Sample records for breakdown structure cbs

  1. CBS | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine energy MHK ocean energy The generalized Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS) for marine and hydrokinetic...

  2. Work breakdown structure guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of the work breakdown structure (WBS) technique is an effective aid in managing Department of Energy (DOE) programs and projects. The technique provides a framework for project management by focusing on the products that are being developed or constructed to solve technical problems. It assists both DOE and contractors in fulfilling their management responsibilities. This document provides guidance for use of the WBS technique for product oriented work identification and definition. It is one in a series of policy and guidance documents supporting DOE's project manaagement system.

  3. Cost Codes and the Work Breakdown Structure

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The chapter discusses the purpose of the work breakdown structure (WBS) and code of account (COA) cost code system, shows the purpose and fundamental structure of both the WBS and the cost code system, and explains the interface between the two systems.

  4. Predictions of microwavePredictions of microwave breakdown in rf structuresbreakdown in rf structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Ming

    Predictions of microwave breakdownPredictions of microwave breakdown in rf structuresin rf structures #12;2 of the breakdown phenomenon). 2. Electron interaction with microwave field (rough estimates of parameters which in communication systems Predictions of microwave breakdown in rf structuresPredictions of microwave breakdown

  5. Breakdown Anodization (BDA) for hierarchical structures of titanium oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Soon Ju, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Breakdown Anodization (BDA) of titanium dioxide is a very promising, fast fabrication method to construct micro-scale and nano-scale structures on titanium surfaces. This method uses environmentally friendly electrolytes, ...

  6. AVLIS Production Plant work breakdown structure and Dictionary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The work breakdown structure has been prepared for the AVLIS Production Plant to define, organize, and identify the work efforts and is summarized in Fig. 1-1 for the top three project levels. The work breakdown structure itself is intended to be the primary organizational tool of the AVLIS Production Plant and is consistent with the overall AVLIS Program Work Breakdown Structure. It is designed to provide a framework for definition and accounting of all of the elements that are required for the eventual design, procurement, and construction of the AVLIS Production Plant. During the present phase of the AVLIS Project, the conceptual engineering phase, the work breakdown structure is intended to be the master structure and project organizer of documents, designs, and cost estimates. As the master project organizer, the key role of the work breakdown structure is to provide the mechanism for developing completeness in AVLIS cost estimates and design development of all hardware and systems. The work breakdown structure provides the framework for tracking, on a one-to-one basis, the component design criteria, systems requirements, design concepts, design drawings, performance projections, and conceptual cost estimates. It also serves as a vehicle for contract reporting. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Lee, J. et al. Integrating Process and Work Breakdown Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jonathan

    Lee, J. et al. Paper: Integrating Process and Work Breakdown Structure with Design Structure Matrix processes and the Work Break- down Structure (WBS), we propose Process2WBS and WBS2Process to assist project processes and trans- forms them into a WBS with Design Structure Ma- trix (DSM) analysis, and WBS2Process

  8. Visualization of Intricate Flow Structures for Vortex Breakdown Analysis Xavier Tricoche

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    Visualization of Intricate Flow Structures for Vortex Breakdown Analysis Xavier Tricoche University, synthetic depictions that permit new insight into the structural properties of vortex breakdowns. CR And Modeling-- Simulation Output Analysis J.2 [Physical Sciences and Engineer- ing]: Engineering--. Keywords

  9. X-Band Photonic Band-Gap Accelerator Structure Breakdown Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, Roark A.; /MIT /MIT /NIFS, Gifu /JAERI, Kyoto /LLNL, Livermore; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.; /MIT; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Laurent, Lisa L.; Lewandowski, James R.; Yeremian, A.Dian; Tantawi, Sami G.; /SLAC

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to understand the performance of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures under realistic high gradient, high power, high repetition rate operation, a PBG accelerator structure was designed and tested at X band (11.424 GHz). The structure consisted of a single test cell with matching cells before and after the structure. The design followed principles previously established in testing a series of conventional pillbox structures. The PBG structure was tested at an accelerating gradient of 65 MV/m yielding a breakdown rate of two breakdowns per hour at 60 Hz. An accelerating gradient above 110 MV/m was demonstrated at a higher breakdown rate. Significant pulsed heating occurred on the surface of the inner rods of the PBG structure, with a temperature rise of 85 K estimated when operating in 100 ns pulses at a gradient of 100 MV/m and a surface magnetic field of 890 kA/m. A temperature rise of up to 250 K was estimated for some shots. The iris surfaces, the location of peak electric field, surprisingly had no damage, but the inner rods, the location of the peak magnetic fields and a large temperature rise, had significant damage. Breakdown in accelerator structures is generally understood in terms of electric field effects. These PBG structure results highlight the unexpected role of magnetic fields in breakdown. The hypothesis is presented that the moderate level electric field on the inner rods, about 14 MV/m, is enhanced at small tips and projections caused by pulsed heating, leading to breakdown. Future PBG structures should be built to minimize pulsed surface heating and temperature rise.

  10. On the bifurcation structure of axisyrnmetric vortex breakdown in a constricted pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, John M.

    On the bifurcation structure of axisyrnmetric vortex breakdown in a constricted pipe J. M. Lopez Department of Mathematics and Earth SystemScienceCenter;The PennsylvaniaState University, Universiv Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (Received 5 April 1994; accepted 20 July 1994) The bifurcation structure is presented

  11. Experimental Study of the Effect of Beam Loading on RF Breakdown Rate in CLIC High-Gradient Accelerating Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tecker, F; Kelisani, M; Doebert, S; Grudiev, A; Quirante, J; Riddone, G; Syratchev, I; Wuensch, W; Kononenko, O; Solodko, A; Lebet, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RF breakdown is a key issue for the multi-TeV highluminosity e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Breakdowns in the high-gradient accelerator structures can deflect the beam and decrease the desired luminosity. The limitations of the accelerating structures due to breakdowns have been studied so far without a beam present in the structure. The presence of the beam modifies the distribution of the electrical and magnetic field distributions, which determine the breakdown rate. Therefore an experiment has been designed for high power testing a CLIC prototype accelerating structure with a beam present in the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3). A special beam line allows extracting a beam with nominal CLIC beam current and duration from the CTF3 linac. The paper describes the beam optics design for this experimental beam line and the commissioning of the experiment with beam.

  12. Relating carrion breakdown rates to ambient resource level and community structure in four cave stream ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benstead, Jon

    into ecosystems vary in quantity and quality (e.g., plant litter vs carrion). Variability in detrital quantity and quality potentially affects consumer biomass and rates of organic matter (OM) breakdown. We used cave streams to test 2 linked hypotheses regarding the influence of total detrital inputs on consumer biomass

  13. DC Breakdown Experiments with Iridium Cathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Profatilova, Iaroslava; Korsback, Anders; Muranaka, Tomoko; Wuensch, Walter

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical breakdown occurring in rf accelerating structures is one of the major disruptions of the accelerated beam in CLIC. At CERN, as complements to rf facilities, DC-spark systems have been used to study breakdown properties of many candidate materials for making rf components. In this note, measurements of conditioning speed, breakdown field and field enhancement factor of iridium are presented comparing with previously tested materials. The average breakdown field after conditioning reached 238 MV/m, which places iridium next to copper. By comparison with results and properties of other metals, the low breakdown field of iridium could be explained by its face-centred-cubic crystal structure.

  14. Biofuel breakdown | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuel breakdown Biofuel breakdown SCF1 frees plant sugars in lignin for sustainable biofuels Lignin, the tough woody polymer in the walls of plant, binds and protects cellulose...

  15. Geometric dependence of radio-frequency breakdown in normal conducting accelerating structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)

    Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA 2 High Energy Accelerator Research magnetic field, or alternatively on surface pulsed heating. This is in contrast to the classical view geometries. The structure circuit pa- rameters play a dual role. First, they control the local varia- tion

  16. Investigation of the statistical nature and structure of the electrical breakdown time delay in gas diodes filled with neon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maluckov, Cedomir A. [Technical Faculty in Bor, University of Belgrade, Vojske Jugoslavije 24, 19210 Bor (Serbia and Montenegro); Karamarkovic, Jugoslav P. [Faculty of Civil Eng. and Architecture, University of Nis, Beogradska 14, 18000 Nis (Serbia); Radovic, Miodrag K. [Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, University of Nis, P.O.B.224, 18001 Nis (Serbia)

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical breakdown time delay in gas diodes filled by neon at the low pressures is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Experimental results are obtained measuring the characteristics of gas diodes filled by spectroscopically pure neon. In order to discard any systematic trend during the measurement procedure, checking of the measured values randomness preceded the statistical analysis of the experimental results. Novel theoretical model is established for interpretation of obtained experimental results on the breakdown time delay. The model is based on the assumptions of the exponential distribution of the statistical time delay and Gaussian distribution of the formative discharge time. Therefore, the density distribution of the breakdown time delay is assumed to be convolution of the statistical and formative time delay distributions. Parameters of the statistical and formative time delay, as stochastic variables, are modeled by the numerical Monte Carlo method. Numerical distributions are tested to the corresponding experimental distributions of the breakdown time delay by varying the distribution parameters. In addition, the asymmetry coefficient and skewness coefficient of the breakdown time delay distribution, and coefficients of the statistical and formative time delay distributions are analyzed. Numerically calculated time delay distributions fit well to the corresponding experimental distributions in gas diodes filled with neon at low pressures.

  17. Breakdown Visualization: Multiple Foci Polyarchies of Values and Attributes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    breakdown visualization, financial visualization, polyarchy structure, multiple foci, visual decompositionBreakdown Visualization: Multiple Foci Polyarchies of Values and Attributes Sandeep Prabhakar Department of Computer Science Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blacksburg, VA 24061

  18. Breakdown of Stokes-Einstein relation in supercooled water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradeep Kumar

    2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Water displays breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation at low temperatures. We hypothesize that the breakdown is a result of the structural changes and a sharp rise in dynamic heterogeneities that occurs low T upon crossing the Widom line.

  19. Phase-field model for dielectric breakdown in solids Krishna Chaitanya Pitike and Wei Hong*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Wei

    breakdown strength and sample thickness. Finally, the effect of the layered structure in a breakdown1 Phase-field model for dielectric breakdown in solids Krishna Chaitanya Pitike and Wei Hong dielectric breakdown and fracture of solids, this paper develops a phase field model for the electric damage

  20. Work Breakdown Structure and Plant/Equipment Designation System Numbering Scheme for the High Temperature Gas- Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Component Test Capability (CTC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey D Bryan

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This white paper investigates the potential integration of the CTC work breakdown structure numbering scheme with a plant/equipment numbering system (PNS), or alternatively referred to in industry as a reference designation system (RDS). Ideally, the goal of such integration would be a single, common referencing system for the life cycle of the CTC that supports all the various processes (e.g., information, execution, and control) that necessitate plant and equipment numbers be assigned. This white paper focuses on discovering the full scope of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) processes to which this goal might be applied as well as the factors likely to affect decisions about implementation. Later, a procedure for assigning these numbers will be developed using this white paper as a starting point and that reflects the resolved scope and outcome of associated decisions.

  1. cbs4denver.com -CSU Researches Develop Improved Radar For Troops http://cbs4denver.com/local/csu.radar.improvements.2.697978.html 1 of 2 4/11/2008 9:17 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong, Edwin K. P.

    Sports Business Consumer Health Entertainment Politics Pets Water Cooler CBS4 Spotlight School Closings After Taping Car Accident Manhunt Ends As Fugitive Marine Nabbed In Mexico Alamosa Water Cleared

  2. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    LIBS-1 Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy LIBS ANALYSIS OF METAL SURFACES Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;LIBS-2 Laser­Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) LIBS ANALYSIS OF METAL SURFACES of species at a distance or in hard­to­reach or hazardous environments. Laser­Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

  3. IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 22, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2001 565 Determining Dominant Breakdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    -state breakdown [2]­[6]. Furthermore, different devices may suffer from dif- ferent breakdown mechanisms sidegate structures are not available. In this work we develop a novel, straight-forward approachIEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 22, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2001 565 Determining Dominant Breakdown

  4. Chapter 20. Work Breakdown and Coordination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brookhaven National Laboratory - Experiment 821

    Chapter 20. Work Breakdown and Coordination Revised March 1994 The leadership responsibility to level 4 of the work breakdown is shown below. The work breakdown was done by the ten technical teams. We breakdown for commissioning with beam. -- 404 -- #12; Work Breakdown and Coordination 405 #12; 406 Work

  5. VORTEX BREAKDOWN INCIPIENCE: THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlebacher, Gordon

    ­dimensional boundary layer (Hall 2;3 , Mager 4 ); (ii) vortex breakdown is a consequence of hydrodynamic instabilityVORTEX BREAKDOWN INCIPIENCE: THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS S. A. Berger Department of Mechanical in Science and Engineering NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA 23681­0001 ABSTRACT The sensitivity

  6. The asteroseismological potential of the pulsating DB white dwarf stars CBS 114 and PG 1456+103

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handler, G; Wood, M A

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have acquired 65 h of single-site time-resolved CCD photometry of the pulsating DB white dwarf star CBS 114 and 62 h of two-site high-speed CCD photometry of another DBV, PG 1456+103. The pulsation spectrum of PG 1456+103 is complicated and variable on time scales of about one week and could only partly be deciphered with our measurements. The modes of CBS 114 are more stable in time and we were able to arrive at a frequency solution somewhat affected by aliasing, but still satisfactory, involving seven independent modes and two combination frequencies. These frequencies also explain the discovery data of the star, taken 13 years earlier. We find a mean period spacing of 37.1 +/- 0.7 s significant at the 98% level between the independent modes of CBS 114 and argue that they are due to nonradial g-mode pulsations of spherical degree l=1. We performed a global search for asteroseismological models of CBS 114 using a genetic algorithm, and we examined the susceptibility of the results to the uncertainties of ...

  7. IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 25, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2004 599 Optimized Breakdown Probabilities in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teich, Malvin C.

    in the GaAs layer. We show theoretically that the same optimized structures yield optimal breakdownAs structure) with the added advantage of having a reduced breakdown voltage (e.g., from 36.5 V to 13.7 V. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Awards ECS-0196569 and ECS-0334813. The re

  8. The asteroseismological potential of the pulsating DB white dwarf stars CBS 114 and PG 1456+103

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Handler; T. S. Metcalfe; M. A. Wood

    2002-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We have acquired 65 h of single-site time-resolved CCD photometry of the pulsating DB white dwarf star CBS 114 and 62 h of two-site high-speed CCD photometry of another DBV, PG 1456+103. The pulsation spectrum of PG 1456+103 is complicated and variable on time scales of about one week and could only partly be deciphered with our measurements. The modes of CBS 114 are more stable in time and we were able to arrive at a frequency solution somewhat affected by aliasing, but still satisfactory, involving seven independent modes and two combination frequencies. These frequencies also explain the discovery data of the star, taken 13 years earlier. We find a mean period spacing of 37.1 +/- 0.7 s significant at the 98% level between the independent modes of CBS 114 and argue that they are due to nonradial g-mode pulsations of spherical degree l=1. We performed a global search for asteroseismological models of CBS 114 using a genetic algorithm, and we examined the susceptibility of the results to the uncertainties of the observational frequency determinations and mode identifications (we could not provide m values). The families of possible solutions are identified correctly even without knowledge of m. Our optimal model suggests Teff = 21,000 K and M_* = 0.730 M_sun as well as log(M_He/M_*) = -6.66, X_O = 0.61. This measurement of the central oxygen mass fraction implies a rate for the ^12C(alpha,gamma)^16O nuclear reaction near S_300=180 keV b, consistent with laboratory measurements.

  9. RF BREAKDOWN STUDIES USING PRESSURIZED CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Rolland

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Many present and future particle accelerators are limited by the maximum electric gradient and peak surface fields that can be realized in RF cavities. Despite considerable effort, a comprehensive theory of RF breakdown has not been achieved and mitigation techniques to improve practical maximum accelerating gradients have had only limited success. Part of the problem is that RF breakdown in an evacuated cavity involves a complex mixture of effects, which include the geometry, metallurgy, and surface preparation of the accelerating structures and the make-up and pressure of the residual gas in which plasmas form. Studies showed that high gradients can be achieved quickly in 805 MHz RF cavities pressurized with dense hydrogen gas, as needed for muon cooling channels, without the need for long conditioning times, even in the presence of strong external magnetic fields. This positive result was expected because the dense gas can practically eliminate dark currents and multipacting. In this project we used this high pressure technique to suppress effects of residual vacuum and geometry that are found in evacuated cavities in order to isolate and study the role of the metallic surfaces in RF cavity breakdown as a function of magnetic field, frequency, and surface preparation. One of the interesting and useful outcomes of this project was the unanticipated collaborations with LANL and Fermilab that led to new insights as to the operation of evacuated normal-conducting RF cavities in high external magnetic fields. Other accomplishments included: (1) RF breakdown experiments to test the effects of SF6 dopant in H2 and He gases with Sn, Al, and Cu electrodes were carried out in an 805 MHz cavity and compared to calculations and computer simulations. The heavy corrosion caused by the SF6 components led to the suggestion that a small admixture of oxygen, instead of SF6, to the hydrogen would allow the same advantages without the corrosion in a practical muon beam line. (2) A 1.3 GHz RF test cell capable of operating both at high pressure and in vacuum with replaceable electrodes was designed, built, and power tested in preparation for testing the frequency and geometry effects of RF breakdown at Argonne National Lab. At the time of this report this cavity is still waiting for the 1.3 GHz klystron to be available at the Wakefield Test Facility. (3) Under a contract with Los Alamos National Lab, an 805 MHz RF test cavity, known as the All-Seasons Cavity (ASC), was designed and built by Muons, Inc. to operate either at high pressure or under vacuum. The LANL project to use the (ASC) was cancelled and the testing of the cavity has been continued under the grant reported on here using the Fermilab Mucool Test Area (MTA). The ASC is a true pillbox cavity that has performed under vacuum in high external magnetic field better than any other and has demonstrated that the high required accelerating gradients for many muon cooling beam line designs are possible. (4) Under ongoing support from the Muon Acceleration Program, microscopic surface analysis and computer simulations have been used to develop models of RF breakdown that apply to both pressurized and vacuum cavities. The understanding of RF breakdown will lead to better designs of RF cavities for many applications. An increase in the operating accelerating gradient, improved reliability and shorter conditioning times can generate very significant cost savings in many accelerator projects.

  10. RF breakdown effects in microwave power amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumilli, Gautham Venkat

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical stresses in the transistors of high-efficiency switching power amplifiers can lead to hot-electron-induced "breakdown" in these devices. This thesis explores issues related to breakdown in the Transcom TC2571 ...

  11. Spontaneous Breakdown of Superhydrophobicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauro Sbragaglia; Alisia M. Peters; Christophe Pirat; Bram M. Borkent; Rob G. H. Lammertink; Matthias Wessling; Detlef Lohse

    2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In some cases water droplets can completely wet micro-structured superhydrophobic surfaces. The {\\it dynamics} of this rapid process is analyzed by ultra-high-speed imaging. Depending on the scales of the micro-structure, the wetting fronts propagate smoothly and circularly or -- more interestingly -- in a {\\it stepwise} manner, leading to a growing {\\it square-shaped} wetted area: entering a new row perpendicular to the direction of front propagation takes milliseconds, whereas once this has happened, the row itself fills in microseconds ({\\it ``zipping''})

  12. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available. The whole genome sequence for A. niger ATCC 1015 is available from NBCI under acc. no ACJE00000000. The up-dated sequence for A. niger CBS 513.88 is available from EMBL under acc. no AM269948-AM270415. The sequence data from the phylogeny study has been submitted to NCBI (GU296686-296739). Microarray data from this study is submitted to GEO as series GSE10983. Accession for reviewers is possible through: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi token GSE10983] The dsmM_ANIGERa_coll511030F library and platform information is deposited at GEO under number GPL6758

  13. WWJ-TV CBS Detroit/CW50 Detroit Internship Job Descriptions Community Affairs/Programming Internship: This internship provides students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinabro, David

    WWJ-TV CBS Detroit/CW50 Detroit Internship Job Descriptions Community Affairs/Programming Internship: This internship provides students interns the opportunity to gain experience in Community Affairs internships offered for the winter, summer, and fall terms. Interns generally work either a Monday

  14. The hybrid Four-CBS-Domain KINbc subunit functions as the canonical c subunit of the plant energy sensor SnRK1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheen, Jen

    The hybrid Four-CBS-Domain KINbc subunit functions as the canonical c subunit of the plant energy.rolland@bio.kuleuven.be). SUMMARY The AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 protein kinases are a family of ancient and highly conserved eukaryotic energy and regulatory b and c subunits, the latter function as the energy-sensing modules of animal AMPK through

  15. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors 2012...

  16. In situ study on low-k interconnect time-dependent-dielectric-breakdown mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boon Yeap, Kong, E-mail: KongBoon.Yeap@globalfoundries.com [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Fab8, 400 Stonebreak Rd. Extension, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Gall, Martin; Liao, Zhongquan; Sander, Christoph; Muehle, Uwe; Zschech, Ehrenfried [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Justison, Patrick [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Fab8, 400 Stonebreak Rd. Extension, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Aubel, Oliver; Hauschildt, Meike; Beyer, Armand; Vogel, Norman [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden Module One LLC and Co. KG, Wilschdorfer Landstr. 101, D-01109 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ transmission-electron-microscopy methodology is developed to observe time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) in an advanced Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stack. A test structure, namely a “tip-to-tip” structure, was designed to localize the TDDB degradation in small dielectrics regions. A constant voltage is applied at 25?°C to the “tip-to-tip” structure, while structural changes are observed at nanoscale. Cu nanoparticle formation, agglomeration, and migration processes are observed after dielectric breakdown. The Cu nanoparticles are positively charged, since they move in opposite direction to the electron flow. Measurements of ionic current, using the Triangular-Voltage-Stress method, suggest that Cu migration is not possible before dielectric breakdown, unless the Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stacks are heated to 200?°C and above.

  17. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, Gerald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed.

  18. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.

    1996-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed. 13 figs.

  19. Pattern formation and propagation during microwave breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaudhury, Bhaskar [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), INPT, UPS, Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Boeuf, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), INPT, UPS, Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); LAPLACE, CNRS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Zhu, Guo Qiang [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), INPT, UPS, Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Northwestern Polytechnique University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During microwave breakdown at atmospheric pressure, a sharp plasma front forms and propagates toward the microwave source at high velocities. Experiments show that the plasma front may exhibit a complex dynamical structure or pattern composed of plasma filaments aligned with the wave electric field and apparently moving toward the source. In this paper, we present a model of the pattern formation and propagation under conditions close to recent experiments. Maxwell's equations are solved together with plasma fluid equations in two dimensions to describe the space and time evolution of the wave field and plasma density. The simulation results are in excellent agreement with the experimental observations. The model provides a physical interpretation of the pattern formation and dynamics in terms of ionization-diffusion and absorption-reflection mechanisms. The simulations allow a good qualitative and quantitative understanding of different features such as plasma front velocity, spacing between filaments, maximum plasma density in the filaments, and influence of the discharge parameters on the development of well-defined filamentary plasma arrays or more diffuse plasma fronts.

  20. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  1. Learning Structured Perceptrons for Coreference Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyle, Uwe

    Conclusion 2 #12;Title Breakdown Learning Structured Perceptrons for Coreference Resolution with Latent president and chief operating officer, succeeding [Gary Wilber]. 3 #12;Title Breakdown Learning Structured president and chief operating officer, succeeding [Gary Wilber]. 3 #12;Title Breakdown Learning Structured

  2. Gas breakdown in the T-7 tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denisov, V.F.; Ivanov, D.P.; Ivanov, N.V.; Kakurin, A.M.; Kislov, A.Y.; Kochin, V.A.; Mikhailichenko, V.A.; Khvostenko, P.P.; Khilil', V.V.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study of the initial stage of the discharge of the T-7 tokamak shows that when the magnetic field in the discharge chamber has a comparatively small transverse component (B/sub perpendicular/approx.10/sup -3/B/sub parallel/) the gas breakdown occurs in two stages. First, while the discharge current is low, the breakdown occurs along a helical magnetic line of force between upper and lower parts of a limiter in one cross section in the chamber. In the second stage, when the field of the current exceeds the transverse magnetic field, and a rotational transform arises, a toroidal electrodeless discharge occurs.

  3. Investigating the effective range of vacuum ultraviolet-mediated breakdown in high-power microwave metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chien-Hao, E-mail: cliu82@wisc.edu; Neher, Joel D., E-mail: jdneher@wisc.edu; Booske, John H., E-mail: booske@engr.wisc.edu; Behdad, Nader, E-mail: behdad@wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Metamaterials and periodic structures operating under high-power excitations are susceptible to breakdown. It was recently demonstrated that a localized breakdown created in a given region of a periodic structure can facilitate breakdown in other regions of the structure where the intensity of the incident electromagnetic fields may not be high enough to cause breakdown under normal circumstances. It was also demonstrated that this phenomenon is due to the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation at the location of the initial discharge, which propagates to the neighboring regions (e.g., other unit cells in a periodic structure) and facilitates the generation of a discharge at a lower incident power level. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental study conducted to determine the effective range of this physical phenomenon for periodic structures that operate in air and in pure nitrogen gas at atmospheric pressure levels. It is demonstrated that when breakdown is induced in a periodic structure using a high-power pulse with a frequency of 9.382 GHz, duration of 0.8 ?s, and peak power level of 25 kW, this phenomenon is highly likely to happen in radii of approximately 16–17 mm from the location of the initial discharge under these test conditions. The results of this study are significant in designing metamaterials and periodic structures for high-power microwave applications as they suggest that a localized discharge created in such a periodic structure with a periodicity less than 16–17 mm can spread over a large surface and result in a distributed discharge.

  4. RF Breakdown of Metallic Surfaces in Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BastaniNejad, M.; Elmustafa, A.A.; /Old Dominion U.; Yonehara, K.; Chung, M.; Jansson, A.; Hu, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; /Fermilab; Alsharo'a, M.; Neubauer, M.; Sah, R.; /Muons Inc., Batavia

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In earlier reports, microscopic images of the surfaces of metallic electrodes used in high-pressure gas-filled 805 MHz RF cavity experiments were used to investigate the mechanism of RF breakdown of tungsten, molybdenum, and beryllium electrode surfaces. Plots of remnants were consistent with the breakdown events being due to field emission, due to the quantum mechanical tunnelling of electrons through a barrier as described by Fowler and Nordheim. In the work described here, these studies have been extended to include tin, aluminium, and copper. Contamination of the surfaces, discovered after the experiments concluded, have cast some doubt on the proper qualities to assign to the metallic surfaces. However, two significant results are noted. First, the maximum stable RF gradient of contaminated copper electrodes is higher than for a clean surface. Second, the addition of as little as 0.01% of SF6 to the hydrogen gas increased the maximum stable gradient, which implies that models of RF breakdown in hydrogen gas will be important to the study of metallic breakdown.

  5. Quantum Response at Finite Fields and Breakdown of Chern Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @physics.technion.ac.il #12; Quantum Response at Finite Fields and Breakdown of Chern Numbers 2 On closer inspection oneQuantum Response at Finite Fields and Breakdown of Chern Numbers J E Avron and Z Kons y Department singularity at zero field. We also study the breakdown of Chern numbers associated with the response

  6. Breakdown of analyticity: From rigorous results to numerics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doedel, Eusebius

    work with Rafael de la Llave #12;Computing the breakdown Quasi-Periodic Solutions Outline QuasiBreakdown of analyticity: From rigorous results to numerics Renato Calleja Applied Mathematics-Periodic Solutions Twist Maps Models arising in Statistical Mechanics Computation of the Breakdown Small divisors

  7. APPLIED ISSUES Effects of agriculture on wood breakdown and microbial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Jackson R.

    creating the potential for recovery of ecosystem processes. 2. We examined wood breakdown and microbial breakdown. Wood may not be desirable as a tool for Correspondence: M. E. McTammany, Biology DepartmentAPPLIED ISSUES Effects of agriculture on wood breakdown and microbial biofilm respiration

  8. Breakdown of Angular Momentum Selection Rules in High Pressure Optical Pumping Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancor, B.; Wyllie, R.; Walker, T. G. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Babcock, E. [Juelich Centre for Neutron Science, Garching 85747 (Germany)

    2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements, by using two complementary methods, of the breakdown of atomic angular momentum selection rules in He-broadened Rb vapor. Atomic dark states are rendered weakly absorbing due to fine-structure mixing during Rb-He collisions. The effect substantially increases the photon demand for optical pumping of dense vapors.

  9. Leakage current and dielectric breakdown behavior in annealed SiO2 aerogel films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Moon-Ho

    Leakage current and dielectric breakdown behavior in annealed SiO2 aerogel films Moon-Ho Jo behavior in annealed SiO2 aerogel films for intermetal dielectric applications was investigated in a metal­insulator­semiconductor structure. SiO2 aerogel films with porosities of 70% exhibited Poole­Frenkel conduction both before

  10. On the measurement of laser-induced plasma breakdown thresholds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brieschenk, Stefan [Centre for Hypersonics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia)] [Centre for Hypersonics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia); Kleine, Harald; O'Byrne, Sean [The University of New South Wales Canberra, The Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra 2600 (Australia)] [The University of New South Wales Canberra, The Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra 2600 (Australia)

    2013-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The breakdown threshold of a gas exposed to intense laser-radiation is a function of gas and laser properties. Breakdown thresholds reported in the literature often vary greatly and these differences can partially be traced back to the method that is typically used to determine breakdown thresholds. This paper discusses the traditional method used to determine breakdown thresholds and the potential errors that can arise using this approach, and presents an alternative method which can yield more accurate data especially when determining breakdown thresholds as functions of gas pressure.

  11. Prevention of breakdown behind railgun projectiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electromagnetic railgun accelerator system, for accelerating projectiles by a plasma arc, introduces a breakdown inhibiting gas into the railgun chamber behind the accelerating projectile. The breakdown inhibiting gas, which absorbs electrons, is a halide or a halide compound such as fluorine or SF[sub 6]. The gas is introduced between the railgun rails after the projectile has passed through inlets in the rails or the projectile; by coating the rails or the projectile with a material which releases the gas after the projectile passes over it; by fabricating the rails or the projectile or insulators out of a material which releases the gas into the portions of the chamber through which the projectile has travelled. The projectile may have a cavity at its rear to control the release of ablation products. 12 figs.

  12. Prevention of breakdown behind railgun projectiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An electromagnetic railgun accelerator system, for accelerating projectiles by a plasma arc, introduces a breakdown inhibiting gas into the railgun chamber behind the accelerating projectile. The breakdown inhibiting gas, which absorbs electrons, is a halide or a halide compound such as fluorine or SF[sub 6]. The gas is introduced between the railgun rails after the projectile has passed through inlets in the rails or the projectile; by coating the rails or the projectile with a material which releases the gas after the projectile passes over it; by fabricating the rails or the projectile or insulators out of a material which releases the gas into the portions of the chamber through which the projectile has travelled. The projectile may have a cavity at its rear to control the release of ablation products. 12 figs.

  13. Wiedenhfer et al. Inter-Organizational Crisis Management Infrastructure for Electrical Power Breakdowns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiedenhöfer et al. Inter-Organizational Crisis Management Infrastructure for Electrical Power Breakdowns Inter-Organizational Crisis Management Infrastructures for Electrical Power Breakdowns Torben-Organizational Crisis Management Infrastructure for Electrical Power Breakdowns medium to large power outages among

  14. Dielectric breakdown model for composite materials F. Peruani,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peruani, Fernando

    Dielectric breakdown model for composite materials F. Peruani,1 G. Solovey,1 I. M. Irurzun,1,2 E. E on the breakdown of fuse net- works, while others have concentrated on dielectric break- down in networks. Mola,2, * A. Marzocca,1 and J. L. Vicente2 1 Departamento de Fisica, ``Juan Jose´ Giambiagi,'' FCEy

  15. Prebreakdown and breakdown phenomena in large oil gaps under AC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saker, A.; Gournay, P.; Lesaint, O.; Tobazeon, R. [CNRS, Grenoble (France). Lab. d`Electrostatique et de Materiaux Dielectriques; Trinh, N.G. [Inst. de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada); Boisdon, C. [Jeumont-Schneider Transformateurs, Lyon (France)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a study of prebreakdown and breakdown phenomena under AC voltage in mineral oil in large gaps to 60 cm. The investigations presented concern the study of streamers and the measurement of breakdown voltages in rod-plane and sphere-plane gaps. Also, the influence of a contamination by solid particles in the oil has been considered. A specific breakdown mode under AC voltage is evidenced, where bursts of streamers lead to the lowest breakdown fields recorded. Numerical values of the mean field in oil required for direct or burst breakdown modes are derived from the experiments. As a consequence, the great sensitivity to the presence of particles on EHV transformers insulation with large oil gaps is pointed out.

  16. Femtosecond laser induced breakdown for combustion diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotzagianni, M. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes (ICE-HT), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), 26504 Patras (Greece); Couris, S. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes (ICE-HT), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), 26504 Patras (Greece); Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), Universite de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The focused beam of a 100 fs, 800 nm laser is used to induce a spark in some laminar premixed air-methane flames operating with variable fuel content (equivalence ratio). The analysis of the light escaping from the plasma revealed that the Balmer hydrogen lines, H{sub {alpha}} and H{sub {beta}}, and some molecular origin emissions were the most prominent spectral features, while the CN ({Beta}{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}-{Chi}{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}) band intensity was found to depend linearly with methane content, suggesting that femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy can be a useful tool for the in-situ determination and local mapping of fuel content in hydrocarbon-air combustible mixtures.

  17. Relationship Between Honeycombing and Collagen Breakdown in Skipjack Tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relationship Between Honeycombing and Collagen Breakdown in Skipjack Tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis between the amount of honeycombing and collagen breakdown in skipjack tuna, Kat- suwonus pelamis

  18. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of tantalum plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Sidra; Bashir, Shazia; Hayat, Asma; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Faizan–ul-Haq [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan)] [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of Tantalum (Ta) plasma has been investigated. For this purpose Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulses (?? 1064 nm, ?? 10 ns) of maximum pulse energy of 100 mJ have been employed as an ablation source. Ta targets were exposed under the ambient environment of various gases of Ar, mixture (CO{sub 2}: N{sub 2}: He), O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and He under various filling pressure. The emission spectrum of Ta is observed by using LIBS spectrometer. The emission intensity, excitation temperature, and electron number density of Ta plasma have been evaluated as a function of pressure for various gases. Our experimental results reveal that the optical emission intensity, the electron temperature and density are strongly dependent upon the nature and pressure of ambient environment. The SEM analysis of the ablated Ta target has also been carried out to explore the effect of ambient environment on the laser induced grown structures. The growth of grain like structures in case of molecular gases and cone-formation in case of inert gases is observed. The evaluated plasma parameters by LIBS analysis such as electron temperature and the electron density are well correlated with the surface modification of laser irradiated Ta revealed by SEM analysis.

