Sample records for breakdown structure cbs

  1. Cost Codes and the Work Breakdown Structure

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The chapter discusses the purpose of the work breakdown structure (WBS) and code of account (COA) cost code system, shows the purpose and fundamental structure of both the WBS and the cost code system, and explains the interface between the two systems.

  2. Breakdown Anodization (BDA) for hierarchical structures of titanium oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Soon Ju, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Breakdown Anodization (BDA) of titanium dioxide is a very promising, fast fabrication method to construct micro-scale and nano-scale structures on titanium surfaces. This method uses environmentally friendly electrolytes, ...

  3. X-Band Photonic Band-Gap Accelerator Structure Breakdown Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, Roark A.; /MIT /MIT /NIFS, Gifu /JAERI, Kyoto /LLNL, Livermore; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.; /MIT; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Laurent, Lisa L.; Lewandowski, James R.; Yeremian, A.Dian; Tantawi, Sami G.; /SLAC

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to understand the performance of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures under realistic high gradient, high power, high repetition rate operation, a PBG accelerator structure was designed and tested at X band (11.424 GHz). The structure consisted of a single test cell with matching cells before and after the structure. The design followed principles previously established in testing a series of conventional pillbox structures. The PBG structure was tested at an accelerating gradient of 65 MV/m yielding a breakdown rate of two breakdowns per hour at 60 Hz. An accelerating gradient above 110 MV/m was demonstrated at a higher breakdown rate. Significant pulsed heating occurred on the surface of the inner rods of the PBG structure, with a temperature rise of 85 K estimated when operating in 100 ns pulses at a gradient of 100 MV/m and a surface magnetic field of 890 kA/m. A temperature rise of up to 250 K was estimated for some shots. The iris surfaces, the location of peak electric field, surprisingly had no damage, but the inner rods, the location of the peak magnetic fields and a large temperature rise, had significant damage. Breakdown in accelerator structures is generally understood in terms of electric field effects. These PBG structure results highlight the unexpected role of magnetic fields in breakdown. The hypothesis is presented that the moderate level electric field on the inner rods, about 14 MV/m, is enhanced at small tips and projections caused by pulsed heating, leading to breakdown. Future PBG structures should be built to minimize pulsed surface heating and temperature rise.

  4. Experimental Study of the Effect of Beam Loading on RF Breakdown Rate in CLIC High-Gradient Accelerating Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tecker, F; Kelisani, M; Doebert, S; Grudiev, A; Quirante, J; Riddone, G; Syratchev, I; Wuensch, W; Kononenko, O; Solodko, A; Lebet, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RF breakdown is a key issue for the multi-TeV highluminosity e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Breakdowns in the high-gradient accelerator structures can deflect the beam and decrease the desired luminosity. The limitations of the accelerating structures due to breakdowns have been studied so far without a beam present in the structure. The presence of the beam modifies the distribution of the electrical and magnetic field distributions, which determine the breakdown rate. Therefore an experiment has been designed for high power testing a CLIC prototype accelerating structure with a beam present in the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3). A special beam line allows extracting a beam with nominal CLIC beam current and duration from the CTF3 linac. The paper describes the beam optics design for this experimental beam line and the commissioning of the experiment with beam.

  5. Relating carrion breakdown rates to ambient resource level and community structure in four cave stream ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benstead, Jon

    into ecosystems vary in quantity and quality (e.g., plant litter vs carrion). Variability in detrital quantity and quality potentially affects consumer biomass and rates of organic matter (OM) breakdown. We used cave streams to test 2 linked hypotheses regarding the influence of total detrital inputs on consumer biomass

  6. Investigation of the statistical nature and structure of the electrical breakdown time delay in gas diodes filled with neon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maluckov, Cedomir A. [Technical Faculty in Bor, University of Belgrade, Vojske Jugoslavije 24, 19210 Bor (Serbia and Montenegro); Karamarkovic, Jugoslav P. [Faculty of Civil Eng. and Architecture, University of Nis, Beogradska 14, 18000 Nis (Serbia); Radovic, Miodrag K. [Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, University of Nis, P.O.B.224, 18001 Nis (Serbia)

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical breakdown time delay in gas diodes filled by neon at the low pressures is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Experimental results are obtained measuring the characteristics of gas diodes filled by spectroscopically pure neon. In order to discard any systematic trend during the measurement procedure, checking of the measured values randomness preceded the statistical analysis of the experimental results. Novel theoretical model is established for interpretation of obtained experimental results on the breakdown time delay. The model is based on the assumptions of the exponential distribution of the statistical time delay and Gaussian distribution of the formative discharge time. Therefore, the density distribution of the breakdown time delay is assumed to be convolution of the statistical and formative time delay distributions. Parameters of the statistical and formative time delay, as stochastic variables, are modeled by the numerical Monte Carlo method. Numerical distributions are tested to the corresponding experimental distributions of the breakdown time delay by varying the distribution parameters. In addition, the asymmetry coefficient and skewness coefficient of the breakdown time delay distribution, and coefficients of the statistical and formative time delay distributions are analyzed. Numerically calculated time delay distributions fit well to the corresponding experimental distributions in gas diodes filled with neon at low pressures.

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - aspergillus niger cbs Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 List of publications A. Schouten, L. Wagemakers, F.L. Stefanato, R.M. van der Kaaij and J.A. van Kan Summary: and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus niger CBS...

  8. Work Breakdown Structure and Plant/Equipment Designation System Numbering Scheme for the High Temperature Gas- Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Component Test Capability (CTC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey D Bryan

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This white paper investigates the potential integration of the CTC work breakdown structure numbering scheme with a plant/equipment numbering system (PNS), or alternatively referred to in industry as a reference designation system (RDS). Ideally, the goal of such integration would be a single, common referencing system for the life cycle of the CTC that supports all the various processes (e.g., information, execution, and control) that necessitate plant and equipment numbers be assigned. This white paper focuses on discovering the full scope of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) processes to which this goal might be applied as well as the factors likely to affect decisions about implementation. Later, a procedure for assigning these numbers will be developed using this white paper as a starting point and that reflects the resolved scope and outcome of associated decisions.

  9. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    LIBS-1 Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy LIBS ANALYSIS OF METAL SURFACES Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;LIBS-2 Laser­Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) LIBS ANALYSIS OF METAL SURFACES of species at a distance or in hard­to­reach or hazardous environments. Laser­Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

  10. RF BREAKDOWN STUDIES USING PRESSURIZED CAVITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Rolland

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Many present and future particle accelerators are limited by the maximum electric gradient and peak surface fields that can be realized in RF cavities. Despite considerable effort, a comprehensive theory of RF breakdown has not been achieved and mitigation techniques to improve practical maximum accelerating gradients have had only limited success. Part of the problem is that RF breakdown in an evacuated cavity involves a complex mixture of effects, which include the geometry, metallurgy, and surface preparation of the accelerating structures and the make-up and pressure of the residual gas in which plasmas form. Studies showed that high gradients can be achieved quickly in 805 MHz RF cavities pressurized with dense hydrogen gas, as needed for muon cooling channels, without the need for long conditioning times, even in the presence of strong external magnetic fields. This positive result was expected because the dense gas can practically eliminate dark currents and multipacting. In this project we used this high pressure technique to suppress effects of residual vacuum and geometry that are found in evacuated cavities in order to isolate and study the role of the metallic surfaces in RF cavity breakdown as a function of magnetic field, frequency, and surface preparation. One of the interesting and useful outcomes of this project was the unanticipated collaborations with LANL and Fermilab that led to new insights as to the operation of evacuated normal-conducting RF cavities in high external magnetic fields. Other accomplishments included: (1) RF breakdown experiments to test the effects of SF6 dopant in H2 and He gases with Sn, Al, and Cu electrodes were carried out in an 805 MHz cavity and compared to calculations and computer simulations. The heavy corrosion caused by the SF6 components led to the suggestion that a small admixture of oxygen, instead of SF6, to the hydrogen would allow the same advantages without the corrosion in a practical muon beam line. (2) A 1.3 GHz RF test cell capable of operating both at high pressure and in vacuum with replaceable electrodes was designed, built, and power tested in preparation for testing the frequency and geometry effects of RF breakdown at Argonne National Lab. At the time of this report this cavity is still waiting for the 1.3 GHz klystron to be available at the Wakefield Test Facility. (3) Under a contract with Los Alamos National Lab, an 805 MHz RF test cavity, known as the All-Seasons Cavity (ASC), was designed and built by Muons, Inc. to operate either at high pressure or under vacuum. The LANL project to use the (ASC) was cancelled and the testing of the cavity has been continued under the grant reported on here using the Fermilab Mucool Test Area (MTA). The ASC is a true pillbox cavity that has performed under vacuum in high external magnetic field better than any other and has demonstrated that the high required accelerating gradients for many muon cooling beam line designs are possible. (4) Under ongoing support from the Muon Acceleration Program, microscopic surface analysis and computer simulations have been used to develop models of RF breakdown that apply to both pressurized and vacuum cavities. The understanding of RF breakdown will lead to better designs of RF cavities for many applications. An increase in the operating accelerating gradient, improved reliability and shorter conditioning times can generate very significant cost savings in many accelerator projects.

  11. RF breakdown effects in microwave power amplifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumilli, Gautham Venkat

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical stresses in the transistors of high-efficiency switching power amplifiers can lead to hot-electron-induced "breakdown" in these devices. This thesis explores issues related to breakdown in the Transcom TC2571 ...

  12. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available. The whole genome sequence for A. niger ATCC 1015 is available from NBCI under acc. no ACJE00000000. The up-dated sequence for A. niger CBS 513.88 is available from EMBL under acc. no AM269948-AM270415. The sequence data from the phylogeny study has been submitted to NCBI (GU296686-296739). Microarray data from this study is submitted to GEO as series GSE10983. Accession for reviewers is possible through: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi token GSE10983] The dsmM_ANIGERa_coll511030F library and platform information is deposited at GEO under number GPL6758

  13. Pattern formation and propagation during microwave breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaudhury, Bhaskar [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), INPT, UPS, Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Boeuf, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), INPT, UPS, Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); LAPLACE, CNRS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Zhu, Guo Qiang [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), INPT, UPS, Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Northwestern Polytechnique University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During microwave breakdown at atmospheric pressure, a sharp plasma front forms and propagates toward the microwave source at high velocities. Experiments show that the plasma front may exhibit a complex dynamical structure or pattern composed of plasma filaments aligned with the wave electric field and apparently moving toward the source. In this paper, we present a model of the pattern formation and propagation under conditions close to recent experiments. Maxwell's equations are solved together with plasma fluid equations in two dimensions to describe the space and time evolution of the wave field and plasma density. The simulation results are in excellent agreement with the experimental observations. The model provides a physical interpretation of the pattern formation and dynamics in terms of ionization-diffusion and absorption-reflection mechanisms. The simulations allow a good qualitative and quantitative understanding of different features such as plasma front velocity, spacing between filaments, maximum plasma density in the filaments, and influence of the discharge parameters on the development of well-defined filamentary plasma arrays or more diffuse plasma fronts.

  14. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  15. WWJ-TV CBS Detroit/CW50 Detroit Internship Job Descriptions Community Affairs/Programming Internship: This internship provides students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinabro, David

    WWJ-TV CBS Detroit/CW50 Detroit Internship Job Descriptions Community Affairs/Programming Internship: This internship provides students interns the opportunity to gain experience in Community Affairs internships offered for the winter, summer, and fall terms. Interns generally work either a Monday

  16. The hybrid Four-CBS-Domain KINbc subunit functions as the canonical c subunit of the plant energy sensor SnRK1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheen, Jen

    , these kinases generally down-regulate ATP con- suming biosynthetic processes, while stimulating energy produce their own energy-rich organic molecules by solar energy-driven photosynthesis as sessile organismsThe hybrid Four-CBS-Domain KINbc subunit functions as the canonical c subunit of the plant energy

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - abnormal breakdown characteristic Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    present the measurements and analysis of laser- induced breakdown processes in dry... -power microwave breakdown based on measured laser breakdown observations....

  18. Gas breakdown in the T-7 tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denisov, V.F.; Ivanov, D.P.; Ivanov, N.V.; Kakurin, A.M.; Kislov, A.Y.; Kochin, V.A.; Mikhailichenko, V.A.; Khvostenko, P.P.; Khilil', V.V.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study of the initial stage of the discharge of the T-7 tokamak shows that when the magnetic field in the discharge chamber has a comparatively small transverse component (B/sub perpendicular/approx.10/sup -3/B/sub parallel/) the gas breakdown occurs in two stages. First, while the discharge current is low, the breakdown occurs along a helical magnetic line of force between upper and lower parts of a limiter in one cross section in the chamber. In the second stage, when the field of the current exceeds the transverse magnetic field, and a rotational transform arises, a toroidal electrodeless discharge occurs.

  19. Investigating the effective range of vacuum ultraviolet-mediated breakdown in high-power microwave metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chien-Hao, E-mail: cliu82@wisc.edu; Neher, Joel D., E-mail: jdneher@wisc.edu; Booske, John H., E-mail: booske@engr.wisc.edu; Behdad, Nader, E-mail: behdad@wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Metamaterials and periodic structures operating under high-power excitations are susceptible to breakdown. It was recently demonstrated that a localized breakdown created in a given region of a periodic structure can facilitate breakdown in other regions of the structure where the intensity of the incident electromagnetic fields may not be high enough to cause breakdown under normal circumstances. It was also demonstrated that this phenomenon is due to the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation at the location of the initial discharge, which propagates to the neighboring regions (e.g., other unit cells in a periodic structure) and facilitates the generation of a discharge at a lower incident power level. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental study conducted to determine the effective range of this physical phenomenon for periodic structures that operate in air and in pure nitrogen gas at atmospheric pressure levels. It is demonstrated that when breakdown is induced in a periodic structure using a high-power pulse with a frequency of 9.382 GHz, duration of 0.8??s, and peak power level of 25?kW, this phenomenon is highly likely to happen in radii of approximately 1617?mm from the location of the initial discharge under these test conditions. The results of this study are significant in designing metamaterials and periodic structures for high-power microwave applications as they suggest that a localized discharge created in such a periodic structure with a periodicity less than 1617?mm can spread over a large surface and result in a distributed discharge.

  20. Breakdown of Angular Momentum Selection Rules in High Pressure Optical Pumping Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancor, B.; Wyllie, R.; Walker, T. G. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Babcock, E. [Juelich Centre for Neutron Science, Garching 85747 (Germany)

    2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements, by using two complementary methods, of the breakdown of atomic angular momentum selection rules in He-broadened Rb vapor. Atomic dark states are rendered weakly absorbing due to fine-structure mixing during Rb-He collisions. The effect substantially increases the photon demand for optical pumping of dense vapors.

  1. Leakage current and dielectric breakdown behavior in annealed SiO2 aerogel films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Moon-Ho

    Leakage current and dielectric breakdown behavior in annealed SiO2 aerogel films Moon-Ho Jo behavior in annealed SiO2 aerogel films for intermetal dielectric applications was investigated in a metal­insulator­semiconductor structure. SiO2 aerogel films with porosities of 70% exhibited Poole­Frenkel conduction both before

  2. On the measurement of laser-induced plasma breakdown thresholds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brieschenk, Stefan [Centre for Hypersonics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia)] [Centre for Hypersonics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia); Kleine, Harald; O'Byrne, Sean [The University of New South Wales Canberra, The Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra 2600 (Australia)] [The University of New South Wales Canberra, The Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra 2600 (Australia)

    2013-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The breakdown threshold of a gas exposed to intense laser-radiation is a function of gas and laser properties. Breakdown thresholds reported in the literature often vary greatly and these differences can partially be traced back to the method that is typically used to determine breakdown thresholds. This paper discusses the traditional method used to determine breakdown thresholds and the potential errors that can arise using this approach, and presents an alternative method which can yield more accurate data especially when determining breakdown thresholds as functions of gas pressure.

  3. Prevention of breakdown behind railgun projectiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An electromagnetic railgun accelerator system, for accelerating projectiles by a plasma arc, introduces a breakdown inhibiting gas into the railgun chamber behind the accelerating projectile. The breakdown inhibiting gas, which absorbs electrons, is a halide or a halide compound such as fluorine or SF[sub 6]. The gas is introduced between the railgun rails after the projectile has passed through inlets in the rails or the projectile; by coating the rails or the projectile with a material which releases the gas after the projectile passes over it; by fabricating the rails or the projectile or insulators out of a material which releases the gas into the portions of the chamber through which the projectile has travelled. The projectile may have a cavity at its rear to control the release of ablation products. 12 figs.

  4. Prevention of breakdown behind railgun projectiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electromagnetic railgun accelerator system, for accelerating projectiles by a plasma arc, introduces a breakdown inhibiting gas into the railgun chamber behind the accelerating projectile. The breakdown inhibiting gas, which absorbs electrons, is a halide or a halide compound such as fluorine or SF[sub 6]. The gas is introduced between the railgun rails after the projectile has passed through inlets in the rails or the projectile; by coating the rails or the projectile with a material which releases the gas after the projectile passes over it; by fabricating the rails or the projectile or insulators out of a material which releases the gas into the portions of the chamber through which the projectile has travelled. The projectile may have a cavity at its rear to control the release of ablation products. 12 figs.

  5. Empirical Features of Spontaneous and Induced Traffic Breakdowns in Free Flow at Highway Bottlenecks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Rehborn, Hubert; Leibel, Michael

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on an empirical study of real field traffic data measured in 1996--2014 through road detectors installed on German freeways, we reveal physical features of empirical nuclei for spontaneous traffic breakdown in free flow at highway bottlenecks. It is shown that the source of a nucleus for traffic breakdown is the solely difference between empirical spontaneous and induced traffic breakdowns at a highway bottleneck. Microscopic traffic simulations with a stochastic traffic flow model in the framework of three-phase theory explain the empirical findings. It turns out that in the most cases, a nucleus for empirical spontaneous traffic breakdown occurs through an interaction of one of waves in free flow with an empirical permanent speed disturbance localized at a highway bottleneck. The wave is a localized structure in free flow, in which the total flow rate is larger and the speed averaged across the highway is smaller than outside the wave. The waves in free flow appear due to oscilations in the percentage...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - air breakdown mechanism Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Steven R. Raine... by aggregate hierarchy theory, breakdown occurs when sufficient mechanical stress has been applied to overcome... breakdown in soils is a function of the...

  7. COST BREAKDOWN AWARD NO: START DATE: EXPIRATION DATE: FISCAL YEAR BREAKDOWN OF FUNDS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRICGEGR-N Goods PO 1PhotoemissionCOST BREAKDOWN

  8. Avalanches in breakdown and fracture processes Stefano Zapperi,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    Avalanches in breakdown and fracture processes Stefano Zapperi,1 Purusattam Ray,2 H. Eugene Stanley in a stressed solid was studied by Golubovic and co-workers 9 using Monte Carlo simulations. Recently

  9. Studies of electrical breakdown processes across vacuum gaps between metallic electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilson, Erik

    Studies of electrical breakdown processes across vacuum gaps between metallic electrodes L Keywords: Magnetic insulation Vacuum electrical breakdown Bacteria-induced electrical breakdown Accelerator a b s t r a c t An experimental program to elucidate the physical causes of electrical breakdown

  10. Cost Codes and the Work Breakdown Structure - DOE Directives...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WBS and the cost code system, and explains the interface between the two systems. g4301-1chp5.pdf -- PDF Document, 44 KB Writer: John Makepeace Subjects: Administration Management...

  11. DOE Work Breakdown Structure Handbook | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

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  12. MHK Cost Breakdown Structure Draft | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  13. High-voltage atmospheric breakdown across intervening rutile dielectrics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Simpson, Sean; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Pasik, Michael Francis

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 on electrical discharge experiments performed to develop predictive computational models of the fundamental processes of surface breakdown in the vicinity of high-permittivity material interfaces. Further, experiments were conducted to determine if free carrier electrons could be excited into the conduction band thus lowering the effective breakdown voltage when UV photons (4.66 eV) from a high energy pulsed laser were incident on the rutile sample. This report documents the numerical approach, the experimental setup, and summarizes the data and simulations. Lastly, it describes the path forward and challenges that must be overcome in order to improve future experiments for characterizing the breakdown behavior for rutile.

  14. Characterization of superconducting radiofrequency breakdown by two-mode excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eremeev, Grigory V. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States); Palczewski, Ari D. [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that thermal and magnetic contributions to the breakdown of superconductivity in radiofrequency (RF) fields can be separated by applying two RF modes simultaneously to a superconducting surface. We develop a simple model that illustrates how mode-mixing RF data can be related to properties of the superconductor. Within our model the data can be described by a single parameter, which can be derived either from RF or thermometry data. Our RF and thermometry data are in good agreement with the model. We propose to use mode-mixing technique to decouple thermal and magnetic effects on RF breakdown of superconductors.

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - all-fiber-coupled laser-induced breakdown...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coupled laser-induced breakdown Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: all-fiber-coupled laser-induced breakdown Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >>...

  16. Studies of electrical breakdown processes across vacuum gaps between metallic electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilson, Erik

    Studies of electrical breakdown processes across vacuum gaps between metallic electrodes L Available online 3 June 2013 Keywords: Magnetic insulation Vacuum electrical breakdown Bacteria-induced electrical breakdown Accelerator a b s t r a c t An experimental program to elucidate the physical causes

  17. CBS | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuo FengBoulder, CO)Burundi: Energy ResourcesCACTUS Jump Home

  18. OpenEI Community - CBS

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth'sOklahoma/Geothermal < Oklahoma Jumpcommunity 2013 Civic Hacking Day

  19. Dynamics of local micro-breakdown in the Geiger mode of avalanche photodiodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verhovtseva, A. V., E-mail: alevteena@gmail.com; Gergel, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Russian Federation)], E-mail: gergel@mail.cplire.ru

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mathematical modeling methods were used to study the dynamics of micro-breakdown development in structures of silicon avalanche photodiodes. The constructed model considers the locality of the avalanchexs multiplication region appearing during single photon absorption and the delay of the avalanchexs current spreading over the rear electrode of the diode. The calculations showed two different phases of transient process of the formation of the electrical signal, i.e., the rapid and slow ones due to current spreading and ordinary RC recharge, respectively. The load resistances required to implement the pulsed mode of operation of the structures of the avalanche photodiode were calculated for a series of actual diode capacitances and spreading resistances of the rear electrode.

  20. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): a new spectrochemical technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radziemski, L.J.; Loree, T.R.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the breakdown spark from a focused laser beam to generate analytically useful emission spectra of minor constituents in air and other carrier gases. The medium was sampled directly. It was not necessary to reduce the sample to solution nor to introduce electrodes. The apparatus is particularly simple; a pulsed laser, spectrometer, and some method for time resolution. The latter is essential in laser-induced-breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) because of the strong early continuum. High temperatures in the spark result in vaporization of small particles, dissociation of molecules, and excitation of atomic and ionic spectra, including species which are normally difficult to detect. In one application, we have monitored beryllium in air at conventrations below 1 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, which is below 1 ppB (w/w). In another we have monitored chlorine and fluorine atoms in real time. LIBS has the potential for real-time direct sampling of contaminants in situ.

  1. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for specimen analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Akshaya; Yu-Yueh, Fang; Burgess, Shane C.; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus, a system and a method for detecting the presence or absence of trace elements in a biological sample using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. The trace elements are used to develop a signature profile which is analyzed directly or compared with the known profile of a standard. In one aspect of the invention, the apparatus, system and method are used to detect malignant cancer cells in vivo.

  2. Detecting excess ionizing radiation by electromagnetic breakdown of air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granatstein, Victor L.; Nusinovich, Gregory S. [Center for Applied Electromagnetics, Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A scheme is proposed for detecting a concealed source of ionizing radiation by observing the occurrence of breakdown in atmospheric air by an electromagnetic wave whose electric field surpasses the breakdown field in a limited volume. The volume is chosen to be smaller than the reciprocal of the naturally occurring concentration of free electrons. The pulse duration of the electromagnetic wave must exceed the avalanche breakdown time (10-200 ns) and could profitably be as long as the statistical lag time in ambient air (typically, microseconds). Candidate pulsed electromagnetic sources over a wavelength range, 3 mm>{lambda}>10.6 {mu}m, are evaluated. Suitable candidate sources are found to be a 670 GHz gyrotron oscillator with 200 kW, 10 {mu}s output pulses and a Transversely Excited Atmospheric-Pressure (TEA) CO{sub 2} laser with 30 MW, 100 ns output pulses. A system based on 670 GHz gyrotron would have superior sensitivity. A system based on the TEA CO{sub 2} laser could have a longer range >100 m.

  3. Femtosecond laser ablation of dielectric materials in the optical breakdown regime: Expansion of a transparent shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Lechuga, M.; Siegel, J., E-mail: j.siegel@io.cfmac.csic.es; Hernandez-Rueda, J.; Solis, J. [Laser Processing Group, Instituto de Optica, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase transition pathways of matter upon ablation with ultrashort laser pulses have been considered to be understood long-since for metals and semiconductors. We provide evidence that also certain dielectrics follow the same pathway, even at high pulse energies triggering optical breakdown. Employing femtosecond microscopy, we observe a characteristic ring pattern within the ablating region that dynamically changes for increasing time delays between pump and probe pulse. These transient Newton rings are related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front surface of the ablating layer with the reflection at the interface of the non-ablating substrate. Analysis of the ring structure shows that the ablation mechanism is initiated by a rarefaction wave leading within a few tens of picoseconds to the formation of a transparent thin shell of reduced density and refractive index, featuring optically sharp interfaces. The shell expands and eventually detaches from the solid material at delays of the order of 100 ps.

  4. Spatial confinement effects in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, X. K.; Sun, J.; Ling, H.; Lu, Y. F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States)

    2007-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial confinement effects in laser-induced breakdown of aluminum (Al) targets in air have been investigated both by optical emission spectroscopy and fast photography. A KrF excimer laser was used to produce plasmas from Al targets in air. Al atomic emission lines show an obvious enhancement in the emission intensity when a pair of Al-plate walls were placed to spatially confine the plasma plumes. Images of the Al plasma plumes showed that the plasma plumes evolved into a torus shape and were compressed in the Al walls. The mechanism for the confinement effects was discussed using shock wave theory.

  5. Electrical breakdown of a bubble in a water-filled capillary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruggeman, P.J.; Leys, C.A.; Vierendeels, J. A. [Department of Applied Physics, Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Rozier 44, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Flow, Heat and Combustion Mechanics, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Communication, the electrical breakdown of a static bubble in a water-filled capillary generated in a dc electrical field is studied. We present experimental results which indicate that the liquid layer between capillary and bubble wall can have an important influence on the breakdown mechanism of the bubble. The breakdown electrical field (atmospheric pressure) without a liquid layer in a (vapor) bubble is 18 kV/cm. When a liquid layer is present, the electrical breakdown of an air bubble is observed at electrical fields typically two times smaller. Local plasma formation is observed in this case possibly due to bubble deformation.

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - axisymmetric vortex breakdown Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the breakdown of vortex rings in the cycle following t 300T. Downstream... A straight tube with a smooth axisymmetric constriction is an idealised representation of a stenosed...

  7. Isotope effects and Born-Oppenheimer breakdown in excited singlet states of the lithium dimer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Isotope effects and Born-Oppenheimer breakdown in excited singlet states of the lithium dimer A of infrared electronic transitions involving the 1 1 g state of 7 Li2 has instigated an investigation of Born-Oppenheimer and the leading vibrational and/or rotational Born-Oppenheimer breakdown terms for the X 1 g , A 1 u , B 1 u

  8. Apparatus, system, and method for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Effenberger, Jr., Andrew J; Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), an apparatus includes a pulsed laser configured to generate a pulsed laser signal toward a sample, a constructive interference object and an optical element, each located in a path of light from the sample. The constructive interference object is configured to generate constructive interference patterns of the light. The optical element is configured to disperse the light. A LIBS system includes a first and a second optical element, and a data acquisition module. The data acquisition module is configured to determine an isotope measurement based, at least in part, on light received by an image sensor from the first and second optical elements. A method for performing LIBS includes generating a pulsed laser on a sample to generate light from a plasma, generating constructive interference patterns of the light, and dispersing the light into a plurality of wavelengths.

  9. Titanium monoxide spectroscopy following laser-induced optical breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parigger, Christian G.; Woods, Alexander C.; Keszler, Anna; Nemes, Laszlo; Hornkohl, James O. [The University of Tennessee/UT Space Institute, Center for Laser Applications, 411 B.H. Goethert Parkway, Tullahoma, TN 37388-9700 (United States); Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67, H-1025 Budapest (Hungary); Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Pusztaszeri ut 59-67, H-1025 Budapest (Hungary); Hornkohl Consulting, Tullahoma, TN 37388 (United States)

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work investigates Titanium Monoxide (TiO) in ablation-plasma by employing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with 1 to 10 TW/cm{sup 2} irradiance, pulsed, 13 nanosecond, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser radiation at the fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. The analysis of TiO is based on our first accurate determination of transition line strengths for selected TiO A-X, B-X, and E-X transitions, particularly TiO A-X {gamma} and B-X {gamma} Prime bands. Electric dipole line strengths for the A{sup 3}{Phi}-X{sup 3}{delta} and B{sup 3}{Pi}-X{sup 3}{delta} bands of TiO are computed. The molecular TiO spectra are observed subsequent to laser-induced breakdown (LIB). We discuss analysis of diatomic molecular spectra that may occur simultaneously with spectra originating from atomic species. Gated detection is applied to investigate the development in time of the emission spectra following LIB. Collected emission spectra allow one to infer micro-plasma parameters such as temperature and electron density. Insight into the state of the micro-plasma is gained by comparing measurements with predictions of atomic and molecular spectra. Nonlinear fitting of recorded and computed diatomic spectra provides the basis for molecular diagnostics, while atomic species may overlap and are simultaneously identified. Molecular diagnostic approaches similar to TiO have been performed for diatomic molecules such as AlO, C{sub 2}, CN, CH, N{sub 2}, NH, NO and OH.

  10. Optical emission in magnetically confined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, X. K.; Lu, Y. F.; Gebre, T.; Ling, H.; Han, Y. X. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States)

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetically confined laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was investigated by studying the optical emission from laser-induced plasma plumes expanding across an external transverse magnetic field. KrF excimer laser pulses with a pulse duration of 23 ns and a wavelength of 248 nm were used to produce plasmas from Al, Cu, and Co targets. Various optical emission lines obtained from Al and Cu targets show an obvious enhancement in the intensity of optical emission when a magnetic field of {approx}0.8 T is applied, while the optical emission lines from Co targets show a decrease in the optical emission intensity. The enhancement factors of optical emission lines were measured to be around 2 for the Al and Mn (impurity) lines from Al targets, and 6-8 for Cu lines from Cu targets. Temporal evolution of the optical emission lines from the Al samples shows a maximum enhancement in emission intensity at time delays of 8-20 {mu}s after the incident laser pulse, while from the Cu targets it shows a continuous enhancement at time delays of 3-20 {mu}s after the pulse. The enhancement in the optical emission from the Al and Cu plasmas was presumably due to the increase in the effective plasma density as a result of magnetic confinement. The decrease in the emission intensity from the Co plasmas was suggested to be due to the decrease of effective plasma density as a result of the magnetic force.

  11. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in industrial and security applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bol'shakov, Alexander A.; Yoo, Jong H.; Liu Chunyi; Plumer, John R.; Russo, Richard E.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers rapid, localized chemical analysis of solid or liquid materials with high spatial resolution in lateral and depth profiling, without the need for sample preparation. Principal component analysis and partial least squares algorithms were applied to identify a variety of complex organic and inorganic samples. This work illustrates how LIBS analyzers can answer a multitude of real-world needs for rapid analysis, such as determination of lead in paint and children's toys, analysis of electronic and solder materials, quality control of fiberglass panels, discrimination of coffee beans from different vendors, and identification of generic versus brand-name drugs. Lateral and depth profiling was performed on children's toys and paint layers. Traditional one-element calibration or multivariate chemometric procedures were applied for elemental quantification, from single laser shot determination of metal traces at {approx}10 {mu}g/g to determination of halogens at 90 {mu}g/g using 50-shot spectral accumulation. The effectiveness of LIBS for security applications was demonstrated in the field by testing the 50-m standoff LIBS rasterizing detector.

