and rotation, so we propose corresponding potential and the equation of the emergence string, whose energy spectrum is namely the GMO mass formula and its modified accurate mass formula. These are some relations between the string and observable experimental data.

Yi-Fang Chang

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

287

String bit models for superstring  

SciTech Connect

The authors extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. They mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei invariant theory in (D {minus} 2) + 1 dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in D {minus} 2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in D dimensional space-time enjoying the full N = 2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring.

Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

The LHC String Hunter's Companion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mass scale of fundamental strings can be as low as few TeV/c^2 provided that spacetime extends into large extra dimensions. We discuss the phenomenological aspects of weakly coupled low mass string theory related to experimental searches for physics beyond the Standard Model at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We consider the extensions of the Standard Model based on open strings ending on D-branes, with gauge bosons due to strings attached to stacks of D-branes and chiral matter due to strings stretching between intersecting D-branes. We focus on the model-independent, universal features of low mass string theory. We compute, collect and tabulate the full-fledged string amplitudes describing all 2->2 parton scattering subprocesses at the leading order of string perturbation theory. We cast our results in a form suitable for the implementation of stringy partonic cross sections in the LHC data analysis. The amplitudes involving four gluons as well as those with two gluons plus two quarks do not depend on the compactification details and are completely model-independent. They exhibit resonant behavior at the parton center of mass energies equal to the masses of Regge resonances. The existence of these resonances is the primary signal of string physics and should be easy to detect. On the other hand, the four-fermion processes like quark-antiquark scattering include also the exchanges of heavy Kaluza-Klein and winding states, whose details depend on the form of internal geometry. They could be used as ``precision tests'' in order to distinguish between various compactification scenarios.

Dieter Lust; Stephan Stieberger; Tomasz R. Taylor

2008-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

289

Unravelling Strings at the LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct LHC signature footprints for four semi-realistic string/$M$ theory vacua with an MSSM visible sector. We find that they all give rise to limited regions in LHC signature space, and are qualitatively different from each other for understandable reasons. We also propose a technique in which correlations of LHC signatures can be effectively used to distinguish among these string theory vacua. We expect the technique to be useful for more general string vacua. We argue that further systematic analysis with this approach will allow LHC data to disfavor or exclude major ``corners'' of string/$M$ theory and favor others. The technique can be used with limited integrated luminosity and improved.

Gordon L. Kane; Piyush Kumar; Jing Shao

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

290

Dynamics of strings between walls  

SciTech Connect

Configurations of vortex strings stretched between or ending on domain walls were previously found to be 1/4 Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) states in N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories in 3+1 dimensions. Among zero modes of string positions, the center of mass of strings in each region between two adjacent domain walls is shown to be non-normalizable whereas the rests are normalizable. We study dynamics of vortex strings stretched between separated domain walls by using two methods, the moduli space (geodesic) approximation of full 1/4 BPS states and the charged particle approximation for string end points in the wall effective action. In the first method we explicitly obtain the effective Lagrangian in the strong coupling limit, which is written in terms of hypergeometric functions, and find the 90 deg. scattering for head-on collision. In the second method the domain wall effective action is assumed to be U(1){sup N} gauge theory, and we find a good agreement between two methods for well-separated strings.

Eto, Minoru [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo, 3, Ed. C, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Pisa Largo Pontecorvo, 3, Ed. C, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nagashima, Takayuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Nitta, Muneto [Department of Physics, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan); Ohashi, Keisuke [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Sakai, Norisuke [Department of Mathematics, Tokyo Woman's Christian University, Tokyo 167-8585 (Japan)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Topological Strings from Quantum Mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a general correspondence which associates a non-perturbative quantum-mechanical operator to a toric Calabi-Yau manifold, and we conjecture an explicit formula for its spectral determinant in terms of an M-theoretic version of the topological string free energy. As a consequence, we derive an exact quantization condition for the operator spectrum, in terms of the vanishing of a generalized theta function. The perturbative part of this quantization condition is given by the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the refined topological string, but there are non-perturbative corrections determined by the conventional topological string. We analyze in detail the cases of local P2, local P1xP1 and local F1. In all these cases, the predictions for the spectrum agree with the existing numerical results. We also show explicitly that our conjectured spectral determinant leads to the correct spectral traces of the corresponding operators, which are closely related to topological string theory at orbifold points. Physically, our results provide a Fermi gas picture of topological strings on toric Calabi-Yau manifolds, which is fully non-perturbative and background independent. They also suggest the existence of an underlying theory of M2 branes behind this formulation. Mathematically, our results lead to precise, surprising conjectures relating the spectral theory of functional difference operators to enumerative geometry.

Alba Grassi; Yasuyuki Hatsuda; Marcos Marino

2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

292

Dynamic cosmic strings. II. Numerical evolution of excited cosmic strings U. Sperhake,* K. R. P. Sjodin,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the string to oscillate at frequencies proportional to the masses of the scalar and vector fields of the string. After the pulse has largely radiated away the string continues to ring but the oscillations that this interaction causes the string fields S and P to oscillate and examine how this oscillation depends upon both

Vickers, James

293

Acoustic data transmission through a drill string  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Acoustical signals are transmitted through a drill string by canceling upward moving acoustical noise and by preconditioning the data in recognition of the comb filter impedance characteristics of the drill string. 5 figs.

Drumheller, D.S.

1988-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

294

String spectra near some null cosmological singularities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct cosmological spacetimes with null Kasner-like singularities as purely gravitational solutions with no other background fields turned on. These can be recast as anisotropic plane-wave spacetimes by coordinate transformations. We analyse string quantization to find the spectrum of string modes in these backgrounds. The classical string modes can be solved for exactly in these time-dependent backgrounds, which enables a detailed study of the near singularity string spectrum, (time-dependent) oscillator masses and wavefunctions. We find that for low lying string modes(finite oscillation number), the classical near-singularity string mode functions are non-divergent for various families of singularities. Furthermore, for any infinitesimal regularization of the vicinity of the singularity, we find a tower of string modes of ultra-high oscillation number which propagate essentially freely in the background. The resulting picture suggests that string interactions are non-negligible near the singularity.

Kallingalthodi Madhu; K. Narayan

2009-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

295

Repetitions in strings: algorithms and combinatorics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is that stuttering is likely to slow down any string-matching algorithm. The analysis of periods is even more

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

296

Self-excited cosmic string dynamos  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... When an oscillating cosmic ... cosmic string loop crosses a stationary magnetic field line, two sets of charge carriers are produced. ...

David N. Spergel; William H. Press; Robert J. Scherrer

1988-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

297

String Theory at Snowmass Michael Dine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an opportunity for members of the string theory community to learn about issues we face in making decisions aboutString Theory at Snowmass Michael Dine Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (Dated: September 23, 2002) This is the summary talk for the String Theory

California at Santa Cruz, University of

298

Grand unified strings and galaxy formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility that topologically stable strings formed at a grand unification phase transition led to galaxy formation is discussed. A large class of solutions describing non-self-intersecting loops is presented. The gravitational field and power radiated from a simple class of oscillating configurations of string is calculated, and the possibility of its detection discussed. Unique features of the string scenario are emphasized.

Neil Turok

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Cosmic string scaling in flat space  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate the evolution of infinite strings as a part of a complete cosmic string network in flat space. We perform a simulation of the network which uses functional forms for the string position and thus is exact to the limits of computer arithmetic. Our results confirm that the wiggles on the strings obey a scaling law described by universal power spectrum. The average distance between long strings also scales accurately with the time. These results suggest that small-scale structure will also scale in an expanding universe, even in the absence of gravitational damping.

Vitaly Vanchurin; Ken Olum; Alexander Vilenkin

2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

300

Topological Strings from Quantum Mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a general correspondence which associates a non-perturbative quantum-mechanical operator to a toric Calabi-Yau manifold, and we conjecture an explicit formula for its spectral determinant in terms of an M-theoretic version of the topological string free energy. As a consequence, we derive an exact quantization condition for the operator spectrum, in terms of the vanishing of a generalized theta function. The perturbative part of this quantization condition is given by the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the refined topological string, but there are non-perturbative corrections determined by the conventional topological string. We analyze in detail the cases of local P2, local P1xP1 and local F1. In all these cases, the predictions for the spectrum agree with the existing numerical results. We also show explicitly that our conjectured spectral determinant leads to the correct spectral traces of the corresponding operators, which are closely related to topological string theory at orbifold points. Phys...

Grassi, Alba; Marino, Marcos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Energy in a String Wave  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When one end of a taut horizontal elastic string is shaken repeatedly up and down a transverse wave (assume sine waveform) will be produced and travel along it.1 College students know this type of wave motion well. They know when the wave passes by each element of the string will perform an oscillating up?down motion which in mechanics is termed simple harmonic 2. They also know elements of the string at the highest and the lowest positions—the crests and the troughs—are momentarily at rest while those at the centerline (zero displacement) have the greatest speed as shown in Fig. 1. Irrespective of this they are less familiar with the energy associated with the wave. They may fail to answer a question such as “In a traveling string wave which elements have respectively the greatest kinetic energy (KE) and the greatest potential energy (PE)?” The answer to the former is not difficult; elements at zero position have the fastest speed and hence their KE being proportional to the square of speed is the greatest. To the PE what immediately comes to their mind may be the simple harmonic motion (SHM) in which the PE is the greatest and the KE is zero at the two turning points. It may thus lead them to think elements at crests or troughs have the greatest PE. Unfortunately this association is wrong. Thinking that the crests or troughs have the greatest PE is a misconception.3

Chiu?king Ng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Project Title  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

William Bourcier William Bourcier Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Meeting Developing the Technologies and Infrastructure for CCS August 20-22, 2013 Saline Aquifer Brine Production Well Brine Injection Well Chiller Pretreatment Desalination Brine Permeate To power plant or other use Storage pump CO 2 injection Concept is to extract and desalinate aquifer brines to create fresh water and space for CO 2 storage cap-rock 3 Presentation Outline * Overview, Purpose, Goals and Benefits * Technical status - Brine treatment and disposition - Reservoir management * Accomplishments * Summary and Planned work Goals and Objectives Technical Goals Potential advantages of brine

303

---DRAFT ---IASSNSHEP97/72 VIII. Heterotic Strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

string construction relies on the independence of the oscillator modes of left and right moving sectors--- DRAFT --- IASSNS­HEP­97/72 Lecture 13 VIII. Heterotic Strings Eric D'Hoker So far, the only string theory, where gauge charges were appended to the end points of open strings. Heterotic string

304

Resumming the string perturbation series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the resummation of a perturbative genus expansion appearing in the type II superstring dual of ABJM theory. Although the series is Borel summable, its Borel resummation does not agree with the exact non-perturbative answer due to the presence of complex instantons. The same type of behavior appears in the WKB quantization of the quartic oscillator in Quantum Mechanics, which we analyze in detail as a toy model for the string perturbation series. We conclude that, in these examples, Borel summability is not enough for extracting non-perturbative information, due to non-perturbative effects associated to complex instantons. We also analyze the resummation of the genus expansion for topological string theory on local $\\mathbb P^1 \\times \\mathbb P^1$, which is closely related to ABJM theory. In this case, the non-perturbative answer involves membrane instantons computed by the refined topological string, which are crucial to produce a well-defined result. We give evidence that the Borel resummation of the perturbative series requires such a non-perturbative sector.

Alba Grassi; Marcos Marino; Szabolcs Zakany

2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

305

Cosmological Consequences of String Axions  

SciTech Connect

Axion fluctuations generated during inflation lead to isocurvature and non-Gaussian temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Following a previous analysis for the model independent string axion we consider the consequences of a measurement of these fluctuations for two additional string axions. We do so independent of any cosmological assumptions except for the axions being massless during inflation. The first axion has been shown to solve the strong CP problem for most compactifications of the heterotic string while the second axion, which does not solve the strong CP problem, obeys a mass formula which is independent of the axion scale. We find that if gravitational waves interpreted as arising from inflation are observed by the PLANCK polarimetry experiment with a Hubble constant during inflation of H{sub inf} {approx}> 10{sup 13} GeV the existence of the first axion is ruled out and the second axion cannot obey the scale independent mass formula. In an appendix we quantitatively justify the often held assumption that temperature corrections to the zero temperature QCD axion mass may be ignored for temperatures T {approx}< {Lambda}{sub QCD}.

Kain, Ben

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Gravitational waves versus cosmic strings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The equation which governs the temporal evolution of a gravitational wave (GW) in curved space-time can be treated as the Schrodinger equation for a particle moving in the presence of an effective potential. When GWs propagate in an expanding Universe with constant effective potential, there is a critical value (kc) of the comoving wave-number which discriminates the metric perturbations into oscillating (k > kc) and non-oscillating (k kc) modes. The effective potential is reduced to a non-vanishing constant in a cosmological model which is driven by a two-component fluid, consisting of radiation (dominant) and cosmic strings (subdominant). However, the cosmological evolution (gradually) results in the scaling of any long-cosmic-string network and, therefore, after some time (??) the Universe enters in the pure-radiation epoch. The evolution of the non-oscillatory GW modes during ??, results in the distortion of the low-frequency part of the stochastic GW power-spectrum, which, therefore, departs from scale invariance (anticipated in the pure-radiation case). As regards the corresponding high-frequency part (which is determined by the evolution of the oscillating modes), we find that the presence of cosmic strings gives rise to the quantum-gravitational creation of gravitons, leading to the amplification of the GW signal by (almost) two orders of magnitude.