  19. Avalanches in breakdown and fracture processes Stefano Zapperi,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    Avalanches in breakdown and fracture processes Stefano Zapperi,1 Purusattam Ray,2 H. Eugene Stanley in a stressed solid was studied by Golubovic and co-workers 9 using Monte Carlo simulations. Recently

  20. Cost Codes and the Work Breakdown Structure - DOE Directives...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WBS and the cost code system, and explains the interface between the two systems. g4301-1chp5.pdf -- PDF Document, 44 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: Administration Management...

  1. DOE Work Breakdown Structure Handbook | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsNovember 13, 2014ContributingDOE Contract DOEEnergy SiteTransitionDOE Work

  2. MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarmsPower CoLongxing Wind PowerMCF Advisors LLC

  3. Breakdown-prone volume in terahertz wave beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Qiao, F.; Kashyn, D. G.; Pu, R. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-3511 (United States)] [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-3511 (United States); Dolin, L. S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod 603600 (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod 603600 (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was motivated by the recently proposed concept of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials by a focused terahertz (THz) radiation [V. L. Granatstein and G. S. Nusinovich, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063304 (2010)]. According to this concept, a high-power THz radiation should be focused in a small spot where the field intensity exceeds the breakdown threshold. In the presence of free electrons in such a breakdown-prone volume, a THz discharge will occur there. However, this volume should be so small that in the absence of ionizing sources in its vicinity the probability to have there any free electrons is low. Then, the increased breakdown rate in a series of THz pulses would indicate the presence of hidden radioactive materials in the vicinity of the focused spot. For this concept, it is important to accurately determine the breakdown-prone volume created by a focused THz radiation. This problem is analyzed in this paper, first, for the case of a single wave beam and, then, for the case of crossing wave beams of different polarizations. The problem is studied first ignoring the diffraction spread of wave beams in the vicinity of the focal plane and, then, with the account for the diffraction spreading. Then, relations between the THz wave power, the range of such a system and the breakdown-prone volume are analyzed. Finally, the effect of the atmospheric turbulence on propagation and focusing of THz wave beams in air is considered.

  4. OpenEI Community - CBS

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompany Oil and GasOff the GridHome All0 en How

  5. High-voltage atmospheric breakdown across intervening rutile dielectrics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Simpson, Sean; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Pasik, Michael Francis

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 on electrical discharge experiments performed to develop predictive computational models of the fundamental processes of surface breakdown in the vicinity of high-permittivity material interfaces. Further, experiments were conducted to determine if free carrier electrons could be excited into the conduction band thus lowering the effective breakdown voltage when UV photons (4.66 eV) from a high energy pulsed laser were incident on the rutile sample. This report documents the numerical approach, the experimental setup, and summarizes the data and simulations. Lastly, it describes the path forward and challenges that must be overcome in order to improve future experiments for characterizing the breakdown behavior for rutile.

  6. Characterization of superconducting radiofrequency breakdown by two-mode excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eremeev, Grigory V. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Palczewski, Ari D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that thermal and magnetic contributions to the breakdown of superconductivity in radiofrequency (RF) fields can be separated by applying two RF modes simultaneously to a superconducting surface. We develop a simple model that illustrates how mode-mixing RF data can be related to properties of the superconductor. Within our model the data can be described by a single parameter, which can be derived either from RF or thermometry data. Our RF and thermometry data are in good agreement with the model. We propose to use mode-mixing technique to decouple thermal and magnetic effects on RF breakdown of superconductors.

  7. Exciton-Plasmon States in Nanoscale Materials: Breakdown of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marini, Andrea

    Exciton-Plasmon States in Nanoscale Materials: Breakdown of the Tamm-Dancoff Approximation Myrta propagating only forward in time. However, we show that in nanoscale materials excitons and plasmons hybridize, creating exciton-plasmon states where the electron-hole pairs oscillate back and forth in time. Then

  8. Breakdown points of Cauchy regression-scale estimators Ivan Mizera

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mizera, Ivan

    @stat.ualberta.ca. This work was supported in part by the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. 2 of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G1, Canada. Email: mizeraBreakdown points of Cauchy regression-scale estimators Ivan Mizera University of Alberta1

  9. Coordination Breakdowns: Why Groupware is so Difficult to Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easterbrook, Steve

    Coordination Breakdowns: Why Groupware is so Difficult to Design Steve Easterbrook School of Cognitive and Computing Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH, UK. in the requirements for software support tools. Many existing software systems rely on the adaptability of human users

  10. An Array-Based Test Circuit for Fully Automated Gate Dielectric Breakdown Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Chris H.

    An Array-Based Test Circuit for Fully Automated Gate Dielectric Breakdown Characterization John for efficiently characterizing gate dielectric breakdown. Such a design is highly beneficial when studying this statistical process, where up to thousands of samples are needed to create an accurate time to breakdown

  11. Theory of optically-triggered electrical breakdown of semiconductors Kenneth E. Kambour1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myles, Charles W.

    experimental work has focused on determining the ultimate breakdown field for an insulator [1,2 destruction if unchecked. Much effort has been focused on understanding breakdown of solid insulators [1, 2Theory of optically-triggered electrical breakdown of semiconductors Kenneth E. Kambour1 , Harold P

  12. Study of the breakdown failure mechanisms for power AlGaN/GaN HEMTs implemented using a RF compatible process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Wai Tung

    ]. Mishra et al. proposed a SiO2/Si3N4 bi-layer structure as the gate insulator [6]. Even though these MISStudy of the breakdown failure mechanisms for power AlGaN/GaN HEMTs implemented using a RF Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology

  13. 5:OOpm -5:15pm Temperature Dependence of Breakdown Voltage in InAlAsDnGaAs HEMTs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    in the channel. Our work shows that an extension of the tunneling-limited breakdown model to finite temperatures the breakdown path, we began our analysis by looking at 2- and 3-terminal measurements of the breakdown voltage5:OOpm -5:15pm MC6 Temperature Dependence of Breakdown Voltage in InAlAsDnGaAs HEMTs: Theory

  14. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for specimen analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Akshaya; Yu-Yueh, Fang; Burgess, Shane C.; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus, a system and a method for detecting the presence or absence of trace elements in a biological sample using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. The trace elements are used to develop a signature profile which is analyzed directly or compared with the known profile of a standard. In one aspect of the invention, the apparatus, system and method are used to detect malignant cancer cells in vivo.

  15. Detecting excess ionizing radiation by electromagnetic breakdown of air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granatstein, Victor L.; Nusinovich, Gregory S. [Center for Applied Electromagnetics, Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A scheme is proposed for detecting a concealed source of ionizing radiation by observing the occurrence of breakdown in atmospheric air by an electromagnetic wave whose electric field surpasses the breakdown field in a limited volume. The volume is chosen to be smaller than the reciprocal of the naturally occurring concentration of free electrons. The pulse duration of the electromagnetic wave must exceed the avalanche breakdown time (10-200 ns) and could profitably be as long as the statistical lag time in ambient air (typically, microseconds). Candidate pulsed electromagnetic sources over a wavelength range, 3 mm>{lambda}>10.6 {mu}m, are evaluated. Suitable candidate sources are found to be a 670 GHz gyrotron oscillator with 200 kW, 10 {mu}s output pulses and a Transversely Excited Atmospheric-Pressure (TEA) CO{sub 2} laser with 30 MW, 100 ns output pulses. A system based on 670 GHz gyrotron would have superior sensitivity. A system based on the TEA CO{sub 2} laser could have a longer range >100 m.

  16. Optical breakdown threshold investigation of 1064 nm laser induced air plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Thompson, Shane [Plasma Engineering Research Lab (PERL), College of Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University-Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 (United States)

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the theoretical and experimental measurements and analysis of the optical breakdown threshold for dry air by 1064 nm infrared laser radiation and the significance of the multiphoton and collisional cascade ionization process on the breakdown threshold measurements over pressures range from 10 to 2000 Torr. Theoretical estimates of the breakdown threshold laser intensities and electric fields are obtained using two distinct theories namely multiphoton and collisional cascade ionization theories. The theoretical estimates are validated by experimental measurements and analysis of laser induced breakdown processes in dry air at a wavelength of 1064 nm by focusing 450 mJ max, 6 ns, 75 MW max high-power 1064 nm IR laser radiation onto a 20 {mu}m radius spot size that produces laser intensities up to 3 - 6 TW/cm{sup 2}, sufficient for air ionization over the pressures of interest ranging from 10 to 2000 Torr. Analysis of the measured breakdown threshold laser intensities and electric fields are carried out in relation with classical and quantum theoretical ionization processes, operating pressures. Comparative analysis of the laser air breakdown results at 1064 nm with corresponding results of a shorter laser wavelength (193 nm) [M. Thiyagarajan and J. E. Scharer, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36, 2512 (2008)] and a longer microwave wavelength (10{sup 8} nm) [A. D. MacDonald, Microwave Breakdown in Gases (Wiley, New York, 1966)]. A universal scaling analysis of the breakdown threshold measurements provided a direct comparison of breakdown threshold values over a wide range of frequencies ranging from microwave to ultraviolet frequencies. Comparison of 1064 nm laser induced effective field intensities for air breakdown measurements with data calculated based on the collisional cascade and multiphoton breakdown theories is used successfully to determine the scaled collisional microwave portion. The measured breakdown threshold of 1064 nm laser intensities are then scaled to classical microwave breakdown theory after correcting for the multiphoton ionization process for different pressures and good agreement, regarding both pressure dependence and breakdown threshold electric fields, is obtained. The effect of the presence of submicron particles on the 1064 nm breakdown threshold was also investigated. The measurements show that higher breakdown field is required, especially at lower pressures, and in close agreement with classical microwave breakdown theory and measurements in air.

  17. Enhancement of RF Breakdown Threshold of Microwave Cavities by Magnetic Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratakis, D.; Gallardo, J.; Palmer, R.B.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Limitations on the maximum achievable accelerating gradient of microwave cavities can influence the performance, length, and cost of particle accelerators. Gradient limitations are believed to be initiated by electron emission from the cavity surfaces. Here, we show that field emission is effectively suppressed by applying a tangential magnetic field to the cavity walls, so higher gradients can be achieved. Numerical simulations indicate that the magnetic field prevents electrons leaving these surfaces and subsequently picking up energy from the electric field. Our results agree with current experimental data. Two specific examples illustrate the implementation of magnetic insulation into prospective particle accelerator applications. The ultimate goal of several research efforts is to integrate high-gradient radio-frequency (rf) structures into next generation particle accelerators. For instance, the Muon Accelerator Program is looking at developing low-frequency cavities for muon cooling, and the International Linear Collider is optimizing the performance of 1.3 GHz rf structures aimed at designing a 1 TeV electron-positron collider. Furthermore, the High Gradient RF Collaboration is examining high frequency (f > 10 GHz) structures intended for an electron-positron collider operating at energies in the TeV range. In all this research, the accelerating gradient will be one of the crucial parameters affecting their design, construction, and cost. Limitations from rf breakdown strongly influence the development of accelerators since it limits the machine's maximum gradient. The emission of electrons from the cavity surfaces seemingly is a necessary stage in the breakdown process, acting either as a direct cause of breakdown or as precursor for other secondary effects. Typically, electron currents arise from sharp edges or cracks on the cavities surfaces, where the strength of the electric field is strongly enhanced compared to that of the nominal field when the surfaces of the cavity are perfect planes. Subsequently, a stream of emitted electrons can be accelerated by the rf electric field toward the opposing cavity walls. Upon impact, they heat a localized region, resulting in the eventual breakdown by a variety of secondary mechanisms. Therefore, it is advantageous to develop techniques that could suppress field emission within rf cavities. It has been proposed that high voltages up to about a gigavolt range may be sustained in voltage transformers, by adopting the principle of magnetic insulation in ultrahigh vacuum. The basic idea is to suppress field emission by applying a suitably directed magnetic field of sufficient strength to force the electrons orbits back on to the rf emitting surface. More recently, it was shown that magnetic insulation could be very effective in suppressing field emission and multipacting in rectangular coupler waveguides. Hence, the question arises whether the same principle is applicable to rf accelerating structures. In this Letter, we shall consider application of the concept to low-frequency (201-805 MHz) muon accelerator cavities.

  18. Femtosecond laser ablation of dielectric materials in the optical breakdown regime: Expansion of a transparent shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Lechuga, M.; Siegel, J., E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es; Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Solis, J. [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase transition pathways of matter upon ablation with ultrashort laser pulses have been considered to be understood long-since for metals and semiconductors. We provide evidence that also certain dielectrics follow the same pathway, even at high pulse energies triggering optical breakdown. Employing femtosecond microscopy, we observe a characteristic ring pattern within the ablating region that dynamically changes for increasing time delays between pump and probe pulse. These transient Newton rings are related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front surface of the ablating layer with the reflection at the interface of the non-ablating substrate. Analysis of the ring structure shows that the ablation mechanism is initiated by a rarefaction wave leading within a few tens of picoseconds to the formation of a transparent thin shell of reduced density and refractive index, featuring optically sharp interfaces. The shell expands and eventually detaches from the solid material at delays of the order of 100 ps.

  19. Gas breakdown driven by L band short-pulse high-power microwave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Yiming; Yuan Chengwei; Qian Baoliang [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High power microwave (HPM) driven gas breakdown is a major factor in limiting the radiation and transmission of HPM. A method that HPM driven gas breakdown could be obtained by changing the aperture of horn antenna is studied in this paper. Changing the effective aperture of horn antenna can adjust the electric field in near field zone, leading to gas breakdown. With this method, measurements of air and SF{sub 6} breakdowns are carried out on a magnetically insulated transmission-line oscillators, which is capable of generating HPM with pulse duration of 30 ns, and frequency of 1.74 GHz. The typical breakdown waveforms of air and SF{sub 6} are presented. Besides, the breakdown field strengths of the two gases are derived at different pressures. It is found that the effects of air and SF{sub 6} breakdown on the transmission of HPM are different: air breakdown mainly shortens the pulse width of HPM while SF{sub 6} breakdown mainly reduces the peak output power of HPM. The electric field threshold of SF{sub 6} is about 2.4 times larger than that of air. These differences suggest that gas properties have a great effect on the transmission characteristic of HPM in gases.

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ORIENTATION AND THE PASSIVITY AND BREAKDOWN OF BERYLLIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ORIENTATION AND THE PASSIVITY AND BREAKDOWN OF BERYLLIUM corrosion for S200D beryllium (Be) was found to decrease logarithmically with increasing chloride

  1. Seeded optical breakdown of molecular and noble gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polynkin, Pavel; Scheller, Maik; Moloney, Jerome V. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report experimental results on the dual laser-pulse plasma excitation in various gases at atmospheric pressure. Dilute plasma channels generated through filamentation of ultraintense femtosecond laser pulses in air, argon, and helium are densified through the application of multi-Joule nanosecond heater pulses. Optical breakdown in atomic gases can be achieved for considerably longer delays between femtosecond and nanosecond pulses compared to that in molecular gases. The densification of the seed channel in molecular gases is always accompanied by its fragmentation into discrete bubbles, while in atomic gases the densified channel remains smooth and continuous.

  2. Spatial confinement effects in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, X. K.; Sun, J.; Ling, H.; Lu, Y. F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States)

    2007-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial confinement effects in laser-induced breakdown of aluminum (Al) targets in air have been investigated both by optical emission spectroscopy and fast photography. A KrF excimer laser was used to produce plasmas from Al targets in air. Al atomic emission lines show an obvious enhancement in the emission intensity when a pair of Al-plate walls were placed to spatially confine the plasma plumes. Images of the Al plasma plumes showed that the plasma plumes evolved into a torus shape and were compressed in the Al walls. The mechanism for the confinement effects was discussed using shock wave theory.

  3. Trace metal mapping by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, Jozef [ORNL; Novotny, Dr. Karel [Masaryk University; Hrdlicka, A [Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic; Malina, R [Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic; Hartl, M [Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic; Kizek, R [Mendel University of Brno; Adam, V [Mendel University of Brno

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a sensitive optical technique capable of fast multi-elemental analysis of solid, gaseous and liquid samples. The potential applications of lasers for spectrochemical analysis were developed shortly after its invention; however the massive development of LIBS is connected with the availability of powerful pulsed laser sources. Since the late 80s of 20th century LIBS dominated the analytical atomic spectroscopy scene and its application are developed continuously. Here we review the utilization of LIBS for trace elements mapping in different matrices. The main emphasis is on trace metal mapping in biological samples.

  4. Getting out of the breakdown: Towards Humans Social Networks on the Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    advantage of the breakdown situation transforming it in a serendipitous learning opportunity. 2. HumanGetting out of the breakdown: Towards Humans Social Networks on the Grid Maria Augusta S. N. Nunes1 To happen by "accident". Abstract. This paper describes an ongoing work which main aim is to help people

  5. TIME DEPENDENT BREAKDOWN OF GATE OXIDE AND PREDICTION OF OXIDE GATE LIFETIME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmoodi, Hamid

    TIME DEPENDENT BREAKDOWN OF GATE OXIDE AND PREDICTION OF OXIDE GATE LIFETIME A thesis submitted Masters of Science In Engineering: Embedded System by Bin Wu San Francisco, California May, 2012 #12;CERTIFICATION OF APPROVAL I certify that I have read Time dependent Breakdown of Gate Oxide and Prediction

  6. Practical High Breakdown Regression David J. Olive and Douglas M. Hawkins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olive, David

    Practical High Breakdown Regression David J. Olive and Douglas M. Hawkins Southern Illinois breakdown n consistent regression es- timators exist. The response plot of the fitted values versus@umn.edu), School of Statistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0493, USA. Their work was supported

  7. Apparatus, system, and method for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Effenberger, Jr., Andrew J; Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), an apparatus includes a pulsed laser configured to generate a pulsed laser signal toward a sample, a constructive interference object and an optical element, each located in a path of light from the sample. The constructive interference object is configured to generate constructive interference patterns of the light. The optical element is configured to disperse the light. A LIBS system includes a first and a second optical element, and a data acquisition module. The data acquisition module is configured to determine an isotope measurement based, at least in part, on light received by an image sensor from the first and second optical elements. A method for performing LIBS includes generating a pulsed laser on a sample to generate light from a plasma, generating constructive interference patterns of the light, and dispersing the light into a plurality of wavelengths.

  8. Metal film deposition by laser breakdown chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jervis, T.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dielectric breakdown of gas mixtures can be used to deposit homogeneous thin films by chemical vapor deposition with appropriate control of flow and pressure conditions to suppress gas phase nucleation and particle formation. Using a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser operating at 10.6 microns where there is no significant resonant absorption in any of the source gases, we have succeeded in depositing homogeneous films from several gas phase precursors by gas phase laser pyrolysis. Nickel and molybdenum from the respective carbonyls and tungsten from the hexafluoride have been examined to date. In each case the gas precursor is buffered to reduce the partial pressure of the reactants and to induce breakdown. The films are spectrally reflective and uniform over a large area. Films have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, pull tests, and resistivity measurements. The highest quality films have resulted from the nickel depositions. Detailed x-ray diffraction analysis of these films yields a very small domain size (approx. 50 A) consistent with rapid quenching from the gas phase reaction zone. This analysis also shows nickel carbide formation consistent with the temperature of the reaction zone and the Auger electron spectroscopy results which show some carbon and oxygen incorporation (8% and 1% respectively). Gas phase transport and condensation of the molybdenum carbonyl results in substantial carbon and oxygen contamination of the molybdenum films requiring heated substrates, a requirement not consistent with the goals of the program to maximize the quench rate of the deposition. Results from tungsten deposition experiments representing a reduction chemistry instead of the decomposition chemistry involved in the carbonyl experiments are also reported.

  9. Positive and negative effects of dielectric breakdown in transformer oil based magnetic fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jong-Chul, E-mail: jclee01@gwnu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Wonju 220711 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Wonju 220711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Ho [Graduate School of Automotive Engineering, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Wonju 220711 (Korea, Republic of)] [Graduate School of Automotive Engineering, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Wonju 220711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Se-Hee [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangyoup, E-mail: sangyoup@kist.re.kr [Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The transformer oil based magnetic fluids can be considered as the next-generation insulation fluids because they offer exciting new possibilities to enhance dielectric breakdown voltage as well as heat transfer performance compared to pure transformer oils. In this study, we have investigated the dielectric breakdown strength of the fluids with the various volume concentrations of nanoparticles in accordance with IEC 156 standard and have tried to find the reason for changing the dielectric breakdown voltage of the fluids from the magnetic field analysis. It was found that the dielectric breakdown voltage of pure transformer oil is around 12 kV with the gap distance of 1.5 mm. In the case of our transformer oil-based magnetic fluids with 0.08% < ? < 0.6% (? means the volume concentration of magnetic nanoparticles), the dielectric breakdown voltage shows above 40 kV, which is 3.3 times higher positively than that of pure transformer oil. Negatively in the case when the volume concentration of magnetic nanoparticles is above 0.65%, the dielectric breakdown voltage decreases reversely. From the magnetic field analysis, the reason might be considered as two situations: the positive is for the conductive nanoparticles dispersed well near the electrodes, which play an important role in converting fast electrons to slow negatively charged particles, and the negative is for the agglomeration of the particles near the electrodes, which leads to the breakdown initiation.

  10. Development of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrumentatin for safeguards applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barefield Il, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le, Loan A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Leon N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 2006, a Technical Meeting on Application of Laser Spectrometry Techniques in IAEA Safeguards was held at IAEA headquarters (HQ). One of the principal recommendations from this meeting was the need to 'pursue the development of novel complementary access instrumentation based on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the detection of gaseous and solid signatures and indicators of nuclear fuel cycle processes and associated materials.' Pursuant to this recommendation the Department of Safeguards (SG) under the Division of Technical Support (SGTS) convened the Experts and Users Advisory Meeting on Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for Safeguards Applications. This meeting was held at IAEA HQ from July 7-11,2008 and hosted by the Novel Technologies Unit (NTU). The meeting was attended by 12 LIBS experts from the Czech Republic, the European Commission, France, the Republic of Korea, the United States of America, Germany, the United Kingdom of Great Britain, Canada, and Northern Ireland. After a presentation of the needs of the IAEA inspectors, the LIBS experts were in agreement that needs as presented could be partially or fully fulfilled using LIBS instrumentation. The needs of the IAEA inspectors were grouped in the following broad categories: (1) Improvements to in-field measurements/environmental sampling; (2) Monitoring status of activity in a Hot Cell; (3) Verifying status of activity at a declared facility via process monitoring; and (4) Need for pre-screening of environmental samples before analysis. Under the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) Los Alamos National Laboratory is exploring three potential applications of LIBS for international safeguards. As part of this work, we are developing: (1) a user-friendly man-portable LIBS system to characterize samples across a wide range of elements in the periodic table from hydrogen up to heavy elements like plutonium and uranium; (2) a LIBS system that can be deployed in harsh environments such as gloveboxes and hot cells providing relative compositional analysis of process streams for example ratios like Cm/Pu and Cm/U; and (3) an inspector field deployable system that can be used to analyze the elemental composition of microscopic quantities of samples containing plutonium and uranium. In this paper we will describe our current development and performance testing results both in a fixed lab and measurements in field deployable configurations using LIBS instrumentation developed for applications to international safeguards.

  11. Charge transport and breakdown physics in liquid/solid insulation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jadidian, Jouya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid dielectrics provide superior electrical breakdown strength and heat transfer capability, especially when used in combination with liquid-immersed solid dielectrics. Over the past half-century, there has been extensive ...

  12. Elucidating the mechanisms behind pre-breakdown phenomena in transformer oil systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Jae-Won George, 1980-

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The widespread use of dielectric liquids for high voltage insulation and power apparatus cooling is due to their greater electrical breakdown strength and thermal conductivity than gaseous insulators. In addition, their ...

  13. Experiment for measurements of the gas breakdown statistics by ramp voltage pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markovic, V. Lj.; Stamenkovic, S. N.; Gocic, S. R.; Petrovic, Z. Lj. [Department of Physics, University of Nis, P.O. Box 224, 18001 Nis (Serbia and Montenegro); Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 68, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the first part of this article the electronic automatic system for the measurements of dynamic breakdown voltages U{sub b} with linearly rising (ramp) pulses is presented. It generates the sequence of ramp pulses with subvoltage level U{sub sub}{approx_equal}0 during the relaxation time {tau} of the tube, and the ramp pulses start from the static breakdown voltage U{sub s}, thus enabling the correct study of electrical breakdowns and relaxation in gases. In the second part the measurements in argon with and without a voltage during the off period of the pulse are analyzed. The influence of the subvoltage on the mean value of the breakdown voltage U{sub b} as a function of the rise rate k, on the statistical U{sub b} distributions and on the afterglow kinetics is also discussed.

  14. Where do the default values for the cost of system breakdowns...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    values for the cost of system breakdowns come from in SAM, for direct and indirect costs, such as 0.63 per DC watt for panels. 0.18 for inverters. Are these base on a recent...

  15. Breakdown mechanism in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on Si substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown on Si substrates have attracted a great interest for power electronics applications. Despite the low cost of the Si substrate, the breakdown voltage (V[subscript ...

  16. Analysis Code for High Gradient Dielectric Insulator Surface Breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc.; Verboncoeur, John [University of California - Berkeley; Aldan, Manuel [University of California, Berkeley

    2010-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    High voltage (HV) insulators are critical components in high-energy, accelerator and pulsed power systems that drive diverse applications in the national security, nuclear weapons science, defense and industrial arenas. In these systems, the insulator may separate vacuum/non-vacuum regions or conductors with high electrical field gradients. These insulators will often fail at electric fields over an order of magnitude lower than their intrinsic dielectric strength due to flashover at the dielectric interface. Decades of studies have produced a wealth of information on fundamental processes and mechanisms important for flashover initiation, but only for relatively simple insulator configurations in controlled environments. Accelerator and pulsed power system designers are faced with applying the fundamental knowledge to complex, operational devices with escalating HV requirements. Designers are forced to rely on “best practices” and expensive prototype testing, providing boundaries for successful operation. However, the safety margin is difficult to estimate, and system design must be very conservative for situations where testing is not practicable, or replacement of failed parts is disruptive or expensive. The Phase I program demonstrated the feasibility of developing an advanced code for modeling insulator breakdown. Such a code would be of great interest for a number of applications, including high energy physics, microwave source development, fusion sciences, and other research and industrial applications using high voltage devices.

  17. Optical emission in magnetically confined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, X. K.; Lu, Y. F.; Gebre, T.; Ling, H.; Han, Y. X. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States)

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetically confined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was investigated by studying the optical emission from laser-induced plasma plumes expanding across an external transverse magnetic field. KrF excimer laser pulses with a pulse duration of 23 ns and a wavelength of 248 nm were used to produce plasmas from Al, Cu, and Co targets. Various optical emission lines obtained from Al and Cu targets show an obvious enhancement in the intensity of optical emission when a magnetic field of {approx}0.8 T is applied, while the optical emission lines from Co targets show a decrease in the optical emission intensity. The enhancement factors of optical emission lines were measured to be around 2 for the Al and Mn (impurity) lines from Al targets, and 6-8 for Cu lines from Cu targets. Temporal evolution of the optical emission lines from the Al samples shows a maximum enhancement in emission intensity at time delays of 8-20 {mu}s after the incident laser pulse, while from the Cu targets it shows a continuous enhancement at time delays of 3-20 {mu}s after the pulse. The enhancement in the optical emission from the Al and Cu plasmas was presumably due to the increase in the effective plasma density as a result of magnetic confinement. The decrease in the emission intensity from the Co plasmas was suggested to be due to the decrease of effective plasma density as a result of the magnetic force.

  18. Enhancing the analytical performance of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cremers, D.A.; Chinni, R.C.; Pichahchy, A.E.; Thornquist, H.K.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work is to enhance the analytical capabilities of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is a method of elemental analysis in which powerful laser pulses are focused on a sample to form a microplasma. LIBS is perhaps the most versatile elemental analysis method, applicable to a variety of different real-world analysis problems. Therefore, it is important to enhance the capabilities of the method as much as possible. Accomplishments include: (1) demonstration of signal enhancements of 5--30 times from soils and metals using a double pulse method; (2) development of a model of the observed enhancement obtained using double pulses; (3) demonstration that the analytical performance achievable using low laser-pulse energies (10 and 25 mJ) can match that achievable using an energy of 100 mJ; and (4) demonstration that time-gated detection is not necessary with LIBS.

  19. Optical, radio and x-ray radiation of red sprites produced by runaway air breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yukhimuk, V.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.; Taranenko, Y.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors use the runaway air breakdown model of upward discharges to calculate optical, radio, and X-ray radiation generated by red sprites. Red sprites are high altitude (up to 90 km) lightning discharges. Aircraft based observations show that sprites are predominantly red in color at altitudes above {approximately}55 km with faint blue tendrils, which extend downward to an altitude of 40 km; the duration of a single sprite is less than 17 ms, their maximum brightness is about 600 kR, and estimated total optical energy is about 1--5 kJ per event. The ground based observations show similar results, and provide some additional information on spatial and temporal structure of sprites, and on sprite locations. One difference between aircraft and ground-based observations is that blue tendrils are rarely observed from the ground. Sprites usually occur above the anvils of large mesoscale convective systems and correlate with strong positive cloud to ground discharge. Upward discharges are the most probable source of X-ray emission observed above large thunderstorm complexes by the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory. To escape the atmosphere these {gamma}-rays must originate above 25 km altitude. Red sprites are usually observed at altitudes higher than 50 km, and are therefore a likely source of this x-ray emission.

  20. Analysis of low-pressure dc breakdown in nitrogen between two spherical iron electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pejovic, Momcilo M.; Nesic, Nikola T.; Pejovic, Milic M. [Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of Nis, P.O. Box 73, 18001 (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of afterglow period {tau}, voltage increase rate k, and electrode gap d on breakdown voltage U{sub b} for a nitrogen-filled tube with spherical electrodes of diameter D>>d and p=6.5 mbar has been investigated. The data for the breakdown voltage were obtained for the case when there is a presence of N({sup 4}S) atoms, which release secondary electrons via recombination on the cathode. By fitting the experimental data of breakdown voltage mean values as a function of the voltage increase rate, the static breakdown voltages for afterglow periods of 15 and 100 s were estimated. The electrical field as a function of the electrode gap using breakdown voltage mean values was also determined. It is shown that experimental results of the breakdown voltage mean value as a function of pd in the interval of d from 0.82 to 1.62 mm can be very well described with Paschen's law, valid for the case of parallel-plate electrodes.

  1. Statistical analysis of the electrical breakdown time delay distributions in krypton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maluckov, Cedomir A.; Karamarkovic, Jugoslav P.; Radovic, Miodrag K.; Pejovic, Momcilo M. [Technical Faculty in Bor, University of Belgrade, Vojske Jugoslavije 24, 19210 Bor (Serbia and Montenegro); Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis, Beogradska 14, 18000 Nis (Serbia and Montenegro); Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, University of Nis, P.O. Box 224, 18001 Nis (Serbia and Montenegro); Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of Nis, P.O. Box 73, 18001 Nis (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The statistical analysis of the experimentally observed electrical breakdown time delay distributions in the krypton-filled diode tube at 2.6 mbar is presented. The experimental distributions are obtained on the basis of 1000 successive and independent measurements. The theoretical electrical breakdown time delay distribution is evaluated as the convolution of the statistical time delay with exponential, and discharge formative time with Gaussian distribution. The distribution parameters are estimated by the stochastic modelling of the time delay distributions, and by comparing them with the experimental distributions for different relaxation times, voltages, and intensities of UV radiation. The transition of distribution shapes, from Gaussian-type to the exponential-like, is investigated by calculating the corresponding skewness and excess kurtosis parameters. It is shown that the mathematical model based on the convolution of two random variable distributions describes experimentally obtained time delay distributions and the separation of the total breakdown time delay to the statistical and formative time delay.

  2. The quantum mechanics of ion-enhanced field emission and how it influences microscale gas breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yingjie [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Go, David B., E-mail: dgo@nd.edu [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of a positive gas ion can enhance cold electron field emission by deforming the potential barrier and increasing the tunneling probability of electrons—a process known as ion-enhanced field emission. In microscale gas discharges, ion-enhanced field emission produces additional emission from the cathode and effectively reduces the voltage required to breakdown a gaseous medium at the microscale (<10??m). In this work, we enhance classic field emission theory by determining the impact of a gaseous ion on electron tunneling and compute the effect of ion-enhanced field emission on the breakdown voltage. We reveal that the current density for ion-enhanced field emission retains the same scaling as vacuum cold field emission and that this leads to deviations from traditional breakdown theory at microscale dimensions.

  3. Sparse breakdown and statistical sneakthrough'' effects in low-altitude microwave propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.A.; Bolton, P.R.; Sieger, G.E.; Fittinghoff, D.N.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is generally assumed that the beam intensity that can be transmitted through the atmosphere by a high-power microwave pulse will be limited by the air-breakdown threshold. Air breakdown by microwave has been studied extensively, both theoretically and experimentally. It is a cascade process in which free electrons, driven by the microwave electric field, generate further ionization through collisions with air molecules. The process can disrupt the propagation of a microwave pulse if the electron plasma density grows to within an appreciable fraction of critical density. In a pulsed beam this can happen if, and only if, the field strength is sufficiently large and the beam encounters one or more initiating free seed'' electrons sufficiently early in the pulse. This paper discusses this sparse breakdown in low-altitude wave propagation.

  4. Time-dependent dielectric breakdown measurements of porous organosilicate glass using mercury and solid metal probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, Dongfei; Nichols, Michael T.; Shohet, J. Leon, E-mail: shohet@engr.wisc.edu [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); King, Sean W.; Clarke, James S. [Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Nishi, Yoshio [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) is one of the major concerns for low-k dielectric materials. During plasma processing, low-k dielectrics are subjected to vacuum ultraviolet photon radiation and charged-particle bombardment. To examine the change of TDDB properties, time-to-breakdown measurements are made to porous SiCOH before and after plasma exposure. Significant discrepancies between mercury and solid-metal probes are observed and have been shown to be attributed to mercury diffusion into the dielectric porosities.