  12. Elemental analysis of cotton by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenk, Emily R.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the elemental characterization of unprocessed cotton. This research is important in forensic and fraud detection applications to establish an elemental fingerprint of U.S. cotton by region, which can be used to determine the source of the cotton. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a LIBS method for the elemental analysis of cotton. The experimental setup consists of a Nd:YAG laser that operates at the fundamental wavelength as the LIBS excitation source and an echelle spectrometer equipped with an intensified CCD camera. The relative concentrations of elements Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, and Sr from both nutrients and environmental contributions were determined by LIBS. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the differences between cotton samples based on the elemental composition by region in the U.S. Linear discriminant analysis of the LIBS data resulted in the correct classification of >97% of the cotton samples by U.S. region and >81% correct classification by state of origin.

  13. Experiment for measurements of the gas breakdown statistics by ramp voltage pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markovic, V. Lj.; Stamenkovic, S. N.; Gocic, S. R.; Petrovic, Z. Lj. [Department of Physics, University of Nis, P.O. Box 224, 18001 Nis (Serbia and Montenegro); Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 68, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the first part of this article the electronic automatic system for the measurements of dynamic breakdown voltages U{sub b} with linearly rising (ramp) pulses is presented. It generates the sequence of ramp pulses with subvoltage level U{sub sub}{approx_equal}0 during the relaxation time {tau} of the tube, and the ramp pulses start from the static breakdown voltage U{sub s}, thus enabling the correct study of electrical breakdowns and relaxation in gases. In the second part the measurements in argon with and without a voltage during the off period of the pulse are analyzed. The influence of the subvoltage on the mean value of the breakdown voltage U{sub b} as a function of the rise rate k, on the statistical U{sub b} distributions and on the afterglow kinetics is also discussed.

  14. Collision and diffusion in microwave breakdown of nitrogen gas in and around microgaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J. D.; Lenters, G. T. [Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI 49401 (United States)] [Grand Valley State University, Allendale, MI 49401 (United States); Bowman, A.; Remillard, S. K., E-mail: remillard@hope.edu [Hope College, Holland, MI 49423 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The microwave induced breakdown of N{sub 2} gas in microgaps was modeled using the collision frequency between electrons and neutral molecules and the effective electric field concept. Low pressure breakdown at the threshold electric field occurs outside the gap, but at high pressures it is found to occur inside the microgap with a large threshold breakdown electric field corresponding to a very large electron oscillation amplitude. Three distinct pressure regimes are apparent in the microgap breakdown: a low pressure multipactor branch, a mid-pressure Paschen branch, both of which occur in the space outside the microgap, and a high pressure diffusion-drift branch, which occurs inside the microgap. The Paschen and diffusion-drift branches are divided by a sharp transition and each separately fits the collision frequency model. There is evidence that considerable electron loss to the microgap faces accompanies the diffusion-drift branch in microgaps.

  15. Charge transport and breakdown physics in liquid/solid insulation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jadidian, Jouya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid dielectrics provide superior electrical breakdown strength and heat transfer capability, especially when used in combination with liquid-immersed solid dielectrics. Over the past half-century, there has been extensive ...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - atria phosphatidylinositol breakdown Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    breakdown Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ISSN: 1524-4539 Copyright 2010 American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Print ISSN: 0009-7322. Online Summary: ,25 presented...

  17. Elucidating the mechanisms behind pre-breakdown phenomena in transformer oil systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Jae-Won George, 1980-

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The widespread use of dielectric liquids for high voltage insulation and power apparatus cooling is due to their greater electrical breakdown strength and thermal conductivity than gaseous insulators. In addition, their ...

  18. Analysis of low-pressure dc breakdown in nitrogen between two spherical iron electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pejovic, Momcilo M.; Nesic, Nikola T.; Pejovic, Milic M. [Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of Nis, P.O. Box 73, 18001 (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of afterglow period {tau}, voltage increase rate k, and electrode gap d on breakdown voltage U{sub b} for a nitrogen-filled tube with spherical electrodes of diameter D>>d and p=6.5 mbar has been investigated. The data for the breakdown voltage were obtained for the case when there is a presence of N({sup 4}S) atoms, which release secondary electrons via recombination on the cathode. By fitting the experimental data of breakdown voltage mean values as a function of the voltage increase rate, the static breakdown voltages for afterglow periods of 15 and 100 s were estimated. The electrical field as a function of the electrode gap using breakdown voltage mean values was also determined. It is shown that experimental results of the breakdown voltage mean value as a function of pd in the interval of d from 0.82 to 1.62 mm can be very well described with Paschen's law, valid for the case of parallel-plate electrodes.

  19. Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buechele, A.C.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

  20. Schlieren Visualization Technique Applied to the Study of Laser-Induced Breakdown in Low Density Hypersonic Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira, A. C. [Laboratorio Associado de Combustao e Propulsao INPE, Caixa Postal 01 12630-000 Cachoeira Paulista, SP. (Brazil); Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, IEAv-CTA, Sao Jose dos Campos - SP 12228-840 (Brazil); Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Chanes, J. B. Jr [Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, IEAv-CTA, Sao Jose dos Campos - SP 12228-840 (Brazil); Salvador, I. I. [Laboratorio Associado de Combustao e Propulsao INPE, Caixa Postal 01 12630-000 Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil); Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, H. T. [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), Troy, NY (United States)

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results on the visualization of the time evolution of the laser-plasma induced breakdown produced in low density hypersonic flow using the Schlieren technique are presented. The plasma was generated by focusing the high power laser pulse of a CO2 TEA laser in the test section of the IEAv 0.3m Hypersonic Shock Tunnel. An ultra-high speed electronic tube camera was used to register the event. The photographs reveal the expansion of the shock wave produced by the laser generated hot plasma and the convection of the plasma kernel by the hypersonic flow. It is also observed the interaction between the plasma disturbed region and the shock established by the flow around an hemisphere-cylinder model. A strong change in the shock wave structure near the model was observed, corroborating the DEAS concept.

  1. Statistical analysis of the electrical breakdown time delay distributions in krypton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maluckov, Cedomir A.; Karamarkovic, Jugoslav P.; Radovic, Miodrag K.; Pejovic, Momcilo M. [Technical Faculty in Bor, University of Belgrade, Vojske Jugoslavije 24, 19210 Bor (Serbia and Montenegro); Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis, Beogradska 14, 18000 Nis (Serbia and Montenegro); Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, University of Nis, P.O. Box 224, 18001 Nis (Serbia and Montenegro); Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of Nis, P.O. Box 73, 18001 Nis (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The statistical analysis of the experimentally observed electrical breakdown time delay distributions in the krypton-filled diode tube at 2.6 mbar is presented. The experimental distributions are obtained on the basis of 1000 successive and independent measurements. The theoretical electrical breakdown time delay distribution is evaluated as the convolution of the statistical time delay with exponential, and discharge formative time with Gaussian distribution. The distribution parameters are estimated by the stochastic modelling of the time delay distributions, and by comparing them with the experimental distributions for different relaxation times, voltages, and intensities of UV radiation. The transition of distribution shapes, from Gaussian-type to the exponential-like, is investigated by calculating the corresponding skewness and excess kurtosis parameters. It is shown that the mathematical model based on the convolution of two random variable distributions describes experimentally obtained time delay distributions and the separation of the total breakdown time delay to the statistical and formative time delay.

  2. The quantum mechanics of ion-enhanced field emission and how it influences microscale gas breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yingjie [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Go, David B., E-mail: dgo@nd.edu [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of a positive gas ion can enhance cold electron field emission by deforming the potential barrier and increasing the tunneling probability of electronsa process known as ion-enhanced field emission. In microscale gas discharges, ion-enhanced field emission produces additional emission from the cathode and effectively reduces the voltage required to breakdown a gaseous medium at the microscale (<10??m). In this work, we enhance classic field emission theory by determining the impact of a gaseous ion on electron tunneling and compute the effect of ion-enhanced field emission on the breakdown voltage. We reveal that the current density for ion-enhanced field emission retains the same scaling as vacuum cold field emission and that this leads to deviations from traditional breakdown theory at microscale dimensions.

  3. The effects of a jet on vortex breakdown over a sharp leading-edge delta wing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maynard, Ian Kenneth

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECTS OF A JET ON VORTEX BREAKDOWN OVER A SHARP LEADING-EDGE DELTA WING A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985... Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering THE EFFECTS OF A JET ON VORTEX BREAKDOWN OVER A SHARP LEADING-EDGE DELTA WING A Thesis by IAN KENNETH MAYNARD Approved as to style and content by: Cyrus Ostowar (Chairman of Committee) Stan J Miley (M er...

  4. Time-dependent dielectric breakdown measurements of porous organosilicate glass using mercury and solid metal probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, Dongfei; Nichols, Michael T.; Shohet, J. Leon, E-mail: shohet@engr.wisc.edu [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); King, Sean W.; Clarke, James S. [Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Nishi, Yoshio [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) is one of the major concerns for low-k dielectric materials. During plasma processing, low-k dielectrics are subjected to vacuum ultraviolet photon radiation and charged-particle bombardment. To examine the change of TDDB properties, time-to-breakdown measurements are made to porous SiCOH before and after plasma exposure. Significant discrepancies between mercury and solid-metal probes are observed and have been shown to be attributed to mercury diffusion into the dielectric porosities.

  5. Vlgerliste Rapport: cbs_vaelgere_valg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Repræsentationsområde Business and Social Sciences Business and Social Sciences Business and Social Sciences Business and Social Sciences Business and Social Sciences Business and Social Sciences Business and Social Sciences Business and Social Sciences Business and Social Sciences Business and Social Sciences Masterstuderende

  6. Dielectric breakdown model for conductor-loaded and insulator-loaded composite materials P. Bergero,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peruani, Fernando

    Dielectric breakdown model for conductor-loaded and insulator-loaded composite materials P. Bergero strength is highly desirable, and in the past years composite materials such as resin matrix filled- tors, and composites containing carbon black and titanium dioxide have recently been tested

  7. Wiedenhfer et al. Inter-Organizational Crisis Management Infrastructure for Electrical Power Breakdowns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .pipek}@uni-siegen.de ABSTRACT Major electricity breakdowns like the Northeast Blackout (USA) in 2003 or the blackout in most on electricity, as was the case in 2003 in the Northeast Blackout, USA, or 2005 in Western Europe (Lorenz, 2010Wiedenhöfer et al. Inter-Organizational Crisis Management Infrastructure for Electrical Power

  8. The onset of optical breakdown in KrF-laser-irradiated silica glass surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickinson, J. Thomas

    A synthetic fused silica obtained from Tosoh SGM Co., ESL-1000 (OH % 1200 wt. ppm), with a thick- ness of 2 mmThe onset of optical breakdown in KrF-laser-irradiated silica glass surfaces Y. Kawaguchia,* , A Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba Central 5, 1

  9. Breakdown of 2mm symmetry in electron diffraction from multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    Breakdown of 2mm symmetry in electron diffraction from multiwalled carbon nanotubes Zejian Liu of single-walled carbon nanotubes always have 2mm symmetry regardless if the nanotubes them- selves have such symmetry. We here show that, for the case of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, the 2mm symmetry can break down

  10. Logarithmic Fermi-liquid breakdown in NbFe2 M. Brando,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    temperature dependence of the Sommerfeld coefficient = C/T of the specific heat capacity, C, over nearly two temperature dependences of the resistivity and of the heat capacity over extended ranges in temperatureLogarithmic Fermi-liquid breakdown in NbFe2 M. Brando,1, W. J. Duncan,1 D. Moroni-Klementowicz,1 C

  11. Improving Device-level Electricity Consumption Breakdowns in Private Households Using ON/OFF Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    recommen- dations on how to reduce the overall energy consumption of the household. In this paper, we build Descriptors H.4 [Information Systems Applications]: Miscellaneous 1. INTRODUCTION The energy sectorImproving Device-level Electricity Consumption Breakdowns in Private Households Using ON/OFF Events

  12. PART I. THERMAL BREAKDOWN CHARACTERISTICS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE COMPONENTS IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Engineering Columbia University in the City of New York - 3 - waste is an area of deep concern both within and Environmental Engineering Columbia University in the City of New York - 2 - Thermal Breakdown Characteristics to the increasing use of and investment in waste- to-energy technologies in Asia, these two realms of knowledge

  13. Accurate Analytic Potential and Born-Oppenheimer Breakdown Functions for MgH and MgD from a Direct-Potential-Fit Data Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Accurate Analytic Potential and Born-Oppenheimer Breakdown Functions for MgH and MgD from a Direct-potential-fit analysis to yield improved analytic potential energy and Born-Oppenheimer breakdown functions allowed us also to determine the adiabatic Born- Oppenheimer breakdown effects in this molecule

  14. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Single-Cell Standing Wave Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolgashev, Valery; /SLAC; Tantawi, Sami; /SLAC; Yeremian, Anahid; /SLAC; Higashi, Yasuo; /KEK, Tsukuba; Spataro, Bruno; /INFN, Rome

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Our experiments are directed toward the understanding of the physics of rf breakdown in systems that can be used to accelerate electron beams at {approx}11.4 GHz. The structure geometries have apertures, stored energy per cell, and rf pulse duration close to that of the NLC or CLIC. The breakdown rate is the main parameter that we use to compare rf breakdown behavior for different structures at a given set of rf pulse parameters (pulse shape and peak power) at 60 Hz repetition rate. In our experiments, the typical range of the breakdown rate is from one per few hours to {approx}100 per hour. To date we have tested 29 structures. We consistently found that after the initial conditioning, the behavior of the breakdown rate is reproducible for structures of the same geometry and material, and the breakdown rate dependence on peak magnetic fields is stronger than on peak surface electric fields for structures of different geometries. Below we report the main results from tests of seven structures made from hard copper, soft copper alloys and hard-copper alloys. Additional details on these and other structures will be discussed in future publications.

  15. Towards a Work Breakdown Structure for Net Centric System of Systems Engineering and Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Dr. Gan

    2006-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    As the system engineering industry sees an increasing focus on the lifecycle development, acquisition, and sustainment of net-centric Systems of Systems (SoS), organizations find that current processes and tools need to ...

  16. Breakdown of universality in transitions to spatio-temporal chaos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomas Bohr; Martin van Hecke; Rene' Mikkelsen; Mads Ipsen

    2001-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter we show that the transition from laminar to active behavior in extended chaotic systems can vary from a continuous transition in the universality class of Directed Percolation with infinitely many absorbing states to what appears as a first order transition. The latter occurs when {\\em finite} lifetime non-chaotic structures, called ``solitons'', dominate the dynamics. We illustrate this scenario in an extension of the deterministic Chat\\'e--Manneville coupled map lattice model and in a soliton including variant of the stochastic Domany-Kinzel cellular automaton.

  17. Evidence of Magnetic Breakdown on the Defects With Thermally Suppressed Critical Field in High Gradient SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eremeev, Grigory [JLAB; Palczewski, Ari [JLAB

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At SRF 2011 we presented the study of quenches in high gradient SRF cavities with dual mode excitation technique. The data differed from measurements done in 80's that indicated thermal breakdown nature of quenches in SRF cavities. In this contribution we present analysis of the data that indicates that our recent data for high gradient quenches is consistent with the magnetic breakdown on the defects with thermally suppressed critical field. From the parametric fits derived within the model we estimate the critical breakdown fields.

  18. Detection of chlorine with concentration of 0.18 kg/m{sup 3} in concrete by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugiyama, K.; Fujii, T.; Matsumura, T.; Shiogama, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Nemoto, K.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chlorine concentration in concrete samples was measured by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). One or two pulsed second harmonic Nd:YAG lasers ({lambda}=532 nm) were used for the generation of laser-induced breakdown, and an intensified CCD camera, spectrometer, and optical bundle fiber were used for spectral measurement. To maximize the spectral intensity of the chlorine fluorescence line at a wavelength of 837.59 nm, the time delay between laser irradiation and spectral measurement, the time delay between the two laser pulses in double-pulse measurement, and the gate width of the spectral measurement were optimized. The linear relationship between the spectral intensity of the chlorine fluorescence line and the chlorine concentration was verified for pressed samples with chlorine concentrations from 0.18 to 5.4 kg/m{sup 3}. The signal-to-noise ratio was higher than 2 for the sample with a chlorine concentration of 0.18 kg/m{sup 3} (0.008 wt. %). Thus, a chlorine concentration of 0.6 kg/m{sup 3}, at which the reinforcing bars in concrete structures start to corrode, can be detected. These results show that LIBS is effective for the quantitative measurement of chlorine concentration in concrete with high sensitivity.

  19. Study of relaxation kinetics in argon afterglow by the breakdown time delay measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markovic, V.Lj.; Gocic, S.R.; Stamenkovic, S.N.; Petrovic, Z.Lj. [Department of Physics, University of Nis, P.O. BOX 224, 18001 Nis (Serbia and Montenegro); Institute of Physics, P.O. BOX 68, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the afterglow kinetics in argon is studied by the breakdown time delay measurements as a function of relaxation time t{sub d}({tau}) ('memory curve'). Measurements were carried out at the pressure of 1.33 mbar in a gas tube with gold-plated copper cathode and approximate and exact numerical models are developed to follow metastable and charged particle decay. It was found that the early afterglow kinetics is governed by the charged particle decay up to hundreds of milliseconds, extending from ambipolar to the free diffusion limit. Quenching processes reduce the effective lifetime of metastable states several orders of magnitude below that relevant for the time scale of the observations if realistic abundances and processes are included in the model. Nitrogen atoms originating from impurities and recombining on the cathode surface can determine the breakdown time delay down to that defined by the level of cosmic rays and natural radioactivity.

  20. An approach to predict tarmat breakdown in Minagish Reservoir in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osman, M.E.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minagish Oolite reservoir, Minagish Field in Kuwait is characterized by tarmat presence at the oil-water contact. A water flooding project is planned for the reservoir. This paper discusses the possibility of tarmat break-down upon water injection below it. It was found that differential pressure at tarmat would be mainly due to water injection and that differential pressure due to oil production would be negligible. This paper suggests a technique to predict tarmat break-down time, response time at the nearest producer or observation well and the time at which water injection should be switched from below tarmat to above it. Also, the technique could be used to predict the differential pressure at tarmat anywhere in the reservoir.

  1. Electroneutrality Breakdown and Specific Ion Effects in Nanoconfined Aqueous Electrolytes Observed by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Zhi-Xiang; Ling, Yan-Chun; Kleinhammes, Alfred; Wu, Yue

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion distribution in aqueous electrolytes near the interface plays critical roles in electrochemical, biological and colloidal systems and is expected to be particularly significant inside nanoconfined regions. Electroneutrality of the total charge inside nanoconfined regions is commonly assumed a priori in solving ion distribution of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined by uncharged hydrophobic surfaces with no direct experimental validation. Here, we use a quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance approach to investigate the properties of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined in graphitic-like nanoporous carbon. Substantial electroneutrality breakdown in nanoconfined regions and very asymmetric responses of cations and anions to the charging of nanoconfining surfaces are observed. The electroneutrality breakdown is shown to depend strongly on the propensity of anions toward the water-carbon interface and such ion-specific response follows generally the anion ranking of the Hofmeister series. The experimental observat...

  2. Electroneutrality Breakdown and Specific Ion Effects in Nanoconfined Aqueous Electrolytes Observed by NMR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhi-Xiang Luo; Yun-Zhao Xing; Yan-Chun Ling; Alfred Kleinhammes; Yue Wu

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion distribution in aqueous electrolytes near the interface plays critical roles in electrochemical, biological and colloidal systems and is expected to be particularly significant inside nanoconfined regions. Electroneutrality of the total charge inside nanoconfined regions is commonly assumed a priori in solving ion distribution of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined by uncharged hydrophobic surfaces with no direct experimental validation. Here, we use a quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance approach to investigate the properties of aqueous electrolytes nanoconfined in graphitic-like nanoporous carbon. Substantial electroneutrality breakdown in nanoconfined regions and very asymmetric responses of cations and anions to the charging of nanoconfining surfaces are observed. The electroneutrality breakdown is shown to depend strongly on the propensity of anions toward the water-carbon interface and such ion-specific response follows generally the anion ranking of the Hofmeister series. The experimental observations are further supported by numerical evaluation using the generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation

  3. Extension of thickness-dependent dielectric breakdown law on adiabatically compressed ferroelectric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkuratov, Sergey I. [Loki Incorporated, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States)] [Loki Incorporated, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Baird, Jason [Loki Incorporated, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States) [Loki Incorporated, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409-0450 (United States); Talantsev, Evgueni F. [Pulsed Power LLC, Lubbock, Texas 79416 (United States)] [Pulsed Power LLC, Lubbock, Texas 79416 (United States)

    2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    It is experimentally found that the E{sub b}(d) = {gamma} {center_dot} d{sup -{xi}} law describing the thickness-dependent breakdown electric field for solid dielectrics at ambient conditions can be extended for dielectrics in other thermodynamic states. It follows from the experimental results reported herein that the breakdown field, E{sub b}(d), of Pb(Zr{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05})O{sub 3} (PZT 95/5) and Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT 52/48) ferroelectrics subjected to explosive adiabatic compression obeys the above-mentioned law in a wide range of voltages, up to 150 kV.

  4. Dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF{sub 6}/He mixtures predicted from basic data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weizong [Qian Xuesen Laboratory of Space Technology, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100094 (China) [Qian Xuesen Laboratory of Space Technology, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100094 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi 710049 (China); Tu, Xin; Mei, Danhua [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Rong, Mingzhe [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi 710049 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) gas has a quite high global warming potential and hence it is required that applying any substitute for SF{sub 6} gas. Much interest in the use of a mixture of helium and SF{sub 6} as arc quenching medium was investigated indicating a higher recovery performance of arc interruption than that of pure SF{sub 6}. It is known that the electrical breakdown in a circuit breaker after arc interruption occurs in a hot gas environment, with a complicated species composition because of the occurrence of dissociation and other reactions. The likelihood of breakdown relies on the electron interactions with all these species. The critical reduced electric field strength (the field at which breakdown can occur, relative to the number density) of hot SF{sub 6}/He mixtures related to the dielectric recovery phase of a high voltage circuit breaker is calculated in the temperature range from 300 K to 3500 K. The critically reduced electric field strength of these mixtures was obtained by balancing electron generation and loss mechanisms. These were evaluated using the electron energy distribution function derived from the Boltzmann transport equation under the two-term approximation. Good agreement was found between calculations for pure hot SF{sub 6} and pure hot He and experimental results and previous calculations. The addition of He to SF{sub 6} was found to decrease the critical reduced electric field strength in the whole temperature range due to a lack of electron impact attachment process for helium regardless its high ionization potential. This indicates that not the behaviour of dielectric strength but possibly the higher energy dissipation capability caused mainly by light mass and high specific heat as well as thermal conductivity of atomic helium contributes most to a higher dielectric recovery performance of arc interruption for SF{sub 6}/He mixtures.

  5. Plasma confinement by hemispherical cavity in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, L. B.; Li, C. M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States); School of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Hu, W.; Zhou, Y. S.; Zhang, B. Y.; Lu, Y. F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States); Cai, Z. X.; Zeng, X. Y. [School of Optoelectronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An aluminum hemispherical cavity (diameter: 11.1 mm) was used to confine plasmas produced by a KrF excimer laser in air from a steel target with a low concentration manganese in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. A significant enhancement (factor >12) in the emission intensity of Mn lines was observed at a laser fluence of 7.8 J/cm{sup 2} when the plasma was confined by the hemispherical cavity, leading to an increase in plasma temperature about 3600 K. The maximum emission enhancement increased with increasing laser fluence. The spatial confinement mechanism was discussed using shock wave theory.

  6. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial boilers and furnaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, Peter M. (University of Alabama at Birmingham and Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL); Shaddix, Christopher R.; Sickafoose, Shane M.; Blevins, Linda Gail

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied (1) near the superheater of an electric power generation boiler burning biomass, coat, or both, (2) at the exit of a glass-melting furnace burning natural gas and oxygen, and (3) near the nose arches of two paper mill recovery boilers burning black liquor. Difficulties associated with the high temperatures and high particle loadings in these environments were surmounted by use of novel LIBS probes. Echelle and linear spectrometers coupled to intensified CCD cameras were used individually and sometimes simultaneously. Elements detected include Na, K, Ca, Mg, C, B, Si, Mn, Al, Fe, Rb, Cl, and Ti.

  7. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for real time and online elemental analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rai, V N; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, J P

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a laser based diagnostics used to study atomic emission from the expanding plasma plume formed during the laser-matter interaction. It provides valuable information about the composition of the target material. LIBS has proved its potential application in the analysis of impurities, pollutants and toxic elements in various types of matrices of different samples (solid, liquid and gases), even those present under difficult and harsh environmental conditions. This article reviews some recent developments in the field, and its wide application in various fields of research and analysis.

  8. Effect of high solenoidal magnetic fields on breakdown voltages of high vacuum 805 MHz cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moretti, A.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Qian, Z.; /Fermilab; Norem, J.; /Argonne; Li, D.; Zisman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley; Torun, Y.; /IIT, Chicago; Rimmer, R.; /Jefferson Lab; Errede,; /Illinois U., Urbana

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is an on going international collaboration studying the feasibility and cost of building a muon collider or neutrino factory [1,2]. An important aspect of this study is the full understanding of ionization cooling of muons by many orders of magnitude for the collider case. An important muon ionization cooling experiment, MICE [3], has been proposed to demonstrate and validate the technology that could be used for cooling. Ionization cooling is accomplished by passing a high-emittance muon beam alternately through regions of low Z material, such as liquid hydrogen, and very high accelerating RF Cavities within a multi-Tesla solenoidal field. To determine the effect of very large solenoidal magnetic fields on the generation of dark current, x-rays and on the breakdown voltage gradients of vacuum RF cavities, a test facility has been established at Fermilab in Lab G. This facility consists of a 12 MW 805 MHz RF station and a large warm bore 5 T solenoidal superconducting magnet containing a pill box type cavity with thin removable window apertures. This system allows dark current and breakdown studies of different window configurations and materials. The results of this study will be presented. The study has shown that the peak achievable accelerating gradient is reduced by a factor greater than 2 when solenoidal field of greater than 2 T are applied to the cavity.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF BREAKDOWN INDUCED SURFACE DAMAGE ON 805 MHZ PILLBOX CAVITY INTERIOR SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jana, M.R.; Chung, M.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Tollestrup,A.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.; Torun, Y.; Bowring, D.; Flanagan, G.

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The MuCool Test Area (MTA) at Fermilab is a facility to develop the technology required for ionization cooling for a future Muon Collider and/or Neutrino Factory. As part of this research program, we have tested two 805 MHz vacuum RF cavities in a multi-Tesla magnetic field to study the effects of the static magnetic field on the cavity operation. This study gives useful information on field emitters in the cavity, dark current, surface conditioning, breakdown mechanisms and material properties of the cavity. All these factors determine the maximum accelerating gradient in the cavity. This paper discusses the image processing technique for quantitative estimation of spark damage spot distribution on cavity interior surfaces. The distribution is compared with the electric field distribution predicted by a computer code calculation. The local spark density is proportional to probability of surface breakdown and shows a power law dependence on the maximum electric field (E). This E dependence is consistent with the dark current calculated from the Fowler-Nordheim equation.

  10. Pre-breakdown cavitation development in the dielectric fluid in the inhomogeneous, pulsed electric fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikhail N. Shneider; Mikhail Pekker

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the development of pre-breakdown cavitation nanopores appearing in the dielectric fluid under the influence of the electrostrictive stresses in the inhomogeneous pulsed electric field. It is shown that three characteristic regions can be distinguished near the needle electrode. In the first region, where the electric field gradient is greatest, the cavitation nanopores, occurring during the voltage nanosecond pulse, may grow to the size at which an electron accelerated by the field inside the pores can acquire enough energy for excitation and ionization of the liquid on the opposite pore wall, i.e., the breakdown conditions are satisfied. In the second region, the negative pressure caused by the electrostriction is large enough for the cavitation initiation (which can be registered by optical methods), but, during the voltage pulse, the pores do not reach the size at which the potential difference across their borders becomes sufficient for ionization or excitation of water molecules. And, in the third, the development of cavitation is impossible, due to an insufficient level of the negative pressure: in this area, the spontaneously occurring micropores do not grow and collapse under the influence of surface tension forces. This paper discusses the expansion dynamics of the cavitation pores and their most probable shape.

  11. A Beale-Kato-Majda breakdown criterion for an Oldroyd-B fluid in the creeping flow regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raz Kupferman; Claude Mangoubi; Edriss S. Titi

    2007-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a criterion for the breakdown of solutions to the Oldroyd-B model in $\\R^3$ in the limit of zero Reynolds number (creeping flow). If the initial stress field is in the Sobolev space $H^m$, $m> 5/2$, then either a unique solution exists within this space indefinitely, or, at the time where the solution breaks down, the time integral of the $L^\\infty$-norm of the stress tensor must diverge. This result is analogous to the celebrated Beale-Kato-Majda breakdown criterion for the inviscid Eluer equations of incompressible fluids.

  12. Grain-scale thermoelastic stresses and spatiotemporal temperature gradients on airless bodies, implications for rock breakdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molaro, Jamie L; Langer, Steve A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermomechanical processes such as fatigue and shock have been suggested to cause and contribute to rock breakdown on Earth, and on other planetary bodies, particularly airless bodies in the inner solar system. In this study, we modeled grain-scale stresses induced by diurnal temperature variations on simple microstructures made of pyroxene and plagioclase on various solar system bodies. We found that a heterogeneous microstructure on the Moon experiences peak tensile stresses on the order of 100 MPa. The stresses induced are controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the mineral constituents, and the average stress within the microstructure is determined by relative volume of each mineral. Amplification of stresses occurs at surface-parallel boundaries between adjacent mineral grains and at the tips of pore spaces. We also found that microscopic spatial and temporal surface temperature gradients do not correlate with high stresses, making them inappropriate proxies for investig...

  13. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with laser irradiation resonant with vibrational transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatrian, Ani; Dagdigian, Paul J.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of polymers, both in bulk form and spin coated on Si wafers, with laser irradiation in the mid-infrared spectral region is presented. Of particular interest is whether the LIBS signals are enhanced when the laser wavelength is resonant with a fundamental vibrational transition of the polymer. Significant increases in the LIBS signals were observed for irradiation on hydride stretch fundamental transitions, and the magnitude of the enhancement showed a strong dependence on the mode excited. The role of the substrate was investigated by comparison of results for bulk and spin-coated samples. The polymers investigated were Nylon 12 and poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene).

  14. Fiber optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensor for molten material analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hansheng; Rai, Awadesh K.; Singh, Jagdish P.; Yueh, Fang-Yu

    2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) sensor, including a laser light source, a harmonic separator for directing the laser light, a dichroic mirror for reflecting the laser light, a coupling lens for coupling the laser light at an input of a multimode optical fiber, a connector for coupling the laser light from an output of the multimode optical fiber to an input of a high temperature holder, such as a holder made of stainless steel, and a detector portion for receiving emission signal and analyzing LIBS intensities. In one variation, the multimode optical fiber has silica core and silica cladding. The holder includes optical lenses for collimating and focusing the laser light in a molten alloy to produce a plasma, and for collecting and transmitting an emission signal to the multimode optical fiber.

  15. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement in methane and biodiesel flames using an ungated detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eseller, Kemal E.; Yueh, Fang Y.; Singh, Jagdish P

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to measure the equivalence ratio of CH4/air flames using gated detection. In this work, we have developed an ungated, miniature LIBS-based sensor for studying CH4/air and biodiesel flames. We have used this sensor to characterize the biodiesel flame. LIBS spectra of biodiesel flames were recorded with different ethanol concentrations in the biodiesel and also at different axial locations within the flame. The sensor performance was evaluated with a CH4/air flame. LIBS signals of N, O, and H from a CH4/air flame were used to determine the equivalence ratio. A linear relationship between the intensity ratio of H and O lines and the calculated equivalence ratio were obtained with this sensor.

