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Sample records for breakdown structure cbs

  1. CBS | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CBS Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine energy MHK...

  2. MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft Home > Groups > Water Power Forum Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of...

  3. Work breakdown structure guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-02-06

    Utilization of the work breakdown structure (WBS) technique is an effective aid in managing Department of Energy (DOE) programs and projects. The technique provides a framework for project management by focusing on the products that are being developed or constructed to solve technical problems. It assists both DOE and contractors in fulfilling their management responsibilities. This document provides guidance for use of the WBS technique for product oriented work identification and definition. It is one in a series of policy and guidance documents supporting DOE's project manaagement system.

  4. DOE Work Breakdown Structure Handbook

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This handbook provides suggested guidance and best practices on the development of product-oriented Work Breakdown Structures (WBS) that should be used by all projects within DOE to organize and...

  5. Module 2 - Work Breakdown Structure | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 - Work Breakdown Structure Module 2 - Work Breakdown Structure This module focuses on the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and other planning elements. This module defines and illustrates the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), WBS dictionary, Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) and Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

  6. Cost Codes and the Work Breakdown Structure

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    The chapter discusses the purpose of the work breakdown structure (WBS) and code of account (COA) cost code system, shows the purpose and fundamental structure of both the WBS and the cost code system, and explains the interface between the two systems.

  7. AVLIS Production Plant work breakdown structure and Dictionary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    The work breakdown structure has been prepared for the AVLIS Production Plant to define, organize, and identify the work efforts and is summarized in Fig. 1-1 for the top three project levels. The work breakdown structure itself is intended to be the primary organizational tool of the AVLIS Production Plant and is consistent with the overall AVLIS Program Work Breakdown Structure. It is designed to provide a framework for definition and accounting of all of the elements that are required for the eventual design, procurement, and construction of the AVLIS Production Plant. During the present phase of the AVLIS Project, the conceptual engineering phase, the work breakdown structure is intended to be the master structure and project organizer of documents, designs, and cost estimates. As the master project organizer, the key role of the work breakdown structure is to provide the mechanism for developing completeness in AVLIS cost estimates and design development of all hardware and systems. The work breakdown structure provides the framework for tracking, on a one-to-one basis, the component design criteria, systems requirements, design concepts, design drawings, performance projections, and conceptual cost estimates. It also serves as a vehicle for contract reporting. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  8. OpenEI Community - LCOE

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cost Breakdown Structure Draft http:en.openei.orgcommunitydocumentmhk-cost-breakdown-structure-draft

    The generalized Cost Breakdown Structure (CBS) for marine and...

  9. An efficient extrapolation to the (T)/CBS limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranasinghe, Duminda S.; Barnes, Ericka C.

    2014-05-14

    We extrapolate to the perturbative triples (T)/complete basis set (CBS) limit using double ? basis sets without polarization functions (Wesleyan-1-Triples-2? or “Wes1T-2Z”) and triple ? basis sets with a single level of polarization functions (Wesleyan-1-Triples-3? or “Wes1T-3Z”). These basis sets were optimized for 102 species representing the first two rows of the Periodic Table. The species include the entire set of neutral atoms, positive and negative atomic ions, as well as several homonuclear diatomic molecules, hydrides, rare gas dimers, polar molecules, such as oxides and fluorides, and a few transition states. The extrapolated Wes1T-(2,3)Z triples energies agree with (T)/CBS benchmarks to within ±0.65 mE{sub h}, while the rms deviations of comparable model chemistries W1, CBS-APNO, and CBS-QB3 for the same test set are ±0.23 mE{sub h}, ±2.37 mE{sub h}, and ±5.80 mE{sub h}, respectively. The Wes1T-(2,3)Z triples calculation time for the largest hydrocarbon in the G2/97 test set, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Me{sup +}, is reduced by a factor of 25 when compared to W1. The cost-effectiveness of the Wes1T-(2,3)Z extrapolation validates the usefulness of the Wes1T-2Z and Wes1T-3Z basis sets which are now available for a more efficient extrapolation of the (T) component of any composite model chemistry.

  10. [Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-07-01

    We developed and experimentally tested physical models for growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models are ``point defect models,`` in which the growth and breakdown are described in terms of movement of anion and cation vacancies. The work during the past 5 years resulted in: theory of growth and breakdown of passive films, theory of corrosion-resistant alloys, electronic structure of passive films, and estimation of damage functions for energy systems. Proposals are give for the five ongoing tasks. 10 figs.

  11. RF breakdown experiments at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurent, L. [University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Vlieks, A.; Pearson, C.; Caryotakis, G.; Luhmann, N.C. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    RF breakdown is a critical issue in the conditioning of klystrons, accelerator sections, and rf components for the next linear collider (NLC), as well as other high gradient accelerators and high power microwave sources. SLAC is conducting a series of experiments using an X-band traveling wave ring to characterize the processes and trigger mechanisms associated with rf breakdown. The goal of the research is to identify materials, processes, and manufacturing methods that will increase the breakdown threshold and minimize the time required for conditioning. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. RF BREAKDOWN STUDIES USING PRESSURIZED CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Rolland

    2014-09-21

    Many present and future particle accelerators are limited by the maximum electric gradient and peak surface fields that can be realized in RF cavities. Despite considerable effort, a comprehensive theory of RF breakdown has not been achieved and mitigation techniques to improve practical maximum accelerating gradients have had only limited success. Part of the problem is that RF breakdown in an evacuated cavity involves a complex mixture of effects, which include the geometry, metallurgy, and surface preparation of the accelerating structures and the make-up and pressure of the residual gas in which plasmas form. Studies showed that high gradients can be achieved quickly in 805 MHz RF cavities pressurized with dense hydrogen gas, as needed for muon cooling channels, without the need for long conditioning times, even in the presence of strong external magnetic fields. This positive result was expected because the dense gas can practically eliminate dark currents and multipacting. In this project we used this high pressure technique to suppress effects of residual vacuum and geometry that are found in evacuated cavities in order to isolate and study the role of the metallic surfaces in RF cavity breakdown as a function of magnetic field, frequency, and surface preparation. One of the interesting and useful outcomes of this project was the unanticipated collaborations with LANL and Fermilab that led to new insights as to the operation of evacuated normal-conducting RF cavities in high external magnetic fields. Other accomplishments included: (1) RF breakdown experiments to test the effects of SF6 dopant in H2 and He gases with Sn, Al, and Cu electrodes were carried out in an 805 MHz cavity and compared to calculations and computer simulations. The heavy corrosion caused by the SF6 components led to the suggestion that a small admixture of oxygen, instead of SF6, to the hydrogen would allow the same advantages without the corrosion in a practical muon beam line. (2) A 1.3 GHz RF test cell capable of operating both at high pressure and in vacuum with replaceable electrodes was designed, built, and power tested in preparation for testing the frequency and geometry effects of RF breakdown at Argonne National Lab. At the time of this report this cavity is still waiting for the 1.3 GHz klystron to be available at the Wakefield Test Facility. (3) Under a contract with Los Alamos National Lab, an 805 MHz RF test cavity, known as the All-Seasons Cavity (ASC), was designed and built by Muons, Inc. to operate either at high pressure or under vacuum. The LANL project to use the (ASC) was cancelled and the testing of the cavity has been continued under the grant reported on here using the Fermilab Mucool Test Area (MTA). The ASC is a true pillbox cavity that has performed under vacuum in high external magnetic field better than any other and has demonstrated that the high required accelerating gradients for many muon cooling beam line designs are possible. (4) Under ongoing support from the Muon Acceleration Program, microscopic surface analysis and computer simulations have been used to develop models of RF breakdown that apply to both pressurized and vacuum cavities. The understanding of RF breakdown will lead to better designs of RF cavities for many applications. An increase in the operating accelerating gradient, improved reliability and shorter conditioning times can generate very significant cost savings in many accelerator projects.

  13. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available. The whole genome sequence for A. niger ATCC 1015 is available from NBCI under acc. no ACJE00000000. The up-dated sequence for A. niger CBS 513.88 is available from EMBL under acc. no AM269948-AM270415. The sequence data from the phylogeny study has been submitted to NCBI (GU296686-296739). Microarray data from this study is submitted to GEO as series GSE10983. Accession for reviewers is possible through: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi token GSE10983] The dsmM_ANIGERa_coll511030F library and platform information is deposited at GEO under number GPL6758

  14. Microsoft Word - SEC J_Appendix F - National Work Breakdown Str_Negotiated

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    F, Page 1 SECTION J APPENDIX F NATIONAL WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE The Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), Office of Defense Programs, manages a large, complex, and diverse portfolio of weapons activities. To help facilitate and integrate the management of this portfolio, the Office of Defense Programs is establishing a National Work Breakdown Structure (NWBS). The NWBS will provide a consistent framework for planning, programming, budgeting, and evaluation

  15. RF breakdown of 805 MHz cavities in strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowring, D.; Stratakis, D.; Kochemirovskiy, A.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Palmer, M.; Peterson, D.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.; Lane, P.; Torun, Y.; Haase, A.

    2015-05-03

    Ionization cooling of intense muon beams requires the operation of high-gradient, normal-conducting RF structures in the presence of strong magnetic fields. We have measured the breakdown rate in several RF cavities operating at several frequencies. Cavities operating within solenoidal magnetic fields B > 0.25 T show an increased RF breakdown rate at lower gradients compared with similar operation when B = 0 T. Ultimately, this breakdown behavior limits the maximum safe operating gradient of the cavity. Beyond ionization cooling, this issue affects the design of photoinjectors and klystrons, among other applications. We have built an 805 MHz pillbox-type RF cavity to serve as an experimental testbed for this phenomenon. This cavity is designed to study the problem of RF breakdown in strong magnetic fields using various cavity materials and surface treatments, and with precise control over sources of systematic error. We present results from tests in which the cavity was run with all copper surfaces in a variety of magnetic fields.

  16. Breakdown properties of irradiated MOS capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paccagnella, A.; Candelori, A.; Milani, A.; Formigoni, E.; Ghidini, G.; Drera, D.; Pellizzer, F.; Fuochi, P.G.; Lavale, M.

    1996-12-01

    The authors have studied the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on the breakdown properties of different types of MOS capacitors, with thick (200 nm) and thin (down to 8 nm) oxides. In general, no large variations of the average breakdown field, time-to-breakdown at constant voltage, or charge-to-breakdown at constant voltage, or charge-to-breakdown values have been observed after high dose irradiation (20 Mrad(Si) 9 MeV electrons on thin and thick oxides, 17(Si) Mrad Co{sup 60} gamma and 10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2} only on thick oxides). However, some modifications of the cumulative failure distributions have been observed in few of the oxides tested.

  17. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors 2012 ...

  18. Asymmetric Bimodal Accelerator Cavity for Raising rf Breakdown Thresholds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzikov, S. V.; Kazakov, S. Yu.; Jiang, Y.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2010-05-28

    We consider an axisymmetric microwave cavity for an accelerator structure whose eigenfrequency for its second lowest TM-like axisymmetric mode is twice that of the lowest such mode, and for which the fields are asymmetric along its axis. In this cavity, the peak amplitude of the rf electric field that points into either longitudinal face can be smaller than the peak field which points out. Computations show that a structure using such cavities might support an accelerating gradient about 47% greater than that for a structure using similar single-mode cavities, without an increase in breakdown probability.

  19. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.

    1996-04-23

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed. 13 figs.

  20. Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohwein, Gerald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed.

  1. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  2. Can surface cracks and unipolar arcs explain breakdown and gradient limits?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Insepov, Zeke; Norem, Jim

    2013-01-15

    The authors argue that the physics of unipolar arcs and surface cracks can help understand rf breakdown and vacuum arc data. They outline a model of the basic mechanisms involved in breakdown and explore how the physics of unipolar arcs and cracks can simplify the picture of breakdown and gradient limits in accelerators, tokamaks as well as laser ablation, micrometeorites, and other applications. Cracks are commonly seen in SEM images of arc damage and they are produced as the liquid metal cools. They can produce the required field enhancements to explain field emission data and can produce mechanical failure of the surface that would trigger breakdown events. Unipolar arcs can produce currents sufficient to short out rf structures, and can cause the sort of damage seen in SEM images. They should be unstable, and possibly self-quenching, as seen in optical fluctuations and surface damage. The authors describe some details and consider the predictions of this simple model.

  3. Prevention of breakdown behind railgun projectiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An electromagnetic railgun accelerator system, for accelerating projectiles (14, 15, 114, 214, 314, 414) by a plasma arc (3), introduces a breakdown inhibiting gas into the railgun chamber (26) behind the accelerating projectile (14). The breakdown inhibiting gas, which absorbs electrons, is a halide or a halide compound such as fluorine or SF.sub.6. The gas is introduced between the railgun rails (12) after the projectile (14) has passed through inlets (16) in the rails (12) or the projectile (114); by coating the rails (12) or the projectile (15) with a material (28) which releases the gas after the projectile (14) passes over it; by fabricating the rails (12) or the projectile (15) or insulators out of a material which releases the gas into the portions of the chamber (26) through which the projectile has travelled. The projectile (214, 314, 414) may have a cavity (232, 332, 432) at its rear to control the release of ablation products (4).

  4. Prevention of breakdown behind railgun projectiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1992-09-01

    An electromagnetic railgun accelerator system, for accelerating projectiles by a plasma arc, introduces a breakdown inhibiting gas into the railgun chamber behind the accelerating projectile. The breakdown inhibiting gas, which absorbs electrons, is a halide or a halide compound such as fluorine or SF[sub 6]. The gas is introduced between the railgun rails after the projectile has passed through inlets in the rails or the projectile; by coating the rails or the projectile with a material which releases the gas after the projectile passes over it; by fabricating the rails or the projectile or insulators out of a material which releases the gas into the portions of the chamber through which the projectile has travelled. The projectile may have a cavity at its rear to control the release of ablation products. 12 figs.

  5. Prevention of breakdown behind railgun projectiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An electromagnetic railgun accelerator system, for accelerating projectiles (14, 15, 114, 214, 314, 444) by a plasma arc (3), introduces a breakdown inhibiting gas into the railgun chamber (26) behind the accelerating projectile (14). The breakdown inhibiting gas, which absorbs electrons, is a halide or a halide compound such as fluorine or SF.sub.6. The gas is introduced between the railgun rails (12) after the projectile (14) has passed through inlets (16) in the rails (12) or the projectile (114); by coating the rails (12) or the projectile (15) with a material (28) which releases the gas after the projectile (14 ) passes over it; by fabricating the rails (12) or the projectile (15) or insulators out of a material which releases the gas into the portions of the chamber (26) through which the projectile has travelled. The projectile (214, 314, 414) may have a cavity (232, 332, 432) at its rear to control the release of ablation products (4).

  6. Prevention of breakdown behind railgun projectiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1992-10-13

    An electromagnetic railgun accelerator system, for accelerating projectiles by a plasma arc, introduces a breakdown inhibiting gas into the railgun chamber behind the accelerating projectile. The breakdown inhibiting gas, which absorbs electrons, is a halide or a halide compound such as fluorine or SF[sub 6]. The gas is introduced between the railgun rails after the projectile has passed through inlets in the rails or the projectile; by coating the rails or the projectile with a material which releases the gas after the projectile passes over it; by fabricating the rails or the projectile or insulators out of a material which releases the gas into the portions of the chamber through which the projectile has travelled. The projectile may have a cavity at its rear to control the release of ablation products. 12 figs.

  7. COST BREAKDOWN AWARD NO: START DATE: EXPIRATION DATE: FISCAL YEAR BREAKDOWN OF FUNDS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COST BREAKDOWN AWARD NO: START DATE: EXPIRATION DATE: FISCAL YEAR BREAKDOWN OF FUNDS ELEMENTS FY FY FY FY FY TOTAL Direct Labor Overhead Materials Supplies Travel Other Direct Costs Subcontractors Total Direct Costs G&A Expense Total All Costs DOE Share* Awardee Share* Overhead Rate G&A Rate 1. The cost elements indicated are provided as an example only. Your firm should indicate the costs elements you have used on your invoices. 2. You should indicate the cost incurred for each of your

  8. ocean energy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ocean energy Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine...

  9. current energy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    current energy Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine...

  10. LCOE | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LCOE Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine energy...

  11. marine energy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    marine energy Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine...

  12. GMREC | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GMREC Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of energy marine energy...

  13. levelized cost of energy | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    levelized cost of energy Home Kch's picture Submitted by Kch(24) Member 15 July, 2014 - 07:07 MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft CBS current energy GMREC LCOE levelized cost of...

  14. A Theory for the Comparative RF Surface Fields at Destructive Breakdown for Various Metels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Perry; /SLAC

    2006-03-20

    By destructive breakdown we mean a breakdown event that results in surface melting over large areas on the iris tip region of an accelerator structure. The melting is the result of the formation of macroscopic areas of plasma in contact with the surface. The plasma bombards the surface with an intense ion current ({approx}10{sup 8} A/cm{sup 2}), which is equivalent to a pressure on the order of a thousand Atmospheres. A radial gradient in the pressure produces a ponderomotive force that causes molten copper to migrate away from the iris tip, resulting in a measurable change in the iris shape. This distortion in the iris shape in turn produces an error in the cell-to-cell phase shift of the accelerating wave with a consequent loss in synchronism with the electron beam and a reduction in the effective accelerating gradient. Assuming a long lifetime is desired for the structure, such breakdowns must be avoided or at least limited in number. The accelerating gradient at which these breakdowns begin to occur imposes, therefore, an absolute limit on an operationally attainable gradient. The destructive breakdown limit (DBL) on the accelerating gradient depends on a number of factors, such as the geometry of the irises and coupler, the accuracy of the cell-to-cell tuning (''field flatness''), and the properties of the metal used in the high E-field regions of the structure. In this note we consider only the question of the dependence of the DBL on the metal used in the high surface field areas of the structure. There are also various types of non-destructive breakdowns (NDB's) that occur during the ''processing'' period that, after the initial application of high power, is necessary to bring the gradient up to the desired operating level. During this period, as the input power and gradient are gradually increased, thousands of such NDB's occur. These breakdowns produce a collapse in the fields in the structure as energy stored in the fields is absorbed at the breakdown site. They are often marked by vacuum bursts and an increase in power reflected from the structure. The usual cause for NDB's during processing is the ''explosion'' of field emitters at sharp geometrical features on the metal surface. Exposed impurities in the metal surface can also produce NDB's as they are ''burned'' off by H-field heating or explosive field emission. The breakdown process can be roughly divided into four stages: (1) the formation of ''plasma spots'' at field emission sites, each spot leaving a crater-like footprint; (2) crater clustering, and the formation of areas with hundreds of overlapping craters; (3) surface melting in the region of a crater cluster; (4) the process after surface melting that leads to destructive breakdown.

  15. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    boilers and furnaces. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial boilers and furnaces. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial boilers and furnaces. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied (1) near the superheater of an electric power generation boiler burning biomass, coat, or both, (2) at the exit of a glass-melting furnace burning

  16. Quantum Oscillations from Nodal Bilayer Magnetic Breakdown in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature Superconductor YBa2Cu3O6+x Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantum Oscillations from Nodal Bilayer Magnetic Breakdown in the Underdoped High Temperature ...

  17. Femtosecond laser induced breakdown for combustion diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotzagianni, M.; Couris, S.

    2012-06-25

    The focused beam of a 100 fs, 800 nm laser is used to induce a spark in some laminar premixed air-methane flames operating with variable fuel content (equivalence ratio). The analysis of the light escaping from the plasma revealed that the Balmer hydrogen lines, H{sub {alpha}} and H{sub {beta}}, and some molecular origin emissions were the most prominent spectral features, while the CN ({Beta}{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}-{Chi}{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}) band intensity was found to depend linearly with methane content, suggesting that femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy can be a useful tool for the in-situ determination and local mapping of fuel content in hydrocarbon-air combustible mixtures.

  18. Kondo Breakdown and Quantum Oscillations in SmB 6 (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Kondo Breakdown and Quantum Oscillations in SmB 6 This content will become publicly available on January 28, 2017 Title: Kondo Breakdown and ...

  19. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of alkali metals in high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alkali metals in high-temperature gas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of alkali metals in high-temperature gas Laser-induced ...

  20. Quantum Oscillations from Nodal Bilayer Magnetic Breakdown in the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Underdoped High Temperature Superconductor YBa2Cu3O6+x (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Quantum Oscillations from Nodal Bilayer Magnetic Breakdown in the Underdoped High Temperature Superconductor YBa2Cu3O6+x Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantum Oscillations from Nodal Bilayer Magnetic Breakdown in the Underdoped High Temperature Superconductor YBa2Cu3O6+x Authors: Sebastian, Suchitra E. ; Harrison, N. ; Liang, Ruixing ; Bonn, D. A. ; Hardy, W. N. ; Mielke, C. H. ;

  1. Interference of atomic alkali species with laser-induced breakdown

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectroscopy of aerosols in high-temperature applications. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Interference of atomic alkali species with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aerosols in high-temperature applications. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interference of atomic alkali species with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aerosols in high-temperature applications. No abstract prepared. Authors: Molina, Alejandro ; Shaddix, Christopher R. ; Sickafoose, Shane M. ;

  2. Mapping quadrupole collectivity in the Cd isotopes: The breakdown of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    harmonic vibrational motion (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Mapping quadrupole collectivity in the Cd isotopes: The breakdown of harmonic vibrational motion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mapping quadrupole collectivity in the Cd isotopes: The breakdown of harmonic vibrational motion The stable Cd isotopes have long been used as paradigms for spherical vibrational motion. Extensive investigations with in-beam {gamma} spectroscopy have resulted in very-well-established level

  3. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanocomposite Capacitors | Department of Energy Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer Nanocomposite Capacitors 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es160_brutchey_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Temperature Polymer Capacitor Dielectric Films High Temperature Polymer

  4. Hanford tanks initiative (HTI) work breakdown structure (WBS)dictionary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mckinney, K.E.

    1997-03-31

    This dictionary lists the scope, deliverables, and interfaces for the various work elements of the Hanford Tanks Initiative. Cost detail is included for information only.

  5. About Cost Breakdown Structure for Ocean Current Device Created...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ocean Current Device Created by Mirko Previsic Company RE Vision Consulting, LLC Contact mirko@re-vision.net Date 41114 CommentsNotes 1. This spreadsheet provides the background ...

  6. Theory of the electronic and structural properties of solid state oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chelikowsky, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on electronic and structural properties of solid state oxides continued. This quarter, studies have concentrated on silica. Progress is discussed in the following sections: interatomic potentials and the structural properties of silica; chemical reactivity and covalent/metallic bonding on Si clusters; and surface and thermodynamic interatomic forces fields for silicon. 64 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs. (CBS)

  7. High-voltage atmospheric breakdown across intervening rutile dielectrics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Simpson, Sean; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Pasik, Michael Francis

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 on electrical discharge experiments performed to develop predictive computational models of the fundamental processes of surface breakdown in the vicinity of high-permittivity material interfaces. Further, experiments were conducted to determine if free carrier electrons could be excited into the conduction band thus lowering the effective breakdown voltage when UV photons (4.66 eV) from a high energy pulsed laser were incident on the rutile sample. This report documents the numerical approach, the experimental setup, and summarizes the data and simulations. Lastly, it describes the path forward and challenges that must be overcome in order to improve future experiments for characterizing the breakdown behavior for rutile.

  8. X ray photoelectron analysis of oxide-semiconductor interface after breakdown in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shekhter, P.; Palumbo, F.; Cohen Weinfeld, K.; Eizenberg, M.

    2014-09-08

    In this work, the post-breakdown characteristics of metal gate/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs structures were studied using surface analysis by x ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that for dielectric breakdown under positive bias, localized filaments consisting of oxidized substrate atoms (In, Ga and As) were formed, while following breakdown under negative bias, a decrease of oxidized substrate atoms was observed. Such differences in the microstructure at the oxide-semiconductor interface after breakdown for positive and negative voltages are explained by atomic diffusion of the contact atoms into the gate dielectric in the region of the breakdown spot by the current induced electro-migration effect. These findings show a major difference between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs and SiO{sub 2}/Si interfaces, opening the way to a better understanding of the breakdown characteristics of III-V complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor technology.

  9. A relationship between statistical time to breakdown distributions and pre-breakdown negative differential resistance at nanometric scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foissac, R.; Blonkowski, S.; Delcroix, P.; Kogelschatz, M.

    2014-07-14

    Using an ultra-high vacuum Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) current voltage, pre-breakdown negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics are measured together with the time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) distributions of Si/SiON (1.4 and 2.6?nm thick). Those experimental characteristics are systematically compared. The NDR effect is modelled by a conductive filament growth. It is showed that the Weibull TDDB statistic distribution scale factor is proportional to the growth rate of an individual filament and then has the same dependence on the electric field. The proportionality factor is a power law of the ratio between the surfaces of the CAFM tip and the filament's top. Moreover, it was found that, for the high fields used in those experiments, the TDDB acceleration factor as the growth rate characteristic is proportional to the Zener tunnelling probability. Those observations are discussed in the framework of possible breakdown or forming mechanism.

  10. Breakdown voltage improvement of standard MOS technologies targeted at smart power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, P.M.; Simas, M.I.C.; Lanca, M.; Finco, S.; Behrens, F.H.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents and discusses trade-offs of three different design techniques intended to improve the breakdown voltage of n-type lateral medium power transistors to be fabricated in a conventional low cost CMOS technology. A thorough analysis of the static and dynamic characteristics of the modified structures was carried out with the support of a two-dimensional device simulator. The motivation behind this work was the construction of a low cost smart power microsystem, including control, sensing and protection circuitries, targeted at an electronic ballast for efficient control of the power delivered to fluorescent lamps.

  11. Improved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Elemental Composition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detection System - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Geothermal Geothermal Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Elemental Composition Detection System A device to measure subsurface gases, liquids, and solids at subsurface conditions National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary This device can measure subsurface gases, liquids, and solids at

  12. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for specimen analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Akshaya; Yu-Yueh, Fang; Burgess, Shane C.; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2006-08-15

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus, a system and a method for detecting the presence or absence of trace elements in a biological sample using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. The trace elements are used to develop a signature profile which is analyzed directly or compared with the known profile of a standard. In one aspect of the invention, the apparatus, system and method are used to detect malignant cancer cells in vivo.

  13. Effect of temperature and CO2 concentration on laser-induced breakdown

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectroscopy measurements of alkali fume. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect temperature and CO2 concentration on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of alkali fume. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of temperature and CO2 concentration on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of alkali fume. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used in the evaluation of aerosol concentration in the exhaust of an oxygen/natural-gas glass furnace.

  14. Studies on gas breakdown in pulsed radio frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huo, W. G. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Technology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Jian, S. J.; Yao, J.; Ding, Z. F., E-mail: zfding@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2014-05-15

    In pulsed RF atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the gas breakdown judged by the rapid drop in the amplitude of the pulsed RF voltage is no longer universally true. The steep increment of the plasma-absorbed RF power is proposed to determine the gas breakdown. The averaged plasma-absorbed RF power over a pulse period is used to evaluate effects of the preceding pulsed RF discharge on the breakdown voltage of the following one, finding that the breakdown voltage decreases with the increment in the averaged plasma-absorbed RF power under constant pulse duty ratio. Effects of the pulse off-time on the breakdown voltage and the breakdown delay time are also studied. The obtained dependence of the breakdown voltage on the pulse off-time is indicative of the transitional plasma diffusion processes in the afterglow. The breakdown voltage varies rapidly as the plasma diffuses fast in the region of moderate pulse off-time. The contribution of nitrogen atom recombination at the alumina surface is demonstrated in the prolonged memory effect on the breakdown delay time vs. the pulse off-time and experimentally validated by introducing a trace amount of nitrogen into argon at short and long pulse off-times.

  15. Visual and Electrical Evidence Supporting a Two-Plasma Mechanism of Vacuum Breakdown Initiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castano-Giraldo, C.; Aghazarian, Maro; Caughman, John B; Ruzic, D. N.

    2012-01-01

    The energy available during vacuum breakdown between copper electrodes at high vacuum was limited using resistors in series with the vacuum gap and arresting diodes. Surviving features observed with SEM in postmortem samples were tentatively correlated with electrical signals captured during breakdown using a Rogowski coil and a high-voltage probe. The visual and electrical evidence is consistent with the qualitative model of vacuum breakdown by unipolar arc formation by Schwirzke [1, 2]. The evidence paints a picture of two plasmas of different composition and scale being created during vacuum breakdown: an initial plasma made of degassed material from the metal surface, ignites a plasma made up of the electrode material.

  16. Gas breakdown driven by L band short-pulse high-power microwave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Yiming; Yuan Chengwei; Qian Baoliang

    2012-12-15

    High power microwave (HPM) driven gas breakdown is a major factor in limiting the radiation and transmission of HPM. A method that HPM driven gas breakdown could be obtained by changing the aperture of horn antenna is studied in this paper. Changing the effective aperture of horn antenna can adjust the electric field in near field zone, leading to gas breakdown. With this method, measurements of air and SF{sub 6} breakdowns are carried out on a magnetically insulated transmission-line oscillators, which is capable of generating HPM with pulse duration of 30 ns, and frequency of 1.74 GHz. The typical breakdown waveforms of air and SF{sub 6} are presented. Besides, the breakdown field strengths of the two gases are derived at different pressures. It is found that the effects of air and SF{sub 6} breakdown on the transmission of HPM are different: air breakdown mainly shortens the pulse width of HPM while SF{sub 6} breakdown mainly reduces the peak output power of HPM. The electric field threshold of SF{sub 6} is about 2.4 times larger than that of air. These differences suggest that gas properties have a great effect on the transmission characteristic of HPM in gases.

  17. Apparatus, system, and method for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Effenberger, Jr., Andrew J; Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R

    2014-11-18

    In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), an apparatus includes a pulsed laser configured to generate a pulsed laser signal toward a sample, a constructive interference object and an optical element, each located in a path of light from the sample. The constructive interference object is configured to generate constructive interference patterns of the light. The optical element is configured to disperse the light. A LIBS system includes a first and a second optical element, and a data acquisition module. The data acquisition module is configured to determine an isotope measurement based, at least in part, on light received by an image sensor from the first and second optical elements. A method for performing LIBS includes generating a pulsed laser on a sample to generate light from a plasma, generating constructive interference patterns of the light, and dispersing the light into a plurality of wavelengths.

  18. Scaling law for direct current field emission-driven microscale gas breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkattraman, A.; Alexeenko, A. A.

    2012-12-15

    The effects of field emission on direct current breakdown in microscale gaps filled with an ambient neutral gas are studied numerically and analytically. Fundamental numerical experiments using the particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions method are used to systematically quantify microscale ionization and space-charge enhancement of field emission. The numerical experiments are then used to validate a scaling law for the modified Paschen curve that bridges field emission-driven breakdown with the macroscale Paschen law. Analytical expressions are derived for the increase in cathode electric field, total steady state current density, and the ion-enhancement coefficient including a new breakdown criterion. It also includes the effect of all key parameters such as pressure, operating gas, and field-enhancement factor providing a better predictive capability than existing microscale breakdown models. The field-enhancement factor is shown to be the most sensitive parameter with its increase leading to a significant drop in the threshold breakdown electric field and also to a gradual merging with the Paschen law. The proposed scaling law is also shown to agree well with two independent sets of experimental data for microscale breakdown in air. The ability to accurately describe not just the breakdown voltage but the entire pre-breakdown process for given operating conditions makes the proposed model a suitable candidate for the design and analysis of electrostatic microscale devices.