  5. The effects of a jet on vortex breakdown over a sharp leading-edge delta wing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maynard, Ian Kenneth

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECTS OF A JET ON VORTEX BREAKDOWN OVER A SHARP LEADING-EDGE DELTA WING A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985... Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering THE EFFECTS OF A JET ON VORTEX BREAKDOWN OVER A SHARP LEADING-EDGE DELTA WING A Thesis by IAN KENNETH MAYNARD Approved as to style and content by: Cyrus Ostowar (Chairman of Committee) Stan J Miley (M er...

  6. Enhanced breakdown voltage and reduced self-heating effects in thin-film lateral bipolar transistors: Design and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    Enhanced breakdown voltage and reduced self-heating effects in thin-film lateral bipolar breakdown and self-heating characteristics of a new collector-tub three-zone step doped thin-film lateral-doping; Collector-tub; Silicon-on-insulator; Self-heating 1. Introduction High voltage thin-film (

  7. 306 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DEVICE AND MATERIALS RELIABILITY, VOL. 6, NO. 2, JUNE 2006 Enhanced Breakdown Voltage, Diminished

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    Breakdown Voltage, Diminished Quasi-Saturation, and Self-Heating Effects in SOI Thin-Film Bipolar characteristics; 2) diminished quasi-saturation; 3) improved reliability against self-heating effect; and 4 of a thin base in LBTs. Index Terms--Breakdown voltage, lateral bipolar transistor (LBT), self-heating

  8. Improving Device-level Electricity Consumption Breakdowns in Private Households Using ON/OFF Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    recommen- dations on how to reduce the overall energy consumption of the household. In this paper, we build Descriptors H.4 [Information Systems Applications]: Miscellaneous 1. INTRODUCTION The energy sectorImproving Device-level Electricity Consumption Breakdowns in Private Households Using ON/OFF Events

  9. NOISE AND CHA RA C TERIZA TION. INFLUENCE OF THE EPILAYER PROPERTIES ON BREAKDOWN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ], whereas the inlaid of n+ regions below the drain and source contacts reduces the leading resistances region and low field values below the drain contact. The insertion of the buffer layer also reduces after saturation, indicating the beginning of burnout, is due to avalanche breakdown of the back side

  10. PART I. THERMAL BREAKDOWN CHARACTERISTICS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMPONENTS IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Engineering Columbia University in the City of New York - 3 - waste is an area of deep concern both within and Environmental Engineering Columbia University in the City of New York - 2 - Thermal Breakdown Characteristics to the increasing use of and investment in waste- to-energy technologies in Asia, these two realms of knowledge

  11. Leaf-litter breakdown in pasture and deciduous woodland streams: a comparison among three European

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Scott

    , Wodonga, Victoria, 3689, Australia. 2 Present address: Department of Biological Sciences, OaklandLeaf-litter breakdown in pasture and deciduous woodland streams: a comparison among three European regions SALLY HLADYZ*, 1 , SCOTT D. TIEGS, , 2 , MARK O. GESSNER, , PAUL S. GILLER*, GETA RI^S¸ NOVEANU

  12. 2006 29 1 Reduction of Breakdown Voltage in I-MOS Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    2006 29 1 593 Reduction of Breakdown Voltage in I-MOS Devices Woo Young Choi, Jae Young Song Center and School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University 1. Introduction Aggressive scaling-down of MOSFETs has aggravated some important problems [1], [2]. One of them

  13. Wavelet analysis of vortex breakdown Jori E. Ruppert-Felsot1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    École Normale Supérieure

    Wavelet analysis of vortex breakdown Jori E. Ruppert-Felsot1 , Marie Farge1 , and Philippe the experimentally mea- sured flow field using orthogonal wavelets to observe the time evolution of the bursting. The discrete wavelet transform is used to separate the flow field into a coherent component, capturing

  14. Dielectric breakdown model for conductor-loaded and insulator-loaded composite materials P. Bergero,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peruani, Fernando

    Dielectric breakdown model for conductor-loaded and insulator-loaded composite materials P. Bergero strength is highly desirable, and in the past years composite materials such as resin matrix filled- tors, and composites containing carbon black and titanium dioxide have recently been tested

  15. Optical breakdown in transparent media with adjustable axial length and location

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    characteristics of laser micro drilling using a Bessel beam," Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 84, 423 of a picosecond laser focused with a combination of an axicon and a lens. Locations of the proximal and distal and crystalline lens softening. ©2010 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (140.3440) Laser-induced breakdown

  16. Remote Femtosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in a Standoff Detection Regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Remote Femtosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in a Standoff Detection Regime C, MD 21005 e Laser Remote Sensing Laboratory, FAMU, 2077 Paul Dirac Dr. Tallahassee, FL, USA 32310 of distances up to and exceeding 80 m utilizing conventional optics.10 As more investigations into the remote

  17. Logarithmic Fermi-liquid breakdown in NbFe2 M. Brando,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    temperature dependence of the Sommerfeld coefficient = C/T of the specific heat capacity, C, over nearly two temperature dependences of the resistivity and of the heat capacity over extended ranges in temperatureLogarithmic Fermi-liquid breakdown in NbFe2 M. Brando,1, W. J. Duncan,1 D. Moroni-Klementowicz,1 C

  18. Particle size limits for quantitative aerosol analysis using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: Temporal considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, David W.

    dissociation, vaporization and linear analyte response of an individual particle suspended in a gas stream individual silica microspheres in an aerosolized air stream was investigated using laser-induced breakdown of analyte signals for the 2.47 and 4.09-micrometer particles was observed to be approximately constant

  19. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Single-Cell Standing Wave Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolgashev, Valery; /SLAC; Tantawi, Sami; /SLAC; Yeremian, Anahid; /SLAC; Higashi, Yasuo; /KEK, Tsukuba; Spataro, Bruno; /INFN, Rome

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Our experiments are directed toward the understanding of the physics of rf breakdown in systems that can be used to accelerate electron beams at {approx}11.4 GHz. The structure geometries have apertures, stored energy per cell, and rf pulse duration close to that of the NLC or CLIC. The breakdown rate is the main parameter that we use to compare rf breakdown behavior for different structures at a given set of rf pulse parameters (pulse shape and peak power) at 60 Hz repetition rate. In our experiments, the typical range of the breakdown rate is from one per few hours to {approx}100 per hour. To date we have tested 29 structures. We consistently found that after the initial conditioning, the behavior of the breakdown rate is reproducible for structures of the same geometry and material, and the breakdown rate dependence on peak magnetic fields is stronger than on peak surface electric fields for structures of different geometries. Below we report the main results from tests of seven structures made from hard copper, soft copper alloys and hard-copper alloys. Additional details on these and other structures will be discussed in future publications.

  20. A Model for Tunneling-Limited Breakdown in High-Power HEMTs Mark H. Somerville and Jes6s A. del Alamo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    A Model for Tunneling-Limited Breakdown in High-Power HEMTs Mark H. Somerville and Jes6s A. del indicates that the cru- cial variables in determining the off-state breakdown volt- age of power HEMTs. Other design parameters have only secondary impact on the breakdown voltage for realistic device designs

  1. Towards a Work Breakdown Structure for Net Centric System of Systems Engineering and Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Dr. Gan

    2006-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    As the system engineering industry sees an increasing focus on the lifecycle development, acquisition, and sustainment of net-centric Systems of Systems (SoS), organizations find that current processes and tools need to ...

  2. Towards a Work Breakdown Structure for Net Centric System of Systems Engineering and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    @sunset.usc.edu Abstract. As the system engineering industry sees an increasing focus on the lifecycle development Integrator (LSI). It is the LSI that has overall responsibility for the lifecycle development, acquisition-4259 gan.wang@baesystems.com Jo Ann Lane USC Center for Software Engineering 941 W. 37th Place, SAL Room

  3. Sliding Wear of Nanocrystalline Ni-W: Structural Evolution and the Apparent Breakdown of Archard Scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rupert, Timothy J.

    Sliding wear of nanocrystalline Ni–W alloys with grain sizes of 3–47 nm, a range which spans the transition in deformation mechanisms from intra- to inter-granular, has been studied through pin-on-disk wear testing. The ...

  4. Evidence of Magnetic Breakdown on the Defects With Thermally Suppressed Critical Field in High Gradient SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eremeev, Grigory [JLAB; Palczewski, Ari [JLAB

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At SRF 2011 we presented the study of quenches in high gradient SRF cavities with dual mode excitation technique. The data differed from measurements done in 80's that indicated thermal breakdown nature of quenches in SRF cavities. In this contribution we present analysis of the data that indicates that our recent data for high gradient quenches is consistent with the magnetic breakdown on the defects with thermally suppressed critical field. From the parametric fits derived within the model we estimate the critical breakdown fields.

  5. Proximity breakdown of hydrides in superconducting niobium cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romanenko, A; Cooley, L D; Grassellino, A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many modern and proposed future particle accelerators rely on superconducting radio frequency cavities made of bulk niobium as primary particle accelerating structures. Such cavities suffer from the anomalous field dependence of their quality factors Q0. High field degradation - so-called high field Q-slope - is yet unexplained even though an empirical cure is known. Here we propose a mechanism based on the presence of proximity-coupled niobium hydrides, which can explain this effect. Furthermore, the same mechanism can be present in any surface-sensitive experiments or superconducting devices involving niobium.

  6. High voltage research (breakdown strengths of gaseous and liquid insulators) and environmental effects of dielectric gases. Semiannual report, April 1, 1979-September 30, 1979. [Health and Safety Research Div. , ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christophorou, L.G.; James, D.R.; Pai, R.Y.; Mathis, R.A.; Sauers, I.; Frees, L.; Pace, M.O.; Bouldin, D.W.; Chan, C.C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of gas mixtures are suggested for industrial-scale testing. Electron attachment rates were measured and unfolded to give attachment cross section functions for CCl/sub 3/F, CCl/sub 2/F/sub 2/, and CClF/sub 3/ each in N/sub 2/, and for CCl/sub 3/F in Ar. Electron attachment rates were measured also for n-C/sub 6/F/sub 14/ in both Ar and N/sub 2/. The effects of molecular structure on energy, cross section, and lifetime of negative ion states of organic molecules were considered. A study was made of the potential role of electron detachment in breakdown. The role of dipolar scattering of electrons in inhibiting breakdown was investigated. The nature of synergisms among constituents of a gas dielectric mixture is discussed. Examples are cited from recent breakdown measurements. Breakdown measurements in plane-plane geometry were made for CF/sub 4/, 1,1,1-CH/sub 3/CF/sub 3/, and CHF/sub 3/. Similar measurements were conducted with binary mixtures containing one of (c-C/sub 4/F/sub 8/, SF/sub 6/) and one of (CF/sub 4/, CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/, 1,1,1-CH/sub 3/CF/sub 3/, CH/sub 2/F/sub 2/). Of special interest in these results were observed synergisms and the effect of dipole moment on the breakdown strengths. The initial fragmentation of 1,1,2-C/sub 2/Cl/sub 3/F/sub 3/ under electron impact was studied. Final decomposition products of sparked SF/sub 6//2-C/sub 4/F/sub 6/ mixtures were identified and quantified. The breakdown products of SF/sub 6/ were studied. Impulse measurements concentrated on c-C/sub 4/F/sub 8//SF/sub 6/ mixtures. Values of V/sub 50/, V/sub NO/, and V/sub 10x/ were obtained and evaluated. In the practical conditions of cylindrical geometry with and without surface roughness, many multicomponent mixtures of the gases SF/sub 6/, c-C/sub 4/F/sub 8/, 2-C/sub 4/F/sub 8/, N/sub 2/, and 1,1,1-CH/sub 3/CF/sub 3/ were tested, at both 1 and 4.4 atmospheres. The electric fields were calculated. In the study of liquid dielectrics n-hexane and perfluoro-n-hexane were tested. 35 figures, 20 tables.

  7. Study of relaxation kinetics in argon afterglow by the breakdown time delay measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markovic, V.Lj.; Gocic, S.R.; Stamenkovic, S.N.; Petrovic, Z.Lj. [Department of Physics, University of Nis, P.O. BOX 224, 18001 Nis (Serbia and Montenegro); Institute of Physics, P.O. BOX 68, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the afterglow kinetics in argon is studied by the breakdown time delay measurements as a function of relaxation time t{sub d}({tau}) ('memory curve'). Measurements were carried out at the pressure of 1.33 mbar in a gas tube with gold-plated copper cathode and approximate and exact numerical models are developed to follow metastable and charged particle decay. It was found that the early afterglow kinetics is governed by the charged particle decay up to hundreds of milliseconds, extending from ambipolar to the free diffusion limit. Quenching processes reduce the effective lifetime of metastable states several orders of magnitude below that relevant for the time scale of the observations if realistic abundances and processes are included in the model. Nitrogen atoms originating from impurities and recombining on the cathode surface can determine the breakdown time delay down to that defined by the level of cosmic rays and natural radioactivity.

  8. Electroneutrality Breakdown and Specific Ion Effects in Nanoconfined Aqueous Electrolytes Observed by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Zhi-Xiang; Ling, Yan-Chun; Kleinhammes, Alfred; Wu, Yue

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion distribution in aqueous electrolytes near the interface plays critical roles in electrochemical, biological and colloidal systems and is expected to be particularly significant inside nanoconfined regions. Electroneutrality of the total charge inside nanoconfined regions is commonly assumed a priori in solving ion distribution of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined by uncharged hydrophobic surfaces with no direct experimental validation. Here, we use a quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance approach to investigate the properties of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined in graphitic-like nanoporous carbon. Substantial electroneutrality breakdown in nanoconfined regions and very asymmetric responses of cations and anions to the charging of nanoconfining surfaces are observed. The electroneutrality breakdown is shown to depend strongly on the propensity of anions toward the water-carbon interface and such ion-specific response follows generally the anion ranking of the Hofmeister series. The experimental observat...

  9. Electroneutrality Breakdown and Specific Ion Effects in Nanoconfined Aqueous Electrolytes Observed by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhi-Xiang Luo; Yun-Zhao Xing; Yan-Chun Ling; Alfred Kleinhammes; Yue Wu

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion distribution in aqueous electrolytes near the interface plays critical roles in electrochemical, biological and colloidal systems and is expected to be particularly significant inside nanoconfined regions. Electroneutrality of the total charge inside nanoconfined regions is commonly assumed a priori in solving ion distribution of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined by uncharged hydrophobic surfaces with no direct experimental validation. Here, we use a quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance approach to investigate the properties of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined in graphitic-like nanoporous carbon. Substantial electroneutrality breakdown in nanoconfined regions and very asymmetric responses of cations and anions to the charging of nanoconfining surfaces are observed. The electroneutrality breakdown is shown to depend strongly on the propensity of anions toward the water-carbon interface and such ion-specific response follows generally the anion ranking of the Hofmeister series. The experimental observations are further supported by numerical evaluation using the generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation

  10. Acoustic monitoring method and system in laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Matthew (Ann Arbor, MI); Ye, Jing Yong (Ann Arbor, MI); Norris, Theodore B. (Dexter, MI); Baker, Jr., James R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Balogh, Lajos P. (Ann Arbor, MI); Milas, Susanne M. (Ann Arbor, MI); Emelianov, Stanislav Y. (Ann Arbor, MI); Hollman, Kyle W. (Fenton, MI)

    2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An acoustic monitoring method and system in laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB) provides information which characterize material which is broken down, microbubbles in the material, and/or the microenvironment of the microbubbles. In one embodiment of the invention, femtosecond laser pulses are focused just inside the surface of a volume of aqueous solution which may include dendrimer nanocomposite (DNC) particles. A tightly focused, high frequency, single-element ultrasonic transducer is positioned such that its focus coincides axially and laterally with this laser focus. When optical breakdown occurs, a microbubble forms and a shock or pressure wave is emitted (i.e., acoustic emission). In addition to this acoustic signal, the microbubble may be actively probed with pulse-echo measurements from the same transducer. After the microbubble forms, received pulse-echo signals have an extra pulse, describing the microbubble location and providing a measure of axial microbubble size. Wavefield plots of successive recordings illustrate the generation, growth, and collapse of microbubbles due to optical breakdown. These same plots can also be used to quantify LIOB thresholds.

  11. Internal. Rev.Hydrobiol. 86 2001 4-5 417-427 III. Methods in,Litter Breakdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchens, John

    and extensively used tool of stream ecologists. Breakdown rates can be used to provide three types of informationInternal. Rev.Hydrobiol. 86 2001 4-5 417-427 III. Methods in,Litter Breakdown J. R. WEBSTER1 , E. F. BENFIELD1 , J. J. ituTCHENS2 , J. L. TANK3 , S. W. GOLLADAY4 , and J. C. ADAMS5 'Department of Biology

  12. AC breakdown strength of N2, SF6 and a mixture of N2+SF6 containing a small amount of SF6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mardikyan, K.; Kalenderli, O. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Electric-Electronics Faculty; Ersen, O.; Canarslan, E. [Schneider Electric Co., Istanbul (Turkey)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    AC breakdown strengths of N{sub 2}, SF{sub 6} and a mixture of N{sub 2}+SF{sub 6} containing 1% of SF{sub 6} were experimentally studied. For this purpose, 50 Hz AC breakdown voltages in both uniform and non-uniform fields up to a pressure of 400 kPa from 50 kPa were measured. Test results show that the addition of 1% of SF{sub 6} to nitrogen increases the breakdown voltage up to 250 kPa in a non-uniform field. The relative breakdown strength of the mixture with respect to components was also calculated in 50 Hz AC voltage. The analysis of Paschen curves reveals an improvement of 40% in the breakdown strength of mixture in uniform field but in non-uniform fields, the maximum AC breakdown voltage of the mixture is 24% lower than that of pure SF{sub 6}.

  13. Dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF{sub 6}/He mixtures predicted from basic data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weizong [Qian Xuesen Laboratory of Space Technology, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100094 (China) [Qian Xuesen Laboratory of Space Technology, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100094 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi 710049 (China); Tu, Xin; Mei, Danhua [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Rong, Mingzhe [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi 710049 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) gas has a quite high global warming potential and hence it is required that applying any substitute for SF{sub 6} gas. Much interest in the use of a mixture of helium and SF{sub 6} as arc quenching medium was investigated indicating a higher recovery performance of arc interruption than that of pure SF{sub 6}. It is known that the electrical breakdown in a circuit breaker after arc interruption occurs in a hot gas environment, with a complicated species composition because of the occurrence of dissociation and other reactions. The likelihood of breakdown relies on the electron interactions with all these species. The critical reduced electric field strength (the field at which breakdown can occur, relative to the number density) of hot SF{sub 6}/He mixtures related to the dielectric recovery phase of a high voltage circuit breaker is calculated in the temperature range from 300 K to 3500 K. The critically reduced electric field strength of these mixtures was obtained by balancing electron generation and loss mechanisms. These were evaluated using the electron energy distribution function derived from the Boltzmann transport equation under the two-term approximation. Good agreement was found between calculations for pure hot SF{sub 6} and pure hot He and experimental results and previous calculations. The addition of He to SF{sub 6} was found to decrease the critical reduced electric field strength in the whole temperature range due to a lack of electron impact attachment process for helium regardless its high ionization potential. This indicates that not the behaviour of dielectric strength but possibly the higher energy dissipation capability caused mainly by light mass and high specific heat as well as thermal conductivity of atomic helium contributes most to a higher dielectric recovery performance of arc interruption for SF{sub 6}/He mixtures.

  14. Plasma confinement by hemispherical cavity in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, L. B.; Li, C. M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States); School of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Hu, W.; Zhou, Y. S.; Zhang, B. Y.; Lu, Y. F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States); Cai, Z. X.; Zeng, X. Y. [School of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An aluminum hemispherical cavity (diameter: 11.1 mm) was used to confine plasmas produced by a KrF excimer laser in air from a steel target with a low concentration manganese in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. A significant enhancement (factor >12) in the emission intensity of Mn lines was observed at a laser fluence of 7.8 J/cm{sup 2} when the plasma was confined by the hemispherical cavity, leading to an increase in plasma temperature about 3600 K. The maximum emission enhancement increased with increasing laser fluence. The spatial confinement mechanism was discussed using shock wave theory.

  15. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial boilers and furnaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, Peter M. (University of Alabama at Birmingham and Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL); Shaddix, Christopher R.; Sickafoose, Shane M.; Blevins, Linda Gail

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied (1) near the superheater of an electric power generation boiler burning biomass, coat, or both, (2) at the exit of a glass-melting furnace burning natural gas and oxygen, and (3) near the nose arches of two paper mill recovery boilers burning black liquor. Difficulties associated with the high temperatures and high particle loadings in these environments were surmounted by use of novel LIBS probes. Echelle and linear spectrometers coupled to intensified CCD cameras were used individually and sometimes simultaneously. Elements detected include Na, K, Ca, Mg, C, B, Si, Mn, Al, Fe, Rb, Cl, and Ti.

  16. Index of /research/alcator/documentation/RF Breakdown Experiment 2013-2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News CommunityPortal8 [ICO]Breakdown Experiment

  17. INVESTIGATION OF BREAKDOWN INDUCED SURFACE DAMAGE ON 805 MHZ PILLBOX CAVITY INTERIOR SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, M.R.; Chung, M.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Tollestrup,A.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.; Torun, Y.; Bowring, D.; Flanagan, G.

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The MuCool Test Area (MTA) at Fermilab is a facility to develop the technology required for ionization cooling for a future Muon Collider and/or Neutrino Factory. As part of this research program, we have tested two 805 MHz vacuum RF cavities in a multi-Tesla magnetic field to study the effects of the static magnetic field on the cavity operation. This study gives useful information on field emitters in the cavity, dark current, surface conditioning, breakdown mechanisms and material properties of the cavity. All these factors determine the maximum accelerating gradient in the cavity. This paper discusses the image processing technique for quantitative estimation of spark damage spot distribution on cavity interior surfaces. The distribution is compared with the electric field distribution predicted by a computer code calculation. The local spark density is proportional to probability of surface breakdown and shows a power law dependence on the maximum electric field (E). This E dependence is consistent with the dark current calculated from the Fowler-Nordheim equation.

  18. On the delayed gas breakdown in a ringing theta-pinch with bias magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meeks, Warner C.; Rovey, Joshua L. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409-0050 (United States)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A single particle model and particle-in-cell simulations are used to elucidate the breakdown physics in a ringing theta-pinch with a bias magnetic field. Previous experimental results show that gas breakdown occurs when the bias magnetic field is nullified by the theta-pinch magnetic field. The analyses presented here agree with the experimental results and show that electron kinetic energy does not exceed the ionization threshold of deuterium until the net magnetic field is approximately zero. Despite the presence of a strong electric field, the gyromotion of electrons within the bias magnetic field prevents them from gaining energy necessary to ionize the gas. Parametric analysis of the peak electron energy as a function of the bias and pre-ionization magnetic fields reveals that: (1) when the bias magnetic field is Almost-Equal-To 97% of the pre-ionization magnetic field, peak electron energies are highly erratic resulting in poor overall ionization, and (2) full ionization with repeatable behavior requires a pre-ionization to bias magnetic field ratio of approximately 2 to 1 or higher.

  19. Pre-breakdown cavitation development in the dielectric fluid in the inhomogeneous, pulsed electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikhail N. Shneider; Mikhail Pekker

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the development of pre-breakdown cavitation nanopores appearing in the dielectric fluid under the influence of the electrostrictive stresses in the inhomogeneous pulsed electric field. It is shown that three characteristic regions can be distinguished near the needle electrode. In the first region, where the electric field gradient is greatest, the cavitation nanopores, occurring during the voltage nanosecond pulse, may grow to the size at which an electron accelerated by the field inside the pores can acquire enough energy for excitation and ionization of the liquid on the opposite pore wall, i.e., the breakdown conditions are satisfied. In the second region, the negative pressure caused by the electrostriction is large enough for the cavitation initiation (which can be registered by optical methods), but, during the voltage pulse, the pores do not reach the size at which the potential difference across their borders becomes sufficient for ionization or excitation of water molecules. And, in the third, the development of cavitation is impossible, due to an insufficient level of the negative pressure: in this area, the spontaneously occurring micropores do not grow and collapse under the influence of surface tension forces. This paper discusses the expansion dynamics of the cavitation pores and their most probable shape.

  20. Improvement of breakdown voltage in InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs heterostructure MESFETs for MMICs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koh, Inoue; Yamane, Yasuro; Shiojima, Kenji [NTT LSI Lab., Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the trade-off between breakdown voltage and RF performance of InGaP/InGaAs/GaAs heterostructure MESFETs for power amplifiers and oscillators in multi-function MMICs in the millimeter-wave range. The authors successfully improved both gate-drain and drain-source breakdown voltages while maintaining excellent high-frequency performance by using a double-layered gate consisting of WSiN with different nitrogen contents, and by varying epitaxial layer thickness and implantation dose.

  1. Off-State Breakdown in Power pHEMTs: the Impact of the Source M.H. Somerville", J.A. del Alamo", and Paul Saunieri.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    the current back down to 1 mA/mm, the drain to gate voltage must be decreased, so that the field at the drain transistors (pHEMTs), the field between the drain and the gate determines off-state breakdown, and that the drain to gate voltage therefore sets the breakdown voltage of the device. Thus, the two terminal

  2. Breakdown and Combustion of JP-10 Fuel Catalyzed by Nanoparticulate CeO2 and Fe2O3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Scott L.

    Thermal breakdown and oxidation of JP-10 (exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene, C10H16), in the presence in catalytic combustors to increase the efficiency of combustion at low temperatures, thereby reducing NOx, the catalyst-coated fuel particles will be injected into the combustor with the fuel and/or air and be consumed

  3. Electron-ion relaxation time dependent signal enhancement in ultrafast double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Electron-ion relaxation time dependent signal enhancement in ultrafast double-pulse laser of collinear double-pulse compared to single-pulse ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Our results showed that the significant signal enhancement noticed in the double pulse scheme is strongly correlated

  4. 518 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 33, NO. 2, APRIL 2005 Plasma Dynamics During Breakdown in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    518 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 33, NO. 2, APRIL 2005 Plasma Dynamics During November 7, 2004. Work supported in part by National Science Foundation CTS03-15353 and in part Breakdown in an HID Lamp Ananth N. Bhoj and Mark J. Kushner, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--Large starting voltages

  5. 670 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 33, NO. 5, MAY 2012 Breakdown-Voltage-Enhancement Technique for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Wai Tung

    670 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 33, NO. 5, MAY 2012 Breakdown-Voltage-Enhancement Technique (FP), GaN power devices, leakage current. I. INTRODUCTION AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China. E. Xu, J. Lee, N

  6. High Breakdown ( > \\hbox {1500 V} ) AlGaN/GaN HEMTs by Substrate-Transfer Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin

    In this letter, we present a new technology to increase the breakdown voltage of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown on Si substrates. This new technology is based on the removal of the original Si ...

  7. Towards a better understanding of dielectric barrier discharges in ferroelectrets: Paschen breakdown fields in micrometer sized voids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Scott, E-mail: harri4s@cmich.edu [Department of Physics and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859 (United States); Applied Condensed-Matter Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Mellinger, Axel, E-mail: axel.mellinger@cmich.edu [Department of Physics and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Charged cellular polypropylene foams (i.e., ferro- or piezoelectrets) demonstrate high piezoelectric activity upon being electrically charged. When an external electric field is applied, dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) occur, resulting in a separation of charges which are subsequently deposited on dielectric surfaces of internal micrometer sized voids. This deposited space charge is responsible for the piezoelectric activity of the material. Previous studies have indicated charging fields larger than predicted by Townsend's model of Paschen breakdown applied to a multilayered electromechanical model; a discrepancy which prompted the present study. The actual breakdown fields for micrometer sized voids were determined by constructing single cell voids using polypropylene spacers with heights ranging from 8 to 75??m, “sandwiched” between two polypropylene dielectric barriers and glass slides with semi-transparent electrodes. Subsequently, a bipolar triangular charging waveform with a peak voltage of 6?kV was applied to the samples. The breakdown fields were determined by monitoring the emission of light due to the onset of DBDs using an electron multiplying CCD camera. The breakdown fields at absolute pressures from 101 to 251?kPa were found to be in good agreement with the standard Paschen curves. Additionally, the magnitude of the light emission was found to scale linearly with the amount of gas, i.e., the height of the voids. Emissions were homogeneous over the observed regions of the voids for voids with heights of 25??m or less and increasingly inhomogeneous for void heights greater than 40??m at high electric fields.

  8. SNAP-BACK: a stable regenerative breakdown mode of MOS devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ochoa, A. Jr.; Sexton, F.W.; Wrobel, T.F.; Hash, G.L.; Sokel, R.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    N-channel MOS transistors used in nMOS and in CMOS microelectronic circuits have a drain-to-source breakdown characteristic showing a negative resistance region. Activating this mode of operation leads to a drop in source-to-drain voltage and to a large drain current. Snap-back is not a four-layer (SCR, latch-up) phenomenon, but, like latch-up, can be initiated by current injection into the p-well, by avalanching junctions or by exposure to ionizing radiation. The sustaining voltage can be significantly below the drain-substrate avalanche voltage thereby limiting the maximum operating voltage. In this paper we present a qualitative model for snap-back - local conductivity modulation occurs in the intrinsic base region of the parasitic bipolar transistor leading to regenerative feedback. Effects of process variations on the snap-back characteristics are presented as are triggering sensitivities to ionizing radiation.

  9. String-theoretic breakdown of effective field theory near black hole horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodelson, Matthew

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the validity of the equivalence principle near horizons in string theory, analyzing the breakdown of effective field theory caused by longitudinal string spreading effects. An experiment is set up where a detector is thrown into a black hole a long time after an early infalling string. Light cone gauge calculations, taken at face value, indicate a detectable level of root-mean-square longitudinal spreading of the initial string as measured by the late infaller. This results from the large relative boost between the string and detector in the near horizon region, which develops automatically despite their modest initial energies outside the black hole and the weak curvature in the geometry. We subject this scenario to basic consistency checks, using these to obtain a relatively conservative criterion for its detectability. In a companion paper, we exhibit longitudinal nonlocality in well-defined gauge-invariant S-matrix calculations, obtaining results consistent with the predicted spreading albe...

  10. Grain-scale thermoelastic stresses and spatiotemporal temperature gradients on airless bodies, implications for rock breakdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molaro, Jamie L; Langer, Steve A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermomechanical processes such as fatigue and shock have been suggested to cause and contribute to rock breakdown on Earth, and on other planetary bodies, particularly airless bodies in the inner solar system. In this study, we modeled grain-scale stresses induced by diurnal temperature variations on simple microstructures made of pyroxene and plagioclase on various solar system bodies. We found that a heterogeneous microstructure on the Moon experiences peak tensile stresses on the order of 100 MPa. The stresses induced are controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the mineral constituents, and the average stress within the microstructure is determined by relative volume of each mineral. Amplification of stresses occurs at surface-parallel boundaries between adjacent mineral grains and at the tips of pore spaces. We also found that microscopic spatial and temporal surface temperature gradients do not correlate with high stresses, making them inappropriate proxies for investig...

  11. Breakdown of the equivalence between gravitational mass and energy for a composite quantum body

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei G. Lebed

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The simplest quantum composite body, a hydrogen atom, is considered in the presence of a weak external gravitational field. We define an operator for the passive gravitational mass of the atom in the post-Newtonian approximation of the general relativity and show that it does not commute with its energy operator. Nevertheless, the equivalence between the expectation values of the mass and energy is shown to survive at a macroscopic level for stationary quantum states. Breakdown of the equivalence between passive gravitational mass and energy at a microscopic level for stationary quantum states can be experimentally detected by studying unusual electromagnetic radiation, emitted by the atoms, supported by and moving in the Earth's gravitational field with constant velocity, using spacecraft or satellite

  12. Fiber optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for molten material analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hansheng; Rai, Awadesh K.; Singh, Jagdish P.; Yueh, Fang-Yu

    2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) sensor, including a laser light source, a harmonic separator for directing the laser light, a dichroic mirror for reflecting the laser light, a coupling lens for coupling the laser light at an input of a multimode optical fiber, a connector for coupling the laser light from an output of the multimode optical fiber to an input of a high temperature holder, such as a holder made of stainless steel, and a detector portion for receiving emission signal and analyzing LIBS intensities. In one variation, the multimode optical fiber has silica core and silica cladding. The holder includes optical lenses for collimating and focusing the laser light in a molten alloy to produce a plasma, and for collecting and transmitting an emission signal to the multimode optical fiber.

  13. Evolution of the electron energy distribution function during genesis of breakdown plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Paul, Samit; Ghosh, Sayandip [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology – Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the process of plasma initiation by an electromagnetic wave, it is found that the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) that is initially Maxwellian with the most probable energy at room temperature, evolves with time and tends toward a Bi-Maxwellian?–?indicating attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium in the individual electron populations prior to breakdown, with a significant increase in hot electron density. In the intermediate states during the evolution, however, non-equilibrium processes are prevalent under fast pulse excitation and the EEDF initially exhibits substantial deviation from a Maxwellian. An analysis of the deviation has been carried out by optimizing the residual sum of squares of the probabilities obtained from the simulation and a fitted Maxwellian curve. The equilibrium regain time defined as the time required to attain thermodynamic equilibrium again, is investigated as a function of neutral pressure, wave electric, and external magnetostatic fields.

  14. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement in methane and biodiesel flames using an ungated detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eseller, Kemal E.; Yueh, Fang Y.; Singh, Jagdish P

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to measure the equivalence ratio of CH4/air flames using gated detection. In this work, we have developed an ungated, miniature LIBS-based sensor for studying CH4/air and biodiesel flames. We have used this sensor to characterize the biodiesel flame. LIBS spectra of biodiesel flames were recorded with different ethanol concentrations in the biodiesel and also at different axial locations within the flame. The sensor performance was evaluated with a CH4/air flame. LIBS signals of N, O, and H from a CH4/air flame were used to determine the equivalence ratio. A linear relationship between the intensity ratio of H and O lines and the calculated equivalence ratio were obtained with this sensor.