  16. Breakdown of the equivalence between gravitational mass and energy for a composite quantum body

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei G. Lebed

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The simplest quantum composite body, a hydrogen atom, is considered in the presence of a weak external gravitational field. We define an operator for the passive gravitational mass of the atom in the post-Newtonian approximation of the general relativity and show that it does not commute with its energy operator. Nevertheless, the equivalence between the expectation values of the mass and energy is shown to survive at a macroscopic level for stationary quantum states. Breakdown of the equivalence between passive gravitational mass and energy at a microscopic level for stationary quantum states can be experimentally detected by studying unusual electromagnetic radiation, emitted by the atoms, supported by and moving in the Earth's gravitational field with constant velocity, using spacecraft or satellite

  17. Dead-Space Theory Predictions of Excess-Noise Factor, Breakdown Voltage, and Frequency Response for Thin Avalanche Photodiodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teich, Malvin C.

    for Thin Avalanche Photodiodes Majeed M. Hayat°", Mohammad A. Sa1eh', Ohhyun Kwonc, Bahaa E. A. Sale width. Keywords: Avalanche photodiode, dead space, impact ionization, excess noise factor, avalanche breakdown down, frequency response. 1 Introduction It is well known that for avalanche photodiodes (APDs

  18. 670 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 33, NO. 5, MAY 2012 Breakdown-Voltage-Enhancement Technique for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Wai Tung

    670 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 33, NO. 5, MAY 2012 Breakdown-Voltage-Enhancement Technique (FP), GaN power devices, leakage current. I. INTRODUCTION AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China. E. Xu, J. Lee, N

  19. Towards a better understanding of dielectric barrier discharges in ferroelectrets: Paschen breakdown fields in micrometer sized voids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Scott, E-mail: harri4s@cmich.edu [Department of Physics and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859 (United States); Applied Condensed-Matter Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Mellinger, Axel, E-mail: axel.mellinger@cmich.edu [Department of Physics and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan 48859 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Charged cellular polypropylene foams (i.e., ferro- or piezoelectrets) demonstrate high piezoelectric activity upon being electrically charged. When an external electric field is applied, dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) occur, resulting in a separation of charges which are subsequently deposited on dielectric surfaces of internal micrometer sized voids. This deposited space charge is responsible for the piezoelectric activity of the material. Previous studies have indicated charging fields larger than predicted by Townsend's model of Paschen breakdown applied to a multilayered electromechanical model; a discrepancy which prompted the present study. The actual breakdown fields for micrometer sized voids were determined by constructing single cell voids using polypropylene spacers with heights ranging from 8 to 75??m, sandwiched between two polypropylene dielectric barriers and glass slides with semi-transparent electrodes. Subsequently, a bipolar triangular charging waveform with a peak voltage of 6?kV was applied to the samples. The breakdown fields were determined by monitoring the emission of light due to the onset of DBDs using an electron multiplying CCD camera. The breakdown fields at absolute pressures from 101 to 251?kPa were found to be in good agreement with the standard Paschen curves. Additionally, the magnitude of the light emission was found to scale linearly with the amount of gas, i.e., the height of the voids. Emissions were homogeneous over the observed regions of the voids for voids with heights of 25??m or less and increasingly inhomogeneous for void heights greater than 40??m at high electric fields.

  20. Electrical and Sensing Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Network: Effect of Alignment and Selective Breakdown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Full Paper Electrical and Sensing Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Network: Effect The electrical transport and NH3 sensing properties of randomly oriented and aligned SWNT networks were presented. Gated electrical breakdown was implemented to selectively remove metallic (m-) SWNTs, thereby reducing

  1. Electron-ion relaxation time dependent signal enhancement in ultrafast double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Electron-ion relaxation time dependent signal enhancement in ultrafast double-pulse laser of collinear double-pulse compared to single-pulse ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Our results showed that the significant signal enhancement noticed in the double pulse scheme is strongly correlated

  2. The role of boundary conditions in a simple model of incipient vortex breakdown F. Gallaire and J.-M. Chomaz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . In the labora- tory, it is preferentially studied in vortex tubes, where it is seen in many cases to give riseThe role of boundary conditions in a simple model of incipient vortex breakdown F. Gallaire and J of a hairpin vortex in a shear-thinning fluid governed by a power-law model Phys. Fluids 25, 101703 (2013); 10

  3. 518 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 33, NO. 2, APRIL 2005 Plasma Dynamics During Breakdown in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    , lamp, modeling, plasma. METAL halide arc lamps are widely used sources of in- door and large area plasma hydrodynamics model was used to investigate breakdown in metal halide lamp. Images depicting518 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 33, NO. 2, APRIL 2005 Plasma Dynamics During

  4. Metastable and charged particle decay in neon afterglow studied by the breakdown time delay measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markovic, V. Lj.; Gocic, S. R.; Stamenkovic, S. N.; Petrovic, Z. Lj. [Department of Physics, University of Nis, P.O. Box 224, 18001 Nis (Serbia); Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 68, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Memory effect--the long time variation of the electrical breakdown time delay on the relaxation time t{sub d}({tau}) in neon--was explained by the Ne({sup 3}P{sub 2}) (1s{sub 5}) metastable state remaining from the preceding glow [Dj. A. Bosan, M. K. Radovic, and Dj. M. Krmpotic, J. Phys. D 19, 2343 (1986)]. However, the authors neglected the quenching processes that reduce the effective lifetime of metastable states several orders of magnitude below that of the memory effect observations. In this paper the time delay measurements were carried out in neon at the pressure of 6.6 mbar in a gas tube with gold-plated copper cathode, and the approximate and exact numerical models are developed in order to study the metastable and charged particle decay in afterglow. It was found that the metastable hypothesis completely failed to explain the afterglow kinetics, which is governed by the decay of molecular neon ions and molecular nitrogen ions produced in Ne{sub 2}{sup +} collisions with nitrogen impurities; i.e., Ne{sub 2}{sup +}+N{sub 2}{yields}N{sub 2}{sup +}+2Ne. Charged particle decay is followed up to hundreds of milliseconds in afterglow, from ambipolar to the free diffusion limit. After that, the late afterglow kinetics in neon can be explained by the nitrogen atoms recombining on the cathode surface and providing secondary electrons that determine the breakdown time delay down to the cosmic rays and natural radioactivity level.

  5. Method of Controlling Corona Effects and Breakdown Voltage of Small Air Gaps Stressed by Impulse Voltages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Athanasios Maglaras; Trifon Kousiouris; Frangiskos Topalis; Dimitrios Katsaros; Leandros A. Maglaras; Konstantina Giannakopoulou

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the influence of a resistor on the dielectric behavior of an air gap. The resistor is connected in series with the air gap and the latter is stressed by impulse voltage. Air gap arrangements of different geometry with either the rod or the plate grounded are stressed with impulse voltages of both positive and negative polarity. The resistor is connected in series with the air gap in the return circuit connecting the gap with the impulse generator. The method followed involves the investigation of the graphs of the charging time concerning the air gaps capacitances, in connection to the value of the resistor, the geometry of the gap, the effect of grounding and the polarity effect. It is determined that the charging time of the air gap increases, as the value of the resistor increases. It is also determined that the peak voltage value of the fully charged air gap decreases as the value of the resistor increases. The results of the mathematical and simulation analysis are compared with the results of the oscillograms taken from experimental work. In addition and consequently to the above results it is concluded from the experimental work that the in series connection of the resistor in the circuit has significant influence on corona pulses (partial discharges) occurring in the gap and on the breakdown voltage of the gap. A new method of controlling the corona effects and consequently the breakdown voltage of small air gaps stressed by impulse voltage of short duration in connection to the ground effect and the polarity effect has arisen. Furthermore through mathematical analysis of the charging graphs obtained from simulation and experimental oscillograms there was a calculation of the values of the capacitance of the air gaps in relation to their geometry and the results were compared to the values calculated with mathematical analysis.

  6. IONIZATION IN ATMOSPHERES OF BROWN DWARFS AND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. III. BREAKDOWN CONDITIONS FOR MINERAL CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helling, Ch.; Jardine, M.; Stark, C. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Diver, D., E-mail: ch@leap2010.eu [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric discharges were detected directly in the cloudy atmospheres of Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, are debatable for Venus, and indirectly inferred for Neptune and Uranus in our solar system. Sprites (and other types of transient luminous events) have been detected only on Earth, and are theoretically predicted for Jupiter, Saturn, and Venus. Cloud formation is a common phenomenon in ultra-cool atmospheres such as in brown dwarf and extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Cloud particles can be expected to carry considerable charges which may trigger discharge events via small-scale processes between individual cloud particles (intra-cloud discharges) or large-scale processes between clouds (inter-cloud discharges). We investigate electrostatic breakdown characteristics, like critical field strengths and critical charge densities per surface, to demonstrate under which conditions mineral clouds undergo electric discharge events which may trigger or be responsible for sporadic X-ray emission. We apply results from our kinetic dust cloud formation model that is part of the DRIFT-PHOENIX model atmosphere simulations. We present a first investigation of the dependence of the breakdown conditions in brown dwarf and giant gas exoplanets on the local gas-phase chemistry, the effective temperature, and primordial gas-phase metallicity. Our results suggest that different intra-cloud discharge processes dominate at different heights inside mineral clouds: local coronal (point discharges) and small-scale sparks at the bottom region of the cloud where the gas density is high, and flow discharges and large-scale sparks near, and maybe above, the cloud top. The comparison of the thermal degree of ionization and the number density of cloud particles allows us to suggest the efficiency with which discharges will occur in planetary atmospheres.

  7. Breakdown of time-temperature superposition in a bead-spring polymer melt near the glass transition temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamio Yamazaki

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The breakdown of the time-temperature superposition (TTS) near its glass transition temperature (Tg) in simple bead-spring polymer melts with and without the chain angle potential was numerically investigated. The stress relaxation modulus at different temperatures G(t,T) was calculated by the Green-Kubo relation. The TTS of G(t,T) of bead-spring polymer melts worked well at temperatures sufficiently higher than its Tg. However, when the system temperature is approaching the glass transition regime, the breakdown of TTS is observed. At temperatures near the Tg, the temperature dependence of the shift factor aTB, which is defined at the time scale between the bond relaxation and the chain relaxation regimes of a G(t)-function, is significantly stronger than ones aTA defined by the time scale of the chain relaxation modes. In direct relation to the breakdown of TTS of G(t,T), the decoupling of Stokes-Einstein law of diffusion-viscosity relation also appears in the glass transition regime. The analysis of the van Hove function Gs(r,t) and non-gaussian parameter, a2(t), of the bead motions strongly suggest that the TTS breakdown is concerned with the dynamic heterogeneity. The effect of the chain stiffness on the temperature dependence of the shift factors was also investigated in this study. The stiffer chains melt has a stronger temperature dependence of the shift factors than the ones of the flexible chains melt. However, regardless of the chain stiffness, the stress relaxation modulus functions of the bead-spring polymer melts will begin to breakdown the TTS at a similar Tg-normalized temperature around T/Tg ~ 1.2.

  8. NANOCOMPOSITE BASED STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING APPROACHES FOR FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    non-destructive testing (NDT) after production as well as for maintenance and repair reasons is still energy sector. Both branches have large structural parts and, furthermore, their demand for maximal damage or avoidance of catastrophic breakdown, economic demands require optimised down-times and long

  9. On-clip high frequency reliability and failure test structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, E.S.; Campbell, D.V.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-stressing test structures for realistic high frequency reliability characterizations. An on-chip high frequency oscillator, controlled by DC signals from off-chip, provides a range of high frequency pulses to test structures. The test structures provide information with regard to a variety of reliability failure mechanisms, including hot-carriers, electromigration, and oxide breakdown. The system is normally integrated at the wafer level to predict the failure mechanisms of the production integrated circuits on the same wafer. 22 figs.

  10. On-clip high frequency reliability and failure test structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Eric S. (Albuquerque, NM); Campbell, David V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-stressing test structures for realistic high frequency reliability characterizations. An on-chip high frequency oscillator, controlled by DC signals from off-chip, provides a range of high frequency pulses to test structures. The test structures provide information with regard to a variety of reliability failure mechanisms, including hot-carriers, electromigration, and oxide breakdown. The system is normally integrated at the wafer level to predict the failure mechanisms of the production integrated circuits on the same wafer.

  11. Inner surface flash-over of insulator of low-inductance high-voltage self-breakdown gas switch and its application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hong-bo, E-mail: walkman67@163.com; Liu, Jin-liang [College of Opto-electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)] [College of Opto-electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the inner surface flash-over of high-voltage self-breakdown switch, which is used as a main switch of pulse modulator, is analyzed in theory by employing the method of distributed element equivalent circuit. Moreover, the field distortion of the switch is simulated by using software. The results of theoretical analysis and simulation by software show that the inner surface flash-over usually starts at the junction points among the stainless steel, insulator, and insulation gas in the switch. A switch with improved structure is designed and fabricated according to the theoretical analysis and simulation results. Several methods to avoid inner surface flash-over are used to improve the structure of switch. In experiment, the inductance of the switch is no more than 100 nH, the working voltage of the switch is about 600 kV, and the output voltage and current of the accelerator is about 500 kV and 50 kA, respectively. And the zero-to-peak rise time of output voltage at matched load is less than 30 ns due to the small inductance of switch. The original switch was broken-down after dozens of experiments, and the improved switch has been worked more than 200 times stably.

  12. Investigation of historical metal objects using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Kareem, O. [Conservation Department, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University (Egypt); Ghoneim, M. [Conservation Department, Faculty of Fine Arts, Minia University (Egypt); Harith, M. A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of metal objects is a necessary step for establishing an appropriate conservation treatment of an object or to follow up the application's result of the suggested treatments. The main considerations on selecting a method that can be used in investigation and analysis of metal objects are based on the diagnostic power, representative sampling, reproducibility, destructive nature/invasiveness of analysis and accessibility to the appropriate instrument. This study aims at evaluating the usefulness of the use of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Technique for analysis of historical metal objects. In this study various historical metal objects collected from different museums and excavations in Egypt were investigated using (LIBS) technique. For evaluating usefulness of the suggested analytical protocol of this technique, the same investigated metal objects were investigated by other methods such as Scanning Electron Microscope with energy-dispersive x-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). This study confirms that Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Technique is considered very useful technique that can be used safely for investigating historical metal objects. LIBS analysis can quickly provide information on the qualitative and semi-quantitative elemental content of different metal objects and their characterization and classification. It is practically non-destructive technique with the critical advantage of being applicable in situ, thereby avoiding sampling and sample preparations. It is can be dependable, satisfactory and effective method for low cost study of archaeological and historical metals. But we have to take into consideration that the corrosion of metal leads to material alteration and possible loss of certain metals in the form of soluble salts. Certain corrosion products are known to leach out of the object and therefore, their low content does not necessarily reflect the composition of the metal at the time of the object manufacture. Another point should be taken into consideration that the heterogeneity of a metal alloy object that often result from poor mixing of the different metal alloy composition.There is a necessity to carry out further research to investigate and determine the most appropriate and effective approaches and methods for conservation of these metal objects.

  13. Analysis of indium zinc oxide thin films by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popescu, A. C. [LP3, CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, 163 Ave. de Luminy, Marseille 13288 (France); National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Ilfov 077125 (Romania); Beldjilali, S. [LP3, CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, 163 Ave. de Luminy, Marseille 13288 (France); LPPMCA, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie d'Oran, BP 1505 El Mnaouer, Oran (Algeria); Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Ilfov 077125 (Romania); Craciun, V. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele, Ilfov 077125 (Romania); MAIC, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hermann, J. [LP3, CNRS - Universite Aix-Marseille, 163 Ave. de Luminy, Marseille 13288 (France)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed spectroscopic analysis of the plasma generated by Nd:YAG ({lambda} = 266 nm) laser irradiation of thin indium zinc oxide films with variable In content deposited by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition on glass substrates. The samples were irradiated in 5 x 10{sup 4} Pa argon using laser pulses of 5 ns duration and 10 mJ energy. The plasma emission spectra were recorded with an Echelle spectrometer coupled to a gated detector with different delays with respect to the laser pulse. The relative concentrations of indium and zinc were evaluated by comparing the measured spectra to the spectral radiance computed for a plasma in local thermal equilibrium. Plasma temperature and electron density were deduced from the relative intensities and Stark broadening of spectral lines of atomic zinc. Analyses at different locations on the deposited thin films revealed that the In/(In + Zn) concentration ratio significantly varies over the sample surface, from 0.4 at the borders to about 0.5 in the center of the film. The results demonstrate that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy allows for precise and fast characterization of thin films with variable composition.

  14. High altitude atmospheric discharges according to the runaway air breakdown mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Symbalisty, E.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Yukhimuk, V.; Taranenko, Y.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High altitude optical transients - red sprites, blue jets, and elves - are modeled in the context of the relativistic electron runaway air breakdown mechanism. These emissions are usually associated with large mesoscale convective systems (hereafter MCS). In thunderstorms cloud electrification proceeds over a time scale long enough to permit the conducting atmosphere above the cloud to polarize and short out the thunderstorm electric field. When a lightning strike rapidly neutralizes a cloud charge layer runaway driving fields can develop in the stratosphere and mesosphere. According to present simulations of the full runaway process the variety of observed optical emissions are due to the nature of the normal lightning event in the MCS that kick starts the runaway avalanche. In this paper the authors describe some details of the model, present the results of the evolution of the primary electron population, and summarize the initial conditions necessary for different types of discharges. Two companion papers present (a) the predicted optical, gamma ray, and radio emissions caused by these electrical discharges, and (b) the time evolution of the secondary electron population and its implications in terms of observables.

  15. Temperature effect on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra of molten and solid salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cynthia Hanson; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Jill R. Scott

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been investigated as a potential analytical tool to improve operations and safeguards for electrorefiners, such as those used in processing spent nuclear fuel. This study set out to better understand the effect of sample temperature and physical state on LIBS spectra of molten and solid salts by building calibration curves of cerium and assessing self-absorption, plasma temperature, electron density, and local thermal equilibrium (LTE). Samples were composed of a LiClKCl eutectic salt, an internal standard of MnCl2, and varying concentrations of CeCl3 (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 wt.% Ce) under different temperatures (773, 723, 673, 623, and 573 K). Analysis of salts in their molten form is preferred as plasma plumes from molten samples experienced less self-absorption, less variability in plasma temperature, and higher clearance of the minimum electron density required for local thermal equilibrium. These differences are attributed to plasma dynamics as a result of phase changes. Spectral reproducibility was also better in the molten state due to sample homogeneity.

  16. Rapid Analysis of Ash Composition Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic compounds are known to be problematic in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to syngas and ultimately hydrocarbon fuels. The elements Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe, and Al are particularly problematic and are known to influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams. Substantial quantities of inorganic species can be entrained in the bark of trees during harvest operations. Herbaceous feedstocks often have even greater quantities of inorganic constituents, which can account for as much as one-fifth of the total dry matter. Current methodologies to measure the concentrations of these elements, such as inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry (ICP-OES/MS) are expensive in time and reagents. This study demonstrates that a new methodology employing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can rapidly and accurately analyze the inorganic constituents in a wide range of biomass materials, including both woody and herbaceous examples. This technique requires little or no sample preparation, does not consume any reagents, and the analytical data is available immediately. In addition to comparing LIBS data with the results from ICP-OES methods, this work also includes discussions of sample preparation techniques, calibration curves for interpreting LIBS spectra, minimum detection limits, and the use of internal standards and standard reference materials.

  17. Measurements of the volt-ampere characteristics and the breakdown voltages of direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges in microgaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klas, M.; Matej?ik, . [Department of Experimental Physics, Comenius University, Mlynskadolina F2, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Radjenovi?, B.; Radmilovi?-Radjenovi?, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 57, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The discharge phenomena for micro meter gap sizes include many interesting problems from engineering and physical perspectives. In this paper, the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical results of the breakdown voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the direct-current helium and hydrogen discharges. The measurements were performed at a constant pressure of around one atmosphere, while varying the gap size between two parallel plane tungsten electrodes between 1??m and 100??m. From the measured breakdown voltage curves, the effective yields and the ionization coefficients were derived for both gases. Present data for the ionization coefficients correlate with the data obtained for the breakdown voltage curves measured for fixed 100??m interelectrode separation. The current-voltage characteristics were plotted for the various gap sizes illustrating the role of the field emission effects in the microgaps. Based on the Fowler-Nordheim theory, the enhancement factors were determined. The gap spacing dependence of the field emission current can be explained by the introduction of two ideas, the first being a space charge effect by emitted electrons, and the second a change in the breakdown mechanism. Experimental results, presented here, demonstrate that Townsend phenomenology breaks down when field emission becomes the key mechanism affecting the breakdown and deforming the left hand side of the breakdown voltage curves.

  18. Hanford Site Environmental Restoration Program 1994 fiscal year work plan. Work breakdown structure 2.0: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Site Management System (SMS) guidance requires a Fiscal Year Work Plan (FYWP) to be prepared for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Mission Area and all related programs. This revision is a complete update to cover the FY 1994 time period. This document describes the overall ER Missions Area and provides FYWP appendices for each of the following five program areas: Remedial Action (RA); Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D); Project Management and Support (PM&S); Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M); and Disposal Facilities (DF).

  19. Remote Raman - laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) geochemical investigation under Venus atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, Sanuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Humphries, Seth D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vaniman, D. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sharma, S. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Misra, A. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Dyar, M. D. [MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Smrekar, S. E. [JET PROPULSION LAB.

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The extreme Venus surface temperatures ({approx}740 K) and atmospheric pressures ({approx}93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. and Sharma et al. demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachyandesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to quantitatively determine the major elemental abundance of the remaining samples. PLS analysis suggests that the major element compositions can be determined with root mean square errors ca. 5% (absolute) for SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(total), MgO, and CaO, and ca. 2% or less for TiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnO, K{sub 2}O, and Na{sub 2}O. Finally, the Raman experiments have been conducted under supercritical CO{sub 2} involving single-mineral and mixed-mineral samples containing talc, olivine, pyroxenes, feldspars, anhydrite, barite, and siderite. The Raman data have shown that the individual minerals can easily be identified individually or in mixtures.

  20. Transient phenomena in the dielectric breakdown of HfO{sub 2} optical films probed by ultrafast laser pulse pairs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Duy N.; Emmert, Luke A.; Rudolph, Wolfgang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Patel, Dinesh; Menoni, Carmen S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The laser induced breakdown threshold of HfO{sub 2} films is studied with single pairs of pulses of variable delay and 50 fs and 1 ps pulse duration. Two distinct transient regimes are observed that can be related to the relaxation of the electron density from the conduction band via an intermediate state to the valence band. The experimental results are in good agreement with a theoretical model that assumes occupation of mid gap states after the first pulse on a time scale of several tens of picoseconds and subsequent decay of this population via recombination with holes in the valence band on a time scale of several tens of milliseconds.

  1. UTC Power/Delphi SECA CBS Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorman, Michael; Kerr, Rich

    2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject report summarizes the results of solid oxide fuel cell development conducted by UTC Power in conjunction with Delphi Automotive Systems under a cost-share program with from October 2008 through March of 2013. Over that period Delphi Automotive Systems developed a nearly four times larger area solid oxide fuel cell stack capable of operating on pre-reformed natural gas and simulated coal gas with durability demonstrated to 5,000 hours and projected to exceed 10,000 hours. The new stack design was scaled to 40-cell stacks with power output in excess of 6.25kW. Delphi also made significant strides in improving the manufacturability, yield and production cost of these solid oxide fuel cells over the course of the program. Concurrently, UTC Power developed a conceptual design for a 120 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) operating on coal syngas with as high as 57% Higher Heating Value (HHV) efficiency as a measure of the feasibility of the technology. Subsequently a 400 kW on-site system preliminary design with 55% Lower Heating Value (LHV) efficiency operating on natural gas was down-selected from eighteen candidate designs. That design was used as the basis for a 25kW breadboard power plant incorporating four Delphi cell stacks that was tested on natural gas before the program was discontinued due to the sale of UTC Power in early 2013. Though the program was cut short of the endurance target of 3,000 hours, many aspects of the technology were proven including: large-area, repeatable cell manufacture, cell stack operation on simulated coal gas and natural gas and integrated power plant operation on natural gas. The potential of the technology for high efficiency stationary electric power generation is clear. Acceptable production costs, durability, and reliability in real world environments are the remaining challenges to commercialization.

  2. Corrosion inhibitor storage and release property of TiO{sub 2} nanotube powder synthesized by rapid breakdown anodization method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arunchandran, C.; Ramya, S.; George, R.P. [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)] [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Kamachi Mudali, U., E-mail: kamachi@igcar.gov.in [Corrosion Science and Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? TiO{sub 2} nanotube powders were synthesized by rapid breakdown anodization method. ? Benzotriazole was loaded into the TiO{sub 2} nanotube powders. ? Low pH induced release of benzotriazole from TiO{sub 2} nanotube powders was proved. -- Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is one of the most studied substances in material science due to its versatile properties and diverse applications. In this study titanium dioxide nanotube powder were synthesized by rapid breakdown anodization (RBA) method. The synthesis involved potentiostatic anodization of titanium foil in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} electrolyte under an applied voltage of 20 V and rapid stirring. The morphology and the phase of titanium dioxide nanotube powder were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Benzotriazole was chosen as model inhibitor to evaluate TiO{sub 2} nanotube powder's corrosion inhibitor loading and releasing properties. The storage and release properties of TiO{sub 2} nanotube powder were studied using UVvisible spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis.

  3. Rapid breakdown anodization technique for the synthesis of high aspect ratio and high surface area anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antony, Rajini P. [Thin Films and Coatings Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Mathews, Tom, E-mail: tom@igcar.gov.i [Thin Films and Coatings Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Dasgupta, Arup [Physical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K. [Thin Films and Coatings Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Raj, Baldev [Thin Films and Coatings Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India); Physical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Clusters of high aspect ratio, high surface area anatase-TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with a typical nanotube outer diameter of about 18 nm, wall thickness of approximately 5 nm and length of 5-10 {mu}m were synthesized, in powder form, by breakdown anodization of Ti foils in 0.1 M perchloric acid, at 10 V (299 K) and 20 V ({approx}275 and 299 K). The surface area, morphology, structure and band gap were determined from Brunauer Emmet Teller method, field emmission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman, photoluminescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopic studies. The tubular morphology and anatase phase were found to be stable up to 773 K and above 773 K anatase phase gradually transformed to rutile phase with disintegration of tubular morphology. At 973 K, complete transformation to rutile phase and disintegration of tubular morphology were observed. The band gap of the as prepared and the annealed samples varied from 3.07 to 2.95 eV with increase in annealing temperature as inferred from photoluminescence and diffuse reflectance studies. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} High aspect ratio anatase-titania nanotube powders were synthesized electrochemically. {yields} The surface area of the nanotubes were much higher than those reported. {yields} The annealing temperature limit for maintaining tubular morphology was established. {yields} The photoluminiscence spectroscopy reflected the presence of defects, annealing of defects and phase transformation. {yields} The nanotubes were of {approx}5 nm wall thickness as revealed by TEM studies.

  4. Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field ({approx}2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 {micro}s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10{sup 5} RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS operating at 30 GHz. It was shown that the ratio of maximum surface electric field to accelerating field at the metal wall is only 0.35-0.4 for DLA, much smaller than the value 2.2 for HDS; and the ratio of surface magnetic field to accelerating field is 3.0 mA/V for DLA, compared with 3.45 mA/V for HDS. These values bode well for DLA in helping to avoid breakdown and to reducing pulsed surface heating and fatigue. The shunt impedance is found to be 160-175 M{Omega}/m for DLA, as compared to 99 M{Omega}/m for HDS. Conclusions are reached from this project that CVD diamond appears promising as a dielectric with a high threshold for RF breakdown, and that rectangular accelerator structures can be devised using planar CVD diamond elements that could be operated at higher acceleration gradients with low probability of RF breakdown, as compared with corresponding all-metallic structures.

  5. Recent Progress on a Manifold Damped and Detuned Structure for CLIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, V F; Grudiev, A; Jones, R M; Wuensch, W; Zennaro, R

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A damped detuned structure for the main X-band linacs of CLIC is being investigated as an alternative design to the present baseline heavily damped structure. In our earlier designs we studied detuned structures, operating at 11.994 GHz, with a range of dipole bandwidths in order to ensure the structure satisfies beam dynamics and rf breakdown constraints. Here we report on the development of a damped and detuned structure which satisfies both constraints. Preparations for high power testing of the structure are also discussed

  6. Electron-ion relaxation time dependent signal enhancement in ultrafast double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harilal, S. S.; Diwakar, P. K.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the emission properties of collinear double-pulse compared to single-pulse ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Our results showed that the significant signal enhancement noticed in the double pulse scheme is strongly correlated to the characteristic electron-ion relaxation time and hence to the inter-pulse delays. Spectroscopic excitation temperature analysis showed that the improvement in signal enhancement is caused by the delayed pulse efficient reheating of the pre-plume. The signal enhancement is also found to be related to the upper excitation energy of the selected lines, i.e., more enhancement noticed for lines originating from higher excitation energy levels, indicating reheating is the major mechanism behind the signal improvement.

  7. 1204 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 34, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 1999 Breakdown in Millimeter-Wave Power InP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jess A.

    1204 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 34, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 1999 Breakdown in Millimeter-Wave Power InP HEMT's: A Comparison with GaAs PHEMT's J. A. del Alamo and M. H. Somerville Abstract's) deliver lower output power than GaAs pseudomorphic HEMT's (PHEMT's) throughout most of the millimeter

  8. Experimental observation of breakdowns in the Fermilab RF Gun G4 J.-P. Carneiro1, D. Edwards2, I. Gonin2, S. Schreiber1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experimental observation of breakdowns in the Fermilab RF Gun G4 J.-P. Carneiro1, D. Edwards2, I Fermilab has developed and delivered to DESY Hamburg two RF guns for the operation of the phase I at the A0 photo-injector at Fermilab since January 1999 where it has been successfully conditioned at 1 Hz

  9. Effects of Combustion-Induced Vortex Breakdown on Flashback Limits of Syngas-Fueled Gas Turbine Combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahsan Choudhuri

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbine combustors of advanced power systems have goals to achieve very low pollutants emissions, fuel variability, and fuel flexibility. Future generation gas turbine combustors should tolerate fuel compositions ranging from natural gas to a broad range of syngas without sacrificing operational advantages and low emission characteristics. Additionally, current designs of advanced turbine combustors use various degrees of swirl and lean premixing for stabilizing flames and controlling high temperature NOx formation zones. However, issues of fuel variability and NOx control through premixing also bring a number of concerns, especially combustor flashback and flame blowout. Flashback is a combustion condition at which the flame propagates upstream against the gas stream into the burner tube. Flashback is a critical issue for premixed combustor designs, because it not only causes serious hardware damages but also increases pollutant emissions. In swirl stabilized lean premixed turbine combustors onset of flashback may occur due to (i) boundary layer flame propagation (critical velocity gradient), (ii) turbulent flame propagation in core flow, (iii) combustion instabilities, and (iv) upstream flame propagation induced by combustion induced vortex breakdown (CIVB). Flashback due to first two foregoing mechanisms is a topic of classical interest and has been studied extensively. Generally, analytical theories and experimental determinations of laminar and turbulent burning velocities model these mechanisms with sufficient precision for design usages. However, the swirling flow complicates the flashback processes in premixed combustions and the first two mechanisms inadequately describe the flashback propensity of most practical combustor designs. The presence of hydrogen in syngas significantly increases the potential for flashback. Due to high laminar burning velocity and low lean flammability limit, hydrogen tends to shift the combustor operating conditions towards flashback regime. Even a small amount of hydrogen in a fuel blend triggers the onset of flashback by altering the kinetics and thermophysical characteristics of the mixture. Additionally, the presence of hydrogen in the fuel mixture modifies the response of the flame to the global effects of stretch and preferential diffusion. Despite its immense importance in fuel flexible combustor design, little is known about the magnitude of fuel effects on CIVB induced flashback mechanism. Hence, this project investigates the effects of syngas compositions on flashback resulting from combustion induced vortex breakdown. The project uses controlled experiments and parametric modeling to understand the velocity field and flame interaction leading to CIVB driven flashback.

  10. Optical breakdown threshold in nanosecond high repetition second harmonic generation by periodically poled Mg-doped LiTaO{sub 3} crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Wada, Satoshi [Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hatano, Hideki; Kitamura, Kenji [Division of Environment and Energy Materials, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)] [Division of Environment and Energy Materials, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Our study shows that a local temperature increase of ?1 K in the crystal lattice caused by second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon absorption of 532 nm radiation at the rear of periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO{sub 3} crystal by changing spontaneous polarization induces a pyroelectric field ?10 kV/cm, accelerating free electrons to an energy of ?10 eV, followed by optical breakdown and crystal damage. Theoretical analysis leads to an explicit expression for the threshold laser fluence of optical breakdown giving ?1.2 J/cm{sup 2} for 1064 nm input radiation in 6.8 kHz pulsed SHG operation, agreeing well with the experimentally found value ?1.32 J/cm{sup 2}.

