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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

E-Print Network 3.0 - anti-lock braking system Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

such as trucks, tractor... -trailers and buses. In these brake systems, compressed air is used as the energy transmitting medium to actuate... the foundation brakes mounted...

2

Hybrid: Braking  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

1 1 Regenerative braking converts otherwise wasted energy from braking into electricity and stores it in the battery. In regenerative braking, the electric motor is reversed so that, instead of using electricity to turn the wheels, the rotating wheels turn the motor and create electricity. Using energy from the wheels to turn the motor slows the vehicle down. Go to next… stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is decelerating. There are arrows flowing from the front wheels to the electric motor to the battery. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is decelerating. There are arrows flowing from the front wheels to the electric motor to the battery.

3

Hybrid: Braking  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

2 2 If additional stopping power is needed, conventional friction brakes (e.g., disc brakes) are also applied automatically. Go back… stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection. Battery: The battery stores energy generated from the gasoline engine or, during regenerative braking, from the electric motor. Since the battery helps power the vehicle, it is larger and holds much more energy than batteries used to start conventional vehicles. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection.

4

Hybrid: Braking  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Button Stopped button highlighted subbanner graphic: gray bar Button Stopped button highlighted subbanner graphic: gray bar STOPPED When the vehicle is stopped, such as at a red light, the gasoline engine and electric motor shut off automatically so that energy is not wasted in idling. The battery continues to power auxillary systems, such as the air conditioning and dashboard displays. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection. Battery: The battery stores energy generated from the gasoline engine or, during regenerative braking, from the electric motor. Since the battery helps power the vehicle, it is larger and holds much more energy than batteries used to start conventional vehicles. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection.

5

Hybrid: Braking  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Button Stopped button highlighted subbanner graphic: gray bar Button Stopped button highlighted subbanner graphic: gray bar STOPPED When the vehicle is stopped, such as at a red light, the gasoline engine and electric motor shut off automatically so that energy is not wasted in idling. The battery continues to power auxillary systems, such as the air conditioning and dashboard displays. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection. Battery: The battery stores energy generated from the gasoline engine or, during regenerative braking, from the electric motor. Since the battery helps power the vehicle, it is larger and holds much more energy than batteries used to start conventional vehicles. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection.

6

Full Hybrid: Braking  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Braking button highlighted Stopped button Braking button highlighted Stopped button BRAKING PART 1 Regenerative braking converts otherwise wasted energy from braking into electricity and stores it in the battery. In regenerative braking, the electric motor is reversed so that, instead of using electricity to turn the wheels, the rotating wheels turn the motor and create electricity. Using energy from the wheels to turn the motor slows the vehicle down. Go to next… stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. The car is decelerating. There are arrows flowing from the front wheels to the power split device to the electric motor to the battery. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. The car is decelerating. There are arrows flowing from the front wheels to the power split device to the electric motor to the battery.

7

Svendborg Brakes | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name: Svendborg Brakes Place: Denmark Sector: Wind energy Product: Denmark-based manufacturer of braking systems for the wind industry, as well as for the oil sector....

8

WIND BRAKING OF MAGNETARS  

SciTech Connect

We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L{sub x}<- E-dot{sub rot} may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

Tong, H. [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011 (China); Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J. [KIAA and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Song, L. M., E-mail: tonghao@xao.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

9

Chapter 9 - Brake Testing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter describes and explains the role and methods of experimental testing in the design and verification of brakes and their components. It starts by discussing the increasing capability of computer-based predictive techniques, which can simulate many aspects of brake operation and save time and cost compared with previous methods of experimental evaluation. Preparation, procedures, instrumentation, data acquisition and results analysis, interpretation and reporting for experimental testing ranging from whole vehicle braking performance on a test track to component performance and material thermophysical properties in the laboratory, are explained and discussed. By the end of the chapter the design and operation of test rigs including inertia dynamometers for full-size brakes, scale rigs for small-sample friction and wear measurement, machines for cyclic loading and material property measurement, etc. are described. The importance of careful preparation of the friction pair (bedding-in and burnishing) for brake performance testing and the evaluation of variability by repeat testing is emphasised.

Andrew Day

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Modeling of air brakes for onboard diagnostics of heavy trucks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

declared out of service. Worn brake pads and tires, air leaks at hoses, connections, valves and brake chambers of the airbrake system along with the significant time delay in the actuation of tractor and trailer brakes degrade the vehicle braking...

Kankanala, Penchala N

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

11

Innovative vibration measurement technology for brake development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Apart from working reliably and providing safety, the comfort features of brakes in vehicles these days have become very significant. The requirement of a noiseless brake system always poses an important chall...

Dipl.-Ing. Holger Marschner; Dr. rer. nat. Dirk Reckwerth

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Heavy Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heavy Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by UT for a real-time on-board brake assessment tool. Test Overview A combination tractor-trailer will be given a complete brake rebuild prior to several tests performed at fully -laden and several overweight loading

13

6 - Engine brake performance in diesel engine system design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: This chapter provides a comprehensive theory on engine brake performance. It first discusses vehicle braking requirement and the impact on enginevehicle matching in engine brake operation, followed by a comparison between engine brakes and drivetrain retarders. It then introduces drivetrain retarders in detail including their torque and cooling characteristics. The performance characteristics of exhaust brakes and compression brakes are elaborated including their mechanisms and the interactions with valvetrain, variable valve actuation (VVA) and turbocharger. The principles of engine brake design are introduced through comprehensive simulation analysis on engine thermodynamic cycles in braking operation. A braking gas recirculation (BGR) theory is developed.

Qianfan Xin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Disturbance Control of the Hydraulic Brake in a Wind Turbine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Disturbance Control of the Hydraulic Brake in a Wind Turbine Frank Jepsen, Anders Søborg brake in a wind turbine. Brake torque is determined by friction coefficient and clamp force; the latter brake is one1 of the two independent brake systems in a wind turbine. As a consequence of the gearing

Yang, Zhenyu

15

Wide speed range for traction motor in braking force of electric braking control system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A vehicle stopping method using an electric brake until a traction motor is stopped is studied. At the moment of vehicle stop, electric brake is changed to control mode where ... is controlled by estimating the l...

Young-Choon Kim; Moon-Taek Cho

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Electric Braking Control System to Secure Braking Force in the Wide Speed Range of Traction Motor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a vehicle stopping method using an electric brake until a traction motor is stopped is studied. At the moment of vehicle stop, electric brake is changed to control mode wherein ... is controlled by...

Young-Choon Kim; Moon-Taek Cho; Ok-Hwan Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

PREDICTING RANGES FOR PULSARS' BRAKING INDICES  

SciTech Connect

The theoretical determination of braking indices of pulsars is still an open problem. In this paper we report results of a study concerning such determination based on a modification of the canonical model, which admits that pulsars are rotating magnetic dipoles, and on data from the seven pulsars with known braking indices. In order to test the modified model, we predict ranges for the braking indices of other pulsars.

Magalhaes, Nadja S.; Miranda, Thaysa A. [Federal University of Sao Paulo, DCET, Rua Sao Nicolau 210, Diadema, SP 09913-030 (Brazil); Frajuca, Carlos, E-mail: nadjasm@gmail.com [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sao Paulo, R. Pedro Vicente 625, Sao Paulo, SP 01109-010 (Brazil)

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

18

Hybrid Braking System for Non-Drive Axles  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A hybrid braking system is designed to conserve diesel fuel (or alternative fuels) by using regenerative braking, which extends hybrid technology to non-drive axles.

19

TMV Technology Capabilities Brake Stroke Monitor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TMV Technology Capabilities Brake Stroke Monitor Brake monitoring systems are proactive maintenance This technology allows for CMV operators to have knowledge of their steer, drive, and tandem axle group weights setup is required. Current Safety/Enforcement Technologies EOBR (electronic on-board recorder) On

20

Chapter 6 - Brake System Layout Design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter brings together high-level braking system design (Chapters 3 and 4Chapter 3Chapter 4) and the design of friction brakes (Chapter 5) to complete the layout design of road vehicle braking systems. Two actuation systems are studied: hydraulic (used on passenger cars and light commercial vehicles) and pneumatic (used on heavy commercial vehicles). Other braking technologies (e.g. regenerative) and actuation systems (e.g. power hydraulic and electromechanical) are also mentioned. A four-step design procedure is presented, which includes designing the basic braking system parameters based on the vehicle configuration, specifying the brakes (size and torque capacity), designing the actuation system, and verification (legislative requirements). Examples are presented for a hydraulic system with a vacuum booster (passenger car) and a pneumatic system (articulated commercial vehicle), which illustrate the important features of achieving a good basic system configuration. In passenger cars, the importance of driver interface parameters such as pedal feel is explained, and for commercial vehicles, compatibility, load sensing, and predominance between the trailer and towing vehicle brake systems is discussed.