  15. Metastable and charged particle decay in neon afterglow studied by the breakdown time delay measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markovic, V. Lj.; Gocic, S. R.; Stamenkovic, S. N.; Petrovic, Z. Lj. [Department of Physics, University of Nis, P.O. Box 224, 18001 Nis (Serbia); Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 68, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Memory effect--the long time variation of the electrical breakdown time delay on the relaxation time t{sub d}({tau}) in neon--was explained by the Ne({sup 3}P{sub 2}) (1s{sub 5}) metastable state remaining from the preceding glow [Dj. A. Bosan, M. K. Radovic, and Dj. M. Krmpotic, J. Phys. D 19, 2343 (1986)]. However, the authors neglected the quenching processes that reduce the effective lifetime of metastable states several orders of magnitude below that of the memory effect observations. In this paper the time delay measurements were carried out in neon at the pressure of 6.6 mbar in a gas tube with gold-plated copper cathode, and the approximate and exact numerical models are developed in order to study the metastable and charged particle decay in afterglow. It was found that the metastable hypothesis completely failed to explain the afterglow kinetics, which is governed by the decay of molecular neon ions and molecular nitrogen ions produced in Ne{sub 2}{sup +} collisions with nitrogen impurities; i.e., Ne{sub 2}{sup +}+N{sub 2}{yields}N{sub 2}{sup +}+2Ne. Charged particle decay is followed up to hundreds of milliseconds in afterglow, from ambipolar to the free diffusion limit. After that, the late afterglow kinetics in neon can be explained by the nitrogen atoms recombining on the cathode surface and providing secondary electrons that determine the breakdown time delay down to the cosmic rays and natural radioactivity level.

  16. Method of Controlling Corona Effects and Breakdown Voltage of Small Air Gaps Stressed by Impulse Voltages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athanasios Maglaras; Trifon Kousiouris; Frangiskos Topalis; Dimitrios Katsaros; Leandros A. Maglaras; Konstantina Giannakopoulou

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the influence of a resistor on the dielectric behavior of an air gap. The resistor is connected in series with the air gap and the latter is stressed by impulse voltage. Air gap arrangements of different geometry with either the rod or the plate grounded are stressed with impulse voltages of both positive and negative polarity. The resistor is connected in series with the air gap in the return circuit connecting the gap with the impulse generator. The method followed involves the investigation of the graphs of the charging time concerning the air gaps capacitances, in connection to the value of the resistor, the geometry of the gap, the effect of grounding and the polarity effect. It is determined that the charging time of the air gap increases, as the value of the resistor increases. It is also determined that the peak voltage value of the fully charged air gap decreases as the value of the resistor increases. The results of the mathematical and simulation analysis are compared with the results of the oscillograms taken from experimental work. In addition and consequently to the above results it is concluded from the experimental work that the in series connection of the resistor in the circuit has significant influence on corona pulses (partial discharges) occurring in the gap and on the breakdown voltage of the gap. A new method of controlling the corona effects and consequently the breakdown voltage of small air gaps stressed by impulse voltage of short duration in connection to the ground effect and the polarity effect has arisen. Furthermore through mathematical analysis of the charging graphs obtained from simulation and experimental oscillograms there was a calculation of the values of the capacitance of the air gaps in relation to their geometry and the results were compared to the values calculated with mathematical analysis.

  17. J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 32 (1999) 60976113. Printed in the UK PII: S0305-4470(99)01278-0 Quantum response at finite fields and breakdown of Chern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avron, Joseph

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    response at finite fields and breakdown of Chern numbers J E Avron and Z Kons Department of Physics essential singularity at zero field. We also study the breakdown of Chern numbers associated with the response of Floquet states. We argue, and give evidence, that the breakdown of Chern numbers in Floquet

  18. Breakdown of time-temperature superposition in a bead-spring polymer melt near the glass transition temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamio Yamazaki

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The breakdown of the time-temperature superposition (TTS) near its glass transition temperature (Tg) in simple bead-spring polymer melts with and without the chain angle potential was numerically investigated. The stress relaxation modulus at different temperatures G(t,T) was calculated by the Green-Kubo relation. The TTS of G(t,T) of bead-spring polymer melts worked well at temperatures sufficiently higher than its Tg. However, when the system temperature is approaching the glass transition regime, the breakdown of TTS is observed. At temperatures near the Tg, the temperature dependence of the shift factor aTB, which is defined at the time scale between the bond relaxation and the chain relaxation regimes of a G(t)-function, is significantly stronger than ones aTA defined by the time scale of the chain relaxation modes. In direct relation to the breakdown of TTS of G(t,T), the decoupling of Stokes-Einstein law of diffusion-viscosity relation also appears in the glass transition regime. The analysis of the van Hove function Gs(r,t) and non-gaussian parameter, a2(t), of the bead motions strongly suggest that the TTS breakdown is concerned with the dynamic heterogeneity. The effect of the chain stiffness on the temperature dependence of the shift factors was also investigated in this study. The stiffer chains melt has a stronger temperature dependence of the shift factors than the ones of the flexible chains melt. However, regardless of the chain stiffness, the stress relaxation modulus functions of the bead-spring polymer melts will begin to breakdown the TTS at a similar Tg-normalized temperature around T/Tg ~ 1.2.

  19. Inner surface flash-over of insulator of low-inductance high-voltage self-breakdown gas switch and its application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hong-bo, E-mail: walkman67@163.com; Liu, Jin-liang [College of Opto-electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)] [College of Opto-electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the inner surface flash-over of high-voltage self-breakdown switch, which is used as a main switch of pulse modulator, is analyzed in theory by employing the method of distributed element equivalent circuit. Moreover, the field distortion of the switch is simulated by using software. The results of theoretical analysis and simulation by software show that the inner surface flash-over usually starts at the junction points among the stainless steel, insulator, and insulation gas in the switch. A switch with improved structure is designed and fabricated according to the theoretical analysis and simulation results. Several methods to avoid inner surface flash-over are used to improve the structure of switch. In experiment, the inductance of the switch is no more than 100 nH, the working voltage of the switch is about 600 kV, and the output voltage and current of the accelerator is about 500 kV and 50 kA, respectively. And the zero-to-peak rise time of output voltage at matched load is less than 30 ns due to the small inductance of switch. The original switch was broken-down after dozens of experiments, and the improved switch has been worked more than 200 times stably.

  20. Degradation of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors in the current-controlled off-state breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmik, J., E-mail: jan.kuzmik@savba.sk; Jurkovi?, M.; Gregušová, D.; ?apajna, M. [Institute of Electrical Engineering SAS, Dubravska cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Brunner, F.; Cho, M.; Würfl, J. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institute, Leibnitz Institute für Höchfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchoff-Strasse 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Meneghesso, G. [Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, via Gradenigo, 6/B 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate degradation mechanisms in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs which were repeatedly driven into the current-controlled off-state breakdown or subject to 60 s voltage- or current-controlled off state stresses. The current-controlled sweep in to the breakdown allows the sustainability of breakdown that can not be observed in the voltage controlled sweep. Only temporal changes were observed in the HEMT dc performance after repetitive sweeps, which were explained by charging/discharging of the HEMT surface at the gate-to-drain access region and in the GaN buffer below the gate. Similar changes were observed also if high-voltage stress has been applied on the drain; however, permanent degradation appears after 60 s current-controlled breakdown stress. In this case, the drain leakage current, as well as the breakdown current, increases significantly. On the other hand, the breakdown voltage, as well as the gate characteristics, remains unaltered. We suggest that the avalanche-injection process is governing the off-state breakdown event with a dominant role of the potential barrier at the channel-buffer interface.

  1. Investigation of historical metal objects using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Kareem, O. [Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University (Egypt); Ghoneim, M. [Conservation Department, Faculty of Fine Arts, Minia University (Egypt); Harith, M. A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of metal objects is a necessary step for establishing an appropriate conservation treatment of an object or to follow up the application's result of the suggested treatments. The main considerations on selecting a method that can be used in investigation and analysis of metal objects are based on the diagnostic power, representative sampling, reproducibility, destructive nature/invasiveness of analysis and accessibility to the appropriate instrument. This study aims at evaluating the usefulness of the use of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Technique for analysis of historical metal objects. In this study various historical metal objects collected from different museums and excavations in Egypt were investigated using (LIBS) technique. For evaluating usefulness of the suggested analytical protocol of this technique, the same investigated metal objects were investigated by other methods such as Scanning Electron Microscope with energy-dispersive x-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). This study confirms that Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Technique is considered very useful technique that can be used safely for investigating historical metal objects. LIBS analysis can quickly provide information on the qualitative and semi-quantitative elemental content of different metal objects and their characterization and classification. It is practically non-destructive technique with the critical advantage of being applicable in situ, thereby avoiding sampling and sample preparations. It is can be dependable, satisfactory and effective method for low cost study of archaeological and historical metals. But we have to take into consideration that the corrosion of metal leads to material alteration and possible loss of certain metals in the form of soluble salts. Certain corrosion products are known to leach out of the object and therefore, their low content does not necessarily reflect the composition of the metal at the time of the object manufacture. Another point should be taken into consideration that the heterogeneity of a metal alloy object that often result from poor mixing of the different metal alloy composition.There is a necessity to carry out further research to investigate and determine the most appropriate and effective approaches and methods for conservation of these metal objects.

  2. The influence of SF6 and SF6/N2 gas pressure to the breakdown performance of polyester film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Peihong; Gong Guoli; Dong Guangyu [Harbin Univ. of Science and Technology (China). Dept. of Electrical Material; Dong Zhenhua [Shenyang Research Inst. of Transformer (China)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    SF6 has been widely used as the gas insulating medium in gas insulated transformer, and polyester film used as the turn insulation and other insulating materials. In this paper, the insulation strength of turn insulation of SF6/N2-film is tested when the SF6 is replaced by SF6/N2 mixed gas, and also compared with that of SF6-film. The results show that the power frequency breakdown voltage and breakdown stress of SF6/N2-film is lower than that of SF6-film in the same pressure and the same film thickness, the mean value of the former is about 91% of the latter. In order to reach the same level of turn insulation strength in the operation range, the gas pressure must be increased by 0.05 Mpa.

  3. Breakdown of the Equivalence between Energy Content and Weight in a Weak Gravitational Field for a Quantum Body

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Lebed

    2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that weight operator of a composite quantum body in a weak external gravitational field in the post-Newtonian approximation of the General Relativity does not commute with its energy operator, taken in the absence of the field. Nevertheless, the weak equivalence between the expectations values of weight and energy is shown to survive at a macroscopic level for stationary quantum states for the simplest composite quantum body - a hydrogen atom. Breakdown of the weak equivalence between weight and energy at a microscopic level for stationary quantum states can be experimentally detected by studying unusual electromagnetic radiation, emitted by the atoms, supported and moved in the Earth gravitational field with constant velocity, using spacecraft or satellite. For superpositions of stationary quantum states, a breakdown of the above mentioned equivalence at a macroscopic level leads to time dependent oscillations of the expectation values of weight, where the equivalence restores after averaging over time procedure.

  4. 216 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B/Vol. 13, No. 1/January 1996 D. von der Linde and H. Schuler Breakdown threshold and plasma formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von der Linde, D.

    216 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B/Vol. 13, No. 1/January 1996 D. von der Linde and H. Sch¨uler Breakdown threshold and plasma formation in femtosecond laser­solid interaction D. von der Linde and H. Sch

  5. Determination of elemental impurities in plastic calibration standards using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, D.; Ayyalasomayajula, K.; Jain, J.; Singh, J.; Yu-Yueh, F.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) scanning is a rapidly emerging imaging technique employed in nondestructive evaluation of various materials. CT has been used for characterizing rocks and visualizing multiphase flow through rocks for over 25 years. The most common technique for dual-energy CT scanning relies on homogeneous calibration standards to produce the most accurate decoupled data. However, the use of calibration standards with impurities increases the probability of error in the reconstructed data and results in poor rock characterization. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to determine impurity concentration in a set of commercially purchased calibration standards used in dual-energy scanning for material identification with coal samples. Two calibration models were developed by using univariate calibration with the internal ratio method and multiple linear regression. Seven elements (Al, Fe, Mg, Na, Ni, Sr, and Ti) were examined in five different samples containing varying amounts of each ion to compare calibration from univariate data analysis and from multivariate data analysis. The contaminant concentrations were also measured by a commercially available inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy instrument, and the data were used as a reference in developing calibration curves for a modified version of the single linear regression model and the multiple linear regression model.

  6. String-theoretic breakdown of effective field theory near black hole horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew Dodelson; Eva Silverstein

    2015-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the validity of the equivalence principle near horizons in string theory, analyzing the breakdown of effective field theory caused by longitudinal string spreading effects. An experiment is set up where a detector is thrown into a black hole a long time after an early infalling string. Light cone gauge calculations, taken at face value, indicate a detectable level of root-mean-square longitudinal spreading of the initial string as measured by the late infaller. This results from the large relative boost between the string and detector in the near horizon region, which develops automatically despite their modest initial energies outside the black hole and the weak curvature in the geometry. We subject this scenario to basic consistency checks, using these to obtain a relatively conservative criterion for its detectability. In a companion paper, we exhibit longitudinal nonlocality in well-defined gauge-invariant S-matrix calculations, obtaining results consistent with the predicted spreading albeit not in a direct analogue of the black hole process. We discuss applications of this effect to the firewall paradox, and estimate the time and distance scales it predicts for new physics near black hole and cosmological horizons.

  7. On the breakdown of perturbative integrability in large N matrix models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Klose

    2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the perturbative integrability of the planar sector of a massive SU(N) matrix quantum mechanical theory with global SO(6) invariance and Yang-Mills-like interaction. This model arises as a consistent truncation of maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a three-sphere to the lowest modes of the scalar fields. In fact, our studies mimic the current investigations concerning the integrability properties of this gauge theory. Like in the field theory we can prove the planar integrability of the SO(6) model at first perturbative order. At higher orders we restrict ourselves to the widely studied SU(2) subsector spanned by two complexified scalar fields of the theory. We show that our toy model satisfies all commonly studied integrability requirements such as degeneracies in the spectrum, existence of conserved charges and factorized scattering up to third perturbative order. These are the same qualitative features as the ones found in super Yang-Mills theory, which were enough to conjecture the all-loop integrability of that theory. For the SO(6) model, however, we show that these properties are not sufficient to predict higher loop integrability. In fact, we explicitly demonstrate the breakdown of perturbative integrability at fourth order.

  8. VERY LOW FREQUENCY BREAKDOWN PROPERTIES OF ELECTRICAL INSULATION MATERIALS AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauers, I.; Tuncer, E.; Polizos, G.; James, D. R.; Ellis, A. R.; Pace, M. O. [Applied Superconductivity Group, Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    For long cables or equipment with large capacitance it is not always possible to conduct high voltage withstand tests at 60 Hz due to limitations in charging currents of the power supply. Very low frequency (typically at a frequency of 0.1 Hz) has been used for conventional cables as a way of getting around the charging current limitation. For superconducting grid applications the same issues apply. However there is very little data at cryogenic temperatures on how materials perform at low frequency compared to 60 Hz and whether higher voltages should be applied when performing a high voltage acceptability test. Various materials including G10 (fiberglass reinforced plastic or FRP), Cryoflex (a tape insulation used in some high temperature superconducting cables), kapton (commonly used polyimide), polycarbonate, and polyetherimide, and in liquid nitrogen alone have been tested using a step method for frequencies of 60 Hz, 0.1 Hz, and dc. The dwell time at each step was chosen so that the aging factor would be the same in both the 60 Hz and 0.1 Hz tests. The data indicated that, while there is a small frequency dependence for liquid nitrogen, there are significant differences for the solid materials studied. Breakdown data for these materials and for model cables will be shown and discussed.

  9. VERY LOW FREQUENCY BREAKDOWN PROPERTIES OF ELECTRICAL INSULATION MATERIALS AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For long cables or equipment with large capacitance it is not always possible to conduct high voltage withstand at tests at 60 Hz due to limitations in charging currents of the power supply. Very low frequency (typically at a frequency of 0.1 Hz) has been used for conventional cables as a way of getting around the charging current limitation. For superconducting grid applications the same issues apply. However there is very little data at cryogenic temperatures on how materials perform at low frequency compared to 60 Hz and whether higher voltages should be applied when performing a high voltage acceptability test. Various materials including G10 (fiberglass reinforced plastic or FRP), Cryoflex (a tape insulation used in some high temperature superconducting cables), kapton (commonly used polyimide), polycarbonate, and polyetherimide, and in liquid nitrogen alone have been tested using a step method for frequencies of 60 Hz, 0.1 Hz, and dc. The dwell time at each step was chosen so that the aging factor would be the same in both the 60 Hz and 0.1 Hz tests. The data indicated that, while there is a small frequency dependence for liquid nitrogen, there are significant differences for the solid materials studied. Breakdown data for these materials and for model cables will be shown and discussed.

  10. VERY LOW FREQUENCY BREAKDOWN PROPERTIES OF ELECTRICAL INSULATION MATERIALS AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauers, I. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tuncer, E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Polizos, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); James, D. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ellis, A. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Pace, M. O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For long cables or equipment with large capacitance it is not always possible to conduct high voltage withstand tests at 60 Hz due to limitations in charging currents of the power supply. Very low frequency (typically at a frequency of 0 1 Hz) has been used for conventional cables as a way of getting around the charging current limitation For superconducting grid applications the same issues apply. However there is very little data at cryogenic temperatures on how materials perform at low frequency compared to 60 Hz and whether higher voltages should be applied when performing a high voltage acceptability test. Various materials including G 10 (fiberglass reinforced plastic or FRP), Cryoflex (TM) (a tape insulation used in some high temperature superconducting cables), kapton (commonly used polyimide), polycarbonate, and polyetherimide, and in liquid nitrogen alone have been tested using a step method for frequencies of 60 Hz, 0.1 Hz, and dc The dwell time at each step was chosen so that the aging factor would be the same in both the 60 Hz and 0 I Hz tests. The data indicated that, while there is a small frequency dependence for liquid nitrogen, there are significant differences for the solid materials studied. Breakdown data for these materials and for model cables will be shown and discussed.

  11. Rapid Analysis of Ash Composition Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic compounds are known to be problematic in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to syngas and ultimately hydrocarbon fuels. The elements Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe, and Al are particularly problematic and are known to influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams. Substantial quantities of inorganic species can be entrained in the bark of trees during harvest operations. Herbaceous feedstocks often have even greater quantities of inorganic constituents, which can account for as much as one-fifth of the total dry matter. Current methodologies to measure the concentrations of these elements, such as inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry (ICP-OES/MS) are expensive in time and reagents. This study demonstrates that a new methodology employing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can rapidly and accurately analyze the inorganic constituents in a wide range of biomass materials, including both woody and herbaceous examples. This technique requires little or no sample preparation, does not consume any reagents, and the analytical data is available immediately. In addition to comparing LIBS data with the results from ICP-OES methods, this work also includes discussions of sample preparation techniques, calibration curves for interpreting LIBS spectra, minimum detection limits, and the use of internal standards and standard reference materials.

  12. Measurements of the volt-ampere characteristics and the breakdown voltages of direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges in microgaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klas, M.; Matej?ik, Š. [Department of Experimental Physics, Comenius University, Mlynskadolina F2, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Radjenovi?, B.; Radmilovi?-Radjenovi?, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 57, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The discharge phenomena for micro meter gap sizes include many interesting problems from engineering and physical perspectives. In this paper, the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical results of the breakdown voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges. The measurements were performed at a constant pressure of around one atmosphere, while varying the gap size between two parallel plane tungsten electrodes between 1??m and 100??m. From the measured breakdown voltage curves, the effective yields and the ionization coefficients were derived for both gases. Present data for the ionization coefficients correlate with the data obtained for the breakdown voltage curves measured for fixed 100??m interelectrode separation. The current-voltage characteristics were plotted for the various gap sizes illustrating the role of the field emission effects in the microgaps. Based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory, the enhancement factors were determined. The gap spacing dependence of the field emission current can be explained by the introduction of two ideas, the first being a space charge effect by emitted electrons, and the second a change in the breakdown mechanism. Experimental results, presented here, demonstrate that Townsend phenomenology breaks down when field emission becomes the key mechanism affecting the breakdown and deforming the left hand side of the breakdown voltage curves.

  13. UTC Power/Delphi SECA CBS Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, Michael; Kerr, Rich

    2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject report summarizes the results of solid oxide fuel cell development conducted by UTC Power in conjunction with Delphi Automotive Systems under a cost-share program with from October 2008 through March of 2013. Over that period Delphi Automotive Systems developed a nearly four times larger area solid oxide fuel cell stack capable of operating on pre-reformed natural gas and simulated coal gas with durability demonstrated to 5,000 hours and projected to exceed 10,000 hours. The new stack design was scaled to 40-cell stacks with power output in excess of 6.25kW. Delphi also made significant strides in improving the manufacturability, yield and production cost of these solid oxide fuel cells over the course of the program. Concurrently, UTC Power developed a conceptual design for a 120 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) operating on coal syngas with as high as 57% Higher Heating Value (HHV) efficiency as a measure of the feasibility of the technology. Subsequently a 400 kW on-site system preliminary design with 55% Lower Heating Value (LHV) efficiency operating on natural gas was down-selected from eighteen candidate designs. That design was used as the basis for a 25kW breadboard power plant incorporating four Delphi cell stacks that was tested on natural gas before the program was discontinued due to the sale of UTC Power in early 2013. Though the program was cut short of the endurance target of 3,000 hours, many aspects of the technology were proven including: large-area, repeatable cell manufacture, cell stack operation on simulated coal gas and natural gas and integrated power plant operation on natural gas. The potential of the technology for high efficiency stationary electric power generation is clear. Acceptable production costs, durability, and reliability in real world environments are the remaining challenges to commercialization.

  14. aspergillus niger cbs: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hannah Appel S.V. Ciriacy-Wantrup Postdoctoral Fellow Geosciences Websites Summary: Graeber. Radical History Review. Winter 2014 (118). 2013 Book Review: Red Tape: Bureaucracy,...

  15. Hanford Site Environmental Restoration Program 1994 fiscal year work plan. Work breakdown structure 2.0: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Site Management System (SMS) guidance requires a Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP) to be prepared for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Mission Area and all related programs. This revision is a complete update to cover the FY 1994 time period. This document describes the overall ER Missions Area and provides FYWP appendices for each of the following five program areas: Remedial Action (RA); Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D); Project Management and Support (PM&S); Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M); and Disposal Facilities (DF).

  16. Effect of atmosphere on collinear double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew J. Effenberger, Jr.; Jill R. Scott

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) has been shown to enhance LIBS spectra. Several researches have reported significant increases in signal-to-noise and or spectral intensity [1-4]. In addition to DP-LIBS, atmospheric conditions can also increase spectra intensity. For example, Iida [5] found that He and Ar both increase LIBS intensity compared to air at one 1 atm. It was also found that as the pressure was decreased to 100 Torr, LIBS intensity increased in Ar and air for single pulse (SP) LIBS. In this study, a collinear DP-LIBS scheme is used along with manipulation of the atmospheric conditions. The DP-LIBS scheme consists of a 355 nm ablative pulse fired into a sample contained in a vacuum chamber. A second analytical 1064 nm pulse is then fired 100 ns to 10 µs after and along the same path of the first pulse. Ar, He and air at pressures ranging from atmospheric pressure (630 Torr at elevation) to 10-5 Torr are introduced during DP-LIBS and SP-LIBS experiments. For a brass sample, a significant increase in spectral intensity of Cu and Zn lines were observed in DP-LIBS under Ar compared to DP-LIBS in air (Figure 1). It was also found that Cu and Zn lines acquired with SP-LIBS in Ar are nearly as intense as DP-LIBS in air. Signal-to-noise for lines from various samples will be reported for both DP-LIBS and SP-LIBS in Ar, He, and air at pressures ranging from 630 Torr to 10-5 Torr.

  17. Transient luminous events above two mesoscale convective systems: Storm structure and evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    structure and evolution Timothy J. Lang,1 Walter A. Lyons,2 Steven A. Rutledge,1 Jonathan D. Meyer,2. Meyer, D. R. MacGorman, and S. A. Cummer (2010), Transient luminous events above two mesoscale, are thought to result from dielectric breakdown at approximately 75 km height [Stanley et al., 1999

  18. Assessing electronic structure approaches for gas-ligand interactions in metal-organic frameworks: The CO{sub 2}-benzene complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witte, Jonathon [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Neaton, Jeffrey B., E-mail: jbneaton@lbl.gov [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Head-Gordon, Martin, E-mail: mhg@cchem.berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption of gas molecules in metal-organic frameworks is governed by many factors, the most dominant of which are the interaction of the gas with open metal sites, and the interaction of the gas with the ligands. Herein, we examine the latter class of interaction in the context of CO{sub 2} binding to benzene. We begin by clarifying the geometry of the CO{sub 2}–benzene complex. We then generate a benchmark binding curve using a coupled-cluster approach with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] at the complete basis set (CBS) limit. Against this ?CCSD(T)/CBS standard, we evaluate a plethora of electronic structure approximations: Hartree-Fock, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) with the resolution-of-the-identity approximation, attenuated MP2, and a number of density functionals with and without different empirical and nonempirical van der Waals corrections. We find that finite-basis MP2 significantly overbinds the complex. On the other hand, even the simplest empirical correction to standard density functionals is sufficient to bring the binding energies to well within 1 kJ/mol of the benchmark, corresponding to an error of less than 10%; PBE-D in particular performs well. Methods that explicitly include nonlocal correlation kernels, such as VV10, vdW-DF2, and ?B97X-V, perform with similar accuracy for this system, as do ?B97X and M06-L.

  19. Remote Raman - laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) geochemical investigation under Venus atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, Sanuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Humphries, Seth D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vaniman, D. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sharma, S. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Misra, A. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Dyar, M. D. [MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Smrekar, S. E. [JET PROPULSION LAB.

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The extreme Venus surface temperatures ({approx}740 K) and atmospheric pressures ({approx}93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. and Sharma et al. demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachyandesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to quantitatively determine the major elemental abundance of the remaining samples. PLS analysis suggests that the major element compositions can be determined with root mean square errors ca. 5% (absolute) for SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(total), MgO, and CaO, and ca. 2% or less for TiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnO, K{sub 2}O, and Na{sub 2}O. Finally, the Raman experiments have been conducted under supercritical CO{sub 2} involving single-mineral and mixed-mineral samples containing talc, olivine, pyroxenes, feldspars, anhydrite, barite, and siderite. The Raman data have shown that the individual minerals can easily be identified individually or in mixtures.

  20. Influence of co-field and cross field flow of mineral oil with and without additives on conduction current and breakdown voltage in highly nonuniform fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Megahed, I.Y.; Abdallah, M.A. [Univ. of Alexandria (Egypt). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Zaky, A.A. [Arab Academy for Science and Technology, Alexandria (Egypt)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents the results of the effect of enforced co-field and cross-field oil flow on the conduction current and breakdown voltage of degassed oil, oil saturated with O{sub 2} and with SF6 and oil containing 1-methylnaphthalene (MN) and dimethylaniline (DMA) as additives. Direct voltage and a point-to-plane electrode geometry were used and results were obtained for both polarities of the point electrode. A general conclusion from all experiments is that oil flow, whether co-field or cross-field, raises the breakdown voltage and lowers the conduction current. The results also show that the exception of DMA, all additives both gaseous (O{sub 2} and SF6) or solid (MN) raised the breakdown voltage and reduced conduction current, compared with degassed oil, for both polarities of the point electrode. These effects are attributed to the electron-trapping properties of the additives.

  1. Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field ({approx}2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 {micro}s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10{sup 5} RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS operating at 30 GHz. It was shown that the ratio of maximum surface electric field to accelerating field at the metal wall is only 0.35-0.4 for DLA, much smaller than the value 2.2 for HDS; and the ratio of surface magnetic field to accelerating field is 3.0 mA/V for DLA, compared with 3.45 mA/V for HDS. These values bode well for DLA in helping to avoid breakdown and to reducing pulsed surface heating and fatigue. The shunt impedance is found to be 160-175 M{Omega}/m for DLA, as compared to 99 M{Omega}/m for HDS. Conclusions are reached from this project that CVD diamond appears promising as a dielectric with a high threshold for RF breakdown, and that rectangular accelerator structures can be devised using planar CVD diamond elements that could be operated at higher acceleration gradients with low probability of RF breakdown, as compared with corresponding all-metallic structures.

  2. Recent Progress on a Manifold Damped and Detuned Structure for CLIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, V F; Grudiev, A; Jones, R M; Wuensch, W; Zennaro, R

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A damped detuned structure for the main X-band linacs of CLIC is being investigated as an alternative design to the present baseline heavily damped structure. In our earlier designs we studied detuned structures, operating at 11.994 GHz, with a range of dipole bandwidths in order to ensure the structure satisfies beam dynamics and rf breakdown constraints. Here we report on the development of a damped and detuned structure which satisfies both constraints. Preparations for high power testing of the structure are also discussed

  3. The Passivity and Breakdown of Beryllium in Aqueous Solutions M.A. Hill, D.P. Butt, and R.S. Lillard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Passivity and Breakdown of Beryllium in Aqueous Solutions M.A. Hill, D.P. Butt, and R beryllium (Be) has been studied as a function of pH. Below pH 2, Be exhibited active dissolution at all, the presence of the fluoride increased the passive current density of beryllium, but had no effect

  4. 1204 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 34, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 1999 Breakdown in Millimeter-Wave Power InP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesús A.

    1204 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 34, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 1999 Breakdown in Millimeter-Wave Power InP HEMT's: A Comparison with GaAs PHEMT's J. A. del Alamo and M. H. Somerville Abstract's) deliver lower output power than GaAs pseudomorphic HEMT's (PHEMT's) throughout most of the millimeter

  5. BREAKDOWN OF THE MAGNETIC SURFACE BARRIER IN NIOBIUM BY OXYGEN DIFFUSION G.P. van der Mey, P.H. Kes and D. de Klerk.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BREAKDOWN OF THE MAGNETIC SURFACE BARRIER IN NIOBIUM BY OXYGEN DIFFUSION G.P. van der Mey, P.H. Kes versus temperature on niobium oxidized at 330 and 200°C showed the existence of a diffusion zone irre- versibility. 1. THE OXYGEN PROFILE.- Oxidation of pure niobium at 400°C for 10 s has been applied

  6. Determination of transition probabilities for the 3p ? 3s transition array in neon using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asghar, Haroon; Ali, Raheel [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)] [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Baig, M. Aslam [National Center for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)] [National Center for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present here a study of the optical emission spectra of the laser produced neon plasma generated by a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm. The spectra were recorded using the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy 2000 detection system comprising of five spectrometers covering the entire visible region. The observed spectra yield all the optically allowed transitions between the 2p{sup 5}3p upper and 2p{sup 5}3s lower configurations based levels. The relative line strengths of all the dipole allowed transitions have been determined using the intensity ratios and compared with the J-file sum rule. The absolute transition probabilities have been calculated by using the lifetimes of the upper levels and the intensities of the observed spectral lines and show good agreement with the literature values.

  7. Electron-ion relaxation time dependent signal enhancement in ultrafast double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harilal, S. S.; Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the emission properties of collinear double-pulse compared to single-pulse ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Our results showed that the significant signal enhancement noticed in the double pulse scheme is strongly correlated to the characteristic electron-ion relaxation time and hence to the inter-pulse delays. Spectroscopic excitation temperature analysis showed that the improvement in signal enhancement is caused by the delayed pulse efficient reheating of the pre-plume. The signal enhancement is also found to be related to the upper excitation energy of the selected lines, i.e., more enhancement noticed for lines originating from higher excitation energy levels, indicating reheating is the major mechanism behind the signal improvement.

  8. On the Breakdown of Quantum Search with Spatially Distributed Marked Vertices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas G. Wong

    2015-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Grover's algorithm finds one of $k$ "marked" items in an \\emph{unstructured} "database" of size $N$ in time $O(\\!\\sqrt{N/k})$, and the algorithm's parameter(s) and runtime are unchanged no matter which of the $k$ items are marked. For \\emph{structured} search by continuous-time quantum walk, however, we show that rearranging the marked elements can cause the parameter(s) or runtime to vary such that, without prior knowledge of the spatial distribution of the marked elements, a potentially sub-exponential number of configurations would need to be tried, meaning it would be better to not run the search algorithm at all.

  9. Effects of Combustion-Induced Vortex Breakdown on Flashback Limits of Syngas-Fueled Gas Turbine Combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahsan Choudhuri

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbine combustors of advanced power systems have goals to achieve very low pollutants emissions, fuel variability, and fuel flexibility. Future generation gas turbine combustors should tolerate fuel compositions ranging from natural gas to a broad range of syngas without sacrificing operational advantages and low emission characteristics. Additionally, current designs of advanced turbine combustors use various degrees of swirl and lean premixing for stabilizing flames and controlling high temperature NOx formation zones. However, issues of fuel variability and NOx control through premixing also bring a number of concerns, especially combustor flashback and flame blowout. Flashback is a combustion condition at which the flame propagates upstream against the gas stream into the burner tube. Flashback is a critical issue for premixed combustor designs, because it not only causes serious hardware damages but also increases pollutant emissions. In swirl stabilized lean premixed turbine combustors onset of flashback may occur due to (i) boundary layer flame propagation (critical velocity gradient), (ii) turbulent flame propagation in core flow, (iii) combustion instabilities, and (iv) upstream flame propagation induced by combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB). Flashback due to first two foregoing mechanisms is a topic of classical interest and has been studied extensively. Generally, analytical theories and experimental determinations of laminar and turbulent burning velocities model these mechanisms with sufficient precision for design usages. However, the swirling flow complicates the flashback processes in premixed combustions and the first two mechanisms inadequately describe the flashback propensity of most practical combustor designs. The presence of hydrogen in syngas significantly increases the potential for flashback. Due to high laminar burning velocity and low lean flammability limit, hydrogen tends to shift the combustor operating conditions towards flashback regime. Even a small amount of hydrogen in a fuel blend triggers the onset of flashback by altering the kinetics and thermophysical characteristics of the mixture. Additionally, the presence of hydrogen in the fuel mixture modifies the response of the flame to the global effects of stretch and preferential diffusion. Despite its immense importance in fuel flexible combustor design, little is known about the magnitude of fuel effects on CIVB induced flashback mechanism. Hence, this project investigates the effects of syngas compositions on flashback resulting from combustion induced vortex breakdown. The project uses controlled experiments and parametric modeling to understand the velocity field and flame interaction leading to CIVB driven flashback.