  19. Electric properties and carrier multiplication in breakdown sites in multi-crystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneemann, Matthias; Carius, Reinhard; Rau, Uwe; Kirchartz, Thomas

    2015-05-28

    This paper studies the effective electrical size and carrier multiplication of breakdown sites in multi-crystalline silicon solar cells. The local series resistance limits the current of each breakdown site and is thereby linearizing the current-voltage characteristic. This fact allows the estimation of the effective electrical diameters to be as low as 100?nm. Using a laser beam induced current (LBIC) measurement with a high spatial resolution, we find carrier multiplication factors on the order of 30 (Zener-type breakdown) and 100 (avalanche breakdown) as new lower limits. Hence, we prove that also the so-called Zener-type breakdown is followed by avalanche multiplication. We explain that previous measurements of the carrier multiplication using thermography yield results higher than unity, only if the spatial defect density is high enough, and the illumination intensity is lower than what was used for the LBIC method. The individual series resistances of the breakdown sites limit the current through these breakdown sites. Therefore, the measured multiplication factors depend on the applied voltage as well as on the injected photocurrent. Both dependencies are successfully simulated using a series-resistance-limited diode model.

  20. Analytical investigation of electrical breakdown properties in a nitrogen-SF{sub 6} mixture gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, Han S.; Byeon, Yong S.; Song, Ki B.; Choi, Eun H.; Ryu, Han-Yong; Lee, Jaimin

    2010-11-15

    The electrical breakdown properties in nitrogen gas mixed with SF{sub 6} are analytically investigated in this article by making use of the ionization and attachment coefficients of the mixed gas. The ionization coefficients of nitrogen and SF{sub 6} gas are obtained in terms of the electron temperature T{sub e} by assuming a Maxwellian distribution of the electron energy. The attachment coefficient of SF{sub 6} gas is also obtained in terms of the gas temperature T{sub e}. An algebraic equation is obtained, relating explicitly the electron breakdown temperature T{sub b} in terms of the SF{sub 6} mole fraction {chi}. It was found from this equation that the breakdown temperature T{sub b} increases from approximately 2 to 5.3 eV as the mole fraction {chi} increases from zero to unity. The breakdown temperature T{sub b} of the electrons increases very rapidly from a small value and then approaches 5.3 eV slowly as the SF{sub 6} mole fraction increases from zero to unity. This indicates that even a small mole fraction of SF{sub 6} in the gas dominates the electron behavior in the breakdown system. The breakdown electric field E{sub b} derived is almost linearly proportional to the breakdown electron temperature T{sub b}. The experimental data agree remarkably well with the theoretical results. Therefore, it is concluded that even a small fraction of SF{sub 6} gas dominates nitrogen in determining the breakdown field. In this context, nearly 25% of the SF{sub 6} mole fraction provides a reasonable enhancement of the breakdown field for practical applications.

  1. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of alkali metals in high-temperature

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gas (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of alkali metals in high-temperature gas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of alkali metals in high-temperature gas Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements of alkali in the high-temperature exhaust of a glass furnace show an attenuation of the Na and K LIBS signals that correlates with the stoichiometry of the bath gas surrounding the spark. The results

  2. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in industrial and security applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bol'shakov, Alexander A.; Yoo, Jong H.; Liu Chunyi; Plumer, John R.; Russo, Richard E.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers rapid, localized chemical analysis of solid or liquid materials with high spatial resolution in lateral and depth profiling, without the need for sample preparation. Principal component analysis and partial least squares algorithms were applied to identify a variety of complex organic and inorganic samples. This work illustrates how LIBS analyzers can answer a multitude of real-world needs for rapid analysis, such as determination of lead in paint and children's toys, analysis of electronic and solder materials, quality control of fiberglass panels, discrimination of coffee beans from different vendors, and identification of generic versus brand-name drugs. Lateral and depth profiling was performed on children's toys and paint layers. Traditional one-element calibration or multivariate chemometric procedures were applied for elemental quantification, from single laser shot determination of metal traces at {approx}10 {mu}g/g to determination of halogens at 90 {mu}g/g using 50-shot spectral accumulation. The effectiveness of LIBS for security applications was demonstrated in the field by testing the 50-m standoff LIBS rasterizing detector.

  3. Where do the default values for the cost of system breakdowns...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Where do the default values for the cost of system breakdowns come from in SAM, for direct and indirect costs, such as 0.63 per DC watt for panels. 0.18 for inverters. Are these...

  4. Dynamics of Percolative Breakdown Mechanism in Tantalum Oxide ReRAM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switching. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Dynamics of Percolative Breakdown Mechanism in Tantalum Oxide ReRAM Switching. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamics of Percolative Breakdown Mechanism in Tantalum Oxide ReRAM Switching. Abstract not provided. Authors: Lohn, Andrew ; Mickel, Patrick R. ; Marinella, Matthew Publication Date: 2013-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1111385 Report Number(s): SAND2013-5134J 456566 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article

  5. Electrical Breakdown Physics in Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches (PCSS).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mar, Alan; Zutavern, Fred J.; Vawter, Gregory A.; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Gallegos, Richard Joseph; Bigman, Verle Howard

    2016-01-01

    Advanced switching devices with long lifetime will be critical components for Linear Transformer Drivers (LTDs) in next-generation accelerators. LTD designs employ high switch counts. With current gas switch technology at %7E10e3 shot life, a potential game-changer would be the development of a reliable low-impedance (%3C35nh) optically-triggered compact solid-state switch capable of switching 200kV and 50kA with 10e5 shotlife or better. Other applications of this technology, are pulse shaping programmable systems for dynamic material studies (Z-next, Genesis), efficient pulsed power systems for biofuel feedstock, short pulse (10 ns) accelerator designs for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and sprytron replacements in NW firing sets. This LDRD project has succeeded in developing new optically-triggered photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) designs that show great promise for scaling to modules capable of 200kV (DC) and 5kA current that can be stacked in parallel to achieve 100's of kA with 10e5 shot lifetime. . Executive Summary Advanced switching devices with long lifetime will be critical components for Linear Transformer Drivers (LTDs) in next-generation accelerators. LTD designs employ high switch counts. With current gas switch technology at %7E10e3 shot life, a potential game-changer would be the development of a reliable low-impedance (%3C35nh) optically-triggered compact solid-state switch capable of switching 200kV and 50kA with 10e5 shotlife or better. Other applications of this technology, are pulse shaping programmable systems for dynamic material studies (Z-next, Genesis), efficient pulsed power systems for biofuel feedstock, short pulse (10 ns) accelerator designs for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and sprytron replacements in NW firing sets. This LDRD project has succeeded in developing new optically-triggered photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) designs that show great promise for scaling to modules capable of 200kV (DC) and 5kA current that can be stacked in parallel to achieve 100's of kA with 10e5 shot lifetime. The new vertical switch design configuration generates parallel filaments in the bulk GaAs (as opposed to just beneath the surface as in previous designs) to achieve breakdown fields close to the maximum for the bulk GaAs while operating in air, and with 2-D scalability of the number of current-sharing filaments. This design also may be highly compatible with 2-D VCSEL arrays for optical triggering. The demonstration of this design in this LDRD utilized standard thickness wafers to trigger 0.4kA at 35kV/cm (limited by 0.6mm wafer thickness), tested to 1e5 shots with no detectable degradation of switch performance. Higher fields, total current, and switching voltages would be achievable with thicker GaAs wafers. Another important application pursued in this LDRD is the use of PCSS for trigger generator applications. Conventional in-plane PCSS have achieved triggering of a 100kV sparkgap (Kinetech-type) switch of the type similar to switches being considered for accelerator upgrades. The trigger is also being developed for pulsed power for HPM applications that require miniaturization and robust performance in noisy compact environments. This has spawned new programs for developing this technology, including an STTR for VCSEL trigger laser integration, also pursuing other follow-on applications.

  6. Breakdown assisted by a novel electron drift injection in the J-TEXT tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Nengchao; Jin, Hai; Zhuang, Ge Ding, Yonghua; Pan, Yuan; Cen, Yishun; Chen, Zhipeng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Dequan; Rao, Bo; Zhang, Ming; Zou, Bichen

    2014-07-15

    A novel electron drift injection (EDI) system aiming to improve breakdown behavior has been designed and constructed on the Joint Texas EXperiment Tokamak Tokamak. Electrons emitted by the system undergo the E×B drift, ?B drift and curvature drift in sequence in order to traverse the confining magnetic field. A local electrostatic well, generated by a concave-shaped plate biased more negative than the cathode, is introduced to interrupt the emitted electrons moving along the magnetic field line (in the parallel direction) in an attempt to bring an enhancement of the injection efficiency and depth. A series of experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of this method, and a penetration distance deeper than 9.5 cm is achieved. Notable breakdown improvements, including the reduction of breakdown delay and average loop voltage, are observed for discharges assisted by EDI. The lower limit of successfully ionized pressure is expanded.

  7. The quantum mechanics of ion-enhanced field emission and how it influences microscale gas breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yingjie; Go, David B.

    2014-09-14

    The presence of a positive gas ion can enhance cold electron field emission by deforming the potential barrier and increasing the tunneling probability of electrons—a process known as ion-enhanced field emission. In microscale gas discharges, ion-enhanced field emission produces additional emission from the cathode and effectively reduces the voltage required to breakdown a gaseous medium at the microscale (<10 ?m). In this work, we enhance classic field emission theory by determining the impact of a gaseous ion on electron tunneling and compute the effect of ion-enhanced field emission on the breakdown voltage. We reveal that the current density for ion-enhanced field emission retains the same scaling as vacuum cold field emission and that this leads to deviations from traditional breakdown theory at microscale dimensions.

  8. Evidence of a Percolative Breakdown Mechanism in Tantalum Oxide ReRAM

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switching. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Evidence of a Percolative Breakdown Mechanism in Tantalum Oxide ReRAM Switching. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evidence of a Percolative Breakdown Mechanism in Tantalum Oxide ReRAM Switching. Abstract not provided. Authors: Lohn, Andrew ; Mickel, Patrick R. ; Marinella, Matthew Publication Date: 2013-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1079815 Report Number(s): SAND2013-4095J 453126 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal

  9. End-use Breakdown: The Building Energy Modeling Blog | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    End-use Breakdown: The Building Energy Modeling Blog End-use Breakdown: The Building Energy Modeling Blog RSS Welcome to the Building Technologies Office's Building Energy Modeling blog. February 19, 2016 Trimble's recent acquisition of Sefaira and its pairing with SketchUp is a good sign for the BEM industry. Image credit: Sefaira. DOE. A Good Sign for the Building Energy Modeling Industry If you are a BEM professional, know a BEM professional, or even follow one on LinkedIn or Twitter, you've

  10. About Cost Breakdown Structure for Tidal Current Device Created by Mirko Previsic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tidal Current Device Created by Mirko Previsic Company RE Vision Consulting, LLC Contact mirko@re-vision.net Date 41127 Comments/Notes 1. This spreadsheet provides the background and details of the cost and economic assessment of the Tidal Current Device 2. This spreadsheet supports the primary reports on theTidal Current device 3. Cost Estimates provided herein are based on concept design and engineering data and have high levels of uncertainties embedded Disclaimer Report Tables Capex and Opex

  11. Preliminary Development of a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for Small Modular Reactors (SMRs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Thomas J.; Moses, Rebecca J.; Flanagan, George F.

    2014-10-01

    In summary, this preliminary WBS serves as an initial basis for the capital cost component of the economic analysis of SMRs. This preliminary WBS comes from the known WBS for existing, large nuclear power plants and develops the methodology for accounting for the anticipated differences between the current large plants and the projected SMR designs.

  12. Transition between breakdown regimes in a temperature-dependent mixture of argon and mercury using 100 kHz excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobota, A.; Bos, R. A. J. M. van den; Kroesen, G. [Dept. of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Postbus 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Manders, F. [Philips Innovative Applications, Steenweg op Gierle 417, B-2300 Turnhout (Belgium)

    2013-01-28

    The paper examines the breakdown process at 100 kHz in a changing temperature-dependent mixture of Ar and Hg and the associated transitions between breakdown regimes. Each measurement series started at 1400 K, 10 bar of Hg, and 0.05% admixture of Ar and finished by natural cooling at room temperature, 150 mbar of Ar, and 0.01% admixture of Hg. The E/N at breakdown as a function of temperature and gas composition was found to have a particular shape with a peak at 600 K, when Hg makes up for 66% of the gaseous mixture and Ar 34%. This peak was found to be an effect of the mixture itself, not the temperature effects or the possible presence of electronegative species. The analysis has shown that at this frequency both streamer and diffuse breakdown can take place, depending on the temperature and gas composition. Streamer discharges during breakdown are present at high temperatures and high Hg pressure, while at room temperature in 150 mbar of Ar the breakdown has a diffuse nature. In between those two cases, the radius of the discharges during breakdown was found to change in a monotonic manner, covering one order of magnitude from the size typical for streamer discharges to a diffuse discharge comparable to the size of the reactor.

  13. Performance and breakdown characteristics of irradiated vertical power GaN P-i-N diodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Dickerson, J. R.; Vizkelethy, G.; Fleming, R. M.; Campbell, J.; Wampler, W. R.; Kizilyalli, I. C.; Bour, D. P.; Aktas, O.; et al

    2015-10-29

    Electrical performance and defect characterization of vertical GaN P-i-N diodes before and after irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons and neutrons is investigated. Devices exhibit increase in specific on-resistance following irradiation with protons and neutrons, indicating displacement damage introduces defects into the p-GaN and n- drift regions of the device that impact on-state device performance. The breakdown voltage of these devices, initially above 1700 V, is observed to decrease only slightly for particle fluence <; 1013 cm-2. Furthermore, the unipolar figure of merit for power devices indicates that while the on-resistance and breakdown voltage degrade with irradiation, vertical GaN P-i-Ns remainmore » superior to the performance of the best available, unirradiated silicon devices and on-par with unirradiated modern SiC-based power devices.« less

  14. Acoustic monitoring method and system in laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Matthew; Ye, Jing Yong; Norris, Theodore B.; Baker, Jr., James R.; Balogh, Lajos P.; Milas, Susanne M.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.; Hollman, Kyle W.

    2008-05-06

    An acoustic monitoring method and system in laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB) provides information which characterize material which is broken down, microbubbles in the material, and/or the microenvironment of the microbubbles. In one embodiment of the invention, femtosecond laser pulses are focused just inside the surface of a volume of aqueous solution which may include dendrimer nanocomposite (DNC) particles. A tightly focused, high frequency, single-element ultrasonic transducer is positioned such that its focus coincides axially and laterally with this laser focus. When optical breakdown occurs, a microbubble forms and a shock or pressure wave is emitted (i.e., acoustic emission). In addition to this acoustic signal, the microbubble may be actively probed with pulse-echo measurements from the same transducer. After the microbubble forms, received pulse-echo signals have an extra pulse, describing the microbubble location and providing a measure of axial microbubble size. Wavefield plots of successive recordings illustrate the generation, growth, and collapse of microbubbles due to optical breakdown. These same plots can also be used to quantify LIOB thresholds.

  15. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Single-Cell Standing Wave Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolgashev, Valery; Tantawi, Sami; Yeremian, Anahid; Higashi, Yasuo; Spataro, Bruno; /INFN, Rome

    2012-06-25

    Our experiments are directed toward the understanding of the physics of rf breakdown in systems that can be used to accelerate electron beams at {approx}11.4 GHz. The structure geometries have apertures, stored energy per cell, and rf pulse duration close to that of the NLC or CLIC. The breakdown rate is the main parameter that we use to compare rf breakdown behavior for different structures at a given set of rf pulse parameters (pulse shape and peak power) at 60 Hz repetition rate. In our experiments, the typical range of the breakdown rate is from one per few hours to {approx}100 per hour. To date we have tested 29 structures. We consistently found that after the initial conditioning, the behavior of the breakdown rate is reproducible for structures of the same geometry and material, and the breakdown rate dependence on peak magnetic fields is stronger than on peak surface electric fields for structures of different geometries. Below we report the main results from tests of seven structures made from hard copper, soft copper alloys and hard-copper alloys. Additional details on these and other structures will be discussed in future publications.

  16. Dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF{sub 6}/He mixtures predicted from basic data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weizong; State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi 710049 ; Tu, Xin; Mei, Danhua; Rong, Mingzhe

    2013-11-15

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) gas has a quite high global warming potential and hence it is required that applying any substitute for SF{sub 6} gas. Much interest in the use of a mixture of helium and SF{sub 6} as arc quenching medium was investigated indicating a higher recovery performance of arc interruption than that of pure SF{sub 6}. It is known that the electrical breakdown in a circuit breaker after arc interruption occurs in a hot gas environment, with a complicated species composition because of the occurrence of dissociation and other reactions. The likelihood of breakdown relies on the electron interactions with all these species. The critical reduced electric field strength (the field at which breakdown can occur, relative to the number density) of hot SF{sub 6}/He mixtures related to the dielectric recovery phase of a high voltage circuit breaker is calculated in the temperature range from 300 K to 3500 K. The critically reduced electric field strength of these mixtures was obtained by balancing electron generation and loss mechanisms. These were evaluated using the electron energy distribution function derived from the Boltzmann transport equation under the two-term approximation. Good agreement was found between calculations for pure hot SF{sub 6} and pure hot He and experimental results and previous calculations. The addition of He to SF{sub 6} was found to decrease the critical reduced electric field strength in the whole temperature range due to a lack of electron impact attachment process for helium regardless its high ionization potential. This indicates that not the behaviour of dielectric strength but possibly the higher energy dissipation capability caused mainly by light mass and high specific heat as well as thermal conductivity of atomic helium contributes most to a higher dielectric recovery performance of arc interruption for SF{sub 6}/He mixtures.

  17. Commercialization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for lead-in-paint inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Richard A.; Kolodziejski, Noah J.; Squillante, Michael R

    2008-11-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can be a practical and competitive alternative to x-ray fluorescence (XRF) methods for lead-in-paint inspection. Experiments in the laboratory confirmed that LIBS is suitable for detecting lead in paint at the hazard levels defined by federal agencies. Although we compared speed, function, and cost, fundamental differences between the XRF and LIBS measurements limited our ability to make a quantitative performance comparison. While the LIBS method can achieve the required sensitivity and offers a way to obtain unique information during inspection, the current component costs will likely restrict interest in the method to niche applications.

  18. Gas breakdown mechanism in pulse-modulated asymmetric ratio frequency dielectric barrier discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qi; Sun, Jizhong, E-mail: jsun@dlut.edu.cn; Ding, Zhenfeng; Ding, Hongbin; Wang, Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Nozaki, Tomohiro [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Wang, Zhanhui [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-08-15

    The gas breakdown mechanisms, especially the roles of metastable species in atmospheric pressure pulse-modulated ratio frequency barrier discharges with co-axial cylindrical electrodes, were studied numerically using a one dimensional self-consistent fluid model. Simulation results showed that in low duty cycle cases, the electrons generated from the channels associated with metastable species played a more important role in initializing next breakdown than the direct ionization of helium atoms of electronic grounded states by electron-impact. In order to quantitatively evaluate the contribution to the discharge by the metastables, we defined a “characteristic time” and examined how the value varied with the gap distance and the electrode asymmetry. The results indicated that the lifetime of the metastable species (including He*and He{sub 2}{sup *}) was much longer than that of the pulse-on period and as effective sources of producing electrons they lasted over a period up to millisecond. When the ratio of the outer radius to the inner radius of the cylindrical electrodes was far bigger than one, it was found that the metastables distributed mainly in a cylindrical region around the inner electrode. When the ratio decreased as the inner electrode moved outward, the density of metastables in the discharge region near the outer electrode became gradually noticeable. As the discharging gap continued to decrease, the two hill-shaped distributions gradually merged to one big hill. When the discharge spacing was fixed, asymmetric electrodes facilitated the discharge.

  19. Spectrographic temperature measurement of a high power breakdown arc in a high pressure gas switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeckel, Christopher; Curry, Randy

    2011-09-15

    A procedure for obtaining an approximate temperature value of conducting plasma generated during self-break closure of a RIMFIRE gas switch is described. The plasma is in the form of a breakdown arc which conducts approximately 12 kJ of energy in 1 {mu}s. A spectrographic analysis of the trigger-section of the 6-MV RIMFIRE laser triggered gas switch used in Sandia National Laboratory's ''Z-Machine'' has been made. It is assumed that the breakdown plasma has sufficiently approached local thermodynamic equilibrium allowing a black-body temperature model to be applied. This model allows the plasma temperature and radiated power to be approximated. The gas dielectric used in these tests was pressurized SF{sub 6}. The electrode gap is set at 4.59 cm for each test. The electrode material is stainless steel and insulator material is poly(methyl methacrylate). A spectrum range from 220 to 550 nanometers has been observed and calibrated using two spectral irradiance lamps and three spectrograph gratings. The approximate plasma temperature is reported.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF BREAKDOWN INDUCED SURFACE DAMAGE ON 805 MHZ PILLBOX CAVITY INTERIOR SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, M.R.; Chung, M.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Tollestrup,A.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.; Torun, Y.; Bowring, D.; Flanagan, G.

    2013-09-25

    The MuCool Test Area (MTA) at Fermilab is a facility to develop the technology required for ionization cooling for a future Muon Collider and/or Neutrino Factory. As part of this research program, we have tested two 805 MHz vacuum RF cavities in a multi-Tesla magnetic field to study the effects of the static magnetic field on the cavity operation. This study gives useful information on field emitters in the cavity, dark current, surface conditioning, breakdown mechanisms and material properties of the cavity. All these factors determine the maximum accelerating gradient in the cavity. This paper discusses the image processing technique for quantitative estimation of spark damage spot distribution on cavity interior surfaces. The distribution is compared with the electric field distribution predicted by a computer code calculation. The local spark density is proportional to probability of surface breakdown and shows a power law dependence on the maximum electric field (E). This E dependence is consistent with the dark current calculated from the Fowler-Nordheim equation.

  1. Nonlinear theory of drift-cyclotron kinetics and the possible breakdown of gyro-kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waltz, R. E.; Deng Zhao

    2013-01-15

    A nonlinear theory of drift-cyclotron kinetics (termed cyclo-kinetics here) is formulated to test the breakdown of the gyro-kinetic approximations. Six dimensional cyclo-kinetics can be regarded as an extension of five dimensional gyro-kinetics to include high-frequency cyclotron waves, which can interrupt the low-frequency gyro-averaging in the (sixth velocity grid) gyro-phase angle. Nonlinear cyclo-kinetics has no limit on the amplitude of the perturbations. Formally, there is no gyro-averaging when all cyclotron (gyro-phase angle) harmonics of the perturbed distribution function (delta-f) are retained. Retaining only the (low frequency) zeroth cyclotron harmonic in cyclo-kinetics recovers both linear and nonlinear gyro-kinetics. Simple recipes are given for converting continuum nonlinear delta-f gyro-kinetic transport simulation codes to cyclo-kinetics codes by retaining (at least some) higher cyclotron harmonics.

  2. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement in methane and biodiesel flames using an ungated detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eseller, Kemal E.; Yueh, Fang Y.; Singh, Jagdish P

    2008-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to measure the equivalence ratio of CH4/air flames using gated detection. In this work, we have developed an ungated, miniature LIBS-based sensor for studying CH4/air and biodiesel flames. We have used this sensor to characterize the biodiesel flame. LIBS spectra of biodiesel flames were recorded with different ethanol concentrations in the biodiesel and also at different axial locations within the flame. The sensor performance was evaluated with a CH4/air flame. LIBS signals of N, O, and H from a CH4/air flame were used to determine the equivalence ratio. A linear relationship between the intensity ratio of H and O lines and the calculated equivalence ratio were obtained with this sensor.

  3. Fiber optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for molten material analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hansheng; Rai, Awadesh K.; Singh, Jagdish P.; Yueh, Fang-Yu

    2004-07-13

    A fiber optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) sensor, including a laser light source, a harmonic separator for directing the laser light, a dichroic mirror for reflecting the laser light, a coupling lens for coupling the laser light at an input of a multimode optical fiber, a connector for coupling the laser light from an output of the multimode optical fiber to an input of a high temperature holder, such as a holder made of stainless steel, and a detector portion for receiving emission signal and analyzing LIBS intensities. In one variation, the multimode optical fiber has silica core and silica cladding. The holder includes optical lenses for collimating and focusing the laser light in a molten alloy to produce a plasma, and for collecting and transmitting an emission signal to the multimode optical fiber.

  4. Two-phase mixed media dielectric with macro dielectric beads for enhancing resistivity and breakdown strength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falabella, Steven; Meyer, Glenn A; Tang, Vincent; Guethlein, Gary

    2014-06-10

    A two-phase mixed media insulator having a dielectric fluid filling the interstices between macro-sized dielectric beads packed into a confined volume, so that the packed dielectric beads inhibit electro-hydrodynamically driven current flows of the dielectric liquid and thereby increase the resistivity and breakdown strength of the two-phase insulator over the dielectric liquid alone. In addition, an electrical apparatus incorporates the two-phase mixed media insulator to insulate between electrical components of different electrical potentials. And a method of electrically insulating between electrical components of different electrical potentials fills a confined volume between the electrical components with the two-phase dielectric composite, so that the macro dielectric beads are packed in the confined volume and interstices formed between the macro dielectric beads are filled with the dielectric liquid.

  5. Investigation of historical metal objects using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Kareem, O.; Ghoneim, M.; Harith, M. A.

    2011-09-22

    Analysis of metal objects is a necessary step for establishing an appropriate conservation treatment of an object or to follow up the application's result of the suggested treatments. The main considerations on selecting a method that can be used in investigation and analysis of metal objects are based on the diagnostic power, representative sampling, reproducibility, destructive nature/invasiveness of analysis and accessibility to the appropriate instrument. This study aims at evaluating the usefulness of the use of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Technique for analysis of historical metal objects. In this study various historical metal objects collected from different museums and excavations in Egypt were investigated using (LIBS) technique. For evaluating usefulness of the suggested analytical protocol of this technique, the same investigated metal objects were investigated by other methods such as Scanning Electron Microscope with energy-dispersive x-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). This study confirms that Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Technique is considered very useful technique that can be used safely for investigating historical metal objects. LIBS analysis can quickly provide information on the qualitative and semi-quantitative elemental content of different metal objects and their characterization and classification. It is practically non-destructive technique with the critical advantage of being applicable in situ, thereby avoiding sampling and sample preparations. It is can be dependable, satisfactory and effective method for low cost study of archaeological and historical metals. But we have to take into consideration that the corrosion of metal leads to material alteration and possible loss of certain metals in the form of soluble salts. Certain corrosion products are known to leach out of the object and therefore, their low content does not necessarily reflect the composition of the metal at the time of the object manufacture. Another point should be taken into consideration that the heterogeneity of a metal alloy object that often result from poor mixing of the different metal alloy composition.There is a necessity to carry out further research to investigate and determine the most appropriate and effective approaches and methods for conservation of these metal objects.

  6. Practical high resolution detection method for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew J. Effenberger Jr; Jill R. Scott

    2012-02-01

    A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer to acquire high-resolution measurements in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The spectrometer was built using an inexpensive etalon coupled to a standard 0.5-m imaging spectrometer. The Hg emission doublet at 313.2 nm was used to evaluate instrument performance because it has a splitting of 29 pm. The 313.2 nm doublet was chosen due to the similar splitting seen in isotope splitting from uranium at 424.437 nm, which is 25 pm. The Hg doublet was easily resolved from a continuous source Hg-lamp with a 2 s acquisition. The doublet was also resolved in LIBS spectra of cinnabar (HgS) from the accumulation of 600 laser shots at rate of 10 Hz, or 1 min, under a helium atmosphere. In addition to observed spitting of the 313.2 nm Hg doublet, the FWHM of the 313.1844 nm line from the doublet is reported at varying He atmospheric pressures. The high performance, low cost, and compact footprint makes this system highly competitive with 2-m double pass Czerny-Turner spectrometers.

  7. Fragmentation of fast Josephson vortices and breakdown of ordered states by moving topological defects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sheikhzada, Ahmad; Gurevich, Alex

    2015-12-07

    Topological defects such as vortices, dislocations or domain walls define many important effects in superconductivity, superfluidity, magnetism, liquid crystals, and plasticity of solids. Here we address the breakdown of the topologically-protected stability of such defects driven by strong external forces. We focus on Josephson vortices that appear at planar weak links of suppressed superconductivity which have attracted much attention for electronic applications, new sources of THz radiation, and low-dissipative computing. Our numerical simulations show that a rapidly moving vortex driven by a constant current becomes unstable with respect to generation of vortex-antivortex pairs caused by Cherenkov radiation. As a result,more » vortices and antivortices become spatially separated and accumulate continuously on the opposite sides of an expanding dissipative domain. This effect is most pronounced in thin film edge Josephson junctions at low temperatures where a single vortex can switch the whole junction into a resistive state at currents well below the Josephson critical current. In conclusion, our work gives a new insight into instability of a moving topological defect which destroys global long-range order in a way that is remarkably similar to the crack propagation in solids.« less

  8. High-Resolution Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used in Homeland Security and Forensic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Madhavi Z; Wullschleger, Stan D; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Martin, Rodger Carl; Grissino-Mayer, Henri

    2006-01-01

    The technique of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to detect elements for a variety of homeland security applications such as nuclear materials identification and inventory,and forensic applications has been demonstrated. For nuclear materials applications, we detected and profiled metals in coatings that were used to encapsulate nuclear fuel. Multivariate analysis has been successfully employed in the quantification of elements present in treated wood and engineered wood composites. These examples demonstrate that LIBS-based techniques are inherently well suited for diverse environmental applications related to homeland security. Three key advantages are evident: (1) small samples (mg) are sufficient; (2) samples can be analyzed by LIBS very rapidly, and (3) biological materials such as human and animal bones and wood can be analyzed with minimal sample preparation. For forensic applications they have used LIBS to determine differences in animal and human bones. They have also applied this technique in the determination of counterfeit and non-counterfeit currency. They recently applied LIBS in helping to solve a murder case.

  9. Rapid Analysis of Ash Composition Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic compounds are known to be problematic in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to syngas and ultimately hydrocarbon fuels. The elements Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe, and Al are particularly problematic and are known to influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams. Substantial quantities of inorganic species can be entrained in the bark of trees during harvest operations. Herbaceous feedstocks often have even greater quantities of inorganic constituents, which can account for as much as one-fifth of the total dry matter. Current methodologies to measure the concentrations of these elements, such as inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry (ICP-OES/MS) are expensive in time and reagents. This study demonstrates that a new methodology employing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can rapidly and accurately analyze the inorganic constituents in a wide range of biomass materials, including both woody and herbaceous examples. This technique requires little or no sample preparation, does not consume any reagents, and the analytical data is available immediately. In addition to comparing LIBS data with the results from ICP-OES methods, this work also includes discussions of sample preparation techniques, calibration curves for interpreting LIBS spectra, minimum detection limits, and the use of internal standards and standard reference materials.