Andrew Day

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Contactless magnetic brake for automotive applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONTACTLESS MAGNETIC BRAKE FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS A Dissertation by SEBASTIEN EMMANUEL GAY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR... OF PHILOSOPHY May 2005 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering CONTACTLESS MAGNETIC BRAKE FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS A Dissertation by SEBASTIEN EMMANUEL GAY Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Gay, Sebastien Emmanuel

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Adaptive controller for regenerative and friction braking system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A regenerative and friction braking system for a vehicle having one or more roadwheels driven by an electric traction motor includes a driver responsive device for producing a brake demand signal having a magnitude corresponding to the level of braking force selected by the driver and friction and regenerative brakes operatively connected with the roadwheels of the vehicle. A system according to this invention further includes control means for operating the friction and regenerative braking subsystems so that maximum brake torques sustainable by the roadwheels of the vehicle without skidding or slipping will not be exceeded.

Davis, Roy I. (Ypsilanti, MI)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

The braking performance of tractor-trailer combinations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Equations are derived for the maximum decelerations which can be obtained with balanced and unbalanced trailers with and without trailer brakes. The equations are used to produce graphs showing the maximum decelerations of trailers having typical dimensions, of different weights relative to the towing tractor on surfaces of different adhesion coefficients and with different types and degrees of braking on the trailers. Results measured during braking tests on tractors and trailers are given. Unbalanced trailers are shown to have a better braking performance than balanced trailers and it is therefore, recommended that trailers should be designed to carry the maximum permissible proportion of their weight on the tractor. Both over-run and power brakes on trailers are shown to provide very useful improvements in braking performance. Power brakes are preferred because of the difficulty of fitting over-run brakes on unbalanced trailers. The tractor's external hydraulics are considered to be the most convenient source of power. On-off brakes providing a fixed braking force equal to approximately 510% of the trailer maximum gross laden weight are considered to be a useful and simple means of improving existing trailers, but the development of trailer braking systems providing a braking force proportional to the tractor brake pedal force up to a maximum of approximately 2030% of the trailer maximum gross laden weight is considered to be very desirable.

M.J. Dwyer

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Thermal cracking in disc brakes Thomas J. Mackin *,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal cracking in disc brakes Thomas J. Mackin *,1 , Steven C. Noe, K.J. Ball, B.C. Bedell, D, or hub, which is connected to the wheel and axle, and an inboard and outboard braking surface

Salvaggio, Carl

25

Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydrualic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

Cikanek, Susan R. (Wixom, MI)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

A diagnostic system for air brakes in commercial vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation deals with the development of a model-based diagnostic system for air brake systems that are widely used in commercial vehicles, such as trucks, tractor-trailers, buses, etc. The performance of these brake systems is sensitive...

Coimbatore Subramanian, Shankar Ram

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

27

Why Brake-By-Wire (BBW) ? Advantages of BBW  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conventional Brake System http://www.conti-online.com #12;BBW Survey [ SKF (Motor + PGT +Ball Screw)] [ DELPHI (Motor + PGT +Ball Screw)] [Continental Teves (Motor + PGT + Roller Screw)] [Continental Teves installed at wheel] #12;Sectional Drawing of the Electromechanically Actuated Disk Brake From ITT Brake Pads Caliper

Yao, Bin

28

Airborne wear particles railway research group FEM Simulation of train disc brake behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Airborne wear particles railway research group FEM Simulation of train disc brake behavior a modern train disc brake with brake caliper and high speed pads. During braking, a considerable amount. A model of train brake caliper Aim The overall aim of the MSc degree project is to develop a thermoelastic

Haviland, David

29

Development of Diagnostic Algorithms for Air Brakes in Trucks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for di erent clearances and supply pressures : : : 6 4 Modes of operation of the air brake system [19] : : : : : : : : : : : : 11 5 A simpli ed layout of air brake system for a tractor : : : : : : : : : : 15 6 S-cam foundation brake..., causing it to rotate the slack adjuster. The slack adjuster, in turn, rotates 15 Fig. 5. A simpli ed layout of air brake system for a tractor the S-cam as it is connected to the S-cam through a splined shaft. The rotational mo- tion of the S-cam pushes...

Dhar, Sandeep

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

30

Measurement and control of brake pedal feel quality in automobile manufacturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Customer perception of brake pedal feel quality, as related to the perception of the brake pedal feeling soft or mushy, depends on both the customer's subjective judgment of quality and the actual build quality of the brake ...

Cerilles, Jeffrey T. (Jeffrey Thomas)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

E-Print Network 3.0 - air brakes Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

brakes to predominantly air disc brakes. Compare and contrast the impact of such conversions in Europe... Energy Efficiency in Heavy Vehicle Tires, Drivetrains, and ......

32

E-Print Network 3.0 - antilock brake systems Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

such as trucks, tractor... -trailers and buses. In these brake systems, compressed air is used as the energy transmitting medium to actuate... the foundation brakes mounted...

33

A pressure control scheme for air brakes in commercial vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research is focused on developing a control scheme for regulating the pressure in the brake chamber of an air brake system found in most commercial vehicles like trucks, tractor-trailers and buses. Such a control scheme can be used...

Bowlin, Christopher Leland

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

34

Many applications require brakes, for instance to decelerate or to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

surfaces in order to generate the braking torque. Typically, actuators Statically balancing A team of TU an error occurs in the process of a robotic arm. The energy consumption and actuation force of these brakes is very high. A team of TU Delft scientists developed a method to reduce the energy consumption

35

Investigation of aerodynamic braking devices for wind turbine applications  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the selection and preliminary design of a new aerodynamic braking system for use on the stall-regulated AWT-26/27 wind turbines. The goal was to identify and design a configuration that offered improvements over the existing tip brake used by Advanced Wind Turbines, Inc. (AWT). Although the design objectives and approach of this report are specific to aerodynamic braking of AWT-26/27 turbines, many of the issues addressed in this work are applicable to a wider class of turbines. The performance trends and design choices presented in this report should be of general use to wind turbine designers who are considering alternative aerodynamic braking methods. A literature search was combined with preliminary work on device sizing, loads and mechanical design. Candidate configurations were assessed on their potential for benefits in the areas of cost, weight, aerodynamic noise, reliability and performance under icing conditions. As a result, two configurations were identified for further study: the {open_quotes}spoiler-flap{close_quotes} and the {open_quotes}flip-tip.{close_quotes} Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at Wichita State University to evaluate the performance of the candidate aerodynamic brakes on an airfoil section representative of the AWT-26/27 blades. The wind tunnel data were used to predict the braking effectiveness and deployment characteristics of the candidate devices for a wide range of design parameters. The evaluation was iterative, with mechanical design and structural analysis being conducted in parallel with the braking performance studies. The preliminary estimate of the spoiler-flap system cost was $150 less than the production AWT-26/27 tip vanes. This represents a reduction of approximately 5 % in the cost of the aerodynamic braking system. In view of the preliminary nature of the design, it would be prudent to plan for contingencies in both cost and weight.

Griffin, D.A. [R. Lynette & Associates, Seattle, WA (United States)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Modeling the pneumatic relay valve of an s-cam air brake  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Statistics indicate that defects in brake system contribute significantly to fatal crashes involving commercial vehicles. Hence there is a need for developing preventive and active safety measures for assessing the performance of an air brake system...

Vilayannur Natarajan, Shankar

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

37

Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

Cikanek, Susan R. (Wixom, MI)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Evaluation of driver braking performance to an unexpected object in the roadway  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

components, specifically whether the equation accurately reflects driver and vehicle behaviors during a braking maneuver. This research evaluated the two components of the SSD equation. Four field studies were conducted that evaluated driver braking...

Picha, Dale Louis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

39

E-Print Network 3.0 - air brake association Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

... Source: Southwest Region University Transportation Center Collection: Engineering ; Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 2 Commercial Motor Vehicle Brake Assessment...

40

Switched reluctance motor based electromechanical brake-by-wire system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article presents an overview of electronic braking systems using SR (Switched Reluctance) machines. The advantages presented by this structure when compared to the conventional hydraulic systems are discussed. A justification for the choice of the SRM as a valid candidate is provided, with a detailed analysis of its control structure and performance. Experimental results obtained using a digital signal processor are also presented.

S. Underwood; A. Khalil; I. Husain; H. Klode; B. Lequesne; S. Gopalakrishnan; A. Omekanda

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

A mathematical model for air brake systems in the presence of leaks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

model for an air brake system in the presence of leaks. Brake systems in trucks are crucial for ensuring the safety of vehicles and passengers on the roadways. Most trucks in the US are equipped with S-cam drum brake systems and they are sensitive.... Overview Air brake systems are used in heavy commercial vehicles like buses, straight trucks and combination vehicles such as tractor-trailers[1]. More than 85% of the commer- cial vehicles in the US are equipped with S-cam drum brakes[2]. Proper...

Ramaratham, Srivatsan

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

42

E-Print Network 3.0 - automatic braking Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for an Urban Electric Vehicle Summary: , Automatic Braking, Electric Vehicles, Personal Rapid Transit, Public Transit, Advanced Vehicle Control... the design modification,...