  10. Numerical simulation of torus breakdown to chaos in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Wang, Y. H.; Wang, D. Z. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the routes to chaos occurring in atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge systems by changing controlling parameters is very important to predict and control the dynamical behaviors. In this paper, a route of a quasiperiodic torus to chaos via the strange nonchaotic attractor is observed in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge driven by triangle-wave voltage. By increasing the driving frequency, the discharge system first bifurcates to a quasiperiodic torus from a stable single periodic state, and then torus and phase-locking periodic state appear and disappear alternately. In the meantime, the torus becomes increasingly wrinkling and stretching, and gradually approaches a fractal structure with the nonpositive largest Lyapunov exponent, i.e., a strange nonchaotic attractor. After that, the discharge system enters into chaotic state. If the driving frequency is further increased, another well known route of period-doubling bifurcation to chaos is also observed.

  11. Optical breakdown threshold in nanosecond high repetition second harmonic generation by periodically poled Mg-doped LiTaO{sub 3} crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Wada, Satoshi [Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hatano, Hideki; Kitamura, Kenji [Division of Environment and Energy Materials, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)] [Division of Environment and Energy Materials, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Our study shows that a local temperature increase of ?1 K in the crystal lattice caused by second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon absorption of 532 nm radiation at the rear of periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO{sub 3} crystal by changing spontaneous polarization induces a pyroelectric field ?10 kV/cm, accelerating free electrons to an energy of ?10 eV, followed by optical breakdown and crystal damage. Theoretical analysis leads to an explicit expression for the threshold laser fluence of optical breakdown giving ?1.2 J/cm{sup 2} for 1064 nm input radiation in 6.8 kHz pulsed SHG operation, agreeing well with the experimentally found value ?1.32 J/cm{sup 2}.

  12. Modeling the effect of native and laser-induced states on the dielectric breakdown of wide band gap optical materials by multiple subpicosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmert, Luke A.; Mero, Mark; Rudolph, Wolfgang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for the multiple-pulse laser-induced breakdown behavior of dielectrics is presented. It is based on a critical conduction band (CB) electron density leading to dielectric breakdown. The evolution of the CB electron density during the pulse train is calculated using rate equations involving transitions between band and mid-gap states (native and laser-induced). Using realistic estimations for the trap density and ionization cross-section, the model is able to reproduce the experimentally observed drop in the multiple-pulse damage threshold relative to the single-pulse value, as long as the CB electron density is controlled primarily by avalanche ionization seeded by multiphoton ionization of the traps and the valence band. The model shows that at long pulse duration, the breakdown threshold becomes more sensitive to presence of traps close (within one photon energy) to the CB. The effect of native and laser-induced defects can be distinguished by their saturation behavior. Finally, measurements of the multiple-pulse damage threshold of hafnium oxide films are used to illustrate the application of the model.

  13. Final Report: Investigation of Catalytic Pathways for Lignin Breakdown into Monomers and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluckstein, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Sturgeon, Matthew R [ORNL

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is a biopolymer that comprises up to 35% of woody biomass by dry weight. It is currently underutilized compared to cellulose and hemicellulose, the other two primary components of woody biomass. Lignin has an irregular structure of methoxylated aromatic groups linked by a suite of ether and alkyl bonds which makes it difficult to degrade selectively. However, the aromatic components of lignin also make it promising as a base material for the production of aromatic fuel additives and cyclic chemical feed stocks such as styrene, benzene, and cyclohexanol. Our laboratory research focused on three methods to selectively cleave and deoxygenate purified lignin under mild conditions: acidolysis, hydrogenation and electrocatalysis. (1) Acidolysis was undertaken in CH2Cl2 at room temperature. (2) Hydrogenation was carried out by dissolving lignin and a rhodium catalyst in 1:1 water:methoxyethanol under a 1 atm H2 environment. (3) Electrocatalysis of lignin involved reacting electrically generated hydrogen atoms at a catalytic palladium cathode with lignin dissolved in a solution of aqueous methanol. In all of the experiments, the lignin degradation products were identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy and flame ionization detection. Yields were low, but this may have reflected the difficulty in recovering the various fractions after conversion. The homogeneous hydrogenation of lignin showed fragmentation into monomers, while the electrocatalytic hydrogenation showed production of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and substituted benzenes. In addition to the experiments, promising pathways for the conversion of lignin were assessed. Three conversion methods were compared based on their material and energy inputs and proposed improvements using better catalyst and process technology. A variety of areas were noted as needing further experimental and theoretical effort to increase the feasibility of lignin conversion to fuels.

  14. Relationship between the structure and electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takabayashi, Susumu, E-mail: stak@riec.tohoku.ac.jp; Otsuji, Taiichi [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yang, Meng; Ogawa, Shuichi; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Ješko, Radek; Takakuwa, Yuji [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    To elucidate the relationship between the structure and the electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, DLC films were synthesized in a well-controlled glow discharge with the aid of photoelectrons in an argon/methane atmosphere. The dielectric constant and breakdown strength of the films exhibited opposite behaviors, depending on the total pressure during the synthesis. The product of these two values decreased monotonically as the pressure increased. The Raman spectra were analyzed with a Voigt-type formula. Based on the results, the authors propose the “sp{sup 2} cluster model” for the DLC structure. This model consists of conductive clusters of sp{sup 2} carbons surrounded by a dielectric matrix sea of sp{sup 2} carbon, sp{sup 3} carbon, and hydrogen, and indicates that the dielectric constant of the whole DLC film is determined by the balance between the dielectric constant of the matrix and the total size of the clusters, while the breakdown strength is determined by the reciprocal of the cluster size. The model suggests that a high-? DLC film can be synthesized at a middle pressure and consists of well-grown sp{sup 2} clusters and a dense matrix. A low-? DLC film can be synthesized both at low and high pressures. The sp{sup 2} cluster model explains that a low-? DLC film synthesized at low pressure consists of a dense matrix and a low density of sp{sup 2} clusters, and exhibits a high breakdown strength. On the other hand, a low-? film synthesized at high pressure consists of a coarse matrix and a high density of clusters and exhibits a low breakdown strength.

  15. Structuring Structural Operational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousavi, Mohammad

    aan de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, op gezag van de Rector Magnificus, prof.dr.ir. C.J. van.A. Reniers CIP­DATA LIBRARY TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITEIT EINDHOVEN Mousavi, MohammadReza Structuring Structural Operational Semantics / MohammadReza Mousavi. ­ Eindhoven : Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2005

  16. Structuring Structural Operational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reniers, Michel

    aan de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, op gezag van de Rector Magnificus, prof.dr.ir. C.J. van.A. Reniers CIP-DATA LIBRARY TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITEIT EINDHOVEN Mousavi, MohammadReza Structuring Structural Operational Semantics / MohammadReza Mousavi. - Eindhoven : Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2005

  17. Study of the dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF{sub 6}–CF{sub 4} mixtures at 0.01–1.6 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xingwen; Zhao, Hu; Jia, Shenli [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28 XianNing West Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, No. 28 XianNing West Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Murphy, Anthony B. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)] [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The dielectric breakdown properties of SF{sub 6}–CF{sub 4} mixtures were investigated at different ratios of SF{sub 6}, 0.01–1.6 MPa, and gas temperatures up to 3000 K. Initially, the equilibrium compositions of SF{sub 6}–CF{sub 4} mixtures were calculated by minimizing the Gibbs free energy under the assumptions of local thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium. Then the electron energy distribution function was obtained based on those data by solving the Boltzmann equation under the zero-dimensional two-term spherical harmonic approximation. Finally, the critical reduced electric field strength (E/N){sub cr} of SF{sub 6}–CF{sub 4} mixtures, which is defined as the value for which total ionization reaction is equal to total attachment reaction, were determined and analyzed. The results confirm the superior breakdown properties of pure SF{sub 6} at relatively low gas temperatures. However, for higher gas temperatures (i.e., T > 2200 K at 0.4 MPa), the (E/N){sub cr} in SF{sub 6}–CF{sub 4} mixtures are obviously higher than that in pure SF{sub 6} and the values of (E/N){sub cr} increase with the reduction of the ratio of SF{sub 6}.

  18. Trench process and structure for backside contact solar cells with polysilicon doped regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Ceuster, Denis; Cousins, Peter John; Smith, David D

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell includes polysilicon P-type and N-type doped regions on a backside of a substrate, such as a silicon wafer. An interrupted trench structure separates the P-type doped region from the N-type doped region in some locations but allows the P-type doped region and the N-type doped region to touch in other locations. Each of the P-type and N-type doped regions may be formed over a thin dielectric layer. Among other advantages, the resulting solar cell structure allows for increased efficiency while having a relatively low reverse breakdown voltage.

  19. Trench process and structure for backside contact solar cells with polysilicon doped regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Ceuster, Denis; Cousins, Peter John; Smith, David D

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell includes polysilicon P-type and N-type doped regions on a backside of a substrate, such as a silicon wafer. An interrupted trench structure separates the P-type doped region from the N-type doped region in some locations but allows the P-type doped region and the N-type doped region to touch in other locations. Each of the P-type and N-type doped regions may be formed over a thin dielectric layer. Among other advantages, the resulting solar cell structure allows for increased efficiency while having a relatively low reverse breakdown voltage.

  20. Trench process and structure for backside contact solar cells with polysilicon doped regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Ceuster, Denis (Woodside, CA); Cousins, Peter John (Menlo Park, CA); Smith, David D. (Campbell, CA)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell includes polysilicon P-type and N-type doped regions on a backside of a substrate, such as a silicon wafer. An interrupted trench structure separates the P-type doped region from the N-type doped region in some locations but allows the P-type doped region and the N-type doped region to touch in other locations. Each of the P-type and N-type doped regions may be formed over a thin dielectric layer. Among other advantages, the resulting solar cell structure allows for increased efficiency while having a relatively low reverse breakdown voltage.

  1. Elemental content of enamel and dentin after bleaching of teeth (a comparative study between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imam, H. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)] [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Ahmed, Doaa [Department of Restorative Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)] [Department of Restorative Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Eldakrouri, Ashraf [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt) [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Department of Optometry and Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The elemental content of the superficial and inner enamel as well as that of dentin was analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of bleached and unbleached tooth specimens. It is thus clear from the spectral analysis using both the LIBS and XPS technique that elemental changes (though insignificant within the scopes of this study) of variable intensities do occur on the surface of the enamel and extend deeper to reach dentin. The results of the LIBS revealed a slight reduction in the calcium levels in the bleached compared to the control specimens in all the different bleaching groups and in both enamel and dentin. The good correlation found between the LIBS and XPS results demonstrates the possibility of LIBS technique for detection of minor loss in calcium and phosphorus in enamel and dentin.

  2. Excitation in low-current discharges and breakdown in He at low pressures and very high electric field to gas density ratios E/N

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jelenkovic, B.M.; Phelps, A.V. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 75, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate optical emission from low-current discharges in He at very high electric field to gas density ratios E/N between parallel plate electrodes. We also determine the electrical breakdown and the voltage-current behavior at low currents. The E/N are 300 Td to 9 kTd (1 Td=10{sup -21} V m{sup 2}) at pressures times electrode separations p{sub 0}d from 3 to 0.9 Torr cm. Absolute optical emission probabilities versus distance are determined for the 501.6 nm line (3 {sup 1}P{yields}2 {sup 1}S) and for the 587.6 nm line (3 {sup 3}D{yields}2 {sup 3}P) by reference to Boltzmann calculations at our lowest E/N and to published pressure dependent electron beam experiments. At E/N below 1 kTd, the emission follows the exponential growth of the electron density, while at above 7 kTd heavy particle excitation is evident near the cathode. Collisional transfer of excitation from the singlet to the triplet system dominates the 587.6 nm excitation. Comparisons of models with experiments show the importance of excitation and of electron production at the cathode by fast He atoms produced by charge transfer collisions of He{sup +} with He. The breakdown voltage versus p{sub 0}d is multivalued for p{sub 0}d{approx}1.5 Torr cm. At currents below 100 {mu}A and our lower E/N, the discharge voltage decreases linearly with current as expected for an increasing electron yield with ion energy and E/N at the cathode.

  3. Dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures at temperatures of 300–3500?K and pressures of 0.01–1.0?MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Linlin; Yang, Aijun; Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Dingxin; Wu, Yi; Rong, Mingzhe, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, much attention has been paid to SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures as one of substitutes for pure SF{sub 6} gas. In this paper, the dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures are investigated at temperatures of 300–3500?K and pressures of 0.01–1.0?MPa. Under the assumptions of local thermodynamic equilibrium and local chemical equilibrium, the equilibrium compositions of hot SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures with different CO{sub 2} proportions are obtained based on Gibbs free energy minimization. The cross sections for interactions between electrons and neutral species are presented. Some unknown ionization cross sections are determined theoretically using Deutsch–Märk (DM) formalism based on quantum chemistry. Two-term Boltzmann equation is adopted to calculate the electron energy distribution function, reduced ionization coefficient, reduced attachment coefficient, and reduced effective ionization coefficient. Then the reduced critical electric field strength of mixtures, corresponding to dielectric breakdown performances, is determined when the generation and loss of electrons are balanced. Finally, the influences of temperature, pressure, and CO{sub 2} proportion on the reduced critical electric field strength are studied. It is found that a large percentage of CO{sub 2} can obviously reduce concentrations of high-energy electrons. At temperatures above 1750?K, an addition of CO{sub 2} to SF{sub 6} gas can enhance dielectric breakdown performances. However, at low temperatures, too much CO{sub 2} added into mixtures can reduce dielectric breakdown abilities. In addition, increasing gas pressure can improve dielectric breakdown performances. But the influence will be no more significant if pressure is over 0.8?MPa.

  4. The Gender Breakdown of the Applicant Pool for Tenure-Track Faculty Positions at a Sample of North American Research Astronomy Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Todd A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The demographics of the field of Astronomy, and the gender balance in particular, is an important active area of investigation. A piece of information missing from the discussion is the gender breakdown of the applicant pool for faculty positions. For a sample of 35 tenure-track faculty positions at 25 research universities advertised over the last few years in astronomy and astrophysics, I find that the ratio of female applicants to the total number of applicants is ~0.2, with little dispersion and with no strong dependence on the total number of applicants. Some discussion is provided in the context of the fraction of women at the graduate student, postdoctoral researcher, and assistant professor levels, but strong conclusions are not possible given the limitations of the study. Current and future faculty search committees will likely be interested to compare their numbers to this distribution to decide whether or not they could be doing more to attract an applicant pool that is representative of the commun...

  5. Quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data using peak area step-wise regression analysis: an alternative method for interpretation of Mars science laboratory results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dyar, Melinda D [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Schafer, Martha W [LSU; Tucker, Jonathan M [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will include a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) to quantify major and minor elemental compositions. The traditional analytical chemistry approach to calibration curves for these data regresses a single diagnostic peak area against concentration for each element. This approach contrasts with a new multivariate method in which elemental concentrations are predicted by step-wise multiple regression analysis based on areas of a specific set of diagnostic peaks for each element. The method is tested on LIBS data from igneous and metamorphosed rocks. Between 4 and 13 partial regression coefficients are needed to describe each elemental abundance accurately (i.e., with a regression line of R{sup 2} > 0.9995 for the relationship between predicted and measured elemental concentration) for all major and minor elements studied. Validation plots suggest that the method is limited at present by the small data set, and will work best for prediction of concentration when a wide variety of compositions and rock types has been analyzed.

  6. On the bipolar resistive-switching characteristics of Al?O?- and HfO?-based memory cells operated in the soft-breakdown regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goux, L., E-mail: gouxl@imec.be; Fantini, A.; Nigon, R.; Strangio, S.; Degraeve, R.; Kar, G.; Chen, Y. Y.; Jurczak, M. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Raghavan, N. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Dept. Elektrotechniek ESAT-MICAS, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); De Stefano, F.; Afanas'ev, V. V. [KU Leuven, Department of Physics and Astronomy, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we investigate extensively the bipolar-switching properties of Al?O?- and HfO?-based resistive-switching memory cells operated at low current down to <1 ?A. We show that the switching characteristics differ considerably from those typically reported for larger current range (>15 ?A), which we relate as intrinsic to soft-breakdown (SBD) regime. We evidence a larger impact of the used switching-oxide in this current range, due to lower density of oxygen-vacancy (V{sub o}) defects in the SBD regime. In this respect, deep resetting and large memory window may be achieved using the stoichiometric Al?O? material due to efficient V{sub o} annihilation, although no complete erasure of the conductive-filament (CF) is obtained. We finally emphasize that the conduction may be described by a quantum point-contact (QPC) model down to very low current level where only a few V{sub o} defects compose the QPC constriction. The large switching variability inherent to this latter aspect is mitigated by CF shape tuning through adequate engineering of an Al?O?\\HfO? bilayer.

  7. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn) in vitrified Mn-doped glasses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Nayak, Rajesh; Kartha, V. B.; Santhosh, C., E-mail: santhosh.cls@manipal.edu, E-mail: unnikrishnan.vk@manipal.edu [Department of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Manipal University, Manipal (India); Sonavane, M. S. [Nuclear Recycle Board, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Yeotikar, R. G. [Process Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Shah, M. L.; Gupta, G. P.; Suri, B. M. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), an atomic emission spectroscopy method, has rapidly grown as one of the best elemental analysis techniques over the past two decades. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn) in manganese-doped glasses have been carried out using an optimized LIBS system employing a nanosecond ultraviolet Nd:YAG laser as the source of excitation. The glass samples have been prepared using conventional vitrification methods. The laser pulse irradiance on the surface of the glass samples placed in air at atmospheric pressure was about 1.7×10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}. The spatially integrated plasma emission was collected and imaged on to the spectrograph slit using an optical-fiber-based collection system. Homogeneity was checked by recording LIBS spectra from different sites on the sample surface and analyzing the elemental emission intensities for concentration determination. Validation of the observed LIBS results was done by comparison with scanning electron microscope- energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) surface elemental mapping. The analytical performance of the LIBS system has been evaluated through the correlation of the LIBS determined concentrations of Mn with its certified values. The results are found to be in very good agreement with the certified concentrations.

  8. Density functional theory study of the structural, electronic, lattice dynamical, and thermodynamic properties of Li4SiO4 and its capability for CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Yuhua; Parlinski, K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural, electronic, lattice dynamical, optical, thermodynamic, and CO{sub 2} capture properties of monoclinic and triclinic phases of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} are investigated by combining density functional theory with phonon lattice dynamics calculations. We found that these two phases have some similarities in their bulk and thermodynamic properties. The calculated bulk modulus and the cohesive energies of these two phases are close to each other. Although both of them are insulators, the monoclinic phase of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} has a direct band gap of 5.24 eV while the triclinic Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} phase has an indirect band gap of 4.98 eV. In both phases of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, the s orbital of O mainly contributes to the lower-energy second valence band (VB{sub 2}) and the p orbitals contribute to the fist valence band (VB{sub 1}) and the conduction bands (CBs). The s orbital of Si mainly contributes to the lower portions of the VB1 and VB{sub 2}, and Si p orbitals mainly contribute to the higher portions of the VB{sub 1} and VB{sub 2}. The s and p orbitals of Li contribute to both VBs and to CBs, and Li p orbitals have a higher contribution than the Li s orbital. There is possibly a phonon soft mode existing in triclinic {gamma}-Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}; in the monoclinic Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, there are three phonon soft modes, which correspond to the one type of Li disordered over a few sites. Their LO-TO splitting indicates that both phases of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} are polar anisotropic materials. The calculated infrared absorption spectra for LO and TO modes are different for these two phases of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}. The calculated relationships of the chemical potential versus temperature and CO{sub 2} pressure for reaction of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} with CO{sub 2} shows that Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} could be a good candidate for a high-temperature CO{sub 2} sorbent while used for postcombustion capture technology.

  9. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high performance capacitor is described which is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200--300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The ``notepad`` capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  10. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  11. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  12. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A high performance capacitor is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The notepad capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  13. Ninebrane structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hisham Sati

    2015-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    String structures in degree four are associated with cancellation of anomalies of string theory in ten dimensions. Fivebrane structures in degree eight have recently been shown to be associated with cancellation of anomalies associated to the NS5-brane in string theory as well as the M5-brane in M-theory. We introduce and describe "Ninebrane structures" in degree twelve and demonstrate how they capture some anomaly cancellation phenomena in M-theory. Along the way we also define certain variants, considered as intermediate cases in degree nine and ten, which we call "2-Orientation" and "2-Spin structures", respectively. As in the lower degree cases, we also discuss the natural twists of these structures and characterize the corresponding topological groups associated to each of the structures, which likewise admit refinements to differential cohomology.

  14. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE CoZZoque C7, suppZdment au n07, Tome 40, JuilZet 1979, page C7-311 STATIC BREAKDOWN ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSED SF6 INWSaITIVE ROD-TO-PLANE GAPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BREAKDOWN ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSED SF6 INWSaITIVE ROD-TO-PLANE GAPS M.S. Abou-Seada and KH. I.M. ~ l i * . x, with pressure P i n cQm- pressed SF6 due t o corona-stab? l i e a t i o n of the applied f i e l d i s ell~ut~.ngVs of congress-d SF6 in rod-to-~lsne gans. XETHOD OF AWh1,YSIS.................... The equations of unipolar

  15. Breakdown by magnetic field in a La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/MgO/Fe spin valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Xiaojie; Meng Jian [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resources Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang Zhenzhong [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3888 Dongnanhu Road, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/MgO/Fe spin valve with inverse tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) was fabricated on a (100) SrTiO{sub 3} substrate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Giant TMR ratios up to 540% were obtained. The breakdown of the spin valve was observed at high magnetic field, which was attributed to the joint action of the invalidation of MgO barrier and the shift of Fermi energy in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} at high magnetic field.

  16. This regulation supersedes EC 11-1-114, dated 28 February 2003 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ER 11-1-321

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    - SAMPLE CONTENT OF VE PLAN AND..........................................C-1 WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE C-1 Value Engineering Plan ............................................................C-1 C-2 Work Breakdown Structure .....................................................C-1 Appendix D

  17. Deployable structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernández Merchan, Carlos Henrique

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis has the purpose of describing the meaning and applications of deployable structures (making emphasis in the scissor-hinged and sliding mechanisms.) and the development of new geometries, details, and mechanisms ...

  18. Structured Finance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solid ... Strengthening aStructure ofof the CompleteStructure

  19. Nanocrystal structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisler, Hans J. (Stoneham, MA); Sundar, Vikram C. (Stoneham, MA); Walsh, Michael E. (Everett, MA); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Bawendi, Moungi G. (Cambridge, MA); Smith, Henry I. (Sudbury, MA)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group II-VI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

  20. Nanocrystal structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisler, Hans J.; Sundar, Vikram C.; Walsh, Michael E.; Klimov, Victor I.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Smith, Henry I.

    2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group II–VI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

  1. Superconducting structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwon, Chuhee (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconductive structure including a dielectric oxide substrate, a thin buffer layer of a superconducting material thereon; and, a layer of a rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film thereon the thin layer of yttrium-barium-copper oxide, the rare earth selected from the group consisting of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium, erbium, neodymium, dysprosium, holmium, lutetium, a combination of more than one element from the rare earth group and a combination of one or more elements from the rare earth group with yttrium, the buffer layer of superconducting material characterized as having chemical and structural compatibility with the dielectric oxide substrate and the rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film is provided.

  2. Terminal structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frank (Langenhagen, DE); Allais, Arnaud (Hannover, DE); Mirebeau, Pierre (Villebon sur Yvette, FR); Ganhungu, Francois (Vieux-Reng, FR); Lallouet, Nicolas (Saint Martin Boulogne, FR)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  3. Superconducting Structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwon, Chuhee (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconductive structure including a dielectric oxide substrate, a thin buffer layer of a superconducting material thereon; and, a layer of a rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film thereon the thin layer of yttrium-barium-copper oxide, the rare earth selected from the group consisting of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium, erbium, neodymium, dysprosium, holmium, lutetium, a combination of more than one element from the rare earth group and a combination of one or more elements from the rare earth group with yttrium, the buffer layer of superconducting material characterized as having chemical and structural compatibility with the dielectric oxide substrate and the rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film is provided.

  4. Bulk measurement of copper and sodium content in CuIn(0.7)Ga(0.3)Se(2) (CIGS) solar cells with nanosecond pulse length laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalczyk, Jeremy M D; DeAngelis, Alexander; Kaneshiro, Jess; Mallory, Stewart A; Chang, Yuancheng; Gaillard, Nicolas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we show that laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with a nanosecond pulse laser can be used to measure the copper and sodium content of CuIn(0.7)Ga(0.3)Se(2) (CIGS) thin film solar cells on molybdenum. This method has four significant advantages over methods currently being employed: the method is inexpensive, measurements can be taken in times on the order of one second, without high vacuum, and at distances up to 5 meters or more. The final two points allow for in-line monitoring of device fabrication in laboratory or industrial environments. Specifically, we report a linear relationship between the copper and sodium spectral lines from LIBS and the atomic fraction of copper and sodium measured via secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), discuss the ablation process of this material with a nanosecond pulse laser compared to shorter pulse duration lasers, and examine the depth resolution of nanosecond pulse LIBS.

  5. Airfoil structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, G.A.; Twardochleb, C.Z.

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Past airfoil configurations have been used to improve aerodynamic performance and engine efficiencies. The present airfoil configuration further increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress within the airfoil itself. The airfoil includes a chord and a span. Each of the chord and the span has a bow being summed to form a generally ``C`` configuration of the airfoil. The generally ``C`` configuration includes a compound bow in which internal stresses resulting from a thermal temperature gradient are reduced. The structural configuration reduces internal stresses resulting from thermal expansion. 6 figs.

  6. Airfoil structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, Gary A. (Poway, CA); Twardochleb, Christopher Z. (Alpine, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Past airfoil configurations have been used to improve aerodynamic performance and engine efficiencies. The present airfoil configuration further increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress within the airfoil itself. The airfoil includes a chord and a span. Each of the chord and the span has a bow being summed to form a generally "C" configuration of the airfoil. The generally "C" configuration includes a compound bow in which internal stresses resulting from a thermal temperature gradient are reduced. The structural configuration reduces internal stresses resulting from thermal expansion.

  7. Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of warm accelerating structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S. [University of Maryland; Antonsen, Thomas M. [University of Maryland; Kishek, Rami [University of Maryland

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report summarizes the research performed during the time period from 8/1/2010 to 7/31/2013. It consists of two parts describing our studies in two directions: (a) analysis of factors limiting operation of dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures where the main problem is the occurrence of multipactor on dielectric surfaces, and (b) studies of effects associated with either RF magnetic or RF electric fields which may cause the RF breakdown in high-gradient metallic accelerating structures. In the studies of DLA structures, at least, two accomplishments should be mentioned: the development of a 3D non-stationary, self-consistent code describing the multipactor phenomena and yielding very good agreement with some experimental data obtained in joint ANL/NRL experiments. In the metallic structures, such phenomena as the heating and melting of micro-particles (metallic dust) by RF electric and magnetic fields in single-shot and rep-rate regimes is analyzed. Also, such processes in micro-protrusions on the structure surfaces as heating and melting due to the field emitted current and the Nottingham effect are thoroughly investigated with the account for space charge of emitted current on the field emission from the tip.

  8. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Martinsried, Germany. g Novozymes Inc, 1445 Drew Avenue,6, E-41080 Sevilla, Spain. j Novozymes A/S, Hallas Alle 1,Martinsried,  Germany.   g Novozymes  Inc,  1445  Drew 

  9. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    expression  profiles.   Mol.   Genet.   Genomics  279: Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus2006.  Aspergillus niger genomics: past, present and into 

  10. Cropland Field Monitoring: MMV Page 1 Montana Cropland Enrolled Farm Fields Carbon Sequestration Field Sampling, Measurement, Monitoring, and Verification: Application of Visible-Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (VNIR) and Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Spangler; Ross Bricklemyer; David Brown

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    There is growing need for rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods to measure, and verify soil organic carbon (SOC) change for national greenhouse gas accounting and the development of a soil carbon trading market. Laboratory based soil characterization typically requires significant soil processing, which is time and resource intensive. This severely limits application for large-region soil characterization. Thus, development of rapid and accurate methods for characterizing soils are needed to map soil properties for precision agriculture applications, improve regional and global soil carbon (C) stock and flux estimates and efficiently map sub-surface metal contamination, among others. The greatest gains for efficient soil characterization will come from collecting soil data in situ, thus minimizing soil sample transportation, processing, and lab-based measurement costs. Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are two complementary, yet fundamentally different spectroscopic techniques that have the potential to meet this need. These sensors have the potential to be mounted on a soil penetrometer and deployed for rapid soil profile characterization at field and landscape scales. Details of sensor interaction, efficient data management, and appropriate statistical analysis techniques for model calibrations are first needed. In situ or on-the-go VisNIR spectroscopy has been proposed as a rapid and inexpensive tool for intensively mapping soil texture and organic carbon (SOC). While lab-based VisNIR has been established as a viable technique for estimating various soil properties, few experiments have compared the predictive accuracy of on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Eight north central Montana wheat fields were intensively interrogated using on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Lab-based spectral data consistently provided more accurate predictions than on-the-go data. However, neither in situ nor lab-based spectroscopy yielded even semi-quantitative SOC predictions. There was little SOC variability to explain across the eight fields, and on-the-go VisNIR was not able to capture the subtle SOC variability in these Montana soils. With more variation in soil clay content compared to SOC, both lab and on-the-go VisNIR showed better explanatory power. There are several potential explanations for poor on-the-go predictive accuracy: soil heterogeneity, field moisture, consistent sample presentation, and a difference between the spatial support of on-the-go measurements and soil samples collected for laboratory analyses. Though the current configuration of a commercially available on-the-go VisNIR system allows for rapid field scanning, on-the-go soil processing (i.e. drying, crushing, and sieving) could improve soil carbon predictions. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging elemental analysis technology with the potential to provide rapid, accurate and precise analysis of soil constituents, such as carbon, in situ across landscapes. The research team evaluated the accuracy of LIBS for measuring soil profile carbon in field-moist, intact soil cores simulating conditions that might be encountered by a probe-mounted LIBS instrument measuring soil profile carbon in situ. Over the course of three experiments, more than120 intact soil cores from eight north central Montana wheat fields and the Washington State University (WSU) Cook Agronomy Farm near Pullman, WA were interrogated with LIBS for rapid total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC), and SOC determination. Partial least squares regression models were derived and independently validated at field- and regional scales. Researchers obtained the best LIBS validation predictions for IC followed by TC and SOC. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is fundamentally an elemental analysis technique, yet LIBS PLS2 models appeared to discriminate IC from TC. Regression coefficients from initial models suggested a reliance upon stoichiometric relationships between carbon (247.8 nm) and other elements

  11. Structural features of Athabasca bitumen related to upgrading performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strausz, O.P. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural studies on asphaltenes and heavy ends have, until recently, only yielded information on some of the gross compositional features of these materials. Spectroscopic methods, for sample, are limited in the sense that even if several functional groups (e.g., aromatic or aliphatic carbon, carbonyl groups, etc.) can be identified, no information on the molecular environment can be deduced. Selective chemical degradative methods, on the other hand, offer more potential and this paper describes some of their recent results on the chemical degradation of asphaltene and heavy ends. Quantitative recoveries of alkyl side chains and bridging units attached to aromatic rings have been achieved, and some insights into the aliphatic framework have been gained. The results could be particularly helpful with regard to monitoring the dealkylation processes during thermal treatment of bitumens. The aliphatic framework of the asphaltene contains units of five- and six-membered ring sulfides and thermal breakdown of these units also contributes to depolymerization and the production of alkanes. Some of the heteroatom-containing classes of compounds identified in the asphaltene and resin fractions of Athabasca bitumen will be briefly discussed.

  12. RF properties of periodic accelerating structures for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.W.

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the advent of the SLAC electron-positron linear collider (SLC) in the 100 GeV center-of-mass energy range, research and development work on even higher energy machines of this type has started in several laboratories in the United States, Europe, the Soviet Union and Japan. These linear colliders appear to provide the only promising approach to studying e/sup /plus//e/sup /minus// physics at center-of-mass energies approaching 1 TeV. This thesis concerns itself with the study of radio frequency properties of periodic accelerating structures for linear colliders and their interaction with bunched beams. The topics that have been investigated are: experimental measurements of the energy loss of single bunches to longitudinal modes in two types of structures, using an equivalent signal on a coaxial wire to simulate the beam; a method of canceling the energy spread created within a single bunch by longitudinal wakefields, through appropriate shaping of the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch; derivation of the complete transient beam-loading equation for a train of bunches passing through a constant-gradient accelerator section, with application to the calculation and minimization of multi-bunch energy spread; detailed study of field emission and radio frequency breakdown in disk-loaded structures at S-, C- and X-band frequencies under extremely high-gradient conditions, with special attention to thermal effects, radiation, sparking, emission of gases, surface damage through explosive emission and its possible control through RF-gas processing. 53 refs., 49 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Variably porous structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul V. (Savoy, IL); Yu, Xindi (Urbana, IL)

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a monolithic porous structure, comprises electrodepositing a material on a template; removing the template from the material to form a monolithic porous structure comprising the material; and electropolishing the monolithic porous structure.

  14. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE DATABASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, R.B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CALIFORNIA NUCLEAR STRUCTURE DATABASE R. B. Firestone and E.11089 NUCLEAR STRUCTURE DATABASE by R.B. Firestone and E.iii- NUCLEAR STRUCTURE DATABASE R.B Firestone and E. Browne

  15. Sandia Energy - Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structural Health Monitoring Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Materials, Reliability, & Standards Structural Health Monitoring Structural Health...

  16. IESM 2013, RABAT -MOROCCO, October 28 -October 30 International Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    than the corollary of the associated action plan. Structural break-down, with the variable central: objective - performance expression - variable - structural break-down - temporal break-down. 1 Introduction methodological framework for both industrial objectives break-down and performance expression* Lamia BERRAH

  17. Earth Structure Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earth Structure Introduction Earth Structure (2nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm © WW Norton, unless noted otherwise #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 210/4/2010 Aerial views #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 310/4/2010 http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/Ben/ES/ #12

  18. Structuring beyond architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foxe, David M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the layering and negotiation of structural devices in urban settings. Its point of departure is a series of patterns of how structural design and urban design interact and overlap, from which are ...