Kostas Kleidis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Resumming the string perturbation series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the resummation of a perturbative genus expansion appearing in the type II superstring dual of ABJM theory. Although the series is Borel summable, its Borel resummation does not agree with the exact non-perturbative answer due to the presence of complex instantons. The same type of behavior appears in the WKB quantization of the quartic oscillator in Quantum Mechanics, which we analyze in detail as a toy model for the string perturbation series. We conclude that Borel summability is not enough for extracting non-perturbative information, and one has to add explicit non-perturbative effects associated to complex instantons. We also analyze the resummation of the genus expansion for topological string theory on local P1xP1, which is closely related to ABJM theory. In this case, the non-perturbative answer involves membrane instantons computed by the refined topological string, which are crucial to produce a well-defined result. We give evidence that the Borel resummation of the perturbative series requires such a non-perturbative sector.

Alba Grassi; Marcos Marino; Szabolcs Zakany

2014-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

308

Resumming the string perturbation series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study the resummation of a perturbative genus expansion appearing in the type II superstring dual of ABJM theory. Although the series is Borel summable, its Borel resummation does not agree with the exact non-perturbative answer due to the presence of complex instantons. The same type of behavior appears in the WKB quantization of the quartic oscillator in Quantum Mechanics, which we analyze in detail as a toy model for the string perturbation series. We conclude that Borel summability is not enough for extracting non-perturbative information, and one has to add explicit non-perturbative effects associated to complex instantons. We also analyze the resummation of the genus expansion for topological string theory on local P1xP1, which is closely related to ABJM theory. In this case, the non-perturbative answer involves membrane instantons computed by the refined topological string, which are crucial to produce a well-defined result. We give evidence that the Borel resummati...

Grassi, Alba; Zakany, Szabolcs

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Microphysics of SO(10) cosmic strings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We uncover a rich microphysical structure for SO(10) cosmic strings. For the Abelian string the electroweak symmetry is restored around it in a region depending on the electroweak scale. Four distinct non-Abelian strings are found. Some of these also restore the electroweak symmetry. We investigate the zero mode structure of our strings. Whilst there are right-handed neutrino zero modes for the Abelian string, they do not survive the electroweak phase transition in the case of the lowest energy solution. We elucidate the zero mode structure for the non-Abelian strings above and below the electroweak phase transition. We consider the generalization of our results to other theories and consider the cosmological consequences of them.

Anne-Christine Davis and Stephen C. Davis

1997-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

Loop Gas Model for Open Strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The open string with one-dimensional target space is formulated in terms of an SOS, or loop gas, model on a random surface. We solve an integral equation for the loop amplitude with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions imposed on different pieces of its boundary. The result is used to calculate the mean values of order and disorder operators, to construct the string propagator and find its spectrum of excitations. The latter is not sensible neither to the string tension $\\L$ nor to the mass $\\mu$ of the ``quarks'' at the ends of the string. As in the case of closed strings, the SOS formulation allows to construct a Feynman diagram technique for the string interaction amplitudes.

V. Kazakov; I. Kostov

1992-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

311

Parametric resonance and nonlinear string vibrations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Periodic changes in the tension of a taut string parametrically excite transverse motion in the string when the driving frequency is close to twice the natural frequency of any transverse normal mode of the string. The literature on this phenomenon is synthesized and extended to include the effects of damping as well as nonlinearity. It is shown that it is nonlinearity rather than damping that limits the growth of a resonantly excited mode although damping is needed for steady-state oscillations to occur. The validity of the usual approximation that the string tension depends only on time and not on space is checked by modeling a string as point masses joined by massless linear springs. It is found that although this approximation is likely to be violated in practice the violation does not have a significant effect on the results. The source of the disagreement in the literature for the speed of longitudinal waves in a stretched string is identified.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Gamma Ray Bursts from Ordinary Cosmic Strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give an upper estimate for the number of gamma ray bursts from ordinary (non-superconducting) cosmic strings expected to be observed at terrestrial detectors. Assuming that cusp annihilation is the mechanism responsible for the bursts we consider strings arising at a GUT phase transition and compare our estimate with the recent BATSE results. Further we give a lower limit for the effective area of future detectors designed to detect the cosmic string induced flux of gamma ray bursts.

R. H. Brandenberger; A. T. Sornborger; M. Trodden

1993-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

313

Four Dimensional Supergravity from String Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A derivation of N=1 supergravity action from string theory is presented. Starting from a Nambu-Goto bosonic string, matter field is introduced to obtain a superstring in four dimension. The excitation quanta of this string contain graviton and the gravitino. Using the principle of equivalence, the action in curved space time are found and the sum of them is the Deser-Zumino N=1 supergravity action. The energy tensor is Lorentz invariant due to supersymmetry.

B. B. Deo

2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

314

Electroweak strings, zero modes and baryon number  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Dirac equations for leptons and quarks in the background of an electroweak Z—string have zero mode solutions. If two loops of electroweak string are linked, the zero modes on one of the loops interacts with the other loop via an Aharanov-Bohm interaction. The effects of this interaction are briefly discussed and it is shown that the fermions induce a baryon number on linked loops of Z—string.

Tanmay Vachaspati

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Quantum strings and the functional calculus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The field theory of strings is developed using the functional calculus as a practical technique. A Schrödinger-type equation and its eigensolutions are derived in light-cone coordinates. Vertices and amplitudes are represented entirely in a Fock space of second-quantized functionals. Two different open-string interactions are explicitly investigated. The three- and four-string vertex functionals are calculated for arbitrary times and compared with the asymptotic expressions obtained by other authors. We discuss how more exotic string configurations can be incorporated into the theory and emphasize the utility of the functional calculus in describing these topologies.

J. F. L. Hopkinson; R. W. Tucker; P. A. Collins

1975-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Detailed stability analysis of electroweak strings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We give a detailed stability analysis of the Z-string in the standard electroweak model. We identify the mode that determines the stability of the string and numerically map the region of parameter space where the string is stable. For sin2?W = 0.23, we find that the strings are unstable for a Higgs mass larger than 23 GeV. Given the latest constraints of the Higgs mass from LEP, this shows that, if the standard electroweak model is realized in nature, the existing vortex solutions are unstable.

Margaret James; Leandros Perivolaropoulos; Tanmay Vachaspati

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

8.251 String Theory for Undergraduates, Spring 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction to the main concepts of string theory to undergraduates. Since string theory is quantum mechanics of a relativistic string, the foundations of the subject can be explained to students exposed to both special ...

Zwiebach, Barton

318

Recent Progress in Weakly-Coupled Heterotic String Phenomenology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coupled Heterotic String Phenomenology Yi-Yen Wu TheoreticalHeterotic String Phenomenology ? arXiv:hep-ph/9707498v1 28coupled heterotic string phenomenology are reviewed. We

Wu, Yi-Yen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Oscillating String as a Force Sensor in Scanning Force Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a sensor that uses an oscillating string to detect forces. A cantilever beam serves as a sample stage. The string is attached to the free end of ... the free end of the beam modifies the string tension...

A. Stalder; U. Dürig

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

On the Dynamics of Two Oscillating Cosmic Strings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the spacetime interval of thenonradiated cosmic string oscillating as standing waves.The influence of string oscillations on the dynamics ofa “probe”...

T. Omarov; L. Chechin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

CX-010401: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Exclusion Determination Replace Brine Disposal System Header to West Hackberry Brine Tanks CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 04222013 Location(s): Louisiana Offices(s): Strategic...

322

CX-010712: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Replace West Hackberry Brine Disposal System Header from MOV-51's to WHT-1415 Brine Tanks with HDPE Pipe CX(s) Applied: B5.2 Date: 07032013 Location(s): Louisiana Offices(s):...

323

FOOD PRESERVATION SERIES hOW TO STORE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from raw meat so that meat juices do not contaminate it. Wash hands before and after handling fresh-green or wilted. Prepare the brine by adding 4 teaspoons salt to 1 gallon water. Immerse broccoli in the brine

324

Salinity controls on trophic interactions among invertebrates and algae of solar evaporation ponds in the Mojave Desert and relation to shorebird foraging and selenium risk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

contamination (Cieminski and Flake The absence of Se in brine ?brine ?y larvae Ephy- dra cinerea Jones. Archives of Environmental Contaminationbrine shrimp tis- sue Se levels in the same range as those observed here, selenium contamination

Herbst, David B

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Separation Processes, Second Edition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bicarbonate in the ammoniated NaCl brine. Additional carbontower receives as feed an ammoniated sodium chloride-richmol/L CO2. The CO2 in the ammoniated brine entered with some

King, C. Judson

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Analysis of organic molecules using the Mars Organic Analyzer, a portable, automated microfabricated capillary electrophoresis instrument  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

high salinity sample is a halite saturated brine, SV07-4,high salinity sample is a halite saturated brine, SV07-4,shapes) accompanying cubic halite (NaCl) crystals and a

Stockton, Amanda Michelle

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Electrochemical Flocculation and Chlorination for Domestic Water Supplies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three electrochemical chlorinators were developed, tested and evaluated. The first used natural chlorides in the water to produce a chlorine residual; the second and third produced chlorine residuals by electrolysis of brine solution. Brine feed...

Dillion Jr., R. C.; Hiler, E. A.; Peters, J. L.

328

Freezing processes. Hydrate processes. Liquid-liquid extraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ice which separates from brine is almost pure. A salt concentration builds up at the interface of the brine and the ice. In freezing processes, as applied in desalting, many small ice crystals are formed w...

Anthony A. Delyannis; Eurydike A. Delyannis

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Neutrino Oscillations from String Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive the character of neutrino oscillations that results from a model of equivalence principle violation suggested recently by Damour and Polyakov as a plausible consequence of string theory. In this model neutrino oscillations will take place through interaction with a long range scalar field of gravitational origin even if the neutrinos are degenerate in mass. The energy dependence of the oscillation length is identical to that in the conventional mass mixing mechanism. This possibility further highlghts the independence of and need for more exacting direct neutrino mass measurements together with a next generation of neutrinoless double beta decay experiments.

A. Halprin; C. N. Leung

1997-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

330

Singularities and Closed String Tachyons  

SciTech Connect

A basic problem in gravitational physics is the resolution of spacetime singularities where general relativity breaks down. The simplest such singularities are conical singularities arising from orbifold identifications of flat space, and the most challenging are spacelike singularities inside black holes (and in cosmology). Topology changing processes also require evolution through classically singular spacetimes. I briefly review how a phase of closed string tachyon condensate replaces, and helps to resolve, basic singularities of each of these types. Finally I discuss some interesting features of singularities arising in the small volume limit of compact negatively curved spaces and the emerging zoology of spacelike singularities.

Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

331

Magnetic Moment of Electrons near Cosmic Strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the effect of background geometry generated by a thin cosmic string on the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. We find that the magnitude of the quantum correction to the magnetic moment depends on the distance from the cosmic string as well as on the deficit angle.

Takuya Maki; Kiyoshi Shiraishi

2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

332

From surface roughening to QCD string theory  

SciTech Connect

Surface critical phenomena and the related onset of Goldstone modes represent fundamental properties of the confining flux in Quantum Chromodynamics. New ideas on surface roughening and their implications for lattice studies of quark confinement and string formation are presented. Problems with a simple string description of the large Wilson surface are discussed.

Keisuke Jimmy Juge et al.

2001-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

333

Derandomizing from Random Strings Harry Buhrman  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Derandomizing from Random Strings Harry Buhrman CWI and University of Amsterdam buhrman c log n, R=c log n K , itself a strings of length nc , is complex enough to figure as a hard an alternative proof of the existence of an r.e. set A, due to Barzdin [4], such that for all time bounds t

Fortnow, Lance

334

Strongly Universal String Hashing is Fast  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......including low-power processors. Our tests include hash functions designed for processors...including low-power processors. Our tests include hash functions designed for processors...insensitive to the content of the string: in our tests we hashed randomly generated strings......

Daniel Lemire; Owen Kaser

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Wiggly cosmic strings accrete dark energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper deals with a study of the cylindrically symmetric accretion of dark energy with equation of state $p=w\\rho$ onto wiggly straight cosmic strings. We have obtained that when $w>-1$ the linear energy density in the string core gradually increases tending to a finite maximum value as time increases for all considered dark energy models. On the regime where the dominant energy condition is violated all such models predict a steady decreasing of the linear energy density of the cosmic strings as phantom energy is being accreted. The final state of the string after such an accretion process is a wiggleless defect. It is argued however that if accreation of phantom energy would proceed by successive quantum steps then the defect would continue losing linear energy density until a minimum nonzero value which can be quite smaller than that corresponding to the unperturbed string.