43

E-Print Network 3.0 - automotive brake materials Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

such as trucks, tractor... -trailers and buses. In these brake systems, compressed air is used as the energy transmitting medium to ... Source: Southwest Region University...

44

Modeling the pneumatic subsystem of a S-cam air brake system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The air brake system is one of the critical components in ensuring the safe operation of any commercial vehicle. This work is directed towards the development of a fault-free model of the pneumatic subsystem of the air brake system. This model can...

Coimbatore Subramanian, Shankar

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

Vehicle yaw control via coordinated use of steering/braking systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vehicle yaw control via coordinated use of steering/braking systems M. Doumiati, O. Sename, J. Martinez, L. Dugard P. Gaspar, Z. Szabo, J. Bokor Gipsa-Lab UMR CNRS 5216, Control Systems Department with steer- ing/braking coordination task for vehicle yaw control. For steerability enhancement, only active

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

46

Integrated vehicle dynamics control via coordination of active front steering and rear braking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

front steering and rear braking in a driver- assist system for vehicle yaw control. The proposed control system aims at stabilizing the vehicle while achieving a desired yaw rate. During normal driving braking could be used for yaw rate control. An active suspension system, by controlling the wheel load

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

Fault tolerant control of automatically controlled vehicles in response to brake system failures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the brake system is vital. In this thesis, nonlinear failure detection filters are used for fault detection of sensors and actuators in a class of nonlinear systems. In this thesis, the effects of brake system failures in an AHS where the vehicle steering...

Hsien, Li-Wei

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

48

Plant and Environment Interactions Arsenic Accumulation in the Hyperaccumulator Chinese Brake and Its Utilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a greenhouse. At recently, however, has Chinese brake (Pteris vittata L.)harvest, the Chinese brake produced soils (0.47­7.56 mg As kg 1 ),concentration to water-soluble arsenic in soil) of 1450 and a transloca to remediate arsenic contaminated soils. schullat, 2000), soil arsenic concentration (Jiang and Singh, 1994

Ma, Lena

49

Microsoft PowerPoint - Real-Time Dynamic Brake Assessment poster.ppt [Compatibility Mode]  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dynamic Brake Assessment Dynamic Brake Assessment Purpose Conduct a proof-of-concept test to examine the feasibility of developing an on-board system to assess a vehicle's ability to stop based on typical low-pressure in-service braking events. Partnerships H.T. Hackney Company MGM Brakes Overview Funded through the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's Vehicle and Roadside Operations Division Concept stemming from on the Department of Energy's Medium Truck Duty Cycle research as well as previous research conducted for the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration. Signals to be collected Real-time brake application pressure Vehicle speed and acceleration GPS location and grade information Vehicle weight (current load) Engine parameters such as RPM and torque To be conducted October 2010 -

50

Wind turbine trailing-edge aerodynamic brake design  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the design of a centrifugally actuated aerodynamic-overspeed device for a horizontal-axis wind turbine. The device will meet the following criteria; (1) It will be effective for airfoil angles of attack 0{degrees} to 45{degrees}. (2) It will be stowed inside the blade profile prior to deployment. (3) It will be capable of offsetting the positive torque produced by the overall blade. (4) Hinge moments will be minimized to lower actuator loads and cost. (5) It will be evaluated as a potential power modulating active rotor-control system. A literature review of aerodynamic braking devices was conducted. Information from the literature review was used to conceptualize the most effective devices for subsequent testing and design. Wind-tunnel test data for several braking devices are presented in this report. Using the data for the most promising configuration, a preliminary design was developed for a MICON 65/13 wind turbine with Phoenix 7.9-m rotor blades.

Quandt, G.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Effect of Nanoclay Reinforcement on the Friction Braking Performance of Hybrid Phenolic Friction Composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Friction composite formulation consisting of decreasing nanoclay/lapinus fibres content, increasing graphite/aramid fibres ... is adopted for evaluating braking performance. The nanoclay content (?2.25wt.%) enha...

Tej Singh; Amar Patnaik

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Achieving Consistent Maximum Brake Torque with Varied Injection Timing in a DI Diesel Engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the characteristics of combustion for swept injection timings along the maximum brake torque plateau are determined. The research is conducted by varying injection timing at constant engine speed and load while measuring engine emissions and in-cylinder pressure...

Kroeger, Timothy H

2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

53

Low frequency vibrations in disc brakes at high car speed. Part II: mathematical model and simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present paper, a mathematical model is constructed for judder in disc brakes at high speed. Vehicle suspension is modelled by means of finite elements. Vibration modes and frequencies are derived that can be used in the classification of modes in main and secondary based in the relative disc-calliper displacement; the finite element model is also used as well as in forced-response analysis. Brake pads are defined through the friction coefficient as a function of speed, pressure, and temperature, in light of which one may consider the various braking conditions and types of pad. Since the line of reasoning introduces equivalent-damping terms into the equations of dynamics, these equations cannot be uncoupled by means of modal transformation. Two techniques are proposed for the solution of the problem. One of these consists in an examination of the 'main-modes', while the other is based on direct integration of the quasi-uncoupled equations. A computer program has been implemented which allows the simulation of this kind of judder with different pads, brake systems and braking conditions.

R. Aviles; G. Hennequet; E. Amezua; J. Vallejo

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Compliant mechanism road bicycle brake: a rigid-body replacement case study  

SciTech Connect

The design of high-performance bicycle brakes is complicated by the competing design objectives of increased performance and low weight. But this challenge also provides a good case study to demonstrate the design of compliant mechanisms to replace current rigid-link mechanisms. This paper briefly reviews current road brake designs, demonstrates the use of rigid-body replacement synthesis to design a compliant mechanism, and illustrates the combination of compliant mechanism design tools. The resulting concept was generated from the modified dual-pivot brake design and is a partially compliant mechanism where one pin has the dual role of a joint and a mounting pin. The pseudo-rigid-body model, finite element analysis, and optimization algorithms are used to generate design dimensions, and designs are considered for both titanium and E-glass flexures. The resulting design has the potential of reducing the part count and overall weight while maintaining a performance similar to the benchmark.

Olsen, Brian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howell, Larry L [NON LANL; Magleby, Spencer P [NON LANL

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

55

Genetic programming approach to predict torque and brake specific fuel consumption of a gasoline engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study presents genetic programming (GP) based model to predict the torque and brake specific fuel consumption a gasoline engine in terms of spark advance, throttle position and engine speed. The objective of this study is to develop an alternative robust formulations based on experimental data and to verify the use of GP for generating the formulations for gasoline engine torque and brake specific fuel consumption. Experimental studies were completed to obtain training and testing data. Of all 81 data sets, the training and testing sets consisted of randomly selected 63 and 18 sets, respectively. Considerable good performance was achieved in predicting gasoline engine torque and brake specific fuel consumption by using GP. The performance of accuracies of proposed GP models are quite satisfactory (R2=0.9878 for gasoline engine torque and R2=0.9744 for gasoline engine brake specific fuel consumption). The prediction of proposed GP models were compared to those of the neural network modeling, and strictly good agreement was observed between the two predictions. The proposed GP formulation is quite accurate, fast and practical.

Necla Togun; Sedat Baysec

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Real-Time Dynamic Brake Assessment Conduct a proof-of-concept  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Real-Time Dynamic Brake Assessment Purpose Conduct a proof-of-concept test to examine the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's Vehicle and Roadside Operations Division Concept stemming conducted for the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration. Signals to be collected Real

57

Mechanically versus electro-magnetically braked cycle ergometer: performance and energy cost of the Wingate Anaerobic Test  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Performance and metabolic profiles of the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) were compared between a mechanically resisted (ME) and an electro-magnetically braked (EE) cycle ergometer. Fifteen healthy subjects (24....

D. Micklewright; A. Alkhatib; R. Beneke

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

The effectiveness of using the calculated braking current for longitudinal differential protection of 110 - 750 kV shunt reactors  

SciTech Connect

The use of the function of effective current braking of the longitudinal differential protection of shunt reactors to offset current surges, which enables the sensitivity of differential protection to be increased when there are short circuits with low damage currents, is considered. It is shown that the use of the calculated braking characteristic enables the reliability of offset protection from transients to be increased when the reactor is connected, which is accompanied by the flow of asymmetric currents containing an aperiodic component.

Vdovin, S. A. [JSC 'E and E' (Russian Federation); Shalimov, A. S. [LLC Selekt Co. (Russian Federation)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Nonlinear analysis of time series of vibration data from a friction brake: SSA, PCA, and MFDFA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the methodology of singular spectrum analysis (SSA), principal component analysis (PCA), and multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA), for investigating characteristics of vibration time series data from a friction brake. SSA and PCA are used to study the long time-scale characteristics of the time series. MFDFA is applied for investigating all time scales up to the smallest recorded one. It turns out that the majority of the long time-scale dynamics, that is presumably dominated by the structural dynamics of the brake system, is dominated by very few active dimensions only and can well be understood in terms of low dimensional chaotic attractors. The multi-fractal analysis shows that the fast dynamical processes originating in the friction interface are in turn truly multi-scale in nature.