  19. Crystal Structure of Cascade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ribbon-like structure (Figure 1). This structure is facilitated by rotation of nucleotides out of the duplex region at six base pair intervals and stabilized by the highly...

  20. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  1. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  2. Structural system identification: Structural dynamics model validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Red-Horse, J.R.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural system identification is concerned with the development of systematic procedures and tools for developing predictive analytical models based on a physical structure`s dynamic response characteristics. It is a multidisciplinary process that involves the ability (1) to define high fidelity physics-based analysis models, (2) to acquire accurate test-derived information for physical specimens using diagnostic experiments, (3) to validate the numerical simulation model by reconciling differences that inevitably exist between the analysis model and the experimental data, and (4) to quantify uncertainties in the final system models and subsequent numerical simulations. The goal of this project was to develop structural system identification techniques and software suitable for both research and production applications in code and model validation.

  3. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  4. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Angel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salvino, Liming [NSWC, CADEROCK

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  5. BREAKDOWN OR BREAKTHROUGH? The Copenhagen Accord

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .U., have made commitments to curb global warming pollution and report on their actions and emissions, Mexico and others. At the same time, the Copenhagen Accord is clearly a work in progress. As President warming pollution. As I said yesterday, not having a law in hand is the biggest reason

  6. Breakdown in the Wetting Transparency of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Chih-Jen

    We develop a theory to model the van der Waals interactions between liquid and graphene, including quantifying the wetting behavior of a graphene-coated surface. Molecular dynamics simulations and contact angle measurements ...

  7. Ion manipulation device with electrical breakdown protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Tang, Keqi; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Smith, Richard D; Anderson, Gordon A; Baker, Erin M

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area. The surfaces are housed in a chamber, and at least one electrically insulative shield is coupled to an inner surface of the chamber for increasing a mean-free-path between two adjacent electrodes in the chamber.

  8. Dynamics of the spontaneous breakdown of superhydrophobicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pirat, C; Peters, A M; Borkent, B M; Lammertink, R G H; Wessling, M; Lohse, D

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Drops deposited on rough and hydrophobic surfaces can stay suspended with gas pockets underneath the liquid, then showing very low hydrodynamic resistance. When this superhydrophobic state breaks down, the subsequent wetting process can show different dynamical properties. A suitable choice of the geometry can make the wetting front propagate in a stepwise manner leading to {\\it square-shaped} wetted area: the front propagation is slow and the patterned surface fills by rows through a {\\it zipping} mechanism. The multiple time scale scenario of this wetting process is experimentally characterized and compared to numerical simulations.

  9. Structural genomics - A goldmine of blueprints for structure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - A goldmine of blueprints for structure-based drug design. Structural genomics - A goldmine of blueprints for structure-based drug design. Abstract: In late 2007 the National...

  10. Identifying structural damage from images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, ZhiQiang

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sensor-based structural health monitoring: Framework,al. , 2003), and structural health monitoring (e.g. Gandhiintroduction to structural health monitoring. Philosophical

  11. An overview of wireless structural health monitoring for civil structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Jerome P.

    An overview of wireless structural health monitoring for civil structures BY JEROME PETER LYNCH health monitoring systems that interrogate structural data for signs of damage. After the hardware computing; wireless telemetry; structural health monitoring 1. Introduction Society's built environment

  12. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  13. Cosmogony of Generic Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Buchert

    1994-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of formation of generic structures in the Universe is addressed, whereby first the kinematics of inertial continua for coherent initial data is considered. The generalization to self--gravitating continua is outlined focused on the classification problem of singularities and metamorphoses arising in the density field. Self--gravity gives rise to an internal hierarchy of structures, and, dropping the assumption of coherence, also to an external hierarchy of structures dependent on the initial power spectrum of fluctuations.

  14. Protein Structure Analysis Iosif Vaisman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaisman, Iosif

    Biology Crystallography NMR Spectroscopy Protein Informatics Structural Bioinformatics Computational Structural Biology Protein Engineering Protein Design Drug Design Molecular Modeling Proteomics Structural Weissig (Eds) Structural bioinformatics Hoboken, N.J. : Wiley-Liss, 2003. Jenny Gu, Philip Bourne (Eds

  15. Structural building response review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The integrity of a nuclear power plant during a postulated seismic event is required to protect the public against radiation. Therefore, a detailed set of seismic analyses of various structures and equipment is performed while designing a nuclear power plant. This report describes the structural response analysis method, including the structural model, soil-structure interaction as it relates to structural models, methods for seismic structural analysis, numerical integration methods, methods for non-seismic response analysis approaches for various response combinations, structural damping values, nonlinear response, uncertainties in structural properties, and structural response analysis using random properties. The report describes the state-of-the-art in these areas for nuclear power plants. It also details the past studies made at Sargent and Lundy to evaluate different alternatives and the conclusions reached for the specific purposes that those studies were intended. These results were incorporated here because they fall into the general scope of this report. The scope of the present task does not include performing new calculations.

  16. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has...

  17. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in...

  18. Effective Incentive Structures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents an in-depth look at effective incentive structures, how to clarify your program goals, and tips to plan for the long term.

  19. Mitotic chromosome structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heermann, Dieter W., E-mail: heermann@tphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mounting evidence is compiling linking the physical organizational structure of chromosomes and the nuclear structure to biological function. At the base of the physical organizational structure of both is the concept of loop formation. This implies that physical proximity within chromosomes is provided for otherwise distal genomic regions and thus hierarchically organizing the chromosomes. Together with entropy many experimental observations can be explained with these two concepts. Among the observations that can be explained are the measured physical extent of the chromosomes, their shape, mechanical behavior, the segregation into territories (chromosomal and territories within chromosomes), the results from chromosome conformation capture experiments, as well as linking gene expression to structural organization.

  20. Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test Structures & Applications Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 663-5330 Email UCSD EI Director Michael Todd (858) 534-5951 Professional Staff Assistant Jutta Kayser...

  1. Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    regarding the integrity of the structure. Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 663-5330 Email UCSD EI Director Michael Todd (858) 534-5951 Professional Staff...

  2. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  3. Piecewise training for structured prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutton, Charles; McCallum, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    margin methods for structured prediction. In Internationalaccuracy computational gene prediction. PLoS Computationaltraining for structured prediction Charles Sutton · Andrew

  4. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  5. STELLAR STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    STELLAR STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION O.R. Pols September 2009 #12;#12;Preface These lecture notes application to the theory of stellar structure and evolution, at a level appro- priate for a third and Evolution, 1990, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3-540-50211-4 (KIPPENHAHN; K&W) Some sections of this book are still

  6. & Education Structure 2 Parking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caughman, John

    Cinema East Hall University Technology Services Honors Stratford Building Parkway Science Building 1N Kononia House Fourth Ave Building Art Building Science & Education Center Parking Structure 2 Helen Gordon Child Center Science Research & Teaching Center Parking Structure 3 Ho man Hall West

  7. Structural response in FeCl2 (iron chloride) to pressure-induced electro-magnetic transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, R D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rozenberg, G Kh [TEL AVIV UNIV; Pasternak, M P [TEL AVIV UNIV; Gorodetsky, P [TEL AVIV UNIV; Xu, W M [TEL AVIV UNIV; Dubrovinsky, L S [UNIV OF BAYREUTH; Le Bihan, T L [FRANCE

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure (HP) synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were carried out in FeCl{sub 2} together with resistivity (R) studies, at various temperatures and pressures to 65 GPa using diamond anvil cells. This work follows a previous HP {sup 57}Fe Mossbauer study in which two pressure-induced (PI) electronic transitions were found interpreted as: (i) quenching of the orbital-term contribution to the hyperfine field concurring with a tilting of the magnetic moment by 55 degrees and (ii) collapse of the magnetism concurring with a sharp decrease of the isomer shift (IS). The R(P,T) studies affirm that the cause the collapse of the magnetism is a PI p-d correlation breakdown, leading to an insulator-metal transition at {approx}45 GPa and is not due to a spi-Ir,crossover (S=2 {yields} S=0). The structure response to the pressure evolution of the two electronic phase transitions starting at low pressures (LP), through an intermediate phase (IP) 30-57 GPa, and culminating in a high-pressure phase (HP), P >32 GPa, can clearly be quantified. The IP-HP phases coexist through the 32-57 GPa range in which the HP abundance increases monotonically at the expense of the IP phase. At the LP-IP interface no volume change is detected, yet the c-axis increases and the a-axis shrinks by 0.21 Angstroms and 0.13 Angstroms, respectively. The fit of the equation of state of the combined LP-IP phases yields a bulk modulus K{sub 0} = 35.3(1.8) GPa. The intralayer CI-CI distances increases, but no change is observed in Fe-CI bond-length nor are there substantial changes in the interlayer spacing. The pressure-induced electronic IP-HP transition leads to a first-order structural phase transition characterized by a decrease in Fe-CI bond length and an abrupt drop in V(P) by {approx}3.5% accompanying the correlation breakdown. In this transition no symmetry change is detected,and the XRD data could be satisfactorily fitted with the CdI{sub 2} structure. The bulk modulus of the HP phase is practically the same as that of the LP-IP phases suggesting negligible changes in the phonon density of state.

  8. Reliability implications of defects in high temperature annealed Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, W.L.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Devine, R.A.B.; Mathiot, D. [France Telecom/CNET, Meylan (France); Wilson, I.H.; Xu, J.B. [Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature post-oxidation annealing of poly-Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si structures such as metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors is known to result in enhanced radiation sensitivity, increased 1/f noise, and low field breakdown. The authors have studied the origins of these effects from a spectroscopic standpoint using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and atomic force microscopy. One result of high temperature annealing is the generation of three types of paramagnetic defect centers, two of which are associated with the oxide close to the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface (oxygen-vacancy centers) and the third with the bulk Si substrate (oxygen-related donors). In all three cases, the origin of the defects may be attributed to out-diffusion of O from the SiO{sub 2} network into the Si substrate with associated reduction of the oxide. The authors present a straightforward model for the interfacial region which assumes the driving force for O out-diffusion is the chemical potential difference of the O in the two phases (SiO{sub 2} and the Si substrate). Experimental evidence is provided to show that enhanced hole trapping and interface-trap and border-trap generation in irradiated high-temperature annealed Si/SiO{sub 2}/Si systems are all related either directly, or indirectly, to the presence of oxygen vacancies.

  9. Effect of buffer structures on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, L. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Xi, Y. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ren, F. [University of Florida; Pearton, S. J. [University of Florida; Laboutin, O. [Kopin Corporation, Taunton, MA; Cao, Yu [Kopin Corporation, Taunton, MA; Johnson, Wayne J. [Kopin Corporation, Taunton, MA; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with three different types of buffer layers, including a GaN/AlGaN composite layer, or 1 or 2 lm GaN thick layers, were fabricated and their reliability compared. The HEMTs with the thick GaN buffer layer showed the lowest critical voltage (Vcri) during off-state drain step-stress, but this was increased by around 50% and 100% for devices with the composite AlGaN/GaN buffer layers or thinner GaN buffers, respectively. The Voff - state for HEMTs with thin GaN and composite buffers were 100 V, however, this degraded to 50 60V for devices with thick GaN buffers due to the difference in peak electric field near the gate edge. A similar trend was observed in the isolation breakdown voltage measurements, with the highest Viso achieved based on thin GaN or composite buffer designs (600 700 V), while a much smaller Viso of 200V was measured on HEMTs with the thick GaN buffer layers. These results demonstrate the strong influence of buffer structure and defect density on AlGaN/GaN HEMT performance and reliability.

  10. Microsoft Word - 6. CFE - Confidentiality commitment.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    710JTR Mechanical Engineering Support for ITER Vacuum Vessel Port Structures and their Interfaces with other Plant Breakdown Systems...

  11. Essays on market structure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruan, Feng

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Some of the most important work in the development of economic theory is associated with the study of market structure. In essence, most markets are two-sided. For example, product markets connect tens of thousands of ...

  12. Optimization of outrigger structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lame, Ali

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Designing a high rise building has its challenges. Different structural systems have been developed to control the lateral displacement of high rise buildings. One of these systems is called the outrigger which decreases ...

  13. Structure function monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGraw, John T. (Placitas, NM); Zimmer, Peter C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.

  14. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  15. ETI 4448 Applied Project Management Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanHilst, Michael

    4. EPM Ch. 4: Building the Work Breakdown Structure 5. EPM Ch. 4: Estimating Duration, Resource Structure 4. Work Breakdown Structure 5. Gantt Chart Dependency Graph 6. Gantt Chart & CPM Schedule 7, in the following 2 weeks. 1. Conditions of Satisfaction 2. Project Overview Statement 3. Requirements Breakdown

  16. Fire protection for relocatable structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This standard supersedes DOE/EV-0043, ``Standard on Fire Protection for Portable Structures.`` It was revised to address the numerous types of relocatable structures, such as trailers, tension-supported structures, and tents being used by DOE and contractors.

  17. Investigating the durability of structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saba, Dana (Dana Walid)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The durability of structures is one of primary concerns in the engineering industry. Poor durability in design may result in a structure losing its performance to the extent where structural integrity is no longer satisfied ...

  18. COST BREAKDOWN AWARD NO: START DATE: EXPIRATION DATE: FISCAL YEAR BREAKDOWN OF FUNDS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r8.0 - HOISTING30, 2006 16thCOST

  19. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saha, Anuj J. (Hamburg, NY); Grant, David C. (Gibsonia, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  20. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  1. Tailoring PDC speckle structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Brida; M. Genovese; A. Meda; I. Ruo-Berchera; E. Predazzi

    2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Speckle structure of parametric down conversion light has recently received a large attention due to relevance in view of applications to quantum imaging The possibility of tailoring the speckle size by acting on the pump properties is an interesting tool for the applications to quantum imaging and in particular to the detection of weak object under shot-noise limit. Here we present a systematic detailed experimental study of the speckle structure produced in type II PDC with particular attention to its variation with pump beam properties.

  2. Tailoring PDC speckle structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brida, G; Meda, A; Predazzi, E; Ruo-Berchera, I

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Speckle structure of parametric down conversion light has recently received a large attention due to relevance in view of applications to quantum imaging The possibility of tailoring the speckle size by acting on the pump properties is an interesting tool for the applications to quantum imaging and in particular to the detection of weak object under shot-noise limit. Here we present a systematic detailed experimental study of the speckle structure produced in type II PDC with particular attention to its variation with pump beam properties

  3. System and damage identification of civil structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moaveni, Babak

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Structural Health Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6based approach to the structural health monitoring benchmarkapproach for ASCE structural health monitoring benchmark

  4. Housing And Mounting Structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Gene R. (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (Albuquerque, NM); Baca, Johnny R.F. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM); Carson, Richard F. (Albuquerque, NM); Duckett, III, Edwin B. (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick B. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Gregory V. (Kansas City, MO); Peterson, David W. (Sandia Park, NM); Smith, Terrance T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first optical connector, and the second end of the housing capable of receiving the second optical connector; (2) a longitudinal cavity extending from the first end of the housing to the second end of the housing; and (3) an electromagnetic shield comprising at least a portion of the housing. This invention also relates to an apparatus for housing a flexible printed circuit board, and this apparatus comprises: (1) a mounting structure having at least a first surface and a second surface; (2) alignment ridges along the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure, the alignment ridges functioning to align and secure a flexible printed circuit board that is wrapped around and attached to the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure; and (3) a series of heat sink ridges adapted to the mounting structure, the heat sink ridges functioning to dissipate heat that is generated from the flexible printed circuit board.

  5. Search for Turing structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borckmans, P.; Dewel, G.; Walgraef, D.; Katayama, Y.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Albeit their prediction by Turing, chemical periodic stationary patterns under far from equilibrium conditions, which are considered as prototypes of dissipative structures, have not yet been observed in a clear-cut way. The authors here assess the situation and discuss the perturbative influence of convection on their formation and selection mechanisms.

  6. Biomembrane Structure Unit, Biochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, Anthony

    and membrane proteins. However, the lack of essential high-resolution structural details at the molecular level Watts Abstract | Observing drugs and ligands at their site of action in membrane proteins is now targets in the future will be membrane proteins. This is, perhaps, not surprising, as most (~85

  7. Wireless Technologies for Structural Wireless Technologies for Structural Health MonitoringHealth Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wireless Technologies for Structural Wireless Technologies for Structural Health MonitoringHealth responses · Structural monitoring structural health monitoring: ­ Very few structural "health" monitoring and buildings · Future directions and technology trends Structural Monitoring SystemsStructural Monitoring

  8. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Momyer, William R. (Palo Alto, CA); Littauer, Ernest L. (Los Altos Hills, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  9. Structured wafer for device processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A structured wafer that includes through passages is used for device processing. Each of the through passages extends from or along one surface of the structured wafer and forms a pattern on a top surface area of the structured wafer. The top surface of the structured wafer is bonded to a device layer via a release layer. Devices are processed on the device layer, and are released from the structured wafer using etchant. The through passages within the structured wafer allow the etchant to access the release layer to thereby remove the release layer.

  10. Structured wafer for device processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A structured wafer that includes through passages is used for device processing. Each of the through passages extends from or along one surface of the structured wafer and forms a pattern on a top surface area of the structured wafer. The top surface of the structured wafer is bonded to a device layer via a release layer. Devices are processed on the device layer, and are released from the structured wafer using etchant. The through passages within the structured wafer allow the etchant to access the release layer to thereby remove the release layer.

  11. Solar Decathlon Technology Spotlight: Structural Insulated Panels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Structural insulated panels (SIPs) are prefabricated structural elements used to build walls, ceilings, floors, and roofs.

  12. Explicit construction of universal structures Jan Hubicka

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    St Andrews, University of

    Explicit construction of universal structures Jan Hubicka Charles University Prague Joint work with Jarik Nesetril Workshop on Homogeneous Structures 2011 Jan Hubicka Explicit construction of universal Explicit construction of universal structures #12;Universal relational structures By relational structures

  13. Regulation of Tall Structures (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A permit from the Department of Transportation is required for the construction or alteration of any structure higher than 200 feet above ground level, or structures near airports, highways,...

  14. Design approaches to structural optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tayar, Memduh Ali

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this thesis is to develop design approaches to structural optimization. In the example of three-dimensional grid structures, widely known as 'space frames', possible configurations are explored which ...

  15. A survey of structures on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Suhyoung

    Euclidean geometry Spherical geometry Manifolds with geometric structures: manifolds need some canonical canonical descriptions.. Manifolds with (real) projective structures Outline Survey: Classical geometries's philosphy) Spherical geometry: Greek astronomy, Gauss, Riemann Hyperbolic geometry: Bolyai, Lobachevsky

  16. Protein Structure Analysis Iosif Vaisman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaisman, Iosif

    Crystallography NMR Spectroscopy Protein Informatics Structural Bioinformatics Computational Structural Biology/ Proteins Alberts B, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Proteins TTCCPSIVARSNFNVCRLPGTPEAICATYTGCIIIPGATCPGDYAN Hartl F.U. et al., Nature, 2011 Proteins Protein Science Biochemistry Biophysics Molecular Biology

  17. Protein Structure Analysis Iosif Vaisman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaisman, Iosif

    Informatics Structural Bioinformatics Computational Structural Biology Protein Engineering Protein Design Drug/ Proteins Alberts B, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Proteins TTCCPSIVARSNFNVCRLPGTPEAICATYTGCIIIPGATCPGDYAN Protein Science Biochemistry Biophysics Molecular Biology Crystallography NMR Spectroscopy Protein

  18. Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary900SteepStrengthening northernDetermination ofTest Structures

  19. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution AndControlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

  20. Maximum screening fields of superconducting multilayer structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurevich, Alex

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that a multilayer comprised of alternating thin superconducting and insulating layers on a thick substrate can fully screen the applied magnetic field exceeding the superheating fields $H_s$ of both the superconducting layers and the substrate, the maximum Meissner field is achieved at an optimum multilayer thickness. For instance, a dirty layer of thickness $\\sim 0.1\\; \\mu$m at the Nb surface could increase $H_s\\simeq 240$ mT of a clean Nb up to $H_s\\simeq 290$ mT. Optimized multilayers of Nb$_3$Sn, NbN, some of the iron pnictides, or alloyed Nb deposited onto the surface of the Nb resonator cavities could potentially double the rf breakdown field, pushing the peak accelerating electric fields above 100 MV/m while protecting the cavity from dendritic thermomagnetic avalanches caused by local penetration of vortices.

  1. Vacuum Structure and Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. X. Zheng-Johansson

    2007-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on overall experimental observations, especially the pair processes, I developed a model structure of the vacuum along with a basic-particle formation scheme begun in 2000 (with collaborator P-I Johansson). The model consists in that the vacuum is, briefly, filled of neutral but polarizable vacuuons, consisting each of a p-vaculeon and n- vaculeon of charges $+e$ and $-e$ of zero rest masses but with spin motions, assumed interacting each other with a Coulomb force. The model has been introduced in full in a book (Nova Sci, 2005) and referred to in a number of journal/E-print papers. I outline in this easier accessible paper the detailed derivation of the model and a corresponding quantitative determination of the vacuuon size.

  2. Structural health monitoring by ultrasonic guided waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartoli, Ivan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Viola, E. , “Structural Health Monitoring of Multi-wireEncyclopedia of Structural Health Monitoring, C. Boller, F-D.L. (2001) “Structural health monitoring system based on

  3. Effective Health Monitoring Strategies for Complex Structures /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haynes, Colin Michael

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to Optimization in Structural Health Monitoring, Proc. Worldaxioms of structural health monitoring, Proc. R. Soc. A.the future of structural health monitoring, Phil. Trans. R.

  4. Introduction to Structure and Dynamics: Inaugural Issue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Douglas R.; Manlove, Robert; Colby, B. N.; Garfias, Robert; Bell, Duran

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the premier issue of Structure and Dynamics, an electronicFor this great boon, Structure and Dynamics in particular iselectronic journals, Structure and Dynamics will be widely

  5. Structure of the CRA-2014: Structure of the CRA-2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of the CRA-2014 List of Figures Figure STRUCT- 1. CRA-2014 Pictorial Roadmap This page intentionally left blank. Acronyms and Abbreviations CCA Compliance...

  6. Final Project Report: Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wessel, Silvia [Ballard Materials Products] [Ballard Materials Products; Harvey, David [Ballard Materials Products] [Ballard Materials Products

    2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a primary requirement for large scale commercialization of these power systems in transportation and stationary market applications that target operational lifetimes of 5,000 hours and 40,000 hours by 2015, respectively. Key degradation modes contributing to fuel cell lifetime limitations have been largely associated with the platinum-based cathode catalyst layer. Furthermore, as fuel cells are driven to low cost materials and lower catalyst loadings in order to meet the cost targets for commercialization, the catalyst durability has become even more important. While over the past few years significant progress has been made in identifying the underlying causes of fuel cell degradation and key parameters that greatly influence the degradation rates, many gaps with respect to knowledge of the driving mechanisms still exist; in particular, the acceleration of the mechanisms due to different structural compositions and under different fuel cell conditions remains an area not well understood. The focus of this project was to address catalyst durability by using a dual path approach that coupled an extensive range of experimental analysis and testing with a multi-scale modeling approach. With this, the major technical areas/issues of catalyst and catalyst layer performance and durability that were addressed are: 1. Catalyst and catalyst layer degradation mechanisms (Pt dissolution, agglomeration, Pt loss, e.g. Pt in the membrane, carbon oxidation and/or corrosion). a. Driving force for the different degradation mechanisms. b. Relationships between MEA performance, catalyst and catalyst layer degradation and operational conditions, catalyst layer composition, and structure. 2. Materials properties a. Changes in catalyst, catalyst layer, and MEA materials properties due to degradation. 3. Catalyst performance a. Relationships between catalyst structural changes and performance. b. Stability of the three-phase boundary and its effect on performance/catalyst degradation. The key accomplishments of this project are: • The development of a molecular-dynamics based description of the carbon supported-Pt and ionomer system • The development of a composition-based, 1D-statistical Unit Cell Performance model • A modified and improved multi-pathway ORR model • An extension of the existing micro-structural catalyst model to transient operation • The coupling of a Pt Dissolution model to the modified ORR pathway model • The Development A Semi-empirical carbon corrosion model • The integration and release of an open-source forward predictive MEA performance and degradation model • Completion of correlations of BOT (beginning of test) and EOT (end of test) performance loss breakdown with cathode catalyst layer composition, morphology, material properties, and operational conditions • Catalyst layer durability windows and design curves • A design flow path of interactions from materials properties and catalyst layer effective properties to performance loss breakdown for virgin and degraded catalyst layers In order to ensure the best possible user experience we will perform a staged release of the software leading up to the webinar scheduled in October 2013. The release schedule will be as follows (please note that the manual will be released with the beta release as direct support is provided in Stage 1): • Stage 0 - Internal Ballard Release o Cross check of compilation and installation to ensure machine independence o Implement code on portable virtual machine to allow for non-UNIX use (pending) • Stage 1 - Alpha Release o The model code will be made available via a GIT, sourceforge, or other repository (under discussion at Ballard) for download and installation by a small pre-selected group of users o Users will be given three weeks to install, apply, and evaluate features of the code, providing feedback on issues or software bugs that require correction prior to beta release • Stage 2 - Beta Release o The model code repository is opened to the general public on a beta release c

  7. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  8. Damage Detection in Plate Structures using Guided Ultrasonic Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarmer, Gregory James Sylvester

    Guided Wave Structural Health Monitoring. ” Ultrasonics 50 (to Structural Health Monitoring. ” Philosophicalfor Guided-wave Structural Health Monitoring. ” Structural

  9. Quasicrystalline structures and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinhardt, Paul J; Chaikin, Paul Michael; Man, Weining

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates generally to the field of quasicrystalline structures. In preferred embodiments, the stopgap structure is more spherically symmetric than periodic structures facilitating the formation of stopgaps in nearly all directions because of higher rotational symmetries. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of quasicrystalline structures for optical, mechanical, electrical and magnetic purposes. In some embodiments, the invention relates to manipulating, controlling, modulating and directing waves including electromagnetic, sound, spin, and surface waves, for pre-selected range of wavelengths propagating in multiple directions.

  10. Quasicrystalline structures and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinhardt, Paul Joseph (Princeton, NJ); Chaikin, Paul Michael (New York, NY); Man, Weining (San Francisco, CA)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates generally to the field of quasicrystalline structures. In preferred embodiments, the stopgap structure is more spherically symmetric than periodic structures facilitating the formation of stopgaps in nearly all directions because of higher rotational symmetries. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of quasicrystalline structures for optical, mechanical, electrical and magnetic purposes. In some embodiments, the invention relates to manipulating, controlling, modulating and directing waves including electromagnetic, sound, spin, and surface waves, for a pre-selected range of wavelengths propagating in multiple directions.

  11. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, Myles A. (Falmouth, MA); Morris, Robert S. (Fairhaven, MA)

    1986-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorbtion agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure.

  12. Appendix C Conducting Structured Walkthroughs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide describes how to conduct a structured walkthroughs during the lifecycle stages of software engineering projects, regardless of hardware platform.

  13. STRICTLY CONVERGENT ANALYTIC STRUCTURES 1 ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a new notion of strictly convergent analytic structure (consisting of .... the solutions of certain systems of equations may have power series solutions ...

  14. Scaling of structural failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazant, Z.P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Chen, Er-Ping [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article attempts to review the progress achieved in the understanding of scaling and size effect in the failure of structures. Particular emphasis is placed on quasibrittle materials for which the size effect is complicated. Attention is focused on three main types of size effects, namely the statistical size effect due to randomness of strength, the energy release size effect, and the possible size effect due to fractality of fracture or microcracks. Definitive conclusions on the applicability of these theories are drawn. Subsequently, the article discusses the application of the known size effect law for the measurement of material fracture properties, and the modeling of the size effect by the cohesive crack model, nonlocal finite element models and discrete element models. Extensions to compression failure and to the rate-dependent material behavior are also outlined. The damage constitutive law needed for describing a microcracked material in the fracture process zone is discussed. Various applications to quasibrittle materials, including concrete, sea ice, fiber composites, rocks and ceramics are presented.

  15. Structural model of uramarsite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K., E-mail: rast@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Sidorenko, G. A. [All-Russia Research Institute of Mineral Resources (VIMS) (Russian Federation); Ivanova, A. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Chukanov, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural model of uramarsite, a new mineral of the uran-mica family from the Bota-Burum deposit (South Kazakhstan), is determined using a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The parameters of the triclinic unit cell are as follows: a = 7.173(2) A, b = 7.167(5) A, c = 9.30(1) A, {alpha} = 90.13(7){sup o}, {beta} = 90.09(4){sup o}, {gamma} = 89.96(4){sup o}, and space group P1. The crystal chemical formula of uramarsite is: (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[AsO{sub 4}][PO{sub 4},AsO{sub 4}][NH{sub 4}][H{sub 3}O] . 6H{sub 2}O (Z = 1). Uramarsite is the second ammonium-containing mineral of uranium and an arsenate analogue of uramphite. In the case of uramarsite, the lowering of the symmetry from tetragonal to triclinic, which is accompanied by a triclinic distortion of the tetragonal unit cell, is apparently caused by the ordering of the As and P atoms and the NH{sub 4}, H{sub 3}O, and H{sub 2}O groups.

  16. Vessel structural support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenko, James X. (N. Versailles, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Twp., Allegheny County, PA); Wilson, Robert M. (Plum Boro, PA); Wepfer, Robert M. (Murrysville, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of "flat" attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator.

  17. Structural Genomics and Structural Proteomics: A Global Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussman, Joel L.

    -genome information and the success of high-throughput (HTP) methods in DNA sequencing. It was envisaged that similar HTP methods could be applied to deter- mining the 3-D structures of "all" the proteins (the "proteome, automated technologies for implementing a HTP pipeline approach to structure determination; a focus on novel

  18. WIRELESS SENSING FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF CIVIL STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Jerome P.

    communication of response measurements but also for power efficiency. The performance of the sensing unit in structural monitoring systems. The prototype wireless sensing unit is intended to 1) collect measurement data from the sensors installed on a structure, 2) store, manage and locally process the measurement data

  19. Photoelectron Angular Distribution and Molecular Structure in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Angular Distribution and Molecular Structure in Multiply Charged Anions. Photoelectron Angular Distribution and Molecular Structure in Multiply Charged Anions. Abstract:...

  20. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heaps, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Steffler, Eric D (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  1. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  2. Seventh BES (Basic Energy Sciences) catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  3. Mechanisms leading to erratic snapback behavior in bipolar junction transistors with base emitter shorted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of avalanche injection in p/n- /n+ structures show that two very close breakdown states coexist. The mechanisms to an avalanche breakdown and a delay time before the initiation of the breakdown.2­14 Typically, shorter delays Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 Sameer Pendharkar Texas Instruments Inc., 13560

  4. PACIFIC SOUTHWEST Forest and Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 Progress of Slash Breakdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 with slash are based in part on information on its rate of breakdown and decay. Slash changes in structure. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AG P.O. BOX 245, BERKELEY LOGGING SLASH: its breakdown and decay at two forests

  5. Convergent evolution of protein structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Daniel

    , well-defined, three-dimensional (3-D) structure of a protein dictates the way in which it performs its bi- ological function. Knowing the 3-D structure of a pro- tein allows researchers to gain insight on the active site of the protein or on the way it interacts with small molecules and other proteins. Thus, 3-D

  6. OPTIMAL OPERATION USING STRUCTURAL INFORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    structure and heat exchanger areas. In addition to structure and areas, the stream data (heat capacity to controlling the target temperatures, minimizes the utility consumption. The method results in a decentralized, such as variations in supply temperatures, flowrates and possibly in heat transfer coefficients are given. The goal

  7. Cluster structures in Oxygen isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Furutachi; M. kimura; A. Doté; Y. Kanada-En'yo; S. oryu

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cluster structure of 16O,18O and 20O is investigated by the antisymmettrized molecular dynamics (AMD) plus generator coordinate method (GCM). We have found the K^{\\pi}=0$_2^+$ and 0$_1^-$ rotational bands of 18O that have the prominent 14C+\\alpha cluster structure. Clustering systematics becomes richer in 20O. We suggest the K^{\\pi}=0$_2^+$ band that is the mixture of the 12C+\\alpha+4n and 14C+6He cluster structures, and the K^{\\pi}=0$_1^-$ band that has the 14C+6He cluster structure. The K^{\\pi}=0$_3^+$ and 0$_2^-$ bands that have the prominent 16C+\\alpha cluster structure are also found.

  8. Phase-space structures II: Hierarchical Structure Finder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Maciejewski; S. Colombi; V. Springel; C. Alard; F. R. Bouchet

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new multi-dimensional Hierarchical Structure Finder (HSF) to study the phase-space structure of dark matter in N-body cosmological simulations is presented. The algorithm depends mainly on two parameters, which control the level of connectivity of the detected structures and their significance compared to Poisson noise. By working in 6D phase-space, where contrasts are much more pronounced than in 3D position space, our HSF algorithm is capable of detecting subhaloes including their tidal tails, and can recognise other phase-space structures such as pure streams and candidate caustics. If an additional unbinding criterion is added, the algorithm can be used as a self-consistent halo and subhalo finder. As a test, we apply it to a large halo of the Millennium Simulation, where 19 % of the halo mass are found to belong to bound substructures, which is more than what is detected with conventional 3D substructure finders, and an additional 23-36 % of the total mass belongs to unbound HSF structures. The distribution of identified phase-space density peaks is clearly bimodal: high peaks are dominated by the bound structures and low peaks belong mostly to tidal streams. In order to better understand what HSF provides, we examine the time evolution of structures, based on the merger tree history. Bound structures typically make only up to 6 orbits inside the main halo. Still, HSF can identify at the present time at least 80 % of the original content of structures with a redshift of infall as high as z space.

  9. Structure and function of human cytochromes P450 enzymes: Xenobiotic metabolism by CYP2A and steroid biosynthesis by CYP17A1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVore, Natasha M.

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a superfamily of heme-containing enzymes that have roles in the breakdown or synthesis of steroids, fatty acids, vitamins, and eicosanoids. They are also the main family of enzymes involved in the ...