  10. Fragmentation of fast Josephson vortices and breakdown of ordered states by moving topological defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheikhzada, Ahmad; Gurevich, Alex

    2015-12-07

    Topological defects such as vortices, dislocations or domain walls define many important effects in superconductivity, superfluidity, magnetism, liquid crystals, and plasticity of solids. Here we address the breakdown of the topologically-protected stability of such defects driven by strong external forces. We focus on Josephson vortices that appear at planar weak links of suppressed superconductivity which have attracted much attention for electronic applications, new sources of THz radiation, and low-dissipative computing. Our numerical simulations show that a rapidly moving vortex driven by a constant current becomes unstable with respect to generation of vortex-antivortex pairs caused by Cherenkov radiation. As a result, vortices and antivortices become spatially separated and accumulate continuously on the opposite sides of an expanding dissipative domain. This effect is most pronounced in thin film edge Josephson junctions at low temperatures where a single vortex can switch the whole junction into a resistive state at currents well below the Josephson critical current. In conclusion, our work gives a new insight into instability of a moving topological defect which destroys global long-range order in a way that is remarkably similar to the crack propagation in solids.

  11. Performance and breakdown characteristics of irradiated vertical power GaN P-i-N diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Dickerson, J. R.; Vizkelethy, G.; Fleming, R. M.; Campbell, J.; Wampler, W. R.; Kizilyalli, I. C.; Bour, D. P.; Aktas, O.; Nie, H.; Disney, D.; Wierer, Jr., J.; Allerman, A. A.; Moseley, M. W.; Kaplar, R. J.

    2015-10-29

    Electrical performance and defect characterization of vertical GaN P-i-N diodes before and after irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons and neutrons is investigated. Devices exhibit increase in specific on-resistance following irradiation with protons and neutrons, indicating displacement damage introduces defects into the p-GaN and n- drift regions of the device that impact on-state device performance. The breakdown voltage of these devices, initially above 1700 V, is observed to decrease only slightly for particle fluence <; 1013 cm-2. Furthermore, the unipolar figure of merit for power devices indicates that while the on-resistance and breakdown voltage degrade with irradiation, vertical GaN P-i-Ns remain superior to the performance of the best available, unirradiated silicon devices and on-par with unirradiated modern SiC-based power devices.

  12. On-clip high frequency reliability and failure test structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, E.S.; Campbell, D.V.

    1997-04-29

    Self-stressing test structures for realistic high frequency reliability characterizations. An on-chip high frequency oscillator, controlled by DC signals from off-chip, provides a range of high frequency pulses to test structures. The test structures provide information with regard to a variety of reliability failure mechanisms, including hot-carriers, electromigration, and oxide breakdown. The system is normally integrated at the wafer level to predict the failure mechanisms of the production integrated circuits on the same wafer. 22 figs.

  13. On-clip high frequency reliability and failure test structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Eric S.; Campbell, David V.

    1997-01-01

    Self-stressing test structures for realistic high frequency reliability characterizations. An on-chip high frequency oscillator, controlled by DC signals from off-chip, provides a range of high frequency pulses to test structures. The test structures provide information with regard to a variety of reliability failure mechanisms, including hot-carriers, electromigration, and oxide breakdown. The system is normally integrated at the wafer level to predict the failure mechanisms of the production integrated circuits on the same wafer.

  14. Hanford Site Environmental Restoration Program 1994 fiscal year work plan. Work breakdown structure 2.0: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-22

    Site Management System (SMS) guidance requires a Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP) to be prepared for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Mission Area and all related programs. This revision is a complete update to cover the FY 1994 time period. This document describes the overall ER Missions Area and provides FYWP appendices for each of the following five program areas: Remedial Action (RA); Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D); Project Management and Support (PM&S); Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M); and Disposal Facilities (DF).

  15. Measurements of the volt-ampere characteristics and the breakdown voltages of direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges in microgaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klas, M.; Matej?ik, Š.; Radjenovi?, B.; Radmilovi?-Radjenovi?, M.

    2014-10-15

    The discharge phenomena for micro meter gap sizes include many interesting problems from engineering and physical perspectives. In this paper, the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical results of the breakdown voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges. The measurements were performed at a constant pressure of around one atmosphere, while varying the gap size between two parallel plane tungsten electrodes between 1??m and 100??m. From the measured breakdown voltage curves, the effective yields and the ionization coefficients were derived for both gases. Present data for the ionization coefficients correlate with the data obtained for the breakdown voltage curves measured for fixed 100??m interelectrode separation. The current-voltage characteristics were plotted for the various gap sizes illustrating the role of the field emission effects in the microgaps. Based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory, the enhancement factors were determined. The gap spacing dependence of the field emission current can be explained by the introduction of two ideas, the first being a space charge effect by emitted electrons, and the second a change in the breakdown mechanism. Experimental results, presented here, demonstrate that Townsend phenomenology breaks down when field emission becomes the key mechanism affecting the breakdown and deforming the left hand side of the breakdown voltage curves.

  16. Design of RF Feed System for Standing-Wave Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilson, J.; Tantawi, S.; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC

    2012-05-25

    We are investigating a standing wave accelerator structure that uses a rf feed to each individual cell. This approach minimizes rf power flow and electromagnetic energy absorbed by an rf breakdown. The objective of this work is a robust high-gradient (above 100 MV/m) X-band accelerator structure.

  17. UTC Power/Delphi SECA CBS Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, Michael; Kerr, Rich

    2013-04-04

    The subject report summarizes the results of solid oxide fuel cell development conducted by UTC Power in conjunction with Delphi Automotive Systems under a cost-share program with from October 2008 through March of 2013. Over that period Delphi Automotive Systems developed a nearly four times larger area solid oxide fuel cell stack capable of operating on pre-reformed natural gas and simulated coal gas with durability demonstrated to 5,000 hours and projected to exceed 10,000 hours. The new stack design was scaled to 40-cell stacks with power output in excess of 6.25kW. Delphi also made significant strides in improving the manufacturability, yield and production cost of these solid oxide fuel cells over the course of the program. Concurrently, UTC Power developed a conceptual design for a 120 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) operating on coal syngas with as high as 57% Higher Heating Value (HHV) efficiency as a measure of the feasibility of the technology. Subsequently a 400 kW on-site system preliminary design with 55% Lower Heating Value (LHV) efficiency operating on natural gas was down-selected from eighteen candidate designs. That design was used as the basis for a 25kW breadboard power plant incorporating four Delphi cell stacks that was tested on natural gas before the program was discontinued due to the sale of UTC Power in early 2013. Though the program was cut short of the endurance target of 3,000 hours, many aspects of the technology were proven including: large-area, repeatable cell manufacture, cell stack operation on simulated coal gas and natural gas and integrated power plant operation on natural gas. The potential of the technology for high efficiency stationary electric power generation is clear. Acceptable production costs, durability, and reliability in real world environments are the remaining challenges to commercialization.

  18. Remote Raman - laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) geochemical investigation under Venus atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, Sanuel M; Barefield, James E; Humphries, Seth D; Wiens, Roger C; Vaniman, D. T.; Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Dyar, M. D.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2010-12-13

    The extreme Venus surface temperatures ({approx}740 K) and atmospheric pressures ({approx}93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. and Sharma et al. demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachyandesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to quantitatively determine the major elemental abundance of the remaining samples. PLS analysis suggests that the major element compositions can be determined with root mean square errors ca. 5% (absolute) for SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(total), MgO, and CaO, and ca. 2% or less for TiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnO, K{sub 2}O, and Na{sub 2}O. Finally, the Raman experiments have been conducted under supercritical CO{sub 2} involving single-mineral and mixed-mineral samples containing talc, olivine, pyroxenes, feldspars, anhydrite, barite, and siderite. The Raman data have shown that the individual minerals can easily be identified individually or in mixtures.

  19. Near-critical phase explosion promoting breakdown plasma ignition during laser ablation of graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Seleznev, L. V.

    2010-07-15

    Removal rate, air shock, and ablative recoil pressure parameters were measured as a function of laser intensity I{sub peak} during nanosecond laser ablation of graphite. Surface vaporization of molten graphite at low intensities I{sub peak}<0.15 GW/cm{sup 2} was observed to transform into its near-critical phase explosion (intense homogeneous boiling) at the threshold intensity I{sub PE}approx =0.15 GW/cm{sup 2} in the form of a drastic, correlated rise of removal rate, air shock, and ablative recoil pressure magnitudes. Just above this threshold (I{sub peak}>=0.25 GW/cm{sup 2}), the explosive mass removal ended up with saturation of the removal rate, much slower increase of the air and recoil pressure magnitudes, and appearance of a visible surface plasma spark. In this regime, the measured far-field air shock pressure amplitude exhibits a sublinear dependence on laser intensity (propor toI{sub peak}{sup 4/9}), while the source plasma shock pressure demonstrates a sublinear trend (propor toI{sub peak}{sup 3/4}), both indicating the subcritical character of the plasma. Against expectations, in this regime the plasma recoil pressure increases versus I{sub peak} superlinearly (propor toI{sub peak}{sup 1.1}), rather than sublinearly (propor toI{sub peak}{sup 3/4}), with the mentioned difference related to the intensity-dependent initial spatial plasma dimensions within the laser waist on the graphite surface and to the plasma formation time during the heating laser pulse (overall, the pressure source effect). The strict coincidence of the phase explosion, providing high (kbar) hydrodynamic pressures of ablation products, and the ignition of ablative laser plasma in the carbon plume may indicate the ablative pressure-dependent character of the underlying optical breakdown at the high plume pressures, initiating the plasma formation. The experimental data evidence that the spatiotemporal extension of the plasma in the laser plume and ambient air during the heating laser pulse is supported by fast lateral electron and radiative heat conduction (laser-supported combustion wave regime), rather than by propagation of a strong shock wave (laser-supported detonation wave regime).

  20. Assessing electronic structure approaches for gas-ligand interactions in metal-organic frameworks: The CO{sub 2}-benzene complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witte, Jonathon; Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 ; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720

    2014-03-14

    Adsorption of gas molecules in metal-organic frameworks is governed by many factors, the most dominant of which are the interaction of the gas with open metal sites, and the interaction of the gas with the ligands. Herein, we examine the latter class of interaction in the context of CO{sub 2} binding to benzene. We begin by clarifying the geometry of the CO{sub 2}–benzene complex. We then generate a benchmark binding curve using a coupled-cluster approach with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] at the complete basis set (CBS) limit. Against this ?CCSD(T)/CBS standard, we evaluate a plethora of electronic structure approximations: Hartree-Fock, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) with the resolution-of-the-identity approximation, attenuated MP2, and a number of density functionals with and without different empirical and nonempirical van der Waals corrections. We find that finite-basis MP2 significantly overbinds the complex. On the other hand, even the simplest empirical correction to standard density functionals is sufficient to bring the binding energies to well within 1 kJ/mol of the benchmark, corresponding to an error of less than 10%; PBE-D in particular performs well. Methods that explicitly include nonlocal correlation kernels, such as VV10, vdW-DF2, and ?B97X-V, perform with similar accuracy for this system, as do ?B97X and M06-L.

  1. Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-04-24

    Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field ({approx}2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 {micro}s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10{sup 5} RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS operating at 30 GHz. It was shown that the ratio of maximum surface electric field to accelerating field at the metal wall is only 0.35-0.4 for DLA, much smaller than the value 2.2 for HDS; and the ratio of surface magnetic field to accelerating field is 3.0 mA/V for DLA, compared with 3.45 mA/V for HDS. These values bode well for DLA in helping to avoid breakdown and to reducing pulsed surface heating and fatigue. The shunt impedance is found to be 160-175 M{Omega}/m for DLA, as compared to 99 M{Omega}/m for HDS. Conclusions are reached from this project that CVD diamond appears promising as a dielectric with a high threshold for RF breakdown, and that rectangular accelerator structures can be devised using planar CVD diamond elements that could be operated at higher acceleration gradients with low probability of RF breakdown, as compared with corresponding all-metallic structures.

  2. Breakdown of ionic character of molecular alkali bromides in inner-valence photoionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpenko, A. Iablonskyi, D.; Kettunen, J. A.; Cao, W.; Huttula, M.; Aksela, H.; Urpelainen, S.

    2014-05-28

    The inner-valence region of alkali bromide XBr (X=Li, Na, K, Rb) vapours has been studied experimentally by means of synchrotron radiation excited photoelectron spectroscopy. Experimental spectra were analyzed by comparing them with available theoretical results and previous experiments. Ionic character of alkali bromides is seen to change in the inner-valence region with increasing atomic number of the alkali atom. A mechanism involving mixing between Br 4s and Rb 4p orbitals has been suggested to account for the fine structure observed in inner-valence ionization region of RbBr.

  3. Numerical simulation of torus breakdown to chaos in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Wang, Y. H.; Wang, D. Z. [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Understanding the routes to chaos occurring in atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge systems by changing controlling parameters is very important to predict and control the dynamical behaviors. In this paper, a route of a quasiperiodic torus to chaos via the strange nonchaotic attractor is observed in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge driven by triangle-wave voltage. By increasing the driving frequency, the discharge system first bifurcates to a quasiperiodic torus from a stable single periodic state, and then torus and phase-locking periodic state appear and disappear alternately. In the meantime, the torus becomes increasingly wrinkling and stretching, and gradually approaches a fractal structure with the nonpositive largest Lyapunov exponent, i.e., a strange nonchaotic attractor. After that, the discharge system enters into chaotic state. If the driving frequency is further increased, another well known route of period-doubling bifurcation to chaos is also observed.

  4. Effects of Combustion-Induced Vortex Breakdown on Flashback Limits of Syngas-Fueled Gas Turbine Combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahsan Choudhuri

    2011-03-31

    Turbine combustors of advanced power systems have goals to achieve very low pollutants emissions, fuel variability, and fuel flexibility. Future generation gas turbine combustors should tolerate fuel compositions ranging from natural gas to a broad range of syngas without sacrificing operational advantages and low emission characteristics. Additionally, current designs of advanced turbine combustors use various degrees of swirl and lean premixing for stabilizing flames and controlling high temperature NOx formation zones. However, issues of fuel variability and NOx control through premixing also bring a number of concerns, especially combustor flashback and flame blowout. Flashback is a combustion condition at which the flame propagates upstream against the gas stream into the burner tube. Flashback is a critical issue for premixed combustor designs, because it not only causes serious hardware damages but also increases pollutant emissions. In swirl stabilized lean premixed turbine combustors onset of flashback may occur due to (i) boundary layer flame propagation (critical velocity gradient), (ii) turbulent flame propagation in core flow, (iii) combustion instabilities, and (iv) upstream flame propagation induced by combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB). Flashback due to first two foregoing mechanisms is a topic of classical interest and has been studied extensively. Generally, analytical theories and experimental determinations of laminar and turbulent burning velocities model these mechanisms with sufficient precision for design usages. However, the swirling flow complicates the flashback processes in premixed combustions and the first two mechanisms inadequately describe the flashback propensity of most practical combustor designs. The presence of hydrogen in syngas significantly increases the potential for flashback. Due to high laminar burning velocity and low lean flammability limit, hydrogen tends to shift the combustor operating conditions towards flashback regime. Even a small amount of hydrogen in a fuel blend triggers the onset of flashback by altering the kinetics and thermophysical characteristics of the mixture. Additionally, the presence of hydrogen in the fuel mixture modifies the response of the flame to the global effects of stretch and preferential diffusion. Despite its immense importance in fuel flexible combustor design, little is known about the magnitude of fuel effects on CIVB induced flashback mechanism. Hence, this project investigates the effects of syngas compositions on flashback resulting from combustion induced vortex breakdown. The project uses controlled experiments and parametric modeling to understand the velocity field and flame interaction leading to CIVB driven flashback.

  5. Time-Resolved Imaging of Material Response Following Laser-Induced Breakdown in the Bulk and Surface of Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, R N; Negres, R A; DeMange, P; Demos, S G

    2010-02-04

    Optical components within high energy laser systems are susceptible to laser-induced material modification when the breakdown threshold is exceeded or damage is initiated by pre-existing impurities or defects. These modifications are the result of exposure to extreme conditions involving the generation of high temperatures and pressures and occur on a volumetric scale of the order of a few cubic microns. The response of the material following localized energy deposition, including the timeline of events and the individual processes involved during this timeline, is still largely unknown. In this work, we investigate the events taking place during the entire timeline in both bulk and surface damage in fused silica using a set of time-resolved microscopy systems. These microscope systems offer up to 1 micron spatial resolution when imaging static or dynamic effects, allowing for imaging of the entire process with adequate temporal and spatial resolution. These systems incorporate various pump-probe geometries designed to optimize the sensitivity for detecting individual aspects of the process such as the propagation of shock waves, near-surface material motion, the speed of ejecta, and material transformations. The experimental results indicate that the material response can be separated into distinct phases, some terminating within a few tens of nanoseconds but some extending up to about 100 microseconds. Overall the results demonstrate that the final characteristics of the modified region depend on the material response to the energy deposition and not on the laser parameters.

  6. Final Report: Investigation of Catalytic Pathways for Lignin Breakdown into Monomers and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluckstein, Jeffrey A; Hu, Michael Z.; Kidder, Michelle; McFarlane, Joanna; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Sturgeon, Matthew R

    2010-12-01

    Lignin is a biopolymer that comprises up to 35% of woody biomass by dry weight. It is currently underutilized compared to cellulose and hemicellulose, the other two primary components of woody biomass. Lignin has an irregular structure of methoxylated aromatic groups linked by a suite of ether and alkyl bonds which makes it difficult to degrade selectively. However, the aromatic components of lignin also make it promising as a base material for the production of aromatic fuel additives and cyclic chemical feed stocks such as styrene, benzene, and cyclohexanol. Our laboratory research focused on three methods to selectively cleave and deoxygenate purified lignin under mild conditions: acidolysis, hydrogenation and electrocatalysis. (1) Acidolysis was undertaken in CH2Cl2 at room temperature. (2) Hydrogenation was carried out by dissolving lignin and a rhodium catalyst in 1:1 water:methoxyethanol under a 1 atm H2 environment. (3) Electrocatalysis of lignin involved reacting electrically generated hydrogen atoms at a catalytic palladium cathode with lignin dissolved in a solution of aqueous methanol. In all of the experiments, the lignin degradation products were identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy and flame ionization detection. Yields were low, but this may have reflected the difficulty in recovering the various fractions after conversion. The homogeneous hydrogenation of lignin showed fragmentation into monomers, while the electrocatalytic hydrogenation showed production of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and substituted benzenes. In addition to the experiments, promising pathways for the conversion of lignin were assessed. Three conversion methods were compared based on their material and energy inputs and proposed improvements using better catalyst and process technology. A variety of areas were noted as needing further experimental and theoretical effort to increase the feasibility of lignin conversion to fuels.

  7. Physics-Based Compact Model for CIGS and CdTe Solar Cells: From Voltage-Dependent Carrier Collection to Light-Enhanced Reverse Breakdown: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xingshu; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Raguse, John; Garris, Rebekah; Deline, Chris; Silverman, Timothy

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we develop a physics-based compact model for copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) heterojunction solar cells that attributes the failure of superposition to voltage-dependent carrier collection in the absorber layer, and interprets light-enhanced reverse breakdown as a consequence of tunneling-assisted Poole-Frenkel conduction. The temperature dependence of the model is validated against both simulation and experimental data for the entire range of bias conditions. The model can be used to characterize device parameters, optimize new designs, and most importantly, predict performance and reliability of solar panels including the effects of self-heating and reverse breakdown due to partial-shading degradation.

  8. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Single-Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolgashev, V.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Higashi, Y.; Higo, T.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-11-04

    We report the results of ongoing high power tests of single-cell standing wave structures. These tests are part of an experimental and theoretical study of rf breakdown in normal conducting structures at 11.4 GHz. The goal of this study is to determine the maximum gradient possibilities for normal-conducting rf powered particle beam accelerators. The test setup consists of reusable mode launchers and short test structures powered by SLACs XL-4 klystron. The mode launchers and structures were manufactured at SLAC and KEK and tested at the SLAC klystron test laboratory.

  9. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Phuoc

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  10. Study of the dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF{sub 6}–CF{sub 4} mixtures at 0.01–1.6 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xingwen; Zhao, Hu; Jia, Shenli; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2013-08-07

    The dielectric breakdown properties of SF{sub 6}–CF{sub 4} mixtures were investigated at different ratios of SF{sub 6}, 0.01–1.6 MPa, and gas temperatures up to 3000 K. Initially, the equilibrium compositions of SF{sub 6}–CF{sub 4} mixtures were calculated by minimizing the Gibbs free energy under the assumptions of local thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium. Then the electron energy distribution function was obtained based on those data by solving the Boltzmann equation under the zero-dimensional two-term spherical harmonic approximation. Finally, the critical reduced electric field strength (E/N){sub cr} of SF{sub 6}–CF{sub 4} mixtures, which is defined as the value for which total ionization reaction is equal to total attachment reaction, were determined and analyzed. The results confirm the superior breakdown properties of pure SF{sub 6} at relatively low gas temperatures. However, for higher gas temperatures (i.e., T > 2200 K at 0.4 MPa), the (E/N){sub cr} in SF{sub 6}–CF{sub 4} mixtures are obviously higher than that in pure SF{sub 6} and the values of (E/N){sub cr} increase with the reduction of the ratio of SF{sub 6}.

  11. The Structure of the Proton

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Chambers, E. E.; Hofstadter, R.

    1956-04-01

    The structure and size of the proton have been studied by means of the methods of high-energy electron scattering. The elastic scattering of electrons from protons in polyethylene has been investigated at the following energies in the laboratory system: 200, 300, 400, 500, 550 Mev. The range of laboratory angles examined has been 30 degrees to 135 degrees. At the largest angles and the highest energy, the cross section for scattering shows a deviation below that expected from a point proton by a factor of about nine. The magnitude and variation with angle of the deviations determine a structure factor for the proton, and thereby determine the size and shape of the charge and magnetic-moment distributions within the proton. An interpretation, consistent at all energies and angles and agreeing with earlier results from this laboratory, fixes the rms radius at 0.77 {plus or minus} 0.10 x 10{sup -13} cm for each of the charge and moment distributions. The shape of the density function is not far from a Gaussian with rms radius 0.70 x 10{sup -13} cm or an exponential with rms radius 0.80 x 10 {sup -13} cm. An equivalent interpretation of the experiments would ascribe the apparent size to a breakdown of the Coulomb law and the conventional theory of electromagnetism.

  12. Elemental content of enamel and dentin after bleaching of teeth (a comparative study between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imam, H.; Ahmed, Doaa; Eldakrouri, Ashraf; Department of Optometry and Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Science, King Saud University, Riyadh

    2013-06-21

    The elemental content of the superficial and inner enamel as well as that of dentin was analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of bleached and unbleached tooth specimens. It is thus clear from the spectral analysis using both the LIBS and XPS technique that elemental changes (though insignificant within the scopes of this study) of variable intensities do occur on the surface of the enamel and extend deeper to reach dentin. The results of the LIBS revealed a slight reduction in the calcium levels in the bleached compared to the control specimens in all the different bleaching groups and in both enamel and dentin. The good correlation found between the LIBS and XPS results demonstrates the possibility of LIBS technique for detection of minor loss in calcium and phosphorus in enamel and dentin.

  13. Imaging of the spatial distribution of atoms in an optical-breakdown plasma with one-dimensional coherent hyper-Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akimov, Denis A; Zheltikov, Aleksei M; Koroteev, Nikolai I; Naumov, A N; Fedotov, Andrei B; Miles, R B; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A

    1998-12-31

    A technique based on coherent four-wave mixing with a hyper-Raman resonance in wide beams was developed for line-by-line reconstruction of the spatial distribution of excited atoms in a laser-produced plasma. This method was used to study the spatial distribution of excited lead atoms in an optical-breakdown plasma formed on a metal target. A comparison was made of the technique of constructing plasma images line-by-line with a four-photon technique of point-by-point measurements. Estimates were obtained of the spatial resolution of the proposed technique. Potential applications of this approach in plasma diagnostics were analysed. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  14. Relationship between the structure and electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takabayashi, Susumu Otsuji, Taiichi; Yang, Meng; Ogawa, Shuichi; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Ješko, Radek; Takakuwa, Yuji

    2014-09-07

    To elucidate the relationship between the structure and the electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, DLC films were synthesized in a well-controlled glow discharge with the aid of photoelectrons in an argon/methane atmosphere. The dielectric constant and breakdown strength of the films exhibited opposite behaviors, depending on the total pressure during the synthesis. The product of these two values decreased monotonically as the pressure increased. The Raman spectra were analyzed with a Voigt-type formula. Based on the results, the authors propose the “sp{sup 2} cluster model” for the DLC structure. This model consists of conductive clusters of sp{sup 2} carbons surrounded by a dielectric matrix sea of sp{sup 2} carbon, sp{sup 3} carbon, and hydrogen, and indicates that the dielectric constant of the whole DLC film is determined by the balance between the dielectric constant of the matrix and the total size of the clusters, while the breakdown strength is determined by the reciprocal of the cluster size. The model suggests that a high-? DLC film can be synthesized at a middle pressure and consists of well-grown sp{sup 2} clusters and a dense matrix. A low-? DLC film can be synthesized both at low and high pressures. The sp{sup 2} cluster model explains that a low-? DLC film synthesized at low pressure consists of a dense matrix and a low density of sp{sup 2} clusters, and exhibits a high breakdown strength. On the other hand, a low-? film synthesized at high pressure consists of a coarse matrix and a high density of clusters and exhibits a low breakdown strength.

  15. Dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures at temperatures of 300–3500?K and pressures of 0.01–1.0?MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Linlin; Yang, Aijun; Wang, Xiaohua Liu, Dingxin; Wu, Yi; Rong, Mingzhe

    2014-05-15

    Recently, much attention has been paid to SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures as one of substitutes for pure SF{sub 6} gas. In this paper, the dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures are investigated at temperatures of 300–3500?K and pressures of 0.01–1.0?MPa. Under the assumptions of local thermodynamic equilibrium and local chemical equilibrium, the equilibrium compositions of hot SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures with different CO{sub 2} proportions are obtained based on Gibbs free energy minimization. The cross sections for interactions between electrons and neutral species are presented. Some unknown ionization cross sections are determined theoretically using Deutsch–Märk (DM) formalism based on quantum chemistry. Two-term Boltzmann equation is adopted to calculate the electron energy distribution function, reduced ionization coefficient, reduced attachment coefficient, and reduced effective ionization coefficient. Then the reduced critical electric field strength of mixtures, corresponding to dielectric breakdown performances, is determined when the generation and loss of electrons are balanced. Finally, the influences of temperature, pressure, and CO{sub 2} proportion on the reduced critical electric field strength are studied. It is found that a large percentage of CO{sub 2} can obviously reduce concentrations of high-energy electrons. At temperatures above 1750?K, an addition of CO{sub 2} to SF{sub 6} gas can enhance dielectric breakdown performances. However, at low temperatures, too much CO{sub 2} added into mixtures can reduce dielectric breakdown abilities. In addition, increasing gas pressure can improve dielectric breakdown performances. But the influence will be no more significant if pressure is over 0.8?MPa.

  16. Summary report of working group 3: High gradient and laser-structure based acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solyak, N.; Cowan, B.M.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2010-01-01

    The charge for the working group on high gradient and laser-structure based acceleration was to assess the current challenges involved in developing an advanced accelerator based on electromagnetic structures, and survey state-of-the-art methods to address those challenges. The topics of more than 50 presentations in the working group covered a very broad range of issues, from ideas, theoretical models and simulations, to design and manufacturing of accelerating structures and, finally, experimental results on obtaining extremely high accelerating gradients in structures from conventional microwave frequency range up to THz and laser frequencies. Workshop discussion topics included advances in the understanding of the physics of breakdown and other phenomena, limiting high gradient performance of accelerating structures. New results presented in this workshop demonstrated significant progress in the fields of conventional vacuum structure-based acceleration, dielectric wakefield acceleration, and laser-structure acceleration.

  17. Trench process and structure for backside contact solar cells with polysilicon doped regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Ceuster, Denis; Cousins, Peter John; Smith, David D

    2013-05-28

    A solar cell includes polysilicon P-type and N-type doped regions on a backside of a substrate, such as a silicon wafer. An interrupted trench structure separates the P-type doped region from the N-type doped region in some locations but allows the P-type doped region and the N-type doped region to touch in other locations. Each of the P-type and N-type doped regions may be formed over a thin dielectric layer. Among other advantages, the resulting solar cell structure allows for increased efficiency while having a relatively low reverse breakdown voltage.

  18. Trench process and structure for backside contact solar cells with polysilicon doped regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Ceuster, Denis (Woodside, CA); Cousins, Peter John (Menlo Park, CA); Smith, David D. (Campbell, CA)

    2010-12-14

    A solar cell includes polysilicon P-type and N-type doped regions on a backside of a substrate, such as a silicon wafer. An interrupted trench structure separates the P-type doped region from the N-type doped region in some locations but allows the P-type doped region and the N-type doped region to touch in other locations. Each of the P-type and N-type doped regions may be formed over a thin dielectric layer. Among other advantages, the resulting solar cell structure allows for increased efficiency while having a relatively low reverse breakdown voltage.

  19. Trench process and structure for backside contact solar cells with polysilicon doped regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Ceuster, Denis; Cousins, Peter John; Smith, David D

    2014-03-18

    A solar cell includes polysilicon P-type and N-type doped regions on a backside of a substrate, such as a silicon wafer. An interrupted trench structure separates the P-type doped region from the N-type doped region in some locations but allows the P-type doped region and the N-type doped region to touch in other locations. Each of the P-type and N-type doped regions may be formed over a thin dielectric layer. Among other advantages, the resulting solar cell structure allows for increased efficiency while having a relatively low reverse breakdown voltage.

  20. U.S. Photovoltaic Prices and Cost Breakdowns. Q1 2015 Benchmarks for Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Donald; Davidson, Carolyn; Fu, Ran; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has continued to decline across all major market sectors. This report provides a Q1 2015 update regarding the prices of residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variations in business models, labor rates, and system architecture choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.09/W for residential scale rooftop systems, $2.15/W for commercial scale rooftop systems, $1.77/W for utility scale systems with fixed mounting structures, and $1.91/W for utility scale systems using single-axis trackers. All systems are modeled assuming standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon PV modules, and further assume installation within the United States.

  1. STRUCtural Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    STRUC-ANL is a derivative of the FLUSTR-ANL finite element code. It contains only the structural capabilities of the original fluid-structural FLUSTR code.