Nikolay K. Vitanov; Norbert P. Hoffmann; Boris Wernitz

2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

60

DOES MAGNETIC-FIELD-ROTATION MISALIGNMENT SOLVE THE MAGNETIC BRAKING CATASTROPHE IN PROTOSTELLAR DISK FORMATION?  

SciTech Connect

Stars form in dense cores of molecular clouds that are observed to be significantly magnetized. In the simplest case of a laminar (non-turbulent) core with the magnetic field aligned with the rotation axis, both analytic considerations and numerical simulations have shown that the formation of a large, 10{sup 2} AU scale, rotationally supported protostellar disk is suppressed by magnetic braking in the ideal MHD limit for a realistic level of core magnetization. This theoretical difficulty in forming protostellar disks is termed the ''magnetic braking catastrophe''. A possible resolution to this problem, proposed by Hennebelle and Ciardi and Joos et al., is that misalignment between the magnetic field and rotation axis may weaken the magnetic braking enough to enable disk formation. We evaluate this possibility quantitatively through numerical simulations. We confirm the basic result of Joos et al. that the misalignment is indeed conducive to disk formation. In relatively weakly magnetized cores with dimensionless mass-to-flux ratio {approx}> 4, it enabled the formation of rotationally supported disks that would otherwise be suppressed if the magnetic field and rotation axis are aligned. For more strongly magnetized cores, disk formation remains suppressed, however, even for the maximum tilt angle of 90 Degree-Sign . If dense cores are as strongly magnetized as indicated by OH Zeeman observations (with a mean dimensionless mass-to-flux ratio {approx}2), it would be difficult for the misalignment alone to enable disk formation in the majority of them. We conclude that, while beneficial to disk formation, especially for the relatively weak field case, misalignment does not completely solve the problem of catastrophic magnetic braking in general.

Li Zhiyun [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien [Academia Sinica, Theoretical Institute for Advanced Research in Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

THE BRAKING INDEX OF PSR J1734-3333 AND THE MAGNETAR POPULATION  

SciTech Connect

PSR J1734-3333 is a radio pulsar rotating with a period P = 1.17 s and slowing down with a period derivative P-dot =2.28x10{sup -12}, the third largest among rotation-powered pulsars. These properties are midway between those of normal rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars, two populations of neutron stars that are notably different in their emission properties. Here we report on the measurement of the second period derivative of the rotation of PSR J1734-3333 and calculate a braking index n = 0.9 {+-} 0.2. This value is well below 3, the value expected for an electromagnetic braking due to a constant magnetic dipole, and indicates that this pulsar may soon have the rotational properties of a magnetar. While there are several mechanisms that could lead to such a low braking index, we discuss this observation, together with the properties exhibited by some other high- P-dot rotation-powered pulsars, and interpret it as evidence of a possible evolutionary route for magnetars through a radio-pulsar phase, supporting a unified description of the two classes of the object.

Espinoza, C. M.; Lyne, A. G. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Kramer, M. [MPI fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Manchester, R. N. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Kaspi, V. M., E-mail: cme@jb.man.ac.uk [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Design Principles of a flywheel Regenerative Braking System (f-RBS) for Formula SAE type racecar and system testing on a Virtual Test Rig modeled on MSC ADAMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

momentum in the industry [4]. These vehicles (BEVs and HEVS) use electric motor/generator pairs to propel themselves and to recapture braking energy (electric RBS) and the power source is the battery. The regenerative braking system uses a generator..., aerodynamic and road losses. 4. Improvised Transmission design to reduce losses. 5. Hybrid and Alternative Energy Propulsion systems e.g. the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), the Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV). 6. Recycling Braking energy Storage and reuse...

Pochiraju, Anirudh

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

63

Probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect

In its most recent report on the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the annual failure rate is calculated to be 1.3E({minus}7)(1/yr), rounded off from 1.32E({minus}7). A calculation by the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) produces a result that is about 4% higher, namely 1.37E({minus}7)(1/yr). The difference is due to a minor error in the US Department of Energy (DOE) calculations in the Westinghouse 1996 report. WIPP`s hoist safety relies on a braking system consisting of a number of components including two crucial valves. The failure rate of the system needs to be recalculated periodically to accommodate new information on component failure, changes in maintenance and inspection schedules, occasional incidents such as a hoist traveling out-of-control, either up or down, and changes in the design of the brake system. This report examines DOE`s last two reports on the redesigned waste hoist system. In its calculations, the DOE has accepted one EEG recommendation and is using more current information about the component failures rates, the Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data (NPRD). However, the DOE calculations fail to include the data uncertainties which are described in detail in the NPRD reports. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission recommended that a system evaluation include mean estimates of component failure rates and take into account the potential uncertainties that exist so that an estimate can be made on the confidence level to be ascribed to the quantitative results. EEG has made this suggestion previously and the DOE has indicated why it does not accept the NRC recommendation. Hence, this EEG report illustrates the importance of including data uncertainty using a simple statistical example.

Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)]|[Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Hoover Institution

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Thermo-mechanical characterization of nano filled and fiber reinforced brake friction materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brake friction materials filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and nanoclay have been fabricated and characterize for thermo-mechanical properties. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) show that the stability of the friction composites increased with increase in MWCNT and nanoclay contents. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of the composite have been carried out to characterize the storage modulus (E?) loss modulus (E?) and damping factor (Tan ?) as a function of temperature. The storage and loss modulus show a maxima at lower content of MWCNT and nanoclay.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Solar tracker motor having a fixed caliper and a translating caliper each with an electromagnetic brake system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Concepts and technologies described herein provide for an accurate and cost-effective method for rotating a solar array disk for tracking the movement of the sun. According to various aspects, a motor includes a fixed caliper and a translating caliper positioned adjacent to one another. Electromagnetically controlled brakes on the translating caliper grip the solar array disk while adjacent, but spaced apart, electromagnets on the fixed caliper and the translating caliper are energized to create an attractive force that pulls the translating caliper with the solar array disk toward the fixed caliper. After reaching the fixed caliper, brakes on the fixed caliper are engaged with the disk, brakes on the translating caliper are released from the disk, and the translating caliper is pushed back to the starting location where the process repeats until the desired rotation is completed.

Rau, Scott James

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

66

Fault detection and diagnosis within a wind turbine mechanical braking system using condition monitoring  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Renewable energy sources have a key role to play in the global energy mix as a means of reducing the impact of energy production on climate change. Wind energy is the most developed of all renewable energy technologies with more than 200GW of globally installed capacity as of 2011. Analyses of wind farm maintenance costs show that up to 40% of the outlay is related to unexpected component failures that lead to costly unscheduled amendments. Wind farm operators are constantly looking for new technological developments in condition monitoring that can contribute to the minimisation of wind turbine maintenance expenditure. Early fault detection through condition monitoring can help prevent major breakdowns as well as significantly decrease associated costs. Moreover it enables the optimisation of maintenance schedules, reduces downtime, increases asset availability and enhances safety and operational reliability. Faults in the braking system are of particularly concern since they can result in catastrophic failure of the wind turbine. The present study investigates online condition monitoring based on voltages and currents for mechanical wind turbine brake system fault diagnosis.

M. Entezami; S. Hillmansen; P. Weston; M.Ph. Papaelias

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Rotational evolution of the Crab pulsar in the wind braking model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The pulsar wind model is updated by considering the effect of particle density and pulsar death. It can describe both the short term and long term rotational evolution of pulsars consistently. It is applied to model the rotational evolution of the Crab pulsar. The pulsar is spun down by a combination of magnetic dipole radiation and particle wind. The parameters of the Crab pulsar, including magnetic field, inclination angle, and particle density are calculated. The particle density in acceleration region is about 10^3 times the Goldreich-Julian charge density. The lower braking index between glitches is due to a larger particle density. This may be glitch induced magnetospheric activities in normal pulsars. Evolution of braking index and the Crab pulsar in P-Pdot diagram are calculated. The Crab pulsar will evolve from magnetic dipole radiation dominated case towards particle wind dominated case. Considering the effect of pulsar "death", the Crab pulsar (and other normal pulsars) will not evolve to the clust...

Kou, F F

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Use of an auditory signal in a rear-end collision warning system: effects on braking force and reaction time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

driving game. Superimposed on the game screen was the image of a car which appeared to the driver to be ahead of him/her. The image enlarged in size, appearing to be a car applying its brakes. The participant was instructed to react as he would in a real...

Hopkins, Jennifer Susan

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

CityCarControl : an electric vehicle drive-by-wire solution for distributed steering, braking and throttle control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose CityCarControl, a system to manage the steering, braking, and throttle of a new class of intra-city electric vehicles. These vehicles have a focus on extreme light-weight and a small parking ...