Pedro F. Gonzalez-Diaz; Jose A. Jimenez Madrid

2005-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

336

Phenomenology from the Landscape of String Vacua  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article is the author's PhD thesis. After a review of string vacua obtained through compactification (with and wothout fluxes), it presents and describes various aspects of the Landscape of string vacua. At first it gives an introduction and an overview of the statistical study of the set of four dimensional string vacua, giving the detailed study of one corner of this set (G2-holonomy compactifications of M-theory). Then it presents the ten dimensional approach to string vacua, concentrating on the ten dimensional description of the Type IIA flux vacua. Finally it gives two examples of models having some interesting and characteristic phenomenological features, and that belong to two different corners of the Landscape: warped compactifications of Type IIB String Theory and M-theory compactifications on G2-holonomy manifolds.

Roberto Valandro

2008-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

337

String Gas Cosmology and Non-Gaussianities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently it has been shown that string gas cosmology, an alternative model of the very early universe which does not involve a period of cosmological inflation, can give rise to an almost scale invariant spectrum of metric perturbations. Here we calculate the non-Gaussianities of the spectrum of cosmological fluctuations in string gas cosmology, and find that these non-Gaussianities depend linearly on the wave number and that their amplitude depends sensitively on the string scale. If the string scale is at the TeV scale, string gas cosmology could lead to observable non-Gaussianities, if it is close to the Planck scale, then the non-Gaussianities on current cosmological scales are negligible.

Bin Chen; Yi Wang; Wei Xue; Robert Brandenberger

2008-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

338

ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in New Zealand and the Imperial Valley geothermal fields inoperation. Geothermal brines in the Imperial Valley contain

Cairns, E.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Project objectives: Demonstrate a 1 megawatt Variable Phase Turbine and Variable Phase Cycle with low temperature brine.

340

Increasing Oil Productivity Through Electromagnetic Induction Heat Generation of Salt Water as a Stimulant for Heavy Oil Recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brine is usually exist in the oil reservoir. Varying salinity brine are used as stimulants for heavy oil recovery processes using electromagnetic induction heating. The heated heavy oil is floating on top of the brine since it becomes less viscous and lighter. As the temperature increased more heavy oil is “produced/recovered”. An increasing salinity of brine will result in more recovery of heavy oil.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Results of Performance Assessments 34.A.1 BACKGROUND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of contaminated brine from the WIPP repository in the subsurface environment beyond the 1 The "controlled area

342

Sythhesis and Optimization of Hybrid Membrane Desalination Networks with Value Extraction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) ? (35) 29 In addition, a number of inequality constraints, that limits the maximum permissible salts contamination of final permeate product, the required maximum contamination of salts in brine I stream for the value extraction technology... Brine : Indices denoting property related to brine stream connected to a membrane unit Permeate : Indices denoting property related to permeate stream connected to a membrane unit or the final permeate stream vii Brine I : Indices denoting...

AlNouss, Ahmed M

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

343

Mobilization of a trapped non-wetting fluid from a three-dimensional porous medium Sujit S. Datta, T. S. Ramakrishnan, and David A. Weitz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

situations ranging from the spreading of contaminants in groundwater aquifers to the storage of CO2 in brine

344

E-Print Network 3.0 - americium 243 Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Americium(III) in Brine ... 15 ... Source: Yucca Mountain Project, US EPA Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 3 Nordisk...

345

Determination of the variation of the saturation exponent with oil and water saturation, oil and water resistivity and shaliness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

achieving this objective, The resistivities of five sandstone samples were determined by the two electrode and four electrode methods for various satura- tions using brine concentrations of 25 percent, 5 percent and 0. 5 percent (by weight). The brine... saturations were established in a capillary pressure cell using cetus oil to displace brine from the core sample. It was found that the value oi' n decreased as the resistivity of the brine solution increased. Also it was observed that the four electrode...

Pinto, Eustace Joseph Venantius

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

346

Planning and Design of Desalination Plants Effluent Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plant. ”salinity in Seawater Reverse Osmosis." Desalination & Waterfrom Seawater Reverse Osmosis Brine by Electrodialysis:

Maalouf, Sami

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Planckian Axions in String Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We argue that super-Planckian diameters of axion fundamental domains can naturally arise in Calabi-Yau compactifications of string theory. In a theory with $N$ axions $\\theta^i$, the fundamental domain is a polytope defined by the periodicities of the axions, via constraints of the form $-\\pi\\sqrt{N}$. This result is robust in the presence of $P>N$ constraints, while for $P=N$ the diameter is further enhanced by eigenvector delocalization to $N^{3/2}f_N$. We directly verify our results in explicit Calabi-Yau compactifications of type IIB string theory. In the classic example with $h^{1,1}=51$ where parametrically controlled moduli stabilization was demonstrated by Denef et al. in [1], the largest metric eigenvalue obeys $f_N \\approx 0.013 M_{pl}$. The random matrix analysis then predicts, and we exhibit, axion diameters $>M_{pl}$ for the precise vacuum parameters found in [1]. Our results provide a framework for achieving large-field axion inflation in well-understood flux vacua.

Bachlechner, Thomas C; McAllister, Liam

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

String Photini at the LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

String theories with topologically complex compactification manifolds suggest the simultaneous presence of many unbroken U(1)'s without any light matter charged under them. The gauge bosons associated with these U(1)'s do not have direct observational consequences. However, in the presence of low energy supersymmetry the gauge fermions associated with these U(1)'s, the "photini", mix with the Bino and extend the MSSM neutralino sector. This leads to novel signatures at the LHC. The lightest ordinary supersymmetric particle (LOSP) can decay to any one of these photini. In turn, photini may transition into each other, leading to high lepton and jet multiplicities. Both the LOSP decays and inter-photini transitions can lead to displaced vertices. When the interphotini decays happen outside the detector, the cascades can result in different photini escaping the detector leading to multiple reconstructed masses for the invisible particle. If the LOSP is charged, it stops in the detector and decays out-of-time to photini, with the possibility that the produced final photini vary from event to event. Observation of a plenitude of photini at the LHC would be evidence that we live in a string vacuum with a topologically rich compactification manifold.

Asimina Arvanitaki; Nathaniel Craig; Savas Dimopoulos; Sergei Dubovsky; John March-Russell

2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

349

String photini at the LHC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

String theories with topologically complex compactification manifolds suggest the simultaneous presence of many unbroken U(1)’s without any light matter charged under them. The gauge bosons associated with these U(1)’s do not have direct observational consequences. However, in the presence of low energy supersymmetry the gauge fermions associated with these U(1)’s, the “photini,” mix with the bino and extend the minimal supersymmetric standard model neutralino sector. This leads to novel signatures at the LHC. The lightest ordinary supersymmetric particle (LOSP) can decay to any one of these photini. In turn, photini may transition into each other, leading to high lepton and jet multiplicities. Both the LOSP decays and interphotini transitions can lead to displaced vertices. When the interphotini decays happen outside the detector, the cascades can result in different photini escaping the detector, leading to multiple reconstructed masses for the invisible particle. If the LOSP is charged, it stops in the detector and decays out of time to photini, with the possibility that the produced final photini vary from event to event. Observation of a plenitude of photini at the LHC would be evidence that we live in a string vacuum with a topologically rich compactification manifold.

Asimina Arvanitaki; Nathaniel Craig; Savas Dimopoulos; Sergei Dubovsky; John March-Russell

2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

350

Wavy strings: Black or bright?  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in string theory have brought forth considerable interest in time-dependent hair on extended objects. This novel new hair is typically characterized by a wave profile along the horizon and angular momentum quantum numbers l,m in the transverse space. In this work, we present an extensive treatment of such oscillating black objects, focusing on their geometric properties. We first give a theorem of purely geometric nature, stating that such wavy hair cannot be detected by any scalar invariant built out of the curvature and/or matter fields. However, we show that the tidal forces detected by an infalling observer diverge at the {open_quotes}horizon{close_quotes} of a black string superposed with a vibration in any mode with l{ge}1. The same argument applied to longitudinal (l=0) waves detects only finite leading-order tidal forces. We also provide an example with a manifestly smooth metric, proving that at least a certain class of these longitudinal waves have regular horizons. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Kaloper, N. [Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N3L 3G1 (CANADA)] [Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N3L 3G1 (CANADA); Myers, R.C.; Roussel, H. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (CANADA)] [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (CANADA)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Vibrational modes of a rotating string Theodore J. Allen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

find the small amplitude oscillatory motions and frequencies of oscillation of the string and mass. WeVibrational modes of a rotating string Theodore J. Allen Department of Physics, University Motivated by non-relativistic models of a QCD string, we examine the system of a non-relativistic string

Allen, Theodore J.

352

Vibrational modes of a rotating string Theodore J. Allen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

find the small amplitude oscillatory motions and frequencies of oscillation of the string and mass. WeVibrational modes of a rotating string Theodore J. Allen Department of Physics, University Motivated by non­relativistic models of a QCD string, we examine the system of a non­relativistic string

Allen, Theodore J.

353

Evaporative evolution of a Na–Cl–NO3–K–Ca–SO4–Mg–Si brine at 95°C: Experiments and modeling relevant to Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff water representative of one type of pore water at Yucca Mountain, NV was evaporated at 95°C in...3, 5 mol % K, and less than 1 mol % each of SO4, Ca, Mg, ?CO2(aq), F, and Si. All m...

Maureen Alai; Mark Sutton; Susan Carroll

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Calcite dissolution kinetics and solubility in Na-Ca-Mg-Cl brines of geologically relevant composition at 0.1 to 1 bar pCO2 and 25 to 80°C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, total inorganic carbon, pCO2 and pH) and a solutions major ion composition. Typically, in this study total alkalinity (TA) and total inorganic carbon (TCO2) will be coupled to calculate solution pH and pCO2. 8 1.5. Saline Fluids in the Subsurface... experiments (i.e. Mg2+-free solutions) pure CO2 was used while in later experiments the gas mixture was approximately 50/50. The 0.5 bar pCO2 system promoted a higher :TCO-23 2 ratio for a given Ca2+ concentration allowing more robust measurements...

Gledhill, Dwight Kuehl

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

355

Problems #3, Math 204, Dr. M. Bohner. Sep 10, 2003. Due Sep 15, 11 am. 12. A tank has ten gallons of water in which two pounds of salt has been dissolved. Brine with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Problems #3, Math 204, Dr. M. Bohner. Sep 10, 2003. Due Sep 15, 11 am. 12. A tank has ten gallons through the supplementary homework problems for Chapters 1­2: 1, 3 of Section 1.1; 1 of Section 1.2; 1-8, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 25, 26 of Section 1.3; 1, 3, 4, 13­17, 21, 26, 29 of Section 2.1; 1, 4­8, 9, 11

Bohner, Martin

356

Are large Trojan asteroids salty? An observational, theoretical, and experimental study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

volatiles and a possibly global sill of frozen brine was formed beneath the cold primitive crust. The frozen brine layer was likely to be evacuated by impact erosions and evaporation of the exposed brines contaminated and colored these salty surfaces of the Trojans to produce the spectral properties observed today

Glotch, Timothy D.

357

Information Only Withdrawal Boundary. Culebra transport releases had an inconsequential contribution to total  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, however. In order for this released volume of brine to be contaminated with waste, it is necessary that contaminated brine in the waste area migrate to the non-waste area prior to intrusion. Waste panels repository areas are located to the north. For waste-contaminated brine to be located in a non-waste area

358

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in contaminated subsurface systems through the introduction of brine solutions remediation of contaminated soils using brine solutions and during the geological sequestration of CO2. The success of such techniques relies on the accurate prediction of the location of the brine during

Anderson, Daniel M.

359

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2003.10.013 Coprecipitation in the Barite Isostructural Family: 2. Numerical Simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

brine. A one-dimensional coupled reactive mass transport model shows a strikingly different transport drainage, potential radionuclide migration in fouled waste repositories, metal contaminant transport is commonly present in oil-field brines but at such low levels that the oil-field brines themselves do

Polly, David

360

RESEARCH ARTICLE 10.1002/2014WR015335  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the denser, ambient brine. Although the CO2 and the brine are immiscible, the impact of capillarity on CO2 brine in those reservoirs, the CO2 will migrate upward due to buoyancy and spread along the top boundary in processes such as the migration of dense nona- queous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in groundwater

Huppert, Herbert

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Year Project Title USGS contact(s) Published paper, data source,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

information Keywords 1 2003-present Delineation of brine contamination in and near the East Poplar oil field_poplar/index.html Project assesses brine contamination to the shallow aquifers and surface water. Energy Development, Williston Basin, Brine contamination, Groundwater, Surface Water, East Poplar oil field, Fort Peck Indian

Torgersen, Christian

362

62j opo2>(o Metallurgy Department December 197 3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

will probably be a limited amount of brine coming frcn brine inclusions in the surroundjnc salt and moving up. Environment 2 2.1. Temperature 2 2.2 Brine 3 3. Types of corrosion 5 4 . Materials , 6 4.1. Mild steel 7 4 to the environment (contamination of potable ground water layers etc.) is based primarily on the impermeability

363

Methodology for Designing and Evaluating Chemical Systems for Improved Oil Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oil recovery ranging between 86%-91% at reservoir temperature with both soft brine (NaCl only) and synthetic formation brine. Synthetic formation brine for Trembley contained a high concentration of divalent cations in addition to monovalent yet it had...

Ahmed, Muhammad Shahab

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

364

Norm removal from frac water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating low barium frac water includes contacting a frac water stream with a radium selective complexing resin to produce a low radium stream, passing the low radium stream through a thermal brine concentrator to produce a concentrated brine; and passing the concentrated brine through a thermal crystallizer to yield road salt.