  2. Functional and structural diversity in GH62 α-L-arabinofuranosidases from the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kaur, Amrit Pal; Nocek, Boguslaw P.; Xu, Xiaohui; Lowden, Michael J.; Leyva, Juan Francisco; Stogios, Peter J.; Cui, Hong; Leo, Rosa Di; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian; et al

    2015-05-01

    The genome of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum (strain CBS 625.91) harbours a wide range of genes involved in carbohydrate degradation, including three genes, abf62A, abf62B and abf62C, predicted to encode glycoside hydrolase family 62 (GH62) enzymes. Transcriptome analysis showed that only abf62A and abf62C are actively expressed during growth on diverse substrates including straws from barley, alfalfa, triticale and canola. The abf62A and abf62C genes were expressed in Escherichia coli and the resulting recombinant proteins were characterized. Calcium-free crystal structures of Abf62C in apo and xylotriose bound forms were determined to 1.23 and 1.48 Å resolution respectively. Site-directed mutagenesismore » confirmed Asp55, Asp171 and Glu230 as catalytic triad residues, and revealed the critical role of non-catalytic residues Asp194, Trp229 and Tyr338 in positioning the scissile α-L-arabinofuranoside bond at the catalytic site. Further, the +2R substrate-binding site residues Tyr168 and Asn339, as well as the +2NR residue Tyr226, are involved in accommodating long-chain xylan polymers. Overall, our structural and functional analysis highlights characteristic differences between Abf62A and Abf62C, which represent divergent subgroups in the GH62 family.« less

  3. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn) in vitrified Mn-doped glasses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Nayak, Rajesh; Kartha, V. B.; Santhosh, C. E-mail: unnikrishnan.vk@manipal.edu; Sonavane, M. S.; Yeotikar, R. G.; Shah, M. L.; Gupta, G. P.; Suri, B. M.

    2014-09-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), an atomic emission spectroscopy method, has rapidly grown as one of the best elemental analysis techniques over the past two decades. Homogeneity testing and quantitative analysis of manganese (Mn) in manganese-doped glasses have been carried out using an optimized LIBS system employing a nanosecond ultraviolet Nd:YAG laser as the source of excitation. The glass samples have been prepared using conventional vitrification methods. The laser pulse irradiance on the surface of the glass samples placed in air at atmospheric pressure was about 1.7×10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}. The spatially integrated plasma emission was collected and imaged on to the spectrograph slit using an optical-fiber-based collection system. Homogeneity was checked by recording LIBS spectra from different sites on the sample surface and analyzing the elemental emission intensities for concentration determination. Validation of the observed LIBS results was done by comparison with scanning electron microscope- energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) surface elemental mapping. The analytical performance of the LIBS system has been evaluated through the correlation of the LIBS determined concentrations of Mn with its certified values. The results are found to be in very good agreement with the certified concentrations.

  4. Performance testing of a Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) based continuous metal emissions monitor at a pyrolytic waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, D.W.; Hencken, K.R.; Johnsen, H.A.

    1997-07-01

    A program was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories to develop and demonstrate an advanced continuous emissions monitor that will provide realtime measurement of metal emissions in the wastestreams of thermal treatment facilities. This effort led to the development of a prototype metals monitor based on an optical technique referred to as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The measurements are performed in situ, and are both noninvasive and real-time. The automated software incorporates a new conditional analysis algorithm that utilizes single particle detection. The metal emissions monitor was tested during March 1997 at a pilot scale pyrolytic waste processing facility in Santa Fe Springs, California. This report describes the field test, including the monitor installation, test cycle, and overall instrument performance. The Clean Air Act metals chromium and manganese were recorded at concentrations from approximately 2 to 5 parts per billion. Iron was recorded at concentrations from 40 to 140 parts per billion. The overall accuracy was in very good agreement with contracted EPA Reference Method 29 results. Overall, the LIBS-based metals monitor performed exceptionally well on a waste treatment facility with very low metal emissions levels. 19 refs., 12 tabs., 3 figs.

  5. The breakdown of de Gennes Scaling in TbxEr1-xNi2B2C and its mean field theory explanation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Chunwang

    2005-05-01

    The Neel temperatures, T{sub N}, of Tb{sub x}Er{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 2}B{sub 2}C samples have been determined from the temperature dependence of magnetization measurements. A breakdown of the de Gennes scaling of T{sub N} with a clear turning point around x = 0.45 has been observed. The T{sub N} values of Tb{sub x}Er{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 2}B{sub 2}C do not change much within the range of O < x < 0.45 and then, for larger x they increase almost linearly with concentration until T{sub N} = 14.9K is reached for x = 1, TbNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C. The clear change in the x-dependence of T{sub N} around x = 0.45 can be linked to a change in the local moment ordering direction from transverse to longitudinal, a change which is consistent with recent resonant X-ray scattering data. These features in T{sub N}(x) can be explained using a mean field model.

  6. Dielectric breakdown properties of SF{sub 6}-N{sub 2} mixtures at 0.01-1.6 MPa and 300-3000 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Hu; Li Xingwen; Jia Shenli; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2013-04-14

    The dielectric breakdown properties of SF{sub 6}-N{sub 2} mixtures were investigated at different concentrations of N{sub 2}, 0.01-1.6 MPa, and 300-3000 K. The equilibrium compositions of different SF{sub 6}-N{sub 2} mixtures at several gas pressures and temperatures up to 3000 K were first calculated by minimizing the Gibbs free energy under the assumptions of local thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium. The electron energy distribution function was then obtained using the composition data by Boltzmann equation analysis. It was found that adding N{sub 2} to SF{sub 6} gas can markedly reduce the kinetic energy of electrons at relatively high gas temperatures, which enhances the dielectric field strength. Finally, the critical reduced electric field (E/N){sub cr}, defined as the value for which ionization is equal to attachment, of hot SF{sub 6}-N{sub 2} mixtures was determined. The results indicate that in the gas temperature range around 2000-3000 K, increasing the concentration of N{sub 2} effectively enhances the (E/N){sub cr} of SF{sub 6}-N{sub 2} mixtures, and the (E/N){sub cr} of SF{sub 6}-N{sub 2} mixtures at a wide range of concentrations of N{sub 2} (5%, 50%, and 95%) are all higher than that of pure SF{sub 6} gas. Further, this trend exists at all the gas pressures considered (0.01-1.6 MPa).

  7. Design and Analysis of Muon Beam Stop Support Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okafor, Udenna

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this thesis is to design and analyze support structures to be used in the installation, test and final positioning of the MBS throughout the life of the Mu2e experiment. There several requirements for the MBS imposed by both the scope of the experiment and, other components within the DS bore. The functions of the MBS are: 1. To limit the induced rates in the Tracker, the Calorimeter and the Cosmic Ray Veto due to backsplash-and-secondary interactions, and 2. To reduce radiation levels external to the Detector solenoid. The structures used in supporting the MBS will also adhere to requirements imposed by its functions. These requirements are critical to the support structures and affect design decisions. Other requirements critical to the design are imposed by the weight, positional tolerance and assembly procedure of the MBS, and also, the magnetic field and vacuum dose rate of the DS bore. A detailed breakdown of how each requirement affects the structural design can be found in chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes the design of each support structure and its attachment to the MBS while chapter 4 describes the results from structural analysis of the support structures. Chapter 5 describes evaluation for the design through testing and calculations while the conclusion in chapter 6 reports the current status at the time of this thesis submission with a plan for future work to be completed until final design and installation.

  8. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  9. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  10. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-01-23

    A high performance capacitor is described which is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200--300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The ``notepad`` capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  11. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1995-05-09

    A high performance capacitor is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The notepad capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  12. Organizational Structure | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizational Structure Organizational Structure

  13. Nanocrystal structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisler, Hans J. (Stoneham, MA); Sundar, Vikram C. (Stoneham, MA); Walsh, Michael E. (Everett, MA); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Bawendi, Moungi G. (Cambridge, MA); Smith, Henry I. (Sudbury, MA)

    2008-12-30

    A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group II-VI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

  14. Nanocrystal structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisler, Hans J.; Sundar, Vikram C.; Walsh, Michael E.; Klimov, Victor I.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Smith, Henry I.

    2006-12-19

    A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group II–VI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

  15. Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tulk, Christopher A; dos Santos, Antonio M.; Neuefeind, Joerg C; Molaison, Jamie J; Sales, Brian C; Honkimaeki, Veijo

    2015-01-01

    The pressure induced crystalline collapse at 14.7 GPa and polyamorphic structures of the semiconductor clathrate Sr8Ga16Ge30 are reported up to 35 GPa. In-situ total scattering measurements under pressure allow the direct microscopic inspection of the mechanisms associated with pressure induced amorphization in these systems, as well as the structure of the recovered phase. It is observed that, between 14.7 and 35 GPa the second peak in the structure factor function gradually disappears. Analysis of the radial distribution function extracted from those data indicate that this feature is associated with gradual cage collapse and breakdown of the tetrahedral structure with the consequent systematic lengthening of the nearest-neighbor framework bonds. This suggests an overall local coordination change to an even higher density amorphous form. Upon recovery from high pressure, the sample remains amorphous, and while there is some indication of the guest-host cage reforming, it doesn't seem that the tetrahedral coordination is recovered. As such, the compresion-decompression process in this systems gives rise to three distict amorphous forms.

  16. Functional and structural diversity in GH62 ?-L-arabinofuranosidases from the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Amrit Pal; Nocek, Boguslaw P.; Xu, Xiaohui; Lowden, Michael J.; Leyva, Juan Francisco; Stogios, Peter J.; Cui, Hong; Leo, Rosa Di; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian; Savchenko, Alexei

    2015-05-01

    The genome of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum (strain CBS 625.91) harbours a wide range of genes involved in carbohydrate degradation, including three genes, abf62A, abf62B and abf62C, predicted to encode glycoside hydrolase family 62 (GH62) enzymes. Transcriptome analysis showed that only abf62A and abf62C are actively expressed during growth on diverse substrates including straws from barley, alfalfa, triticale and canola. The abf62A and abf62C genes were expressed in Escherichia coli and the resulting recombinant proteins were characterized. Calcium-free crystal structures of Abf62C in apo and xylotriose bound forms were determined to 1.23 and 1.48 Å resolution respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed Asp55, Asp171 and Glu230 as catalytic triad residues, and revealed the critical role of non-catalytic residues Asp194, Trp229 and Tyr338 in positioning the scissile ?-L-arabinofuranoside bond at the catalytic site. Further, the +2R substrate-binding site residues Tyr168 and Asn339, as well as the +2NR residue Tyr226, are involved in accommodating long-chain xylan polymers. Overall, our structural and functional analysis highlights characteristic differences between Abf62A and Abf62C, which represent divergent subgroups in the GH62 family.

  17. Superconducting Structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwon, Chuhee (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-09-13

    A superconductive structure including a dielectric oxide substrate, a thin buffer layer of a superconducting material thereon; and, a layer of a rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film thereon the thin layer of yttrium-barium-copper oxide, the rare earth selected from the group consisting of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium, erbium, neodymium, dysprosium, holmium, lutetium, a combination of more than one element from the rare earth group and a combination of one or more elements from the rare earth group with yttrium, the buffer layer of superconducting material characterized as having chemical and structural compatibility with the dielectric oxide substrate and the rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film is provided.

  18. Superconducting structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwon, Chuhee (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-04-01

    A superconductive structure including a dielectric oxide substrate, a thin buffer layer of a superconducting material thereon; and, a layer of a rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film thereon the thin layer of yttrium-barium-copper oxide, the rare earth selected from the group consisting of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium, erbium, neodymium, dysprosium, holmium, lutetium, a combination of more than one element from the rare earth group and a combination of one or more elements from the rare earth group with yttrium, the buffer layer of superconducting material characterized as having chemical and structural compatibility with the dielectric oxide substrate and the rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film is provided.

  19. Terminal structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frank (Langenhagen, DE); Allais, Arnaud (Hannover, DE); Mirebeau, Pierre (Villebon sur Yvette, FR); Ganhungu, Francois (Vieux-Reng, FR); Lallouet, Nicolas (Saint Martin Boulogne, FR)

    2009-10-20

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - FinalModule2.ppt

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2: Work Breakdown Structure Prepared by: Module 2 - Work Breakdown Structure 1 Prepared by: Booz Allen Hamilton Module 2: Work Breakdown Structure Welcome to Module 2. The objective of this module is to introduce you to Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and other supporting documents. This module will include defining and illustrating the following topics: * Work Breakdown Structure * WBS dictionary * Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) * Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Module 2 - Work

  1. Airfoil structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, Gary A. (Poway, CA); Twardochleb, Christopher Z. (Alpine, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Past airfoil configurations have been used to improve aerodynamic performance and engine efficiencies. The present airfoil configuration further increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress within the airfoil itself. The airfoil includes a chord and a span. Each of the chord and the span has a bow being summed to form a generally "C" configuration of the airfoil. The generally "C" configuration includes a compound bow in which internal stresses resulting from a thermal temperature gradient are reduced. The structural configuration reduces internal stresses resulting from thermal expansion.

  2. Airfoil structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, G.A.; Twardochleb, C.Z.

    1998-01-13

    Past airfoil configurations have been used to improve aerodynamic performance and engine efficiencies. The present airfoil configuration further increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress within the airfoil itself. The airfoil includes a chord and a span. Each of the chord and the span has a bow being summed to form a generally ``C`` configuration of the airfoil. The generally ``C`` configuration includes a compound bow in which internal stresses resulting from a thermal temperature gradient are reduced. The structural configuration reduces internal stresses resulting from thermal expansion. 6 figs.

  3. Evaluation of a commercially available passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with LiF:F-2 saturable absorber for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, Cantwell; Goueguel, Christian; Sanghapi, Herve; Jinesh, Jain; McIntyre, Dustin

    2015-12-11

    Interest in passively Q-switched microchip lasers as a means for miniaturization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) apparatus has rapidly grown in the last years. To explore the possibility of using a comparatively UV–vis transparent absorber, we herein present the first report on the evaluation of a commercially available flash lamp-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with LiF: saturable absorber as an excitation source in LIBS. Quantitative measurements of barium, strontium, rubidium and lithium in granite, rhyolite, basalt and syenite whole-rock glass samples were performed. Using a gated intensified benchtop spectrometer, limits of detection of 0.97, 23, 37, and 144 ppm were obtained for Li, Sr, Rb, and Ba, respectively. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using such a laser unit for LIBS applications in terms of ablation efficiency, analytical performances, output energy, and standoff capabilities.

  4. STRUCTURE-SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION AT SRS | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    STRUCTURE-SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION AT SRS STRUCTURE-SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION AT SRS Structure-Soil-Structure Interaction at SRS Structural Mechanics - SRS October 25, 2011 PDF...

  5. Armor structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-04-01

    An armor structure includes first and second layers individually containing a plurality of i-beams. Individual i-beams have a pair of longitudinal flanges interconnected by a longitudinal crosspiece and defining opposing longitudinal channels between the pair of flanges. The i-beams within individual of the first and second layers run parallel. The laterally outermost faces of the flanges of adjacent i-beams face one another. One of the longitudinal channels in each of the first and second layers faces one of the longitudinal channels in the other of the first and second layers. The channels of the first layer run parallel with the channels of the second layer. The flanges of the first and second layers overlap with the crosspieces of the other of the first and second layers, and portions of said flanges are received within the facing channels of the i-beams of the other of the first and second layers.

  6. Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structural Health Monitoring Engineering Institute Structural Health Monitoring Structural Health Monitoring is the process of implementing a damage detection strategy for...

  7. Stormwater Control Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stormwater Control Structures Stormwater Control Structures Stormwater control structures are engineered to control run-on and runoff water from suspected contaminated sites....

  8. Cropland Field Monitoring: MMV Page 1 Montana Cropland Enrolled Farm Fields Carbon Sequestration Field Sampling, Measurement, Monitoring, and Verification: Application of Visible-Near Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (VNIR) and Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Spangler; Ross Bricklemyer; David Brown

    2012-03-15

    There is growing need for rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods to measure, and verify soil organic carbon (SOC) change for national greenhouse gas accounting and the development of a soil carbon trading market. Laboratory based soil characterization typically requires significant soil processing, which is time and resource intensive. This severely limits application for large-region soil characterization. Thus, development of rapid and accurate methods for characterizing soils are needed to map soil properties for precision agriculture applications, improve regional and global soil carbon (C) stock and flux estimates and efficiently map sub-surface metal contamination, among others. The greatest gains for efficient soil characterization will come from collecting soil data in situ, thus minimizing soil sample transportation, processing, and lab-based measurement costs. Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VisNIR) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are two complementary, yet fundamentally different spectroscopic techniques that have the potential to meet this need. These sensors have the potential to be mounted on a soil penetrometer and deployed for rapid soil profile characterization at field and landscape scales. Details of sensor interaction, efficient data management, and appropriate statistical analysis techniques for model calibrations are first needed. In situ or on-the-go VisNIR spectroscopy has been proposed as a rapid and inexpensive tool for intensively mapping soil texture and organic carbon (SOC). While lab-based VisNIR has been established as a viable technique for estimating various soil properties, few experiments have compared the predictive accuracy of on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Eight north central Montana wheat fields were intensively interrogated using on-the-go and lab-based VisNIR. Lab-based spectral data consistently provided more accurate predictions than on-the-go data. However, neither in situ nor lab-based spectroscopy yielded even semi-quantitative SOC predictions. There was little SOC variability to explain across the eight fields, and on-the-go VisNIR was not able to capture the subtle SOC variability in these Montana soils. With more variation in soil clay content compared to SOC, both lab and on-the-go VisNIR showed better explanatory power. There are several potential explanations for poor on-the-go predictive accuracy: soil heterogeneity, field moisture, consistent sample presentation, and a difference between the spatial support of on-the-go measurements and soil samples collected for laboratory analyses. Though the current configuration of a commercially available on-the-go VisNIR system allows for rapid field scanning, on-the-go soil processing (i.e. drying, crushing, and sieving) could improve soil carbon predictions. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging elemental analysis technology with the potential to provide rapid, accurate and precise analysis of soil constituents, such as carbon, in situ across landscapes. The research team evaluated the accuracy of LIBS for measuring soil profile carbon in field-moist, intact soil cores simulating conditions that might be encountered by a probe-mounted LIBS instrument measuring soil profile carbon in situ. Over the course of three experiments, more than120 intact soil cores from eight north central Montana wheat fields and the Washington State University (WSU) Cook Agronomy Farm near Pullman, WA were interrogated with LIBS for rapid total carbon (TC), inorganic carbon (IC), and SOC determination. Partial least squares regression models were derived and independently validated at field- and regional scales. Researchers obtained the best LIBS validation predictions for IC followed by TC and SOC. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is fundamentally an elemental analysis technique, yet LIBS PLS2 models appeared to discriminate IC from TC. Regression coefficients from initial models suggested a reliance upon stoichiometric relationships between carbon (247.8 nm) and other elements

  9. Variably porous structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul V. (Savoy, IL); Yu, Xindi (Urbana, IL)

    2011-01-18

    A method of making a monolithic porous structure, comprises electrodepositing a material on a template; removing the template from the material to form a monolithic porous structure comprising the material; and electropolishing the monolithic porous structure.

  10. Structural Molecular Biology, SSRL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highlights Training Workshops & Summer Schools Summer Students Structural Molecular Biology Illuminating Biological Structures at the Atomic and Molecular Levels Your browser...

  11. coherent-structures-html

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Role of Coherent Structures in Scour Process Around Bridge Piers and Abutments

  12. Ion manipulation device with electrical breakdown protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Tang, Keqi; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Smith, Richard D; Anderson, Gordon A; Baker, Erin M

    2014-12-02

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area. The surfaces are housed in a chamber, and at least one electrically insulative shield is coupled to an inner surface of the chamber for increasing a mean-free-path between two adjacent electrodes in the chamber.

  13. Resilience of complex networks to random breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, Gerald; Sreenivasan, Sameet; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2005-11-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations we calculate f{sub c}, the fraction of nodes that are randomly removed before global connectivity is lost, for networks with scale-free and bimodal degree distributions. Our results differ from the results predicted by an equation for f{sub c} proposed by Cohen et al. We discuss the reasons for this disagreement and clarify the domain for which the proposed equation is valid.

  14. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae; Angel, Marian; Bement, Matthew; Salvino, Liming

    2009-01-01

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  15. Stormwater Control Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stormwater Control Structures Stormwater Control Structures Stormwater control structures are engineered to control run-on and runoff water from suspected contaminated sites. Structures trap sediment, keep water on-site, slow water flow and redirect water around problem areas. Rock check dams Rock check dams Silt tence Silt fence Sediment trap Sediment trap Wood mulch and native seed Wood mulch and native seed Gabion Gabion Concrete lined swales Concrete lined swales Hydroseeding Hydroseeding

  16. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  17. Cambridge Structural Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cambridge Structural Database Cambridge Structural Database LANL researchers can access WebCSD from offsite via Remote Access. Question? 667-5809 Email Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) includes bibliographic, chemical, and crystallographic information for organic molecules and metal-organic compounds. The crystal structure data comes from the open literature or direct deposits by researchers. The CSD System incorporations a suite of flexible search and analysis tools. The Research Library

  18. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  19. Computational Structural Mechanics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    load-2 TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling Computational Structural Mechanics Overview of CSM Computational structural mechanics is a well-established methodology for the design and analysis of many components and structures found in the transportation field. Modern finite-element models (FEMs) play a major role in these evaluations, and sophisticated software, such as the commercially available LS-DYNA® code, is

  20. Railway vehicle body structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The strength and durability of railway vehicle structures is a major topic of engineering research and design. To reflect this importance the Railway Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers organised a conference to discuss all matters relating to railway vehicle design. This book presents the papers discussed in that conference. The contents include: Vehicle body design and the UIC's international contribution; LUL prototype 1986 stock - body structure; vehicle structure for the intermediate capacity transmit system vehicles; car body technology of advanced light rapid transit vehicles; concepts, techniques and experience in the idealization of car body structures for finite element analysis; Calcutta metropolitan railway; design for a lightweight diesel multiple unit body; the design of lightweight inter-city coal structures; the BREL international coach body shell structure; new concepts and design techniques versus material standards; structures of BR diesel electric freight locomotives; structural design philosophy for electric locomotives; suspension design for a locomotive with low structural frequencies; freight wagon structures; a finite element study of coal bodyside panels including the effects of joint flexibility; a fresh approach to the problem of car body design strength; energy absorption in automatic couplings and draw gear; passenger vehicle design loads and structural crashworthiness; design of the front part of railway vehicles (in case of frontal impact); the development of a theoretical technique for rail vehicle structural crashworthiness.

  1. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  2. Vitrified underground structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Mark T. (Kennewick, WA); Buelt, James L. (Richland, WA); Stottlemyre, James A. (Richland, WA); Tixier, Jr., John S. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A method of making vitrified underground structures in which 1) the vitrification process is started underground, and 2) a thickness dimension is controlled to produce substantially planar vertical and horizontal vitrified underground structures. Structures may be placed around a contaminated waste site to isolate the site or may be used as aquifer dikes.

  3. Protein Structure Recognition: From Eigenvector Analysis to Structural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ThesisDissertation: Protein Structure Recognition: From Eigenvector Analysis to Structural Threading Method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Protein Structure ...

  4. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  5. Undergraduate Program Salary Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Salary Structure Undergraduate Program Salary Structure Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. Contact Student Programs (505) 665-8899 Email Undergraduate salary determination process Salaries are evaluated from students' current transcripts based on college academic progression and hours completed in a degree program. Professional Salary Structure Years

  6. Structural Health Monitoring Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure Dataset to expand menu (d) Click on Dataset output 9. Add and configure Statistical Moments function as Step 3 of sequence (a) Navigate to SHMFunctionsFeature...

  7. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  8. Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time Reversal Acoustics LANL also investigates the applicability of time reversal concept in modern acoustics to structural damage identification. In the time reversal...

  9. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopy (ARPES) at ALS Beamline 7.0.1, a team of scientists from the ALS and Germany characterized the electronic band structure and successfully controlled the gap...

  10. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in...

  11. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale,...

  12. Effective Incentive Structures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents an in-depth look at effective incentive structures, how to clarify your program goals, and tips to plan for the long term.

  13. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  14. Optoelectronic Mounting Structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Gene R. (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (Albuquerque, NM); Baca, Johnny R. F. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM); Carson, Richard F. (Albuquerque, NM); Chu, Dahwey (Albuquerque, NM); Duckett, III, Edwin B. (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick B. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, David W. (Sandia Park, NM); Peterson, Gary D. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM); Reysen, Bill H. (Lafayette, CO)

    2004-10-05

    An optoelectronic mounting structure is provided that may be used in conjunction with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. The mounting structure may be a flexible printed circuit board. Thermal vias or heat pipes in the head region may transmit heat from the mounting structure to the heat spreader. The heat spreader may provide mechanical rigidity or stiffness to the heat region. In another embodiment, an electrical contact and ground plane may pass along a surface of the head region so as to provide an electrical contact path to the optoelectronic devices and limit electromagnetic interference. In yet another embodiment, a window may be formed in the head region of the mounting structure so as to provide access to the heat spreader. Optoelectronic devices may be adapted to the heat spreader in such a manner that the devices are accessible through the window in the mounting structure.

  15. Graduate Program Salary Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Salary Structure Graduate Program Salary Structure Point your career towards Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment that is rich in intellectual vitality and opportunities for growth. Contact Student Programs (505) 665-0987 Email GRA salary determination process Salaries are determined by evaluating students' current transcripts using the following criteria: Salaries for graduate students are based on completion of 12 credit hours annually for the

  16. Structure function monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGraw, John T. (Placitas, NM); Zimmer, Peter C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-24

    Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.

  17. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's

  18. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  19. Structure-Soil-Structure Interaction Effects: Seismic Analysis of Safety-Related Collocated Structures

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    STRUCTURE-SOIL- STRUCTURE INTERACTION AT SRS Structural Mechanics - SRS October 25, 2011 1 Objective Determination of Structure Soil Structure Interaction (SSSI) effects, if any between large and more massive Process Building (PB) and Exhaust Fan Building (EFB). Results of the SSSI analysis were compared with those from Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analysis of the individual buildings, for the following parameters: * In-structure floor response spectra (ISRS) * Transfer functions * Relative

  20. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  1. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saha, Anuj J. (Hamburg, NY); Grant, David C. (Gibsonia, PA)

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  2. Nuclear Structure - Research - Cyclotron Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Structure depiction of giant resonance modes (ref. Xinfeng Chen, "Giant Resonance Study By 6Li Scattering" Nuclear structure studies at the Institute explore a wide range...

  3. Acicular photomultiplier photocathode structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Craig, Richard A.; Bliss, Mary

    2003-09-30

    A method and apparatus for increasing the quantum efficiency of a photomultiplier tube by providing a photocathode with an increased surface-to-volume ratio. The photocathode includes a transparent substrate, upon one major side of which is formed one or more large aspect-ratio structures, such as needles, cones, fibers, prisms, or pyramids. The large aspect-ratio structures are at least partially composed of a photoelectron emitting material, i.e., a material that emits a photoelectron upon absorption of an optical photon. The large aspect-ratio structures may be substantially composed of the photoelectron emitting material (i.e., formed as such upon the surface of a relatively flat substrate) or be only partially composed of a photoelectron emitting material (i.e., the photoelectron emitting material is coated over large aspect-ratio structures formed from the substrate material itself.) The large aspect-ratio nature of the photocathode surface allows for an effective increase in the thickness of the photocathode relative the absorption of optical photons, thereby increasing the absorption rate of incident photons, without substantially increasing the effective thickness of the photocathode relative the escape incidence of the photoelectrons.

  4. Housing And Mounting Structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Gene R. (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (Albuquerque, NM); Baca, Johnny R.F. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM); Carson, Richard F. (Albuquerque, NM); Duckett, III, Edwin B. (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick B. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Gregory V. (Kansas City, MO); Peterson, David W. (Sandia Park, NM); Smith, Terrance T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-03-08

    This invention relates to an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module, and more particularly, to an apparatus for connecting a first optical connector to a second optical connector. The apparatus comprises: (1) a housing having at least a first end and at least a second end, the first end of the housing capable of receiving the first optical connector, and the second end of the housing capable of receiving the second optical connector; (2) a longitudinal cavity extending from the first end of the housing to the second end of the housing; and (3) an electromagnetic shield comprising at least a portion of the housing. This invention also relates to an apparatus for housing a flexible printed circuit board, and this apparatus comprises: (1) a mounting structure having at least a first surface and a second surface; (2) alignment ridges along the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure, the alignment ridges functioning to align and secure a flexible printed circuit board that is wrapped around and attached to the first and second surfaces of the mounting structure; and (3) a series of heat sink ridges adapted to the mounting structure, the heat sink ridges functioning to dissipate heat that is generated from the flexible printed circuit board.

  5. Multi-functional composite structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Halloran, John; Popovich, Dragan; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji; Fulcher, Michael L.; Knittel, Kenneth L.

    2004-10-19

    Fibrous monolith processing techniques to fabricate multifunctional structures capable of performing more than one discrete function such as structures capable of bearing structural loads and mechanical stresses in service and also capable of performing at least one additional non-structural function.

  6. Multi-functional composite structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mulligan, Anthony C.; Halloran, John; Popovich, Dragan; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji; Fulcher, Michael L.; Knittel, Kenneth L.

    2010-04-27

    Fibrous monolith processing techniques to fabricate multifunctional structures capable of performing more than one discrete function such as structures capable of bearing structural loads and mechanical stresses in service and also capable of performing at least one additional non-structural function.

  7. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Momyer, William R. (Palo Alto, CA); Littauer, Ernest L. (Los Altos Hills, CA)

    1985-01-01

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  8. Portable solar heater structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holley, D.; Holley, D.E.

    1981-09-08

    Portable solar heater structure is described. A substantially rectangular frame has a back with openings therethrough for permitting air to be drawn into the solar heater. A layer of insulating materials is in contact with the back. A plurality of cupshaped solar collectors open toward the front of the solar heater structure are positioned adjacent the insulating material. A cover is over the front of the solar heater having openings therein adjacent the top thereof through which air heated by the solar heater is passed. A passage is between the openings in the back and cover of the solar heater through which relatively cool air is drawn through the openings in the back over the collectors to be heated for subsequent withdrawal through the openings in the cover.