Brown, Thomas B., M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

A MODEL OF MAGNETIC BRAKING OF SOLAR ROTATION THAT SATISFIES OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS  

SciTech Connect

The model of magnetic braking of solar rotation considered by Charbonneau and MacGregor has been modified so that it is able to reproduce for the first time the rotational evolution of both the fastest and slowest rotators among solar-type stars in open clusters of different ages, without coming into conflict with other observational constraints, such as the time evolution of the atmospheric Li abundance in solar twins and the thinness of the solar tachocline. This new model assumes that rotation-driven turbulent diffusion, which is thought to amplify the viscosity and magnetic diffusivity in stellar radiative zones, is strongly anisotropic with the horizontal components of the transport coefficients strongly dominating over those in the vertical direction. Also taken into account is the poloidal field decay that helps to confine the width of the tachocline at the solar age. The model's properties are investigated by numerically solving the azimuthal components of the coupled momentum and magnetic induction equations in two dimensions using a finite element method.

Denissenkov, Pavel A., E-mail: pavel.denisenkov@gmail.co [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, B.C., V8W 3P6 (Canada)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

71

Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 26, No.4, October 1996, pp.301-320. Traction/Braking Force Distribution for Optimal Longitudinal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as the desired level of vehicle yaw motion, and the control system was designed to follow the yaw motion commandVehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 26, No.4, October 1996, pp.301-320. Traction/Braking Force in the past twenty years through the use of electronic devices. Four-wheel-steering (4WS) systems have been

Peng, Huei

72

Hydraulic Drivetrain and Regenerative Braking Team 13: Andrew Brown, Karan Desai, Andrew McGrath, Hurst Nuckols, Grant Wilson Adviser: Dr. Andrew Jackson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The main components of the model include an electric motor, hydraulic pump, hydraulic motor and two 1 flow during regenerative braking Electric Motor: Provides rotational energy to the hydraulic drivetrain (% kinetic energy recovered) 24.73% Drivetrain Efficiency 67.02% Overall Efficiency 53.47% Current Electric

Carpick, Robert W.

73

An analysis of the annual probability of failure of the waste hoist brake system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) previously analyzed the probability of a catastrophic accident in the waste hoist of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and published the results in Greenfield (1990; EEG-44) and Greenfield and Sargent (1993; EEG-53). The most significant safety element in the waste hoist is the hydraulic brake system, whose possible failure was identified in these studies as the most important contributor in accident scenarios. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Waste Isolation Division has calculated the probability of an accident involving the brake system based on studies utilizing extensive fault tree analyses. This analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used point estimates to describe the probability of failure and includes failure rates for the various components comprising the brake system. An additional controlling factor in the DOE calculations is the mode of operation of the brake system. This factor enters for the following reason. The basic failure rate per annum of any individual element is called the Event Probability (EP), and is expressed as the probability of failure per annum. The EP in turn is the product of two factors. One is the {open_quotes}reported{close_quotes} failure rate, usually expressed as the probability of failure per hour and the other is the expected number of hours that the element is in use, called the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes}. In many instances the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} will be the number of operating hours of the brake system per annum. However since the operation of the waste hoist system includes regular {open_quotes}reoperational check{close_quotes} tests, the {open_quotes}mission time{close_quotes} for standby components is reduced in accordance with the specifics of the operational time table.

Greenfield, M.A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sargent, T.J.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Design and test of a wet type helium turbo-expander with an alternator as a brake  

SciTech Connect

A wet type helium turbo-expander with expected adiabatic efficiency of 70% at inlet pressure, temperature, and outlet pressure of 1.3 MPa, 6.0 K, and 0.2 MPa, respectively, has been developed. An alternator is adopted as a brake where a permanent magnet is held in the turbine shaft. And a self-acting gas bearing is used at thrust and journal bearings. An electromagnet supports thrust bearing to lift up the thrust disk when initiating operation. Design mass flow rate of the turbine is determined to be 60 g/s, corresponding to the JT mass flow rate in the existing helium liquefier/refrigerator. In the cryogenic performance test, the turbine had increased helium liquefaction rate by four times larger than the liquefaction rate without turbine operation.

Kato, T.; Miyake, A.; Kawano, K.; Hamada, K.; Hiyama, T.; Iwamoto, S.; Ebisu, H.; Tsuji, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Saji, N.; Kaneko, Y. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

75

Upper and lower limits on the Crab pulsar's astrophysical parameters set from gravitational wave observations by LIGO: braking index and energy considerations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Observatory (LIGO) has recently reached the end of its fifth science run (S5), having collected more than a year worth of data. Analysis of the data is still ongoing but a positive detection of gravitational waves, while possible, is not realistically expected for most likely sources. This is particularly true for what concerns gravitational waves from known pulsars. In fact, even under the most optimistic (and not very realistic) assumption that all the pulsar's observed spin-down is due to gravitational waves, the gravitational wave strain at earth from all the known isolated pulsars (with the only notable exception of the Crab pulsar) would not be strong enough to be detectable by existing detectors. By August 2006, LIGO had produced enough data for a coherent integration capable to extract signal from noise that was weaker than the one expected from the Crab pulsar's spin-down limit. No signal was detected, but beating the spin-down limit is a considerable achievement for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC). It is customary to translate the upper limit on strain from a pulsar into a more astrophysically significant upper limit on ellipticity. Once the spin-down limit has been beaten, it is possible to release the constraint that all the spin-down is due to gravitational wave emission. A more complete model with diverse braking mechanisms can be used to set limits on several astrophysical parameters of the pulsar. This paper shows possible values of such parameters for the Crab pulsar given the current limit on gravitational waves from this neutron star.

Giovanni Santostasi

2008-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

76

Daimler's SuperTruck Program; 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presents highlights of engine and vehicle advances made, and progress towards achieving aggressive goals

77

Emergency Braking: A Study of Network and Application Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of such applications as a function of the market penetration rate, showing that even cars that are not equipped interact? What is the market penetration rate that makes EEBL ben- efits measurable? Do non

Lo Cigno, Renato Antonio

78

Improvements of vehicle fuel economy using mechanical regenerative braking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper presents a mixed theoretical and experimental evaluation of the improvements in fuel economy that follow the introduction of a mechanical Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) on a full size passenger car. This system, made up of a high speed storage flywheel and a Constant Variable Transmission (CVT), has a full regenerative cycle overall efficiency about twice the efficiency of battery-based hybrids. With reference to the baseline configuration having a 4L gasoline engine, adoption of a KERS may reduce the fuel consumption covering the NEDC by 25% without downsizing, and by 33% downsizing the engine to 3.3L.

Alberto A. Boretti

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

ORNL/Pub40701 Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS) representatives from the following source. Office of Scientific

80

Time-Based Intrusion Detection in Cyber-Physical Systems Christopher Zimmer, Balasubramany Bhat, Frank Mueller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

determined prior to the schedulability analysis. We demonstrate how to provide micro-timings for multiple granularity levels of application code. Through bounds checking of these micro-timings, we develop techniques) to highly critical ones (anti-lock brakes, hydro-electric dam controls and flight control systems

Mueller, Frank

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS Vehicle Features Base Vehicle: 2010 Honda  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Honda Honda Civic Hybrid VIN: JHMFA3F24AS005577 Seatbelt Positions: 5 Standard Features: Air Conditioning Power Locks Power Steering Power Brakes Power Windows Cruise Control Front Disc Brakes Rear Disc Brakes Front Wheel Drive Regenerative Braking Anti-Lock Brakes Traction Control Air Bags AM/FM Stereo with CD State of Charge Meter 1 Weights Design Curb Weight: 2877 lb Delivered Curb Weight: 2982 lb Distribution F/R (%): 57/43 GVWR: 3792 lb GAWR F/R: 1973/1841 lb Payload 2 : 810 lb Performance Goal: 400 lb Dimensions Wheelbase: 106.3 in Track F/R: 59.1/60.2 in Length: 177.3 in Width: 69.0 in Height: 56.3 in Ground Clearance: 6.0 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in Tires Manufacturer: Bridgestone

82

Microsoft Word - chvs10.html  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 Chevrolet S-10 Electric 7 Chevrolet S-10 Electric VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS PURPOSE-BUILT VEHICLE Base Vehicle: 1997 Chevrolet S-10 VIN: 1GCDE14H4V80003EX Seatbelt Positions: Three Standard Features: Heat Pump Climate Control System Auxillary Diesel Fuel Fired Heater (Only operates Below 40 F) Cruise Control Tilt Steering Wheel Front Wheel Drive Power Steering Power Brakes Anti-Lock Brakes Front Disk Brakes Regenerative Braking Drivers Side Air Bags AM/FM Stereo Radio Half-Bed Tonneau Cover BATTERY Manufacturer: Delphi Energy Type: Valve Regulated Lead Acid Number of Modules: 26 Weight of Module: 19 kg Weight of Pack(s): 575 kg Pack Locations: Underbody Nominal Module Voltage: 12 V Nominal System Voltage: 312 V Nominal Capacity (C/2): 48 Ah WEIGHTS Design Curb Weight: 4300 lbs