  11. ,* Copper transport and accumulation in spruce stems (picea abies(L.) Karsten) revelaed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krajcarova, Dr. Lucie [Czech Technical University; Novotny, Dr. Karel [Mendel University of Brno; Babula, Dr. Petr [Czech Technical University; Pravaznik, Dr Ivo [Czech Technical University; Kucerova, Dr. Petra [Czech Technical University; Vojtech, Dr. Adam [Czech Technical University; Martin, Madhavi Z [ORNL; Kizek, Dr. Rene [Czech Technical University; Kaiser, Jozef [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in double pulse configuration (DP LIBS) was used for scanning elemental spatial distribution in annual terminal stems of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten). Cross sections of stems cultivated in Cu2+ solution of different concentrations were prepared and analyzed by DP LIBS. Raster scanning with 150 m spatial resolution was set and 2D (2-dimentional) maps of Cu and Ca distribution were created on the basis of the data obtained. Stem parts originating in the vicinity of the implementation of the cross sections were mineralized and subsequently Cu and Ca contents were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results provide quantitative information about overall concentration of the elements in places, where LIBS measurements were performed. The fluorescence pictures were created to compare LIBS distribution maps and the fluorescence intensity (or the increase in autofluorescence) was used for the comparison of ICP-MS quantitative results. Results from these three methods can be utilized for quantitative measurements of copper ions transport in different plant compartments in dependence on the concentration of cultivation medium and/or the time of cultivation.

  12. Final Report: Investigation of Catalytic Pathways for Lignin Breakdown into Monomers and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gluckstein, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Sturgeon, Matthew R [ORNL

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin is a biopolymer that comprises up to 35% of woody biomass by dry weight. It is currently underutilized compared to cellulose and hemicellulose, the other two primary components of woody biomass. Lignin has an irregular structure of methoxylated aromatic groups linked by a suite of ether and alkyl bonds which makes it difficult to degrade selectively. However, the aromatic components of lignin also make it promising as a base material for the production of aromatic fuel additives and cyclic chemical feed stocks such as styrene, benzene, and cyclohexanol. Our laboratory research focused on three methods to selectively cleave and deoxygenate purified lignin under mild conditions: acidolysis, hydrogenation and electrocatalysis. (1) Acidolysis was undertaken in CH2Cl2 at room temperature. (2) Hydrogenation was carried out by dissolving lignin and a rhodium catalyst in 1:1 water:methoxyethanol under a 1 atm H2 environment. (3) Electrocatalysis of lignin involved reacting electrically generated hydrogen atoms at a catalytic palladium cathode with lignin dissolved in a solution of aqueous methanol. In all of the experiments, the lignin degradation products were identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy and flame ionization detection. Yields were low, but this may have reflected the difficulty in recovering the various fractions after conversion. The homogeneous hydrogenation of lignin showed fragmentation into monomers, while the electrocatalytic hydrogenation showed production of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and substituted benzenes. In addition to the experiments, promising pathways for the conversion of lignin were assessed. Three conversion methods were compared based on their material and energy inputs and proposed improvements using better catalyst and process technology. A variety of areas were noted as needing further experimental and theoretical effort to increase the feasibility of lignin conversion to fuels.

  13. Biofuel breakdown | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6 M. Babzien, I.ProgramBig SolBiofilm assembly Biofilm

  14. Study of the dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF{sub 6}CF{sub 4} mixtures at 0.011.6 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xingwen; Zhao, Hu; Jia, Shenli [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xian Jiaotong University, No. 28 XianNing West Road, Xian, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xian Jiaotong University, No. 28 XianNing West Road, Xian, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Murphy, Anthony B. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)] [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2013-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The dielectric breakdown properties of SF{sub 6}CF{sub 4} mixtures were investigated at different ratios of SF{sub 6}, 0.011.6 MPa, and gas temperatures up to 3000 K. Initially, the equilibrium compositions of SF{sub 6}CF{sub 4} mixtures were calculated by minimizing the Gibbs free energy under the assumptions of local thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium. Then the electron energy distribution function was obtained based on those data by solving the Boltzmann equation under the zero-dimensional two-term spherical harmonic approximation. Finally, the critical reduced electric field strength (E/N){sub cr} of SF{sub 6}CF{sub 4} mixtures, which is defined as the value for which total ionization reaction is equal to total attachment reaction, were determined and analyzed. The results confirm the superior breakdown properties of pure SF{sub 6} at relatively low gas temperatures. However, for higher gas temperatures (i.e., T > 2200 K at 0.4 MPa), the (E/N){sub cr} in SF{sub 6}CF{sub 4} mixtures are obviously higher than that in pure SF{sub 6} and the values of (E/N){sub cr} increase with the reduction of the ratio of SF{sub 6}.

  15. Relationship between the structure and electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takabayashi, Susumu, E-mail: stak@riec.tohoku.ac.jp; Otsuji, Taiichi [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yang, Meng; Ogawa, Shuichi; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Jeko, Radek; Takakuwa, Yuji [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    To elucidate the relationship between the structure and the electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, DLC films were synthesized in a well-controlled glow discharge with the aid of photoelectrons in an argon/methane atmosphere. The dielectric constant and breakdown strength of the films exhibited opposite behaviors, depending on the total pressure during the synthesis. The product of these two values decreased monotonically as the pressure increased. The Raman spectra were analyzed with a Voigt-type formula. Based on the results, the authors propose the sp{sup 2} cluster model for the DLC structure. This model consists of conductive clusters of sp{sup 2} carbons surrounded by a dielectric matrix sea of sp{sup 2} carbon, sp{sup 3} carbon, and hydrogen, and indicates that the dielectric constant of the whole DLC film is determined by the balance between the dielectric constant of the matrix and the total size of the clusters, while the breakdown strength is determined by the reciprocal of the cluster size. The model suggests that a high-? DLC film can be synthesized at a middle pressure and consists of well-grown sp{sup 2} clusters and a dense matrix. A low-? DLC film can be synthesized both at low and high pressures. The sp{sup 2} cluster model explains that a low-? DLC film synthesized at low pressure consists of a dense matrix and a low density of sp{sup 2} clusters, and exhibits a high breakdown strength. On the other hand, a low-? film synthesized at high pressure consists of a coarse matrix and a high density of clusters and exhibits a low breakdown strength.

  16. Trench process and structure for backside contact solar cells with polysilicon doped regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Ceuster, Denis (Woodside, CA); Cousins, Peter John (Menlo Park, CA); Smith, David D. (Campbell, CA)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell includes polysilicon P-type and N-type doped regions on a backside of a substrate, such as a silicon wafer. An interrupted trench structure separates the P-type doped region from the N-type doped region in some locations but allows the P-type doped region and the N-type doped region to touch in other locations. Each of the P-type and N-type doped regions may be formed over a thin dielectric layer. Among other advantages, the resulting solar cell structure allows for increased efficiency while having a relatively low reverse breakdown voltage.

  17. Trench process and structure for backside contact solar cells with polysilicon doped regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Ceuster, Denis; Cousins, Peter John; Smith, David D

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell includes polysilicon P-type and N-type doped regions on a backside of a substrate, such as a silicon wafer. An interrupted trench structure separates the P-type doped region from the N-type doped region in some locations but allows the P-type doped region and the N-type doped region to touch in other locations. Each of the P-type and N-type doped regions may be formed over a thin dielectric layer. Among other advantages, the resulting solar cell structure allows for increased efficiency while having a relatively low reverse breakdown voltage.

  18. Trench process and structure for backside contact solar cells with polysilicon doped regions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Ceuster, Denis; Cousins, Peter John; Smith, David D

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell includes polysilicon P-type and N-type doped regions on a backside of a substrate, such as a silicon wafer. An interrupted trench structure separates the P-type doped region from the N-type doped region in some locations but allows the P-type doped region and the N-type doped region to touch in other locations. Each of the P-type and N-type doped regions may be formed over a thin dielectric layer. Among other advantages, the resulting solar cell structure allows for increased efficiency while having a relatively low reverse breakdown voltage.

  19. Elemental content of enamel and dentin after bleaching of teeth (a comparative study between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imam, H. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)] [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Ahmed, Doaa [Department of Restorative Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)] [Department of Restorative Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Eldakrouri, Ashraf [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt) [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, NILES, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Department of Optometry and Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The elemental content of the superficial and inner enamel as well as that of dentin was analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of bleached and unbleached tooth specimens. It is thus clear from the spectral analysis using both the LIBS and XPS technique that elemental changes (though insignificant within the scopes of this study) of variable intensities do occur on the surface of the enamel and extend deeper to reach dentin. The results of the LIBS revealed a slight reduction in the calcium levels in the bleached compared to the control specimens in all the different bleaching groups and in both enamel and dentin. The good correlation found between the LIBS and XPS results demonstrates the possibility of LIBS technique for detection of minor loss in calcium and phosphorus in enamel and dentin.

  20. Excitation in low-current discharges and breakdown in He at low pressures and very high electric field to gas density ratios E/N

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jelenkovic, B.M.; Phelps, A.V. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 75, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate optical emission from low-current discharges in He at very high electric field to gas density ratios E/N between parallel plate electrodes. We also determine the electrical breakdown and the voltage-current behavior at low currents. The E/N are 300 Td to 9 kTd (1 Td=10{sup -21} V m{sup 2}) at pressures times electrode separations p{sub 0}d from 3 to 0.9 Torr cm. Absolute optical emission probabilities versus distance are determined for the 501.6 nm line (3 {sup 1}P{yields}2 {sup 1}S) and for the 587.6 nm line (3 {sup 3}D{yields}2 {sup 3}P) by reference to Boltzmann calculations at our lowest E/N and to published pressure dependent electron beam experiments. At E/N below 1 kTd, the emission follows the exponential growth of the electron density, while at above 7 kTd heavy particle excitation is evident near the cathode. Collisional transfer of excitation from the singlet to the triplet system dominates the 587.6 nm excitation. Comparisons of models with experiments show the importance of excitation and of electron production at the cathode by fast He atoms produced by charge transfer collisions of He{sup +} with He. The breakdown voltage versus p{sub 0}d is multivalued for p{sub 0}d{approx}1.5 Torr cm. At currents below 100 {mu}A and our lower E/N, the discharge voltage decreases linearly with current as expected for an increasing electron yield with ion energy and E/N at the cathode.

  1. Dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures at temperatures of 3003500?K and pressures of 0.011.0?MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Linlin; Yang, Aijun; Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Dingxin; Wu, Yi; Rong, Mingzhe, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, much attention has been paid to SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures as one of substitutes for pure SF{sub 6} gas. In this paper, the dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures are investigated at temperatures of 3003500?K and pressures of 0.011.0?MPa. Under the assumptions of local thermodynamic equilibrium and local chemical equilibrium, the equilibrium compositions of hot SF{sub 6}-CO{sub 2} mixtures with different CO{sub 2} proportions are obtained based on Gibbs free energy minimization. The cross sections for interactions between electrons and neutral species are presented. Some unknown ionization cross sections are determined theoretically using DeutschMrk (DM) formalism based on quantum chemistry. Two-term Boltzmann equation is adopted to calculate the electron energy distribution function, reduced ionization coefficient, reduced attachment coefficient, and reduced effective ionization coefficient. Then the reduced critical electric field strength of mixtures, corresponding to dielectric breakdown performances, is determined when the generation and loss of electrons are balanced. Finally, the influences of temperature, pressure, and CO{sub 2} proportion on the reduced critical electric field strength are studied. It is found that a large percentage of CO{sub 2} can obviously reduce concentrations of high-energy electrons. At temperatures above 1750?K, an addition of CO{sub 2} to SF{sub 6} gas can enhance dielectric breakdown performances. However, at low temperatures, too much CO{sub 2} added into mixtures can reduce dielectric breakdown abilities. In addition, increasing gas pressure can improve dielectric breakdown performances. But the influence will be no more significant if pressure is over 0.8?MPa.

  2. Quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data using peak area step-wise regression analysis: an alternative method for interpretation of Mars science laboratory results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dyar, Melinda D [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Schafer, Martha W [LSU; Tucker, Jonathan M [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will include a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) to quantify major and minor elemental compositions. The traditional analytical chemistry approach to calibration curves for these data regresses a single diagnostic peak area against concentration for each element. This approach contrasts with a new multivariate method in which elemental concentrations are predicted by step-wise multiple regression analysis based on areas of a specific set of diagnostic peaks for each element. The method is tested on LIBS data from igneous and metamorphosed rocks. Between 4 and 13 partial regression coefficients are needed to describe each elemental abundance accurately (i.e., with a regression line of R{sup 2} > 0.9995 for the relationship between predicted and measured elemental concentration) for all major and minor elements studied. Validation plots suggest that the method is limited at present by the small data set, and will work best for prediction of concentration when a wide variety of compositions and rock types has been analyzed.

  3. Coherent States of Accelerated Relativistic Quantum Particles, Vacuum Radiation and the Spontaneous Breakdown of the Conformal SU(2,2) Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Calixto; E. Perez-Romero; V. Aldaya

    2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a quantum mechanical description of accelerated relativistic particles in the framework of Coherent States (CS) of the (3+1)-dimensional conformal group SU(2,2), with the role of accelerations played by special conformal transformations and with the role of (proper) time translations played by dilations. The accelerated ground state $\\tilde\\phi_0$ of first quantization is a CS of the conformal group. We compute the distribution function giving the occupation number of each energy level in $\\tilde\\phi_0$ and, with it, the partition function Z, mean energy E and entropy S, which resemble that of an "Einstein Solid". An effective temperature T can be assigned to this "accelerated ensemble" through the thermodynamic expression dE/dS, which leads to a (non linear) relation between acceleration and temperature different from Unruh's (linear) formula. Then we construct the corresponding conformal-SU(2,2)-invariant second quantized theory and its spontaneous breakdown when selecting Poincar\\'e-invariant degenerated \\theta-vacua (namely, coherent states of conformal zero modes). Special conformal transformations (accelerations) destabilize the Poincar\\'e vacuum and make it to radiate.

  4. The Gender Breakdown of the Applicant Pool for Tenure-Track Faculty Positions at a Sample of North American Research Astronomy Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Todd A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The demographics of the field of Astronomy, and the gender balance in particular, is an important active area of investigation. A piece of information missing from the discussion is the gender breakdown of the applicant pool for faculty positions. For a sample of 35 tenure-track faculty positions at 25 research universities advertised over the last few years in astronomy and astrophysics, I find that the ratio of female applicants to the total number of applicants is ~0.2, with little dispersion and with no strong dependence on the total number of applicants. Some discussion is provided in the context of the fraction of women at the graduate student, postdoctoral researcher, and assistant professor levels, but strong conclusions are not possible given the limitations of the study. Current and future faculty search committees will likely be interested to compare their numbers to this distribution to decide whether or not they could be doing more to attract an applicant pool that is representative of the commun...

  5. On the global uniqueness for the Einstein-Maxwell-scalar field system with a cosmological constant. Part 1: Well posedness and breakdown criterion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joo L. Costa; Pedro M. Giro; Jos Natrio; Jorge Drumond Silva

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the first part of a trilogy dedicated to the following problem: given spherically symmetric characteristic initial data for the Einstein-Maxwell-scalar field system with a cosmological constant $\\Lambda$, with the data on the outgoing initial null hypersurface given by a subextremal Reissner-Nordstrom black hole event horizon, study the future extendibility of the corresponding maximal globally hyperbolic development (MGHD) as a "suitably regular" Lorentzian manifold. In this first part we establish well posedness of the Einstein equations for characteristic data satisfying the minimal regularity conditions leading to classical solutions. We also identify the appropriate notion of maximal solution, from which the construction of the corresponding MGHD follows, and determine breakdown criteria. This is the unavoidable starting point of the analysis; our main results will depend on the detailed understanding of these fundamentals. In the second part of this series we study the stability of the radius function at the Cauchy horizon. In the third and final paper we show that, depending on the decay rate of the initial data, mass inflation may or may not occur; in fact, it is even possible to have (non-isometric) extensions of the spacetime across the Cauchy horizon as classical solutions of the Einstein equations.

  6. Design of a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system for on-line quality analysis of pulverized coal in power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, W.B.; Zhang, L.; Dong, L.; Ma, W.G.; Jia, S.T. [Shanxi Agricultural University, Taiyuan (China)

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is vitally important for a power plant to determine the chemical composition of coal prior to combustion in order to obtain optimal boiler control. In this work, a fully software-controlled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system comprising a LIBS apparatus and sampling equipment has been designed for possible application to power plants for on-line quality analysis of pulverized coal. Special attention was given to the LIBS system, the data processing methods (especially the normalization with Bode Rule/DC Level) and the specific settings (the software-controlled triggering source, high-pressure gas cleaning device, sample preparation module, sampling module, etc.), which gave the best direct measurement for C, H, Si, Na, Mg, Fe, Al, and Ti with measurement errors less than 10% for pulverized coal. Therefore, the apparatus is accurate enough to be applied to industries for on-line monitoring of pulverized coal. The method of proximate analysis was also introduced and the experimental error of A(ad) (Ash, 'ad' is an abbreviation for 'air dried') was shown in the range of 2.29 to 13.47%. The programmable logic controller (PLC) controlled on-line coal sampling equipment, which is designed based upon aerodynamics, and is capable of performing multipoint sampling and sample-preparation operation.

  7. Visible structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conway, Helene Marie

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All architecture is the interplay between structure, surface and ornament. Traditionally, ornament adorned structure thereby giving it its meaning. A society with its intellectual foundations resting in faith or the abstract ...

  8. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A high performance capacitor is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The notepad capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  9. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  10. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Johnson, G.W.; O`Brien, D.W.

    1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high performance capacitor is described which is fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a ``notepad`` configuration composed of 200--300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The ``notepad`` capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density. 5 figs.

  11. High performance capacitors using nano-structure multilayer materials fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); O'Brien, Dennis W. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high performance capacitor fabricated from nano-structure multilayer materials, such as by controlled, reactive sputtering, and having very high energy-density, high specific energy and high voltage breakdown. The multilayer capacitors, for example, may be fabricated in a "notepad" configuration composed of 200-300 alternating layers of conductive and dielectric materials so as to have a thickness of 1 mm, width of 200 mm, and length of 300 mm, with terminals at each end of the layers suitable for brazing, thereby guaranteeing low contact resistance and high durability. The "notepad" capacitors may be stacked in single or multiple rows (series-parallel banks) to increase the voltage and energy density.

  12. Density functional theory study of the structural, electronic, lattice dynamical, and thermodynamic properties of Li4SiO4 and its capability for CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Yuhua; Parlinski, K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural, electronic, lattice dynamical, optical, thermodynamic, and CO{sub 2} capture properties of monoclinic and triclinic phases of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} are investigated by combining density functional theory with phonon lattice dynamics calculations. We found that these two phases have some similarities in their bulk and thermodynamic properties. The calculated bulk modulus and the cohesive energies of these two phases are close to each other. Although both of them are insulators, the monoclinic phase of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} has a direct band gap of 5.24 eV while the triclinic Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} phase has an indirect band gap of 4.98 eV. In both phases of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, the s orbital of O mainly contributes to the lower-energy second valence band (VB{sub 2}) and the p orbitals contribute to the fist valence band (VB{sub 1}) and the conduction bands (CBs). The s orbital of Si mainly contributes to the lower portions of the VB1 and VB{sub 2}, and Si p orbitals mainly contribute to the higher portions of the VB{sub 1} and VB{sub 2}. The s and p orbitals of Li contribute to both VBs and to CBs, and Li p orbitals have a higher contribution than the Li s orbital. There is possibly a phonon soft mode existing in triclinic {gamma}-Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}; in the monoclinic Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, there are three phonon soft modes, which correspond to the one type of Li disordered over a few sites. Their LO-TO splitting indicates that both phases of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} are polar anisotropic materials. The calculated infrared absorption spectra for LO and TO modes are different for these two phases of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}. The calculated relationships of the chemical potential versus temperature and CO{sub 2} pressure for reaction of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} with CO{sub 2} shows that Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} could be a good candidate for a high-temperature CO{sub 2} sorbent while used for postcombustion capture technology.

  13. Deployable structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernndez Merchan, Carlos Henrique

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis has the purpose of describing the meaning and applications of deployable structures (making emphasis in the scissor-hinged and sliding mechanisms.) and the development of new geometries, details, and mechanisms ...

  14. Superconducting structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwon, Chuhee (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconductive structure including a dielectric oxide substrate, a thin buffer layer of a superconducting material thereon; and, a layer of a rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film thereon the thin layer of yttrium-barium-copper oxide, the rare earth selected from the group consisting of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium, erbium, neodymium, dysprosium, holmium, lutetium, a combination of more than one element from the rare earth group and a combination of one or more elements from the rare earth group with yttrium, the buffer layer of superconducting material characterized as having chemical and structural compatibility with the dielectric oxide substrate and the rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film is provided.

  15. Terminal structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frank (Langenhagen, DE); Allais, Arnaud (Hannover, DE); Mirebeau, Pierre (Villebon sur Yvette, FR); Ganhungu, Francois (Vieux-Reng, FR); Lallouet, Nicolas (Saint Martin Boulogne, FR)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A terminal structure (2) for a superconducting cable (1) is described. It consists of a conductor (2a) and an insulator (2b) that surrounds the conductor (2a), wherein the superconducting cable (1) has a core with a superconducting conductor (5) and a layer of insulation that surrounds the conductor (5), and wherein the core is arranged in such a way that it can move longitudinally in a cryostat. The conductor (2a) of the terminal structure (2) is electrically connected with the superconducting conductor (5) or with a normal conductor (6) that is connected with the superconducting conductor (5) by means of a tubular part (7) made of an electrically conductive material, wherein the superconducting conductor (5) or the normal conductor (6) can slide in the part (7) in the direction of the superconductor.

  16. Superconducting Structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwon, Chuhee (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconductive structure including a dielectric oxide substrate, a thin buffer layer of a superconducting material thereon; and, a layer of a rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film thereon the thin layer of yttrium-barium-copper oxide, the rare earth selected from the group consisting of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium, erbium, neodymium, dysprosium, holmium, lutetium, a combination of more than one element from the rare earth group and a combination of one or more elements from the rare earth group with yttrium, the buffer layer of superconducting material characterized as having chemical and structural compatibility with the dielectric oxide substrate and the rare earth-barium-copper oxide superconducting film is provided.

  17. Airfoil structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, G.A.; Twardochleb, C.Z.

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Past airfoil configurations have been used to improve aerodynamic performance and engine efficiencies. The present airfoil configuration further increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress within the airfoil itself. The airfoil includes a chord and a span. Each of the chord and the span has a bow being summed to form a generally ``C`` configuration of the airfoil. The generally ``C`` configuration includes a compound bow in which internal stresses resulting from a thermal temperature gradient are reduced. The structural configuration reduces internal stresses resulting from thermal expansion. 6 figs.

  18. Airfoil structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, Gary A. (Poway, CA); Twardochleb, Christopher Z. (Alpine, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Past airfoil configurations have been used to improve aerodynamic performance and engine efficiencies. The present airfoil configuration further increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress within the airfoil itself. The airfoil includes a chord and a span. Each of the chord and the span has a bow being summed to form a generally "C" configuration of the airfoil. The generally "C" configuration includes a compound bow in which internal stresses resulting from a thermal temperature gradient are reduced. The structural configuration reduces internal stresses resulting from thermal expansion.

  19. Bulk measurement of copper and sodium content in CuIn(0.7)Ga(0.3)Se(2) (CIGS) solar cells with nanosecond pulse length laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalczyk, Jeremy M D; DeAngelis, Alexander; Kaneshiro, Jess; Mallory, Stewart A; Chang, Yuancheng; Gaillard, Nicolas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we show that laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with a nanosecond pulse laser can be used to measure the copper and sodium content of CuIn(0.7)Ga(0.3)Se(2) (CIGS) thin film solar cells on molybdenum. This method has four significant advantages over methods currently being employed: the method is inexpensive, measurements can be taken in times on the order of one second, without high vacuum, and at distances up to 5 meters or more. The final two points allow for in-line monitoring of device fabrication in laboratory or industrial environments. Specifically, we report a linear relationship between the copper and sodium spectral lines from LIBS and the atomic fraction of copper and sodium measured via secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), discuss the ablation process of this material with a nanosecond pulse laser compared to shorter pulse duration lasers, and examine the depth resolution of nanosecond pulse LIBS.

  20. Armor structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An armor structure includes first and second layers individually containing a plurality of i-beams. Individual i-beams have a pair of longitudinal flanges interconnected by a longitudinal crosspiece and defining opposing longitudinal channels between the pair of flanges. The i-beams within individual of the first and second layers run parallel. The laterally outermost faces of the flanges of adjacent i-beams face one another. One of the longitudinal channels in each of the first and second layers faces one of the longitudinal channels in the other of the first and second layers. The channels of the first layer run parallel with the channels of the second layer. The flanges of the first and second layers overlap with the crosspieces of the other of the first and second layers, and portions of said flanges are received within the facing channels of the i-beams of the other of the first and second layers.

  1. Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of warm accelerating structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S. [University of Maryland; Antonsen, Thomas M. [University of Maryland; Kishek, Rami [University of Maryland

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report summarizes the research performed during the time period from 8/1/2010 to 7/31/2013. It consists of two parts describing our studies in two directions: (a) analysis of factors limiting operation of dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures where the main problem is the occurrence of multipactor on dielectric surfaces, and (b) studies of effects associated with either RF magnetic or RF electric fields which may cause the RF breakdown in high-gradient metallic accelerating structures. In the studies of DLA structures, at least, two accomplishments should be mentioned: the development of a 3D non-stationary, self-consistent code describing the multipactor phenomena and yielding very good agreement with some experimental data obtained in joint ANL/NRL experiments. In the metallic structures, such phenomena as the heating and melting of micro-particles (metallic dust) by RF electric and magnetic fields in single-shot and rep-rate regimes is analyzed. Also, such processes in micro-protrusions on the structure surfaces as heating and melting due to the field emitted current and the Nottingham effect are thoroughly investigated with the account for space charge of emitted current on the field emission from the tip.

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - altering dielectric structure Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the liquid dielectric that is used in the system... breakdown in such transmission line configurations for a variety of dielectric materials and ... Source: New Mexico,...

  3. Structural features of Athabasca bitumen related to upgrading performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strausz, O.P. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural studies on asphaltenes and heavy ends have, until recently, only yielded information on some of the gross compositional features of these materials. Spectroscopic methods, for sample, are limited in the sense that even if several functional groups (e.g., aromatic or aliphatic carbon, carbonyl groups, etc.) can be identified, no information on the molecular environment can be deduced. Selective chemical degradative methods, on the other hand, offer more potential and this paper describes some of their recent results on the chemical degradation of asphaltene and heavy ends. Quantitative recoveries of alkyl side chains and bridging units attached to aromatic rings have been achieved, and some insights into the aliphatic framework have been gained. The results could be particularly helpful with regard to monitoring the dealkylation processes during thermal treatment of bitumens. The aliphatic framework of the asphaltene contains units of five- and six-membered ring sulfides and thermal breakdown of these units also contributes to depolymerization and the production of alkanes. Some of the heteroatom-containing classes of compounds identified in the asphaltene and resin fractions of Athabasca bitumen will be briefly discussed.

  4. RF properties of periodic accelerating structures for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.W.

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the advent of the SLAC electron-positron linear collider (SLC) in the 100 GeV center-of-mass energy range, research and development work on even higher energy machines of this type has started in several laboratories in the United States, Europe, the Soviet Union and Japan. These linear colliders appear to provide the only promising approach to studying e/sup /plus//e/sup /minus// physics at center-of-mass energies approaching 1 TeV. This thesis concerns itself with the study of radio frequency properties of periodic accelerating structures for linear colliders and their interaction with bunched beams. The topics that have been investigated are: experimental measurements of the energy loss of single bunches to longitudinal modes in two types of structures, using an equivalent signal on a coaxial wire to simulate the beam; a method of canceling the energy spread created within a single bunch by longitudinal wakefields, through appropriate shaping of the longitudinal charge distribution of the bunch; derivation of the complete transient beam-loading equation for a train of bunches passing through a constant-gradient accelerator section, with application to the calculation and minimization of multi-bunch energy spread; detailed study of field emission and radio frequency breakdown in disk-loaded structures at S-, C- and X-band frequencies under extremely high-gradient conditions, with special attention to thermal effects, radiation, sparking, emission of gases, surface damage through explosive emission and its possible control through RF-gas processing. 53 refs., 49 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE DATABASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, R.B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CALIFORNIA NUCLEAR STRUCTURE DATABASE R. B. Firestone and E.11089 NUCLEAR STRUCTURE DATABASE by R.B. Firestone and E.iii- NUCLEAR STRUCTURE DATABASE R.B Firestone and E. Browne

  6. structural biology | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structural biology structural biology Leads No leads are available at this time. Improved protocol to purify untagged amelogenin - Application to murine amelogenin containing the...

  7. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    expression profiles. Mol. Genet. Genomics 279:Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus2006. Aspergillusnigergenomics:past,presentandinto

  8. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Martinsried, Germany. g Novozymes Inc, 1445 Drew Avenue,6, E-41080 Sevilla, Spain. j Novozymes A/S, Hallas Alle 1,Martinsried, Germany. g Novozymes Inc, 1445 Drew

  9. Earth Structure Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earth Structure Introduction Earth Structure (2nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm © WW Norton, unless noted otherwise #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 210/4/2010 Aerial views #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed) 310/4/2010 http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/Ben/ES/ #12

  10. Crystal Structure of Cascade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ribbon-like structure (Figure 1). This structure is facilitated by rotation of nucleotides out of the duplex region at six base pair intervals and stabilized by the highly...

  11. Structuring beyond architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foxe, David M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the layering and negotiation of structural devices in urban settings. Its point of departure is a series of patterns of how structural design and urban design interact and overlap, from which are ...

  12. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  13. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  14. Structural system identification: Structural dynamics model validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Red-Horse, J.R.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural system identification is concerned with the development of systematic procedures and tools for developing predictive analytical models based on a physical structure`s dynamic response characteristics. It is a multidisciplinary process that involves the ability (1) to define high fidelity physics-based analysis models, (2) to acquire accurate test-derived information for physical specimens using diagnostic experiments, (3) to validate the numerical simulation model by reconciling differences that inevitably exist between the analysis model and the experimental data, and (4) to quantify uncertainties in the final system models and subsequent numerical simulations. The goal of this project was to develop structural system identification techniques and software suitable for both research and production applications in code and model validation.

  15. Breakdown in the Wetting Transparency of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Chih-Jen

    We develop a theory to model the van der Waals interactions between liquid and graphene, including quantifying the wetting behavior of a graphene-coated surface. Molecular dynamics simulations and contact angle measurements ...

  16. BREAKDOWN OR BREAKTHROUGH? The Copenhagen Accord

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .U., have made commitments to curb global warming pollution and report on their actions and emissions, Mexico and others. At the same time, the Copenhagen Accord is clearly a work in progress. As President warming pollution. As I said yesterday, not having a law in hand is the biggest reason

  17. Ion manipulation device with electrical breakdown protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Tang, Keqi; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Smith, Richard D; Anderson, Gordon A; Baker, Erin M

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area. The surfaces are housed in a chamber, and at least one electrically insulative shield is coupled to an inner surface of the chamber for increasing a mean-free-path between two adjacent electrodes in the chamber.

  18. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Angel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salvino, Liming [NSWC, CADEROCK

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  19. Structural genomics - A goldmine of blueprints for structure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - A goldmine of blueprints for structure-based drug design. Structural genomics - A goldmine of blueprints for structure-based drug design. Abstract: In late 2007 the National...

  20. Cosmogony of Generic Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Buchert

    1994-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of formation of generic structures in the Universe is addressed, whereby first the kinematics of inertial continua for coherent initial data is considered. The generalization to self--gravitating continua is outlined focused on the classification problem of singularities and metamorphoses arising in the density field. Self--gravity gives rise to an internal hierarchy of structures, and, dropping the assumption of coherence, also to an external hierarchy of structures dependent on the initial power spectrum of fluctuations.

  1. Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test Structures & Applications Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 663-5330 Email UCSD EI Director Michael Todd (858) 534-5951 Professional Staff Assistant Jutta Kayser...

  2. Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    regarding the integrity of the structure. Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 663-5330 Email UCSD EI Director Michael Todd (858) 534-5951 Professional Staff...

  3. Novel Composite Cathode Structures

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory May 16, 2012 Novel Composite Cathode Structures This presentation does not contain any proprietary or...