Silva, James Manio; Matis, Hope; Kostedt, IV, William Leonard

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

365

Semiclassical string spectrum in a string model dual to large N QCD  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We explore the string spectrum in the Witten QCD 4 model by considering classical string configurations, thereby obtaining energy formulas for quantum states with large excitation quantum numbers representing glueballs and Kaluza–Klein states. In units of the string tension, the energies of all states increase as the 't Hooft coupling ? is decreased, except the energies of glueballs corresponding to strings lying on the horizon, which remain constant. We argue that some string solutions can be extrapolated to the small ? regime. We also find the classical mechanics description of supergravity glueballs in terms of point-like string configurations oscillating in the radial direction, and reproduce the glueball energy formula previously obtained by solving the equation for the dilaton fluctuation.

J.M. Pons; J.G. Russo; P. Talavera

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Chaotic string-capture by black hole  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider a macroscopic charge-current carrying (cosmic) string in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole. The string is taken to be circular and is allowed to oscillate and to propagate in the direction perpendicular to its plane (that is parallel to the equatorial plane of the black hole). Numerical investigations indicate that the system is non-integrable, but the interaction with the gravitational field of the black hole still gives rise to various qualitatively simple processes like `adiabatic capture' and `string transmutation'.

A L Larsen

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Topological Solitons in Helical Strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The low-energy physics of (quasi)degenerate one-dimensional systems is typically understood as the particle-like dynamics of kinks between stable, ordered structures. Such dynamics, we show, becomes highly non-trivial when the ground states are topologically constrained: a dynamics of the domains rather than on the domains which the kinks separate. Motivated by recently reported observations of charged polymers physisorbed on nanotubes, we study kinks between helical structures of a string wrapping around a cylinder. While their motion cannot be disentangled from domain dynamics, and energy and momentum is not concentrated in the solitons, the dynamics of the domains can be folded back into a one-particle picture.

Cristiano Nisoli; Alexander V. Balatsky

2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

368

Scaling of cosmic string loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the spectrum of loops as a part of a complete network of cosmic strings in flat space-time. After a long transient regime, characterized by production of small loops at the scale of the initial conditions, it appears that a true scaling regime takes over. In the final regime the characteristic size of loops scales as $0.1 t$, and the production rate of small loops goes as $l^{-1.63}$. In the expanding universe, we expect similar behavior with perhaps a less negative index. For such indices, the distribution of loops existing at any given time goes as $l^{-5/2}$ in the radiation era and $l^{-2}$ in the matter era.

Vanchurin, V; Vilenkin, A; Olum, Ken D.; Vanchurin, Vitaly; Vilenkin, Alexander

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

String Landscape and Supernovae Ia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a model for the triggering of Supernovae Ia (SN Ia) by a phase transition to exact supersymmetry (susy) in the core of a white dwarf star. The model, which accomodates the data on SN Ia and avoids the problems of the standard astrophysical accretion based picture, is based on string landscape ideas and assumes that the decay of the false broken susy vacuum is enhanced at high density. In a slowly expanding susy bubble, the conversion of pairs of fermions to pairs of degenerate scalars releases a significant amount of energy which induces fusion in the surrounding normal matter shell. After cooling, the absence of degeneracy pressure causes the susy bubble to collapse to a black hole of about 0.1 solar mass or to some other stable susy object.

L. Clavelli

2011-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

370

String-Corrected Black Holes  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect -- the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive! The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

Hubeny, Veronika; Maloney, Alexander; Rangamani, Mukund

2005-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

371

The current status of observational constraints on cosmic strings  

SciTech Connect

The observational restrictions on the cosmic string scenario for the formation of large scale structure are evaluated. this restrictions are due to the spectrum of gravitational radiation emitted by oscillating string loops, anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background caused by the strings, and evaporating black holes formed from collapsed cosmic string loops. It is shown that the only free parameter of the scenario, the cosmic string mass-per-unit-length, {mu}, is severely restricted.

Caldwell, R.R.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

From random Regge triangulations to open strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show how Boundary Conformal Field Theory deformation techniques allow for a complete characterisation of the coupling between the discrete geometry inherited uniformizing a random Regge triangulations and open string theory.

Mauro Carfora; Claudio Dappiaggi; Valeria L. Gili

2007-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

373

String Scanning in the Icon Programming Language  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Article String Scanning in the Icon Programming Language R. E. Griswold * Department of Computer Science, The University...general-purpose programming language and describes how they have been introduced in the Icon programming language....

R. E. Griswold

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Strings in plane-fronted gravitational waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Brinkmann's plane-fronted gravitational waves with parallel rays --~shortly pp-waves~-- are shown to provide, under suitable conditions, exact string vacua at all orders of the sigma-model perturbation expansion.

C. Duval; Z. Horvath; P. A. Horvathy

2006-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

375

Unravelling strings at the CERN LHC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We construct LHC signature footprints for four semirealistic string/M theory vacua with a minimal supersymmetric standard model visible sector. We find that they all give rise to limited regions in LHC signature space and are qualitatively different from each other for understandable reasons. We also propose a technique in which correlations of LHC signatures can be effectively used to distinguish among these string theory vacua. We expect the technique to be useful for more general string vacua. We argue that further systematic analysis with this approach will allow LHC data to disfavor or exclude major “corners” of string/M theory and favor others. The technique can be used with limited integrated luminosity and improved.

Gordon L. Kane; Piyush Kumar; Jing Shao

2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

376

String Phenomenology in the Era of LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The low-energy supersymmetry phenomenology for specific classes of string compactifications is investigated given that the low-energy physics may provide a clue as to the structure of the fundamental theory at high energy scales. The one...

Maxin, James A.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

377

Aspects of grand unified and string phenomenology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Explored in this report is the essential interconnectedness of Grand Unified and String Theoretic Phenomenology. In order to extract a modeled connection to low-energy physics from the context of superstring theory, it is presently necessary...

Walker, Joel Wesley

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Undulating strings and gauge theory waves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study some dynamical aspects of the correspondence between strings in AdS space and external heavy quarks in N=4 SYM. Specifically, by examining waves propagating on such strings, we make some plausible (and some surprising) inferences about the time-dependent fields produced by oscillating quarks in the strongly coupled gauge theory. We point out a puzzle regarding energy conservation in the SYM theory. In addition, we perform a similar analysis of the gauge fields produced by a baryon (represented as a D5-brane with string-like extension in AdS space) and compare and contrast with the gauge fields produced by a quark–antiquark pair (represented as a string looping through AdS space).

Curtis G. Callan; Jr; Alberto Güijosa

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

The string of variable density: Further results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We analyze the problem of calculating the solutions and the spectrum of a string with arbitrary density and fixed ends. We build a perturbative scheme which uses a basis of WKB-type functions and obtain explicit expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the string. Using this approach we show that it is possible to derive the asymptotic (high energy) behavior of the string, obtaining explicit expressions for the first three coefficients (the first two can also be obtained with the WKB method). Finally, using an iterative approach we also obtain analytical expressions for the low energy behavior of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a string with rapidly oscillating density, recovering (in a simpler way) results in the literature.

Paolo Amore

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Quantizing strings in de Sitter space  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We quantize a string in the de Sitter background, and we find that the mass spectrum is modified by a term which is quadratic in oscillating numbers, and also proportional to the square of the Hubble constant.

Miao Li; Wei Song; Yushu Song

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Quantizing Strings in de Sitter Space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We quantize a string in the de Sitter background, and we find that the mass spectrum is modified by a term which is quadratic in oscillating numbers, and also proportional to the square of the Hubble constant.

Miao Li; Wei Song; Yushu Song

2007-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

382

The string of variable density: further results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the problem of calculating the solutions and the spectrum of a string with arbitrary density and fixed ends. We build a perturbative scheme which uses a basis of WKB-type functions and obtain explicit expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the string. Using this approach we show that it is possible to derive the asymptotic (high energy) behavior of the string, obtaining explicit expressions for the first three coefficients (the first two can also be obtained with the WKB method). Finally using an iterative approach we also obtain analytical expressions for the low energy behavior of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a string with rapidly oscillating density, recovering (in a simpler way) results in the literature.

Paolo Amore

2010-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

383

Axions from cosmic string and wall decay  

SciTech Connect

If inflation occurred with a reheat temperature > T{sub PQ}, axions from the decay of global axion strings and domain walls would make an important contribution to the cosmological energy density, comparable to that from vacuum misalignment. Several groups have numerically studied the evolution of axion strings and walls in the past, however substantial uncertainties remain in their contribution to the present density {Omega}{sub a,string+wall} {approx} 1-100 (f{sub a}/10{sup 12} GeV){sup 7/6}, where f{sub a} is the axion decay constant. I will describe the numerical methods used in our simulations and show results for several string and wall configurations.

Hagmann, C A

2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

384

Cosmic string loops, large and small  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We extend our earlier model of the small-scale structure of cosmic string networks through an improved treatment of the separation of long and short scales. We find that the production of small loops (at the gravitational radiation scale) is a robust feature of string networks, in addition to a population of loops near the horizon scale. We obtain quantitative agreement with the scaling of loop production functions as found in simulations by two groups.

Florian Dubath; Joseph Polchinski; Jorge V. Rocha

2008-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

385

String Fields and the Standard Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Cremmer-Scherk mechanism is generalised in a non-Abelian context. In the presence of the Higgs scalars of the standard model it is argued that fields arising from the low energy effective string action may contribute to the mass generation of the observed vector bosons that mediate the electroweak interactions and that future analyses of experimental data should consider the possibility of string induced radiative corrections to the Weinberg angle coming from physics beyond the standard model.

T. Dereli; Robin W. Tucker

1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

386

Decays of near BPS heterotic strings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The decay of highly excited massive string states in compactified heterotic string theories is discussed. We calculate the decay rate and spectrum of states carrying momentum and winding in the compactified direction. The longest lived states in the spectrum are near Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) states whose decay is dominated by a single decay channel of massless radiation which brings the state closer to being BPS.

Michael Gutperle and Darya Krym

2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

387

Cosmological acceleration from a gas of strings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In string gas cosmology, the extra dimensions of the underlying theory are kept at a microscopic scale by a gas of strings. In the matter-dominated era, however, dust pressure can lead to oscillations of the extra dimensions and to acceleration in the three visible dimensions, even with a vanishing cosmological term. We review the resulting oscillating expansion history, that provides an acceptable fit to the observed accelerated expansion of the Universe.

Francesc Ferrer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Cosmological acceleration from a gas of strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In string gas cosmology, the extra dimensions of the underlying theory are kept at a microscopic scale by a gas of strings. In the matter-dominated era, however, dust pressure can lead to oscillations of the extra dimensions and to acceleration in the three visible dimensions, even with a vanishing cosmological term. We review the resulting oscillating expansion history, that provides an acceptable fit to the observed accelerated expansion of the Universe.

Francesc Ferrer

2009-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

389

Cosmological Constant and Axions in String Theory  

SciTech Connect

String theory axions appear to be promising candidates for explaining cosmological constant via quintessence. In this paper, we study conditions on the string compactifications under which axion quintessence can happen. For sufficiently large number of axions, cosmological constant can be accounted for as the potential energy of axions that have not yet relaxed to their minima. In compactifications that incorporate unified models of particle physics, the height of the axion potential can naturally fall close to the observed value of cosmological constant.

Svrcek, Peter; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2006-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

390

String junctions and holographic interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we study half-BPS type IIB supergravity solutions with multiple AdS3×S3×M4 asymptotic regions, where M4 is either T4 or K3. These solutions were first constructed in [M. Chiodaroli, M. Gutperle, and D. Krym, J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2010) 066.] and have geometries given by the warped product of AdS2×S2×M4 over ?, where ? is a Riemann surface. We show that the holographic boundary has the structure of a star graph, i.e. n half-lines joined at a point. The attractor mechanism and the relation of the solutions to junctions of self-dual strings in six-dimensional supergravity are discussed. The solutions of [M. Chiodaroli, M. Gutperle, and D. Krym, J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2010) 066.] are constructed introducing two meromorphic and two harmonic functions defined on ?. We focus our analysis on solutions corresponding to junctions of three different conformal field theories and show that the conditions for having a solution charged only under Ramond-Ramond three-form fields reduce to relations involving the positions of the poles and the residues of the relevant harmonic and meromorphic functions. The degeneration limit in which some of the poles collide is analyzed in detail. Finally, we calculate the holographic boundary entropy for a junction of three CFTs and obtain a simple expression in terms of poles and residues.

Marco Chiodaroli, Michael Gutperle, Ling-Yan Hung, and Darya Krym

2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

391

Domain Lines as Fractional Strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider N=2 supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics (SQED) with 2 flavors, the Fayet--Iliopoulos parameter, and a mass term $\\beta$ which breaks the extended supersymmetry down to N=1. The bulk theory has two vacua; at $\\beta=0$ the BPS-saturated domain wall interpolating between them has a moduli space parameterized by a U(1) phase $\\sigma$ which can be promoted to a scalar field in the effective low-energy theory on the wall world-volume. At small nonvanishing $\\beta$ this field gets a sine-Gordon potential. As a result, only two discrete degenerate BPS domain walls survive. We find an explicit solitonic solution for domain lines -- string-like objects living on the surface of the domain wall which separate wall I from wall II. The domain line is seen as a BPS kink in the world-volume effective theory. We expect that the wall with the domain line on it saturates both the $\\{1,0\\}$ and the $\\{{1/2},{1/2}\\}$b central charges of the bulk theory. The domain line carries the magnetic flux which is exactly 1/2 of the flux carried by the flux tube living in the bulk on each side of the wall. Thus, the domain lines on the wall confine charges living on the wall, resembling Polyakov's three-dimensional confinement.