83

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS Vehicle Features Base Vehicle: 2010 Smart  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Smart Smart Fortwo MHD VIN: WME4513341K406476 Seatbelt Positions: 2 Standard Features: Air Conditioning Power Locks Power Steering Power Brakes Power Windows Cruise Control Front Disc Brakes Rear Drum Brakes Rear Wheel Drive Anti-Lock Brakes Traction Control Air Bags AM/FM Stereo with CD player Weights Design Curb Weight:1,818 lb Delivered Curb Weight: 1.742 lb Distribution F/R (%):44/56 GVWR: 2,244 lb GAWR F/R: 968/1,452 lb Payload 1 : 426 lb Performance Goal: 400 lb Dimensions Wheelbase: 73.5 in Track F/R: 50.5/54.5 in Length: 106.1 in Width: 61.4 in Height: 60.7 in Ground Clearance: 6.25 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in Tires Manufacturer: Continental Model: ContiproContact Size: Front -P155/60/R15

84

VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS Vehicle Features  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mazda 3 Mazda 3 VIN: JMZBLA4G601111865 Seatbelt Positions: 5 Standard Features: Air Conditioning Power Locks Power Steering Power Brakes Power Windows Cruise Control Front Disc Brakes Rear Disc Brakes Front Wheel Drive Anti-Lock Brakes Traction Control Air Bags AM/FM Stereo with CD Weights Design Curb Weight: 2,954 lb Delivered Curb Weight: 2,850 lb Distribution F/R (%): 63/37 GVWR: 4,050 lb GAWR F/R: 2,057/1,896 lb Payload 1 : 1,096 lb Performance Goal: 400 lb Dimensions Wheelbase: 103.9 in Track F/R: 60.4/59.8 in Length: 175.6 in Width: 69.1 in Height: 57.9 in Ground Clearance: 6.1 in Performance Goal: 5.0 in Tires Manufacturer: Yokohama Model: YK520 Size: P205/55R17 Pressure F/R: 35/33 psi

85

The influence of the magnetic topology on the braking of sun-like stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stellar winds are thought to be the main process responsible for the spin down of main-sequence stars. The extraction of angular momentum by a magnetized wind has been studied for decades, leading to several formulations for the resulting torque. However, previous studies generally consider simple dipole or split monopole stellar magnetic topologies. Here we consider in addition to a dipolar stellar magnetic field, both quadrupolar and octupolar configurations, while also varying the rotation rate and the magnetic field strength. 60 simulations made with a 2.5D, cylindrical and axisymmetric set-up and computed with the PLUTO code were used to find torque formulations for each topology. We further succeed to give a unique law that fits the data for every topology by formulating the torque in terms of the amount of open magnetic flux in the wind. We also show that our formulation can be applied to even more realistic magnetic topologies, with examples of the Sun in its minimum and maximum phase as observed at t...

Rville, Victor; Matt, Sean; Strugarek, Antoine; Pinto, Rui

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Regenerative Braking for an Electric Vehicle Using Ultracapacitors and a Buck-Boost Converter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, similar in shape and size to a Chevrolet S-10. This vehicle was already converted to an electric car

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

87

ORNL/TM-2011/479 Real-Time Dynamic Brake Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.............................................................................................................................1 1.1 BACKGROUND...............................................................................................................6 2.2.1 Test Vehicle and Sensors

88

Interface design for an aircraft thrust and braking indicator/advisor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent advances in the development of aircraft landing and takeoff performance monitoring systems (Pinder, 2003) have shown the feasibility of a cockpit instrument that could aid significantly in the decision making process during the most critical phases ... Keywords: auditory interfaces, aviation, bimodal user interfaces, cockpit user interfaces

S. D. Pinder; D. N. Bristow; T. C. Davies

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

A performance evaluation of an automotive magnetorheological brake design with a sliding mode controller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

industries due to its potential to improve vehicle perfor- mance, safety and cost. The ``x'' in x Engineering, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, P.O. Box 3055 STN CSC, Victoria, BC, Canada V8W 3P6 flow and heat transfer analysis. The performance of the MRB in a vehicle was studied using a quarter

Park, Edward

90

Combined fast valving and braking resistor application to improve transient stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In many cases, power plants and load centers are connected through long transmission lines. Furthermore, the development over the years of improved methods of' cooling generators and of designing low pressure turbine stages have resulted in a reduction... power input to the turbogenerator is measured with a reheater pressure transducer and the electrica1 power output from the generator is measured with a kw transducer. When the 10 0 V 0 C4 4 0) f-4 H m Cd . A ) N Cd VII &D '0 (U Ctd cd cdm OE...

Chen, Jen-Yeu Thomas

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

A study of factors affecting foot movement time in a braking maneuver  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

; in the stationary vehicle portion of the study, they were not. Mean foot MT for both genders over all conditions were 0.28 seconds for women and 0.22 seconds for men. For older drivers, over all conditions, the mean foot MT was 0.25 seconds, and, for the younger...

Berman, Andrea Helene

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

92

Injection Timing Effects on Brake Fuel Conversion Efficiency and Engine System's Respones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

timing effects on the combustion processes, engine efficiency, and the engine system's responses. The engine in the study is a medium duty diesel engine (capable of meeting US EPA Tier III off road emission standards) equipped with common rail direct...

McLean, James Elliott

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

93

Author's personal copy What can the braking indices tell us about the nature of pulsars?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

additional torques by particle outflow or accretion disk, changes in inclination angle or magnetic field's personal copy pole radiation and relativistic particle flow/wind (Dar, 1999; Allen and Horvath, 2000; Xu and Qiao, 2001; Wu et al., 2003; Contopoulos et al., 2006), the models with changing inclination angles (e

Xu, Ren-Xin

94

To brake or to accelerate? Safety effects of combined speed and red light cameras  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractIntroduction The present study evaluates the traffic safety effect of combined speed and red light cameras at 253 signalized intersections in Flanders, Belgium that were installed between 2002 and 2007. Method The adopted approach is a before-and-after study with control for the trend. Results The analyses showed a non-significant increase of 5% in the number of injury crashes. An almost significant decrease of 14% was found for the more severe crashes. The number of rear-end crashes turned out to have increased significantly (+44%), whereas a non-significant decrease (?6%) was found in the number of side crashes. The decrease for the severe crashes was mainly attributable to the effect on side crashes, for which a significant decrease of 24% was found. Practical Applications It is concluded that combined speed and red light cameras have a favorable effect on traffic safety, in particular on severe crashes. However, future research should examine the circumstances of rear-end crashes and how this increase can be managed.

Ellen De Pauw; Stijn Daniels; Tom Brijs; Elke Hermans; Geert Wets

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Microsoft Word - s10.html  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chevrolet S-10 Electric Chevrolet S-10 Electric w/NiMH VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS PURPOSE-BUILT VEHICLE Base Vehicle: 1998 S-10 VIN: 1GCDE14H1W8122580 Seatbelt Positions: Three Standard Features: Heat Pump Climate Control System Auxillary Diesel Fuel Fired Heater (Only operates Below 37°F) Cruise Control Power Steering Tilt Steering Wheel 4-wheel Anti-Lock Power Assisted Brakes Regenerative Braking Propulsion Battery Thermal Management System Driver and Passenger-Side Air Bags (w/Passenger-Side Deactivation Switch) AM/FM Stereo Radio Half-Bed Tonneau Cover BATTERY Manufacturer: Ovonic Energy Products Type: Nickel Metal Hydride Number of Modules: 26 Weight of Module: 18.3 kg Weight of Pack(s): 490.5 kg Pack Locations: Underbody Nominal Module Voltage: 13.2 V

96

The effect of magnetic topology on thermally-driven winds: towards a general formulation of the braking law  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Stellar winds are thought to be the main process responsible for the spin down of main-sequence stars. The extraction of angular momentum by a magnetized wind has been studied for decades, leading to several formulations for the resulting torque. However, previous studies generally consider simple dipole or split monopole stellar magnetic topologies. Here we consider in addition to a dipolar stellar magnetic field, both quadrupolar and octupolar configurations, while also varying the rotation rate and the magnetic field strength. 60 simulations made with a 2.5D, cylindrical and axisymmetric set-up and computed with the PLUTO code were used to find torque formulations for each topology. We further succeed to give a unique law that fits the data for every topology by formulating the torque in terms of the amount of open magnetic flux in the wind. We also show that our formulation can be applied to even more realistic magnetic topologies, with examples of the Sun in its minimum and maximum phase as observed at t...