  4. EMSL - structural biology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structural-biology en Improved protocol to purify untagged amelogenin - Application to murine amelogenin containing the equivalent P70 ? T point http:www.emsl.pnl.gov...

  5. Structural building response review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The integrity of a nuclear power plant during a postulated seismic event is required to protect the public against radiation. Therefore, a detailed set of seismic analyses of various structures and equipment is performed while designing a nuclear power plant. This report describes the structural response analysis method, including the structural model, soil-structure interaction as it relates to structural models, methods for seismic structural analysis, numerical integration methods, methods for non-seismic response analysis approaches for various response combinations, structural damping values, nonlinear response, uncertainties in structural properties, and structural response analysis using random properties. The report describes the state-of-the-art in these areas for nuclear power plants. It also details the past studies made at Sargent and Lundy to evaluate different alternatives and the conclusions reached for the specific purposes that those studies were intended. These results were incorporated here because they fall into the general scope of this report. The scope of the present task does not include performing new calculations.

  6. Photovoltaic Cell Structure Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The actual structural design of a photovoltaic (PV), or solar cell, depends on the limitations of the material used in the PV cell.

  7. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  8. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has...

  9. Protein Structure Prediction and Structural Genomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batzoglou, Serafim

    sequencing projects are producing linear amino acid sequences, but full understanding of the biological role, building a model, and assessing the model (1). The templates for modeling may be found by sequence folds. Each sequence-structure alignment is as- sessed by the energy of a corresponding coarse model

  10. Piecewise training for structured prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutton, Charles; McCallum, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    margin methods for structured prediction. In Internationalaccuracy computational gene prediction. PLoS Computationaltraining for structured prediction Charles Sutton Andrew

  11. & Education Structure 2 Parking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caughman, John

    Cinema East Hall University Technology Services Honors Stratford Building Parkway Science Building 1N Kononia House Fourth Ave Building Art Building Science & Education Center Parking Structure 2 Helen Gordon Child Center Science Research & Teaching Center Parking Structure 3 Ho man Hall West

  12. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  13. Optoelectronic Mounting Structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Gene R. (Albuquerque, NM); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (Albuquerque, NM); Baca, Johnny R. F. (Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Robert P. (Albuquerque, NM); Carson, Richard F. (Albuquerque, NM); Chu, Dahwey (Albuquerque, NM); Duckett, III, Edwin B. (Albuquerque, NM); McCormick, Frederick B. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, David W. (Sandia Park, NM); Peterson, Gary D. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM); Reysen, Bill H. (Lafayette, CO)

    2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectronic mounting structure is provided that may be used in conjunction with an optical transmitter, receiver or transceiver module. The mounting structure may be a flexible printed circuit board. Thermal vias or heat pipes in the head region may transmit heat from the mounting structure to the heat spreader. The heat spreader may provide mechanical rigidity or stiffness to the heat region. In another embodiment, an electrical contact and ground plane may pass along a surface of the head region so as to provide an electrical contact path to the optoelectronic devices and limit electromagnetic interference. In yet another embodiment, a window may be formed in the head region of the mounting structure so as to provide access to the heat spreader. Optoelectronic devices may be adapted to the heat spreader in such a manner that the devices are accessible through the window in the mounting structure.

  14. Structural Health Monitoring Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security, LLC 1 LA-CC-10-032 LA-UR 10-01259 1 Introduction to SHMTools SHMTools is a MATLAB package that facilitates the construction of structural health monitoring (SHM)...

  15. Tseltal clause structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shklovsky, Kirill

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation examines the syntax of clausal structure in Tseltal (Mayan) with a particular focus on agreement phenomena. The first domain of investigation is the External Possession Construction, in which the clausal ...

  16. Effect of buffer structures on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, L. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Xi, Y. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ren, F. [University of Florida; Pearton, S. J. [University of Florida; Laboutin, O. [Kopin Corporation, Taunton, MA; Cao, Yu [Kopin Corporation, Taunton, MA; Johnson, Wayne J. [Kopin Corporation, Taunton, MA; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with three different types of buffer layers, including a GaN/AlGaN composite layer, or 1 or 2 lm GaN thick layers, were fabricated and their reliability compared. The HEMTs with the thick GaN buffer layer showed the lowest critical voltage (Vcri) during off-state drain step-stress, but this was increased by around 50% and 100% for devices with the composite AlGaN/GaN buffer layers or thinner GaN buffers, respectively. The Voff - state for HEMTs with thin GaN and composite buffers were 100 V, however, this degraded to 50 60V for devices with thick GaN buffers due to the difference in peak electric field near the gate edge. A similar trend was observed in the isolation breakdown voltage measurements, with the highest Viso achieved based on thin GaN or composite buffer designs (600 700 V), while a much smaller Viso of 200V was measured on HEMTs with the thick GaN buffer layers. These results demonstrate the strong influence of buffer structure and defect density on AlGaN/GaN HEMT performance and reliability.

  17. Structural traps 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, N.H.; Beaumont, E.A.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book contains studies of oil and gas fields that are mainly structural in nature. Stratigraphy controls the extend of the reservoir in the traps of several fields, but overall, the main trapping features within the group of fields in this volume are structural. Fields covered in this volume include: Endicott Field, Point Arguello Field, West Puerto Chiquito Field, Dukhan Field, Sendji Field, Ruston Field, Raudhatain Field, Hassi Messaoud Field, Snapper Field, Tirrawarra Field, and Sacha Field.

  18. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  19. Chiral Interactions and Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randall D. Kamien

    1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The chiral structure of liquid crystalline phases arises due to the intrinsic chirality of the constituent mesogens. While it is seemingly straightforward to quantify the macroscopic chirality by using, for instance, the cholesteric pitch or the optical rotatory power, it is not as simple to quantify the chirality of a single molecule. I will discuss a systematic quantification of molecular chirality and show how the resulting chiral parameters may be used to predict macroscopic chiral structure.

  20. Structure function monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGraw, John T. (Placitas, NM); Zimmer, Peter C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ackermann, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.

  1. Fire protection for relocatable structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This standard supersedes DOE/EV-0043, ``Standard on Fire Protection for Portable Structures.`` It was revised to address the numerous types of relocatable structures, such as trailers, tension-supported structures, and tents being used by DOE and contractors.

  2. Investigating the durability of structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saba, Dana (Dana Walid)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The durability of structures is one of primary concerns in the engineering industry. Poor durability in design may result in a structure losing its performance to the extent where structural integrity is no longer satisfied ...

  3. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  4. Underground waste barrier structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saha, Anuj J. (Hamburg, NY); Grant, David C. (Gibsonia, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an underground waste barrier structure that consists of waste material, a first container formed of activated carbonaceous material enclosing the waste material, a second container formed of zeolite enclosing the first container, and clay covering the second container. The underground waste barrier structure is constructed by forming a recessed area within the earth, lining the recessed area with a layer of clay, lining the clay with a layer of zeolite, lining the zeolite with a layer of activated carbonaceous material, placing the waste material within the lined recessed area, forming a ceiling over the waste material of a layer of activated carbonaceous material, a layer of zeolite, and a layer of clay, the layers in the ceiling cojoining with the respective layers forming the walls of the structure, and finally, covering the ceiling with earth.

  5. Tailoring PDC speckle structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Brida; M. Genovese; A. Meda; I. Ruo-Berchera; E. Predazzi

    2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Speckle structure of parametric down conversion light has recently received a large attention due to relevance in view of applications to quantum imaging The possibility of tailoring the speckle size by acting on the pump properties is an interesting tool for the applications to quantum imaging and in particular to the detection of weak object under shot-noise limit. Here we present a systematic detailed experimental study of the speckle structure produced in type II PDC with particular attention to its variation with pump beam properties.

  6. Tailoring PDC speckle structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brida, G; Meda, A; Predazzi, E; Ruo-Berchera, I

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Speckle structure of parametric down conversion light has recently received a large attention due to relevance in view of applications to quantum imaging The possibility of tailoring the speckle size by acting on the pump properties is an interesting tool for the applications to quantum imaging and in particular to the detection of weak object under shot-noise limit. Here we present a systematic detailed experimental study of the speckle structure produced in type II PDC with particular attention to its variation with pump beam properties

  7. Search for Turing structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borckmans, P.; Dewel, G.; Walgraef, D.; Katayama, Y.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Albeit their prediction by Turing, chemical periodic stationary patterns under far from equilibrium conditions, which are considered as prototypes of dissipative structures, have not yet been observed in a clear-cut way. The authors here assess the situation and discuss the perturbative influence of convection on their formation and selection mechanisms.

  8. Project Structure Elke Karrenberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaus, Boris

    Project Structure Elke Karrenberg Project Manager, Head of Personnel Development Phone +49 6131 39-20634 Dr. Jana Leipold Project Staff, Personnel Development Consultant Phone +49 6131 39-25433 Antje Swietlik Project Staff Phone +49 6131 39-20140 Project Office JGU Leadership Forum Universitatis 3, Room 00

  9. Biomembrane Structure Unit, Biochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, Anthony

    and membrane proteins. However, the lack of essential high-resolution structural details at the molecular level Watts Abstract | Observing drugs and ligands at their site of action in membrane proteins is now targets in the future will be membrane proteins. This is, perhaps, not surprising, as most (~85

  10. Final Report on "Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gold, Steven H. [Naval Research Laboratory

    2013-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report on the research program ?Development and Testing of Advanced Accelerator Structures and Technologies at 11.424 GHz,? which was carried out by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) under Interagency Agreement DE?AI02?01ER41170 with the Department of Energy. The period covered by this report is 15 July 2010 ? 14 July 2013. The program included two principal tasks. Task 1 involved a study of the key physics issues related to the use of high gradient dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures in rf linear accelerators and was carried out in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Euclid Techlabs LLC. Task 2 involved a study of high power active microwave pulse compressors and was carried out in collaboration with Omega-P, Inc. and the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Nizhny Novgorod. The studies under Task 1 were focused on rf-induced multipactor and breakdown in externally driven DLA structures at the 200-ns timescale. Suppression of multipactor and breakdown are essential to the practical application of dielectric structures in rf linear accelerators. The structures that were studied were developed by ANL and Euclid Techlabs and their performance was evaluated at high power in the X-band Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. Three structures were designed, fabricated, and tested, and the results analyzed in the first two years of the program: a clamped quartz traveling-wave (TW) structure, a externally copper-coated TW structure, and an externally copper-coated dielectric standing-wave (SW) structure. These structures showed that rf breakdown could be largely eliminated by eliminating dielectric joints in the structures, but that the multipactor loading was omnipresent. In the third year of the program, the focus of the program was on multipactor suppression using a strong applied axial magnetic field, as proposed by Chang et al. [C. Chang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 063304 (2011).], and a successful experiment was carried out that demonstrated suppression of multipactor in the uniform-field region of a TW DLA structure. However, in accordance with theory, the multipactor was enhanced in regions of the structure with lower values of axial magnetic field. Under Task 2, there were two two-month experimental runs at NRL that were used to characterize the performance of high power two-channel dual-mode active microwave pulse compressor configurations that used electron-beam triggered switch cavities. The pulse compressors were designed and fabricated by Omega-P, Inc. and the Russian Institute of Applied Physics and tested in the Magnicon Laboratory at NRL. These pulse compressors made use of an electron beam discharge from a cylindrical knife-edged Mo cathode coated with a CVD diamond film that was driven by a ?100 kV, 100 ns high voltage pulse. The electron beam was used to change the resonant frequency of the switch cavities in order to create the output microwave pulse. The compressor channels included a TE01 input and output section and a TE02 energy storage cavity, followed by a switch assembly that controlled the coupling between the TE01 and TE02 modes. In the initial state, the switch cavity was in resonance, the reflection from the cavity was out of phase, and the mode conversion was only ~2-3%, allowing the energy storage cavity to fill. When the electron beam was discharged into the switch cavity, the cavity was shifted out of resonance, causing the phase of the reflection to change by ~?. As a result of the change in the reflection phase, the mode coupling in the conical taper was greatly increased, and could approach ~100%, permitting the energy storage cavity to empty in one cavity round trip time of the TE02 mode to produce a high power output pulse. The second experiment runs demonstrated a 190 MW, ~20 ns compressed pulse at 25.7 gain and ~50% efficiency, using a 7.4 MW, 1 ?s drive pulse from the magnicon. The success of this experiment suggests a path to future high gain active versions of the SLED 2 pulse compressor at SLAC.

  11. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Momyer, William R. (Palo Alto, CA); Littauer, Ernest L. (Los Altos Hills, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  12. Structured wafer for device processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A structured wafer that includes through passages is used for device processing. Each of the through passages extends from or along one surface of the structured wafer and forms a pattern on a top surface area of the structured wafer. The top surface of the structured wafer is bonded to a device layer via a release layer. Devices are processed on the device layer, and are released from the structured wafer using etchant. The through passages within the structured wafer allow the etchant to access the release layer to thereby remove the release layer.

  13. FUNCTIONAL AND SMART MATERIALS -Structural evolution and structure analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    FUNCTIONAL AND SMART MATERIALS -Structural evolution and structure analysis by Z.L. Wang and Z.C. Kang Georgia Institute of Technology Introduction Smart systems and smart materials Smart structures) a biological pattern of functioning (Spillman et al., 1996). Smart materials are a subset of the smart system

  14. Explicit construction of universal structures Jan Hubicka

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    St Andrews, University of

    Explicit construction of universal structures Jan Hubicka Charles University Prague Joint work with Jarik Nesetril Workshop on Homogeneous Structures 2011 Jan Hubicka Explicit construction of universal Explicit construction of universal structures #12;Universal relational structures By relational structures

  15. Regulation of Tall Structures (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A permit from the Department of Transportation is required for the construction or alteration of any structure higher than 200 feet above ground level, or structures near airports, highways,...

  16. Undergraduate Program Salary Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layeredof2014National Nuclear SecuritySalary Structure

  17. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity2Workshops01Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

  18. Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutronStrategic PlanStructural

  19. Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutronStrategic PlanStructuralMethodology Contact Institute

  20. Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutronStrategic PlanStructuralMethodology Contact

  1. Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutronStrategic PlanStructuralMethodology ContactTest

  2. Structural Health Monitoring Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutronStrategic PlanStructuralMethodology ContactTestHealth

  3. Structural Molecular Biology, SSRL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutronStrategicOur Mission Our Mission The SSRL Structural

  4. Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAbout » Staff125,849| OSTI, US AboutStructural Health

  5. Structural Molecular Biology, SSRL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAbout » Staff125,849| OSTI, US AboutStructural HealthToggle

  6. Structure/Function Relationships

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAbout » Staff125,849| OSTI,StructureofStructure/Function

  7. Maximum screening fields of superconducting multilayer structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurevich, Alex

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that a multilayer comprised of alternating thin superconducting and insulating layers on a thick substrate can fully screen the applied magnetic field exceeding the superheating fields $H_s$ of both the superconducting layers and the substrate, the maximum Meissner field is achieved at an optimum multilayer thickness. For instance, a dirty layer of thickness $\\sim 0.1\\; \\mu$m at the Nb surface could increase $H_s\\simeq 240$ mT of a clean Nb up to $H_s\\simeq 290$ mT. Optimized multilayers of Nb$_3$Sn, NbN, some of the iron pnictides, or alloyed Nb deposited onto the surface of the Nb resonator cavities could potentially double the rf breakdown field, pushing the peak accelerating electric fields above 100 MV/m while protecting the cavity from dendritic thermomagnetic avalanches caused by local penetration of vortices.

  8. Solar Decathlon Technology Spotlight: Structural Insulated Panels...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Decathlon Technology Spotlight: Structural Insulated Panels Solar Decathlon Technology Spotlight: Structural Insulated Panels September 20, 2011 - 7:13am Addthis These structural...

  9. Introduction to Structure and Dynamics: Inaugural Issue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Douglas R.; Manlove, Robert; Colby, B. N.; Garfias, Robert; Bell, Duran

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the premier issue of Structure and Dynamics, an electronicFor this great boon, Structure and Dynamics in particular iselectronic journals, Structure and Dynamics will be widely

  10. Structure of the CRA-2014: Structure of the CRA-2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure of the CRA-2014 List of Figures Figure STRUCT- 1. CRA-2014 Pictorial Roadmap This page intentionally left blank. Acronyms and Abbreviations CCA Compliance...

  11. Dissipative structures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langhorst, Benjamin R; Chu, Henry S

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissipative structures include at least one panel and a cell structure disposed adjacent to the at least one panel having interconnected cells. A deformable material, which may comprise at least one hydrogel, is disposed within at least one interconnected cell proximate to the at least one panel. Dissipative structures may also include a cell structure having interconnected cells formed by wall elements. The wall elements may include a mesh formed by overlapping fibers having apertures formed therebetween. The apertures may form passageways between the interconnected cells. Methods of dissipating a force include disposing at least one hydrogel in a cell structure proximate to at least one panel, applying a force to the at least one panel, and forcing at least a portion of the at least one hydrogel through apertures formed in the cell structure.

  12. Structural model of uramarsite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rastsvetaeva, R. K., E-mail: rast@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Sidorenko, G. A. [All-Russia Research Institute of Mineral Resources (VIMS) (Russian Federation); Ivanova, A. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Chukanov, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural model of uramarsite, a new mineral of the uran-mica family from the Bota-Burum deposit (South Kazakhstan), is determined using a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The parameters of the triclinic unit cell are as follows: a = 7.173(2) A, b = 7.167(5) A, c = 9.30(1) A, {alpha} = 90.13(7){sup o}, {beta} = 90.09(4){sup o}, {gamma} = 89.96(4){sup o}, and space group P1. The crystal chemical formula of uramarsite is: (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[AsO{sub 4}][PO{sub 4},AsO{sub 4}][NH{sub 4}][H{sub 3}O] . 6H{sub 2}O (Z = 1). Uramarsite is the second ammonium-containing mineral of uranium and an arsenate analogue of uramphite. In the case of uramarsite, the lowering of the symmetry from tetragonal to triclinic, which is accompanied by a triclinic distortion of the tetragonal unit cell, is apparently caused by the ordering of the As and P atoms and the NH{sub 4}, H{sub 3}O, and H{sub 2}O groups.

  13. Scaling of structural failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazant, Z.P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Chen, Er-Ping [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article attempts to review the progress achieved in the understanding of scaling and size effect in the failure of structures. Particular emphasis is placed on quasibrittle materials for which the size effect is complicated. Attention is focused on three main types of size effects, namely the statistical size effect due to randomness of strength, the energy release size effect, and the possible size effect due to fractality of fracture or microcracks. Definitive conclusions on the applicability of these theories are drawn. Subsequently, the article discusses the application of the known size effect law for the measurement of material fracture properties, and the modeling of the size effect by the cohesive crack model, nonlocal finite element models and discrete element models. Extensions to compression failure and to the rate-dependent material behavior are also outlined. The damage constitutive law needed for describing a microcracked material in the fracture process zone is discussed. Various applications to quasibrittle materials, including concrete, sea ice, fiber composites, rocks and ceramics are presented.

  14. Vessel structural support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenko, James X. (N. Versailles, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Twp., Allegheny County, PA); Wilson, Robert M. (Plum Boro, PA); Wepfer, Robert M. (Murrysville, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of "flat" attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator.

  15. Final Project Report: Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wessel, Silvia [Ballard Materials Products] [Ballard Materials Products; Harvey, David [Ballard Materials Products] [Ballard Materials Products

    2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a primary requirement for large scale commercialization of these power systems in transportation and stationary market applications that target operational lifetimes of 5,000 hours and 40,000 hours by 2015, respectively. Key degradation modes contributing to fuel cell lifetime limitations have been largely associated with the platinum-based cathode catalyst layer. Furthermore, as fuel cells are driven to low cost materials and lower catalyst loadings in order to meet the cost targets for commercialization, the catalyst durability has become even more important. While over the past few years significant progress has been made in identifying the underlying causes of fuel cell degradation and key parameters that greatly influence the degradation rates, many gaps with respect to knowledge of the driving mechanisms still exist; in particular, the acceleration of the mechanisms due to different structural compositions and under different fuel cell conditions remains an area not well understood. The focus of this project was to address catalyst durability by using a dual path approach that coupled an extensive range of experimental analysis and testing with a multi-scale modeling approach. With this, the major technical areas/issues of catalyst and catalyst layer performance and durability that were addressed are: 1. Catalyst and catalyst layer degradation mechanisms (Pt dissolution, agglomeration, Pt loss, e.g. Pt in the membrane, carbon oxidation and/or corrosion). a. Driving force for the different degradation mechanisms. b. Relationships between MEA performance, catalyst and catalyst layer degradation and operational conditions, catalyst layer composition, and structure. 2. Materials properties a. Changes in catalyst, catalyst layer, and MEA materials properties due to degradation. 3. Catalyst performance a. Relationships between catalyst structural changes and performance. b. Stability of the three-phase boundary and its effect on performance/catalyst degradation. The key accomplishments of this project are: The development of a molecular-dynamics based description of the carbon supported-Pt and ionomer system The development of a composition-based, 1D-statistical Unit Cell Performance model A modified and improved multi-pathway ORR model An extension of the existing micro-structural catalyst model to transient operation The coupling of a Pt Dissolution model to the modified ORR pathway model The Development A Semi-empirical carbon corrosion model The integration and release of an open-source forward predictive MEA performance and degradation model Completion of correlations of BOT (beginning of test) and EOT (end of test) performance loss breakdown with cathode catalyst layer composition, morphology, material properties, and operational conditions Catalyst layer durability windows and design curves A design flow path of interactions from materials properties and catalyst layer effective properties to performance loss breakdown for virgin and degraded catalyst layers In order to ensure the best possible user experience we will perform a staged release of the software leading up to the webinar scheduled in October 2013. The release schedule will be as follows (please note that the manual will be released with the beta release as direct support is provided in Stage 1): Stage 0 - Internal Ballard Release o Cross check of compilation and installation to ensure machine independence o Implement code on portable virtual machine to allow for non-UNIX use (pending) Stage 1 - Alpha Release o The model code will be made available via a GIT, sourceforge, or other repository (under discussion at Ballard) for download and installation by a small pre-selected group of users o Users will be given three weeks to install, apply, and evaluate features of the code, providing feedback on issues or software bugs that require correction prior to beta release Stage 2 - Beta Release o The model code repository is opened to the general public on a beta release c

  16. Appendix C Conducting Structured Walkthroughs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide describes how to conduct a structured walkthroughs during the lifecycle stages of software engineering projects, regardless of hardware platform.

  17. Quasicrystalline structures and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinhardt, Paul J; Chaikin, Paul Michael; Man, Weining

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates generally to the field of quasicrystalline structures. In preferred embodiments, the stopgap structure is more spherically symmetric than periodic structures facilitating the formation of stopgaps in nearly all directions because of higher rotational symmetries. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of quasicrystalline structures for optical, mechanical, electrical and magnetic purposes. In some embodiments, the invention relates to manipulating, controlling, modulating and directing waves including electromagnetic, sound, spin, and surface waves, for pre-selected range of wavelengths propagating in multiple directions.

  18. Quasicrystalline structures and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinhardt, Paul Joseph (Princeton, NJ); Chaikin, Paul Michael (New York, NY); Man, Weining (San Francisco, CA)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates generally to the field of quasicrystalline structures. In preferred embodiments, the stopgap structure is more spherically symmetric than periodic structures facilitating the formation of stopgaps in nearly all directions because of higher rotational symmetries. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of quasicrystalline structures for optical, mechanical, electrical and magnetic purposes. In some embodiments, the invention relates to manipulating, controlling, modulating and directing waves including electromagnetic, sound, spin, and surface waves, for a pre-selected range of wavelengths propagating in multiple directions.

  19. Structural Genomics and Structural Proteomics: A Global Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussman, Joel L.

    -genome information and the success of high-throughput (HTP) methods in DNA sequencing. It was envisaged that similar HTP methods could be applied to deter- mining the 3-D structures of "all" the proteins (the "proteome, automated technologies for implementing a HTP pipeline approach to structure determination; a focus on novel

  20. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  1. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heaps, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Steffler, Eric D (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  2. Synthesis, Structure and Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Amidoborane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthesis, Structure and Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Amidoborane Monoammoniate. Synthesis, Structure and Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Amidoborane Monoammoniate. Abstract:...

  3. Spatial Data Structures Hanan Samet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    Spatial Data Structures Hanan Samet Computer Science Department and Institute of Advanced Computer An overview is presented of the use of spatial data structures in spatial databases. The focus to the space occupied by it. Such techniques are known as spatial indexing methods. Hierarchical data

  4. Computational investigation of structured shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    . Grujicic, W.C. Bell and B. Pandurangan Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, Composite materials, Wave propagation, Mechanical shock, Metal matrix composites, Structured shocks, Dynamic Detonation Explosives Shallow-Buried in Soil" Contract Number W911NF-06-2-0042. Structured shocks in MMCs 469

  5. Cluster structures in Oxygen isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Furutachi; M. kimura; A. Dot; Y. Kanada-En'yo; S. oryu

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cluster structure of 16O,18O and 20O is investigated by the antisymmettrized molecular dynamics (AMD) plus generator coordinate method (GCM). We have found the K^{\\pi}=0$_2^+$ and 0$_1^-$ rotational bands of 18O that have the prominent 14C+\\alpha cluster structure. Clustering systematics becomes richer in 20O. We suggest the K^{\\pi}=0$_2^+$ band that is the mixture of the 12C+\\alpha+4n and 14C+6He cluster structures, and the K^{\\pi}=0$_1^-$ band that has the 14C+6He cluster structure. The K^{\\pi}=0$_3^+$ and 0$_2^-$ bands that have the prominent 16C+\\alpha cluster structure are also found.

  6. Phase-space structures II: Hierarchical Structure Finder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Maciejewski; S. Colombi; V. Springel; C. Alard; F. R. Bouchet

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new multi-dimensional Hierarchical Structure Finder (HSF) to study the phase-space structure of dark matter in N-body cosmological simulations is presented. The algorithm depends mainly on two parameters, which control the level of connectivity of the detected structures and their significance compared to Poisson noise. By working in 6D phase-space, where contrasts are much more pronounced than in 3D position space, our HSF algorithm is capable of detecting subhaloes including their tidal tails, and can recognise other phase-space structures such as pure streams and candidate caustics. If an additional unbinding criterion is added, the algorithm can be used as a self-consistent halo and subhalo finder. As a test, we apply it to a large halo of the Millennium Simulation, where 19 % of the halo mass are found to belong to bound substructures, which is more than what is detected with conventional 3D substructure finders, and an additional 23-36 % of the total mass belongs to unbound HSF structures. The distribution of identified phase-space density peaks is clearly bimodal: high peaks are dominated by the bound structures and low peaks belong mostly to tidal streams. In order to better understand what HSF provides, we examine the time evolution of structures, based on the merger tree history. Bound structures typically make only up to 6 orbits inside the main halo. Still, HSF can identify at the present time at least 80 % of the original content of structures with a redshift of infall as high as z space.

  7. Thermal transfer structures coupling electronics card(s) to coolant-cooled structure(s)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    David, Milnes P; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Parida, Pritish R; Schmidt, Roger R

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling apparatuses and coolant-cooled electronic systems are provided which include thermal transfer structures configured to engage with a spring force one or more electronics cards with docking of the electronics card(s) within a respective socket(s) of the electronic system. A thermal transfer structure of the cooling apparatus includes a thermal spreader having a first thermal conduction surface, and a thermally conductive spring assembly coupled to the conduction surface of the thermal spreader and positioned and configured to reside between and physically couple a first surface of an electronics card to the first surface of the thermal spreader with docking of the electronics card within a socket of the electronic system. The thermal transfer structure is, in one embodiment, metallurgically bonded to a coolant-cooled structure and facilitates transfer of heat from the electronics card to coolant flowing through the coolant-cooled structure.

  8. Structure and function of human cytochromes P450 enzymes: Xenobiotic metabolism by CYP2A and steroid biosynthesis by CYP17A1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVore, Natasha M.

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a superfamily of heme-containing enzymes that have roles in the breakdown or synthesis of steroids, fatty acids, vitamins, and eicosanoids. They are also the main family of enzymes involved in the ...

  9. The structure of nickel clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, E.K.; Winter, B.J.; Klots, T.D.; Riley, S.J. (Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (US))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reactions of nickel clusters with ammonia and with water are used to probe cluster geometrical structure. Ammonia uptake experiments allow the determination of the number of preferred binding sites on cluster surfaces. This number shows pronounced minima in the 50- to 116- atom size range for many of the cluster sizes that appear as magic numbers in mass spectra of rare gas clusters. Since these magic numbers arise from closings of shells and subshells of the Mackay icosahedra, the correlation suggests that ammoniated nickel clusters in this size region also have icosahedral structure. Similar structure is found for ammoniated clusters smaller than {similar to}30 atoms, but is not seen for room temperature clusters in the vicinity of the third shell closing at 147 atoms. Icosahedral features do appear for the larger clusters at elevated temperatures. For many clusters above 50 atoms, prolonged exposure to ammonia causes a conversion from the icosahedral structure to some other structure that binds more ammonia molecules, and often the two structures are seen together. The equilibrium reaction of a single water molecule with the bare clusters probes the strength of the cluster--water bond. Enhanced water adsorption is often seen for clusters one atom larger than those showing minima in ammonia uptake, suggesting that these bare clusters likewise have icosahedral structure. The reasons for minima in ammonia uptake and maxima in water binding are discussed.

  10. Seventh BES (Basic Energy Sciences) catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  11. Protein Structure Recognition: From Eigenvector Analysis to Structural Threading Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haibo Cao

    2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, they try to understand the protein folding problem using pair-wise hydrophobic interaction as the dominant interaction for the protein folding process. They found a strong correlation between amino acid sequences and the corresponding native structure of the protein. Some applications of this correlation were discussed in this dissertation include the domain partition and a new structural threading method as well as the performance of this method in the CASP5 competition. In the first part, they give a brief introduction to the protein folding problem. Some essential knowledge and progress from other research groups was discussed. This part includes discussions of interactions among amino acids residues, lattice HP model, and the design ability principle. In the second part, they try to establish the correlation between amino acid sequence and the corresponding native structure of the protein. This correlation was observed in the eigenvector study of protein contact matrix. They believe the correlation is universal, thus it can be used in automatic partition of protein structures into folding domains. In the third part, they discuss a threading method based on the correlation between amino acid sequences and ominant eigenvector of the structure contact-matrix. A mathematically straightforward iteration scheme provides a self-consistent optimum global sequence-structure alignment. The computational efficiency of this method makes it possible to search whole protein structure databases for structural homology without relying on sequence similarity. The sensitivity and specificity of this method is discussed, along with a case of blind test prediction. In the appendix, they list the overall performance of this threading method in CASP5 blind test in comparison with other existing approaches.

  12. Thermal control structure and garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible thermally conductive structure. The structure generally includes a plurality of thermally conductive yarns, at least some of which are at least partially disposed adjacent to an elastomeric material. Typically, at least a portion of the plurality of thermally conductive yarns is configured as a sheet. The yarns may be constructed from graphite, metal, or similar materials. The elastomeric material may be formed from urethane or silicone foam that is at least partially collapsed, or from a similar material. A thermal management garment is provided, the garment incorporating a flexible thermally conductive structure.

  13. CABM Symposium Applications of NMR to structure-based drug design in structural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powers, Robert

    CABM Symposium Applications of NMR to structure-based drug design in structural genomics Robert, structure-based drug design, structural genomics Abstract Structural genomics is poised to have a tremendous design in the era of structural genomics. Introduction Structure-based drug design has established itself

  14. Structure and Information Stephen Binns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binns, Stephen

    of a Turing Machine. Stephen Binns Structure and Information #12;Alan Turing's Machines A Turing machine (TM and Information #12;Alan Turing's Machines A Turing machine (TM) consists of an infinite (in one direction) tape

  15. Electronic structure of superconductivity refined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on a little understood aspect of the electronic structure in high-temperature superconductors. July 10, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa...

  16. Protein Structure Analysis Iosif Vaisman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaisman, Iosif

    Protein Structure Analysis Iosif Vaisman 2012 BINF 731 Protein Engineering Protein Engineering Increase catalytic activity Change substrate binding site to increase specificity Change the thermal stability Increase proteins resistance to proteases Change codon composition Protein Engineering

  17. Scott Sanner Data Structures for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanner, Scott

    Scott Sanner Data Structures for Efficient Inference and Optimization Ehsan Abbasnejad Zahra Zamani · D: true distance to wall · x1, ..., xn: measurements · want: E[D | x1,...,xn] #12;Bayesian Robotics

  18. EFFICIENT STRUCTURED MULTIFRONTAL FACTORIZATION FOR ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Such rank phenomenon is indeed observed for the .... Moreover, the HSS tree can help quickly identify any off-diagonal block of the ...... Table 4.1. Factorization cost ?fact, solution cost ?sol, and storage ?mem of the structured multifrontal.