R. Auzzi; M. Shifman; A. Yung

2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

392

The string of variable density: Further results  

SciTech Connect

We analyze the problem of calculating the solutions and the spectrum of a string with arbitrary density and fixed ends. We build a perturbative scheme which uses a basis of WKB-type functions and obtain explicit expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the string. Using this approach we show that it is possible to derive the asymptotic (high energy) behavior of the string, obtaining explicit expressions for the first three coefficients (the first two can also be obtained with the WKB method). Finally, using an iterative approach we also obtain analytical expressions for the low energy behavior of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a string with rapidly oscillating density, recovering (in a simpler way) results in the literature. - Highlights: > We devise a perturbative approach to finding the modes of a string with arbitrary density. > We obtain explicitly the first three coefficients of the asymptotic high energy expansion. > We apply our findings to a series of examples, obtaining both analytical and numerical results.

Amore, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.amore@gmail.com

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Performance on patterned string problems by common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The strings were approximately 48 cm in length and were composed of metal link chains. One of the two strings had a small metal bottle cap at one end in which was...

Matthew Gagne; Kathryn Levesque; Lauren Nutile; Charles Locurto

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

EVALUATION OF THE CORROSIVITY OF DUST DEPOSITED ON WASTE PACKAGES AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA  

SciTech Connect

Potentially corrosive brines can form during post-closure by deliquescence of salt minerals in dust deposited on the surface of waste packages at Yucca Mountain during operations and the pre-closure ventilation period. Although thermodynamic modeling and experimental studies of brine deliquescence indicates that brines are likely to form, they will be nitrate-rich and non-corrosive. Processes that modify the brines following deliquescence are beneficial with respect to inhibition of corrosion. For example, acid degassing (HCl, HNO{sub 3}) could dry out brines, but kinetic limitations are likely to limit the effect to increasing their passivity by raising the pH and increasing the NO{sub 3}/Cl ratio. Predicted dust quantities and maximum brine volumes on the waste package surface are small, and physical isolation of salt minerals in the dust may inhibit formation of eutectic brines and decrease brine volumes. If brines do contact the WP surface, small droplet volumes and layer thicknesses do not support development of diffusive gradients necessary for formation on separate anodic-cathodic zones required for localized corrosion. Finally, should localized corrosion initiate, corrosion product buildup will stifle corrosion, by limiting oxygen access to the metal surface, by capillary retention of brine in corrosion product porosity, or by consumption of brine components (Cl{sup -}).

C. Bryan; R. Jack; T, Wolery; D. Shields; M. Sutton; E. Hardin; D. Barr

2005-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

395

Cosmic string structure at the gravitational radiation scale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We use our model of the small scale structure on cosmic strings to develop further the result of Siemens, Olum, and Vilenkin that the gravitational radiation length scale on cosmic strings is smaller than the previously assumed ?G?t. We discuss some of the properties of cosmic string loops at this cutoff scale, and we argue that recent network simulations point to two populations of cosmic string loops, one near the horizon scale and one near the gravitational radiation cutoff.

Joseph Polchinski and Jorge V. Rocha

2007-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

396

Cold quark matter, quadratic corrections, and gauge/string duality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We make an estimate of the quadratic correction in the pressure of cold quark matter using gauge/string duality.

Oleg Andreev

2010-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

397

Kinematic interpretation of string instability in a background gravitational field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The unstable regime in which the string oscillating modes develop imaginary frequencies is shown to be characterized, kinematically, by a positive relative acceleration among the different points of the string. Instability occurs when this acceleration, induced by the background curvature, is large enough to make the extension of the corresponding causally connected region smaller than the string maximal size. This kinematic characterization is applied, in particular, to discuss string instability in a static and spherically symmetric gravitational background.

M. Gasperini

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

The Large N Harmonic Oscillator as a String Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a duality between the large-N gauged harmonic oscillator and a novel string theory in two dimensions.

Nissan Itzhaki; John McGreevy

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

399

Chemical constraints and origins of four groups of Gulf Coast reservoir fluids: discussion  

SciTech Connect

The authors take to task Stoessell and Moore's 1983 review of some previous ideas on the origin of Gulf Coast formation fluids, taking specific exception to their interpretation of data from the Edwards Formation. Six points are emphasized: Edwards brines are significantly enriched in bromide relative to chloride over seawater evaporated to halite saturation; Edwards brines have significantly higher K:C1 and Ca+Mg:C1 ratios than seawater evaporated to halite saturation; Edwards brines cannot achieve molar Ca:Mg ratios of 16 by dolomization; progressive stabilization of metastable dolomite by updip fluid cannot raise the magnesium content of Edwards water in the absence of dolomite dissolution; the volume of brine contained in the Cretaceous section exceeds any reasonable volume of hypothetical connate Mesozoic brine; and, isotopic differences between Edwards brines and Jurassic seawater evaporated to halite saturation are extreme, and therefore preclude recognition of any primary Jurassic component in the current brines.

Land, L.S.; Prezbindowski, D.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

Rapier, Pascal M. (Richmond, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

A worldsheet perspective on string inflation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the constraints of slow-roll inflation on the string worldsheet. A general gravity-matter set-up is used in which the worldsheet consists of an abstract CFT coupled to a 3+1 dimensional non-linear sigma model. The empirical slow-roll parameters are expressed in terms of the beta functions of operators in the matter/internal CFT and the beta function of the dilaton. The result confirms that inflation is only sensitive to macroscopic properties of the matter sector, and that in string theory inflation is a non-perturbative (in g_s) phenomenon and one must go beyond tree-level string theory.

Koenraad Schalm; Ted van der Aalst

2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

402

Scattering off an SO(10) cosmic string  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The scattering of fermions from the Abelian string arising during the phase transition SO(10)?SU(5)×Z2 induced by the Higgs field in the 126 representation is studied. Elastic cross sections and baryon-number-violating cross sections due to the coupling to gauge fields in the core of the string are computed by both a first-quantized method and a perturbative second-quantized method. The elastic cross sections are found to be Aharonov-Bohm-type. However, there is a marked asymmetry between the scattering cross sections for left- and right-handed fields. The catalysis cross sections are small, depending on the grand unified scale. If cosmic strings were observed our results could help tie down the underlying gauge group.

Anne-Christine Davis and Rachel Jeannerot

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Tensor modes on the string theory landscape  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We attempt an estimate for the distribution of the tensor mode fraction $r$ over the landscape of vacua in string theory. The dynamics of eternal inflation and quantum tunneling lead to a kind of democracy on the landscape, providing no bias towards large-field or small-field inflation regardless of the class of measure. The tensor mode fraction then follows the number frequency distributions of inflationary mechanisms of string theory over the landscape. We show that an estimate of the relative number frequencies for small-field vs large-field inflation, while unattainable on the whole landscape, may be within reach as a regional answer for warped Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of type IIB string theory.

Alexander Westphal

2012-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

404

Kahler stabilized, modular invariant heterotic string models  

SciTech Connect

We review the theory and phenomenology of effective supergravity theories based on orbifold compactifications of the weakly-coupled heterotic string. In particular, we consider theories in which the four-dimensional theory displays target space modular invariance and where the dilatonic mode undergoes Kahler stabilization. A self-contained exposition of effective Lagrangian approaches to gaugino condensation and heterotic string theory is presented, leading to the development of the models of Binétruy, Gaillard and Wu. Various aspects of the phenomenology of this class of models are considered. These include issues of supersymmetry breaking and superpartner spectra, the role of anomalous U(1) factors, issues of flavor and R-parity conservation, collider signatures, axion physics, and early universe cosmology. For the vast majority of phenomenological considerations the theories reviewed here compare quite favorably to other string-derived models in the literature. Theoretical objections to the framework and directions for further research are identified and discussed.

Gaillard, Mary K.; Gaillard, Mary K.; Nelson, Brent D.

2007-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

405

Relativistic elasticity of rigid rods and strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the equation of motion for a rigid one-dimensional elastic body (i.e. a rod or string whose speed of sound is equal to the speed of light) in a two-dimensional spacetime is simply the wave equation. We then solve this equation in a few simple examples: a rigid rod colliding with an unmovable wall, a rigid rod being pushed by a constant force, a rigid string whose endpoints are simultaneously set in motion (seen as a special case of Bell's spaceships paradox), and a radial rigid string that has partially crossed the event horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole while still being held from the outside.

Jose Natario

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

406

Apparatus for vibrating a pipe string in a borehole  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for vibrating a drill string having a central axis in a borehole. The apparatus comprising means for generating at a downhole location longitudinally directional vibrations along the central axis of the drill string in response to flow of fluid through the interior of the drill string and a shock absorbing element mounted in the drill string between the apparatus and a drill bit carried by the drill string effective to substantially isolate the drill bit from the vibration induced in the drill string. Also described is a method of feeding a drill string through a mon-vertical section of borehole comprising: generating a downhole location a longitudinally directional vibration along the central axis of the drill string by oscillating a body in a axial direction relative to the drill string in response to flow of fluid through the interior of the drill string. The vibrations preventing frictional sticking of the drill string against the borehole wall; isolating a drill bit at the end of the drill string from the effects of the vibration during drilling operations; and moving the pipe longitudinally in the borehole.

Worrall, R.N.; Stulemeijer, I.P.J.M.

1990-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

407

Ground Ring Of Two Dimensional String Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

String theories with two dimensional space-time target spaces are characterized by the existence of a ``ground ring'' of operators of spin $(0,0)$. By understanding this ring, one can understand the symmetries of the theory and illuminate the relation of the critical string theory to matrix models. The symmetry groups that arise are, roughly, the area preserving diffeomorphisms of a two dimensional phase space that preserve the fermi surface (of the matrix model) and the volume preserving diffeomorphisms of a three dimensional cone. The three dimensions in question are the matrix eigenvalue, its canonical momentum, and the time of the matrix model.

Edward Witten

1991-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

408

Power-law Solutions from Heterotic Strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we search for accelerating power-law and ekpyrotic solutions in heterotic string theory with NS-NS fluxes compactified on half-flat and generalized half-flat manifolds. We restrict our searches to the STZ sector of the theory and include linear order $\\alpha'$ corrections when looking for accelerating solutions. We find two ekpyrotic solutions in the case when the heterotic string theory is compactified on generalized half-flat manifolds. We do not find accelerating solutions in any of the models.

Tibra Ali; S. Shajidul Haque

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

409

Oscillation damping of chiral string loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chiral cosmic string loop tends to the stationary (vorton) configuration due to the energy loss into the gravitational and electromagnetic radiation. We describe the asymptotic behaviour of near stationary chiral loops and their fading to vortons. General limits on the gravitational and electromagnetic energy losses by near stationary chiral loops are found. For these loops we estimate the oscillation damping time. We present solvable examples of gravitational radiation energy loss by some chiral loop configurations. The analytical dependence of string energy with time is found in the case of the chiral ring with small amplitude radial oscillations.

Eugeny Babichev; Vyacheslav Dokuchaev

2002-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

410

Somme esempio PhysicalAddr = firstlast:String, addr:String  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

:String, email:String Addr = PhysicalAddr + VirtualAddr inl : "PhysicalAddr- > PhysicalAddr + VirtualAddr" inr : "VirtualAddr- > PhysicalAddr + VirtualAddr" getName = a:Addr. case a of inl x ==> x.firstlast | inr y ==> y.name; Semantica, Mariangiola Dezani, a.a. 2003-2004 1 #12;' & $ % Nuove forme sintattiche t ::= ... terms inl

Dezani-Ciancaglini, Mariangiola

411

Somme esempio PhysicalAddr = {firstlast:String, addr:String}  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

:String, email:String} Addr = PhysicalAddr + VirtualAddr inl : "PhysicalAddr- > PhysicalAddr + VirtualAddr" inr : "VirtualAddr- > PhysicalAddr + VirtualAddr" getName = a:Addr. case a of inl x ==> x.firstlast | inr y ==> y.name; Semantica, Mariangiola Dezani, a.a. 2004-2005 1 #12;' & $ % Nuove forme sintattiche t ::= ... termini inl

Dezani-Ciancaglini, Mariangiola

412

The Cosmological Constant and the String Landscape  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theories of the cosmological constant fall into two classes, those in which the vacuum energy is fixed by the fundamental theory and those in which it is adjustable in some way. For each class we discuss key challenges. The string theory landscape is an example of an adjustment mechanism. We discuss the status of this idea, and future directions.

Joseph Polchinski

2006-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

413

Anomaly polynomial of E-string theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We determine the anomaly polynomial of the E-string theory and its higher-rank generalizations, that is, the 6d $\\mathcal{N} =(1, 0)$ superconformal theories on the worldvolume of one or multiple M5-branes embedded within the end-of-the-world brane with $E_8$ symmetry.