Rville, Victor; Matt, Sean; Strugarek, Antoine; Pinto, Rui

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Disc formation in turbulent cloud cores: is magnetic flux loss necessary to stop the magnetic braking catastrophe or not?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......regions, while the MHD model with artificially...Appendix reproduces the diagrams as obtained in SGL12...the mass M. These diagrams provide a way to...than in the ideal MHD model and comparable...and 1000 au scale diagrams - middle and right-hand...specially for the ideal MHD model.) The geometry......

R. Santos-Lima; E. M. de Gouveia Dal Pino; A. Lazarian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Value Capture in the Global Wind Energy Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nacelle housing Brake system Yaw bearings All other Suppliern.a. n.a. Brake system n.a. n.a. Yaw bearings Spain n .a.

Dedrick, Jason; Kraemer, Kenneth L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

each of these systems. These systems and specific components of interest include: * Vehicle Systems o Engine o Hybrid propulsion system o Brakes * Vehicle Components o Brake...

100

Performance of Networked Control Systems under Sporadic Feedback  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regenerative Braking power inverter storage Micro-Grid Renewable Generation PHEV Smart Grid - Distributed

Lemmon, Michael

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal Modeling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

funding: 250k 2 Overview 3. Exh. waste heat 1. Heat transfer 2. Brake power * 1) 33% (loss, heat transfer) * 2) 33% (brake power) * 3) 33% (loss, exhaust waste) Energy in 3...

102

Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak pressure can result from oxygen-enriched diesel combustion

103

MUSIC VENUES IN EXETERMUSIC VENUES IN EXETER EXETER'S MUSIC SCENEEXETER'S MUSIC SCENE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Damned o Turin Brakes o Youngblood Brass Band #12;AROUND EXETERAROUND EXETER Cavern Club Live Music Venue

Mumby, Peter J.

104

Heavy-duty H2-Diesel Dual Fuel Engines  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Brake thermal efficiency can be improved with the addition of a large amount of hydrogen at medium to high loads

105

www.ave.kth.se Rail Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

brake systems and materials b. Wear calculation methodologies 2. Block-wheel contact mechanics study a and worn out profiles 3. Application to wheel wear calculation a. Isolated wheel and block b. Coupling: Modelling wheel wear caused by block brakes Background Most freight trains use block brakes, where

Haviland, David

106

CMVRTC: Overweight Vehicle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heavy and overweight vehicle brake testing for combination five-axle Heavy and overweight vehicle brake testing for combination five-axle tractor-flatbed scale The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, in coordination with the Federal Highway Administration, sponsored the Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT) program in order to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a

107

NETL: LabNotes - April 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

April 2012 April 2012 NETL Develops Sensor and Control Technologies Detecting Gas Composition Rapidly and Accurately Machines and devices that function automatically to keep us safe and provide convenience are characteristic of modern life. For example, our home heating, ventilation and cooling systems have temperature sensors that know if the room is at the user's desired level of comfort and then cause something like a furnace, heat pump, air conditioner, or blower to turn on or off. The sensor and the resulting control signal comprise a sensor and control loop. Our automobiles and their sub-components use a myriad of sensor and control loops to keep them running safely and efficiently - for example, anti-lock braking systems, air bags, oxygen sensors, and throttle sensors. Similarly, NETL engineers and scientists are working on ways to make energy systems safer and more efficient through the use of novel sensors and control loops that provide more information to the operators and afford a higher level of control.

108

CMVRTC: Past Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Past reseach projects Past reseach projects ABS Indication Lamp Study -- More to come... Brake Wear and Performance Test (BWPT) -- Performance-Based Brake Testers (PBBTs) are devices that can be used to evaluate the current braking capabilities of a vehicle through the measurement of brake forces developed as a vehicle engages in a braking event while on a PBBT machine. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMSCA) passed legislation on February 5, 2003, allowing a PBBT that meets the FMCSA functional specifications to be used as an enforcement tool. (Read more ...) Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Brake Testing (HOVBT): Five-Axle Combination Tractor-Flatbed -- The HOVBT program was designed to provide information about the effect of gross vehicle weight (GVW) on braking performance. Because the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs) limit the number of braking system defects that may exist for a vehicle to be allowed to operate on the roadways, the examination of the effect of brake defects on brake performance for increased loads is also relevant. The HOVBT program seeks to provide relevant information to policy makers responsible for establishing load limits, beginning with providing test data for a combination tractor/trailer. (Read more ... )

109

CX-002146: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

46: Categorical Exclusion Determination 46: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002146: Categorical Exclusion Determination Wind Turbine Electric Brake Project CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 02/22/2010 Location(s): Ohio Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office Parker Hannifin, Aircraft Wheel and Brake Division will use Congressionally Directed Funding through DOE to develop an electric brake system for wind turbine applications. Project activities will include additional testing and design work on the brake system prototype in a laboratory setting. Additional project activities will involve testing the prototype brake system on a currently installed 60 kilowatt turbine. A negotiated arrangement with a local wind turbine manufacturer (Green Energy Technologies) to evaluate the prototype brake on this turbine has been

110

CMVRTC: PBBT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

performance based Brake tester (PBBt) performance based Brake tester (PBBt) PBBT The ORNL's Center for Transportation Analysis, in collaboration with the FMCSA and the Tennessee Highway Patrol (THP) Commercial Vehicle Enforcement (CVE), conducted a Performance-Based Brake Tester (PBBT) Valuation Study. The purpose of the study was to determine the PBBT's ability to increase the number of contacts with commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) and explore how the PBBT affects the CMV out-of-service (OOS) rate. The PBBT is a roller dynamometer which measures the vehicle's established brake force and calculates brake efficiency to indicate the effectiveness of the vehicle's brakes. Several test scenarios were employed using North American Standard (NAS) Level-1, 2, and 3 CMV inspection criteria. The first three scenarios employed both an NAS inspection (Level-1, 2, or 3)

111

Assessing benefits of coordination on safety in automated highway systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Probability of a Collision with the Second Coordinated Braking Coiitrol Scheme 55 Collision of Two Vehicles in a Straight Track 56 20 Collision of Two Vehicles on the Curved (Richmond) Track 57 21 Velocity Profile of a Lead Car for Brake Saturation... in figure 4 is a plot of the distribution of the "effective" braking of following vehicles for the case I. The expected braking deceleration for this distribution is 0. 25 o 0. 2 o 0. 15 0. 1 g oos ~ 1st car p following cars P- N P- Pl P- Pv i- cv...

Choi, Woosuk

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

112

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenic additions Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

USING PTERIS VITTATA L... brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), an arsenic hyperaccumulator, on removal of arsenic ... Source: Ma, Lena - Soil and Water Science Department, University of...

113

Wear-Resistant, Nano-Composite Steel Coatings  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

bits, grinder hammer tips, and other hardware), and transportation (brakes, valve trains, bearings, and gears). Project Description The goal of the project is to develop laser...

114

Energy Department Announces $4 Million Solicitation for Solid...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

fluorescent lamps. SSL sources are already replacing conventional technologies in automobile brake lights, traffic signals, exit signs and flashlights. The solid-state lighting...

115

Secretary Chu's Remarks at the California Institute of Technology...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

computer tools with embedded energy analysis. It was the system integration of the automobile engine, transmission, brakes and battery that enabled Toyota to create the Prius....

116

Development of Dual-Fuel Engine for Class 8 Applications | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Class 8 Applications Development of Dual-Fuel Engine for Class 8 Applications Highlights roadmap towards 55% brake thermal efficiency and progress to meet engine development goals...

117

UVM Outing Club Winter Group Equipment List  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: _____ have gas tank full _____ add dry gas in extreme cold weather _____ disconnect battery NOTES: #12; _____ chains/cables _____ oil _____ extra antifreeze _____ brake and transmission fluids _____ scraper

Hayden, Nancy J.

118

Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and considerably lower peak...

119

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

operation of lathes, milling machines, grinder, saws, and machines of both manual and CNC type. Also the fabrication of assemblies within the confines of 749-A using brakes,...

120

Washington, D.C. and Indiana: Allison Hybrid Technology Achieves...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

system, which features regenerative braking enabled by two motorgenerator electric machines within the hybrid system. In addition to WMATA's buses, Allison's hybrid bus...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

1999 IMECE-PAPER#199 KOSTIC & TONG 1 1999 IMECE -INTERNATIONAL MECHANICAL ENGINEERING CONGRESS AND EXPOSITION, NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE, USA, 1999.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kalb, Illinois 60115, USA 815/753-9975; kostic@ceet.niu.edu Haibo Tong Vapor Corp., A Westinghouse Air Brake Co

Kostic, Milivoje M.

122

AVCEM: Advanced Vehicle Cost and Energy Use Model. Overview of AVCEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

regenerative braking, battery thermal management, and fuel-the requirements of battery thermal management, and thebattery tray, tie downs, electrical auxiliaries (such as bus bars), thermal

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

AVCEM: Advanced-Vehicle Cost and Energy Use Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

regenerative braking, battery thermal management, and fuel-the requirements of battery thermal management, and thebattery tray, tie downs, electrical auxiliaries (such as bus bars), thermal

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

E-Print Network 3.0 - antioxidant response element-mediated Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) upon... adaptive biochemical responses such as production of antioxidant ... Source: Ma, Lena - Soil and Water Science Department, University...