  9. Core assembly storage structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Charles E. (Northridge, CA); Brunings, Jay E. (Chatsworth, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

  10. Structural Health Monitoring Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Example Usages LANL/UCSD Engineering Institute LA-CC-14-046 LA-UR-14-21093 c Copyright 2014, Los Alamos National Security, LLC All rights reserved. May 30, 2014 Example Usages Contents Data Set Descriptions Integrating Examples Modal Analysis Condition-Based Monitoring Active Sensing Outlier Detection Data Set Descriptions Experimental Procedure Description of the 3-Story Structure Experimental Procedure Description of the Condition-Based Monitoring Example Data Integrating Examples Example

  11. Structural Molecular Biology, SSRL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Our Mission Our Mission The SSRL Structural Molecular Biology program operates as a integrated resource and has three primary areas (or cores) of technological research and development and scientific focus: Macromolecular Crystallography (MC) Small Angle X-ray Scattering/Diffraction (SAXS) X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) Central to the core technological developments in all three of these areas is the development and utilization of improved detectors and instrumentation, especially to be

  12. Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structural Health Monitoring - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  13. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with

  14. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with

  15. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with

  16. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with

  17. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has enormous potential for use in ultrafast electronic transistors. It exhibits high conductivity and an anomalous quantum Hall effect (a phenomenon exhibited by certain semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid with

  18. Structured Multifrontal Sparse Solver

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    StruMF is an algebraic structured preconditioner for the interative solution of large sparse linear systems. The preconditioner corresponds to a multifrontal variant of sparse LU factorization in which some dense blocks of the factors are approximated with low-rank matrices. It is algebraic in that it only requires the linear system itself, and the approximation threshold that determines the accuracy of individual low-rank approximations. Favourable rank properties are obtained using a block partitioning which is amore » refinement of the partitioning induced by nested dissection ordering.« less

  19. Final Report on "Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gold, Steven H.

    2013-10-13

    This is the final report on the research program ?Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz,? which was carried out by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) under Interagency Agreement DE?AI02?01ER41170 with the Department of Energy. The period covered by this report is 15 July 2010 ? 14 July 2013. The program included two principal tasks. Task 1 involved a study of the key physics issues related to the use of high gradient dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures in rf linear accelerators and was carried out in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Euclid Techlabs LLC. Task 2 involved a study of high power active microwave pulse compressors and was carried out in collaboration with Omega-P, Inc. and the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Nizhny Novgorod. The studies under Task 1 were focused on rf-induced multipactor and breakdown in externally driven DLA structures at the 200-ns timescale. Suppression of multipactor and breakdown are essential to the practical application of dielectric structures in rf linear accelerators. The structures that were studied were developed by ANL and Euclid Techlabs and their performance was evaluated at high power in the X-band Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. Three structures were designed, fabricated, and tested, and the results analyzed in the first two years of the program: a clamped quartz traveling-wave (TW) structure, a externally copper-coated TW structure, and an externally copper-coated dielectric standing-wave (SW) structure. These structures showed that rf breakdown could be largely eliminated by eliminating dielectric joints in the structures, but that the multipactor loading was omnipresent. In the third year of the program, the focus of the program was on multipactor suppression using a strong applied axial magnetic field, as proposed by Chang et al. [C. Chang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063304 (2011).], and a successful experiment was carried out that demonstrated suppression of multipactor in the uniform-field region of a TW DLA structure. However, in accordance with theory, the multipactor was enhanced in regions of the structure with lower values of axial magnetic field. Under Task 2, there were two two-month experimental runs at NRL that were used to characterize the performance of high power two-channel dual-mode active microwave pulse compressor configurations that used electron-beam triggered switch cavities. The pulse compressors were designed and fabricated by Omega-P, Inc. and the Russian Institute of Applied Physics and tested in the Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. These pulse compressors made use of an electron beam discharge from a cylindrical knife-edged Mo cathode coated with a CVD diamond film that was driven by a ?100 kV, 100 ns high voltage pulse. The electron beam was used to change the resonant frequency of the switch cavities in order to create the output microwave pulse. The compressor channels included a TE01 input and output section and a TE02 energy storage cavity, followed by a switch assembly that controlled the coupling between the TE01 and TE02 modes. In the initial state, the switch cavity was in resonance, the reflection from the cavity was out of phase, and the mode conversion was only ~2-3%, allowing the energy storage cavity to fill. When the electron beam was discharged into the switch cavity, the cavity was shifted out of resonance, causing the phase of the reflection to change by ~?. As a result of the change in the reflection phase, the mode coupling in the conical taper was greatly increased, and could approach ~100%, permitting the energy storage cavity to empty in one cavity round trip time of the TE02 mode to produce a high power output pulse. The second experiment runs demonstrated a 190 MW, ~20 ns compressed pulse at 25.7 gain and ~50% efficiency, using a 7.4 MW, 1 ?s drive pulse from the magnicon. The success of this experiment suggests a path to future high gain active versions of the SLED 2 pulse compressor at SLAC.

  20. Structured wafer for device processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-05-20

    A structured wafer that includes through passages is used for device processing. Each of the through passages extends from or along one surface of the structured wafer and forms a pattern on a top surface area of the structured wafer. The top surface of the structured wafer is bonded to a device layer via a release layer. Devices are processed on the device layer, and are released from the structured wafer using etchant. The through passages within the structured wafer allow the etchant to access the release layer to thereby remove the release layer.

  1. Structured wafer for device processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-11-25

    A structured wafer that includes through passages is used for device processing. Each of the through passages extends from or along one surface of the structured wafer and forms a pattern on a top surface area of the structured wafer. The top surface of the structured wafer is bonded to a device layer via a release layer. Devices are processed on the device layer, and are released from the structured wafer using etchant. The through passages within the structured wafer allow the etchant to access the release layer to thereby remove the release layer.

  2. Protein Structure Recognition: From Eigenvector Analysis to Structural

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Threading Method (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Thesis/Dissertation: Protein Structure Recognition: From Eigenvector Analysis to Structural Threading Method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Protein Structure Recognition: From Eigenvector Analysis to Structural Threading Method In this work, they try to understand the protein folding problem using pair-wise hydrophobic interaction as the dominant interaction for the protein folding process.

  3. Protein Structure Recognition: From Eigenvector Analysis to Structural

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Threading Method (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect Thesis/Dissertation: Protein Structure Recognition: From Eigenvector Analysis to Structural Threading Method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Protein Structure Recognition: From Eigenvector Analysis to Structural Threading Method In this work, they try to understand the protein folding problem using pair-wise hydrophobic interaction as the dominant interaction for the protein folding process. They found a strong correlation

  4. Electronically- and crystal-structure-driven magnetic structures and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    physical properties of RScSb (R = rare earth) compounds. A neutron diffraction, magnetization and heat capacity study (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Electronically- and crystal-structure-driven magnetic structures and physical properties of RScSb (R = rare earth) compounds. A neutron diffraction, magnetization and heat capacity study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronically- and crystal-structure-driven magnetic structures and physical properties of RScSb (R = rare

  5. Electronically- and crystal-structure-driven magnetic structures and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    physical properties of RScSb (R = rare earth) compounds. A neutron diffraction, magnetization and heat capacity study (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Electronically- and crystal-structure-driven magnetic structures and physical properties of RScSb (R = rare earth) compounds. A neutron diffraction, magnetization and heat capacity study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronically- and crystal-structure-driven magnetic structures and physical properties of RScSb (R = rare

  6. Supercomputing and nonlinear seismic structural response of freeway structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goudreau, G.L.; Kay, G.; McCallen, D.; Schauer, D.; Logan, R.

    1990-11-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake stimulated a major reassessment of Bay Area structures to consider much larger earthquakes than originally designed for. The supercomputers of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were used to demonstrate the feasibility of nonlinear structural time history analysis to assess likelihood of failure of critical structures.

  7. Financing Structures | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structures Financing Structures Various structures can be used to finance a clean energy project or develop a clean energy financing program that will support many projects. Find more information on the financing structures listed here. Bonding Tools (e.g., Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds) Energy Efficient Mortgages Energy Savings Performance Contracting Financial Institution Lending Programs Leasing Arrangements Loan Loss Reserve Funds and Other Credit Enhancements On-Bill Financing and

  8. Structural Simulation Toolkit. Lunch & Learn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Branden J.; Voskuilen, Gwendolyn Renae; Rodrigues, Arun F.; Hammond, Simon David; Hemmert, Karl Scott

    2015-09-01

    This is a presentation outlining a lunch and learn lecture for the Structural Simulation Toolkit, supported by Sandia National Laboratories.

  9. Solar Decathlon Technology Spotlight: Structural Insulated Panels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Structural insulated panels (SIPs) are prefabricated structural elements used to build walls, ceilings, floors, and roofs.

  10. Structural Genomics of Protein Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almo,S.; Bonanno, J.; Sauder, J.; Emtage, S.; Dilorenzo, T.; Malashkevich, V.; Wasserman, S.; Swaminathan, S.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; et al

    2007-01-01

    The New York SGX Research Center for Structural Genomics (NYSGXRC) of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) has applied its high-throughput X-ray crystallographic structure determination platform to systematic studies of all human protein phosphatases and protein phosphatases from biomedically-relevant pathogens. To date, the NYSGXRC has determined structures of 21 distinct protein phosphatases: 14 from human, 2 from mouse, 2 from the pathogen Toxoplasma gondii, 1 from Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite responsible for African sleeping sickness, and 2 from the principal mosquito vector of malaria in Africa, Anopheles gambiae. These structures provide insights into both normal and pathophysiologic processes, including transcriptional regulation, regulation of major signaling pathways, neural development, and type 1 diabetes. In conjunction with the contributions of other international structural genomics consortia, these efforts promise to provide an unprecedented database and materials repository for structure-guided experimental and computational discovery of inhibitors for all classes of protein phosphatases.

  11. Vessel structural support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenko, James X. (N. Versailles, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Twp., Allegheny County, PA); Wilson, Robert M. (Plum Boro, PA); Wepfer, Robert M. (Murrysville, PA)

    1992-01-01

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of "flat" attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator.

  12. Structural model of uramarsite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Sidorenko, G. A.; Ivanova, A. G.; Chukanov, N. V.

    2008-09-15

    The structural model of uramarsite, a new mineral of the uran-mica family from the Bota-Burum deposit (South Kazakhstan), is determined using a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The parameters of the triclinic unit cell are as follows: a = 7.173(2) A, b = 7.167(5) A, c = 9.30(1) A, {alpha} = 90.13(7){sup o}, {beta} = 90.09(4){sup o}, {gamma} = 89.96(4){sup o}, and space group P1. The crystal chemical formula of uramarsite is: (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[AsO{sub 4}][PO{sub 4},AsO{sub 4}][NH{sub 4}][H{sub 3}O] . 6H{sub 2}O (Z = 1). Uramarsite is the second ammonium-containing mineral of uranium and an arsenate analogue of uramphite. In the case of uramarsite, the lowering of the symmetry from tetragonal to triclinic, which is accompanied by a triclinic distortion of the tetragonal unit cell, is apparently caused by the ordering of the As and P atoms and the NH{sub 4}, H{sub 3}O, and H{sub 2}O groups.

  13. Structure of the CRA-2014: Structure of the CRA-2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of the CRA-2014 United States Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad Field Office Carlsbad, New Mexico Compliance Recertification Application 2014 Structure of the CRA-2014 Table of Contents Structure of the CRA-2014 List of Figures Figure STRUCT- 1. CRA-2014 Pictorial Roadmap This page intentionally left blank. Acronyms and Abbreviations CCA Compliance Certification Application CFR Code of Federal Regulations CRA Compliance Recertification Application DOE U.S.

  14. Structure of the CRA-2014: Structure of the CRA-2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of the CRA-2014 List of Figures Figure STRUCT- 1. CRA-2014 Pictorial Roadmap This page intentionally left blank. Acronyms and Abbreviations CCA Compliance...

  15. Dissipative structures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langhorst, Benjamin R; Chu, Henry S

    2013-11-05

    Dissipative structures include at least one panel and a cell structure disposed adjacent to the at least one panel having interconnected cells. A deformable material, which may comprise at least one hydrogel, is disposed within at least one interconnected cell proximate to the at least one panel. Dissipative structures may also include a cell structure having interconnected cells formed by wall elements. The wall elements may include a mesh formed by overlapping fibers having apertures formed therebetween. The apertures may form passageways between the interconnected cells. Methods of dissipating a force include disposing at least one hydrogel in a cell structure proximate to at least one panel, applying a force to the at least one panel, and forcing at least a portion of the at least one hydrogel through apertures formed in the cell structure.

  16. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  17. Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved Print Wednesday, 30 April 2008 00:00 Establishment of neural connections at specialized intercellular junctions called synapses is critical for proper brain function, and errors in the process are thought to be associated with autism and other disorders. Researchers from Stanford University and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center have reported high-resolution, three-dimensional structures of the

  18. Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure Print Wednesday, 26 April 2006 00:00 The last step in converting the genetic information stored in DNA into the major functional parts of cells is protein biosynthesis. Protein synthesis occurs on the ribosome, a cellular factory found in all forms of life. In contrast to most cellular machines, the ribosome contains a functional core of RNA that is enhanced by ribosomal proteins and accessory factors. Two structures of

  19. Electronic structure of superconductivity refined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic structure of superconductivity refined Electronic structure of superconductivity refined A team of physicists propose a new model that expands on a little understood aspect of the electronic structure in high-temperature superconductors. July 10, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  20. structured | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    REEEP REEGLE structured tagging API Reegle and OpenEI share the vision that easy access to energy information will help drive future developments in clean energy development....

  1. Quasicrystalline structures and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinhardt, Paul Joseph (Princeton, NJ); Chaikin, Paul Michael (New York, NY); Man, Weining (San Francisco, CA)

    2011-11-22

    This invention relates generally to the field of quasicrystalline structures. In preferred embodiments, the stopgap structure is more spherically symmetric than periodic structures facilitating the formation of stopgaps in nearly all directions because of higher rotational symmetries. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of quasicrystalline structures for optical, mechanical, electrical and magnetic purposes. In some embodiments, the invention relates to manipulating, controlling, modulating and directing waves including electromagnetic, sound, spin, and surface waves, for a pre-selected range of wavelengths propagating in multiple directions.

  2. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, M.A.; Morris, R.S.

    1986-09-16

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorption agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure. 3 figs.

  3. Quasicrystalline structures and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinhardt, Paul J; Chaikin, Paul Michael; Man, Weining

    2013-12-03

    This invention relates generally to the field of quasicrystalline structures. In preferred embodiments, the stopgap structure is more spherically symmetric than periodic structures facilitating the formation of stopgaps in nearly all directions because of higher rotational symmetries. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of quasicrystalline structures for optical, mechanical, electrical and magnetic purposes. In some embodiments, the invention relates to manipulating, controlling, modulating and directing waves including electromagnetic, sound, spin, and surface waves, for pre-selected range of wavelengths propagating in multiple directions.

  4. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, Myles A. (Falmouth, MA); Morris, Robert S. (Fairhaven, MA)

    1986-09-16

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorbtion agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure.

  5. Appendix C Conducting Structured Walkthroughs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-05-21

    This guide describes how to conduct a structured walkthroughs during the lifecycle stages of software engineering projects, regardless of hardware platform.

  6. Structural Genomics: Expectations and Reality

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    projects aim to expand our structural knowledge of biological macromolecules, while ... We expect that this analysis will be helpful for informing future strategy in both SG and ...

  7. Hadron Structure from Lattice QCD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 st order coupled PDE's * Large, sparse, matrix solve per ... * Requires capability resources 3 Analysis Compute ... methods for spectroscopy, hadron & nuclear structure ...

  8. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  9. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D; Swank, William D.

    2011-08-30

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  10. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, S.W.

    1975-06-03

    Herein is disclosed a flate plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support, and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  11. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1977-03-08

    Herein is disclosed a flat plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  12. Structural study of ammonium metatungstate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, Joel B. Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2008-08-15

    Several techniques have been used to study the structure of the Keggin-type polyoxometalate salt ammonium metatungstate (AMT)-(NH{sub 4}){sub 6}[H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40}]*nH{sub 2}O, a potential fuel cell catalyst. The dehydrated salt is comprised of a mixture of crystallites of different unit cells in a centered eutactic cubic configuration, with an average unit cell of a{approx_equal}12.295. Varied orientations of the Keggin ions in the cubic arrangement create the differences, and orientational variation within each unit cell size represents an energy well. Progressive hydration of each crystallite leads to expansion of the lattice, with the degree of expansion depending on the locations of the water added in relation to the Keggin ion, which is influenced by cation location and hydrogen bonding. The structural hypothesis is supported by electron diffraction of single and multicrystal samples, by powder density measurements, X-ray powder diffraction studies, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, and a priori structural modeling studies. Based on the structure, projected active site densities are compared with nanostructured platinum catalysts for fuel cell application. - Graphical abstract: The structure of ammonium metatungstate powders are highly dependent on hydration and POM molecule rotation, with cation and hydrogen bonding forces directing a mixture of structures that have been studied with bulk and single-crystal methods. The illustration shows Monte Carlo simulated anion structural disorder for the fully dehydrated form of the title compound.

  13. Functional Insights from Structural Genomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forouhar,F.; Kuzin, A.; Seetharaman, J.; Lee, I.; Zhou, W.; Abashidze, M.; Chen, Y.; Montelione, G.; Tong, L.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Structural genomics efforts have produced structural information, either directly or by modeling, for thousands of proteins over the past few years. While many of these proteins have known functions, a large percentage of them have not been characterized at the functional level. The structural information has provided valuable functional insights on some of these proteins, through careful structural analyses, serendipity, and structure-guided functional screening. Some of the success stories based on structures solved at the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) are reported here. These include a novel methyl salicylate esterase with important role in plant innate immunity, a novel RNA methyltransferase (H. influenzae yggJ (HI0303)), a novel spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase (B. subtilis PaiA), a novel methyltransferase or AdoMet binding protein (A. fulgidus AF{_}0241), an ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (B. subtilis YvqK), a novel carboxysome pore (E. coli EutN), a proline racemase homolog with a disrupted active site (B. melitensis BME11586), an FMN-dependent enzyme (S. pneumoniae SP{_}1951), and a 12-stranded {beta}-barrel with a novel fold (V. parahaemolyticus VPA1032).

  14. Thermal transfer structures coupling electronics card(s) to coolant-cooled structure(s)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    David, Milnes P; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Parida, Pritish R; Schmidt, Roger R

    2014-12-16

    Cooling apparatuses and coolant-cooled electronic systems are provided which include thermal transfer structures configured to engage with a spring force one or more electronics cards with docking of the electronics card(s) within a respective socket(s) of the electronic system. A thermal transfer structure of the cooling apparatus includes a thermal spreader having a first thermal conduction surface, and a thermally conductive spring assembly coupled to the conduction surface of the thermal spreader and positioned and configured to reside between and physically couple a first surface of an electronics card to the first surface of the thermal spreader with docking of the electronics card within a socket of the electronic system. The thermal transfer structure is, in one embodiment, metallurgically bonded to a coolant-cooled structure and facilitates transfer of heat from the electronics card to coolant flowing through the coolant-cooled structure.

  15. SSI (soil-structure interactions) and structural benchmarks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the ongoing program entitled, ''Standard Problems for Structural Computer Codes'', currently being worked on at BNL for the USNRC, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. During FY 1986, efforts were focussed on three tasks, namely, (1) an investigation of ground water effects on the response of Category I structures, (2) the Soil-Structure Interaction Workshop and (3) studies on structural benchmarks associated with Category I structures. The objective of the studies on ground water effects is to verify the applicability and the limitations of the SSI methods currently used by the industry in performing seismic evaluations of nuclear plants which are located at sites with high water tables. In a previous study by BNL (NUREG/CR-4588), it has been concluded that the pore water can influence significantly the soil-structure interaction process. This result, however, is based on the assumption of fully saturated soil profiles. Consequently, the work was further extended to include cases associated with variable water table depths. In this paper, results related to ''cut-off'' depths beyond which the pore water effects can be ignored in seismic calculations, are addressed. Comprehensive numerical data are given for soil configurations typical to those encountered in nuclear plant sites. These data were generated by using a modified version of the SLAM code which is capable of handling problems related to the dynamic response of saturated soils.

  16. Thermal control structure and garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.; Cameron, Christopher Stan

    2012-03-13

    A flexible thermally conductive structure. The structure generally includes a plurality of thermally conductive yarns, at least some of which are at least partially disposed adjacent to an elastomeric material. Typically, at least a portion of the plurality of thermally conductive yarns is configured as a sheet. The yarns may be constructed from graphite, metal, or similar materials. The elastomeric material may be formed from urethane or silicone foam that is at least partially collapsed, or from a similar material. A thermal management garment is provided, the garment incorporating a flexible thermally conductive structure.

  17. Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline using a relevant structural integrity model, such as that in ASME B31.12. A second objective of this project is to enable development of micromechanics models of hydrogen embrittlement in pipeline steels. The focus of this effort is to establish physical models of hydrogen embrittlement in line pipe steels using evidence from analytical techniques such as electron microscopy. These physical models then serve as the framework for developing sophisticated finite-element models, which can provide quantitative insight into the micromechanical state near defects. Understanding the micromechanics of defects can ensure that structural integrity models are applied accurately and conservatively.

  18. Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    factors. Two structures of the intact ribosome from the common bacterium Escherichia coli, determined by a Berkeley-Berlin collaboration to a resolution of 3.5 , the highest...

  19. Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved Print Establishment of neural connections at specialized intercellular junctions called synapses is critical for proper brain function, and errors in the process are thought to be associated with autism and other disorders. Researchers from Stanford University and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center have reported high-resolution, three-dimensional structures of the proteins, called neuroligin-1 and neurexin-1β, that form this connection.

  20. Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved Print Establishment of neural connections at specialized intercellular junctions called synapses is critical for proper brain function, and errors in the process are thought to be associated with autism and other disorders. Researchers from Stanford University and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center have reported high-resolution, three-dimensional structures of the proteins, called neuroligin-1 and neurexin-1β, that form this connection.

  1. Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure Print The last step in converting the genetic information stored in DNA into the major functional parts of cells is protein biosynthesis. Protein synthesis occurs on the ribosome, a cellular factory found in all forms of life. In contrast to most cellular machines, the ribosome contains a functional core of RNA that is enhanced by ribosomal proteins and accessory factors. Two structures of the intact ribosome from the common bacterium Escherichia coli,

  2. Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Highest-Resolution Ribosome Structure Print The last step in converting the genetic information stored in DNA into the major functional parts of cells is protein biosynthesis. Protein synthesis occurs on the ribosome, a cellular factory found in all forms of life. In contrast to most cellular machines, the ribosome contains a functional core of RNA that is enhanced by ribosomal proteins and accessory factors. Two structures of the intact ribosome from the common bacterium Escherichia coli,

  3. Bridge Structural Analysis Using CSM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bridge Structural Analysis Using Computational Structural Mechanics Background Bridge failure due to wind has been observed as far back as 1823. The latest concept for an efficient and cost-effective bridge design is the cable-stayed bridge. Bridge stay cables, however, have exhibited large-amplitude vibrations as a result of wind loadings, sometimes in combination with rain. In recent years, attempts have been made to model this problem both in the laboratory and on the computer. Several wind

  4. Electronic structure of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oelhafen, P.; Lapka, R.; Gubler, U.; Krieg, J.; DasGupta, A.; Guentherodt, H.J.; Mizoguchi, T.; Hague, C.; Kuebler, J.; Nagel, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is organized in six sections and deals with (1) the glassy transition metal alloys, their d-band structure, the d-band shifts on alloying and their relation to the alloy heat of formation (..delta..H) and the glass forming ability, (2) the glass to crystal phase transition viewed by valence band spectroscopy, (3) band structure calculations, (4) metallic glasses prepared by laser glazing, (5) glassy normal metal alloys, and (6) glassy hydrides.

  5. Qualitative breakdown of the unrestricted Hartree-Fock energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mori-Sánchez, Paula; Cohen, Aron J.

    2014-10-28

    The stretching of closed-shell molecules is a qualitative problem for restricted Hartree-Fock that is usually circumvented by the use of unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF). UHF is well known to break the spin symmetry at the Coulson-Fischer point, leading to a discontinuous derivative in the potential energy surface and incorrect spin density. However, this is generally not considered as a major drawback. In this work, we present a set of two electron molecules which magnify the problem of symmetry breaking and lead to drastically incorrect potential energy surfaces with UHF. These molecules also fail with unrestricted density-functional calculations where a functional such as B3LYP gives both symmetry breaking and an unphysically low energy due to the delocalization error. The implications for density functional theory are also discussed.

  6. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Echelle and linear spectrometers coupled to intensified CCD cameras were used individually and sometimes simultaneously. Elements detected include Na, K, Ca, Mg, C, B, Si, Mn, Al, ...

  7. Dynamics of Percolative Breakdown Mechanism in Tantalum Oxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Journal Articles Find in Google Scholar Find in Google Scholar Search WorldCat Search WorldCat to find libraries that may hold this journal...

  8. Mapping quadrupole collectivity in the Cd isotopes: The breakdown...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2sup + states up to 3 MeV in excitation energy to the assigned two-phonon levels falls ... Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T2A3 2 ; Green, K. L. ; Bangay, J. ; Varela, A. Diaz ; ...

  9. Interference of atomic alkali species with laser-induced breakdown...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource ... Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; AEROSOLS; LASER ...

  10. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic study of ammonium nitrate plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanif, M.; Salik, M.; Baig, M. A.

    2013-12-15

    We present the optical emission studies of the ammonium nitrate plasma produced by the fundamental (1064 nm) and second (532 nm) harmonics of a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The target material was placed in front of the laser beam in an open atmospheric air. The spectrum reveals numerous transitions of neutral nitrogen. We have studied the spatial behavior of the plasma temperature (T{sub e}) and electron number density (N{sub e}) determined using the Boltzmann plot method and Stark broadened line profiles, respectively. Besides, we have studied the variation of the plasma parameters as a function of the laser irradiance.

  11. End-use Breakdown: The Building Energy Modeling Blog

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling Blog en EnergyPlus Logo Debuts on Revit Toolbar http:energy.goveerebuildingsarticlesenergyplus-logo-debuts-revit-toolbar

  12. Evidence of a Percolative Breakdown Mechanism in Tantalum Oxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: IEEE Electron Device Letters; Related Information: Proposed for publication in IEEE Electron Device Letters

  13. Advanced strategic interceptor composite structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ennis, D.H.; Patty, C.E. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Launch mass reduction, stiffness increase, and primary bending mode frequency increase remain the prime focus of the US Army Strategic Defense Command (USASDC) advanced composite material development and testing program. The initial activity was directed toward fabrication of a demonstration structure consistent with the Ground-Based Interceptor (GBI) ERIS flight design. The objectives of this phase of the work were three-fold: selection of the optimum composite materials; concurrent bonding and joining technology development; evaluation of the performance of each test structure relative to its metal counterpart and relative to alternative composites. The effort exceeded model predictions. The resin matrix composite structure mass was 52% lower than the metal design. Modal testing demonstrated a 200% increase in stiffness and a 41% gain in first mode bending frequency. Given the demonstrated level of success, an additional element was added to the task focus: cost-effective, mass quantity fabrication techniques. Single step technology has been successfully applied to a relatively simple thermoset based bridge structure. Two step molding and assembly have been demonstrated for a GBI-X class thermoplastic structure. Preliminary testing has been completed to isolate and resolve problems associated with single step fabrication of the more complex GBI-X class structure. Fabrication of an appropriate test article as preparation for modal survey evaluation of the latter is in progress. Results are presented. Future program directions are summarized.

  14. Current sheath formation dynamics and structure for different insulator lengths of plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seng, Y. S.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.

    2014-11-15

    The breakdown phase of the UNU-ICTP plasma focus (PF) device was successfully simulated using the electromagnetic particle in cell method. A clear uplift of the current sheath (CS) layer was observed near the insulator surface, accompanied with an exponential increase in the plasma density. Both phenomena were found to coincide with the surge in the electric current, which is indicative of voltage breakdown. Simulations performed on the device with different insulator lengths showed an increase in the fast ionization wave velocity with length. The voltage breakdown time was found to scale linearly with the insulator length. Different spatial profiles of the CS electron density, and the associated degree of uniformity, were found to vary with different insulator lengths. The ordering, according to the degree of uniformity, among insulator lengths of 19, 22, and 26?mm agreed with that in terms of soft X-ray radiation yield observed from experiments. This suggests a direct correlation between CS density homogeneity near breakdown and the radiation yield performance. These studies were performed with a linearly increasing voltage time profile as input to the PF device.

  15. PROBABILISTIC STRUCTURAL RESPONSE OF STRUCTURE UNDER COLLAPSE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. PEPIN; E. RODRIGUEZ; ET AL

    2001-01-05

    Engineers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are currently developing the capability to provide a reliability-based structural evaluation technique for performing weapon reliability assessments. To enhance the analyst's confidence with these new methods, an integrated experiment and analysis project has been developed. The uncertainty associated with the collapse response of commercially available spherical marine float is evaluated with the aid of the non-linear explicit dynamics code DYNA3D (Whirley and Engelmann 1988) coupled with the probabilistic code NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) (Thacker et al. 1998). Variations in geometric shape parameters and uncertainties in material parameters are characterized and included in the probabilistic model.

  16. Fullerenic structures and such structures tethered to carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goel, Anish; Howard, Jack B.; Vander Sande, John B.

    2012-10-09

    The fullerenic structures include fullerenes having molecular weights less than that of C.sub.60 with the exception of C.sub.36 and fullerenes having molecular weights greater than C.sub.60. Examples include fullerenes C.sub.50, C.sub.58, C.sub.130, and C.sub.176. Fullerenic structure chemically bonded to a carbon surface is also disclosed along with a method for tethering fullerenes to a carbon material. The method includes adding functionalized fullerene to a liquid suspension containing carbon material, drying the suspension to produce a powder, and heat treating the powder.

  17. Fullerenic structures and such structures tethered to carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goel, Anish; Howard, Jack B.; Vander Sande, John B.

    2010-01-05

    The fullerenic structures include fullerenes having molecular weights less than that of C.sub.60 with the exception of C.sub.36 and fullerenes having molecular weights greater than C.sub.60. Examples include fullerenes C.sub.50, C.sub.58, C.sub.130, and C.sub.176. Fullerenic structure chemically bonded to a carbon surface is also disclosed along with a method for tethering fullerenes to a carbon material. The method includes adding functionalized fullerene to a liquid suspension containing carbon material, drying the suspension to produce a powder, and heat treating the powder.

  18. Seventh BES (Basic Energy Sciences) catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  19. Quasicrystalline structures and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinhardt, Paul Joseph; Chaikin, Paul Michael; Man, Weining

    2013-08-13

    This invention relates generally to devices constructed from quasicrystalline heterostructures. In preferred embodiments, two or more dielectric materials are arranged in a two- or three-dimensional space in a lattice pattern having at least a five-fold symmetry axis and not a six-fold symmetry axis, such that the quasicrystalline heterostructure exhibits an energy band structure in the space, the band structure having corresponding symmetry, which symmetry is forbidden in crystals, and which band structure comprises a complete band gap. The constructed devices are adapted for manipulating, controlling, modulating, trapping, reflecting and otherwise directing waves including electromagnetic, sound, spin, and surface waves, for a pre-selected range of wavelengths propagating within or through the heterostructure in multiple directions.

  20. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  1. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wayne Y.

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  2. Thermographic inspection of massive structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renshaw, Jeremy B.; Guimaraes, Maria; Scott, David B.