Ohmori, Kantaro; Tachikawa, Yuji

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Anomaly polynomial of E-string theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We determine the anomaly polynomial of the E-string theory and its higher-rank generalizations, that is, the 6d $\\mathcal{N} =(1, 0)$ superconformal theories on the worldvolume of one or multiple M5-branes embedded within the end-of-the-world brane with $E_8$ symmetry.

Kantaro Ohmori; Hiroyuki Shimizu; Yuji Tachikawa

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Have You Used LED Light Strings? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

LED Light Strings? LED Light Strings? Have You Used LED Light Strings? December 3, 2009 - 7:30am Addthis This week, you read about LED holiday light strings, which can use 90% less energy than regular incandescent light strings. You may even be able to save on the initial costs with rebates from stores or your utility; check to find out what's being offered in your area. Have you used LED light strings? Tell us what you think of them. Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles Save Money with LED Holiday Light Strings Tips to Save Energy During the Holidays Choosing Energy-Saving Lighting Products Saves You Money

416

The SL(2,R)WZWN string model as a deformed oscillator and its classical-quantum string regimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the SL(2,R) WZWN string model describing bosonic string theory in AdS_3 space-time as a deformed oscillator together with its mass spectrum and the string modified SL(2,R) uncertainty relation. The SL(2,R) string oscillator is far more quantum (with higher quantum uncertainty) and more excited than the non deformed one. This is accompassed by the highly excited string mass spectrum which is drastically changed with respect to the low excited one. The highly excited quantum string regime and the low excited semiclassical regime of the SL(2,R) string model are described and shown to be the quantum-classical dual of each other in the precise sense of the usual classical-quantum duality. This classical-quantum realization is not assumed nor conjectured. The quantum regime (high curvature) displays a modified Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, while the classical (low curvature) regime has the usual quantum mechanics uncertainty principle.

M. Ramon Medrano; N. G. Sanchez

2006-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

417

Musical Acoustics Lab, C. Bertulani, 2012 PreLab 4 Standing Waves in a String  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mass. At the other end of the string is the vibration driver or oscillator, which vibrates with a very � Standing Waves in a String Standing waves are set up in the strings of musical instruments when, a violin bow will excite a unique standing wave vibration of the string. The string's vibrations

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

418

Ising anyons with a string tension  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider the string-net model on the honeycomb lattice for Ising anyons in the presence of a string tension. This competing term induces a nontrivial dynamics of the non-Abelian anyonic quasiparticles and may lead to a breakdown of the topological phase. Using high-order series expansions and exact diagonalizations, we determine the robustness of this doubled Ising phase, which is found to be separated from two gapped phases. An effective quantum dimer model emerges in the large tension limit, giving rise to two different translation symmetry-broken phases. Consequently, we obtain four transition points, two of which are associated with first-order transitions whereas the two others are found to be continuous and provide examples of recently proposed Bose condensation for anyons.

Marc Daniel Schulz; Sébastien Dusuel; Grégoire Misguich; Kai Phillip Schmidt; Julien Vidal

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

419

Rotating black string with nonlinear source  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we derive rotating black string solutions in the presence of two kinds of nonlinear electromagnetic fields, so-called Born-Infeld and power Maxwell invariant. Investigation of the solutions show that for the Born-Infeld black string the singularity is timelike and the asymptotic behavior of the solutions is anti-de Sitter, but for power Maxwell invariant solutions, depending on the values of nonlinearity parameter, the singularity may be timelike as well as spacelike and the solutions are not asymptotically anti-de Sitter for all values of the nonlinearity parameter. Next, we calculate the conserved quantities of the solutions by using the counterterm method, and find that these quantities do not depend on the nonlinearity parameter. We also compute the entropy, temperature, the angular velocity, the electric charge, and the electric potential of the solutions, in which the conserved and thermodynamics quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics.

Hendi, S. H. [Physics Department, College of Sciences, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and National Elite Foundation, P.O. Box 19615-334, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

420

Vacuum Selection on the String Landscape  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I examine some non-anthropic approaches to the string landscape. These approaches are based on finding the initial conditions of the universe using the wavefunction of the multiverse to select the most probable vacuum out of this landscape. All approaches tackled so far seems to have their own problems and there is no clear cut alternative to anthropic reasoning. I suggest that finding the initial conditions may be irrelevant since all possible vacua on the landscape are possible initial state conditions and eternal inflation could generate all the other vacua. We are now left to reason out why we are observing the small value of the cosmological constant (CC). I address this issue in the contest of noncritical string theory in which all values of the cosmological constant on the landscape are departures from critical equilibrium state.

Edward Tetteh-Lartey

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Antisymmetric field in string gas cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study how the introduction of a 2-form field flux modify the dynamics of a T-duality invariant string gas cosmology model of Greene, Kabat and Marnerides. It induces a repulsive potential term in the effective action for the scale factor of the spacial dimensions. Without the 2-form field flux, the universe fails to expand when the pressure due to string modes vanishes. With the presence of a homogeneous 2-form field flux, it propels 3 spacial dimensions to grow into a macroscopic 4 dimensional space-time. We find that it triggers an expansion of a universe away from the oscillating phase around the self-dual radius. We also investigate the effects of a constant 2-form field. We can obtain an expanding 4 dimensional space-time by tuning it at the critical value.

Igmar C. Rosas-López; Yoshihisa Kitazawa

2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

422

Scaling Solution for Small Cosmic String Loops  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The equation governing the time evolution of the number density of loops in a cosmic string network is a detailed balance determined by energy conservation. We solve this equation with the inclusion of the gravitational radiation effect, which causes the loops to shrink (and eventually decay) as time elapses. The solution approaches a scaling regime in which the total energy density in loops remains finite, converging both in the infrared and in the ultraviolet.

Jorge V. Rocha

2008-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

423

An Algorithmic Approach to Heterotic String Phenomenology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We briefly review the recent programme to construct, systematically and algorithmically, large classes of heterotic vacua, as well as the search for the MSSM therein. Specifically, we outline the monad construction of vector bundles over complete intersection Calabi-Yau threefolds, their classification, stability, equivariant cohomology and subsequent relevance to string phenomenology. It is hoped that this top-down algorithmic approach will isolate special corners in the heterotic landscape.

Yang-Hui He

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

424

Traversable wormholes in a string cloud  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes in a string cloud background in (3+1)-dimensional spacetime. The amount of exotic matter required for the construction, the traversability and the stability under radial perturbations, are analyzed as functions of the parameters of the model. Besides, in the Appendices a non perturbative approach to the dynamics and a possible extension of the analysis to a related model are briefly discussed.

Martin Richarte; Claudio Simeone

2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

425

Attenuation of sound waves in drill strings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During drilling of deep wells digital data are often transmitted from sensors located near the drill bit to the surface. Development of a new communication system with increased data capacity is of paramount importance to the drilling industry. Since steel drill strings are used transmission of these data by elastic carrier waves traveling within the drill pipe is possible but the potential communication range is uncertain. The problem is complicated by the presence of heavy?threaded tool joints every 10 m which form a periodic structure and produce classical patterns of passbands and stop bands in the wave spectra. In this article field measurements of the attenuation characteristics of a drill string in the Long Valley Scientific Well in Mammoth Lakes California are presented. Wave propagation distances approach 2 km. A theoretical model is discussed which predicts the location width and attenuation of the passbands. Mode conversion between extensional and bending waves and spurious reflections due to deviations in the periodic spacings of the tool joints are believed to be the sources of this attenuation. It is estimated that attenuation levels can be dramatically reduced by rearranging the individual pipes in the drill string according to length.

Douglas S. Drumheller

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

String melting in a photon bath  

SciTech Connect

We compute the decay rate of a metastable cosmic string in contact with a thermal bath by finding the instanton solution. The new feature is that this decay rate is found in the context of non thermal scalar fields in contact with a thermal bath of photons. In general, to make topologically unstable strings stable, one can couple them to such a bath. The resulting plasma effect creates metastable configurations which can decay from the false vacuum to the true vacuum. In our specific set-up, the instanton computation is realized for the case of two out-of-equilibrium complex scalar fields: one is charged and coupled to the photon field, and the other is neutral. New effects coming from the thermal bath of photons make the radius of the nucleated bubble and most of the relevant physical quantities temperature-dependent. However, the temperature appears in a different way than in the purely thermal case, where all scalar fields are in thermal equilibrium. As a result of the tunneling, the core of the initial string melts while bubbles of true vacuum expand at the speed of light.

Karouby, Johanna, E-mail: karoubyj@mit.edu [Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachussetts 02139 (United States)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Property:Incentive/ExpireDtString | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ExpireDtString ExpireDtString Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Incentive/ExpireDtString Property Type String Description Expiration Date string property. Use this property in queries until the Property:Incentive/ExpireDt property is populated with valid dates only. Currently, some are populated with additional notes included. Pages using the property "Incentive/ExpireDtString" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A AEP Ohio - Commercial Self Direct Rebate Program (Ohio) + 12/15/2013 + AEP Ohio - Renewable Energy Technology Program (Ohio) + 06/30/2013 + Agricultural Biomass to Energy Program (California) + 6/30/04 + Agricultural Energy Efficiency Program (New York) + 12/01/2015 + Agricultural Lighting and Equipment Rebate Program (Vermont) + 06/30/2013 +

428

Property:Incentive/StartDateString | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

StartDateString StartDateString Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Incentive/StartDateString Property Type String Description Start Date string property. Use this property in queries until the Property:Incentive/StartDate property is populated with valid dates only. Currently, some are populated with additional notes included. Pages using the property "Incentive/StartDateString" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 3 30% Business Tax Credit for Solar (Vermont) + 01/01/2009 + A AEP Appalachian Power - Commercial and Industrial Rebate Programs (West Virginia) + 3/11/2011 + AEP Appalachian Power - Residential Home Retrofit Program (West Virginia) + 3/11/2011 + AEP Ohio - Commercial Self Direct Rebate Program (Ohio) + 1/1/2008 +

429

Gravitational radiation from rotating monopole-string systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the gravitational radiation from a rotating monopole-antimonopole pair connected by a string. While at not too high frequencies the emitted gravitational spectrum is described asymptotically by $P_n\\propto n^{-1}$, the spectrum is exponentially suppressed in the high-frequency limit, $P_n\\propto \\exp(-n/n_{\\rm cr})$. Below $n_{\\rm cr}$, the emitted spectrum of gravitational waves is very similar to the case of an oscillating monopole pair connected by a string, and we argue therefore that the spectrum found holds approximately for any moving monopole-string system. As application, we discuss the stochastic gravitational wave background generated by monopole-antimonopole pairs connected by strings in the early Universe and gravitational wave bursts emitted at present by monopole-string networks. We confirm that advanced gravitational wave detectors have the potential to detect a signal for string tensions as small as $G\\mu\\sim 10^{-13}$.

E. Babichev; V. Dokuchaev; M. Kachelriess

2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

430

Size of the smallest scales in cosmic string networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a method for the calculation of the gravitational back-reaction cutoff on the smallest scales of cosmic string networks taking into account that not all modes on strings interact with all other modes. This results in a small scale structure cutoff that is sensitive to the initial spectrum of perturbations present on strings. From a simple model, we compute cutoffs in radiation- and matter-dominated universes which are much smaller than the results usually presented in the literature.

Xavier Siemens; Ken D. Olum; Alexander Vilenkin

2002-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

431

Oscillating D-Strings from IIB Matrix Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a class of BPS solutions of the IIB Matrix Theory which preserve 1/4 supersymmetry. The solutions desrcibe D-string configurations with left-moving oscillations. We demonstrate that the one-loop quantum effective action of Matrix Theory vanishes for this solution, confirming its BPS nature. We also study the world-volume gauge theory of oscillating strings and show its connection with static D-strings.

Anindya K. Biswas; Alok Kumar; Gautam Sengupta

1997-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

432

The dynamics of knotted strings attached to D-branes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We extend the general solution to the Cauchy problem for the relativistic closed string (Phys. Lett. B 404 (1997) 57) to the case of open strings attached to Dp-branes, including the cases where the initial data has a knotlike topology. We use this extended solution to derive intrinsic dynamical properties of open and closed relativistic strings attached to Dp-branes. We also study the singularity structure and the oscillating periods of this extended solution.

Ricardo Schiappa; Rui Dilão

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Open strings on D-branes from ABJM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study open strings on giant gravitons (D-branes on cycles) in the ABJM/$AdS_4\\times \\mathbb{CP}^3$ correspondence. We find that their energy spectrum has the same form as the one for closed strings, with a nontrivial function of the coupling, avoiding BMN scaling. A similar, Cuntz oscillator, Hamiltonian description for the string (operators at strong coupling) to the $AdS_5$ case is valid also in this case.

Cardona, Carlos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Open strings on D-branes from ABJM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study open strings on giant gravitons (D-branes on cycles) in the ABJM/$AdS_4\\times \\mathbb{CP}^3$ correspondence. We find that their energy spectrum has the same form as the one for closed strings, with a nontrivial function of the coupling, avoiding BMN scaling. A similar, Cuntz oscillator, Hamiltonian description for the string (operators at strong coupling) to the $AdS_5$ case is valid also in this case.