  19. Chemical evolution STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kruit, Piet van der

    Outline Absorption Chemical evolution STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES 8. Absorption; chemical evolution Piet Piet van der Kruit, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute Absorption; chemical evolution #12;Outline Absorption Chemical evolution Outline Absorption Holmberg's analysis Analysis of Disney et al. Edge

  20. STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING, MECHANICS AND MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuhang

    of companies worldwide; cladding effects on, and hybrid control of, the response of tall buildings Buildings Masonry Structures Nano/Microstructure of Cement-based Materials Polymeric Composite Systems Reliable Engineering Computing Risk Analysis Seismic Hazard Mitigation Smart Materials

  1. 2014 GRADUATE STUDIES STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuhang

    , the response of tall buildings to earthquake and wind; steel connection design and behavior; and structural engineering and mechanics Advanced Applied Mathematics in Engineering Advanced Dynamics and Smart Environments High-performance Concrete and Steel Horizontally Curved Bridges Industrial Buildings

  2. Geometric algorithms for reconfigurable structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benbernou, Nadia M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, we study three problems related to geometric algorithms of reconfigurable structures. In the first problem, strip folding, we present two universal hinge patterns for a strip of material that enable the ...

  3. Water intrusion in underground structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarchuk, Alex

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a study of the permissible groundwater infiltration rates in underground structures, the consequences of this leakage and the effectiveness of mitigation measures. Design guides and codes do not restrict, ...

  4. Fracture of aluminum naval structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galanis, Konstantinos, 1970-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural catastrophic failure of naval vessels due to extreme loads such as underwater or air explosion, high velocity impact (torpedoes), or hydrodynamic loads (high speed vessels) is primarily caused by fracture. ...

  5. Wide-span cable structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santoso, Katherina, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, the application of cable structures in buildings has gained huge popularities. Although cable technology has been established since the 1950s, there is suddenly a surge in the number of its building ...

  6. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Prabir [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)] [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Labbe, Pierre [Electricity of France (EDF)] [Electricity of France (EDF); Naus, Dan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  7. Reliability-based framework for fatigue damage prognosis of bonded structural elements in aerospace composite structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobbato, Maurizio

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H. Asada, and S. Ito, Reliability of aircraft structuresH.O. Madsen, Structural reliability methods , Wiley, WestH. Asada, and S. Ito, Reliability of aircraft structures

  8. Integrated structural control design of large space structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.J.; Lauffer, J.P.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Active control of structures has been under intensive development for the last ten years. Reference 2 reviews much of the identification and control technology for structural control developed during this time. The technology was initially focused on space structure and weapon applications; however, recently the technology is also being directed toward applications in manufacturing and transportation. Much of this technology focused on multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) identification and control methodology because many of the applications require a coordinated control involving multiple disturbances and control objectives where multiple actuators and sensors are necessary for high performance. There have been many optimal robust control methods developed for the design of MIMO robust control laws; however, there appears to be a significant gap between the theoretical development and experimental evaluation of control and identification methods to address structural control applications. Many methods have been developed for MIMO identification and control of structures, such as the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA), Q-Markov Covariance Equivalent Realization (Q-Markov COVER) for identification; and, Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG), Frequency Weighted LQG and H-/ii-synthesis methods for control. Upon implementation, many of the identification and control methods have shown limitations such as the excitation of unmodelled dynamics and sensitivity to system parameter variations. As a result, research on methods which address these problems have been conducted.

  9. Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of Nickel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrochemical, Structural and Surface Characterization of NickelZirconia Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes in Coal Gas Containing Electrochemical, Structural and Surface...

  10. Facile synthesized nanorod structured vanadium pentoxide for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    synthesized nanorod structured vanadium pentoxide for high-rate lithium batteries. Facile synthesized nanorod structured vanadium pentoxide for high-rate lithium batteries....

  11. Crump Geyser: High Precision Geophysics & Detailed Structural...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Crump Geyser: High Precision Geophysics & Detailed Structural Exploration & Slim Well Drilling Crump Geyser: High Precision Geophysics & Detailed Structural Exploration & Slim Well...

  12. Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics Print Wednesday, 28 January 2015 00:00 With an aging population in...

  13. Investigations of Structure and Metabolism within Shewanella...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Structure and Metabolism within Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Biofilms . Investigations of Structure and Metabolism within Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Biofilms . Abstract: Biofilms...

  14. FAQS Qualification Card - Civil Structural Engineering | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Civil Structural Engineering FAQS Qualification Card - Civil Structural Engineering A key element for the Department's Technical Qualification Programs is a set of common...

  15. Review: Structuring an Energy Technology Revolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunnas, Jan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structuring an Energy Technology Revolution By Charles WeissB. Structuring an Energy Technology Revolution. Cambridge,increases in spending on energy technology and innovation,

  16. CRAD, Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Concrete, May...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CRAD, Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Concrete, May 29, 2009 CRAD, Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Concrete, May 29, 2009 May 29, 2009 Nuclear Facility...

  17. Method of making high breakdown voltage semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arthur, Stephen D. (Scotia, NY); Temple, Victor A. K. (Jonesville, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor device having at least one P-N junction and a multiple-zone junction termination extension (JTE) region which uniformly merges with the reverse blocking junction is disclosed. The blocking junction is graded into multiple zones of lower concentration dopant adjacent termination to facilitate merging of the JTE to the blocking junction and placing of the JTE at or near the high field point of the blocking junction. Preferably, the JTE region substantially overlaps the graded blocking junction region. A novel device fabrication method is also provided which eliminates the prior art step of separately diffusing the JTE region.

  18. Aerosol measurements with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithgow, Gregg Arthur

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lochte-Holtgreven, Plasma diagnostics. New York : AIP Press,Principles of plasma diagnostics. Cambridge ; New York :

  19. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Applications Toward Thin Film Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Travis Nathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    phase laser induced plasma diagnostics and mass removalS. S. Mao. Time-resolved plasma diagnostics and mass removal

  20. Vanadylporphyrins, indicators of kerogen breakdown and generation of petroleum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundararaman, P. (Chevron Oil Field Research Company, La Habra, CA (USA)); Biggs, W.R.; Reynolds, J.G.; Fetzer, J.C. (Chevron Research Company, Richmond, CA (USA))

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attempts at understanding the transformation of organic material into fossil fuels often relies on biomarkers, organic compounds present in the geological record that can be related to naturally-occurring molecules from specific organisms. While porphyrins were the first biomarkers identified in fossil fuels, no significant use has been made of them in geochemical correlation studies. The authors believe that one limitation to their usage has been inaccurate models proposed for the fate of porphyrins during catagenesis. Using laboratory pyrolysis experiments they show that the changes observed in vanadylporphyrin distribution during catagenesis is due to increasing dilution of preexisting DPEP vanadylporphyrins by ETIO vanadylporphyrins released from kerogen. In conjunction with a quantitative expression describing the change in vanadylporphyrin distribution during maturation called the Porphyrin Maturity Parameter (PMP), a basis is now provided for the use of vanadylprophyrins as indicators of onset of petroleum generation.

  1. Engineering work breakdown and assignment for global product development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zamora Torres, Carlos Xavier

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Companies are always looking for ways to reduce their costs, cost reductions which allow companies to increase their overall profits. There are various cost reductions strategies, such as: change materials and/or design ...

  2. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Applications Toward Thin Film Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Travis Nathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    extensively in dye-sensitized solar cells for their porositylayers for dye-sensitized solar cells [59]. A mortar and

  3. Hydraulic drill string breakdown and bleed off unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeringue, F.J. Jr.

    1987-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for use within an oil well rig for decoupling a tubing string into pipe segments comprising, in combination: rotary tong means for applying an unthreading torque to a first, upper pipe segment within the tubing string; torque resisting means for securing a second, lower pipe segment within the tubing string against the unthreading torque; containing means, intermediate the rotary tong means and the torque resisting means, enclosing a threaded joint of the tubing string, adapted for containing pressurized gases, liquids, and particulates, released from the threaded joint upon the decoupling; fluid communicating means for allowing fluid communication between the containing means and a receiving point adapted for receiving the pressurized gases, liquids, and particulates; means for moving the rotary tong means, the torque resisting means and the containing means between a closed, engaging position with the tubing string and an open position; and means for horizontally moving the rotary tong means, the torque resisting means and the containing means between a position adjacent the tubing string and a position away from the tubing string.

  4. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Applications Toward Thin Film Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Travis Nathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the surface. Ultrafast laser pulses are shorter than thethe advantages of ultrafast laser pulses for thin film LIBS,each time. While ultrafast laser pulses are effective in

  5. Aerosol measurements with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithgow, Gregg Arthur

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fused silica lenses to focus the plasma emission onto a UVideal lens focuses light from the plasma onto the tip of anboth focus the laser pulse and collect the plasma emission

  6. Electrical breakdown at low pressure for planar microelectromechanical systems with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    is a major drawback for the simulation of Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However when the Navier

  7. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Applications Toward Thin Film Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Travis Nathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.5 Laserb) 60 shots, (c) 80 shots, and (d) 100 shots with 60mJ laserAutofocusing . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Laser and Spectrometer

  8. Improved Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Elemental Composition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching.348 270 300 219 255 135Detection System - Energy

  9. Mitigating Breakdown in High Energy Density Perovskite Polymer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOE TribaltheMyMinutes from December 16,

  10. Coordination Breakdowns and Their Impact on Development Productivity and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbsleb, James D.

    coordinating the effort of many individuals across the multiple stages of the development process. In software in a reduction of work dependencies between teams developing interdependent modules. Although that research stream has been quite influential, it considers a static view of the problem of coordination

  11. Relativisticlike structure of classical thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernando Quevedo; Alberto Sanchez; Alejandro Vazquez

    2014-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze in the context of geometrothermodynamics a Legendre invariant metric structure in the equilibrium space of an ideal gas. We introduce the concept of thermodynamic geodesic as a succession of points, each corresponding to a state of equilibrium, so that the resulting curve represents a quasi-static process. A rigorous geometric structure is derived in which the thermodynamic geodesics at a given point split the equilibrium space into two disconnected regions separated by adiabatic geodesics. This resembles the causal structure of special relativity, which we use to introduce the concept of adiabatic cone for thermodynamic systems. This result might be interpreted as an alternative indication of the inter-relationship between relativistic physics and classical thermodynamics.

  12. Quasicrystalline structures and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinhardt, Paul Joseph; Chaikin, Paul Michael; Man, Weining

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates generally to devices constructed from quasicrystalline heterostructures. In preferred embodiments, two or more dielectric materials are arranged in a two- or three-dimensional space in a lattice pattern having at least a five-fold symmetry axis and not a six-fold symmetry axis, such that the quasicrystalline heterostructure exhibits an energy band structure in the space, the band structure having corresponding symmetry, which symmetry is forbidden in crystals, and which band structure comprises a complete band gap. The constructed devices are adapted for manipulating, controlling, modulating, trapping, reflecting and otherwise directing waves including electromagnetic, sound, spin, and surface waves, for a pre-selected range of wavelengths propagating within or through the heterostructure in multiple directions.

  13. Interface dynamics for layered structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takao Ohta; David Jasnow

    1997-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate dynamics of large scale and slow deformations of layered structures. Starting from the respective model equations for a non-conserved system, a conserved system and a binary fluid, we derive the interface equations which are a coupled set of equations for deformations of the boundaries of each domain. A further reduction of the degrees of freedom is possible for a non-conserved system such that internal motion of each domain is adiabatically eliminated. The resulting equation of motion contains only the displacement of the center of gravity of domains, which is equivalent to the phase variable of a periodic structure. Thus our formulation automatically includes the phase dynamics of layered structures. In a conserved system and a binary fluid, however, the internal motion of domains turns out to be a slow variable in the long wavelength limit because of concentration conservation. Therefore a reduced description only involving the phase variable is not generally justified.

  14. Collective network for computer structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Gara, Alan (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Ossining, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Brewster, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Wernau, DE); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global collective communications among interconnected processing nodes. The global collective network optimally enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices ate included that interconnect the nodes of the network via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual network and class structures. The global collective network may be configured to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner. When implemented in a massively-parallel supercomputing structure, the global collective network is physically and logically partitionable according to needs of a processing algorithm.

  15. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  16. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wayne Y. (Munster, IN)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  17. Thermographic inspection of massive structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renshaw, Jeremy B.; Guimaraes, Maria; Scott, David B. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Nondestructive Evaluation of concrete structures is a growing concern for the nuclear industry as well as for many other industries. As critical concrete components continue to age, the ability to assess the health and suitability for continued service has become a key consideration. In some cases, repair of these structures is difficult and expensive, while replacement is prohibitively expensive or, in some cases, not feasible. Therefore, the ability to inspect these key assets is a primary concern, especially in the nuclear industry. Due to the large size of containment buildings, cooling towers, and other large concrete assets, the ability to rapidly inspect for defects of concern is very desirable. Thermographic inspection appears to have the required ability to rapidly inspect large structures to ascertain the location and size of many of the defects of concern. This ability was demonstrated by performing a thermographic inspection of a large concrete dam in 2 days.

  18. Chapter 8: Tension Structures Section 8.3: Tensegrity Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Snelson and David Georges Emmerich. All three applied for a patent with different wordings a special Issue of the International Journal of Space Structures [8.3.1]. David Georges Emmerich was very that it was dealing with tensegrity systems, even if David Georges Emmerich called them "Systèmes autotendants

  19. Microsoft Word - Cover Page - Exhibit 5

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 Structure Quantity Structure Height EXHIBIT 5 Project Structure Height Breakdown - HVDC & 345-kV HVDC Structures 345-kV Structures 27-JUN-2013...

  20. Changing the Structure Boundary Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karasev, Viktor; Dzlieva, Elena; Ivanov, Artyom [St.-Petersburg State University, Physics Faculty, Ulianovskaya 1, Peterhof, St. Petersburg, 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of previously obtained results shows that hexagonal crystal lattice is the dominant type of ordering, in particular, in striated glow discharges. We explore the possibility for changing the dust distribution in horizontal cross sections of relatively highly ordered structures in a glow-discharge. Presuming that boundary geometry can affect dust distribution, we used cylindrical coolers held at 0 deg. C and placed against a striation containing a structure, to change the geometry of its outer boundary. By varying the number of coolers, their positions, and their separations from the tube wall, azimuthally asymmetric thermophoretic forces can be used to form polygonal boundaries and vary the angles between their segments (in a horizontal cross section). The corner in the structure's boundary of 60 deg. stimulates formation of hexagonal cells. The structure between the supported parallel boundaries is also characterized by stable hexagonal ordering. We found that a single linear boundary segment does not give rise to any sizable domain, but generates a lattice extending from the boundary (without edge defects). A square lattice can be formed by setting the angle equal to 90 deg. . However, angles of 45 deg. and 135 deg. turned out easier to form. Square lattice was created by forming a near-135 deg. corner with four coolers. It was noted that no grain ordering is observed in the region adjacent to corners of angles smaller than 30 deg. , which do not promote ordering into cells of any shape. Thus, manipulation of a structure boundary can be used to change dust distribution, create structures free of the ubiquitous edge defects that destroy orientation order, and probably change the crystal lattice type.

  1. Loop shaping of structural dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Byeong Hwa

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ratios. . 51 5 Constant Current Tests. 6 Varying Current Tests 75 79 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Idealized Multiple-Degree-of Freedom Structure. 2 Induced Matrix Norm. 13 3 System G(s) . 15 4 Singular Values of Displacement Response... in terms of the expected values of stochastic signals. All of these various interpretations make the H?norm useful in engineering applications. 15 w(t) G(s) z(t) Fig. 3. System G(s) 2. 3 Singular Values of Structural Dynamics 2. 3. 1 Displacement...

  2. Method for protein structure alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blankenbecler, Richard; Ohlsson, Mattias; Peterson, Carsten; Ringner, Markus

    2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method for protein structure alignment. More particularly, the present invention provides a method for identification, classification and prediction of protein structures. The present invention involves two key ingredients. First, an energy or cost function formulation of the problem simultaneously in terms of binary (Potts) assignment variables and real-valued atomic coordinates. Second, a minimization of the energy or cost function by an iterative method, where in each iteration (1) a mean field method is employed for the assignment variables and (2) exact rotation and/or translation of atomic coordinates is performed, weighted with the corresponding assignment variables.

  3. On Tailoring PDC speckle structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brida, G; Meda, A; Ruo-Berchera, I; Predazzi, E

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Speckle structure of parametric down conversion light has recently received a large attention due to relevance in view of applications to quantum imaging The possibility of tailoring the speckle size by acting on the pump properties is an interesting tool for the applications to quantum imaging and in particular to the detection of weak object under shot-noise limit. Here we present a systematic detailed experimental study of the speckle structure produced in type II PDC with particular attention to its variation with pump beam properties.

  4. Quasar Structure and Cosmological Feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Elvis

    2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Feedback from quasars and AGNs is being invoked frequently in several cosmological settings. Currently, order of magnitude, or more, uncertainties in the structure of both the wind and the 'obscuring torus' make predictions highly uncertain. To make testable models of this 'cosmological feedback' it is essential to understand the detailed structure of AGNs sufficiently well to predict their properties for the whole quasar population, at all redshifts. Progress in both areas is rapid, and I describe the near-term prospects for reducing these uncertainties for 'slow' (non-relativistic) AGN winds and the obscuring torus.

  5. Financing Structures | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAX POLICIES ANDIndustrialEnergyFinal FY 2009Structures Financing Structures

  6. Hypertext navigation by network structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peart, Sheila Ann

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Card. . . . . . . 2. 4 gIBIS . 2. 5 HyperNews 2. 6 HyperMail . 2, 7 Summary 3. TRANSLATION METHODS . . 13 . . 13 . 16 . . 16 . . 18 . . 21 . . 21 . . 22 3. 1 Usenet Conversation Structures 22 3. 1. 1 Usenet Reference Techniques 3. 1. 2 Primary... and Secondary References 3. 1. 3 Important Conversation Structures 3. 1. 4 Usenet Article Key Words and Phrases . . 3. 2 Algorithms for Translation . . 22 . . 24 26 . . 32 . . 33 3. 2, 1 Tnmslation Steps 3. 2. 2 Determination of Article Type 3. 2. 3...

  7. Electronic structure of superconductivity refined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series toESnet4: Networking for the‹Electronic Structure ofElectronic structure

  8. Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutronStrategicOurStructure of Synaptic ConnectorsStructure

  9. Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAbout » Staff125,849| OSTI,Structure ofStructure

  10. Carbon Nanoscience and Electronic Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Jennifer

    Carbon Nanoscience and Electronic Structure Louis Brus We explore the fundamental nature electromagnetic fields, and solar energy nanoscience. He has received the APS Langmuir Prize, the ACS Chemistry of Materials Prize, the OSA Wood Prize, the inaugural Kavli Prize in Nanoscience and in 2012 the Bower Prize

  11. Cosmological structures in generalized gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Hwang

    1997-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In a class of generalized gravity theories with general couplings between the scalar field and the scalar curvature in the Lagrangian, we describe the quantum generation and the classical evolution processes of both the scalar and tensor structures in a simple and unified manner.

  12. Protein Structure Analysis Iosif Vaisman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaisman, Iosif

    Protein Structure Analysis Iosif Vaisman 2009 BINF 731 Protein Engineering Protein Engineering Increase catalytic activity Change substrate binding site to increase specificity Change the thermal152S -1.08 1goj S152T 1.12 Protein Engineering Protein Engineering #12;Protein Engineering Protein

  13. Hummingbird structure in southeastern Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.D.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saskatchewan's first Devonian oil pool was discovered September 1966, at Hummingbird, 45 mi (72 km) southwest of Weyburn, Saskatchewan. The Hummingbird structure, located on the northwest flank of the Williston basin, is domal is nature and covers approximately 1 mi/sup 2/ (2.6 km/sup 2/). Oil production is from two zones. The Ratcliffe Member of the Mississippian Charles Formation produces from an algal and bioclastic limestone averaging 49 ft (15 m) thick. The Devonian Birdbear Formation produces from a finely crystalline vuggy dolomite averaging 56 ft (17 m) thick. The Hummingbird structure is a sedimentary structure resulting from multiple-stage salt solution and collapse. Recurring local solution of Middle Devonian Prairie Evaporite during Late Devonian and Early Mississippian time resulted in collapse of overlying strata and deposition of compensating thicknesses of Souris River, Duperow, and Bakken sediments. Between Mississippian and Cretaceous time, solution of Prairie Evaporite in the surrounding area caused collapse of all super-Prairie evaporite beds. The extra Souris River, Duperow, and Bakken strata at Hummingbird created the structure. Vertical migration of formation waters along a high-angle fault is suggested as the cause of the local salt solution at Hummingbird.

  14. High temperature turbine engine structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Gary L. (Tempe, AZ)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature turbine engine includes a rotor portion having axially stacked adjacent ceramic rotor parts. A ceramic/ceramic joint structure transmits torque between the rotor parts while maintaining coaxial alignment and axially spaced mutually parallel relation thereof despite thermal and centrifugal cycling.

  15. Structurally Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Structurally connected secondary mirror EMFF secondary mirror EMFF Design Electromagnetic Formation for a smaller, simpler system. µEMFF investigates the use of conventional conductors, capacitors, and solar propellants that often limit lifetime, the EMFF system uses solar power to energize a magnetic field

  16. Red Means Go Structural Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Red Means Go Structural Engineering: An Overview of Global Directions Marc Hoit, Ph.D. Vice Chancellor for IT Professor of Civil Engineering #12;Red Means Go Overview · Global trends affecting on advanced degrees · Educate for the "Smile" Creativity as fundamental education Entrepreneurs ­ Need

  17. protein structure communications 1. Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Ming-Daw

    protein structure communications 1. Introduction Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are widely distributed metabolism, signal transduction and eicosanoid production (Dennis, 1997 ). PLA2 enzymes are characterized PLA2s (80-110 kDa) are present in many cell types and are involved in phospholipid metabolism

  18. Synthesis and structure of perfluorocongressane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Han-Chao; Corbelin, S.; Lagow, R.J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct fluorination of inorganic, organometallic and organic compounds, employing the LaMar method, has impacted the synthesis of structurally unusual fluorinated compounds over the past 25 years. Perfluorocongressane was synthesized using elemental fluorine and characterized by mass spectra, {sup 19}F NMR, and X-ray crystallography. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. DNA Structural Nanotechnology Duke University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, John H.

    DNA Structural Nanotechnology John Reif Duke University Graduate Students: Harish Chandran&Caltech Tube Lattices #12;Ned Seeman New York University, USA Ned Seeman: Father of DNA Nanotechnology His Initial Ideas & Motivation for DNA Nanotechnology #12;Cube Chen & Seeman, Nature350:631 (1991) Truncated

  20. Social Structure [ Construction no. 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    Social Structure [ Construction no. 1 ] Foster Gallery, LSU SEPTEMBER 6-9 Reception 6-8 pm, Sept 8 [ Construction no. 1 ] is an interactive audiovisual performance for voice, social media, interactive media, and constructed speaker blocks in which social media artifacts (tweets, Facebook statuses, 4Square locales, Flickr

  1. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  2. Sodium loop framework structural analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1995-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the structural analysis of the Sodium Loop framework in a drop condition. The drop is similar to the US Department of Transportation non-bulk, performance-oriented packaging (Packaging Group I) drop test. The drop height evaluated for the Sodium Loop framework is 5.9 ft.

  3. Structural Analysis of Combustion Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tth, J; Zsly, I

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using ReactionKinetics, a Mathematica based package a few dozen detailed models for combustion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methanol are investigated. Essential structural characteristics are pulled out, and similarities and differences of the mechanisms are highlighted. These investigations can be used before or parallel with usual numerical investigations, such as pathway analysis, sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, or simulation.

  4. Space Science: Atmosphere Thermal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science: Atmosphere Part -2 Thermal Structure Review tropospheres Absorption of Radiation Adiabatic Lapse Rate ~ 9 K/km Slightly smaller than our estimate Pressure ~3000ft under ocean surface thickness (positive up) is the solar zenith angle Fs is the solar energy flux at frequency (when

  5. Solvent dramatically affects protein structure refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summa, Christopher M.

    Solvent dramatically affects protein structure refinement Gaurav Chopraa , Christopher M. Summab structure), also known as the protein structure refinement problem. It has been shown that improve- ment in protein structure refinement. Molecular dynamics in explicit sol- vent and energy minimization in both

  6. Method and apparatus for synthesizing filamentary structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Height, Murray J. (Somerville, MA); Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Vandersande, John B. (Newbury, MA)

    2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for producing filamentary structures. The structures include single-walled nanotubes. The method includes combusting hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen to establish a non-sooting flame and providing an unsupported catalyst to synthesize the filamentary structure in a post-flame region of the flame. Residence time is selected to favor filamentary structure growth.

  7. Engineering Structurally Configurable Models with Model Transformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Agilent, Bosch, HSBC, Lockheed-Martin, National Instruments, and Toyota. #12;Engineering Structurally

  8. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grot, Stephen [President, Ion Power Inc.] President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  9. Structural Health Monitoring for Impact Damage in Composite Structures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Raymond Bond (Purdue); Doug Adams (Purdue)

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite structures are increasing in prevalence throughout the aerospace, wind, defense, and transportation industries, but the many advantages of these materials come with unique challenges, particularly in inspecting and repairing these structures. Because composites of- ten undergo sub-surface damage mechanisms which compromise the structure without a clear visual indication, inspection of these components is critical to safely deploying composite re- placements to traditionally metallic structures. Impact damage to composites presents one of the most signi fi cant challenges because the area which is vulnerable to impact damage is generally large and sometimes very dif fi cult to access. This work seeks to further evolve iden- ti fi cation technology by developing a system which can detect the impact load location and magnitude in real time, while giving an assessment of the con fi dence in that estimate. Fur- thermore, we identify ways by which impact damage could be more effectively identi fi ed by leveraging impact load identi fi cation information to better characterize damage. The impact load identi fi cation algorithm was applied to a commercial scale wind turbine blade, and results show the capability to detect impact magnitude and location using a single accelerometer, re- gardless of sensor location. A technique for better evaluating the uncertainty of the impact estimates was developed by quantifying how well the impact force estimate meets the assump- tions underlying the force estimation technique. This uncertainty quanti fi cation technique was found to reduce the 95% con fi dence interval by more than a factor of two for impact force estimates showing the least uncertainty, and widening the 95% con fi dence interval by a fac- tor of two for the most uncertain force estimates, avoiding the possibility of understating the uncertainty associated with these estimates. Linear vibration based damage detection tech- niques were investigated in the context of structural stiffness reductions and impact damage. A method by which the sensitivity to damage could be increased for simple structures was presented, and the challenges of applying that technique to a more complex structure were identi fi ed. The structural dynamic changes in a weak adhesive bond were investigated, and the results showed promise for identifying weak bonds that show little or no static reduction in stiffness. To address these challenges in identifying highly localized impact damage, the possi- bility of detecting damage through nonlinear dynamic characteristics was also identi fi ed, with a proposed technique which would leverage impact location estimates to enable the detection of impact damage. This nonlinear damage identi fi cation concept was evaluated on a composite panel with a substructure disbond, and the results showed that the nonlinear dynamics at the damage site could be observed without a baseline healthy reference. By further developing impact load identi fi cation technology and combining load and damage estimation techniques into an integrated solution, the challenges associated with impact detection in composite struc- tures can be effectively solved, thereby reducing costs, improving safety, and enhancing the operational readiness and availability of high value assets.

  10. Heat pipe wick with structural enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andraka, Charles E.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Moreno, James B.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Showalter, Steven K.; Moss, Timothy A.

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pipe wick structure wherein a stout sheet of perforated material overlays a high performance wick material such as stainless steel felt affixed to a substrate. The inventive structure provides a good flow path for working fluid while maintaining durability and structural stability independent of the structure (or lack of structure) associated with the wick material. In one described embodiment, a wick of randomly laid .about.8 micron thickness stainless steel fibers is sintered to a metal substrate and a perforated metal overlay.

  11. Beam Coupling to Optical Scale Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sears, C.M.; Byer, R.L.; Colby, E.R.; Cowan, B.M.; Ischebeck, R.; Lincoln, M.R.; Siemann, R.H.; Spencer, J.E.; /SLAC; Plettner, T.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Current research efforts into structure based laser acceleration of electrons utilize beams from standard RF linacs. These beams must be coupled into very small structures with transverse dimensions comparable to the laser wavelength. To obtain decent transmission, a permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) triplet with a focusing gradient of 560 T/m is used to focus into the structure. Also of interest is the induced wakefield from the structure, useful for diagnosing potential accelerator structures or as novel radiation sources.

  12. Beam Coupling to Optical Scale Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sears, Christopher M. S.; Colby, Eric R.; Cowan, Benjamin M.; Ischebeck, Rasmus; Lincoln, Melissa R.; Siemann, Robert H.; Spencer, James E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Byer, Robert L.; Plettner, Tomas [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Current research efforts into structure based laser acceleration of electrons utilize beams from standard RF linacs. These beams must be coupled into very small structures with transverse dimensions comparable to the laser wavelength. To obtain decent transmission, a permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) triplet with a focusing gradient of 560 T/m is used to focus into the structure. Also of interest is the induced wakefield from the structure, useful for diagnosing potential accelerator structures or as novel radiation sources.

  13. (Structural investigation of curium bismuthide)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haire, R.G.

    1990-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the collaborative studies with EITU was to study curium bismuthide using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction to monitor its structure as a function of pressure. This objective was accomplished and the material was investigated up to 0.48 megabars of pressure. These studies were a continuation of established and productive collaborations between ORNL and EITU. The study of this curium compound is significant in that it is the first 5f-element bismuthide to be studied under pressure. Bismuth has the highest Z and the largest radius of the pnictogen group of elements (important for Hill Plot assessments) and has the greatest potential to form f-p type bonding with actinides under pressure. From a preliminary assessment of our experimental data it has been determined that two structural transitions occurred in the curium bismuthide sample as a result of the applied pressure.

  14. On rings of structural numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Wayne Bruce

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    structural numbers over the set X, and let B(X) have the operations defined above with equality also as before. Theorem I. l. If X is any set, then B(X) is a commutative ring with identity. Proof. The structural number 0 is the additive identity element... with identity g. Definition I. 7. If A, B e S(X) then A'B = (P U q ( p e A, q e B, p Il q = &f and p U q can be formed in an odd number of ways). ~E1 t. 4. L t A = (( . b), (bj. 7 )) 4 B = ((b, c), (b), (a)) be in S(X) for some X. Then AD B = {{b, a), {a...

  15. Process to make structured particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Angela Michelle; Richard, Monique N; Luhrs, Claudia; Blada, Timothy; Phillips, Jonathan

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a process for making a composite material that contains structured particles. The process includes providing a first precursor in the form of a dry precursor powder, a precursor liquid, a precursor vapor of a liquid and/or a precursor gas. The process also includes providing a plasma that has a high field zone and passing the first precursor through the high field zone of the plasma. As the first precursor passes through the high field zone of the plasma, at least part of the first precursor is decomposed. An aerosol having a second precursor is provided downstream of the high field zone of the plasma and the decomposed first material is allowed to condense onto the second precursor to from structured particles.

  16. Sandwich Construction Solar Structural Facets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diver, R. B.; Grossman, J.W.

    1998-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Silver/glass mirrors have excellent optical properties but need a method of support in order to be used in concentrating solar thermal systems. In collaboration with the Cummins dish/Stirling development program, they started investigating sandwich construction as a way to integrate silver/glass mirrors into solar optical elements. In sandwich construction, membranes such as sheet metal or plastic are bonded to the front and back of a core (like a sandwich). For solar optical elements, a glass mirror is bonded to one of the membranes. This type of construction has the advantages of a high strength-to-weight ratio, and reasonable material and manufacturing cost. The inherent stiffness of sandwich construction mirror panels also facilitates large panels. This can have cost advantages for both the amount of hardware required as well as reduced installation and alignment costs. In addition, by incorporating the panels into the support structure reductions in the amount of structural support required are potentially possible.