  10. Thermal transfer structures coupling electronics card(s) to coolant-cooled structure(s)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    David, Milnes P; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Parida, Pritish R; Schmidt, Roger R

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling apparatuses and coolant-cooled electronic systems are provided which include thermal transfer structures configured to engage with a spring force one or more electronics cards with docking of the electronics card(s) within a respective socket(s) of the electronic system. A thermal transfer structure of the cooling apparatus includes a thermal spreader having a first thermal conduction surface, and a thermally conductive spring assembly coupled to the conduction surface of the thermal spreader and positioned and configured to reside between and physically couple a first surface of an electronics card to the first surface of the thermal spreader with docking of the electronics card within a socket of the electronic system. The thermal transfer structure is, in one embodiment, metallurgically bonded to a coolant-cooled structure and facilitates transfer of heat from the electronics card to coolant flowing through the coolant-cooled structure.

  11. High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metals: The Effects of Composition, Structure and Environment on Corrosion Resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J S; Haslam, J; Lian, T; Day, S; Yang, N; Blue, C; Peters, W; Bayles, R; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Lavernia, E; Ajdelsztajn, A; Grave, O; Aprigliano, L; Kaufman, L; Boudreau, J; Branagan, D J; Beardsley, B

    2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    New corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals have been identified from published data or developed through combinatorial synthesis, and tested to determine their relative thermal phase stability, microstructure, mechanical properties, damage tolerance, and corrosion resistance. Some alloy additions are known to promote glass formation and to lower the critical cooling rate [F. Guo, S. J. Poon, Applied Physics Letters, 83 (13) 2575-2577, 2003]. Other elements are known to enhance the corrosion resistance of conventional stainless steels and nickel-based alloys [A. I. Asphahani, Materials Performance, Vol. 19, No. 12, pp. 33-43, 1980] and have been found to provide similar benefits to iron-based amorphous metals. Many of these materials can be cast as relatively thick ingots, or applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. A wide variety of thermal spray processes have been developed by industry, and can be used to apply these new materials as coatings. Any of these can be used for the deposition of the formulations discussed here, with varying degrees of residual porosity and crystalline structure. Thick protective coatings have now been made that are fully dense and completely amorphous in the as-sprayed condition. An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Project will be given, with particular emphasis on the corrosion resistance of several different types of iron-based amorphous metals in various environments of interest. The salt fog test has been used to compare the performance of various wrought alloys, melt-spun ribbons, arc-melted drop-cast ingots, and thermal-spray coatings for their susceptibility to corrosion in marine environments. Electrochemical tests have also been performed in seawater. Spontaneous breakdown of the passive film and localized corrosion require that the open-circuit corrosion potential exceed the critical potential. The resistance to localized corrosion is seawater has been quantified through measurement of the open-circuit corrosion potential (E{sub corr}), the breakdown potential (E{sub crit}) and the repassivation potential (E{sub rp}). The greater the difference between the open-circuit corrosion potential and the repassivation potential ({Delta}E), the more resistant a material is to modes of localized corrosion such as pitting and crevice corrosion. Cyclic polarization (CP) was used as a means of measuring the critical potential (E{sub crit}) relative to the open-circuit corrosion potential (E{sub corr}). Linear polarization (LP) has been used to determine the corrosion current (i{sub corr}) and the corresponding corrosion rate. Other aspects of the materials will also be discussed, as well as potential applications.

  12. CABM Symposium Applications of NMR to structure-based drug design in structural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powers, Robert

    CABM Symposium Applications of NMR to structure-based drug design in structural genomics Robert, structure-based drug design, structural genomics Abstract Structural genomics is poised to have a tremendous design in the era of structural genomics. Introduction Structure-based drug design has established itself

  13. Thermal control structure and garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible thermally conductive structure. The structure generally includes a plurality of thermally conductive yarns, at least some of which are at least partially disposed adjacent to an elastomeric material. Typically, at least a portion of the plurality of thermally conductive yarns is configured as a sheet. The yarns may be constructed from graphite, metal, or similar materials. The elastomeric material may be formed from urethane or silicone foam that is at least partially collapsed, or from a similar material. A thermal management garment is provided, the garment incorporating a flexible thermally conductive structure.

  14. Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure of All-Polymer Solar Cells ImpedesStructureStructure of

  15. Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure of All-Polymer Solar Cells ImpedesStructureStructure

  16. Strain control of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures on silicon (111) by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aidam, Rolf; Diwo, Elke; Rollbuehler, Nicola; Kirste, Lutz; Benkhelifa, Fouad [Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics, Tullastrasse 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the use of plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy of AlGaN/GaN-based high electron mobility transistor structures grown on 4 in. Si (111) substrates. In situ measurements of wafer curvature during growth proved to be a very powerful method to analyze the buffer layer's thickness dependent strain. The Ga/N ratio at the beginning of growth of the GaN buffer layer is the critical parameter to control the compressive strain of the entire grown structure. An engineered amount of compressive strain must be designed into the structure to perfectly compensate for the tensile strain caused by differences in the thermal expansion coefficient between the epi-layer and substrate during sample cool down from growth temperatures. A maximum film thickness of 4.2 {mu}m was achieved without the formation of any cracks and a negligible bow of the wafers below 10 {mu}m. Measurement of the as-grown wafers revealed depth profiles of the charge carrier concentration comparable to values achieved on SiC substrates and mobility values of the two dimensional electron gas in the range 1230 to 1350 cm{sup 2}/Vs at a charge carrier concentration of 6.5-7 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2}. First results on processed wafers with 2 {mu}m thick buffer layer indicate very promising results with a resistance of the buffer, measured on 200 {mu}m long contacts with 15 {mu}m pitch, in the range of R > 10{sup 9}{Omega} at 100 V and breakdown voltages up to 550 V.

  17. STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING, MECHANICS AND MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuhang

    of companies worldwide; cladding effects on, and hybrid control of, the response of tall buildings Buildings · Masonry Structures · Nano/Microstructure of Cement-based Materials · Polymeric Composite Systems · Reliable Engineering Computing · Risk Analysis · Seismic Hazard Mitigation · Smart Materials

  18. 2014 GRADUATE STUDIES STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuhang

    , the response of tall buildings to earthquake and wind; steel connection design and behavior; and structural engineering and mechanics · Advanced Applied Mathematics in Engineering · Advanced Dynamics and Smart Environments · High-performance Concrete and Steel · Horizontally Curved Bridges · Industrial Buildings

  19. Water intrusion in underground structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarchuk, Alex

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a study of the permissible groundwater infiltration rates in underground structures, the consequences of this leakage and the effectiveness of mitigation measures. Design guides and codes do not restrict, ...

  20. Structure and Information Stephen Binns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binns, Stephen

    of a Turing Machine. Stephen Binns Structure and Information #12;Alan Turing's Machines A Turing machine (TM and Information #12;Alan Turing's Machines A Turing machine (TM) consists of an infinite (in one direction) tape

  1. Geometric algorithms for reconfigurable structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benbernou, Nadia M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we study three problems related to geometric algorithms of reconfigurable structures. In the first problem, strip folding, we present two universal hinge patterns for a strip of material that enable the ...

  2. Protein Structure Analysis Iosif Vaisman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaisman, Iosif

    Protein Structure Analysis Iosif Vaisman 2012 BINF 731 Protein Engineering Protein Engineering Increase catalytic activity Change substrate binding site to increase specificity Change the thermal stability Increase proteins resistance to proteases Change codon composition Protein Engineering

  3. Fracture of aluminum naval structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galanis, Konstantinos, 1970-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural catastrophic failure of naval vessels due to extreme loads such as underwater or air explosion, high velocity impact (torpedoes), or hydrodynamic loads (high speed vessels) is primarily caused by fracture. ...

  4. Emergent Leadership Structures in Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slaughter, Andrew

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A social network approach was used to investigate the structural features of various emergent leadership systems in a large financial organization (n = 137), including transactional and transformational-style leadership relations. Results indicate...

  5. Wide-span cable structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santoso, Katherina, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, the application of cable structures in buildings has gained huge popularities. Although cable technology has been established since the 1950s, there is suddenly a surge in the number of its building ...

  6. Electronic structure of superconductivity refined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on a little understood aspect of the electronic structure in high-temperature superconductors. July 10, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa...

  7. Protein Structure Analysis Iosif Vaisman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaisman, Iosif

    Protein Structure Analysis Iosif Vaisman 2012 BINF 731 Protein Engineering Protein Engineering Increase catalytic activity Change substrate binding site to increase specificity Change the thermal Engineering Protein Engineering #12;Protein Engineering Protein Engineering Protein Engineering Protein

  8. Time Structure of Muonic Showers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Cazon; R. A. Vazquez; A. A. Watson; E. Zas

    2003-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical description of the time structure of the pulses induced by muons in air showers at ground level is deduced assuming the production distance distribution for the muons can be obtained elsewhere. The results of this description are compared against those obtained from simulated showers using AIRES. Major contributions to muon time delays are identified and a relation between the time structure and the depth distribution is unveiled.

  9. Hypertext navigation by network structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peart, Sheila Ann

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Usenet. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION Page 1. 1 Statement of the Problem . 1. 2 Research Objectives 1. 3 Research Methodology 2. HYPERTEXT AND ELECTRONIC COMMUMCATION . . 13 2. 1 Hypertext 2. 2 Unix Network News 2. 3 Super... Argument/Position(s) conversation structure . . 27 . . 29 . . 30 . . 31 4. 1 Original Usenet conversation structure . . 38 4. 2 Modification of Usenet conversations to the gIBIS format . . 39 4. 3 SuperCard Translation window 4. 4 SuperCard g...

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Prabir [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)] [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Labbe, Pierre [Electricity of France (EDF)] [Electricity of France (EDF); Naus, Dan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  11. Structure of human saposin A at lysosomal pH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Chris H.; Read, Randy J.; Deane, Janet E.

    2015-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    enzymes; defects in either saposin or hydrolase function lead to severe metabolic diseases. Saposin A (SapA) activates the enzyme #2;-galactocerebrosidase (GALC), which catalyzes the breakdown of #2;-d-galactocerebroside, the principal lipid component... with a 0–50% gradient of 50 mM Tris pH 7.4, 1 M NaCl over 20 CV. All fractions containing saposins were pooled and concentrated to a volume of 5.0 ml using Vivaspin 20 centrifugal concentrators (3000 MWCO, GE). A HiLoad 16/600 Superdex 75 column (GE...

  12. Integrated structural control design of large space structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.J.; Lauffer, J.P.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Active control of structures has been under intensive development for the last ten years. Reference 2 reviews much of the identification and control technology for structural control developed during this time. The technology was initially focused on space structure and weapon applications; however, recently the technology is also being directed toward applications in manufacturing and transportation. Much of this technology focused on multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) identification and control methodology because many of the applications require a coordinated control involving multiple disturbances and control objectives where multiple actuators and sensors are necessary for high performance. There have been many optimal robust control methods developed for the design of MIMO robust control laws; however, there appears to be a significant gap between the theoretical development and experimental evaluation of control and identification methods to address structural control applications. Many methods have been developed for MIMO identification and control of structures, such as the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA), Q-Markov Covariance Equivalent Realization (Q-Markov COVER) for identification; and, Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG), Frequency Weighted LQG and H-/ii-synthesis methods for control. Upon implementation, many of the identification and control methods have shown limitations such as the excitation of unmodelled dynamics and sensitivity to system parameter variations. As a result, research on methods which address these problems have been conducted.

  13. Microsoft Word - Cover Page - Exhibit 5

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 Structure Quantity Structure Height EXHIBIT 5 Project Structure Height Breakdown - HVDC & 345-kV HVDC Structures 345-kV Structures 27-JUN-2013...

  14. STRUCTURED TEXT RETRIEVAL MODELS Djoerd Hiemstra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    and manipulating content and hierarchical structure such as the parsed strings model [10], PAT expressions [15STRUCTURED TEXT RETRIEVAL MODELS Djoerd Hiemstra University of Twente http DEFINITION Structured text retrieval models provide a formal definition or mathematical framework

  15. Analysis of deployable strut roof structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Maxwell H. (Maxwell Henry)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deployable structures are structures that can change shape from a compact to an expanded form. Thus, their advantage over conventional structures is adaptability, whether in the sense of adapting to changing environmental ...

  16. Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of Nickel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Electrochemical, Structural and Surface...

  17. Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bulk High Performance Materials for Energy Conversion Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of...

  18. Optimization Online - Structural optimization of the Ziegler's ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg N. Kirillov

    2010-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 24, 2010 ... Abstract: Structural optimization of non-conservative systems with ... with important applications in fluid-structure interactions, friction-induced ...

  19. Review: Structuring an Energy Technology Revolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunnas, Jan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structuring an Energy Technology Revolution By Charles WeissB. Structuring an Energy Technology Revolution. Cambridge,increases in spending on energy technology and innovation,

  20. Crump Geyser: High Precision Geophysics & Detailed Structural...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Crump Geyser: High Precision Geophysics & Detailed Structural Exploration & Slim Well Drilling Crump Geyser: High Precision Geophysics & Detailed Structural Exploration & Slim Well...

  1. Investigations of Structure and Metabolism within Shewanella...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Structure and Metabolism within Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Biofilms . Investigations of Structure and Metabolism within Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Biofilms . Abstract: Biofilms...

  2. Facile synthesized nanorod structured vanadium pentoxide for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    synthesized nanorod structured vanadium pentoxide for high-rate lithium batteries. Facile synthesized nanorod structured vanadium pentoxide for high-rate lithium batteries....

  3. CRAD, Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Concrete, May...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CRAD, Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Concrete, May 29, 2009 CRAD, Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Concrete, May 29, 2009 May 29, 2009 Nuclear Facility...

  4. Thermographic inspection of massive structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renshaw, Jeremy B.; Guimaraes, Maria; Scott, David B. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Nondestructive Evaluation of concrete structures is a growing concern for the nuclear industry as well as for many other industries. As critical concrete components continue to age, the ability to assess the health and suitability for continued service has become a key consideration. In some cases, repair of these structures is difficult and expensive, while replacement is prohibitively expensive or, in some cases, not feasible. Therefore, the ability to inspect these key assets is a primary concern, especially in the nuclear industry. Due to the large size of containment buildings, cooling towers, and other large concrete assets, the ability to rapidly inspect for defects of concern is very desirable. Thermographic inspection appears to have the required ability to rapidly inspect large structures to ascertain the location and size of many of the defects of concern. This ability was demonstrated by performing a thermographic inspection of a large concrete dam in 2 days.

  5. Relativisticlike structure of classical thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernando Quevedo; Alberto Sanchez; Alejandro Vazquez

    2014-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze in the context of geometrothermodynamics a Legendre invariant metric structure in the equilibrium space of an ideal gas. We introduce the concept of thermodynamic geodesic as a succession of points, each corresponding to a state of equilibrium, so that the resulting curve represents a quasi-static process. A rigorous geometric structure is derived in which the thermodynamic geodesics at a given point split the equilibrium space into two disconnected regions separated by adiabatic geodesics. This resembles the causal structure of special relativity, which we use to introduce the concept of adiabatic cone for thermodynamic systems. This result might be interpreted as an alternative indication of the inter-relationship between relativistic physics and classical thermodynamics.

  6. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  7. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wayne Y. (Munster, IN)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  8. Quasicrystalline structures and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinhardt, Paul Joseph; Chaikin, Paul Michael; Man, Weining

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates generally to devices constructed from quasicrystalline heterostructures. In preferred embodiments, two or more dielectric materials are arranged in a two- or three-dimensional space in a lattice pattern having at least a five-fold symmetry axis and not a six-fold symmetry axis, such that the quasicrystalline heterostructure exhibits an energy band structure in the space, the band structure having corresponding symmetry, which symmetry is forbidden in crystals, and which band structure comprises a complete band gap. The constructed devices are adapted for manipulating, controlling, modulating, trapping, reflecting and otherwise directing waves including electromagnetic, sound, spin, and surface waves, for a pre-selected range of wavelengths propagating within or through the heterostructure in multiple directions.

  9. Interface dynamics for layered structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takao Ohta; David Jasnow

    1997-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate dynamics of large scale and slow deformations of layered structures. Starting from the respective model equations for a non-conserved system, a conserved system and a binary fluid, we derive the interface equations which are a coupled set of equations for deformations of the boundaries of each domain. A further reduction of the degrees of freedom is possible for a non-conserved system such that internal motion of each domain is adiabatically eliminated. The resulting equation of motion contains only the displacement of the center of gravity of domains, which is equivalent to the phase variable of a periodic structure. Thus our formulation automatically includes the phase dynamics of layered structures. In a conserved system and a binary fluid, however, the internal motion of domains turns out to be a slow variable in the long wavelength limit because of concentration conservation. Therefore a reduced description only involving the phase variable is not generally justified.

  10. Changing the Structure Boundary Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karasev, Viktor; Dzlieva, Elena; Ivanov, Artyom [St.-Petersburg State University, Physics Faculty, Ulianovskaya 1, Peterhof, St. Petersburg, 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of previously obtained results shows that hexagonal crystal lattice is the dominant type of ordering, in particular, in striated glow discharges. We explore the possibility for changing the dust distribution in horizontal cross sections of relatively highly ordered structures in a glow-discharge. Presuming that boundary geometry can affect dust distribution, we used cylindrical coolers held at 0 deg. C and placed against a striation containing a structure, to change the geometry of its outer boundary. By varying the number of coolers, their positions, and their separations from the tube wall, azimuthally asymmetric thermophoretic forces can be used to form polygonal boundaries and vary the angles between their segments (in a horizontal cross section). The corner in the structure's boundary of 60 deg. stimulates formation of hexagonal cells. The structure between the supported parallel boundaries is also characterized by stable hexagonal ordering. We found that a single linear boundary segment does not give rise to any sizable domain, but generates a lattice extending from the boundary (without edge defects). A square lattice can be formed by setting the angle equal to 90 deg. . However, angles of 45 deg. and 135 deg. turned out easier to form. Square lattice was created by forming a near-135 deg. corner with four coolers. It was noted that no grain ordering is observed in the region adjacent to corners of angles smaller than 30 deg. , which do not promote ordering into cells of any shape. Thus, manipulation of a structure boundary can be used to change dust distribution, create structures free of the ubiquitous edge defects that destroy orientation order, and probably change the crystal lattice type.

  11. Chapter 8: Tension Structures Section 8.3: Tensegrity Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Snelson and David Georges Emmerich. All three applied for a patent with different wordings a special Issue of the International Journal of Space Structures [8.3.1]. David Georges Emmerich was very that it was dealing with tensegrity systems, even if David Georges Emmerich called them "Systèmes autotendants

  12. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic study of ammonium nitrate plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanif, M., E-mail: drhanif-mcs@nust.edu.pk [MCS, National University of Sciences and Technology (Pakistan); Salik, M. [Beijing Jiaotong University, Institute of Optoelectronics (China); Baig, M. A. [Quaid-E-Azam University Campus, National Center for Physics (Pakistan)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the optical emission studies of the ammonium nitrate plasma produced by the fundamental (1064 nm) and second (532 nm) harmonics of a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The target material was placed in front of the laser beam in an open atmospheric air. The spectrum reveals numerous transitions of neutral nitrogen. We have studied the spatial behavior of the plasma temperature (T{sub e}) and electron number density (N{sub e}) determined using the Boltzmann plot method and Stark broadened line profiles, respectively. Besides, we have studied the variation of the plasma parameters as a function of the laser irradiance.

  13. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Applications Toward Thin Film Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Travis Nathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    extensively in dye-sensitized solar cells for their porositylayers for dye-sensitized solar cells [59]. A mortar and

  14. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Applications Toward Thin Film Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Travis Nathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the surface. Ultrafast laser pulses are shorter than thethe advantages of ultrafast laser pulses for thin film LIBS,each time. While ultrafast laser pulses are effective in

  15. Aerosol measurements with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithgow, Gregg Arthur

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fused silica lenses to focus the plasma emission onto a UVideal lens focuses light from the plasma onto the tip of anboth focus the laser pulse and collect the plasma emission

  16. Electrical breakdown at low pressure for planar microelectromechanical systems with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    is a major drawback for the simulation of Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However when the Navier

  17. Engineering work breakdown and assignment for global product development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zamora Torres, Carlos Xavier

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Companies are always looking for ways to reduce their costs, cost reductions which allow companies to increase their overall profits. There are various cost reductions strategies, such as: change materials and/or design ...

  18. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Applications Toward Thin Film Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Travis Nathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.5 Laserb) 60 shots, (c) 80 shots, and (d) 100 shots with 60mJ laserAutofocusing . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Laser and Spectrometer

  19. axisymmetric vortex breakdown: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fluid Motion at the 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics. Kleckner, Dustin; Irvine, William T M 2013-01-01 325 The Taylor-vortex dynamo Christophe Gissinger...

  20. Single eta production in heavy quarkonia: breakdown of multipole expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. A. Simonov; A. I. Veselov

    2008-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The $\\eta$ production in the $(n,n')$ bottomonium transitions $\\Upsilon (n) \\to \\Upsilon (n') \\eta, $ is studied in the method used before for dipion heavy quarkonia transitions. The widths $\\Gamma_\\eta(n,n')$ are calculated without fitting parameters for $n=2,3,4,5, n'=1$. Resulting $\\Gamma_\\eta(4,1)$ is found to be large in agreement with recent data. Multipole expansion method is shown to be inadequate for large size systems considered.

  1. air breakdown mechanism: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the light species are analyzed. Next, the asymptotic behavior of the mean square velocity ratio in the disparate-mass limit is investigated, assuming different scaling laws for the...

  2. A sociotechnical framework for understanding infrastructure breakdown and repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sims, Benjamin H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper looks at how and why infrastructure is repaired. With a new era of infrastructure spending underway, policymakers need to understand and anticipate the particular technical and political challenges posed by infrastructure repair. In particular, as infrastructure problems are increasingly in the public eye with current economic stimulus efforts, the question has increasingly been asked: why has it been so difficult for the United Statesto devote sustained resources to maintaining and upgrading its national infrastructure? This paper provides a sociotechnical framework for understanding the challenges of infrastructure repair, and demonstrates this framework using a case study of seismic retrofit of freeway bridges in California. The design of infrastructure is quite different from other types of design work even when new infrastructure is being designed. Infrastructure projects are almost always situated within, and must work with, existing infrastructure networks. As a result, compared to design of more discrete technological artifacts, the design of infrastructure systems requires a great deal of attention to interfaces as well as adaptation of design to the constraints imposed by existing systems. Also, because of their scale, infrastructural technologies engage with social life at a level where explicit political agendas may playa central role in the design process. The design and building of infrastructure is therefore often an enormously complex feat of sociotechnical engineering, in which technical and political agendas are negotiated together until an outcome is reached that allows the project to move forward. These sociotechnical settlements often result in a complex balancing of powerful interests around infrastructural artifacts; at the same time, less powerful interests have historically often been excluded or marginalized from such settlements.

  3. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Applications Toward Thin Film Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Travis Nathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of CIGS solar cells . Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . .roll-to-roll printed CIGS solar cell on aluminum substrateDepth profiling of CIGS solar cell using a nanosecond Nd:YAG

  4. AXISYMMETRIC VORTEX BREAKDOWN IN AN ENCLOSED CYLINDER FLOW.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, John M.

    into the interior flow from the Ekman boundary layer on the rotating endwall is observed, as is the formation,. The boundary conditions are also defined precisely since the flow is confined in a fixed volume. As Re and and the flow remains oscillatory. This oscillatory behavior is mostly confined to the central vortex region. 2

  5. Surface flashover breakdown mechanisms on liquid immersed dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jadidian, Jouya

    Flashover formation and expansion mechanisms on the surfaces of different dielectrics immersed in transformer oil have been numerically analyzed. Streamers emanating from a needle electrode tend to transform to surface ...

  6. Method of making high breakdown voltage semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arthur, Stephen D. (Scotia, NY); Temple, Victor A. K. (Jonesville, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor device having at least one P-N junction and a multiple-zone junction termination extension (JTE) region which uniformly merges with the reverse blocking junction is disclosed. The blocking junction is graded into multiple zones of lower concentration dopant adjacent termination to facilitate merging of the JTE to the blocking junction and placing of the JTE at or near the high field point of the blocking junction. Preferably, the JTE region substantially overlaps the graded blocking junction region. A novel device fabrication method is also provided which eliminates the prior art step of separately diffusing the JTE region.

  7. Vanadylporphyrins, indicators of kerogen breakdown and generation of petroleum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundararaman, P. (Chevron Oil Field Research Company, La Habra, CA (USA)); Biggs, W.R.; Reynolds, J.G.; Fetzer, J.C. (Chevron Research Company, Richmond, CA (USA))

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attempts at understanding the transformation of organic material into fossil fuels often relies on biomarkers, organic compounds present in the geological record that can be related to naturally-occurring molecules from specific organisms. While porphyrins were the first biomarkers identified in fossil fuels, no significant use has been made of them in geochemical correlation studies. The authors believe that one limitation to their usage has been inaccurate models proposed for the fate of porphyrins during catagenesis. Using laboratory pyrolysis experiments they show that the changes observed in vanadylporphyrin distribution during catagenesis is due to increasing dilution of preexisting DPEP vanadylporphyrins by ETIO vanadylporphyrins released from kerogen. In conjunction with a quantitative expression describing the change in vanadylporphyrin distribution during maturation called the Porphyrin Maturity Parameter (PMP), a basis is now provided for the use of vanadylprophyrins as indicators of onset of petroleum generation.

  8. The Breakdown of Superconductivity Due to Strong Fields for the ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Rogosich (Techsetters) 114 2000 Jul 12 13:05:01

    2002-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the behavior of a superconducting material subjected to a constant applied ... show the existence of a critical field h, for which, when h > h, the normal ...

  9. Aerosol measurements with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithgow, Gregg Arthur

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBS Using Dual- and Ultra-Short Laser Pulses. FreseniusFigure 3.1. A Big Sky Ultra CFR-GRM Nd:YAG laser was used toA Big Sky Ultra CFR-GRM Nd:YAG laser (YAG) was used to

  10. Microwave-driven breakdown: from dielectric surface multipactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    .85 GHz)Experimental Setup (2.85 GHz) HPM Load Directional Coupler Directional Coupler Rear Viewing Port HPM from Test Section Front Viewing Port HPM from Source Test Section Features ·WR284-WR650 StandardsRF Window Flashover > MW transmitted power (High Power Microwaves, HPM) Field amplitudes in excess

  11. Average End Use Breakdown: Massachusetts General Hospital Gray Building

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromof Energy Automation WorldofAutotune

  12. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,Official FileEnergyAERMOD-PRIME, Units

  13. Improved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Elemental Composition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School footballHydrogenIT |HotImpactControl - EnergyDetection System -

  14. Quasar Structure and Cosmological Feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Elvis

    2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Feedback from quasars and AGNs is being invoked frequently in several cosmological settings. Currently, order of magnitude, or more, uncertainties in the structure of both the wind and the 'obscuring torus' make predictions highly uncertain. To make testable models of this 'cosmological feedback' it is essential to understand the detailed structure of AGNs sufficiently well to predict their properties for the whole quasar population, at all redshifts. Progress in both areas is rapid, and I describe the near-term prospects for reducing these uncertainties for 'slow' (non-relativistic) AGN winds and the obscuring torus.

  15. Method of making diode structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Gupta, Akhlesh

    2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a diode structure includes the step of depositing a transparent electrode layer of any one or more of the group ZnO, ZnS and CdO onto a substrate layer, and depositing an active semiconductor junction having an n-type layer and a p-type layer onto the transparent electrode layer under process conditions that avoid substantial degradation of the electrode layer. A back electrode coating layer is applied to form a diode structure.

  16. DNA attachment to support structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balhorn, Rodney L. (Livermore, CA); Barry, Christopher H. (Fresno, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microscopic beads or other structures are attached to nucleic acids (DNA) using a terminal transferase. The transferase adds labeled dideoxy nucleotide bases to the ends of linear strands of DNA. The labels, such as the antigens digoxigenin and biotin, bind to the antibody compounds or other appropriate complementary ligands, which are bound to the microscopic beads or other support structures. The method does not require the synthesis of a synthetic oligonucleotide probe. The method can be used to tag or label DNA even when the DNA has an unknown sequence, has blunt ends, or is a very large fragment (e.g., >500 kilobase pairs).

  17. Method for protein structure alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blankenbecler, Richard; Ohlsson, Mattias; Peterson, Carsten; Ringner, Markus

    2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method for protein structure alignment. More particularly, the present invention provides a method for identification, classification and prediction of protein structures. The present invention involves two key ingredients. First, an energy or cost function formulation of the problem simultaneously in terms of binary (Potts) assignment variables and real-valued atomic coordinates. Second, a minimization of the energy or cost function by an iterative method, where in each iteration (1) a mean field method is employed for the assignment variables and (2) exact rotation and/or translation of atomic coordinates is performed, weighted with the corresponding assignment variables.

  18. On Tailoring PDC speckle structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brida, G; Meda, A; Ruo-Berchera, I; Predazzi, E

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Speckle structure of parametric down conversion light has recently received a large attention due to relevance in view of applications to quantum imaging The possibility of tailoring the speckle size by acting on the pump properties is an interesting tool for the applications to quantum imaging and in particular to the detection of weak object under shot-noise limit. Here we present a systematic detailed experimental study of the speckle structure produced in type II PDC with particular attention to its variation with pump beam properties.

  19. Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure of All-Polymer Solar Cells ImpedesStructure ofHumanto

  20. Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure of All-Polymer Solar Cells ImpedesStructure

  1. Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solid ... Strengthening aStructure of All-PolymerStructure

  2. Sensor data analysis and information extraction for structural health monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Linjun

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, StanfordA Review of Structural Health Monitoring Literature: 1996-workshop on structural Health Monitoring: Structural Health

  3. Diffeomorphism Algebra Structure and Membrane Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens Hoppe; Mariusz Hynek

    2011-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Explicit structure constants are calculated for certain Lie algebras of vectorfields on 2-dimensional compact manifolds.

  4. Social Structure [ Construction no. 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    Social Structure [ Construction no. 1 ] Foster Gallery, LSU SEPTEMBER 6-9 Reception 6-8 pm, Sept 8 [ Construction no. 1 ] is an interactive audiovisual performance for voice, social media, interactive media, and constructed speaker blocks in which social media artifacts (tweets, Facebook statuses, 4Square locales, Flickr

  5. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  6. Structural Biochemistry I General Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    Structural Biochemistry I Fall 2007 General Information Lectures: Room 147, Nanaline Duke Building August 27 - October 12, 2007 MWF 3:05-3:55 PM Course Website: http-1235 (Lab 1); 660-1634 (Lab 2) Office hours: Mondays ­ 5 ­ 6pm ­ Room 247 Nanaline Duke Text: Branden

  7. Nucleon Transverse Structure at COMPASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nour Makke

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPASS is a fixed target experiment at CERN. Part of its physics programme is dedicated to study the transverse spin and the transverse momentum structure of the nucleon using SIDIS. For these measurements, data have been collected using transversely polarised proton and deuteron targets. A selection of recent measurements of azimuthal asymmetries using data collected with transversely polarised protons is presented.

  8. Structural Analysis of Combustion Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tóth, J; Zsély, I

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using ReactionKinetics, a Mathematica based package a few dozen detailed models for combustion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methanol are investigated. Essential structural characteristics are pulled out, and similarities and differences of the mechanisms are highlighted. These investigations can be used before or parallel with usual numerical investigations, such as pathway analysis, sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, or simulation.

  9. Synthesis and structure of perfluorocongressane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Han-Chao; Corbelin, S.; Lagow, R.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct fluorination of inorganic, organometallic and organic compounds, employing the LaMar method, has impacted the synthesis of structurally unusual fluorinated compounds over the past 25 years. Perfluorocongressane was synthesized using elemental fluorine and characterized by mass spectra, {sup 19}F NMR, and X-ray crystallography. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Variable Structure Control of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge, Shuzhi Sam

    . INTRODUCTION Modelling and control of flexible link manipulators have been studied intensively controller for regulation of a flexible beam. Due to its simplicity and robustness to parametricVariable Structure Control of a Distributed-Parameter Flexible Beam S. S. Ge,* T. H. Lee, G. Zhu, F

  11. Structurally Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Structurally connected secondary mirror EMFF secondary mirror EMFF Design Electromagnetic Formation for a smaller, simpler system. µEMFF investigates the use of conventional conductors, capacitors, and solar propellants that often limit lifetime, the EMFF system uses solar power to energize a magnetic field

  12. Protein Structure Analysis Iosif Vaisman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaisman, Iosif

    Protein Structure Analysis Iosif Vaisman 2009 BINF 731 Protein Engineering Protein Engineering Increase catalytic activity Change substrate binding site to increase specificity Change the thermal152S -1.08 1goj S152T 1.12 Protein Engineering Protein Engineering #12;Protein Engineering Protein

  13. Hyperons: Insights into baryon structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lach, J.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The baryon octet is composed mainly of hyperons. Modern high energy hyperon beams provide a tool for the study of hyperon static properties and interactions. Experiments with these beams have provided new insights into hyperon rare decays, magnetic moments, and interactions. These experiments provide us with insights into the strong, weak, and electromagnetic structure of the baryons. 65 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Space Science: Atmosphere Thermal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science: Atmosphere Part -2 Thermal Structure Review tropospheres Absorption of Radiation Adiabatic Lapse Rate ~ 9 K/km Slightly smaller than our estimate Pressure ~3000ft under ocean surface thickness (positive up) is the solar zenith angle Fs is the solar energy flux at frequency (when

  15. DNA Structural Nanotechnology Duke University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, John H.

    DNA Structural Nanotechnology John Reif Duke University Graduate Students: Harish Chandran&Caltech Tube Lattices #12;Ned Seeman New York University, USA Ned Seeman: Father of DNA Nanotechnology His Initial Ideas & Motivation for DNA Nanotechnology #12;Cube Chen & Seeman, Nature350:631 (1991) Truncated

  16. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grot, Stephen [President, Ion Power Inc.] President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  17. Heat pipe wick with structural enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andraka, Charles E.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Moreno, James B.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Showalter, Steven K.; Moss, Timothy A.

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pipe wick structure wherein a stout sheet of perforated material overlays a high performance wick material such as stainless steel felt affixed to a substrate. The inventive structure provides a good flow path for working fluid while maintaining durability and structural stability independent of the structure (or lack of structure) associated with the wick material. In one described embodiment, a wick of randomly laid .about.8 micron thickness stainless steel fibers is sintered to a metal substrate and a perforated metal overlay.

  18. Microsoft Word - 5. CFE - Statement.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    710JTR Mechanical Engineering Support for ITER Vacuum Vessel Port Structures and their Interfaces with other Plant Breakdown Systems I, the undersigned, hereby declare that I...