Carlos Cardona; Horatiu Nastase

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

435

The Hubble Web: The Dark Matter Problem and Cosmic Strings  

SciTech Connect

I propose a reinterpretation of cosmic dark matter in which a rigid network of cosmic strings formed at the end of inflation. The cosmic strings fulfill three functions: At recombination they provide an accretion mechanism for virializing baryonic and warm dark matter into disks. These cosmic strings survive as configurations which thread spiral and elliptical galaxies leading to the observed flatness of rotation curves and the Tully-Fisher relation. We find a relationship between the rotational velocity of the galaxy and the string tension and discuss the testability of this model.

Alexander, Stephon [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, Institute for Gravity and Geometry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2009-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

436

Falaco Solitons, Cosmic Strings in a Swimming Pool  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Topological defects experimentally induced by rotational dynamics in a continuous media replicate the coherent structure features of cosmic strings as well as hadrons.

R. M. Kiehn

2001-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

437

Fitting oscillating string gas cosmology to supernova data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In string gas cosmology, extra dimensions are stabilised by a gas of strings. In the matter-dominated era, competition between matter pushing the extra dimensions to expand and the string gas pulling them back can lead to oscillations of the extra dimensions and acceleration in the visible dimensions. We fit this model to supernova data, taking into account the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraint on the energy density of the string gas. The fit to the Union set of supernova data is acceptable, but the fit to the ESSENCE data is poor.

Francesc Ferrer; Tuomas Multamaki; Syksy Rasanen

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

438

Fitting oscillating string gas cosmology to supernova data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In string gas cosmology, extra dimensions are stabilised by a gas of strings. In the matter-dominated era, competition between matter pushing the extra dimensions to expand and the string gas pulling them back can lead to oscillations of the extra dimensions and acceleration in the visible dimensions. We fit this model to supernova data, taking into account the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraint on the energy density of the string gas. The fit to the Union set of supernova data is acceptable, but the fit to the ESSENCE data is poor.

Francesc Ferrer; Tuomas Multamäki; Syksy Räsänen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Polarization Correlations in Pair Production from Charged and Neutral Strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polarization correlations of $e^{+}e^{-}$ pair productions from charged and neutral Nambu strings are investigated, via photon and graviton emissions, respectively and explicit expressions for their corresponding probabilities are derived and found to be \\textit{speed} dependent. The strings are taken to be circularly oscillating closed strings, as perhaps the simplest solution of the Nambu action. In the extreme relativistic case, these probabilities coincide, but, in general, are different, and such inquiries, in principle, indicate whether the string is charged or uncharged. It is remarkable that these dynamical relativistic quantum field theory calculations lead to a clear violation of Local Hidden Variables theories.

E. B. Manoukian; N. Yongram

2005-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

440

The viscosity bound in string theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density $\\eta/s$ of any material in nature has been conjectured to have a lower bound of $1/4\\pi$, the famous KSS bound. We examine string theory models for evidence in favour of and against this conjecture. We show that in a broad class of models quantum corrections yield values of $\\eta/s$ just above the KSS bound. However, incorporating matter fields in the fundamental representation typically leads to violations of this bound. We also outline a program to extend AdS/CFT methods to RHIC phenomenology.

Aninda Sinha; Robert C. Myers

2009-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

On water, steam, and string theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At a pressure of 220 atm and a temperature of 374?°C there is a second-order phase transition between water and steam. Understanding it requires a key concept of both condensed matter and elementary particle physics: the renormalization group. Its basic ideas are explained with images from computer simulations of the lattice gas model. Then I briefly review how the renormalization group is used to compute critical coefficients for the water–steam phase transition. The results of this calculation are in good agreement with experiment. Finally some applications in particle physics and string theory are mentioned.

Christof Schmidhuber

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Gauge - Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking in String Compactifications  

SciTech Connect

We provide string theory examples where a toy model of a SUSY GUT or the MSSM is embedded in a compactification along with a gauge sector which dynamically breaks supersymmetry. We argue that by changing microscopic details of the model (such as precise choices of flux), one can arrange for the dominant mediation mechanism transmitting SUSY breaking to the Standard Model to be either gravity mediation or gauge mediation. Systematic improvement of such examples may lead to top-down models incorporating a solution to the SUSY flavor problem.

Diaconescu, Duiliu-Emanuel; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Florea, Bogdan; Kachru, Shamit; Svrcek, Peter; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

2006-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

443

CP and other gauge symmetries in string theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We argue that CP is a gauge symmetry in string theory. As a consequence, CP cannot be explicitly broken either perturbatively or nonperturbatively; there can be no nonperturbative CP-violating parameters. String theory is thus an example of a theory where all ? angles arise due to spontaneous CP violation, and are in principle calculable.

Michael Dine; Robert G. Leigh; Douglas A. MacIntire

1992-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

444

Peculiarities in the energy transfer by waves on strained strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Peculiarities in the energy transfer by waves on strained strings Eugene I. Butikov St. Petersburg of elastic potential energy associated with waves in a stretched string is discussed. The influence of nonlinear coupling between transverse and longitudinal waves on the density of energy is investigated

Butikov, Eugene

445

Signature of cosmic string wakes in the CMB polarization  

SciTech Connect

We calculate a signature of cosmic strings in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. We find that ionization in the wakes behind moving strings gives rise to extra polarization in a set of rectangular patches in the sky whose length distribution is scale-invariant. The length of an individual patch is set by the comoving Hubble radius at the time the string is perturbing the cosmic microwave background. The polarization signal is largest for string wakes produced at the earliest post-recombination time, and for an alignment in which the photons cross the wake close to the time the wake is created. The maximal amplitude of the polarization relative to the temperature quadrupole is set by the overdensity of free electrons inside a wake which depends on the ionization fraction f inside the wake. For a cosmic string wake coming from an idealized string segment, the signal can be as high as 0.06 {mu}K in degree scale polarization for a string at high redshift (near recombination) and a string tension {mu} given by G{mu}=10{sup -7}.

Danos, Rebecca J.; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Holder, Gil [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

446

On the Early Tension between String Theory and Phenomenology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the Early Tension between String Theory and Phenomenology L. Clavelli Department of Physics noticeable tension between string theory and phenomenology in particle physics. It is interesting to muse theory and phenomenology is more easily understandable than that of the early days. Today it is primarily

Clavelli, Louis J.

447

Conservation laws for a system of particles, strings, and membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conservation laws associated with Poincaré invariance for a system of particles, a system of strings, and a system of membranes as well as for a mixed system of particles, strings, and membranes are studied for the gauge-invariant theory of direct interactions between such systems.

Patricio S. Letelier

1978-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Character String Predicate Based Automatic Software Test Data Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Character String Predicate Based Automatic Software Test Data Generation Ruilian Zhao Computer is an important element in programming. A problem that needs further research is how to automatically generate generation of program paths including character string predicates, and the effectiveness of this approach

Lyu, Michael R.

449

Vortex strings in electric dipole radiation near a mirror  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The energy flow pattern of the radiation emitted by an oscillating electric dipole near a mirror has a complicated structure, including numerous singularities and vortices. We consider the flow lines of energy in the plane through the surface normal and the oscillation direction of the dipole. It is shown that the vortices are due to the vanishing of the magnetic field at their centers. The locations of the vortices have the appearance of beads on strings, and there are four such strings. The rotation direction of the energy flow for each vortex on a given string is the same. There are two strings with clockwise rotation and two strings with counterclockwise rotation. Field lines of energy flow either start or end at the center of a vortex. For a given string, field lines end at each vortex or field lines start at each vortex. There are two strings on which field lines end at the centers of the vortices, and there are two strings on which field lines start inside the vortices.

Xin Li; Henk F. Arnoldus

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

The Small Motion at the Nodes of a Vibrating String  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IT is generally recognised that the nodes of a string which is maintained permanently in oscillation in two or more loops cannot be points of ... node is in a phase which is different from that of the rest of the string. The exact difference of phase is shown by a dynamical investigation to be a ...

C. V. RAMAN

1909-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

451

Personnal recollections about the birth of String Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Personnal recollections about the birth of String Theory Eugene Cremmer Laboratoire de Physique Th contribution to the collective book: The Birth of String Theory edited by Andrea Cappelli, Elena Castellani conjectured that in 26 dimensions 2 sets of oscillators are cancelled by gauge conditions leading

452

Generalization of Some Algebras in the Bosonic String Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We assume that the total target phase space is non-commutative. This leads to the generalization of the oscillator-algebra of the string, and the corresponding Virasoso algebra. The effects of this non-commutativity on some string states will be studied.

Seyed Sina ShahidZadeh Mousavi

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

453

Save Money with LED Holiday Light Strings | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Money with LED Holiday Light Strings Money with LED Holiday Light Strings Save Money with LED Holiday Light Strings December 1, 2009 - 11:19am Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL It's hard to believe, but the holidays are in full swing and many of you are starting to decorate your homes. Those of you who started around Halloween are probably feeling pretty smart because you got your decorating done while the weather was nice. I see you there, snacking on your Thanksgiving leftovers, laughing at me shivering in the cold and struggling to undo the knot in my lights. Don't look so smug. Those of us who haven't started decorating yet may actually be the smart ones this year, because we still have a chance to buy LED light strings. LED (or light emitting diode) light strings can use 90% less energy than

454

Light-like tachyon condensation in Open String Field Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use open string field theory to study the dynamics of unstable branes in the bosonic string theory, in the background of a generic linear dilaton. We find a simple exact solution describing a dynamical interpolation between the perturbative vacuum and the recently discovered nonperturbative tachyon vacuum. In our solution, the open string tachyon increases exponentially along a null direction, after which nonlinearities set in and cause the solution to asymptote to a static state. In particular, the wild oscillations of the open string fields which plague the time-like rolling tachyon solution are entirely absent. Our model thus represents the first example proving that the true tachyon vacuum of open string field theory can be realized as the endpoint of a dynamical transition from the perturbative vacuum.

Simeon Hellerman; Martin Schnabl

2008-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

455

A study of some of the factors influencing the laboratory determination of the relative permeability-saturation relationship for large diameter limestone cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simultaneous Air-Brine Infection Studies Static Capillary Pressure Tests . . . ~ . . . . Relative Permeability-Saturation Relationship for Various Type Ned. ia . 8 2. Typical Capillary Pressure-Saturation Curve . . . . . . 14 A Core After Embeddment...-Satuz'ation Relationship For Darst Creek Field. Cores Employing Stepwise Air InJectioc ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 37 Brine Re. ative Permeability-Saturation Relationship Fcr Darst, Creek Field. Cores 1, 2, 2A Employing Simultaneous Air-Brine In...

Young, Roy M

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

456

Characterizing the gravitational wave signature from cosmic string cusps  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic strings are predicted to form kinks that travel along the string, and cusps, where a small region of the string moves at close to the speed of light. These disturbances are radiated away as highly beamed gravitational waves that produce a burst like pulse as the cone of emission sweeps past an observer. Gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO) will be capable of detecting these bursts for a wide class of string models. Such a detection would illuminate the fields of string theory, cosmology, and relativity. Here, we develop template based Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques that can efficiently detect and characterize the signals from cosmic string cusps. We estimate how well the signal parameters can be recovered by the advanced LIGO-Virgo network and the LISA detector using a combination of MCMC and Fisher matrix techniques. We also consider joint detections by the ground- and space-based instruments. We show that a parallel tempered MCMC approach can detect and characterize the signals from cosmic string cusps, and we demonstrate the utility of this approach on simulated data from the third round of mock LISA data challenges.

Key, Joey Shapiro; Cornish, Neil J. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

Hydraulic drill string breakdown and bleed off unit  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for use within an oil well rig for decoupling a tubing string into pipe segments comprising, in combination: rotary tong means for applying an unthreading torque to a first, upper pipe segment within the tubing string; torque resisting means for securing a second, lower pipe segment within the tubing string against the unthreading torque; containing means, intermediate the rotary tong means and the torque resisting means, enclosing a threaded joint of the tubing string, adapted for containing pressurized gases, liquids, and particulates, released from the threaded joint upon the decoupling; fluid communicating means for allowing fluid communication between the containing means and a receiving point adapted for receiving the pressurized gases, liquids, and particulates; means for moving the rotary tong means, the torque resisting means and the containing means between a closed, engaging position with the tubing string and an open position; and means for horizontally moving the rotary tong means, the torque resisting means and the containing means between a position adjacent the tubing string and a position away from the tubing string.

Zeringue, F.J. Jr.

1987-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

458

Casimir Theory of the Relativistic Composite String Revisited  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is an updated review article on the Casimir energy at zero and finite temperature for the transverse oscillations of a piecewise uniform closed string. We make use of three different regularizations: the cutoff method, the complex contour integration method, and the zeta-function method. The string model is relativistic, in the sense that the velocity of sound is for each string piece set equal to the velocity of light. In this sense the theory is analogous to the electromagnetic theory in a dielectric medium in which the product of permittivity and permeability is equal to unity (an isorefractive medium). We demonstrate how the formalism works for a two-piece string, and for a 2N-piece string, and show how in the latter case a compact recursion relation serves to facilitate the formalism considerably. The Casimir energy turns out to be negative, and the more so the larger the number of pieces in the string. The two-piece string is quantized in D-dimensional spacetime, in the limit when the ratio between...