  17. Nanowire structures and electrical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bezryadin, Alexey (Champaign, IL); Remeika, Mikas (Urbana, IL)

    2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive segments and conductance constricting segments of a nanowire, such as metallic, superconducting or semiconducting nanowire. The present invention provides structures and devices comprising conductive nanowire segments and conductance constricting nanowire segments having accurately selected phases including crystalline and amorphous states, compositions, morphologies and physical dimensions, including selected cross sectional dimensions, shapes and lengths along the length of a nanowire. Further, the present invention provides methods of processing nanowires capable of patterning a nanowire to form a plurality of conductance constricting segments having selected positions along the length of a nanowire, including conductance constricting segments having reduced cross sectional dimensions and conductance constricting segments comprising one or more insulating materials such as metal oxides.

  18. Collective network for computer structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Coteus, Paul W; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Takken, Todd E; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D; Vranas, Pavlos M

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global collective communications among interconnected processing nodes. The global collective network optimally enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the network via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual network. The global collective network may be configured to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner. When implemented in a massively-parallel supercomputing structure, the global collective network is physically and logically partitionable according to the needs of a processing algorithm.

  19. Lithographically defined microporous carbon structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burckel, David Bruce; Washburn, Cody M.; Polsky, Ronen; Brozik, Susan M.; Wheeler, David R.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A lithographic method is used to fabricate porous carbon structures that can provide electrochemical electrodes having high surface area with uniform and controllable dimensions, providing enormous flexibility to tailor the electrodes toward specific applications. Metal nanoparticles deposited on the surface of the porous carbon electrodes exhibit ultra small dimensions with uniform size distribution. The resulting electrodes are rugged, electrically conductive and show excellent electrochemical behavior.

  20. Experimental data confronts nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, J.D.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical content of experimental data for a variety of excitation energies and angular momenta is summarized. The specific nuclear structure questions which these data address are considered. The specific regions discussed are: low-spin data near the particle separation thresholds; low-spin data at intermediate excitation energies; high-spin, near-yrast data and high-spin data at larger excitation energies. 63 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Corrosion performance of structural alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    1999-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Component reliability and long-term trouble-free performance of structural materials are essential in power-generating and gasification processes that utilize coal as a feedstock. During combustion and conversion of coal, the environments encompass a wide range of oxygen partial pressures, from excess-air conditions in conventional boilers to air-deficient conditions in 10W-NO{sub x} and gasification systems. Apart from the environmental aspects of the effluent from coal combustion and conversion, one concern from the systems standpoint is the aggressiveness of the gaseous/deposit environment toward structural components such as waterwall tubes, steam superheaters, syngas coolers, and hot-gas filters. The corrosion tests in the program described in this paper address the individual and combined effects of oxygen, sulfur, and chlorine on the corrosion response of several ASME-coded and noncoded structural alloys that were exposed to air-deficient and excess-air environments typical of coal-combustion and gasification processes. Data in this paper address the effects of preoxidation on the subsequent corrosion performance of structural materials such as 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel, Type 347 austenitic stainless steel, Alloys 800, 825, 625, 214, Hastelloy X, and iron aluminide when exposed at 650 C to various mixed-gas environments with and without HCI. Results are presented for scaling kinetics, microstructural characteristics of corrosion products, detailed evaluations of near-surface regions of the exposed specimens, gains in our mechanistic understanding of the roles of S and Cl in the corrosion process, and the effect of preoxidation on subsequent corrosion.

  2. Microsoft Word - CTF WBS&PEDS_white paper_v1.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WHITE PAPER Work Breakdown Structure and PlantEquipment Designation System Numbering Scheme for the High Temperature Gas- Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Component Test Capability (CTC)...

  3. Facility stabilization project fiscal year 1997 multi-year work plan (MYWP) for WBS 7.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cartmell, D.B.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the technical baseline, work breakdown structure, schedule baseline, cost baseline, and execution year for the facility stabilization project.

  4. Solid waste program fiscal year 1997 multi-year work plan WBS 1.2.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riddelle, J.G.

    1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the technical baseline, work breakdown structure, schedule baseline, cost baseline, and execution year for the solid waste program.

  5. Structure of the CRA-2014: Structure of the CRA-2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutronStrategicOurStructure ofRepresenting a

  6. Structured video content analysis : learning spatio-temporal and multimodal structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Yale

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Video data exhibits a variety of structures: pixels exhibit spatial structure, e.g., the same class of objects share certain shapes and/or colors in image; sequences of frames exhibit temporal structure, e.g., dynamic ...

  7. Semiconductor wire array structures, and solar cells and photodetectors based on such structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Petykiewicz, Jan A.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure comprising an array of semiconductor structures, an infill material between the semiconductor materials, and one or more light-trapping elements is described. Photoconverters and photoelectrochemical devices based on such structure also described.

  8. Seismic assessment strategies for masonry structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeJong, Matthew J. (Matthew Justin)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Masonry structures are vulnerable to earthquakes, but their seismic assessment remains a challenge. This dissertation develops and improves several strategies to better understand the behavior of masonry structures under ...

  9. Structural analysis and assessment of Guastavino vaulting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reese, Megan L

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis studies the behavior and pathologies of the masonry tile structures built by the R. Guastavino Company in order to provide recommendations on their analysis and assessment. Structural analyses of two specific ...

  10. EVA: evaluation of protein structure prediction servers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sali, Andrej

    day, sequences of newly available protein structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are sent performance of protein structure prediction servers through a battery of objective measures for prediction

  11. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND HEAVY-ION FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokstad, R.G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mechanisms leading to fusion, nuclear structure is affectingknoi,. A [he "nuclear structure" in fusion will consist ofCI i CO I0 + Be fusion I0 ' -cm Nuclear reaction S-factors

  12. Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Concrete, May 29,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Concrete, May 29, 2009 (HSS CRAD 64-15, Rev. 0) Nuclear Facility Construction - Structural Concrete, May 29, 2009 (HSS CRAD 64-15, Rev....

  13. Puja Pandals : rethinking an urban bamboo structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oza, Nilay

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pandal's are large tent like structures that are recreations of popular buildings, usually temples, built in wood and cloth over a bamboo super-structure. Traditionally they are built for Durga Puja, a festival in the month ...

  14. The design and construction of fabric structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Rosemarie

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In its short history, fabric structures have fascinated architects and engineers alike. Architects appreciate their unusual shapes and forms while engineers delight in their "pure" structural expression. Capable of spanning ...

  15. Structure formation: Models, Dynamics and Status

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Padmanabhan

    1995-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The constraints on the models for the structure formation arising from various cosmological observations at different length scales are reviewed. The status of different models for structure formation is examined critically in the light of these observations.

  16. Single Molecule Probes of Lipid Membrane Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livanec, Philip W.

    2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological membranes are highly heterogeneous structures that are thought to use this heterogeneity to organize and modify the function of membrane constituents. Probing membrane organization, structure, and changes therein ...

  17. Past and future of grid shell structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paoli, Cline (Cline Aude)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of their original organic shape and the column free space that they provide, the design of grid shell structures challenges architects and structural engineers in more than one way. Very few grid shell building ...

  18. Thermoplastic active fiber composites for structural actuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, Christopher Thomas, 1971-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The integration of piezoelectric actuators into a structure can lead to an active structural surface that can adapt by bending or straining to different operational conditions. This can be used to tune desired properties ...

  19. Damaged reinforced concrete structures in fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ervine, Adam

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    It is crucial for a building to maintain structural stability when subjected to multiple and sequential extreme loads. Safety and economic considerations dictate that structures are built to resist extreme events, such ...

  20. Investigations of peptide structural stability in vacuo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalapothakis, Jason Michael Drosos

    2010-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas-phase analytical techniques provide very valuable tools for tackling the structural complexity of macromolecular structures such as those encountered in biological systems. Conformational dynamics of polypeptides and ...

  1. Effect of high pressure on structural oddities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnstone, Russell D. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the effect of pressure on crystal structures that are in some way unusual. The aim was to investigate whether pressure could be used to force these structural oddities to conform to more conventional ...

  2. Mathematical modelings of smart materials and structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mathematical modelings of smart materials and structures Christian Licht , Thibaut Weller mathematical models of smart materials and smart structures. Smart materials are materials which present perturbations methods, asymptotic analysis, plates and rods models. 1 Introduction Smart materials present

  3. Photonic Structures Inspired by Nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolle, Mathias

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    the surprising helplessness that overwhelms you when you try to eat and identify food and wine purely by taste in a pitch-black environment where your sense of vision is completely useless. Not easy at all. It is truly a refreshing, fantastic experience [1]. 1... 2 01 11 Theoretical aspects of photonic structures has been used, essentially signifying the conservation of energy upon reflection and refraction. Finally the reflectivity of a thin layer is given by R = ArA ? r = r201 + 2r01r12 cos 2? + r 2 12 1...

  4. Fluctuations in Avalanche Photodiode Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocak, Fatma; Tapan, Ilhan [Department of Physics, Uludag University, 16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The number of primary photo-electrons and the excess noise factor of the Avalanche photodiode (APD) are important parameters for the energy resolution of the crystal-APD system. In the present paper, the mean signal value and its fluctuations have been investigated for the well defined silicon Hamamatsu S8148 APD structure as a function of incident photons wavelength. Calculations were made with a Single Particle Monte Carlo simulation technique. Based on this work, the performance of the Hamamatsu S8148 APD as a photodetector for the PbWO4 scintillation light has been discussed.

  5. Convectively cooled electrical grid structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paterson, J.A.; Koehler, G.W.

    1980-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Undesirable distortions of electrical grid conductors from thermal cycling are minimized and related problems such as unwanted thermionic emission and structural failure from overheating are avoided by providing for a flow of fluid coolant within each conductor. The conductors are secured at each end to separate flexible support elements which accommodate to individual longitudinal expansion and contraction of each conductor while resisting lateral displacements, the coolant flow preferably being directed into and out of each conductor through passages in the flexible support elements. The grid may have a modular or divided construction which facilitates manufacture and repairs.

  6. Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Donald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Holdaway, Ray F. (Clinton, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

  7. Controlling Structures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin:EnergyWisconsin:2003) | OpenMinor PermitControlling Structures Dictionary.png

  8. Structure determination of enterovirus 71

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plevka, Pavel; Perera, Rushika; Cardosa, Jane; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G. (Purdue); (Sentinext)

    2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease but may induce fatal neurological illness in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 crystallized in a body-centered orthorhombic space group with two particles in general orientations in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Determination of the particle orientations required that the locked rotation function excluded the twofold symmetry axes from the set of icosahedral symmetry operators. This avoided the occurrence of misleading high rotation-function values produced by the alignment of icosahedral and crystallographic twofold axes. Once the orientations and positions of the particles had been established, the structure was solved by molecular replacement and phase extension.

  9. Structural Biology | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutronStrategic PlanStructural Basis forSpecificity

  10. Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutronStrategicOurStructure of Synaptic Connectors Solved

  11. Structure of Synaptic Connectors Solved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSiteNeutronStrategicOurStructure of Synaptic Connectors

  12. Role of the dielectric for the charging dynamics of the dielectric/barrier interface in AlGaN/GaN based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures under forward gate bias stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagger, P., E-mail: peter.lagger@infineon.com [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstrae 2, 9500 Villach (Austria); Institute of Solid State Electronics, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Wien (Austria); Steinschifter, P.; Reiner, M.; Stadtmller, M.; Denifl, G.; Ostermaier, C. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstrae 2, 9500 Villach (Austria); Naumann, A.; Mller, J.; Wilde, L.; Sundqvist, J. [Fraunhofer IPMS-CNT, Knigsbrcker Strae 178, 01099 Dresden (Germany); Pogany, D. [Institute of Solid State Electronics, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Wien (Austria)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The high density of defect states at the dielectric/III-N interface in GaN based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures causes tremendous threshold voltage drifts, ?V{sub th}, under forward gate bias conditions. A comprehensive study on different dielectric materials, as well as varying dielectric thickness t{sub D} and barrier thickness t{sub B}, is performed using capacitance-voltage analysis. It is revealed that the density of trapped electrons, ?N{sub it}, scales with the dielectric capacitance under spill-over conditions, i.e., the accumulation of a second electron channel at the dielectric/AlGaN barrier interface. Hence, the density of trapped electrons is defined by the charging of the dielectric capacitance. The scaling behavior of ?N{sub it} is explained universally by the density of accumulated electrons at the dielectric/III-N interface under spill-over conditions. We conclude that the overall density of interface defects is higher than what can be electrically measured, due to limits set by dielectric breakdown. These findings have a significant impact on the correct interpretation of threshold voltage drift data and are of relevance for the development of normally off and normally on III-N/GaN high electron mobility transistors with gate insulation.

  13. Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil Gas Geochemistry and Structural Analysis to Identify Hidden, High Enthalpy, Extensional Geothermal Systems Intergrating Magnetotellurics, Soil...

  14. Finding Structure via Compression Jason L. Hutchens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Structurevia Compression Jason L. Hutchens and Michael D. Alder (1998) Finding Structure via Compression. In D.M.W

  15. Adding structure to agent programming languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zachmann, Gabriel

    Zachmann (Computer Graphics) #12;Adding structure to agent programming languages Peter Novák, Jürgen Dix

  16. Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preserving Diesel Exhaust Ultrafine (Nano-) Particulate Structure in Genotoxicity Studies to Support Engineering Development of Emission Controls Preserving Diesel Exhaust...

  17. Whole Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whole Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Earth Structure (2nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm © WW Norton; unless noted otherwise #12;© EarthStructure (2nd ed evolution of Earth: from continental drift (early 1900's) to sea-floor spreading (early 1960's) to plate

  18. Transformation of structured documents Eila Kuikka

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterloo, University of

    Transformation of structured documents Eila Kuikka Department of Computer Science, University Structure de nitions of documents have been used successfully for inputting and for- matting in text documents and studies possibilities to extend the use of structure de nitions to document transformations

  19. DIVISION 05 METALS 05120 STRUCTURAL STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STEEL A. Design Considerations 1. Testing and inspection will be required for structural steel work testing and inspection of structural steel work will be contracted for and paid for by the University, regardless of building class. The A/E must specify all testing and inspection of structural steel

  20. Calculating Evolutionary Dynamics in Structured Populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Martin A.

    Calculating Evolutionary Dynamics in Structured Populations Charles G. Nathanson1. , Corina E. Here we provide a general formula for calculating evolutionary dynamics in a wide class of structured) Calculating Evolutionary Dynamics in Structured Populations. PLoS Comput Biol 5(12): e1000615. doi:10

  1. Origin and Structure of Dynamic Cooperative Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hauert, Christoph

    Origin and Structure of Dynamic Cooperative Networks Lucas Wardil & Christoph Hauert Department the local structure of the social network. Here we propose a simple theoretical framework to model dynamic among coop- erators24 . Social networks represent a dynamical abstraction of social structures

  2. EFFECTIVE STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING WITH ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    will be presented for components that can be processed by additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing. The origin structures. KEYWORDS : structural health monitoring methodology, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, fatigue, intelligent structure INTRODUCTION Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D Printing or Rapid

  3. Hybrid Model Structures Aaron David Ames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ames, Aaron

    Hybrid Model Structures by Aaron David Ames B.A. (University of St. Thomas) 2001 B.S. (University of California, Berkeley Fall 2006 #12;Hybrid Model Structures Copyright 2006 by Aaron David Ames #12;Abstract Hybrid Model Structures by Aaron David Ames Masters of Arts in Mathematics University of California

  4. Structure functions for light nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.A. Kulagin, R. Petti

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the nuclear EMC effect with particular emphasis on recent data for light nuclei including 2H, 3He, 4He, 9Be, 12C and 14N. In order to verify the consistency of available data, we calculate the \\chi^2 deviation between different data sets. We find a good agreement between the results from the NMC, SLAC E139, and HERMES experiments. However, our analysis indicates an overall normalization offset of about 2% in the data from the recent JLab E03-103 experiment with respect to previous data for nuclei heavier than 3He. We also discuss the extraction of the neutron/proton structure function ratio F2n/F2p from the nuclear ratios 3He/2H and 2H/1H. Our analysis shows that the E03-103 data on 3He/2H require a renormalization of about 3% in order to be consistent with the F2n/F2p ratio obtained from the NMC experiment. After such a renormalization, the 3He data from the E03-103 data and HERMES experiments are in a good agreement. Finally, we present a detailed comparison between data and model calculations, which include a description of the nuclear binding, Fermi motion and off-shell corrections to the structure functions of bound proton and neutron, as well as the nuclear pion and shadowing corrections. Overall, a good agreement with the available data for all nuclei is obtained.

  5. Battery structures, self-organizing structures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet Ming (Framingham, MA); Moorehead, William Douglas (Virginia Beach, VA); Gozdz, Antoni S. (Marlborough, MA); Holman, Richard K. (Belmont, MA); Loxley, Andrew (Somerville, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Viola, Michael S. (Burlington, MA)

    2009-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling force on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionically conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  6. Battery Structures, self-organizing structures, and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Moorehead, William Douglas

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling force on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionically conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  7. Battery structures, self-organizing structures, and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Moorehead, William Douglas

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling forve on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionicaily conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  8. Battery structures, self-organizing structures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Moorehead, William D. (Virginia Beach, VA); Gozdz, Antoni S. (Marlborough, MA); Holman, Richard K. (Belmont, MA); Loxley, Andrew L. (Roslindale, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Viola, Michael S. (Burlington, MA)

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling force on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionically conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  9. Battery structures, self-organizing structures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Moorehead, William D. (Virginia Beach, VA); Gozdz, Antoni S. (Marlborough, MA); Holman, Richard K. (Belmont, MA); Loxley, Andrew L. (Roslindale, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Viola, Michael S. (Burlington, MA)

    2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling force on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionically conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  10. Battery structures, self-organizing structures and related methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Moorehead, William D. (Virginia Beach, VA); Gozdz, Antoni S. (Marlborough, MA); Holman, Richard K. (Belmont, MA); Loxley, Andrew L. (Roslindale, MA); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Viola, Michael S. (Burlington, MA)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy storage device includes a first electrode comprising a first material and a second electrode comprising a second material, at least a portion of the first and second materials forming an interpenetrating network when dispersed in an electrolyte, the electrolyte, the first material and the second material are selected so that the first and second materials exert a repelling force on each other when combined. An electrochemical device, includes a first electrode in electrical communication with a first current collector; a second electrode in electrical communication with a second current collector; and an ionically conductive medium in ionic contact with said first and second electrodes, wherein at least a portion of the first and second electrodes form an interpenetrating network and wherein at least one of the first and second electrodes comprises an electrode structure providing two or more pathways to its current collector.

  11. Experimental Study of Nucleon Structure and QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overview of Experimental Study of Nucleon Structure and QCD, with focus on the spin structure. Nucleon (spin) Structure provides valuable information on QCD dynamics. A decade of experiments from JLab yields these exciting results: (1) valence spin structure, duality; (2) spin sum rules and polarizabilities; (3) precision measurements of g{sub 2} - high-twist; and (4) first neutron transverse spin results - Collins/Sivers/A{sub LT}. There is a bright future as the 12 GeV Upgrade will greatly enhance our capability: (1) Precision determination of the valence quark spin structure flavor separation; and (2) Precision extraction of transversity/tensor charge/TMDs.

  12. Structural Code Considerations for Solar Rooftop Installations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Sanchez, Alfred

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential rooftop solar panel installations are limited in part by the high cost of structural related code requirements for field installation. Permitting solar installations is difficult because there is a belief among residential permitting authorities that typical residential rooftops may be structurally inadequate to support the additional load associated with a photovoltaic (PV) solar installation. Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure to a basic determinate beam. This method of analysis neglects the composite action of the entire roof structure, yielding a conservative analysis based on a rafter or top chord of a truss. Consequently, the analysis can result in an overly conservative structural analysis. A literature review was conducted to gain a better understanding of the conservative nature of the regulations and codes governing residential construction and the associated structural system calculations.

  13. Composite electrode/electrolyte structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2004-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is an electrode fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. Onto this electrode in the green state, a green ionic (e.g., electrolyte) film is deposited and the assembly is co-fired at a temperature suitable to fully densify the film while the substrate retains porosity. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of a metal salt and subsequent low temperature firing. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

  14. Method of forming structural heliostat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Alfred J. (Littleton, CO)

    1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In forming a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement characterized by a method of forming the mirror module in which the mirror is laid upon a solid rigid supporting bed in one or more sections, with or without focusing; a mirror backing sheet is applied by first applying respective thin layers of silicone grease and, thereafter, progressively rolling application to eliminate air bubbles; followed by affixing of a substrate assembly to the mirror backing sheet to form a mirror module that does not curve because of thermally induced stresses and differential thermal expansion or contraction effects. The silicone grease also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and protect the mirror backside against adverse effects of the weather. Also disclosed are specific details of preferred embodiments.

  15. Structure of Noncommutative Fock space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Si-Cong Jing; Qiu-Yu Liu; Tu-Nan Ruan

    2005-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of the state-vector space of identical bosons in noncommutative spaces is investigated. To maintain Bose-Einstein statistics the commutation relations of phase space variables should simultaneously include coordinate-coordinate non-commutativity and momentum-momentum non-commutativity, which lead to noncommutative Fock space. By this we mean that creation and annihilation operators corresponding to different degrees of freedom of the bosons do not commute each other. The main character of the noncommutative Fock space is there are no ordinary number representations because of the non-commutativity between different number operators. However, eigenvectors of several pairs of commuting Hermitian operators are obtained which can also be served as bases in this Fock space. As a simple example, an explicit form of two-dimensional canonical coherent state in this noncommutative Fock space is constructed and its properties are discussed.

  16. Combustion fume structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flagan, R.C.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this research program is on elucidating the fundamental processes that determine the particle size distribution, composition, and agglomerate structures of coal ash fumes. The ultimate objective of this work is the development and validation of a model for the dynamics of combustion fumes, describing both the evolution of the particle size distribution and the particle morphology. The study employs model systems to address the fundamental questions and to provide rigorous validation of the models to be developed. This first phase of the project has been devoted to the development of a detailed experimental strategy that will allow agglomerates with a broad range of fractal dimensions to be studied in the laboratory. (VC)

  17. Structure functions for light nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulagin, S. A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Petti, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the nuclear EMC effect with particular emphasis on recent data for light nuclei including {sup 2}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He, {sup 9}Be, {sup 12}C, and {sup 14}N. In order to verify the consistency of available data, we calculate the {chi}{sup 2} deviation between different data sets. We find a good agreement between the results from the NMC, SLAC E139, and HERMES experiments. However, our analysis indicates an overall normalization offset of about 2% in the data from the recent JLab E03-103 experiment with respect to previous data for nuclei heavier than {sup 3}He. We also discuss the extraction of the neutron/proton structure function ratio F{sub 2}{sup n}/F{sub 2}{sup p} from the nuclear ratios {sup 3}He/{sup 2}H and {sup 2}H/{sup 1}H. Our analysis shows that the E03-103 data on {sup 3}He/{sup 2}H require a renormalization of about 3% in order to be consistent with the F{sub 2}{sup n}/F{sub 2}{sup p} ratio obtained from the NMC experiment. After such a renormalization, the {sup 3}He data from the E03-103 and HERMES experiments are in a good agreement. Finally, we present a detailed comparison between data and model calculations, which include a description of the nuclear binding, Fermi motion, and off-shell corrections to the structure functions of bound proton and neutron, as well as the nuclear pion and shadowing corrections. Overall, a good agreement with the available data for all nuclei is obtained.

  18. Reversible Hydrogen Storage Materials Structure, Chemistry, and Electronic Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Ian M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Johnson, Duane D. [Ames Lab., Iowa

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    To understand the processes involved in the uptake and release of hydrogen from candidate light-weight metal hydride storage systems, a combination of materials characterization techniques and first principle calculation methods have been employed. In addition to conventional microstructural characterization in the transmission electron microscope, which provides projected information about the through thickness microstructure, electron tomography methods were employed to determine the three-dimensional spatial distribution of catalyst species for select systems both before and after dehydrogenation. Catalyst species identification as well as compositional analysis of the storage material before and after hydrogen charging and discharging was performed using a combination of energy dispersive spectroscopy, EDS, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS. The characterization effort was coupled with first-principles, electronic-structure and thermodynamic techniques to predict and assess meta-stable and stable phases, reaction pathways, and thermodynamic and kinetic barriers. Systems studied included:NaAlH4, CaH2/CaB6 and Ca(BH4)2, MgH2/MgB2, Ni-Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride, TiH2-Catalyzed Magnesium Hydride, LiBH4, Aluminum-based systems and Aluminum

  19. TOPSAN: a collaborative annotation environment for structural genomics.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weekes, Dana; Krishna, S; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Wilson, Ian A; Godzik, Adam; Wooley, John

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    environment for structural genomics Dana Weekes 1 , S Srihigh-throughput structural genomics centers, despite theirbeing determined by structural genomics centers and high-

  20. Structure and Dynamics Vol.1 No.2: Editorial Commentary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Douglas R Institute of Mathematical Behavioral Science and Department of Anthropology; Manlove, Robert F.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This issue of Structure and Dynamics is dedicated to thethe second issue of Structure and Dynamics with considerablein forthcoming issues of Structure and Dynamics. Color and

  1. Characterization of Ion Dynamics in Structures for Lossless Ion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ion Dynamics in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations. Characterization of Ion Dynamics in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations. Abstract: Structures for Lossless Ion...

  2. Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, Benjamin M.

    2007-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-driven acceleration holds great promise for significantly improving accelerating gradient. However, scaling the conventional process of structure-based acceleration in vacuum down to optical wavelengths requires a substantially different kind of structure. We require an optical waveguide that (1) is constructed out of dielectric materials, (2) has transverse size on the order of a wavelength, and (3) supports a mode with speed-of-light phase velocity in vacuum. Photonic crystals---structures whose electromagnetic properties are spatially periodic---can meet these requirements. We discuss simulated photonic crystal accelerator structures and describe their properties. We begin with a class of two-dimensional structures which serves to illustrate the design considerations and trade-offs involved. We then present a three-dimensional structure, and describe its performance in terms of accelerating gradient and efficiency. We discuss particle beam dynamics in this structure, demonstrating a method for keeping a beam confined to the waveguide. We also discuss material and fabrication considerations. Since accelerating gradient is limited by optical damage to the structure, the damage threshold of the dielectric is a critical parameter. We experimentally measure the damage threshold of silicon for picosecond pulses in the infrared, and determine that our structure is capable of sustaining an accelerating gradient of 300 MV/m at 1550 nm. Finally, we discuss possibilities for manufacturing these structures using common microfabrication techniques.

  3. Conformal coating of highly structured surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S.; Perkins, John; Berry, Joseph; Gennett, Thomas

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Method of applying a conformal coating to a highly structured substrate and devices made by the disclosed methods are disclosed. An example method includes the deposition of a substantially contiguous layer of a material upon a highly structured surface within a deposition process chamber. The highly structured surface may be associated with a substrate or another layer deposited on a substrate. The method includes depositing a material having an amorphous structure on the highly structured surface at a deposition pressure of equal to or less than about 3 mTorr. The method may also include removing a portion of the amorphous material deposited on selected surfaces and depositing additional amorphous material on the highly structured surface.

  4. Aquifer Structure Identification Using Stochastic Inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, Dylan R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dai, Zhenxue [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wolfsberg, Andrew V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a stochastic inverse method for aquifer structure identification using sparse geophysical and hydraulic response data. The method is based on updating structure parameters from a transition probability model to iteratively modify the aquifer structure and parameter zonation. The method is extended to the adaptive parameterization of facies hydraulic parameters by including these parameters as optimization variables. The stochastic nature of the statistical structure parameters leads to nonconvex objective functions. A multi-method genetically adaptive evolutionary approach (AMALGAM-SO) was selected to perform the inversion given its search capabilities. Results are obtained as a probabilistic assessment of facies distribution based on indicator cokriging simulation of the optimized structural parameters. The method is illustrated by estimating the structure and facies hydraulic parameters of a synthetic example with a transient hydraulic response.

  5. Proton structure and tensor gluons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Savvidy

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a possibility that inside the proton and, more generally, inside the hadrons there are additional partons - tensor-gluons, which can carry a part of the proton momentum. The tensor-gluons have zero electric charge, like gluons, but have a larger spin. Inside the proton a nonzero density of the tensor-gluons can be generated by the emission of tensor-gluons by gluons. The last mechanism is typical for non-Abelian tensor gauge theories, in which there exists a gluon-tensor-tensor vertex of order g. Therefore the number of gluons changes not only because a quark may radiate a gluon or because a gluon may split into a quark-antiquark pair or into two gluons, but also because a gluon can split into two tensor-gluons. The process of gluon splitting suggests that part of the proton momentum which was carried by neutral partons is shared between vector and tensor gluons. We derive evolution equations for the parton distribution functions which take into account these new processes. The momentum sum rule allows to find the tensor-gluons contribution to the Callan-Simanzik beta function and to calculate the corresponding anomalous dimensions. This contribution changes the behavior of the structure functions, and the logarithmic correction to the Bjorken scaling becomes more mild. This also influences the unification scale at which the coupling constants of the Standard Model merge, shifting its value to lower energies of order of 40 TeV.

  6. Structural stability of cooling flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henrik Omma; James Binney

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations are used to investigate the structural stability of cooling flows that are episodically heated by jets from a central AGN. The radial profile of energy deposition is controlled by (a) the power of the jets, and (b) the pre-outburst density profile. A delay in the ignition of the jets causes more powerful jets to impact on a more centrally concentrated medium. The net effect is a sufficient increase in the central concentration of energy deposition to cause the post-outburst density profile to be less centrally concentrated than that of an identical cluster in which the outburst happened earlier and was weaker. These results suggest that the density profiles of cooling flows oscillate around an attracting profile, thus explaining why cooling flows are observed to have similar density profiles. The possibility is raised that powerful FR II systems are ones in which this feedback mechanism has broken down and a runaway growth of the source parameters has occurred.

  7. The structure of the carbon black flame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, W. Kermi

    1945-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE STRUCTURE OF THE CARBON BLACK FLAME A Dissertation By W1 111 ami Kermit Anderson THEHSR UCOF Approval as to style and content recommended Head of tiie Department of Chemistry A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural... and Mechanical College of. Texas in Parti ail Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE STRUCTURE OF THE CARBON BLACK FLAME Major Subject: Chemistry AB William Hermit Anderson:\\ t * August 1945 THE STRUCTURE OF THE. CARBON...

  8. Design and control of hierarchically structured nanomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carr, Charles Shane

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    synthesis, many other metals have been attempted including barium, cesium, lithium, and many others along with looking at other synthesis parameters like starting reagents, compositions, and reaction conditions [31-42]. The structure of LTL contains... mesoporous structure. The zeolitic material, silicalite-1, is used as a siliceous precursor for the formation of the mesoporous SBA-15 material. A battery of characterization techniques were used to identify the structural properties of the material...

  9. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Grover, William H. (Berkeley, CA); Skelley, Alison (Berkeley, CA); Lagally, Eric (Oakland, CA); Liu, Chung N. (Albany, CA)

    2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  10. Algebraic Sub-Structuring for Electromagnetic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, C.; Gao, W.G.; Bai, Z.J.; Li, X.Y.S.; Lee, L.Q.; Husbands, P.; Ng, E.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Davis /SLAC

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Algebraic sub-structuring refers to the process of applying matrix reordering and partitioning algorithms to divide a large sparse matrix into smaller submatrices from which a subset of spectral components are extracted and combined to form approximate solutions to the original problem. In this paper, they show that algebraic sub-structuring can be effectively used to solve generalized eigenvalue problems arising from the finite element analysis of an accelerator structure.

  11. Advanced structure-borne sound Wave mobilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    ^p e j(v -p ) · Wave mobilities © Prof. B.A.T. Petersson Advanced structure-borne sound · Decomposed1 Advanced structure-borne sound p(kx) v(kx) v = p Y = ^ve- jkx x ejv ^pe- jkx x e jp = ^v ^p = ^v;2 Advanced structure-borne sound · Interface mobilities s C kp = 2p C kq = 2q C ; p = 0 ±1 ±2 ±3... ; q = 0

  12. Method of casting patterned dielectric structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pattern of dielectric structures are formed directly on a substrate in a single step using sol-gel chemistry and molding procedures. The resulting dielectric structures are useful in vacuum applications for electronic devices. Porous, lightweight structures having a high aspect ratio that are suitable for use as spacers between the faceplate and baseplate of a field emission display can be manufactured using this method.