  19. Facility stabilization project fiscal year 1997 multi-year work plan (MYWP) for WBS 7.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cartmell, D.B.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the technical baseline, work breakdown structure, schedule baseline, cost baseline, and execution year for the facility stabilization project.

  20. Solid waste program fiscal year 1997 multi-year work plan WBS 1.2.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riddelle, J.G.

    1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the technical baseline, work breakdown structure, schedule baseline, cost baseline, and execution year for the solid waste program.

  1. Structural Health Monitoring for Impact Damage in Composite Structures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Raymond Bond (Purdue); Doug Adams (Purdue)

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite structures are increasing in prevalence throughout the aerospace, wind, defense, and transportation industries, but the many advantages of these materials come with unique challenges, particularly in inspecting and repairing these structures. Because composites of- ten undergo sub-surface damage mechanisms which compromise the structure without a clear visual indication, inspection of these components is critical to safely deploying composite re- placements to traditionally metallic structures. Impact damage to composites presents one of the most signi fi cant challenges because the area which is vulnerable to impact damage is generally large and sometimes very dif fi cult to access. This work seeks to further evolve iden- ti fi cation technology by developing a system which can detect the impact load location and magnitude in real time, while giving an assessment of the con fi dence in that estimate. Fur- thermore, we identify ways by which impact damage could be more effectively identi fi ed by leveraging impact load identi fi cation information to better characterize damage. The impact load identi fi cation algorithm was applied to a commercial scale wind turbine blade, and results show the capability to detect impact magnitude and location using a single accelerometer, re- gardless of sensor location. A technique for better evaluating the uncertainty of the impact estimates was developed by quantifying how well the impact force estimate meets the assump- tions underlying the force estimation technique. This uncertainty quanti fi cation technique was found to reduce the 95% con fi dence interval by more than a factor of two for impact force estimates showing the least uncertainty, and widening the 95% con fi dence interval by a fac- tor of two for the most uncertain force estimates, avoiding the possibility of understating the uncertainty associated with these estimates. Linear vibration based damage detection tech- niques were investigated in the context of structural stiffness reductions and impact damage. A method by which the sensitivity to damage could be increased for simple structures was presented, and the challenges of applying that technique to a more complex structure were identi fi ed. The structural dynamic changes in a weak adhesive bond were investigated, and the results showed promise for identifying weak bonds that show little or no static reduction in stiffness. To address these challenges in identifying highly localized impact damage, the possi- bility of detecting damage through nonlinear dynamic characteristics was also identi fi ed, with a proposed technique which would leverage impact location estimates to enable the detection of impact damage. This nonlinear damage identi fi cation concept was evaluated on a composite panel with a substructure disbond, and the results showed that the nonlinear dynamics at the damage site could be observed without a baseline healthy reference. By further developing impact load identi fi cation technology and combining load and damage estimation techniques into an integrated solution, the challenges associated with impact detection in composite struc- tures can be effectively solved, thereby reducing costs, improving safety, and enhancing the operational readiness and availability of high value assets.

  2. Collective network for computer structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Coteus, Paul W; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Takken, Todd E; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D; Vranas, Pavlos M

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global collective communications among interconnected processing nodes. The global collective network optimally enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the network via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual network. The global collective network may be configured to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner. When implemented in a massively-parallel supercomputing structure, the global collective network is physically and logically partitionable according to the needs of a processing algorithm.

  3. Process to make structured particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Angela Michelle; Richard, Monique N; Luhrs, Claudia; Blada, Timothy; Phillips, Jonathan

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a process for making a composite material that contains structured particles. The process includes providing a first precursor in the form of a dry precursor powder, a precursor liquid, a precursor vapor of a liquid and/or a precursor gas. The process also includes providing a plasma that has a high field zone and passing the first precursor through the high field zone of the plasma. As the first precursor passes through the high field zone of the plasma, at least part of the first precursor is decomposed. An aerosol having a second precursor is provided downstream of the high field zone of the plasma and the decomposed first material is allowed to condense onto the second precursor to from structured particles.

  4. Sandwich Construction Solar Structural Facets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diver, R. B.; Grossman, J.W.

    1998-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Silver/glass mirrors have excellent optical properties but need a method of support in order to be used in concentrating solar thermal systems. In collaboration with the Cummins dish/Stirling development program, they started investigating sandwich construction as a way to integrate silver/glass mirrors into solar optical elements. In sandwich construction, membranes such as sheet metal or plastic are bonded to the front and back of a core (like a sandwich). For solar optical elements, a glass mirror is bonded to one of the membranes. This type of construction has the advantages of a high strength-to-weight ratio, and reasonable material and manufacturing cost. The inherent stiffness of sandwich construction mirror panels also facilitates large panels. This can have cost advantages for both the amount of hardware required as well as reduced installation and alignment costs. In addition, by incorporating the panels into the support structure reductions in the amount of structural support required are potentially possible.

  5. Structure of plant bile pigments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenleber, R.W.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selective peptide cleavage has provided a general procedure for the study of the structure, including stereochemistry, of plant bile pigments. The information derived from the synthesis and spectral analysis of a series of 2,3-dihydrodioxobilins allows the determination of the trans relative stereochemistry for ring A of the ..beta../sub 1/-phycocyanobilin from C-phycocyanin as well as for ring A of phytochrome. A complete structure proof of the five phycoerythrobilins attached to the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of B-phycoerythrin is described. One of these tetrapyrroles is doubly-peptide linked to a single peptide chain through two thioethers at the C-3' and C-18' positions. The four remaining phycoerythrobilins are singly-linked to the protein through thioethers at the C-3' position and all possess the probable stereochemistry C-2(R), C-3(R), C-3'(R), and C-16(R).

  6. Nanowire structures and electrical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bezryadin, Alexey (Champaign, IL); Remeika, Mikas (Urbana, IL)

    2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive segments and conductance constricting segments of a nanowire, such as metallic, superconducting or semiconducting nanowire. The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive nanowire segments and conductance constricting nanowire segments having accurately selected phases including crystalline and amorphous states, compositions, morphologies and physical dimensions, including selected cross sectional dimensions, shapes and lengths along the length of a nanowire. Further, the present invention provides methods of processing nanowires capable of patterning a nanowire to form a plurality of conductance constricting segments having selected positions along the length of a nanowire, including conductance constricting segments having reduced cross sectional dimensions and conductance constricting segments comprising one or more insulating materials such as metal oxides.

  7. Plated lamination structures for integrated magnetic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Bucknell C.

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor integrated magnetic devices such as inductors, transformers, etc., having laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are provided, wherein the laminated magnetic-insulator stack structures are formed using electroplating techniques. For example, an integrated laminated magnetic device includes a multilayer stack structure having alternating magnetic and insulating layers formed on a substrate, wherein each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure is separated from another magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure by an insulating layer, and a local shorting structure to electrically connect each magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to an underlying magnetic layer in the multilayer stack structure to facilitate electroplating of the magnetic layers using an underlying conductive layer (magnetic or seed layer) in the stack as an electrical cathode/anode for each electroplated magnetic layer in the stack structure.

  8. Experimental data confronts nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, J.D.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical content of experimental data for a variety of excitation energies and angular momenta is summarized. The specific nuclear structure questions which these data address are considered. The specific regions discussed are: low-spin data near the particle separation thresholds; low-spin data at intermediate excitation energies; high-spin, near-yrast data and high-spin data at larger excitation energies. 63 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Lithographically defined microporous carbon structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burckel, David Bruce; Washburn, Cody M.; Polsky, Ronen; Brozik, Susan M.; Wheeler, David R.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A lithographic method is used to fabricate porous carbon structures that can provide electrochemical electrodes having high surface area with uniform and controllable dimensions, providing enormous flexibility to tailor the electrodes toward specific applications. Metal nanoparticles deposited on the surface of the porous carbon electrodes exhibit ultra small dimensions with uniform size distribution. The resulting electrodes are rugged, electrically conductive and show excellent electrochemical behavior.

  10. Developments on the CENS Structural Health Monitoring Front

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the CENS Structural Health Monitoring Front D. Skolnik,Introduction: Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Systems

  11. Developments on the CENS Structural Health Monitoring Front

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the CENS Structural Health Monitoring Front D. Skolnik,Introduction: Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Systems

  12. Reliability-based framework for fatigue damage prognosis of bonded structural elements in aerospace composite structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobbato, Maurizio

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and J.D. Achenbach, Structural health monitoring and damagein fatigue, Structural Health Monitoring, 7(1), 37-49, 2008.and J.D. Achenbach, Structural health monitoring and damage

  13. Semiconductor wire array structures, and solar cells and photodetectors based on such structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Petykiewicz, Jan A.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure comprising an array of semiconductor structures, an infill material between the semiconductor materials, and one or more light-trapping elements is described. Photoconverters and photoelectrochemical devices based on such structure also described.

  14. Structured video content analysis : learning spatio-temporal and multimodal structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Yale

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Video data exhibits a variety of structures: pixels exhibit spatial structure, e.g., the same class of objects share certain shapes and/or colors in image; sequences of frames exhibit temporal structure, e.g., dynamic ...

  15. Structure of the CRA-2014: Structure of the CRA-2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure of All-Polymer Solar CellsMinimal Requirements for

  16. Course STAT 6390.501 Topics in Statistics Professor Robert Serfling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serfling, Robert

    -Adjusted Boxplot. General Structures for Outlier Detectors. Performance Criteria: Masking and Swamping Breakdown-Adjusted Boxplot. General Structures for Outlier Detectors. Performance Criteria: Masking and Swamping Breakdown. General Structures. M 2/18 W 2/20 M 2/25 W 2/27 M 3/3 W 3/5 Student-Led Discussions of Selected Papers M

  17. Role of the dielectric for the charging dynamics of the dielectric/barrier interface in AlGaN/GaN based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures under forward gate bias stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagger, P., E-mail: peter.lagger@infineon.com [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstraße 2, 9500 Villach (Austria); Institute of Solid State Electronics, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Wien (Austria); Steinschifter, P.; Reiner, M.; Stadtmüller, M.; Denifl, G.; Ostermaier, C. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstraße 2, 9500 Villach (Austria); Naumann, A.; Müller, J.; Wilde, L.; Sundqvist, J. [Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT, Königsbrücker Straße 178, 01099 Dresden (Germany); Pogany, D. [Institute of Solid State Electronics, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Wien (Austria)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The high density of defect states at the dielectric/III-N interface in GaN based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures causes tremendous threshold voltage drifts, ?V{sub th}, under forward gate bias conditions. A comprehensive study on different dielectric materials, as well as varying dielectric thickness t{sub D} and barrier thickness t{sub B}, is performed using capacitance-voltage analysis. It is revealed that the density of trapped electrons, ?N{sub it}, scales with the dielectric capacitance under spill-over conditions, i.e., the accumulation of a second electron channel at the dielectric/AlGaN barrier interface. Hence, the density of trapped electrons is defined by the charging of the dielectric capacitance. The scaling behavior of ?N{sub it} is explained universally by the density of accumulated electrons at the dielectric/III-N interface under spill-over conditions. We conclude that the overall density of interface defects is higher than what can be electrically measured, due to limits set by dielectric breakdown. These findings have a significant impact on the correct interpretation of threshold voltage drift data and are of relevance for the development of normally off and normally on III-N/GaN high electron mobility transistors with gate insulation.

  18. Modelling intonational structure using hidden markov models. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Helen; Taylor, Paul A

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is introduced for using hidden Markov models (HMMs) to model intonational structure. HMMs are probabilistic and can capture the variability in structure which previous finite state network models lack. We show ...

  19. Effect of high pressure on structural oddities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnstone, Russell D. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the effect of pressure on crystal structures that are in some way unusual. The aim was to investigate whether pressure could be used to force these ‘structural oddities’ to conform to more conventional ...

  20. Structural analysis and assessment of Guastavino vaulting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reese, Megan L

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis studies the behavior and pathologies of the masonry tile structures built by the R. Guastavino Company in order to provide recommendations on their analysis and assessment. Structural analyses of two specific ...

  1. Understanding molecular crystal structures at extreme conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Funnell, Nicholas Paul

    2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the structure of matter in the solid state could be considered as being one of ‘the big questions’ in chemistry. Whereas the structural behaviour of molecules in the gas phase is relatively well-understood, ...

  2. Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Concrete, May 29,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Concrete, May 29, 2009 (HSS CRAD 64-15, Rev. 0) Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Concrete, May 29, 2009 (HSS CRAD 64-15, Rev....

  3. Damaged reinforced concrete structures in fire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ervine, Adam

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    It is crucial for a building to maintain structural stability when subjected to multiple and sequential extreme loads. Safety and economic considerations dictate that structures are built to resist extreme events, such ...

  4. The design and construction of fabric structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Rosemarie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In its short history, fabric structures have fascinated architects and engineers alike. Architects appreciate their unusual shapes and forms while engineers delight in their "pure" structural expression. Capable of spanning ...

  5. Thermoplastic active fiber composites for structural actuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, Christopher Thomas, 1971-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The integration of piezoelectric actuators into a structure can lead to an active structural surface that can adapt by bending or straining to different operational conditions. This can be used to tune desired properties ...

  6. Seismic assessment strategies for masonry structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeJong, Matthew J. (Matthew Justin)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Masonry structures are vulnerable to earthquakes, but their seismic assessment remains a challenge. This dissertation develops and improves several strategies to better understand the behavior of masonry structures under ...

  7. Structure formation: Models, Dynamics and Status

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Padmanabhan

    1995-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The constraints on the models for the structure formation arising from various cosmological observations at different length scales are reviewed. The status of different models for structure formation is examined critically in the light of these observations.

  8. RM methods for multiple fare structure environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kayser, Matthew R. (Matthew Russell)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid growth of Low Cost Carriers (LCC) and their simplified fare structures has created "semi-restricted" fare structures where lower classes are undifferentiated except for price, while higher fare classes are still ...

  9. EVA: evaluation of protein structure prediction servers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sali, Andrej

    day, sequences of newly available protein structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are sent performance of protein structure prediction servers through a battery of objective measures for prediction

  10. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND HEAVY-ION FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokstad, R.G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mechanisms leading to fusion, nuclear structure is affectingknoi,. A [he "nuclear structure" in fusion will consist ofCI i CO I0 + Be fusion I0 ' -cm Nuclear reaction S-factors

  11. Single Molecule Probes of Lipid Membrane Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livanec, Philip W.

    2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological membranes are highly heterogeneous structures that are thought to use this heterogeneity to organize and modify the function of membrane constituents. Probing membrane organization, structure, and changes therein ...

  12. Past and future of grid shell structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paoli, Céline (Céline Aude)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of their original organic shape and the column free space that they provide, the design of grid shell structures challenges architects and structural engineers in more than one way. Very few grid shell building ...

  13. Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, B.; /SLAC

    2005-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss simulated photonic crystal structure designs for laser-driven particle acceleration, focusing on three-dimensional planar structures based on the so-called ''woodpile'' lattice. We demonstrate guiding of a speed-of-light accelerating mode by a defect in the photonic crystal lattice and discuss the properties of this mode. We also discuss particle beam dynamics in the structure, presenting a novel method for focusing the beam. In addition we describe some potential coupling methods for the structure.

  14. Adding structure to agent programming languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zachmann, Gabriel

    Zachmann (Computer Graphics) #12;Adding structure to agent programming languages Peter Novák, Jürgen Dix

  15. Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure in Genotoxicity Studies to Support Engineering Development of Emission Controls Preserving Diesel Exhaust...

  16. Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural Analysis to Identify Hidden, High Enthalpy, Extensional Geothermal Systems Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil...

  17. Structure determination of enterovirus 71

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G. (Purdue); (Sentinext)

    2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease but may induce fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 crystallized in a body-centered orthorhombic space group with two particles in general orientations in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Determination of the particle orientations required that the locked rotation function excluded the twofold symmetry axes from the set of icosahedral symmetry operators. This avoided the occurrence of misleading high rotation-function values produced by the alignment of icosahedral and crystallographic twofold axes. Once the orientations and positions of the particles had been established, the structure was solved by molecular replacement and phase extension.

  18. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Donald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Holdaway, Ray F. (Clinton, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  19. Convectively cooled electrical grid structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paterson, J.A.; Koehler, G.W.

    1980-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Undesirable distortions of electrical grid conductors from thermal cycling are minimized and related problems such as unwanted thermionic emission and structural failure from overheating are avoided by providing for a flow of fluid coolant within each conductor. The conductors are secured at each end to separate flexible support elements which accommodate to individual longitudinal expansion and contraction of each conductor while resisting lateral displacements, the coolant flow preferably being directed into and out of each conductor through passages in the flexible support elements. The grid may have a modular or divided construction which facilitates manufacture and repairs.

  20. Structural studies of bee melittin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, D.; Terwilliger, T.C.; Tsui, F.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The question of how proteins refold in passing from an aqueous phase to an amphipathic environment such as a membrane is beig addressed by a structural study of bee melittin. Melittin is the toxic, main protein of bee venom, and has been shown by others to integrate into natural and synthetic membranes and to lyse a variety of cells. This function is presumably related to its unusual sequence. Except for charges at the N-terminus and at lysine 7, the first 20 residues are largely apolar. In contrast, the last six residues contain four charges and two polar residues.

  1. Photonic Structures Inspired by Nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolle, Mathias

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    the surprising helplessness that overwhelms you when you try to eat and identify food and wine purely by taste in a pitch-black environment where your sense of vision is completely useless. Not easy at all. It is truly a refreshing, fantastic experience [1]. 1... 2 01 11 Theoretical aspects of photonic structures has been used, essentially signifying the conservation of energy upon reflection and refraction. Finally the reflectivity of a thin layer is given by R = ArA ? r = r201 + 2r01r12 cos 2? + r 2 12 1...

  2. Financing Structures | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: FinalOffers New Training on Energy6 FederalofE:Financing Mechanisms forMarketStructures

  3. Sandia Energy - Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol Home Distribution GridDocumentsInstitute ofSitingStaff HomeStructural Health

  4. Structural Biology | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary900SteepStrengthening northern NewStructuralSpecificity

  5. SLAMBOT: Structural Health Monitoring Robot using Lamb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Thomas C.

    SLAMBOT: Structural Health Monitoring Robot using Lamb Waves Wenyi Wang, Thomas C. Henderson of a mobile robot and a computational sensor network ap- proach to perform structural health monitoring of ultrasound propagation through the material is used to define two structural health monitoring meth- ods: (1

  6. Center of Excellence in Structural Health Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Center of Excellence in Structural Health Monitoring Inaugural Meeting April 12­13 2007 Nittany, Aeronautics and As- tronautics, is Editor-in-Chief of the Structural Health Monitoring international journal and the organizer of the International Workshops on Structural Health Monitoring. His research interests include

  7. Ozone: Integrating Structured and Semistructured Data ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abiteboul, Serge

    Ozone: Integrating Structured and Semistructured Data ? Tirthankar Lahiri 1 , Serge Abiteboul 2 language, and we implement our extensions in a system called Ozone. In our approach, structured data may full knowledge of structure. Ozone also enhances both ODMG/OQL and OEM/Lorel by virtue

  8. Whole Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whole Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Earth Structure (2nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm © WW Norton; unless noted otherwise #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed evolution of Earth: from continental drift (early 1900's) to sea-floor spreading (early 1960's) to plate

  9. Transformation of structured documents Eila Kuikka

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterloo, University of

    Transformation of structured documents Eila Kuikka Department of Computer Science, University Structure de nitions of documents have been used successfully for inputting and for- matting in text documents and studies possibilities to extend the use of structure de nitions to document transformations

  10. Structural Damage Detection and Localization Using NETSHM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gnawali, Omprakash

    Structural Damage Detection and Localization Using NETSHM Krishna Chintalapudi, Jeongyeup Paek and localize damage in large civil structures. Structural engineers often implement and test SHM algorithms the intricacies of wireless networking, or the details of sensor data acquisition. We have implemented a damage

  11. Foundations of Organizational Structures in Multiagent Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dignum, Frank

    Foundations of Organizational Structures in Multiagent Systems Davide Grossi, Frank Dignum, Mehdi of organizational structure in multiagent systems and explain the precise added value and the effects of such organizational structure on the involved agents. To pursue this aim, contributions from social and organization

  12. DNA: structure, dense phases, charges, interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potsdam, Universität

    DNA: structure, dense phases, charges, interactions #12;Outline 1. DNA: structure, charges, dense phases 2. Counterion and DNA condensation 3. ES DNA-DNA interactions 4. DNA toroidal structures 5. Interactions of real DNA helices 6. DNA-DNA ES recognition 7. DNA melting in aggregates 8. Azimuthal

  13. EFFECTIVE STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING WITH ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    will be presented for components that can be processed by additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing. The origin structures. KEYWORDS : structural health monitoring methodology, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, fatigue, intelligent structure INTRODUCTION Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D Printing or Rapid

  14. Calculating Evolutionary Dynamics in Structured Populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Martin A.

    Calculating Evolutionary Dynamics in Structured Populations Charles G. Nathanson1. , Corina E. Here we provide a general formula for calculating evolutionary dynamics in a wide class of structured) Calculating Evolutionary Dynamics in Structured Populations. PLoS Comput Biol 5(12): e1000615. doi:10

  15. Origin and Structure of Dynamic Cooperative Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hauert, Christoph

    Origin and Structure of Dynamic Cooperative Networks Lucas Wardil & Christoph Hauert Department the local structure of the social network. Here we propose a simple theoretical framework to model dynamic among coop- erators2­4 . Social networks represent a dynamical abstraction of social structures

  16. The Nonperturbative Structure of Hadrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Hobbs

    2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis we explore a diverse array of issues that strike at the inherently nonperturbative structure of hadrons at momenta below the QCD confinement scale. In so doing, we mainly seek a better control over the partonic substructure of strongly-interacting matter, especially as this relates to the nonperturbative effects that both motivate and complicate experiments --- particularly DIS; among others, such considerations entail sub-leading corrections in $Q^2$, dynamical higher twist effects, and hadron mass corrections. We also present novel calculations of several examples of flavor symmetry violation, which also originates in the long-distance properties of QCD at low energy. Moreover, we outline a recently developed model, framed as a hadronic effective theory amenable to QCD global analysis, which provides new insights into the possibility of nonperturbative heavy quarks in the nucleon. This model can be extended to the scale of the lighter mesons, and we assess the accessibility of the structure function of the interacting pion in the resulting framework.

  17. TRITIUM RESERVOIR STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PREDICTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P.S.; Morgan, M.J

    2005-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The burst test is used to assess the material performance of tritium reservoirs in the surveillance program in which reservoirs have been in service for extended periods of time. A materials system model and finite element procedure were developed under a Savannah River Site Plant-Directed Research and Development (PDRD) program to predict the structural response under a full range of loading and aged material conditions of the reservoir. The results show that the predicted burst pressure and volume ductility are in good agreement with the actual burst test results for the unexposed units. The material tensile properties used in the calculations were obtained from a curved tensile specimen harvested from a companion reservoir by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). In the absence of exposed and aged material tensile data, literature data were used for demonstrating the methodology in terms of the helium-3 concentration in the metal and the depth of penetration in the reservoir sidewall. It can be shown that the volume ductility decreases significantly with the presence of tritium and its decay product, helium-3, in the metal, as was observed in the laboratory-controlled burst tests. The model and analytical procedure provides a predictive tool for reservoir structural integrity under aging conditions. It is recommended that benchmark tests and analysis for aged materials be performed. The methodology can be augmented to predict performance for reservoir with flaws.

  18. Structure functions for light nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.A. Kulagin, R. Petti

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the nuclear EMC effect with particular emphasis on recent data for light nuclei including 2H, 3He, 4He, 9Be, 12C and 14N. In order to verify the consistency of available data, we calculate the \\chi^2 deviation between different data sets. We find a good agreement between the results from the NMC, SLAC E139, and HERMES experiments. However, our analysis indicates an overall normalization offset of about 2% in the data from the recent JLab E03-103 experiment with respect to previous data for nuclei heavier than 3He. We also discuss the extraction of the neutron/proton structure function ratio F2n/F2p from the nuclear ratios 3He/2H and 2H/1H. Our analysis shows that the E03-103 data on 3He/2H require a renormalization of about 3% in order to be consistent with the F2n/F2p ratio obtained from the NMC experiment. After such a renormalization, the 3He data from the E03-103 data and HERMES experiments are in a good agreement. Finally, we present a detailed comparison between data and model calculations, which include a description of the nuclear binding, Fermi motion and off-shell corrections to the structure functions of bound proton and neutron, as well as the nuclear pion and shadowing corrections. Overall, a good agreement with the available data for all nuclei is obtained.

  19. Battery structures, self-organizing structures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Moorehead, William D. (Virginia Beach, VA); Gozdz, Antoni S. (Marlborough, MA); Holman, Richard K. (Belmont, MA); Loxley, Andrew L. (Roslindale, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Viola, Michael S. (Burlington, MA)

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling force on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionically conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  20. Battery structures, self-organizing structures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Moorehead, William D. (Virginia Beach, VA); Gozdz, Antoni S. (Marlborough, MA); Holman, Richard K. (Belmont, MA); Loxley, Andrew L. (Roslindale, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Viola, Michael S. (Burlington, MA)

    2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling force on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionically conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  1. Battery structures, self-organizing structures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Moorehead, William D. (Virginia Beach, VA); Gozdz, Antoni S. (Marlborough, MA); Holman, Richard K. (Belmont, MA); Loxley, Andrew L. (Roslindale, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Viola, Michael S. (Burlington, MA)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling force on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionically conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  2. Battery structures, self-organizing structures, and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Moorehead, William Douglas

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling forve on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionicaily conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  3. Battery Structures, self-organizing structures, and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Moorehead, William Douglas

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling force on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionically conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  4. Battery structures, self-organizing structures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet Ming (Framingham, MA); Moorehead, William Douglas (Virginia Beach, VA); Gozdz, Antoni S. (Marlborough, MA); Holman, Richard K. (Belmont, MA); Loxley, Andrew (Somerville, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Viola, Michael S. (Burlington, MA)

    2009-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling force on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionically conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  5. Lithium, compression and high-pressure structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olinger, B.; Shaner, J.W.

    1983-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium is found to transform from a body-centered cubic (bcc) to a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure at 6.9 gigapascals (69 kilobars) and 296 kelvin. The relative volume of the bcc structured lithium at 6.9 gigapascals is 0.718, and the fcc structure is 0.25 percent denser. The bulk modulus and its pressure derivative for the bcc structure are 11.57 gigapascals and 3.4, and for the fcc structure are 13.1 gigapascals and 2.8. Extrapolation of the bcc-fcc phase boundary and the melting curve indiactes a triple point around 15 gigapascals and 500 kelvin.

  6. Experimental Study of Nucleon Structure and QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overview of Experimental Study of Nucleon Structure and QCD, with focus on the spin structure. Nucleon (spin) Structure provides valuable information on QCD dynamics. A decade of experiments from JLab yields these exciting results: (1) valence spin structure, duality; (2) spin sum rules and polarizabilities; (3) precision measurements of g{sub 2} - high-twist; and (4) first neutron transverse spin results - Collins/Sivers/A{sub LT}. There is a bright future as the 12 GeV Upgrade will greatly enhance our capability: (1) Precision determination of the valence quark spin structure flavor separation; and (2) Precision extraction of transversity/tensor charge/TMDs.

  7. March 29, 2008 OS: Mass Storage Structure 1 Mass-Storage Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam, Salah

    March 29, 2008 OS: Mass Storage Structure 1 Mass-Storage Structure Chapter 12 #12;March 29, 2008 OS: Mass Storage Structure 2 Objectives Describe the physical structure of secondary and tertiary storage of mass-storage devices Discuss operating-system services provided for mass storage, including RAID

  8. Structural Code Considerations for Solar Rooftop Installations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Sanchez, Alfred

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential rooftop solar panel installations are limited in part by the high cost of structural related code requirements for field installation. Permitting solar installations is difficult because there is a belief among residential permitting authorities that typical residential rooftops may be structurally inadequate to support the additional load associated with a photovoltaic (PV) solar installation. Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure to a basic determinate beam. This method of analysis neglects the composite action of the entire roof structure, yielding a conservative analysis based on a rafter or top chord of a truss. Consequently, the analysis can result in an overly conservative structural analysis. A literature review was conducted to gain a better understanding of the conservative nature of the regulations and codes governing residential construction and the associated structural system calculations.

  9. Photonic band gap structure simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chiping; Shapiro, Michael A.; Smirnova, Evgenya I.; Temkin, Richard J.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.

    2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for designing photonic band gap structures. The system and method provide a user with the capability to produce a model of a two-dimensional array of conductors corresponding to a unit cell. The model involves a linear equation. Boundary conditions representative of conditions at the boundary of the unit cell are applied to a solution of the Helmholtz equation defined for the unit cell. The linear equation can be approximated by a Hermitian matrix. An eigenvalue of the Helmholtz equation is calculated. One computation approach involves calculating finite differences. The model can include a symmetry element, such as a center of inversion, a rotation axis, and a mirror plane. A graphical user interface is provided for the user's convenience. A display is provided to display to a user the calculated eigenvalue, corresponding to a photonic energy level in the Brilloin zone of the unit cell.

  10. Method of forming structural heliostat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Alfred J. (Littleton, CO)

    1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In forming a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement characterized by a method of forming the mirror module in which the mirror is laid upon a solid rigid supporting bed in one or more sections, with or without focusing; a mirror backing sheet is applied by first applying respective thin layers of silicone grease and, thereafter, progressively rolling application to eliminate air bubbles; followed by affixing of a substrate assembly to the mirror backing sheet to form a mirror module that does not curve because of thermally induced stresses and differential thermal expansion or contraction effects. The silicone grease also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and protect the mirror backside against adverse effects of the weather. Also disclosed are specific details of preferred embodiments.

  11. Composite electrode/electrolyte structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2004-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is an electrode fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. Onto this electrode in the green state, a green ionic (e.g., electrolyte) film is deposited and the assembly is co-fired at a temperature suitable to fully densify the film while the substrate retains porosity. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of a metal salt and subsequent low temperature firing. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

  12. Structure of Noncommutative Fock space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Si-Cong Jing; Qiu-Yu Liu; Tu-Nan Ruan

    2005-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of the state-vector space of identical bosons in noncommutative spaces is investigated. To maintain Bose-Einstein statistics the commutation relations of phase space variables should simultaneously include coordinate-coordinate non-commutativity and momentum-momentum non-commutativity, which lead to noncommutative Fock space. By this we mean that creation and annihilation operators corresponding to different degrees of freedom of the bosons do not commute each other. The main character of the noncommutative Fock space is there are no ordinary number representations because of the non-commutativity between different number operators. However, eigenvectors of several pairs of commuting Hermitian operators are obtained which can also be served as bases in this Fock space. As a simple example, an explicit form of two-dimensional canonical coherent state in this noncommutative Fock space is constructed and its properties are discussed.

  13. Combustion fume structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flagan, R.C.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this research program is on elucidating the fundamental processes that determine the particle size distribution, composition, and agglomerate structures of coal ash fumes. The ultimate objective of this work is the development and validation of a model for the dynamics of combustion fumes, describing both the evolution of the particle size distribution and the particle morphology. The study employs model systems to address the fundamental questions and to provide rigorous validation of the models to be developed. This first phase of the project has been devoted to the development of a detailed experimental strategy that will allow agglomerates with a broad range of fractal dimensions to be studied in the laboratory. (VC)

  14. Structure functions for light nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulagin, S. A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Petti, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the nuclear EMC effect with particular emphasis on recent data for light nuclei including {sup 2}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He, {sup 9}Be, {sup 12}C, and {sup 14}N. In order to verify the consistency of available data, we calculate the {chi}{sup 2} deviation between different data sets. We find a good agreement between the results from the NMC, SLAC E139, and HERMES experiments. However, our analysis indicates an overall normalization offset of about 2% in the data from the recent JLab E03-103 experiment with respect to previous data for nuclei heavier than {sup 3}He. We also discuss the extraction of the neutron/proton structure function ratio F{sub 2}{sup n}/F{sub 2}{sup p} from the nuclear ratios {sup 3}He/{sup 2}H and {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H. Our analysis shows that the E03-103 data on {sup 3}He/{sup 2}H require a renormalization of about 3% in order to be consistent with the F{sub 2}{sup n}/F{sub 2}{sup p} ratio obtained from the NMC experiment. After such a renormalization, the {sup 3}He data from the E03-103 and HERMES experiments are in a good agreement. Finally, we present a detailed comparison between data and model calculations, which include a description of the nuclear binding, Fermi motion, and off-shell corrections to the structure functions of bound proton and neutron, as well as the nuclear pion and shadowing corrections. Overall, a good agreement with the available data for all nuclei is obtained.

  15. Vibration-based structural health monitoring of highway bridges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guan, Hong

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Principles of Structural Health Monitoring, Class Notes .Web-Based Structural Health Monitoring of a FRP CompositeA Review of Structural Health Monitoring Literature: 1996-

  16. Passive and Active Sensing Technologies for Structural Health Monitoring /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Do, Richard

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    variability on structural health monitoring,” Philos. Trans.Sensing Methods in Structural Health Monitoring for Aircraftof guided wave structural health monitoring systems,” Smart

  17. Multifunctional composites and structures with integrated mechanical and electromagnetic properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amirkhizi, Alireza Vakil

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mal, A. , 2004. Structural health monitoring. Mechanics 33,field of Structural Health Monitoring, or SHM. Researchersfor structural composites with in-situ health monitoring

  18. Detection of Damage in a Composite Structure Using Guided Waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baid, Harsh Kumar

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, pp 1923-1931,A Conceptual Structural Health Monitoring System Based onII program”, Structural Health Monitoring , F. -K. Chang

  19. Comparison of shape reconstruction strategies in a complex flexible structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Zhu

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    overview of wireless structural health monitoring for civilfor Autonomous Structural Health Monitoring,” Proceedings ofISSUES FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING,” 23rd Aerospace

  20. TOPSAN: a collaborative annotation environment for structural genomics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weekes, Dana; Krishna, S; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Wilson, Ian A; Godzik, Adam; Wooley, John

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    environment for structural genomics Dana Weekes 1† , S Srihigh-throughput structural genomics centers, despite theirbeing determined by structural genomics centers and high-