Brevik, Iver

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Standing waves in a string driven by loudspeakers and signal generators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The apparatus for demonstrating standing waves in a stretched string has traditionally consisted of a string excited by a fixed frequency vibrator where resonance was achieved by adjusting the tension in the string. This cumbersome approach is alleviated by driving the string with a variable frequency vibrator consisting of a loudspeaker modified with an attachment to grip the string where the loudspeaker is driven by a variable frequency signal generator. The fundamental string resonance and many harmonics can be located quickly using the described apparatus. If two modified loudspeakers are used to drive the string the phenomena of beats can also be demonstrated.

F. P. Clay Jr.; R. L. Kernell

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

From a Relativistic Point Particle to String Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a classical action associated to a point-particle in (1+1)-dimensions the classical string theory is derived. In connection with this result two aspects are clarified: First, the point particle in (1+1)-dimensions is not an ordinary relativistic system, but rather a some kind of a relativistic top; and second, through the quantization of such a kind of top the ordinary string theory is not obtained, but rather a $\\sigma$-model associated to a non-compact group which may be understood as an extended string theory.

J. A. Nieto

1995-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Accretion onto a black hole in a string cloud background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the accretion process onto the black hole with a string cloud background, where the horizon of the black hole has an enlarged radius $r_H=2 M/(1-\\alpha)$, due to the string cloud parameter $\\alpha\\; (0 \\leq \\alpha cloud parameter $\\alpha$. We also find the gas compression ratios and temperature profiles below the accretion radius and at the event horizon. It is shown that the mass accretion rate, for both the relativistic and the non-relativistic fluid by a black hole in the string cloud model, increases with increase in $\\alpha$.

Apratim Ganguly; Sushant G. Ghosh; Sunil D. Maharaj

2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

462

Gravitating non-Abelian cosmic strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we study regular cosmic string solutions of the non-Abelian Higgs model coupled with the Einstein gravity. In order to do that, we constructed a set of coupled differential ordinary equation. Because there is no closed solution for this set of equations, we solve it numerically. The solutions that we are interested in asymptote to a flat space-time with a planar angle deficit. This model under consideration present two bosonic sectors, besides the non-Abelian gauge one, coupled minimally with the gravitational fields. The two bosonic sectors may present a direct coupling, which plays an important role on the behavior of the matter and gauge fields and also on the behavior on the geometry of the spacetime. We explicitly analyze the behaviors of the energy density and planar angle deficit as function of the energy scale where the gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken and the coupling interaction between the bosonic sectors.

Santo, Antônio de Padua

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Apparatus for stringing well pipe of casing  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for use in running a string of threaded well pipe or casing in a vertical configuration in a deep well bore which is adapted to convert a top head drive drilling rig for use in running each length of pipe into the well bore. A drive spindle adaptor is provided which may be securely attached in a removably mounted manner to the rotary drive spindle or sub of a top head drive drilling rig. The drive spindle includes a pair of opposing, outwardly extending lugs disposed at a right angle to the axial direction of the spindle and a true centering guide means. A collar is included which is provided with frictional gripping members for removably securing the collar to one end of a length of conventional pipe and a pair of axially extending, spaced ears which cooperate upon engagement with said lugs on said spindle adaptor to transfer rotary motion of said spindle to said length of pipe.

Sexton, J.L.

1984-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

464

Neighboring Valley in the String Landscape  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The observation in the universe of a small but positive vacuum energy strongly suggests, in the string landscape picture, that there will ultimately be a phase transition to an exactly supersymmetric universe. This ground state or "true vacuum" of the universe could be similar to the minimal supersymmetric standard model with all the susy breaking parameters set to zero. Alternatively, it might be similar to the prominent superstring theories with nine flat space dimensions or to the supersymmetric anti-deSitter model that seems to be equivalent to a conformal field theory. We propose that the dominant phenomenological feature of these potential future universes is the weakening of the Pauli principle due to Fermi-Bose degeneracy. Providing the phase transition occurs in the cosmologically near future, an exact supersymmetry could extend the life expectancy of intelligent civilizations far beyond what would be possible in the broken susy universe.

L. Clavelli

2006-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

465

Closed string tachyon condensation and worldsheet inflation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Closed string tachyon condensation in spacetime generates potentials on the worldsheet that model two-dimensional inflationary cosmology. These models illustrate and elucidate a variety of aspects of inflation, in particular the generation of quantum fluctuations and their back reaction on geometry. We exhibit a class of Liouville gravity models coupled to matter that can exhibit, for example, (a) pure de Sitter gravity, (b) slow-roll inflation, (c) topological inflation, and (d) graceful exit into a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) phase. The models also provide a quantitative testing ground for ideas about the origin of inflation, such as the various “no-boundary or tunnelling” proposals, and the “eternal or chaotic” inflationary scenario. We suggest an alternative mechanism for quantum creation of cosmological spacetimes which, in the context of the model, provides a natural explanation for why the typical FRW cosmology at large scales underwent a period of inflation at small scale.

Bruno Carneiro da Cunha and Emil J. Martinec

2003-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

466

Accident Investigation of the February 7, 2013, Scissor Lift...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Lift Accident in the West Hackberry Brine Tank-14 Resulting in Injury, Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry, LA Accident Investigation of the February 7, 2013, Scissor...

467

Summary Report on CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

10 th Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration,2 saturated brines. In 10th Carbon Capture and SequestrationIn: 9 th Annual Carbon Capture & Sequestration Meeting,

Varadharajan, C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Download Full-text PDF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Removal of particles larger than 0.45 p, when desired. Oxygen: Saturation ... control operates in the additive mode, and small quantities of brine solution are in

1999-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

469

CX-009213: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CX-009213: Categorical Exclusion Determination Repair West Hackberry Brine Tanks, WHT-14 & WHT-15 CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 08282012 Location(s): Louisiana...

470

Dissolved iodine in rainfall,cloud,stream and groundwater in the Plynlimon area of mid-Wales Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(1), 283293, 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). Further, there are issues of radioactive iodine contamination from nuclear weapon testing, nuclear, much higher concentrations can occur in brines associated with oil fields where concentrations can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

471

The Necessary Interrelationship between Land Use and Preservation of Groundwater Resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

brines between the production, and surface casing of oil and gas wells must have a program as well to control such contamination.

Malone, Linda A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

contaminants in groundwater remediation, magmatic hydrothermal systems (Ingebritsen, Geiger, Hurwitz supercritical components or mixtures and the presence of salts (and brines) will induce either weak or strong

Lucia, Angelo

473

SUSANA MARTINEZ Governor JOHN A. SANCHEZ Lieutenant Governor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"liquid waste that may be generated as a result of decontamination activities (e.g., brine from collection system boreholes) will be solidified in accordance with SOPs." The...

474

Seismic response of fractures and induced anisotropy in poroelastic ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

due to patchy brine-CO2 saturation and fractal porosity and consequently ...... quality of foods, groundwater flow and contamination among others. Thanks for ...

santos

475

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous nitrate solutions Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biology and Medicine 23 Evaluation for Biological Reduction of Nitrate and Perchlorate in Brine Water Using Summary: in high salt solution. One culture was capable of reducing up...

476

Selected Abstracts & Bibliography of International Oil Spill Research, through 1998  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

contamination, environment, environmental impact, environmental pollution, model, oil spill, storage facility, tank, water pollution, wave (water), additive, administration, barrier, book, brine,

Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research & Development Program Electronic Bibliography

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

graphene oxide (with low mass but large surface area) generates stable dispersions of CO 2 analog fluid in high-salinity brine. Significance and Impact Monolayer platelets of...

478

MULTIPARAMETER OPTIMIZATION STUDIES ON GEOTHERMAL ENERGY CYCLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and J. W. Tester, Geothermal Energy as a Source of Electricat the Susanville Geothermal Energy Converence, July 1976.for Recovery of Energy from Geothermal Hot Brine Deposits."

Pope, W.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

The effect of initial gas content and distribution on the residual gas content of cores after waterflooding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of desaturating from 100 per cent brine saturation; in the second, waterflooding took place after successive steps of increasing the brine saturation, starting at the lowest value that could be obtained by flowing gas through it. The results indicate... s Hexanes Heptanes + 93. 30 5 1. 70 $ 4. 00 $ 0. 37 $ 0. 07 $ 0. 20 $ 0. 36 $ The brine used was made up from distilled water, sodium chloride, and sodium nitrite, the latter salt added to inhibit corrosion. The brine had the following composition...

Elliott, James Kelly

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

480

Estimation of interstitial water in porous medium by capillary pressure measurements at various temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was prepared and its density determined with a Christian Beckers specific gravity balance. To saturate' the core samples with brine, they were first evacuated in a sleeve-top descicator for two hours, brine Nas then introduced into the core container.... After soaking the samples for two hours, the cores were removed, wiped with a paper towel to remove surface brine, and weighed again. The increase in weight was equal to the weight of the brine that now occupied the pores of each core. This increase...

Gupta, Mahesh Chander

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "brine brine string" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

xwhd395.tmp  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

from Hydromagnesite in Brine Peng-Chu Zhang* , Howard L. Anderson, Jr., John W. Kelly, James L. Krumhansl, and Hans W. Papenguth Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque,...

482

MOORE, JOHNNIE N. The origin of calcium carbonate nodules ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nov 10, 1980 ... number of green and yellow-green algae form in minute patches ..... Biochemical cycling of mineral- ... lime concentrate brines. J. Sediment.

2000-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

483

Beowawe Binary Bottoming Cycle | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

generation from the nonconventional geothermal resources of 205F by extracting waste heat from the brine to power a binary power plant. lowmcdonaldbeowawebinarybottomingc...

484

Planning and Design of Desalination Plants Effluent Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Seawater Reverse Osmosis Brine by Electrodialysis:reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination, electrodialysis (ED) asReverse Osmosis 14 2.2.2. Electrodialysis .

Maalouf, Sami

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CO 2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in afor a coalbed methane formation. EOR/sequestration petroleumbut shallow compared to either EOR or brine formations. The

Gasperikova, E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

CO2ReMoVe - Progress Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Seismic characterization of thin beds containing patchy carbon dioxide-brine .... different fluids involved in the CO2 sequestration procedure at variable formation

Danilo R. Velis

487

ELECTROLYTIC GAS EVOLUTION IN FORCED FLOW  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

brine 2. Although the water electrolysis industry is not aspower. Therefore, water electrolysis is used only when highpower, and so on. Water electrolysis has been considered as

Hui, Wing Cheong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

E-Print Network 3.0 - anoxic black sea Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Earth and Planetary Sciences, Northwestern University Collection: Geosciences 31 Rend. Fis. Acc. Lincei s. 9, v. 17:243-262 (2006) Summary: density anoxic brines from normal sea-...

489

California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

technologies that extract battery materials like lithium, manganese, and zinc from geothermal brines. Simbol has the potential to power 300,000-600,000 electric vehicles per...

490

New Geothermal Exploration and Management Tools | Department...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Brine Brings Low-Cost Power with Big Potential Readily Available Data Help to Overcome Geothermal Deployment Barriers Project Overview Positive Impact To accelerate exploration...

491

Oceanographic Considerations for Desalination Plants in Southern California Coastal Waters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

construct and operate a reverse osmosis (R.O. ) desalinationand filtered through reverse osmosis membranes to produceseawater produced by the reverse osmosis process (brine)

Jenkins, Scott A; Wasyl, Joseph

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

FE00880_RBDMS | netl.doe.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

data regarding oil and natural gas well histories, brine disposal, production, enhanced recovery, reporting, stripper wells, and other operations to enhance the protection of...

493

Evaluation Project 4492  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

of oil storage access brine injectiongasgeothermal wells; no site closure B5.4 - Repairreplacement of pipeline sections within maintenance provisions of a Section 404...

494

06-08-2010 ARRA-10-0146  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of oil storage access brine injectiongasgeothermal wells; no site closure B5.4 - Repairreplacement of pipeline sections within maintenance provisions of a Section 404...

495

09-01-2010 CA-B-10-0134  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of oil storage access brine injectiongasgeothermal wells; no site closure B5.4 - Repairreplacement of pipeline sections within maintenance provisions of a Section 404...

496

08-02-2010 NNSA-B-09-0265  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of oil storage access brine injectiongasgeothermal wells; no site closure B5.4 - Repairreplacement of pipeline sections within maintenance provisions of a Section 404...

497

04-06-2010 ARRA-10-0162  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

of oil storage access brine injectiongasgeothermal wells; no site closure B5.4 - Repairreplacement of pipeline sections within maintenance provisions of a Section 404...

498

06-07-2010 NNSA-B-10-0195  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

of oil storage access brine injectiongasgeothermal wells; no site closure B5.4 - Repairreplacement of pipeline sections within maintenance provisions of a Section 404...

499

07-09-2010 ARRA-10-0180  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

of oil storage access brine injectiongasgeothermal wells; no site closure B5.4 - Repairreplacement of pipeline sections within maintenance provisions of a Section 404...

500

06-14-2010 NNSA-B-10-0250  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

of oil storage access brine injectiongasgeothermal wells; no site closure B5.4 - Repairreplacement of pipeline sections within maintenance provisions of a Section 404...