    2014-02-18

    Nondestructive Evaluation of concrete structures is a growing concern for the nuclear industry as well as for many other industries. As critical concrete components continue to age, the ability to assess the health and suitability for continued service has become a key consideration. In some cases, repair of these structures is difficult and expensive, while replacement is prohibitively expensive or, in some cases, not feasible. Therefore, the ability to inspect these key assets is a primary concern, especially in the nuclear industry. Due to the large size of containment buildings, cooling towers, and other large concrete assets, the ability to rapidly inspect for defects of concern is very desirable. Thermographic inspection appears to have the required ability to rapidly inspect large structures to ascertain the location and size of many of the defects of concern. This ability was demonstrated by performing a thermographic inspection of a large concrete dam in 2 days.

  3. Collective network for computer structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Gara, Alan (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Ossining, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Brewster, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Wernau, DE); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2011-08-16

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global collective communications among interconnected processing nodes. The global collective network optimally enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices ate included that interconnect the nodes of the network via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual network and class structures. The global collective network may be configured to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner. When implemented in a massively-parallel supercomputing structure, the global collective network is physically and logically partitionable according to needs of a processing algorithm.

  4. Method of making diode structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Gupta, Akhlesh

    2006-11-28

    A method of making a diode structure includes the step of depositing a transparent electrode layer of any one or more of the group ZnO, ZnS and CdO onto a substrate layer, and depositing an active semiconductor junction having an n-type layer and a p-type layer onto the transparent electrode layer under process conditions that avoid substantial degradation of the electrode layer. A back electrode coating layer is applied to form a diode structure.

  5. Method for protein structure alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blankenbecler, Richard; Ohlsson, Mattias; Peterson, Carsten; Ringner, Markus

    2005-02-22

    This invention provides a method for protein structure alignment. More particularly, the present invention provides a method for identification, classification and prediction of protein structures. The present invention involves two key ingredients. First, an energy or cost function formulation of the problem simultaneously in terms of binary (Potts) assignment variables and real-valued atomic coordinates. Second, a minimization of the energy or cost function by an iterative method, where in each iteration (1) a mean field method is employed for the assignment variables and (2) exact rotation and/or translation of atomic coordinates is performed, weighted with the corresponding assignment variables.

  6. DNA attachment to support structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balhorn, Rodney L. (Livermore, CA); Barry, Christopher H. (Fresno, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Microscopic beads or other structures are attached to nucleic acids (DNA) using a terminal transferase. The transferase adds labeled dideoxy nucleotide bases to the ends of linear strands of DNA. The labels, such as the antigens digoxigenin and biotin, bind to the antibody compounds or other appropriate complementary ligands, which are bound to the microscopic beads or other support structures. The method does not require the synthesis of a synthetic oligonucleotide probe. The method can be used to tag or label DNA even when the DNA has an unknown sequence, has blunt ends, or is a very large fragment (e.g., >500 kilobase pairs).

  7. Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bulk High Performance Materials for Energy Conversion Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of...

  8. Investigations of Interfacial Structure in Thermoelectric Tellurides...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interfacial Structure in Thermoelectric Tellurides Investigations of Interfacial Structure in Thermoelectric Tellurides Discusses examples of work on the investigation of atomic...

  9. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic Carbonates and Esters Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: ...

  10. Structure Learning in Power Distribution Networks (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure Learning in Power Distribution Networks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure Learning in Power Distribution Networks You are accessing a document from...

  11. Hybrid Rotaxanes: Interlocked Structures for Quantum Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hybrid Rotaxanes: Interlocked Structures for Quantum Computing? Hybrid Rotaxanes: Interlocked Structures for Quantum Computing? Print Wednesday, 26 August 2009 00:00 Rotaxanes are...

  12. Challenges and opportunities for structural DNA nanotechnology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Challenges and opportunities for structural DNA nanotechnology Authors: Pinheiro, A. V., Han, D., Shih, W. M., and Yan, H. Title: Challenges and opportunities for structural DNA...

  13. Solvate Structures and Computational/Spectroscopic Characterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solvate Structures and ComputationalSpectroscopic Characterization of LiPF6 Electrolytes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solvate Structures and Computational...

  14. Solvate Structures and Computational/Spectroscopic Characterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solvate Structures and ComputationalSpectroscopic Characterization of LiBF4 Electrolytes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solvate Structures and Computational...

  15. Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics Print Wednesday, 28 January 2015 00:00 With an aging population in ...

  16. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a hybrid ceramic/metallic rotor member having ceramic/metal joint structure. The disclosed joint is able to endure higher temperatures than previously possible, and aids in controlling heat transfer in the rotor member.

  17. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a rotor portion having axially stacked adjacent ceramic rotor parts. A ceramic/ceramic joint structure transmits torque between the rotor parts while maintaining coaxial alignment and axially spaced mutually parallel relation thereof despite thermal and centrifugal cycling.

  18. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grot, Stephen President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  19. Structural Health Monitoring for Impact Damage in Composite Structures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Raymond Bond; Doug Adams

    2014-08-01

    Composite structures are increasing in prevalence throughout the aerospace, wind, defense, and transportation industries, but the many advantages of these materials come with unique challenges, particularly in inspecting and repairing these structures. Because composites of- ten undergo sub-surface damage mechanisms which compromise the structure without a clear visual indication, inspection of these components is critical to safely deploying composite re- placements to traditionally metallic structures. Impact damage to composites presents one of the most signi fi cant challenges because the area which is vulnerable to impact damage is generally large and sometimes very dif fi cult to access. This work seeks to further evolve iden- ti fi cation technology by developing a system which can detect the impact load location and magnitude in real time, while giving an assessment of the con fi dence in that estimate. Fur- thermore, we identify ways by which impact damage could be more effectively identi fi ed by leveraging impact load identi fi cation information to better characterize damage. The impact load identi fi cation algorithm was applied to a commercial scale wind turbine blade, and results show the capability to detect impact magnitude and location using a single accelerometer, re- gardless of sensor location. A technique for better evaluating the uncertainty of the impact estimates was developed by quantifying how well the impact force estimate meets the assump- tions underlying the force estimation technique. This uncertainty quanti fi cation technique was found to reduce the 95% con fi dence interval by more than a factor of two for impact force estimates showing the least uncertainty, and widening the 95% con fi dence interval by a fac- tor of two for the most uncertain force estimates, avoiding the possibility of understating the uncertainty associated with these estimates. Linear vibration based damage detection tech- niques were investigated in the context of structural stiffness reductions and impact damage. A method by which the sensitivity to damage could be increased for simple structures was presented, and the challenges of applying that technique to a more complex structure were identi fi ed. The structural dynamic changes in a weak adhesive bond were investigated, and the results showed promise for identifying weak bonds that show little or no static reduction in stiffness. To address these challenges in identifying highly localized impact damage, the possi- bility of detecting damage through nonlinear dynamic characteristics was also identi fi ed, with a proposed technique which would leverage impact location estimates to enable the detection of impact damage. This nonlinear damage identi fi cation concept was evaluated on a composite panel with a substructure disbond, and the results showed that the nonlinear dynamics at the damage site could be observed without a baseline healthy reference. By further developing impact load identi fi cation technology and combining load and damage estimation techniques into an integrated solution, the challenges associated with impact detection in composite struc- tures can be effectively solved, thereby reducing costs, improving safety, and enhancing the operational readiness and availability of high value assets.

  20. Embedded high-contrast distributed grating structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zubrzycki, Walter J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vawter, Gregory A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of fabrication methods for embedded distributed grating structures is claimed, together with optical devices which include such structures. These new methods are the only known approach to making defect-free high-dielectric contrast grating structures, which are smaller and more efficient than are conventional grating structures.

  1. Investigations of Interfacial Structure in Thermoelectric Tellurides

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses examples of work on the investigation of atomic structure of interfaces in thermoelectric tellurides

  2. Method and apparatus for synthesizing filamentary structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Height, Murray J. (Somerville, MA); Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Vandersande, John B. (Newbury, MA)

    2008-02-26

    Method and apparatus for producing filamentary structures. The structures include single-walled nanotubes. The method includes combusting hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen to establish a non-sooting flame and providing an unsupported catalyst to synthesize the filamentary structure in a post-flame region of the flame. Residence time is selected to favor filamentary structure growth.

  3. Process to make structured particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Angela Michelle; Richard, Monique N; Luhrs, Claudia; Blada, Timothy; Phillips, Jonathan

    2014-02-04

    Disclosed is a process for making a composite material that contains structured particles. The process includes providing a first precursor in the form of a dry precursor powder, a precursor liquid, a precursor vapor of a liquid and/or a precursor gas. The process also includes providing a plasma that has a high field zone and passing the first precursor through the high field zone of the plasma. As the first precursor passes through the high field zone of the plasma, at least part of the first precursor is decomposed. An aerosol having a second precursor is provided downstream of the high field zone of the plasma and the decomposed first material is allowed to condense onto the second precursor to from structured particles.

  4. Nanowire structures and electrical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bezryadin, Alexey (Champaign, IL); Remeika, Mikas (Urbana, IL)

    2010-07-06

    The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive segments and conductance constricting segments of a nanowire, such as metallic, superconducting or semiconducting nanowire. The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive nanowire segments and conductance constricting nanowire segments having accurately selected phases including crystalline and amorphous states, compositions, morphologies and physical dimensions, including selected cross sectional dimensions, shapes and lengths along the length of a nanowire. Further, the present invention provides methods of processing nanowires capable of patterning a nanowire to form a plurality of conductance constricting segments having selected positions along the length of a nanowire, including conductance constricting segments having reduced cross sectional dimensions and conductance constricting segments comprising one or more insulating materials such as metal oxides.

  5. Multifunctional hyper-structured molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wada, T.; Zhang, Y.; Aoyama, T.; Kubo, Y.; Sasabe, H.

    1998-07-01

    To fill the gap between molecular design and the architecture of three-dimensional functional structures, the authors propose novel hyper-structured molecules (HSMs) based on well-defined and topologically controlled molecular systems. To this end they have developed carbazole dendrimers, trimers, cyclic oligomers and chromogenic calix[4]arenes as HSMs. Photorefractivity was selected as the primary target function of these HSMs. Oligomers developed in their laboratory exhibit intrinsic photocarrier generation, transport, electro-optic, film-forming and poling properties. These multifunctional properties allow us to demonstrate optical image processing using optical phase conjugation. The topological shapes of indoaniline-derived calix[4]arenes were studied by hyper-Rayleigh scattering. The two indoaniline moieties in calix[4]arene derivatives were pre-aligned so as to enhance the net molecular hyperpolarizability. Besides dendric oligomers, cyclic oligomers can be used as a molecular platform which allows molecular level tuning of shape, size and topology for superior opto-electronic functions.

  6. LANL PDMLink Product Structure Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scully, Christopher J.

    2012-08-29

    Over the past 2 and a half years LANL has done both functionality exploration as well as production implementations of PDMLink Product Structure to control the configuration of many of the LANL Design Agency Products. Based on this experience LANL has been recommending for over a year that future product structure implementation in PDMLink do not use the two digit suffix in the number field of enterprise parts (or WTParts). The suffix will be part of one of the attributes for Part Number. Per the TBP's the two digit suffix represents a change in form, fit, or function in a part or a change in the production agency or a number of other conditions. It also denotes backward compatibility with earlier suffixed parts (see TBP 402 section 3.1).

  7. Sierra Structural Dynamics Theory Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reese, Garth M.

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of structural systems. This manual describes the theory behind many of the constructs in Sierra/SD. For a more detailed description of how to use Sierra/SD , we refer the reader to Sierra/SD, User's Notes . Many of the constructs in Sierra/SD are pulled directly from published material. Where possible, these materials are referenced herein. However, certain functions in Sierra/SD are specific to our implementation. We try to be far more complete in those areas. The theory manual was developed from several sources including general notes, a programmer notes manual, the user's notes and of course the material in the open literature. This page intentionally left blank.

  8. Collective network for computer structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Coteus, Paul W; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Takken, Todd E; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D; Vranas, Pavlos M

    2014-01-07

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global collective communications among interconnected processing nodes. The global collective network optimally enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the network via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual network. The global collective network may be configured to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner. When implemented in a massively-parallel supercomputing structure, the global collective network is physically and logically partitionable according to the needs of a processing algorithm.

  9. 3D Structures of Biomolecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    John Miao and Keith Hodgson Protein crystallography can routinely determine the 3D structure of protein molecules at near atomic or atomic resolution. The bottleneck of this methodology is to obtain sizable and good quality protein crystals. Overcoming the crystallization difficulty requires the development of the new methodologies. One approach is to use NMR to image protein molecules in solvent. However, it is only applicable primarily to macromolecules in the lower molecular weight range.

  10. Lithographically defined microporous carbon structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burckel, David Bruce; Washburn, Cody M.; Polsky, Ronen; Brozik, Susan M.; Wheeler, David R.

    2013-01-08

    A lithographic method is used to fabricate porous carbon structures that can provide electrochemical electrodes having high surface area with uniform and controllable dimensions, providing enormous flexibility to tailor the electrodes toward specific applications. Metal nanoparticles deposited on the surface of the porous carbon electrodes exhibit ultra small dimensions with uniform size distribution. The resulting electrodes are rugged, electrically conductive and show excellent electrochemical behavior.

  11. GUI for Structural Mechanics Codes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development of GUI for Structural Mechanics Codes The TRACC Cluster gives its users a lot of flexibility when it comes to requesting software version of LS-DYNA and computational resources for submitted jobs. To fully utilize that flexibility, users need to get familiar with on-line documentation of all the installed releases of different software and modules on the cluster. As on other LINUX based HPC systems, the submission and controlling of LS-DYNA is done through text commands. Especially

  12. Sierra Structural Dynamics User's Notes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reese, Garth M.

    2015-10-19

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  13. Heat pipe wick with structural enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andraka, Charles E.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Moreno, James B.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Showalter, Steven K.; Moss, Timothy A.

    2003-11-18

    Heat pipe wick structure wherein a stout sheet of perforated material overlays a high performance wick material such as stainless steel felt affixed to a substrate. The inventive structure provides a good flow path for working fluid while maintaining durability and structural stability independent of the structure (or lack of structure) associated with the wick material. In one described embodiment, a wick of randomly laid .about.8 micron thickness stainless steel fibers is sintered to a metal substrate and a perforated metal overlay.

  14. Nuclear Structure at the Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarewicz, W.

    1998-01-12

    One of the frontiers of today?s nuclear science is the ?journey to the limits? of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena, but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this series of lectures, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei.

  15. Nuclear Structure at the Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    1997-12-31

    One of the frontiers of today`s nuclear science is the ``journey to the limits``: of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective.

  16. Quantum superpositions of crystalline structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrusch, Jens D.; Morigi, Giovanna [Theoretische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Grup d'Optica, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cormick, Cecilia [Theoretische Physik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); De Chiara, Gabriele [Grup d'Optica, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Calarco, Tommaso [Institut fuer Quanteninformationsverarbeitung, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    A procedure is discussed for creating coherent superpositions of motional states of ion strings. The motional states are across the structural transition linear-zigzag, and their coherent superposition is achieved by means of spin-dependent forces, such that a coherent superposition of the electronic states of one ion evolves into an entangled state between the chain's internal and external degrees of freedom. It is shown that the creation of such an entangled state can be revealed by performing Ramsey interferometry with one ion of the chain.

  17. Convectively cooled electrical grid structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paterson, J.A.; Koehler, G.W.

    1980-11-10

    Undesirable distortions of electrical grid conductors from thermal cycling are minimized and related problems such as unwanted thermionic emission and structural failure from overheating are avoided by providing for a flow of fluid coolant within each conductor. The conductors are secured at each end to separate flexible support elements which accommodate to individual longitudinal expansion and contraction of each conductor while resisting lateral displacements, the coolant flow preferably being directed into and out of each conductor through passages in the flexible support elements. The grid may have a modular or divided construction which facilitates manufacture and repairs.

  18. Explosive scabbling of structural materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Bonzon, Lloyd L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to scabbling of surfaces of structural materials is disclosed. A layer of mildly energetic explosive composition is applied to the surface to be scabbled. The explosive composition is then detonated, rubbleizing the surface. Explosive compositions used must sustain a detonation front along the surface to which it is applied and conform closely to the surface being scabbled. Suitable explosive compositions exist which are stable under handling, easy to apply, easy to transport, have limited toxicity, and can be reliably detonated using conventional techniques.

  19. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Donald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Holdaway, Ray F. (Clinton, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  20. Structural assessment of accident loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

  1. Battery structures, self-organizing structures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet Ming (Framingham, MA); Moorehead, William Douglas (Virginia Beach, VA); Gozdz, Antoni S. (Marlborough, MA); Holman, Richard K. (Belmont, MA); Loxley, Andrew (Somerville, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Viola, Michael S. (Burlington, MA)

    2009-08-25

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling force on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionically conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  2. Battery structures, self-organizing structures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Moorehead, William D. (Virginia Beach, VA); Gozdz, Antoni S. (Marlborough, MA); Holman, Richard K. (Belmont, MA); Loxley, Andrew L. (Roslindale, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Viola, Michael S. (Burlington, MA)

    2012-05-01

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling force on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionically conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  3. Battery structures, self-organizing structures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Moorehead, William D. (Virginia Beach, VA); Gozdz, Antoni S. (Marlborough, MA); Holman, Richard K. (Belmont, MA); Loxley, Andrew L. (Roslindale, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Viola, Michael S. (Burlington, MA)

    2011-08-02

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling force on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionically conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  4. Battery structures, self-organizing structures, and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Moorehead, William Douglas

    2013-11-19

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling forve on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionicaily conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  5. Battery Structures, self-organizing structures, and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Moorehead, William Douglas

    2013-11-12

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling force on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionically conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  6. Battery structures, self-organizing structures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Moorehead, William Douglas (Virginia Beach, VA)

    2012-06-26

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling force on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionically conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  7. Microsoft Word - Cover Page - Exhibit 5

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 Structure Quantity Structure Height EXHIBIT 5 Project Structure Height Breakdown - HVDC & 345-kV HVDC Structures 345-kV Structures 27-JUN-2013...

  8. Semiconductor wire array structures, and solar cells and photodetectors based on such structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Petykiewicz, Jan A.

    2014-08-19

    A structure comprising an array of semiconductor structures, an infill material between the semiconductor materials, and one or more light-trapping elements is described. Photoconverters and photoelectrochemical devices based on such structure also described.

  9. Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transition in Tb5Si2.2Ge1.8 from first principles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic structure, ...

  10. Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Life Cycle and Overlap Structure Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National Laboratory...

  11. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Perspectives Nonlinear optical approaches for elucidating interfacial fluid and sorbed species structures and dynamics pdf Structural and Dynamic Properties of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids Confined within Hierarchical Porous Materials pdf Structure and Dynamics of Electrical Double Layer Using Integrated Scanning Probe Microscopy and Molecular Simulations pdf Effects of Nano-Confinement on the Fluid Interfacial Structure, Dynamics and Thermodynamic behavior pdf Molecular Insights into

  12. Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural Analysis to Identify Hidden, High Enthalpy, Extensional Geothermal Systems Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas...

  13. Wind Turbine Structural Health Monitoring - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    existing wind farms Applications and Industries Wind turbine structural health monitoring Individual turbine maintenance Wind farm energy production optimization Technology...

  14. Method of forming structural heliostat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Alfred J. (Littleton, CO)

    1984-06-26

    In forming a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement characterized by a method of forming the mirror module in which the mirror is laid upon a solid rigid supporting bed in one or more sections, with or without focusing; a mirror backing sheet is applied by first applying respective thin layers of silicone grease and, thereafter, progressively rolling application to eliminate air bubbles; followed by affixing of a substrate assembly to the mirror backing sheet to form a mirror module that does not curve because of thermally induced stresses and differential thermal expansion or contraction effects. The silicone grease also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and protect the mirror backside against adverse effects of the weather. Also disclosed are specific details of preferred embodiments.

  15. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelsen, J.M.; Whinery, L.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; McBride, D.D.; Luna, D.A.; Holder, J.P.; Bliton, R.J.

    1997-03-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored. 22 figs.

  16. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelsen, J.M.; Whinery, L.D.; Gwinn, K.W.; McBride, D.D.; Luna, D.A.; Holder, J.P.; Bliton, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion`s ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored. 22 figs.

  17. Photonic band gap structure simulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chiping; Shapiro, Michael A.; Smirnova, Evgenya I.; Temkin, Richard J.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.

    2006-10-03

    A system and method for designing photonic band gap structures. The system and method provide a user with the capability to produce a model of a two-dimensional array of conductors corresponding to a unit cell. The model involves a linear equation. Boundary conditions representative of conditions at the boundary of the unit cell are applied to a solution of the Helmholtz equation defined for the unit cell. The linear equation can be approximated by a Hermitian matrix. An eigenvalue of the Helmholtz equation is calculated. One computation approach involves calculating finite differences. The model can include a symmetry element, such as a center of inversion, a rotation axis, and a mirror plane. A graphical user interface is provided for the user's convenience. A display is provided to display to a user the calculated eigenvalue, corresponding to a photonic energy level in the Brilloin zone of the unit cell.

  18. Composite electrode/electrolyte structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2004-01-27

    Provided is an electrode fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. Onto this electrode in the green state, a green ionic (e.g., electrolyte) film is deposited and the assembly is co-fired at a temperature suitable to fully densify the film while the substrate retains porosity. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of a metal salt and subsequent low temperature firing. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

  19. Structures and Functions of Oligosaccharins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albersheim, Peter

    1995-12-01

    We have made considerable progress during the 2.5 year funding period just ending in our studies of the structures and functions of oligosaccharide signal molecules (oligosaccharins). We have emphasized studies of the enzymes that solubilize, process, and degrade oligosaccharins and of the proteins that inhibit those enzymes. We have been especially interested in elucidating how oligosaccharins and their processing enzymes participate in determining the outcome of challenges to plants by pathogenic microbes. We have studied, to a lesser extent, the roles of oligosaccharins in plant growth and development. Abstracts of papers describing results acquired with support from this grant that have been published, submitted, or in preparation are presented to summarize the progress made during the last two and one half years. The report highlights the most important contributions made in our oiigosaccharin research during this time period, and the corresponding abstract is referenced. Results of work in progress are described primarily in conjunction with our application for continued support.

  20. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being Joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  1. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  2. Structurally efficient inflatable protective device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelsen, James M.; Whinery, Larry D.; Gwinn, Kenneth W.; McBride, Donald D.; Luna, Daniel A.; Holder, Joseph P.; Bliton, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for making a low cost, self-venting, inflatable protective cushion of simple and structurally efficient design with a shape and construction that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed which includes a sheet defined by at least one fold line and a plurality of flap portions, each flap portion having a base edge corresponding to a fold line and at least two side edges each extending outwardly from a base edge and ultimately converging to meet each other, the flap portions being folded at the fold line(s) and being joined at corresponding side edges to define an inflatable chamber. The inflatable protective cushion and method for making same may further include a lightweight, low permeability, fabric that optimizes the cushion's ability to withstand inflation pressures and impact when deployed and minimizes the packed volume of the cushion when stored.

  3. Nanophotonics & Biofunctional Structures | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanophotonics & Biofunctional Structures Nanophotonics & Biofunctional Structures The objective of the Nanophotonics & Biofunctional Structures (nPBS) Group is to understand the fundamental behaviors that govern light-matter interactions in nanostructures and ultimately to create functional nanomaterials inspired by nature's principles. We further seek to discover new artificial materials that evolve and achieve resilience by harnessing environmental fluctuations, ultimately adapting

  4. Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis to Identify Hidden, High Enthalpy, Extensional Geothermal Systems | Department of Energy Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural Analysis to Identify Hidden, High Enthalpy, Extensional Geothermal Systems Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural Analysis to Identify Hidden, High Enthalpy, Extensional Geothermal Systems Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural Analysis to Identify Hidden, High Enthalpy,

  5. Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transformations in rare earth dialuminides (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations in rare earth dialuminides Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations in rare earth dialuminides We report electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations of selected rare

  6. Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transformations in rare earth dialuminides (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations in rare earth dialuminides Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations in rare earth dialuminides We report electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transformations of selected rare

  7. Energy efficient building structure and panel therefor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Th.J.; Paisley, J.K.

    1984-08-28

    A building structure is constructed from a plurality of sheathed, foam cored structural panels which are adapted to receive solar energy conversion or heat storage devices and are adapted to be connected in an air flow loop to provide integral heating and/or cooling systems for the building structure.

  8. NREL: Wind Research - Structural Testing Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structural Testing Laboratory Photo of NREL's Wind Research User Facility. Shown in front are several test bays that protect proprietary information while companies disassemble turbines to analyze, test, and modify individual components. NREL's Structural Testing Laboratory includes office space for industry researchers, houses experimental laboratories, computer facilities, space for assembling turbines, components, and blades for testing. Credit: Patrick Corkery. NREL's Structural Testing

  9. Reversible Hydrogen Storage Materials – Structure, Chemistry, and Electronic Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Ian M.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2014-06-21

    To understand the processes involved in the uptake and release of hydrogen from candidate light-weight metal hydride storage systems, a combination of materials characterization techniques and first principle calculation methods have been employed. In addition to conventional microstructural characterization in the transmission electron microscope, which provides projected information about the through thickness microstructure, electron tomography methods were employed to determine the three-dimensional spatial distribution of catalyst species for select systems both before and after dehydrogenation. Catalyst species identification as well as compositional analysis of the storage material before and after hydrogen charging and discharging was performed using a combination of energy dispersive spectroscopy, EDS, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS. The characterization effort was coupled with first-principles, electronic-structure and thermodynamic techniques to predict and assess meta-stable and stable phases, reaction pathways, and thermodynamic and kinetic barriers. Systems studied included:NaAlH4, CaH2/CaB6 and Ca(BH4)2, MgH2/MgB2, Ni-Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride, TiH2-Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride, LiBH4, Aluminum-based systems and Aluminum

  10. Combining Multiple Pairwise Structure-based Alignments

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-11-12

    CombAlign is a new Python code that generates a gapped, one-to-many, multiple structure-based sequence alignment(MSSA) given a set of pairwise structure-based alignments. In order to better define regions of similarity among related protein structures, it is useful to detect the residue-residue correspondences among a set of pairwise structure alignments. Few codes exist for constructing a one-to-many, multiple sequence alignment derived from a set of structure alignments, and we perceived a need for creating a newmore » tool for combing pairwise structure alignments that would allow for insertion of gaps in the reference structure.« less

  11. Structural Code Considerations for Solar Rooftop Installations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Sanchez, Alfred

    2014-12-01

    Residential rooftop solar panel installations are limited in part by the high cost of structural related code requirements for field installation. Permitting solar installations is difficult because there is a belief among residential permitting authorities that typical residential rooftops may be structurally inadequate to support the additional load associated with a photovoltaic (PV) solar installation. Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure to a basic determinate beam. This method of analysis neglects the composite action of the entire roof structure, yielding a conservative analysis based on a rafter or top chord of a truss. Consequently, the analysis can result in an overly conservative structural analysis. A literature review was conducted to gain a better understanding of the conservative nature of the regulations and codes governing residential construction and the associated structural system calculations.

  12. Water Power Forum - Q & A | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Breakdown Structure Draft MHK LCOE Reporting Guidance Draft Worldwide 'Power exchanges' Hi Vanessa-I connected wit... 2013 projects and funding more Group members (24) Managers:...

  13. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Breakdown Structure Draft MHK LCOE Reporting Guidance Draft Worldwide 'Power exchanges' Hi Vanessa-I connected wit... 2013 projects and funding more Group members (24) Managers:...

  14. Worldwide 'Power exchanges' | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Breakdown Structure Draft MHK LCOE Reporting Guidance Draft Worldwide 'Power exchanges' Hi Vanessa-I connected wit... 2013 projects and funding more Group members (24) Managers:...

  15. RCC Contract DE-AC06-05RL14655 Attachment J-1: River Corridor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DESCRIPTION g ASSUMED ACTIVITY STATUS h ACTIVITIES WITH DELAYED RELEASE i SPIF SCOPE ... Closure Contract's work breakdown structure h - ASSUMED ACTIVITY STATUS - Estimated ...

  16. Water Power Forum | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GMREC Type Term Title Author Replies Last Post sort icon Document GMREC MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft Kch 3 10 Jun 2014 - 10:09...

  17. Snow Micro-Structure Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-06-25

    PIKA is a MOOSE-based application for modeling micro-structure evolution of seasonal snow. The model will be useful for environmental, atmospheric, and climate scientists. Possible applications include application to energy balance models, ice sheet modeling, and avalanche forecasting. The model implements physics from published, peer-reviewed articles. The main purpose is to foster university and laboratory collaboration to build a larger multi-scale snow model using MOOSE. The main feature of the code is that it is implementedmore » using the MOOSE framework, thus making features such as multiphysics coupling, adaptive mesh refinement, and parallel scalability native to the application. PIKA implements three equations: the phase-field equation for tracking the evolution of the ice-air interface within seasonal snow at the grain-scale; the heat equation for computing the temperature of both the ice and air within the snow; and the mass transport equation for monitoring the diffusion of water vapor in the pore space of the snow.« less

  18. Method of fabricating a catalytic structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rollins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2009-09-22

    A precursor to a catalytic structure comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide. The zinc oxide has a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology and the copper oxide comprises particles of copper oxide. The copper oxide is reduced to copper, producing the catalytic structure. The catalytic structure is fabricated by a hydrothermal process. A reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent is formed. The reaction mixture is heated under confined volume conditions to produce the precursor. The copper oxide in the precursor is reduced to copper. A method of hydrogenating a carbon oxide using the catalytic structure is also disclosed, as is a system that includes the catalytic structure.

  19. t matrix of metallic wire structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhan, T. R. Chui, S. T.

    2014-04-14

    To study the electromagnetic resonance and scattering properties of complex structures of which metallic wire structures are constituents within multiple scattering theory, the t matrix of individual structures is needed. We have recently developed a rigorous and numerically efficient equivalent circuit theory in which retardation effects are taken into account for metallic wire structures. Here, we show how the t matrix can be calculated analytically within this theory. We illustrate our method with the example of split ring resonators. The density of states and cross sections for scattering and absorption are calculated, which are shown to be remarkably enhanced at resonant frequencies. The t matrix serves as the basic building block to evaluate the interaction of wire structures within the framework of multiple scattering theory. This will open the door to efficient design and optimization of assembly of wire structures.

  20. Conformal coating of highly structured surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S.; Perkins, John; Berry, Joseph; Gennett, Thomas

    2012-12-11

    Method of applying a conformal coating to a highly structured substrate and devices made by the disclosed methods are disclosed. An example method includes the deposition of a substantially contiguous layer of a material upon a highly structured surface within a deposition process chamber. The highly structured surface may be associated with a substrate or another layer deposited on a substrate. The method includes depositing a material having an amorphous structure on the highly structured surface at a deposition pressure of equal to or less than about 3 mTorr. The method may also include removing a portion of the amorphous material deposited on selected surfaces and depositing additional amorphous material on the highly structured surface.