  13. Stabilized fuel with silica support structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a stabilized fuel which is supported by a silica support structure. The silica support structure provides a low density, high porosity vehicle for safely carrying hydrocarbon fuels. The silica support structure for hydrocarbon fuel does not produce toxic material residues on combustion which would pose environmentally sensitive disposal problems. The silica stabilized fuel composition is useful as a low temperature, continuous burning fire starter for wood or charcoal.

  14. Lattice Vibrations and Superconductivity in Layered Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Roland E.; Alldredg, GP; WETTE, FWD.

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 2, NUMBER 7 1 OCTOB ER, 1970 Lattice Vibrations and Superconductivity in Layered Structures* B. E. Allen, G. P. Alldredge, and F. W. de bette DePartment of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (Received 18... May 1970) In order to estimate the influence of both surface and interface effects on phonon frequencies and superconducting transition temperatures in layered structures, we have calculated the vibrational modes of structures composed...

  15. Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brain Receptor Structures Key to Future Therapeutics Print With an aging population in America, it is more important than ever to discover ways to treat or prevent diseases...

  16. Structural Characteristics of Synthetic Amorphous Calcium Carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, F. Marc; MacDonald, Jason; Feng, Jian; Phillips, Brian L.; Ehm, Lars; Tarabrella, Cathy; Parise, John B.; Reeder, Richard J. (SBU)

    2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is an important phase involved in calcification by a wide variety of invertebrate organisms and is of technological interest in the development of functional materials. Despite widespread scientific interest in this phase a full characterization of structure is lacking. This is mainly due to its metastability and difficulties in evaluating structure using conventional structure determination methods. Here we present new findings from the application of two techniques, pair distribution function analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which provide new insight to structural aspects of synthetic ACC. Several important results have emerged from this study of ACC formed in vitro using two common preparation methods: (1) ACC exhibits no structural coherence over distances > 15 {angstrom} and is truly amorphous; (2) most of the hydrogen in ACC is present as structural H{sub 2}O, about half of which undergoes restricted motion on the millisecond time scale near room temperature; (3) the short- and intermediate-range structure of ACC shows no distinct match to any known structure in the calcium carbonate system; and (4) most of the carbonate in ACC is monodentate making it distinctly different from monohydrocalcite. Although the structure of synthetic ACC is still not fully understood, the results presented provide an important baseline for future experiments evaluating biogenic ACC and samples containing certain additives that may play a role in stabilization of ACC, crystallization kinetics, and final polymorph selection.

  17. Crump Geyser: High Precision Geophysics & Detailed Structural...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Crump Geyser: High Precision Geophysics & Detailed Structural Exploration & Slim Well Drilling John Casteel Nevada Geothermal Power Co. Validation of Innovative Exploration...

  18. Optimization Online - Structural optimization of the Ziegler's ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg N. Kirillov

    2010-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 24, 2010 ... ... with important applications in fluid-structure interactions, friction-induced ... Category 2: Applications -- Science and Engineering (Mechanical...

  19. Electrical and structural characterization of metal germanides.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chawanda, Albert

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Metal-semiconductor contacts have been widely studied in the past 60 years. These structures are of importance in the microelectronics industry. As the scaling down of (more)

  20. HOLOMORPHIC MOTIONS AND STRUCTURAL STABILITY FOR ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1910-70-80T23:59:59.000Z

    namics in one variable, we prove the structural stability of hyperbolic polynomial automor- phisms in ..... This extension is characterized by a harmonic Beltrami.

  1. Structured Storage in ATLAS Distributed Data Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lassnig, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Molfetas, A; Beermann, T; Dimitrov, G; Canali, L; Zang, D

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHEP'12 Talk Structured Storage - Concepts - Technologies ATLAS DDM Use Cases - Storage facility - Data intensive analytics Operational Experiences - Software - Hardware Conclusions

  2. Biomineralized structural materials with functional optical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ling, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many biological structural materials exhibit "mechanical property amplification" through their intricate hierarchical composite designs. In the past several decades, significant progress has been achieved in elucidating ...

  3. Spin dependent parton distributions and structure functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Bentz; I. C. Cloet; T. Ito; A. W. Thomas; K. Yazaki

    2007-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear parton distributions and structure functions are determined in an effective chiral quark theory. We also discuss an extension of our model to fragmentation functions.

  4. Essays on Development, Ownership Structure, and Agriculture.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moorthy, Aravind

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis examines how ownership structure and climate change issues affect farmers in developing countries in three chapters. The first chapter surveys the theoretical and (more)

  5. The Spin Structure of the Nucleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filippone, B W; Ji, Xiangdong

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of recent experimental and theoretical advances in our understanding of the spin structure of protons and neutrons.

  6. The Spin Structure of the Nucleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. W. Filippone; Xiangdong Ji

    2001-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of recent experimental and theoretical advances in our understanding of the spin structure of protons and neutrons.

  7. Hybrid Rotaxanes: Interlocked Structures for Quantum Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hybrid Rotaxanes: Interlocked Structures for Quantum Computing? Print Rotaxanes are mechanically interlocked molecular architectures consisting of a dumbbell-shaped molecule, the...

  8. Low-Energy Parking Structure Design (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide provides design teams with best practices for parking structure energy efficiency in the form of goals for each design aspect that affects energy use.

  9. Spinor structure and internal symmetries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Varlamov

    2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Space-time and internal symmetries are considered within one theoretical framework based on the generalized spin and abstract Hilbert space. Complex momentum is understood as a generating kernel of the underlying spinor structure. It is shown that tensor products of biquaternion algebras are associated with the each irreducible representation of the Lorentz group. Space-time discrete symmetries $P$, $T$ and their combination $PT$ are generated by the fundamental automorphisms of this algebraic background (Clifford algebras). Charge conjugation $C$ is presented by a pseudoautomorphism of the complex Clifford algebra. This description of the operation $C$ allows one to distinguish charged and neutral particles including particle-antiparticle interchange and truly neutral particles. Quotient representations of the Lorentz group and their possible relations with $P$- and $CP$-violations are considered. Spin and charge multiplets, based on the interlocking representations of the Lorentz group, are introduced. A central point of the work is a correspondence between Wigner definition of elementary particle as an irreducible representation of the Poincar\\'{e} group and $SU(3)$-description (quark scheme) of the particle as a vector of the supermultiplet (irreducible representation of $SU(3)$). This correspondence is realized on the ground of a spin-charge Hilbert space. Basic hadron supermultiplets of $SU(3)$-theory (baryon octet and two meson octets) are studied in this framework. It is shown that quark phenomenologies are naturally incorporated into presented scheme. The relationship between mass and spin allows one to take a new look at the problem of mass spectrum of elementary particles.

  10. A comparison of structural and non-structural econometric models in the Toronto office market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gole, Kimberly

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis aims to compare five systems of econometric equations to describe the Toronto office market. It compares four structural systems differing in their demand equations and a non-structural system that does not ...

  11. Particle beam and crabbing and deflecting structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delayen, Jean (Yorktown, VA)

    2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of structure for the deflection and crabbing of particle bunches in particle accelerators comprising a number of parallel transverse electromagnetic (TEM)-resonant) lines operating in opposite phase from each other. Such a structure is significantly more compact than conventional crabbing cavities operating the transverse magnetic TM mode, thus allowing low frequency designs.

  12. Metering Schemes for General Access Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stinson, Douglas

    Metering Schemes for General Access Structures Barbara Masucci Dipartimento di Informatica ed, Canada E­mail: dstinson@cacr.math.uwaterloo.ca Abstract A metering scheme is a method by which an audit time frame. In this paper we construct metering schemes for more general access structures, which

  13. Applying Global Optimization in Structural Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    structure Dynamic loading Challenges "Dwarfing visitors, the 70-foot-tall Corliss steam engine powered steam engine in the world. Of engines like the Corliss, William Dean Howells wrote, 'In these thingsApplying Global Optimization in Structural Engineering Dr. George F. Corliss Electrical

  14. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  15. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, Arthur James (Alburquerque, NM); Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona (The Woodlands, TX)

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  16. Active Learning of Group-Structured Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szepesvari, Csaba

    Active Learning of Group-Structured Environments Gabor Bartok, Csaba Szepesvari , Sandra Zilles with their environment. We investigate learning environments that have a group structure. We introduce a learning model an environment from partial information is far from trivial. However, positive results for special subclasses

  17. Dark Matter and Large Scale Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Einasto

    2000-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of the study of dark matter and large scale structure of the Universe at Tartu Observatory is given. Tartu astronomers have participated in this development, starting from Ernst "Opik and Grigori Kuzmin, and continuing with the present generation of astronomers. Our goal was to understand better the structure, origin and evolution of the Universe.

  18. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, Douglas Ray (Albuquerque, NM); Shen, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuck, Melanie R. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grafe, V. Gerald (Corrales, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

  19. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, Douglas Ray (Albuquerque, NM); Shen, David S. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuck, Melanie R. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Grafe, V. Gerald (Corrales, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas.

  20. CRACKING OF PIc NUCLEAR CONTAINMENT STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CRACKING OF PIc NUCLEAR CONTAINMENT STRUCTURES By Sami H. Rizkalla,l Sidney H. Simmonds': and James structures for some Canadian nuclear reactors consist of a heavy concrete base, a cylindrical wall, a ring the design accident pressure. This would result in the walls and dome of the containment being stressed

  1. Orc Notation Structured Wide-Area Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misra, Jayadev

    Orc Notation Structured Wide-Area Programming Jayadev Misra Department of Computer Science University of Texas at Austin http://orc.csres.utexas.edu April 12, 2010 Rennes, France #12;Orc Notation hierarchical structure. #12;Orc Notation Orc · Goal: Internet scripting language. · Next: Component integration

  2. Structured Wide-Area Programming: Orc Calculus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misra, Jayadev

    Structured Wide-Area Programming: Orc Calculus Jayadev Misra Department of Computer Science University of Texas at Austin http://orc.csres.utexas.edu #12;Concurrency · ubiquitous. · difficult interactions. · Support hierarchical structure. #12;Orc · Initial Goal: Internet scripting language. · Next

  3. Structural and functional relationships between Ca2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchant, Jonathan

    Structural and functional relationships between Ca2 puffs and mitochondria in Xenopus oocytes. Structural and functional relationships between Ca2 puffs and mitochondria in Xenopus oocytes. Am J Physiol.2001.--Ca2 uptake and release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial Ca2 stores play important

  4. Short Specialist Review Gene structure prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brendel, Volker

    Short Specialist Review Gene structure prediction in plant genomes Volker Brendel Iowa State) within most genes makes the problem of computational gene structure prediction distinct from (and harder prediction in vertebrates. The second reason is pragmatic. Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequencing and whole

  5. Polarized structure functions in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tehrani, S. Atashbar [School of Particles and Accelerators, IPM (Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorramian, A. N.; Monfared, S. Taheri [School of Particles and Accelerators, IPM (Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arbabifar, F. [Physics Department, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the structure functions for the polarized nuclei {sup 3}He, and focus on the polarized distribution functions and light-cone momentum distributions of protons and neutrons. We demonstrate that the first moment of the {sup 3}He structure function can provide an incisive test of the Bjorken sum rule.

  6. Gaussian beams in inhomogeneous anisotropic layered structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Gaussian beams in inhomogeneous anisotropic layered structures Vlastislav Cerven´y 1 ) and Ivan@ig.cas.cz. Summary Gaussian beams concentrated close to rays of high-frequency seismic body waves prop- agating in an inhomogeneous anisotropic layered structure are studied. The amplitude profiles of the Gaussian beam along

  7. Structural composites with integrated electromagnetic functionality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    Structural composites with integrated electromagnetic functionality Syrus C. Nemat-Nasser, Alireza, such as wires, into polymer-based or ceramic-based composites. In addition to desired structural properties, these materials may be leveraged for active tasks such as filtering. The advantages of such hybrid composites

  8. Energy Storage Structural Composites: TONY PEREIRA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Energy Storage Structural Composites: a Review TONY PEREIRA 1, *, ZHANHU GUO 1 , S. NiEH 2 , J: This study demonstrates the construction of a multifunctional composite structure capable of energy storage) composites were laminated with energy storage all-solid-state thin- film lithium cells. The processes

  9. DNA Transport in Hierarchically-Structured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    porous metallic tubes.3 The fabrication of spherical, cylindri- cal, and hollow colloidal crystals using-dimensional periodic structures with micrometer-scale periods have been fabricated with nano- particle inks.8 Well definition, is a promising approach for the fabrication of complex micro- and nano- structures.15

  10. Nuclear structure studies with intermediate energy probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, T.S.H.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear structure studies with pions are reviewed. Results from a recent study of 1 p-shell nuclei using (e,e{prime}), ({pi}, {pi}{prime}), and ({gamma},{pi}) reactions are reported. Future nuclear structure studies with GeV electrons at CEBAF are also briefly discussed.

  11. Heat pipe with embedded wick structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, D.R.; Shen, D.S.; Tuck, M.R.; Palmer, D.W.; Grafe, V.G.

    1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat pipe has an embedded wick structure that maximizes capillary pumping capability. Heat from attached devices such as integrated circuits evaporates working fluid in the heat pipe. The vapor cools and condenses on a heat dissipation surface. The condensate collects in the wick structure, where capillary pumping returns the fluid to high heat areas. 7 figs.

  12. Bayesian Methods for Aircraft Structural Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Thomas C.

    .1 Introduction Aircraft structures, whether metallic or composite, are subject to service damage which requires on the inspection results obtained. If damage is detected from an inspection, the decision whether to repair as well dynamically, and compared to a model of the structure such that damage can be located and a determination made

  13. Optical feedback structures and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snee, Preston T; Chan, Yin Thai; Nocera, Daniel G; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical resonator can include an optical feedback structure disposed on a substrate, and a composite including a matrix including a chromophore. The composite disposed on the substrate and in optical communication with the optical feedback structure. The chromophore can be a semiconductor nanocrystal. The resonator can provide laser emission when excited.

  14. Are Hadrons Shell-Structured? Paolo Palazzi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Are Hadrons Shell-Structured? Paolo Palazzi particlez.org, PO Box 62, CH-1217 Meyrin 1, Switzerland atoms and nuclei, are shell-structured. The mesonic shells mass series, combined with the results of a mass quantization analysis, reveals striking similarities with the nuclear shells. In addition

  15. Structural Study of Lipid-binding Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Han-Chun

    2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    and imaging methods (fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy) were conducted to confirm the function of gp232. In the structural study of PfENR, the structure-activity relationships method was used to find potent inhibitors against PfENR, which would...

  16. Structural analysis of second-generation heliostats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunder, V.D.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the overall evaluation of the four second-generation heliostats, a finite element analysis was performed to evaluate structure performance of the mirror modules subjected to gravity, operational wind loads and survival wind loads. All designs evaluated were found to be structurally adequate.

  17. Study Of Structural Control In Coupled Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer Jr., B.F.

    Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Mexico L.B. Ugarte Proyecto " Torres Tres Carabelas ", Bolivia B.F. Spencer (earthquake and wind). In a conventional structure the energy is absorbed by the inelastic deformation the input from the ground to the structure. Energy dissipation devices are elements that act like fuses

  18. NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    NSTX Upgrade Project Project Execution Plan Appendix 1 - WBS Dictionary 25 Appendix 1 - NSTX Upgrade Project Work Breakdown Structure This Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) organizes and defines the scope of the NSTX Upgrade using the WBS as established by the original NSTX project and modified

  19. Annex 3 Resource Management Review The following questions will be addressed by the Resource Management Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Management Review: Work Breakdown Structure Is there a valid work breakdown structure? Does it coverAnnex 3 ­ Resource Management Review The following questions will be addressed by the Resource the complete project? Are there work package (WP) descriptions? Are these detailed enough? Do they have WP

  20. Magnetic structure of Coronal Mass Ejections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present several models of the magnetic structure of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). First, we model CMEs as expanding force-free magnetic structures. While keeping the internal magnetic field structure of the stationary solutions, expansion leads to complicated internal velocities and rotation, while the field structures remain force-free. Second, expansion of a CME can drive resistive dissipation within the CME changing the ionization states of different ions. We fit in situ measurements of ion charge states to the resistive spheromak solutions. Finally, we consider magnetic field structures of fully confined stable magnetic clouds containing both toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields and having no surface current sheets. Expansion of such clouds may lead to sudden onset of reconnection events.

  1. Method of transferring strained semiconductor structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nastasi, Michael A. (Santa Fe, NM); Shao, Lin (College Station, TX)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The transfer of strained semiconductor layers from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a multilayer structure on a substrate having surface contaminants. An interface that includes the contaminants is formed in between the deposited layer and the substrate. Hydrogen atoms are introduced into the structure and allowed to diffuse to the interface. Afterward, the deposited multilayer structure is bonded to a second substrate and is separated away at the interface, which results in transferring a multilayer structure from one substrate to the other substrate. The multilayer structure includes at least one strained semiconductor layer and at least one strain-induced seed layer. The strain-induced seed layer can be optionally etched away after the layer transfer.

  2. Nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faulder, L.J.; Frey, G.A.; Nielsen, E.W.; Ridler, K.J.

    1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure configuration increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress between the mounting structure having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than that of the mounting structure. The mounting structure includes an outer sealing portion forming a cradling member in which an annular ring member is slidably positioned. The mounting structure further includes an inner mounting portion to which a hooked end of the nozzle and shroud assembly is attached. As the inner mounting portion expands and contracts, the nozzle and shroud assembly slidably moves within the outer sealing portion. 3 figs.

  3. Nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faulder, Leslie J. (San Diego, CA); Frey, deceased, Gary A. (late of Seattle, WA); Nielsen, Engward W. (El Cajon, CA); Ridler, Kenneth J. (San Diego, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present nozzle and shroud assembly mounting structure configuration increases component life and reduces maintenance by reducing internal stress between the mounting structure having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the nozzle and shroud assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than that of the mounting structure. The mounting structure includes an outer sealing portion forming a cradling member in which an annular ring member is slidably positioned. The mounting structure further includes an inner mounting portion to which a hooked end of the nozzle and shroud assembly is attached. As the inner mounting portion expands and contracts, the nozzle and shroud assembly slidably moves within the outer sealing portion.

  4. Protein NMR Structures Refined with Rosetta Have Higher Accuracy Relative to Corresponding Xray Crystal Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, David

    Protein NMR Structures Refined with Rosetta Have Higher Accuracy Relative to Corresponding Xray Information ABSTRACT: We have found that refinement of protein NMR structures using Rosetta with experimental in the PDB using standard refinement protocols. Using 40 pairs of NMR and X-ray crystal structures determined

  5. www.cesos.ntnu.no Author Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures Stationkeeping of moored structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nrvg, Kjetil

    structures in drifting ice Li Zhou May 28th, 2013 #12;2 www.cesos.ntnu.no Author Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures Background Numerical model Ice model test Validation Extension: heading control Conclusions of stationkeeping in ice: Dynamic global ice loads Response of floating structures Local ice loads

  6. Montana State University ME 555 Smart Structures1 ME 555: SMART STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    : Leo, D.J. (2007). Engineering Analysis of Smart Material Systems, Wiley COORDINATING INSTRUCTOR: Dr. CMontana State University ME 555 Smart Structures1 ME 555: SMART STRUCTURES CATALOG DATA: ME 555 ­ SMART STRUCTURES: S 3 credits (3 lecture). Prerequisites: ME 315, ME 342, ME 445, or equivalent

  7. The Structure of Cholesterol in Lipid Rafts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Toppozini; Sebastian Meinhardt; Clare L. Armstrong; Zahra Yamani; Norbert Kucerka; Friederike Schmid; Maikel C. Rheinstaedter

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano- or mesoscopic structures in the plasma membrane and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as signal transduction, adhesion, trafficking and lipid/protein sorting. Observations of these membrane heterogeneities have proven challenging, as they are thought to be both small and short-lived. With a combination of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and neutron diffraction using deuterium labeled cholesterol molecules we observe raft-like structures and determine the ordering of the cholesterol molecules in binary cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. From coarse-grained computer simulations, heterogenous membranes structures were observed and characterized as small, ordered domains. Neutron diffraction was used to study the lateral structure of the cholesterol molecules. We find pairs of strongly bound cholesterol molecules in the liquid-disordered phase, in accordance with the umbrella model. Bragg peaks corresponding to ordering of the cholesterol molecules in the raft-like structures were observed and indexed by two different structures: a monoclinic structure of ordered cholesterol pairs of alternating direction in equilibrium with cholesterol plaques, i.e., triclinic cholesterol bilayers.

  8. Heat pipe with improved wick structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David A. (Albuquerque, NM); Robino, Charles V. (Albuquerque, NM); Palmer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Kravitz, Stanley H. (Placitas, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved planar heat pipe wick structure having projections formed by micromachining processes. The projections form arrays of interlocking, semi-closed structures with multiple flow paths on the substrate. The projections also include overhanging caps at their tops to increase the capillary pumping action of the wick structure. The capped projections can be formed in stacked layers. Another layer of smaller, more closely spaced projections without caps can also be formed on the substrate in between the capped projections. Inexpensive materials such as Kovar can be used as substrates, and the projections can be formed by electrodepositing nickel through photoresist masks.

  9. ALECS: assembly language extensions and control structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oothoudt, M.A.; Kozlowski, T.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ALECS is an assembly language preprocessor allowing the use of structured programming techniques in MACRO-11 code. Programs are written using standard control structures with normal MACRO-11 code embedded as needed. The ALECS task is used to translate the source to pure MACRO-11 source file which is then submitted to the assembler. ALECS also produces a structured source listing showing the true logical flow of code. ALECS has been used for short subroutines as well as RSX-11M I/0 drivers and an ACP.

  10. K-25 Structural Separation and Demolition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cater, Frank [Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC, East Tennessee Technology Park, Post Office Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The K-25 building is a former gaseous diffusion plant, built in 1944-1945 as part of the United States Manhattan Project. The structure was the largest structure under one roof, surpassed only by the Pentagon. Together the three wings represent about 17.8 hectare (44 acres) under roof and are generally about 18.3 meters (60 ft.) high on the outside face and approximately 12.2 meters (40 ft.) high on the inside face. The entire structure was built in the shape of a 'U', with a lateral distance of approximately one mile. It was constructed in individual building units with each unit connected using expansion joint-type connection. A single unit is approximately 24.4 meters (80 ft.) across and 122 meters (400 ft.) deep. The northern structure is connected to the eastern and western structures at the upper level floors. The four-level, U-shaped building is a steel-frame structure with corrugated cement-asbestos siding. The cell level is an elevated concrete structure supported by reinforced concrete columns located in the basement, or vault area. The vault area can be accessed at grade level from the outside perimeter. Inside the courtyard, the grade level has been raised to provide entry to the second or cell floor level. An engineering evaluation of the structure was performed to determine the condition of the structure and possibility of unplanned collapse of any portion of the structure. The evaluation included physical inspections, calculations for wind, pre-demolition loads, and evaluation of failure modes. The results of the evaluation have provided guidance for the demolition plan and the development of criteria for protection of personnel performing pre-demolition activities. Challenges include degradation of the structure that necessitated repair, dealing with changes in the code revisions from both the American Concrete Institute (ACI) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), access to areas of the structure that were not necessarily designed for access, and acceleration of the building degradation due to the pre-demolition activities. When a full building is evaluated, 50 percent of wind and applied forces are dissipated in 3 units and 80 percent is dissipated in 12 units. The forces are basically linear for the first 6 units once the building is opened at the start of demolition. Some column buckling, based on current codes, was noted in the analysis that would have to be mitigated to ensure a controlled demolition. Loading for the removal of the equipment required structural engineering evaluation of the certainty of the load and the application of the load. Corbels are being evaluated through an inspection program and criteria for repair based on current loading and anticipated additional live loads. Access issues continue to be a challenge and have created the need for a significant fall protection program. Other areas of access require different approaches and engineering solutions, sometime considering ultimate strength design versus standard yield stress design. An evaluation of separating a wing into two sections to allow for worker re-entry to perform pre-demolition activities during the demolition off shift was conducted. The evaluation has shown that because of both design and history of the K-25 and K-27 Buildings, significant care and attention is needed to demolish these structures from a structural perspective. When the project schedule issues are overlaid, that may demand workers in other parts of the structure after demolition has begun, the structural issues become severe, demanding exacting analysis and significant controls to ensure the safety of the workers both in and outside the building performing the demolition work.

  11. Stability of the MgSiO3 analog NaMgF3 and its implication for mantle structure in super-Earths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grocholski, Brent

    First-principles calculations on MgSiO(subscript 3) suggested a breakdown into MgO + SiO(subscript 2) at pressure above 1000 GPa with an extremely large negative Clapeyron slope, isolating the lowermost mantles of larger ...

  12. Synthesizing data-structure manipulations from storyboards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Rishabh

    We present the Storyboard Programming framework, a new synthesis system designed to help programmers write imperative low-level data-structure manipulations. The goal of this system is to bridge the gap between the ...

  13. P-Glycoprotein Structure and Chemotherapy Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The protein, called P-glycoprotein, or P-gp for short, is one of the main reasons cancer cells are resistant to chemotherapy drugs. Understanding its structure may help...

  14. Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abelson, Harold

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    "The Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs" is the entry-level subject in Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It is required of all students at MIT who major in Electrical ...

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: Structural Health Monitoring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and reduce downtime. A particular focus is to mitigate the large rise in costs for offshore O&M due to access difficulty, weather, high sea states, etc. using structural health...

  16. The behaviour of concrete structures in fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Ian A; Welch, Stephen; Torero, Jose L; Carvel, Ricky O; Usmani, Asif

    2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of concrete-based structures means that they generally perform very well in fire. However, concrete is a complex material and its properties can change dramatically when exposed to high temperatures. This paper provides a state...

  17. Structured Language Models for Statistical Machine Translation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eskenazi, Maxine

    Structured Language Models for Statistical Machine Translation Ying Zhang CMU-LTI-09-009 Language of Doctor of Philosophy In Language and Information Technologies © 2009, Ying Zhang #12;c Copyright Ying

  18. Use of sensors in monitoring civil structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daher, Bassam William, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis surveys the use of sensors and sensor networks in monitoring civil structures, with particular emphasis on the monitoring of bridges and highways using fiber optic sensors. Following a brief review of the most ...

  19. Structural Complexity of a Composite Amyloid Fibril

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewandowski, Jozef R.

    The molecular structure of amyloid fibrils and the mechanism of their formation are of substantial medical and biological importance, but present an ongoing experimental and computational challenge. An early high-resolution ...

  20. Fire performance of gable frame structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Congyi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fire protection engineering and structural engineering are two relevant but separated fields of study. Many experiments conducted by fire protection engineers are under certain ideal boundary conditions, which may not be ...

  1. Functional Facilities Management Energy Management Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulliver, Robert

    Functional Facilities Management Energy Management Structure Jerome Malmquist Director Erick Van Controls Systems Jeff Davis Assistant Director, Facilities Engineering & Energy Efficiency Gene Husted Principal Engineer / Commissioning Emily Robin-Abbott St. Paul Energy Engineer & Technicians Supervisor Dan

  2. New STFC senior management structure JOHN WOMERSLEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New STFC senior management structure JOHN WOMERSLEY Chief Executive JANET SEED Acting Executive External Innov. Public Engagement Education and Training ING, JAC ANDREW TAYLOR Executive Director Financial Management Governance TIM BESTWICK Executive Director, Business and Innovation Business

  3. Bussing Structure In An Electrochemical Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Antonio L. (Parkton, MD)

    2001-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A bussing structure for bussing current within an electrochemical cell. The bussing structure includes a first plate and a second plate, each having a central aperture therein. Current collection tabs, extending from an electrode stack in the electrochemical cell, extend through the central aperture in the first plate, and are then sandwiched between the first plate and second plate. The second plate is then connected to a terminal on the outside of the case of the electrochemical cell. Each of the first and second plates includes a second aperture which is positioned beneath a safety vent in the case of the electrochemical cell to promote turbulent flow of gasses through the vent upon its opening. The second plate also includes protrusions for spacing the bussing structure from the case, as well as plateaus for connecting the bussing structure to the terminal on the case of the electrochemical cell.

  4. Early stages in cosmic structure formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgess, Kristin M

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates the origin and evolution of large scale structure in the universe. We approach these questions from two different angles in two related but independent projects. The outcomes of these two investigations ...

  5. Community structure in the phonological network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siew, Cynthia S. Q.

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks ...

  6. Natural language search of structured documents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oney, Stephen W

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on techniques with which natural language can be used to search for specific elements in a structured document, such as an XML file. The goal is to create a system capable of being trained to identify ...

  7. Detecting and parsing embedded lightweight structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rha, Philip

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Text documents, web pages, and source code are all documents that contain language structures that can be parsed with corresponding parsers. Some documents, like JSP pages, Java tutorial pages, and Java source code, often ...

  8. Digital Mapping Of Structurally Controlled Geothermal Features...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to resolve structural patterns and details not shown on pre-existing maps. The cost of digital mapping technology can be relatively inexpensive, yet it can greatly speed the...

  9. Structural Biology Reveals the Secrets of Disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joachmiak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne's Structural Biology Center Director, Andrzej Joachimiak, talks about the work done at the SBC in analyzes the genetic makeup of pathogens to better understand how harmful bacteria and viruses can affect humans and animals.

  10. Degradation of Structural Alloys Under Thermal Insulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McIntyre, D. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wet thermal insulation may actively degrade steel and stainless steel structures by general corrosion or stress-corrosion cracking. Two different mechanisms of water ingress into insulation are discussed; flooding from external sources...

  11. The structure of local gravity theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurice J. Dupre

    2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the structure of local gravity theories as resulting from the idea that locally gravity must be physically characterized by tidal acceleration, and show how this relates to both Newtonian gravity and Einstein's general relativity.

  12. Constant field gradient planar coupled cavity structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A cavity structure is disclosed having at least two opposing planar housing members spaced apart to accommodate the passage of a particle beam through the structure between the members. Each of the housing members have a plurality of serially aligned hollows defined therein, and also passages, formed in the members, which interconnect serially adjacent hollows to provide communication between the hollows. The opposing planar housing members are spaced and aligned such that the hollows in one member cooperate with corresponding hollows in the other member to form a plurality of resonant cavities aligned along the particle beam within the cavity structure. To facilitate the obtaining of a constant field gradient within the cavity structure, the passages are configured so as to be incrementally narrower in the direction of travel of the particle beam. In addition, the spacing distance between the opposing housing members is configured to be incrementally smaller in the direction of travel of the beam. 16 figs.

  13. Genetic optimization of photonic bandgap structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuckovic, Jelena

    design methodology allows us to optimize PC structures for specific objectives. In this paper, we report," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059­2062 (1987). 3. D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T

  14. Structured Prediction via the Extragradient Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    -margin estima- tion of structured models, including an important class of Markov net- works and combinatorial The scope of discriminative learning methods has been expanding to encompass prediction tasks

  15. Crown structure, radiation absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yingping

    . Among the four different structural properties studied, crown shape is least important for PAR absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration. For the Sitka spruce stand studied, transpiration was most sensitive to the total area of leaves within the tree...

  16. Structure glass technology : systems and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitch, Katherine K. (Katherine Kristen)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass cannot compete with steel in terms of strength or durability, but it is the only structural material that offers the highly sought after qualities of translucency and transparency. The use of glass has evolved from ...

  17. Biophysical studies of anhydrous peptide structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLean, Janel Renee

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    peptide folding motifs in the absence of solvent, suggesting that in vacuo studies may potentially discern the role of solvation in protein structure. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMMS) combines a gas-phase ion separation based on collision cross...

  18. Nonparametric estimation of multiple structures with outliers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosecka, Jana

    Nonparametric estimation of multiple structures with outliers Wei Zhang and Jana Kosecka George outliers (pseudo outliers) to it in addition to the true outliers (gross outliers). The problem of robust

  19. Galactic Rotation and Large Scale Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Sidharth

    1999-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    On the basis of a recent cosmological model, the puzzle of galactic rotational velocities at their edges is explained without invoking dark matter. A rationale for the existence of structures like galaxies and superclusters is also obtained.

  20. STRUCTURAL CHANGE AND LEARNING WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    Change and Learning Within Organizations". In Dynamics of organizational societies : Models, theories to organizational learning. This approach defines learning, culture, structure and behavior at the individual and organizational level. When organizations, as synthetic agents learn important organizational behaviors emerge