  1. Method of casting patterned dielectric structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A pattern of dielectric structures are formed directly on a substrate in a single step using sol-gel chemistry and molding procedures. The resulting dielectric structures are useful in vacuum applications for electronic devices. Porous, lightweight structures having a high aspect ratio that are suitable for use as spacers between the faceplate and baseplate of a field emission display can be manufactured using this method.

  2. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Grover, William H. (Berkeley, CA); Skelley, Alison (Berkeley, CA); Lagally, Eric (Oakland, CA); Liu, Chung N. (Albany, CA)

    2008-11-04

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  3. Semiconductor devices having a recessed electrode structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2015-05-26

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  4. P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance Print A research team from the Scripps Research Institute and the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center has obtained the first glimpse of a protein that keeps certain substances, including many drugs, out of cells. The protein, called P-glycoprotein, or P-gp for short, is one of the main reasons cancer cells are resistant to chemotherapy drugs. Understanding its structure may help scientists design more effective drugs. The structure is

  5. P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance Print A research team from the Scripps Research Institute and the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center has obtained the first glimpse of a protein that keeps certain substances, including many drugs, out of cells. The protein, called P-glycoprotein, or P-gp for short, is one of the main reasons cancer cells are resistant to chemotherapy drugs. Understanding its structure may help scientists design more effective drugs. The structure is

  6. P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance Print A research team from the Scripps Research Institute and the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center has obtained the first glimpse of a protein that keeps certain substances, including many drugs, out of cells. The protein, called P-glycoprotein, or P-gp for short, is one of the main reasons cancer cells are resistant to chemotherapy drugs. Understanding its structure may help scientists design more effective drugs. The structure is

  7. P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance Print A research team from the Scripps Research Institute and the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center has obtained the first glimpse of a protein that keeps certain substances, including many drugs, out of cells. The protein, called P-glycoprotein, or P-gp for short, is one of the main reasons cancer cells are resistant to chemotherapy drugs. Understanding its structure may help scientists design more effective drugs. The structure is

  8. Structured Innovation Initiative Workshop | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Structured Innovation Initiative Workshop Structured Innovation Initiative Workshop April 28, 2016 8:00AM to 5:00PM EDT Following Water Power Week in Washington, D.C, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will conduct a workshop on the Structured Innovation Initiative, similar to the workshop recently held in Edinburgh, Scotland during ICOE 2016. The goal of the workshop is for the wider wave energy community to provide input into the important specification of wave energy converter system

  9. Introduction to Renewable Energy Project Finance Structures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Introduction to Renewable Energy Project Finance Structures Jason Coughlin Jason.Coughlin@nrel.gov October 3rd, 2012 2 | FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM femp.energy.gov Project Finance Structures * Why is this topic relevant? - Increase your understanding of the project finance process with a "behind the scenes" look at common structures used when financing renewable energy projects with a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA). - Introduce terminology. -

  10. Stabilized fuel with silica support structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1991-12-31

    This report describes a stabilized fuel which is supported by a silica support structure. The silica support structure provides a low density, high porosity vehicle for safely carrying hydrocarbon fuels. The silica support structure for hydrocarbon fuel does not produce toxic material residues on combustion which would pose environmentally sensitive disposal problems. The silica stabilized fuel composition is useful as a low temperature, continuous burning fire starter for wood or charcoal.

  11. Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clathrates (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates The pressure induced crystalline collapse at 14.7 GPa and polyamorphic structures of the semiconductor clathrate Sr8Ga16Ge30 are reported up to 35 GPa. In-situ total scattering measurements under pressure allow the direct microscopic inspection

  12. Band structure engineering and thermoelectric properties of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    charge-compensated filled skutterudites (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Band structure engineering and thermoelectric properties of charge-compensated filled skutterudites Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Band structure engineering and thermoelectric properties of charge-compensated filled skutterudites Thermoelectric properties of semiconductors are intimately related to their electronic band structure, which can be engineered via chemical doping. Dopant Ga in the

  13. P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance Print A research team from the Scripps Research Institute and the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center has obtained the first glimpse of a protein that keeps certain substances, including many drugs, out of cells. The protein, called P-glycoprotein, or P-gp for short, is one of the main reasons cancer cells are resistant to chemotherapy drugs. Understanding its structure may help scientists design more effective drugs. The structure is

  14. P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance Print A research team from the Scripps Research Institute and the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center has obtained the first glimpse of a protein that keeps certain substances, including many drugs, out of cells. The protein, called P-glycoprotein, or P-gp for short, is one of the main reasons cancer cells are resistant to chemotherapy drugs. Understanding its structure may help scientists design more effective drugs. The structure is

  15. Improving the accuracy of macromolecular structure refinement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving the accuracy of macromolecular structure refinement Authors: Brunger, A.T., Adams, P.D., Fromme, P., Fromme, R., Levitt, M., and Schröder, G.F. Title: Improving the accuracy of macromolecular structure refinement Source: Structure Year: 2012 Volume: 20 Pages: 20, 957-966 ABSTRACT: In X-ray crystallography, molecular replacement and subsequent refinement is challenging at low resolution. We compared refinement methods using synchrotron diffraction data of photosystem I at 7.4 Å

  16. Fine Structure Studies in Proton Emission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure Studies in Proton Emission In order to understand the evolution of single particle wave functions and deformations beyond the proton drip line, a program has been initiated to study fine structure decay in proton emission. Fine structure in the proton emission spectrum allows one not only to define low energy states in the daughter, but from a comparison of the proton energies and partial half-lives, enables determination of the composition of the single-particle proton states in the

  17. Inherent structure of a molten salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Violette, Randall A.; Budzien, Joanne L.; Stillinger, Frank H.

    2000-05-08

    We calculated the inherent structure of a model melt of zinc (II) bromide over a wide range of densities. Stable, metastable, and unstable branches were obtained for the zero temperature pressure-volume isotherm of the inherent structure. The pressure-volume isotherm, the void distribution, and the structure factor were used to identify the spinodal, independent of any model equation of state. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Hybrid Rotaxanes: Interlocked Structures for Quantum Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Edinburgh group had shown it could make very complex interlocked structures using organic supramolecular chemistry, which focuses on chemical systems made up of a discrete...

  19. 'Supergel' System Cleans Radioactively Contaminated Structures...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    elements in porous structures, like monuments and buildings. Consisting of a spray-on, super-absorbent gel and engineered nanoparticles, this unique technology enables the United...

  20. Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow Prev Next Title: Contrasting soil microbial community...

  1. Electronic Structure Changes in Supercapacitor Electrodes Observed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The evolution in electronic structure reflects changes in the surface chemistry and morphology induced by polarization of the electrode-electrolyte interface and points to...

  2. Band structure engineering and thermoelectric properties ofcharge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dopant Ga in the cage-structured skutterudite Co4Sb12 substitutes Sb sites while occupying the void sites. Combining quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy and ...

  3. Experimental phasing for structure determination using membrane...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...rane-protein crystals grown by the lipid cubic phase method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental phasing for structure determination using membrane-protein ...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories' Structural Health Monitoring and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Read the full report, Structural Health and Prognostics Management for Offshore Wind Plants: Final Report of Sandia R&D Activities. Addthis Related Articles Offshore Wind Farm ...

  5. Demonstration Assessment of LED Parking Structure Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, B. R.; Myer, M. A.

    2013-03-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED parking structure lighting at the U.S. Dept. of Labor headquarters in Washington, DC.

  6. Structural and Evolutionary Analyses Show Unique Stabilization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Structure; Journal Volume: 23; Journal Issue: (2) ; 02, 2015 Publisher: Elsevier Research Org: Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National ...

  7. Crystal Structures of Lipoglycopeptide Antibiotic Deacetylases...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    N-acetyl-glucosaminyl pseudoaglycone is deacetylated prior to long chain hydrocarbon attachment. Here we present several high-resolution crystal structures of the pseudoaglycone...

  8. Synthesis and structural characterization of ferrous trioctahedral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Synthesis and structural characterization of ferrous trioctahedral smectites: Implications for clay mineral genesis and ...

  9. Structural Phase Transition and Photoluminescence Properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase Transition and Photoluminescence Properties of YF3:Eu3+ Nanocrystals under High Pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural Phase Transition and ...

  10. Digital Mapping Of Structurally Controlled Geothermal Features...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GPS Units And Pocket Computers Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Digital Mapping Of Structurally Controlled Geothermal Features...

  11. Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics Print With an aging population in America, it is more important than ever to discover ways to treat or prevent diseases...

  12. Translocator Protein Structure and Function | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Translocator Protein Structure and Function Monday, November 30, 2015 Translocator protein (TSPO) is an ancient conserved protein whose functions in bacteria and higher eukaryotes...

  13. Hybrid Rotaxanes: Interlocked Structures for Quantum Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    not being perturbed by the rest of the structure. Their solution draws on supramolecular chemistry, a field that focuses on merging previously assembled molecular subunits into a...

  14. Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow Prev Next Title: Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine...

  15. Hybrid Rotaxanes: Interlocked Structures for Quantum Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hybrid Rotaxanes: Interlocked Structures for Quantum Computing? Print Rotaxanes are mechanically interlocked molecular architectures consisting of a dumbbell-shaped molecule, the...

  16. Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with a thin polymer layer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer Authors: ...

  17. Solar Decathlon Technology Spotlight: Structural Insulated Panels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Panels September 20, 2011 - 7:13am Addthis These structural insulated panels consist of foam insulation sandwiched between oriented strand boards. (Courtesy of Michael Bacchler)...

  18. Basement Structure and Implications for Hydrothermal Circulation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Abstract Detailed surface mapping, subsurface drill hole data, and geophysical modeling are the basis of a structural and hydrothermal model for the western part of Long...

  19. structures. Hazra, Siddharth S. (Carnegie Mellon University,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Hazra, Siddharth S. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); de Boer, Maarten Pieter (Carnegie Mellon...

  20. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the...

  1. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the...

  2. Crystal Structures of Phosphite Dehydrogenase Provide Insights...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Crystal Structures of Phosphite Dehydrogenase Provide Insights into Nicotinamide Cofactor Regeneration Citation Details In-Document ...

  3. Cationic Phospholipids Forming Cubic Phases: Lipoplex Structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cationic Phospholipids Forming Cubic Phases: Lipoplex Structure and Transfection Efficiency Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cationic Phospholipids Forming Cubic Phases: ...

  4. Electronic Structure Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Electronic Structure Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions at ElectrodeElectrolyte Interfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  5. Interfacial Structure and Reactivity | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a robust, molecular-scale understanding of its structure and reactivity? Research Context The transport of ions across the electrodeelectrolyte interface can lead to kinetic...

  6. Structural proteomics of minimal organisms: conservation ofprotein...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of minimal organisms: conservation ofprotein fold usage and evolutionary implications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural proteomics of minimal organisms: ...

  7. Low-Energy Parking Structure Design (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    This guide provides design teams with best practices for parking structure energy efficiency in the form of goals for each design aspect that affects energy use.

  8. Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics Print With an aging population in ... diseases affecting the brain and its ability to make new connections and recall memories. ...

  9. Structural Analysis of the Desert Peak-Brady Geothermal Fields...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Structures and Geothermal Reservoirs in the Humboldt Structural Zone Citation James E. Faulds,Larry J. Garside,Gary L. Oppliger. 2003. Structural Analysis of the Desert...

  10. Final Project Report: Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wessel, Silvia; Harvey, David

    2013-06-28

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a primary requirement for large scale commercialization of these power systems in transportation and stationary market applications that target operational lifetimes of 5,000 hours and 40,000 hours by 2015, respectively. Key degradation modes contributing to fuel cell lifetime limitations have been largely associated with the platinum-based cathode catalyst layer. Furthermore, as fuel cells are driven to low cost materials and lower catalyst loadings in order to meet the cost targets for commercialization, the catalyst durability has become even more important. While over the past few years significant progress has been made in identifying the underlying causes of fuel cell degradation and key parameters that greatly influence the degradation rates, many gaps with respect to knowledge of the driving mechanisms still exist; in particular, the acceleration of the mechanisms due to different structural compositions and under different fuel cell conditions remains an area not well understood. The focus of this project was to address catalyst durability by using a dual path approach that coupled an extensive range of experimental analysis and testing with a multi-scale modeling approach. With this, the major technical areas/issues of catalyst and catalyst layer performance and durability that were addressed are: 1. Catalyst and catalyst layer degradation mechanisms (Pt dissolution, agglomeration, Pt loss, e.g. Pt in the membrane, carbon oxidation and/or corrosion). a. Driving force for the different degradation mechanisms. b. Relationships between MEA performance, catalyst and catalyst layer degradation and operational conditions, catalyst layer composition, and structure. 2. Materials properties a. Changes in catalyst, catalyst layer, and MEA materials properties due to degradation. 3. Catalyst performance a. Relationships between catalyst structural changes and performance. b. Stability of the three-phase boundary and its effect on performance/catalyst degradation. The key accomplishments of this project are: • The development of a molecular-dynamics based description of the carbon supported-Pt and ionomer system • The development of a composition-based, 1D-statistical Unit Cell Performance model • A modified and improved multi-pathway ORR model • An extension of the existing micro-structural catalyst model to transient operation • The coupling of a Pt Dissolution model to the modified ORR pathway model • The Development A Semi-empirical carbon corrosion model • The integration and release of an open-source forward predictive MEA performance and degradation model • Completion of correlations of BOT (beginning of test) and EOT (end of test) performance loss breakdown with cathode catalyst layer composition, morphology, material properties, and operational conditions • Catalyst layer durability windows and design curves • A design flow path of interactions from materials properties and catalyst layer effective properties to performance loss breakdown for virgin and degraded catalyst layers In order to ensure the best possible user experience we will perform a staged release of the software leading up to the webinar scheduled in October 2013. The release schedule will be as follows (please note that the manual will be released with the beta release as direct support is provided in Stage 1): • Stage 0 - Internal Ballard Release o Cross check of compilation and installation to ensure machine independence o Implement code on portable virtual machine to allow for non-UNIX use (pending) • Stage 1 - Alpha Release o The model code will be made available via a GIT, sourceforge, or other repository (under discussion at Ballard) for download and installation by a small pre-selected group of users o Users will be given three weeks to install, apply, and evaluate features of the code, providing feedback on issues or software bugs that require correction prior to beta release • Stage 2 - Beta Release o The model code repository is opened to the general public on a beta release concept, with a mechanism for bug tracking and feedback from a large user group o Code will be tracked and patched for any discovered bugs or relevant feedback from the user community, upon the completion of three months without a major bug submission the code will be moved to a full version release • Stage 3 - Full Version Release o Code is version to revision 1.0 and that version is frozen in development/patching

  11. Biopolymer structures: Where do they come from? Where are they going? Evolutionary perspectives on biopolymer structure and function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, R.A.; Bornberg-Bauer, E.

    1996-12-31

    This session provides evolutionary perspectives on biopolymer structures, namely DNA, RNA and proteins. Structural models are presented and the structure and function relationships are discussed.

  12. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, Arthur James (Alburquerque, NM); Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona (The Woodlands, TX)

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  13. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, Douglas Ray (Albuquerque, NM); Shen, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuck, Melanie R. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grafe, V. Gerald (Corrales, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

  14. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, Douglas Ray (Albuquerque, NM); Shen, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuck, Melanie R. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grafe, V. Gerald (Corrales, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

  15. Particle beam and crabbing and deflecting structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delayen, Jean (Yorktown, VA)

    2011-02-08

    A new type of structure for the deflection and crabbing of particle bunches in particle accelerators comprising a number of parallel transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-resonant) lines operating in opposite phase from each other. Such a structure is significantly more compact than conventional crabbing cavities operating the transverse magnetic TM mode, thus allowing low frequency designs.

  16. Eta Structure Function via Photo-production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghahramany, N.; Ghanaatian, M.; Bazrafshan, A.

    2008-04-21

    By using isobar model and the latest data, the structure function of Eta particle is calculated in the process of photo-production. This calculation is carried out for photon energy range of 0.750-3 GeV. The variations of the structure function are given in terms of scattering angle for different incoming photon energy.

  17. Nuclear structure studies with intermediate energy probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, T.S.H.

    1993-10-01

    Nuclear structure studies with pions are reviewed. Results from a recent study of 1 p-shell nuclei using (e,e{prime}), ({pi}, {pi}{prime}), and ({gamma},{pi}) reactions are reported. Future nuclear structure studies with GeV electrons at CEBAF are also briefly discussed.

  18. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, D.R.; Shen, D.S.; Tuck, M.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Grafe, V.G.

    1998-06-23

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas. 7 figs.

  19. Method for forming suspended micromechanical structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A micromachining method is disclosed for forming a suspended micromechanical structure from {111} crystalline silicon. The micromachining method is based on the use of anisotropic dry etching to define lateral features of the structure which are etched down into a {111}-silicon substrate to a first etch depth, thereby forming sidewalls of the structure. The sidewalls are then coated with a protection layer, and the substrate is dry etched to a second etch depth to define a spacing of the structure from the substrate. A selective anisotropic wet etchant (e.g. KOH, EDP, TMAH, NaOH or CsOH) is used to laterally undercut the structure between the first and second etch depths, thereby forming a substantially planar lower surface of the structure along a {111} crystal plane that is parallel to an upper surface of the structure. The lateral extent of undercutting by the wet etchant is controlled and effectively terminated by either timing the etching, by the location of angled {111}-silicon planes or by the locations of preformed etch-stops. This present method allows the formation of suspended micromechanical structures having large vertical dimensions and large masses while allowing for detailed lateral features which can be provided by dry etch definition. Additionally, the method of the present invention is compatible with the formation of electronic circuitry on the substrate.

  20. Cationic phospholipids: structure transfection activity relationships

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Cationic phospholipids: structure transfection activity relationships Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cationic phospholipids: structure transfection activity relationships Synthetic cationic lipids are presently the most widely used non-viral gene carriers. Examined here is a particularly attractive cationic lipid class, triester phosphatidylcholines (PCs) exhibiting low toxicities and good transfection efficiency. Similarly to other cationic

  1. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  2. Geometric Hamiltonian structures and perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omohundro, S.

    1984-08-01

    We have been engaged in a program of investigating the Hamiltonian structure of the various perturbation theories used in practice. We describe the geometry of a Hamiltonian structure for non-singular perturbation theory applied to Hamiltonian systems on symplectic manifolds and the connection with singular perturbation techniques based on the method of averaging.

  3. Optical feedback structures and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snee, Preston T; Chan, Yin Thai; Nocera, Daniel G; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2014-11-18

    An optical resonator can include an optical feedback structure disposed on a substrate, and a composite including a matrix including a chromophore. The composite disposed on the substrate and in optical communication with the optical feedback structure. The chromophore can be a semiconductor nanocrystal. The resonator can provide laser emission when excited.

  4. Automatically woven three-directional composite structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, P.S.; Keith, D.O.; Vicario, A.A. Jr.

    1986-07-01

    Three-directional (3-D) fiber reinforced composites were demonstrated with advantages for certain missile and space structures. The applications range from carbon-carbon (c-c) to carbon-epoxy structures. 3-D carbon fiber preforms were woven using automated techniques developed by Aerospatiale of France and then impregnated and processed into c-c or carbon-epoxy structures. Demonstrated structures include c-c ITEs and exit cones for rocket nozzles and carbon-epoxy adapter rings for rocket cases. Other potential applications, including satellite truss joints and meteroid impact shields for space station components, are identified. Advantages of these structures include automated fabrication, improved mechanical properties, and greater reliability. 16 figures, 1 table.

  5. Wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bong, Jihye; Seo, Keumyoung; Ju, Sanghyun E-mail: shju@kgu.ac.kr; Park, Ji-Hoon; Ahn, Joung Real E-mail: shju@kgu.ac.kr

    2014-12-21

    The wetting control of graphene is of great interest for electronic, mechanical, architectural, and bionic applications. In this study, the wettability of graphene-laminated micropillar structures was manipulated by changing the height of graphene-laminated structures and employing the trichlorosilane (HDF-S)-based self-assembly monolayer. Graphene-laminated micropillar structures with HDF-S exhibited higher hydrophobicity (contact angle of 129.5°) than pristine graphene thin film (78.8°), pristine graphene-laminated micropillar structures (97.5°), and HDF-S self-assembled graphene thin film (98.5°). Wetting states of the graphene-laminated micropillar structure with HDF-S was also examined by using a urea solution, which flowed across the surface without leaving any residues.

  6. Nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faulder, L.J.; Frey, G.A.; Nielsen, E.W.; Ridler, K.J.

    1997-08-05

    The present nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure configuration increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress between the mounting structure having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than that of the mounting structure. The mounting structure includes an outer sealing portion forming a cradling member in which an annular ring member is slidably positioned. The mounting structure further includes an inner mounting portion to which a hooked end of the nozzle and shroud assembly is attached. As the inner mounting portion expands and contracts, the nozzle and shroud assembly slidably moves within the outer sealing portion. 3 figs.

  7. Nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faulder, Leslie J. (San Diego, CA); Frey, deceased, Gary A. (late of Seattle, WA); Nielsen, Engward W. (El Cajon, CA); Ridler, Kenneth J. (San Diego, CA)

    1997-01-01

    The present nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure configuration increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress between the mounting structure having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than that of the mounting structure. The mounting structure includes an outer sealing portion forming a cradling member in which an annular ring member is slidably positioned. The mounting structure further includes an inner mounting portion to which a hooked end of the nozzle and shroud assembly is attached. As the inner mounting portion expands and contracts, the nozzle and shroud assembly slidably moves within the outer sealing portion.

  8. Method of transferring strained semiconductor structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nastasi, Michael A. (Santa Fe, NM); Shao, Lin (College Station, TX)

    2009-12-29

    The transfer of strained semiconductor layers from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a multilayer structure on a substrate having surface contaminants. An interface that includes the contaminants is formed in between the deposited layer and the substrate. Hydrogen atoms are introduced into the structure and allowed to diffuse to the interface. Afterward, the deposited multilayer structure is bonded to a second substrate and is separated away at the interface, which results in transferring a multilayer structure from one substrate to the other substrate. The multilayer structure includes at least one strained semiconductor layer and at least one strain-induced seed layer. The strain-induced seed layer can be optionally etched away after the layer transfer.

  9. Heat pipe with improved wick structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David A. (Albuquerque, NM); Robino, Charles V. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM)

    2000-01-01

    An improved planar heat pipe wick structure having projections formed by micromachining processes. The projections form arrays of interlocking, semi-closed structures with multiple flow paths on the substrate. The projections also include overhanging caps at their tops to increase the capillary pumping action of the wick structure. The capped projections can be formed in stacked layers. Another layer of smaller, more closely spaced projections without caps can also be formed on the substrate in between the capped projections. Inexpensive materials such as Kovar can be used as substrates, and the projections can be formed by electrodepositing nickel through photoresist masks.

  10. Solving coiled-coil protein structures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dauter, Zbigniew

    2015-02-26

    With the availability of more than 100,000 entries stored in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) that can be used as search models, molecular replacement (MR) is currently the most popular method of solving crystal structures of macromolecules. Significant methodological efforts have been directed in recent years towards making this approach more powerful and practical. This resulted in the creation of several computer programs, highly automated and user friendly, that are able to successfully solve many structures even by researchers who, although interested in structures of biomolecules, are not very experienced in crystallography.

  11. Photovoltaic Cell Structure Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structure Basics Photovoltaic Cell Structure Basics August 19, 2013 - 4:50pm Addthis The actual structural design of a photovoltaic (PV), or solar cell, depends on the limitations of the material used in the PV cell. The four basic device designs are: Homojunction Devices Crystalline silicon is the primary example of this kind of cell. A single material-crystalline silicon-is altered so that one side is p-type, dominated by positive holes, and the other side is n-type, dominated by negative

  12. Process for making structure for a MCFC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pasco, Wayne D. (Scotia, NY); Arendt, Ronald H. (Schenectady, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A process of making a porous carbonate-containing structure for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell, wherein a suitable porous structure is prepared having disposed therein a metal salt selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals or mixtures thereof with at least a portion of the salt being a monobasic organic acid salt. The monobasic acid salt is converted to the carbonate in situ by heating in the presence of oxygen. Both electrode and electrolyte structures can be prepared. Formic acid is preferred.

  13. Process of making structure for a MCFC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pasco, W.D.; Arendt, R.H.

    1985-04-03

    A process of making a porous carbonate-containing structure for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell is disclosed, wherein a suitable porous structure is prepared having disposed therein a metal salt selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals or mixtures thereof with at least a portion of the salt being a monobasic organic acid salt. The monobasic acid salt is converted to the carbonate in situ by heating in the presence of oxygen. Both electrode and electrolyte structures can be prepared. Formic acid is preferred.

  14. Structure, chemistry, and properties of mineral nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waychunas, G.A.; Zhang, H.; Gilbert, B.

    2008-12-02

    Nanoparticle properties can depart markedly from their bulk analog materials, including large differences in chemical reactivity, molecular and electronic structure, and mechanical behavior. The greatest changes are expected at the smallest sizes, e.g. 10 nm and below, where surface effects are expected to dominate bonding, shape and energy considerations. The precise chemistry at nanoparticle interfaces can have a profound effect on structure, phase transformations, strain, and reactivity. Certain phases may exist only as nanoparticles, requiring transformations in chemistry, stoichiometry and structure with evolution to larger sizes. In general, mineralogical nanoparticles have been little studied.

  15. Intriguing DNA Editor Has a Structural Trigger

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intriguing DNA Editor Has a Structural Trigger Intriguing DNA Editor Has a Structural Trigger Print Wednesday, 30 July 2014 00:00 A powerful new tool for genome editing and gene regulation has emerged in the form of a family of enzymes known as Cas9. Cas9 could become an even more valuable tool with the creation of the first detailed picture of its three-dimensional shape. An international collaboration used x-ray crystallography to produce high-resolution structures of two major types of Cas9

  16. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  17. Structural characterization of thin film photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramania, G.; Biswas, R.; Constant, K.; Sigalas, M. M.; Ho, K. M.

    2001-06-15

    We quantitatively analyze the structure of thin film inverse-opal photonic crystals composed of ordered arrays of air pores in a background of titania. Ordering of the sphere template and introduction of the titania background were performed simultaneously in the thin film photonic crystals. Nondestructive optical measurements of backfilling with high refractive index liquids, angle-resolved reflectivity, and optical spectroscopy were combined with band-structure calculations. The analysis reveals a thin film photonic crystal structure with a very high filling fraction (92{endash}94%) of air and a substantial compression along the c axis ({similar_to}22{endash}25%).

  18. Improved structural systems for earth sheltered housing. Structural supplement to the design program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behr, R.

    1981-10-01

    Additional engineering information is provided with regard to the structural analysis and design of thin shell concrete structures. The design program has tentatively demonstrated the overall architectural and marketing feasibility of curved, thin shell structural systems for earth sheltered housing. This supplement will address the structural feasibility question by presenting a complete manual analysis and structural design of an earth sheltered dome/tension ring/wall structural system, and also by presenting the results of a parametric sensitivity study of the dome/ring/wall configuration with respect to variations in span and rise for a three foot soil loading condition. Double curvature dome configurations are emphasized in this structural supplement because their analysis is not extensively addressed in earth sheltered housing literature.

  19. Bussing Structure In An Electrochemical Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Antonio L. (Parkton, MD)

    2001-06-12

    A bussing structure for bussing current within an electrochemical cell. The bussing structure includes a first plate and a second plate, each having a central aperture therein. Current collection tabs, extending from an electrode stack in the electrochemical cell, extend through the central aperture in the first plate, and are then sandwiched between the first plate and second plate. The second plate is then connected to a terminal on the outside of the case of the electrochemical cell. Each of the first and second plates includes a second aperture which is positioned beneath a safety vent in the case of the electrochemical cell to promote turbulent flow of gasses through the vent upon its opening. The second plate also includes protrusions for spacing the bussing structure from the case, as well as plateaus for connecting the bussing structure to the terminal on the case of the electrochemical cell.

  20. Webinar: Evaluating Roof Structures for Solar PV

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar provides an overview of Connecticut's Structural Review Worksheet for Residential Rooftop Solar PV Systems. The webinar explains how the worksheet should be used and common concerns with wind and dead loads for rooftop solar PV.

  1. Continuous mutual improvement of macromolecular structure models...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are in general of very high quality as deposited. However, methods for obtaining the best model of a macromolecular structure from a given ...

  2. Implications of structural genomics target selection strategies...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    have upon structural interpretation of the proteins in Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and 131 complete proteomes (including 10 of eukaryotes) from the Proteome Analysis database at EBI. ...

  3. FAQS Reference Guide – Civil/ Structural Engineering

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This reference guide has been developed to address the competency statements in the March 2004 edition of DOE-STD-1182-2004, Civil/Structural Engineering Functional Area Qualification Standard.

  4. Cationic phospholipids: structure transfection activity relationships...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Indeed, X-ray structural studies show that the rate of DNA release from lipoplexes as well ... These findings appear tomore be of considerable interest because, according to current ...

  5. Constant field gradient planar coupled cavity structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.

    1999-07-27

    A cavity structure is disclosed having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam. 16 figs.

  6. Structures with negative index of refraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soukoulis, Costas M. (Ames, IA); Zhou, Jiangfeng (Ames, IA); Koschny, Thomas (Ames, IA); Zhang, Lei (Ames, IA); Tuttle, Gary (Ames, IA)

    2011-11-08

    The invention provides simplified negative index materials (NIMs) using wire-pair structures, 4-gap single ring split-ring resonator (SRR), fishnet structures and overleaf capacitor SRR. In the wire-pair arrangement, a pair of short parallel wires and continuous wires are used. In the 4-gap single-ring SRR, the SRRs are centered on the faces of a cubic unit cell combined with a continuous wire type resonator. Combining both elements creates a frequency band where the metamaterial is transparent with simultaneously negative .di-elect cons. and .mu.. In the fishnet structure, a metallic mesh on both sides of the dielectric spacer is used. The overleaf capacitor SRR changes the gap capacities to small plate capacitors by making the sections of the SRR ring overlap at the gaps separated by a thin dielectric film. This technique is applicable to conventional SRR gaps but it best deploys for the 4-gap single-ring structures.

  7. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ring to thread the strand through the hole). With structural information about DnaC, Mott et al. have contributed to a better understanding of the significance of the...

  8. Dipole rescattering and the nuclear structure function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carvalho, F.; Goncalves, V. P.; Navarra, F. S.; Oliveira, E. G.

    2013-03-25

    In the framework of the dipole model, we study the effects of the dipole multiple scatterings in a nuclear target and compute the nuclear structure function. We compare different unitarization schemes and confront our results with the E665 data.

  9. P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    These compounds bind inside the P-gp cavity, preventing other substances from entering. Chang and Aller were able to obtain the structures of two of Zhang's compounds inside...

  10. Intriguing DNA Editor Has a Structural Trigger

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intriguing DNA Editor Has a Structural Trigger Print A powerful new tool for genome editing and gene regulation has emerged in the form of a family of enzymes known as Cas9. Cas9...

  11. P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The protein, called P-glycoprotein, or P-gp for short, is one of the main reasons cancer cells are resistant to chemotherapy drugs. Understanding its structure may help...

  12. Method and structure for passivating semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pankove, Jacques I. (Princeton, NJ)

    1981-01-01

    A structure for passivating semiconductor material comprises a substrate of crystalline semiconductor material, a relatively thin film of carbon disposed on a surface of the crystalline material, and a layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited on the carbon film.

  13. Computes Generalized Electromagnetic Interactions Between Structures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-02-20

    Object oriented software for computing generalized electromagnetic interactions between structures in the frequency domains. The software is based on integral equations. There is also a static integral equation capability.

  14. Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization Structure Illuminates Mechanism of Fungal Polyketide Cyclization Print Wednesday, 31 March 2010 00:00 Polyketide natural products produced by bacteria and fungi are often characterized by the presence of multiple aromatic rings that are responsible for the activity of polyketides as both beneficial antibiotic and anticancer agents and as dangerous toxic compounds, such as the highly carcinogenic aflatoxins that are produced by

  15. computational-structural-mechanics-student-thesis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structural Mechanics Student Thesis Abstract NUMERICAL MODELING OF STAY CABLES AND STAY CABLE BRIDGES The Computational Structural Mechanics staff at TRACC is supporting two students from Northern Illinois University who are working for a Masters degree. The CSM staff is directing the thesis research and working with them on two projects: (1) cable-stay bridge vibrations due to traffic loading and (2) aerodynamic loading on stay cables. During this quarter, Srihari Vannemreddi successfully

  16. Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics Print Wednesday, 28 January 2015 00:00 With an aging population in America, it is more important than ever to discover ways to treat or prevent diseases affecting the brain and its ability to make new connections and recall memories. Some of the most important players in the brain's normal function are the glutamate receptors, which are involved in nervous-system development and function.

  17. Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Protein Structure Suggests Role as Molecular Adapter Print Wednesday, 24 June 2009 00:00 To split and copy DNA during replication, all cellular organisms use a multicomponent molecular machine known as the replisome. An essential step in replisome assembly is the loading of ring-shaped helicases (motor proteins) onto the separated strands of DNA. Dedicated ATP-fueled proteins regulate the loading; however, the mechanism by which these proteins

  18. P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance Print Wednesday, 27 May 2009 00:00 A research team from the Scripps Research Institute and the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center has obtained the first glimpse of a protein that keeps certain substances, including many drugs, out of cells. The protein, called P-glycoprotein, or P-gp for short, is one of the main reasons cancer cells are resistant to chemotherapy drugs.

  19. Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered Giant Protease TPP II's Structure, Mechanism Uncovered Print Wednesday, 23 February 2011 00:00 Tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP II), the largest known eukaryotic enzyme that breaks down proteins (a protease), is implicated in numerous cellular processes including the degradation of the endogenous satiety agent cholecystokinin-8, making TPP II a target in the treatment of obesity. To gain insight into this molecular machine's mechanisms of

  20. Lanthanide coordination polymers: Synthesis, diverse structure and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    luminescence properties (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Lanthanide coordination polymers: Synthesis, diverse structure and luminescence properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lanthanide coordination polymers: Synthesis, diverse structure and luminescence properties The new semirigid exo-bidentate ligand incorporating furfurysalicylamide terminal groups, namely, 1,4-bis([(2'-furfurylaminoformyl)phenoxyl]methyl)-2,5-bismethylbenzene (L) was synthesized and used as building

  1. Purification, crystallization and structural elucidation of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    D-galactaro-1,4-lactone cycloisomerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens involved in pectin degradation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Purification, crystallization and structural elucidation of D-galactaro-1,4-lactone cycloisomerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens involved in pectin degradation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Purification, crystallization and structural elucidation of D-galactaro-1,4-lactone cycloisomerase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens involved in pectin

  2. Electronic Structure Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions at

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Electronic Structure Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions at Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic Structure Modeling of Electrochemical Reactions at Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium Ion Batteries Authors: Leung, Kevin Publication Date: 2013-01-31 OSTI Identifier: 1105237 DOE Contract Number:

  3. Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    clathrates (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Density driven structural transformations in amorphous semiconductor clathrates Authors: Tulk, C.A. ; dos Santos, A.M. ; Neuefeind, J.C. ; Molaison, J.J. ; Sales, B.C. ; Honkimäki, V. [1] ; ESRF) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (ORNL) ( Publication Date: 2015-09-22 OSTI Identifier: 1221429 Resource Type: Journal Article

  4. Solution of structured non-stiff ODEs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shampine, L.F.

    1984-11-01

    The solution of the initial value problem for a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), y' = f(x,y), by Runge-Kutta methods is considered. The structure to be exploited is that a large portion of the cost of evaluating f(x,y) arises in the evaluation of functions of the independent variable x only. It is shown that when the structure is favorable, there are methods which are considerably more efficient than those currently used in general purpose codes.

  5. Synthesis and structural characterization of ferrous trioctahedral

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    smectites: Implications for clay mineral genesis and detectability on Mars (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Synthesis and structural characterization of ferrous trioctahedral smectites: Implications for clay mineral genesis and detectability on Mars Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis and structural characterization of ferrous trioctahedral smectites: Implications for clay mineral genesis and detectability on Mars Authors:

  6. Electronic Structure Theory | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Structure Theory An image of multiple, interconnecting red and blue particles Using high-performance computing, NREL applies electronic structure theory to design and discover materials for energy applications. This includes detailed studies of the physical mechanisms that determine the material's behavior on an atomistic level. Learn more about high-performance computing. Key Research Areas Materials by Design NREL leads the U.S. Department of Energy's Center for Next Generation of

  7. Collaboration drives achievement in protein structure research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collaboration drives achievement in protein structure research Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 all issues All Issues » submit Collaboration drives achievement in protein structure research By tracking down how bacterial defense systems work, the scientists can potentially fight infectious diseases and genetic disorders November 1, 2014 Thomas Terwilliger Thomas Terwilliger Contact Linda Anderman Email When a recent print issue of

  8. Collaboration drives achievement in protein structure research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein structure research Collaboration drives achievement in protein structure research By tracking down how bacterial defense systems work, the scientists can potentially fight infectious diseases and genetic disorders. September 15, 2014 Thomas Terwilliger Thomas Terwilliger Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications Office (505) 667-0471 Email "It is tremendously exciting working with researchers around the world, helping them apply the software and algorithms that we have developed to

  9. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Management Organizational Structure, Roles, and Responsibilities: The FIRST Center management structure, outlined in our organizational chart, has been designed to accomplish the scientific goals of the Center, while providing synergy between the thrusts, educational outreach, oversight, operational support, and integration with DOE's core science and technology programs. The Director (David J.Wesolowski) is responsible for the overall scientific direction and management of the Center,

  10. Hybrid Rotaxanes: Interlocked Structures for Quantum Computing?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hybrid Rotaxanes: Interlocked Structures for Quantum Computing? Hybrid Rotaxanes: Interlocked Structures for Quantum Computing? Print Wednesday, 26 August 2009 00:00 Rotaxanes are mechanically interlocked molecular architectures consisting of a dumbbell-shaped molecule, the "axle," that threads through a ring called a macrocycle. Because the rings can spin around and slide along the axle, rotaxanes are promising components of molecular machines. While most rotaxanes have been entirely

  11. Structural features of dielectric oxide laser ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminskii, Alexandr A; Taranov, A V; Khazanov, E N; Akchurin, M Sh

    2012-10-31

    The relation between the transport characteristics of subterahertz thermal phonons and the structural features of singlephase dielectric crystalline laser ceramics based on cubic oxides synthesised in different technological regimes is studied. The effect of plastic deformation on the formation of the grain structure and intergrain layers (boundaries), as well as on the thermophysical, acoustic, optical, and laser characteristics of the materials is analysed. (active media)

  12. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2010-06-15

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  13. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  14. Turbine blade with tuned damping structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Christian X.; Messmann, Stephen J.

    2015-09-01

    A turbine blade is provided comprising: a root; an airfoil comprising an external wall extending radially from the root and having a radially outermost portion; and a damping structure. The external wall may comprise first and second side walls joined together to define an inner cavity of the airfoil. The damping structure may be positioned within the airfoil inner cavity and coupled to the airfoil so as to define a tuned mass damper.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories' Structural Health Monitoring and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prognostics Management System Reduces Offshore Wind O&M Costs | Department of Energy Sandia National Laboratories' Structural Health Monitoring and Prognostics Management System Reduces Offshore Wind O&M Costs Sandia National Laboratories' Structural Health Monitoring and Prognostics Management System Reduces Offshore Wind O&M Costs September 16, 2015 - 11:53am Addthis Offshore wind energy could potentially play a significant role in helping the United States obtain an energy

  16. Solving the RNA polymerase I structural puzzle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno-Morcillo, María; Taylor, Nicholas M. I.; Gruene, Tim; Legrand, Pierre; Rashid, Umar J.; Ruiz, Federico M.; Steuerwald, Ulrich; Müller, Christoph W.; Fernández-Tornero, Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Details of the RNA polymerase I crystal structure determination provide a framework for solution of the structures of other multi-subunit complexes. Simple crystallographic experiments are described to extract relevant biological information such as the location of the enzyme active site. Knowing the structure of multi-subunit complexes is critical to understand basic cellular functions. However, when crystals of these complexes can be obtained they rarely diffract beyond 3 Å resolution, which complicates X-ray structure determination and refinement. The crystal structure of RNA polymerase I, an essential cellular machine that synthesizes the precursor of ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus of eukaryotic cells, has recently been solved. Here, the crucial steps that were undertaken to build the atomic model of this multi-subunit enzyme are reported, emphasizing how simple crystallographic experiments can be used to extract relevant biological information. In particular, this report discusses the combination of poor molecular replacement and experimental phases, the application of multi-crystal averaging and the use of anomalous scatterers as sequence markers to guide tracing and to locate the active site. The methods outlined here will likely serve as a reference for future structural determination of large complexes at low resolution.

  17. FRACTURE FAILURE CRITERIA OF SOFC PEN STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Qu, Jianmin

    2007-04-30

    Thermal stresses and warpage of the PEN are unavoidable due to the temperature changes from the stress-free sintering temperature to room temperature and mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of various layers in the PEN structures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) during the PEN manufacturing process. In the meantime, additional mechanical stresses will also be created by mechanical flattening during the stack assembly process. The porous nature of anode and cathode in the PEN structures determines presence of the initial flaws and crack on the interfaces of anode/electrolyte/cathode and in the interior of the materials. The sintering/assembling induced stresses may cause the fracture failure of PEN structure. Therefore, fracture failure criteria for SOFC PEN structures is developed in order to ensure the structural integrity of the cell and stack of SOFC. In this paper, the fracture criteria based on the relationship between the critical energy release rate and critical curvature and maximum displacement of the warped cells caused by the temperature changes as well as mechanical flattening process is established so that possible failure of SOFC PEN structures may be predicted deterministically by the measurement of the curvature and displacement of the warped cells.

  18. Structural stability of 1100{degree}C heated Pd/k during absorption cycling in protium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, I.A.

    1993-03-12

    Pd/k is a hydride forming packing material which is used in the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP). Palladium is supported on kieselguhr to create a packing material which will provide adequate void space to prevent excessive pressure drops and flow restrictions. The use of unsupported palladium would result in blockage of columns and clogging of filters due to the small particle size of unsupported palladium hydride powder. During pilot scale demonstrations, it was noted that the Pd/k packing material had degraded causing severe flow restrictions within the TCAP column. A solution to the problem involved the heating of Pd/k at 1,110{degree}C to strengthen the packing material, and render it more resistant to breakdown. The 1, 100{degree}C heated Pd/k has been shown to be more resistant to mechanical breakdown than the Pd/k prior to heat treatment. Two primary modes of Pd/k particle degradation have been identified: mechanical breakdown caused by particle fluidization and degradation caused by absorption/desorption cycling. Absorption/desorption cycling causes the palladium particles within the packing to expanded and contract upon formation and decomposition of the hydride, respectively. This expansion and contraction causes large localized stresses within the packing material, which if these stresses can not be accommodated within the packing will cause the material to crack and degrade. The purpose of this report is to document the results of the absorption/desorption cycling of 1,100{degree}C heated Pd/k and compare these results to the results obtained from the absorption/desorption cycling of Pd/k which had not been heated at 1, 100{degree}C.

  19. Oxidized film structure and method of making epitaxial metal oxide structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gan, Shupan [Richland, WA; Liang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-02-25

    A stable oxidized structure and an improved method of making such a structure, including an improved method of making an interfacial template for growing a crystalline metal oxide structure, are disclosed. The improved method comprises the steps of providing a substrate with a clean surface and depositing a metal on the surface at a high temperature under a vacuum to form a metal-substrate compound layer on the surface with a thickness of less than one monolayer. The compound layer is then oxidized by exposing the compound layer to essentially oxygen at a low partial pressure and low temperature. The method may further comprise the step of annealing the surface while under a vacuum to further stabilize the oxidized film structure. A crystalline metal oxide structure may be subsequently epitaxially grown by using the oxidized film structure as an interfacial template and depositing on the interfacial template at least one layer of a crystalline metal oxide.

  20. Method of using triaxial magnetic fields for making particle structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, James E.; Anderson, Robert A.; Williamson, Rodney L.

    2005-01-18

    A method of producing three-dimensional particle structures with enhanced magnetic susceptibility in three dimensions by applying a triaxial energetic field to a magnetic particle suspension and subsequently stabilizing said particle structure. Combinations of direct current and alternating current fields in three dimensions produce particle gel structures, honeycomb structures, and foam-like structures.

  1. Three Dimensional Response Spectrum Soil Structure Modeling Versus Conceptual Understanding To Illustrate Seismic Response Of Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Touqan, Abdul Razzaq

    2008-07-08

    Present methods of analysis and mathematical modeling contain so many assumptions that separate them from reality and thus represent a defect in design which makes it difficult to analyze reasons of failure. Three dimensional (3D) modeling is so superior to 1D or 2D modeling, static analysis deviates from the true nature of earthquake load which is 'a dynamic punch', and conflicting assumptions exist between structural engineers (who assume flexible structures on rigid block foundations) and geotechnical engineers (who assume flexible foundations supporting rigid structures). Thus a 3D dynamic soil-structure interaction is a step that removes many of the assumptions and thus clears reality to a greater extent. However such a model cannot be analytically analyzed. We need to anatomize and analogize it. The paper will represent a conceptual (analogical) 1D model for soil structure interaction and clarifies it by comparing its outcome with 3D dynamic soil-structure finite element analysis of two structures. The aim is to focus on how to calculate the period of the structure and to investigate effect of variation of stiffness on soil-structure interaction.

  2. Rectangular Dielectric-lined Accelerator Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Changbiao; Yakovlev, V.P.; Hirshfield, J.L.

    2004-12-07

    Results are reported from analysis of a rectangular X-band dielectric-lined accelerator structure operating in the symmetric LSM-11 mode that has a number of favorable attributes, by comparison with dielectric-lined cylindrical structures. These attributes include use of two planar one-piece precision-ground TiN coated dielectric slabs free of joints, open slots along two opposing metallic faces to suppress all anti-symmetric higher-order modes and to facilitate high-speed pumping, and significant reduction of wall losses by use of evanescent vacuum gaps beyond the dielectric slabs. It is shown that a structure operating at 11.424 GHz can be built with a shunt impedance > 60 M{omega}/m using low-loss alumina as the dielectric.

  3. Data structures and apparatuses for representing knowledge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Thomson, Judi R; Harvey, William J; Paulson, Patrick R; Whiting, Mark A; Tratz, Stephen C; Chappell, Alan R; Butner, Robert S

    2014-02-18

    Data structures and apparatuses to represent knowledge are disclosed. The processes can comprise labeling elements in a knowledge signature according to concepts in an ontology and populating the elements with confidence values. The data structures can comprise knowledge signatures stored on computer-readable media. The knowledge signatures comprise a matrix structure having elements labeled according to concepts in an ontology, wherein the value of the element represents a confidence that the concept is present in an information space. The apparatus can comprise a knowledge representation unit having at least one ontology stored on a computer-readable medium, at least one data-receiving device, and a processor configured to generate knowledge signatures by comparing datasets obtained by the data-receiving devices to the ontologies.

  4. DAPS: Database of Aligned Protein Structures

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mallick, Parag; Rice, Danny; Eisenberg, David

    How is DAPS constructed? We begin with the set of all chains from the current release of the PDB. An all on all search is done on the list to find pairs that have the same fold acoording to both the FSSP and CATH databases and clustered into groups by a representative structure (representative structures have less than 25% sequence identity to each other). For each protein pair, regions aligned by the DALI program are extracted from the corresponding FSSP file, or recomputed using DALI-lite. In domain DAPS, only regions that are called "domains" by CATH are included in the alignment. The amino acid type, secondary structure type, and solvent accessibility are extracted from the DSSP file and written pairwise into the database. DAPS is updated with updates of CATH.[Taken from http://nihserver.mbi.ucla.edu/DAPS/daps_help.html

  5. Power converter having improved terminal structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.; Phillips, Mark G.; Kaishian, Steven C.

    2007-03-06

    A terminal structure for power electronics circuits reduces the need for a DC bus and thereby the incidence of parasitic inductance. The structure is secured to a support that may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as by direct contact between the terminal assembly and AC and DC circuit components. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  6. Methods for freeform fabrication of structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Stephen G. (Albuquerque, NM); Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    Rapid prototyping methods and apparatuses that produce structures made of continuous-fiber polymer-matrix composites without the use of molds. Instead of using molds, the composite structure is fabricated patch by patch in layers or wraps, using a two- or three-axis stage connected to a rapidly-reconfigurable forming surface, and a robot arm to position the evolving composite structure, which are both programmable devices. Because programmable devices are included, i.e., a robot and a two- or three-axis stage connected to the reconfigurable forming surface, the control program needed to produce a desired shape can be easily modified to automatically generate the desired shape from an electronic model (e.g., using a CAD/CAM system) of the desired (predetermined) shape.

  7. Microelectromechanical dual-mass resonator structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyck, Christopher W. (Cedar Crest, NM); Allen, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Huber, Robert J. (Bountiful, UT)

    2002-01-01

    A dual-mass microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator structure is disclosed in which a first mass is suspended above a substrate and driven to move along a linear or curved path by a parallel-plate electrostatic actuator. A second mass, which is also suspended and coupled to the first mass by a plurality of springs is driven by motion of the first mass. Various modes of operation of the MEM structure are possible, including resonant and antiresonant modes, and a contacting mode. In each mode of operation, the motion induced in the second mass can be in the range of several microns up to more than 50 .mu.m while the first mass has a much smaller displacement on the order of one micron or less. The MEM structure has applications for forming microsensors that detect strain, acceleration, rotation or movement.

  8. Exploiting structure similarity in refinement: automated NCS and target-structure restraints in BUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, Oliver S. Womack, Thomas O.; Flensburg, Claus; Keller, Peter; Paciorek, Włodek; Sharff, Andrew; Vonrhein, Clemens; Bricogne, Gérard

    2012-04-01

    Local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) provide a novel method for exploiting NCS or structural similarity to an external target structure. Two examples are given where BUSTER re-refinement of PDB entries with LSSR produces marked improvements, enabling further structural features to be modelled. Maximum-likelihood X-ray macromolecular structure refinement in BUSTER has been extended with restraints facilitating the exploitation of structural similarity. The similarity can be between two or more chains within the structure being refined, thus favouring NCS, or to a distinct ‘target’ structure that remains fixed during refinement. The local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) approach considers all distances less than 5.5 Å between pairs of atoms in the chain to be restrained. For each, the difference from the distance between the corresponding atoms in the related chain is found. LSSR applies a restraint penalty on each difference. A functional form that reaches a plateau for large differences is used to avoid the restraints distorting parts of the structure that are not similar. Because LSSR are local, there is no need to separate out domains. Some restraint pruning is still necessary, but this has been automated. LSSR have been available to academic users of BUSTER since 2009 with the easy-to-use -autoncs and @@target target.pdb options. The use of LSSR is illustrated in the re-refinement of PDB entries http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -target enables the correct ligand-binding structure to be found, and http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -autoncs contributes to the location of an additional copy of the cyclic peptide ligand.

  9. [Band electronic structures and crystal packing forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the electronic and structural properties of low-dimensional materials and explored the structure-property correlations governing their physical properties. Progress was made on how to interpret the scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy images of layered materials and on how to account for charge density wave instabilities in 2-D metals. Materials studied included transition metal chalcogenides, transition metal halides, organic conducting salts, Mo bronzes, A[sub 2]PdH[sub 2], fullerenes, squarate tetrahydrate polymers Fe, Cu(C[sub 4]O[sub 4])4[center dot]H[sub 2]O, BEDT salts, etc.

  10. Structural Basis for Activation of Cholera Toxin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structural Basis for Activation of Cholera Toxin Structural Basis for Activation of Cholera Toxin Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Cholera is a serious disease that claims thousands of victims each year in third-world, war-torn, and disaster-stricken nations. The culprit is the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which can be ingested through contaminated food or water and colonizes the mucous membrane of the human small intestine. There, it secretes cholera toxin (CT), a protein whose A1 subunit

  11. The Structure of Nuclei Far from Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zganjar, E.F.

    1999-02-25

    From among a number of important nuclear structure results that have emerged from our research program during the past few years, two stand out as being of extra significance. These are: (a) the identification of a diabatic coexisting structure in {sup 187}Au which arises solely from differences in proton occupation of adjacent oscillator shells, and (b) the realization of a method for estimating EO strength in nuclei and the resulting prediction that the de-excitation of superdeformed bands may proceed, in some cases, by strong EO transitions.

  12. Formation of bulk refractive index structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Jr., Barrett George; Potter, Kelly Simmons; Wheeler, David R.; Jamison, Gregory M.

    2003-07-15

    A method of making a stacked three-dimensional refractive index structure in photosensitive materials using photo-patterning where first determined is the wavelength at which a photosensitive material film exhibits a change in refractive index upon exposure to optical radiation, a portion of the surfaces of the photosensitive material film is optically irradiated, the film is marked to produce a registry mark. Multiple films are produced and aligned using the registry marks to form a stacked three-dimensional refractive index structure.

  13. Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Stan, Liliana; Rosenmann, Daniel; Czaplewski, David; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-05-26

    We report a structural color printing platform based on aluminum plasmonic metamaterials supporting near perfect light absorption and narrow-band spectral response tunable across the visible spectrum to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive color printing with high color purity and saturation. Additionally, the fabricated metamaterials can be protected by a transparent polymer thin layer for ambient use with further improved color performance. The demonstrated structural color printing with aluminum plasmonic metamaterials offers great potential for relevant applications such as security marking and information storage.

  14. Sensor devices comprising field-structured composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, James E. (Tijeras, NM); Hughes, Robert C. (Albuquerque, NM); Anderson, Robert A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-02-27

    A new class of sensor devices comprising field-structured conducting composites comprising a textured distribution of conducting magnetic particles is disclosed. The conducting properties of such field-structured materials can be precisely controlled during fabrication so as to exhibit a large change in electrical conductivity when subject to any environmental influence which changes the relative volume fraction. Influences which can be so detected include stress, strain, shear, temperature change, humidity, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and the presence or absence of certain chemicals. This behavior can be made the basis for a wide variety of sensor devices.

  15. Process for fabricating a microelectromechanical structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Krygowski, Thomas W.; Mani, Seethambal S.; Habermehl, Scott D.; Hetherington, Dale L.; Stevens, James E.; Resnick, Paul J.; Volk, Steven R.

    2004-10-26

    A process is disclosed for forming a microelectromechanical (MEM) structure on a substrate having from 5 to 6 or more layers of deposited and patterned polysilicon. The process is based on determining a radius of curvature of the substrate which is bowed due to accumulated stress in the layers of polysilicon and a sacrificial material used to buildup the MEM structure, and then providing one or more stress-compensation layers on a backside of the substrate to flatten the substrate and allow further processing.

  16. Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transition

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Tb5Si2.2Ge1.8 from first principles (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transition in Tb5Si2.2Ge1.8 from first principles Title: Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transition in Tb5Si2.2Ge1.8 from first principles Authors: Paudyal, Durga ; Mudryk, Y. ; Pecharsky, V. K. ; Gschneidner, K. A. Publication Date: 2011-07-27 OSTI Identifier: 1100399 Type: Publisher's Accepted

  17. Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transition

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Tb5Si2.2Ge1.8 from first principles (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transition in Tb5Si2.2Ge1.8 from first principles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic structure, magnetic properties, and magnetostructural transition in Tb5Si2.2Ge1.8 from first principles Authors: Paudyal, Durga ; Mudryk, Y. ; Pecharsky, V. K. ; Gschneidner, K. A. Publication Date: 2011-07-27 OSTI Identifier: 1100399 Type: Publisher's

  18. Intriguing DNA Editor Has a Structural Trigger

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intriguing DNA Editor Has a Structural Trigger Print A powerful new tool for genome editing and gene regulation has emerged in the form of a family of enzymes known as Cas9. Cas9 could become an even more valuable tool with the creation of the first detailed picture of its three-dimensional shape. An international collaboration used x-ray crystallography to produce high-resolution structures of two major types of Cas9 enzymes. Combined with electron microscopy, the results point the way to the

  19. Structure and yarn sensor for fabric

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mee, David K. (Knoxville, TN); Allgood, Glenn O. (Powell, TN); Mooney, Larry R. (Knoxville, TN); Duncan, Michael G. (Clinton, TN); Turner, John C. (Clinton, TN); Treece, Dale A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A structure and yarn sensor for fabric directly determines pick density in a fabric thereby allowing fabric length and velocity to be calculated from a count of the picks made by the sensor over known time intervals. The structure and yarn sensor is also capable of detecting full length woven defects and fabric. As a result, an inexpensive on-line pick (or course) density measurement can be performed which allows a loom or knitting machine to be adjusted by either manual or automatic means to maintain closer fiber density tolerances. Such a sensor apparatus dramatically reduces fabric production costs and significantly improves fabric consistency and quality for woven or knitted fabric.

  20. Intriguing DNA Editor Has a Structural Trigger

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intriguing DNA Editor Has a Structural Trigger Print A powerful new tool for genome editing and gene regulation has emerged in the form of a family of enzymes known as Cas9. Cas9 could become an even more valuable tool with the creation of the first detailed picture of its three-dimensional shape. An international collaboration used x-ray crystallography to produce high-resolution structures of two major types of Cas9 enzymes. Combined with electron microscopy, the results point the way to the

  1. Intriguing DNA Editor Has a Structural Trigger

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intriguing DNA Editor Has a Structural Trigger Print A powerful new tool for genome editing and gene regulation has emerged in the form of a family of enzymes known as Cas9. Cas9 could become an even more valuable tool with the creation of the first detailed picture of its three-dimensional shape. An international collaboration used x-ray crystallography to produce high-resolution structures of two major types of Cas9 enzymes. Combined with electron microscopy, the results point the way to the

  2. Intriguing DNA Editor Has a Structural Trigger

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intriguing DNA Editor Has a Structural Trigger Print A powerful new tool for genome editing and gene regulation has emerged in the form of a family of enzymes known as Cas9. Cas9 could become an even more valuable tool with the creation of the first detailed picture of its three-dimensional shape. An international collaboration used x-ray crystallography to produce high-resolution structures of two major types of Cas9 enzymes. Combined with electron microscopy, the results point the way to the

  3. Molecular Structure of Water at Gold Electrodes Revealed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecular Structure of Water at Gold Electrodes Revealed Molecular Structure of Water at Gold Electrodes Revealed Print Wednesday, 25 March 2015 00:00 The structure of liquid water...

  4. Tribal Renewable Energy Webinar: Tribal Business Structures for Financing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projects | Department of Energy Tribal Business Structures for Financing Projects Tribal Renewable Energy Webinar: Tribal Business Structures for Financing Projects May 25, 2016 11:00AM to 12:30PM MDT There are six different structures available to tribes to diversify their economic portfolios by creating business structures for their energy businesses. No single structure will work for every tribe, or even every tribally owned business. Learn about each of these business structures, their

  5. The Impact of Structural Genomics: Expectations and Outcomes (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect The Impact of Structural Genomics: Expectations and Outcomes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Impact of Structural Genomics: Expectations and Outcomes Structural Genomics (SG) projects aim to expand our structural knowledge of biological macromolecules, while lowering the average costs of structure determination. We quantitatively analyzed the novelty, cost, and impact of structures solved by SG centers, and contrast these results with traditional

  6. The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR Lubricity The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR Lubricity Presentation given at 2007...

  7. Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of All-Polymer Solar Cells Impedes Efficiency Print Organic solar cells are made of thin layers of interpenetrating structures from two different conducting organic...

  8. The Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Large Scale Structures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Large Scale Structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Effective Field Theory of Cosmological Large Scale Structures...

  9. Mobile interfaces: Liquids as a perfect structural material for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mobile interfaces: Liquids as a perfect structural material for multifunctional, antifouling surfaces Prev Next Title: Mobile interfaces: Liquids as a perfect structural ...

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Structured Si-Carbon Nanocomposite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Synthesis and Characterization of Structured Si-Carbon Nanocomposite Anodes and Functional Polymer ...

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Structured Si-Carbon Nanocomposite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Characterization of Structured Si-Carbon Nanocomposite Anodes and Functional Polymer Binders Synthesis and Characterization of Structured Si-Carbon Nanocomposite Anodes and ...

  12. Simplified Protein Models: Predicting Folding Pathways and Structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simplified Protein Models: Predicting Folding Pathways and Structure Using Amino Acid Sequences Title: Simplified Protein Models: Predicting Folding Pathways and Structure Using ...

  13. Structural bases of dimerization of yeast telomere protein Cdc13...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search Results Journal Article: Structural bases of dimerization of yeast telomere protein ... Title: Structural bases of dimerization of yeast telomere protein Cdc13 and its ...

  14. Rhapsody: I. Structural Properties and Formation History from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    I. Structural Properties and Formation History from a Statistical Sample of Re-simulated Cluster-size Halos Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rhapsody: I. Structural...

  15. Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural and Chemical Transformations Wednesday, April 30, 2014 Chemical evolution and structural transformations in a...

  16. A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A mobile-agent based wireless sensing network for structural monitoring ... used to interrogate impedance-based sensors for structural health monitoring applications. ...

  17. The Three-Dimensional Structural Basis of Type II Hyperprolinemia...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Three-Dimensional Structural Basis of Type II Hyperprolinemia Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Three-Dimensional Structural Basis of Type II Hyperprolinemia Type ...

  18. Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Structuring Rebate and Incentive Programs for Sustainable Demand Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Peer...

  19. Robust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Robust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein Structures Print Scientists have developed a fast and efficient way to determine the structure of proteins, shortening a process that...

  20. From Protein Structure to Function: Ring Cycle for Dilating and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From Protein Structure to Function: Ring Cycle for Dilating and Constricting the Nuclear Pore From Protein Structure to Function: Ring Cycle for Dilating and Constricting the...