125

Development of Enabling Technologies for High Efficiency, Low...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for HCCI Engine Pumping Friction Brake power Exhaust energy Incomplete combustion Other heat loss Engine heat loss % of fuel energy Collaborations - External *Program...

126

Stop/Start: Overview  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

regenerative braking, energy from the wheels turns the electric generator, creating electricity. Using energy from the wheels to turn the generator slows the vehicle. Go to next...

127

Data Collection for Improved Cold Temperature Thermal Modeling...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Vehicle Speed Dynamometer CAN measured Drive trace measurement Engine RPM CAN spark frequency Model input Brake Torque CAN Flywheel torque, model input Toil Dipstick...

128

Advanced Manufacturing Office Update, July 2014 | Department...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

demonstrating 50% brake thermal efficiency and NOx emissions that meet the most stringent air pollution standards. With typical reciprocating engine efficiencies around 35% at the...

129

November 18, 2009 22:50 Vehicle System Dynamics VSD09 Vehicle System Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

November 18, 2009 22:50 Vehicle System Dynamics VSD09 Vehicle System Dynamics Vol. 00, No. 00), involving the steering and braking actuators. This VDSC aims at improving automotive vehicle yaw stability the rear wheels) and use the steering actuator only if it is necessary (e.g. if the braking system

Boyer, Edmond

130

Unspeciated organic emissions from combustion sources and their influence on the secondary organic aerosol budget in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Metals 16,213 Mobile Commercial Marine Vessels 14,406 Fuel Comb...Locomotives 25,435 Mobile Commercial Marine Vessels 25,374 Industrial...69 0.9 NA NA brake/tire wear NA NA 92009, 92087 0.005...4547 0.0 NA NA brake/tire wear NA NA 92009, 92087 0.002...

Shantanu H. Jathar; Timothy D. Gordon; Christopher J. Hennigan; Havala O. T. Pye; George Pouliot; Peter J. Adams; Neil M. Donahue; Allen L. Robinson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Design of life-size haptic environments Yoky Matsuoka  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, or software failure, a brake-actuated device is inherently incapable of exceeding the kinetic energy of motion while still allowing us to simulate virtual objects (i.e. to constrain the user's motion inside comparisons to active devices. Theo- retically, we demonstrate that brake-actuated devices surprisingly

Matsuoka, Yoky

132

The hypothalamicpituitaryadrenalleptin axis and metabolic health: a systems approach to resilience, robustness and control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...or our approximation of the CAR and the obese phenotype. Higher...feedback signalling (i.e. a defective brake), quantified by dynamic...as the brake is removed, the car speeds forward). Leptin has...cortisol awakening response (CAR) across the female menstrual...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the emission sources fuel consumption, engine oil, tyre wear, brake wear and road abrasion. The emission metals, road transport, fuel consumption, engine oil, tyre wear, brake wear, road abra- sion Layout: Ann.1 Metal content in fuels 15 2.2 Heavy metal emissions from fuel consumption 17 2.3 Engine oil and engine

134

Vehicle System Dynamics 0042-3114/01/3602-179$16.00 2001, Vol. 36, No. 23, pp. 179201 # Swets & Zeitlinger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

& Zeitlinger Brake Valve Timing and Fuel Injection: a Uni®ed Engine Torque Actuator for Heavy-Duty Vehicles LASSE MOKLEGAARD1 , MARIA DRUZHININA2 and ANNA STEFANOPOULOU3 SUMMARY A uni®ed engine torque actuator engine model of a six cylinder, 350 Hp turbocharged diesel engine, equipped with a compression brake

Stefanopoulou, Anna

135

Layout 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE ROADSIDE TECHNOLOGY CORRIDOR October 2009 Issue !4 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Office of Analysis, Research, and Technology "In about 96 percent of cases there was not a statistically significant degradation of the brakes during the FOT." (Page 1) "Nearly 64 percent of vehicles flagged by SIRIS were placed OOS, and fully 77 percent were found to exhibit one or more safety flaws." (Page 3) Brake Wear and Performance FOT The Oak Ridge National Laboratory com- pleted the Brake Wear and Performance Test (BWPT) field operation test (FOT) and data analysis in September 2009. This effort in- cluded assisting the Tennessee Department of Safety (TDOS) in the procurement and installa- tion of a Performance-Based Brake Testing

136

INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D: APPLIED PHYSICS J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38 (2005) 14021409 doi:10.1088/0022-3727/38/9/012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

belt drives, brakes, tyres and clutches in automobiles and in other machines; gears devices; robotic manipulator joints; the motion of a human knee-joint (natural or artificial) and walking

Müftü, Sinan

137

Toolbox Safety Talk Forklift Operator Safety  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, cart or hand truck instead of lifting and carrying items by hand can reduce the risk of employee back Forklift Inspection Checklist as needed. · Inspect operation of brakes, hydraulic controls, lights, back up

Pawlowski, Wojtek

138

RESEARCH ARTICLE Controlling speed and direction during interception  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Turning rate was controlled using a steering wheel and speed was controlled using a foot pedal (Wann and Land 2000), braking (Lee 1976; Yilmaz and Warren 1995), and fly ball catching (Chapman 1968

139

Robust yaw stability controller design and hardware-in-the-loop testing for a road vehicle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unsymmetrical loading on a car like mu-split braking, side wind forces, or unilateral loss of tire pressure results in unexpected yaw disturbances that require yaw stabilization either by the driver or by an automatic ...

Guvenc, Levent

140

Transportation and its Infrastructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation of Hybrid Diesel-Electric Transit Buses - Finalof braking energy in diesel-electric vehicles (see the webCNG buses, hybrid diesel-electric buses and taxi renovation)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

MLS Group | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zip: 77598 Sector: Wind energy Product: Designs and makes pitch control systems for wind turbines and wind turbine brakes in US and UK under license from Antec SA. References: MLS...

142

Supertruck technologies for 55% thermal efficiency and 68% freight...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Seasons (Summer, Winter, etc.) 5 Engine Losses Urban: 58-60% Interstate: 58-59% Aerodynamic Losses Urban: 4-10% Interstate: 15-22% Inertia Braking Urban: 15-20% Interstate:...

143

Cummins SuperTruck Program - Technology Demonstration of Highly...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Seasons (Summer, Winter, etc.) 5 Engine Losses Urban: 58-60% Interstate: 58-59% Aerodynamic Losses Urban: 4-10% Interstate: 15-22% Inertia Braking Urban: 15-20% Interstate:...

144

Alumni Contributions By Class Year Class of 1939 and Prior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evans Frye Juanita Wheeler Healy Retha Mae Crase Herbert Martha H. Hiebel Eunice Garcia Holmes *Carolyn Bracht Vivian L. Buckles +Rev. Annabel Brake Clark +Marie Watkins Clontz +Katherine Keen Cowan #William E

Baltisberger, Jay H.

145

Crevice volume effect on spark ignition engine efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A set of experiments and a simulation study are completed to quantify the effect of the piston crevice on engine efficiency. The simulation study breaks down the loss mechanisms on brake efficiency at different displacement ...

Smith, Patrick M. (Patrick Michael)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Section6.8.doc  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

9) The electric current I, in amps, in a circuit varies directly as the voltage V. When 16 ... 10) The stopping distance d of a car (in feet) after the brakes have been...

147

Tire-Wear Particles as a Source of Zinc to the Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zn (8). ThelargestanthropogenicsourcesofZntotheatmosphere are activities related to metal production fertilizer, and cement production (Table1).Znsourcestoairandwaterrelatedtotransportation activities include (11, 15), brake linings (11, 15, 16), and rubber tires (9, 12, 17). Tire-wear particles have been

148

Methanol: A Versatile Fuel for Immediate Use  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Specific fuel consumption-will certainly...necessitat-ing a larger fuel tank; but specific energy consumption (energy per...found that (i) fuel economy increased...Toyota (1900 cms engine, 85 brake horsepower...of knock and "Diesel operation...

T. B. Reed; R. M. Lerner

1973-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

149

Combustion and emission characteristics of a turbo-charged common rail diesel engine fuelled with diesel-biodiesel-DEE blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion and emission characteristics of a turbo-charged, common rail diesel engine fuelled with diesel-biodiesel-DEE blends were investigated. The study reports that the brake-specific fuel consumption of ...

Ni Zhang; Zuohua Huang; Xiangang Wang; Bin Zheng

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

E-Print Network 3.0 - acoustic flight tests Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

signal produced by lead brake on metalic test piece 1 To analyse the signal... ACOUSTIC EMISSION IN AEROSPACE STRUCTURES P.J. Wells W.A. Wright Advanced Information...

151

Exhaust Heat Driven Rankine Cycle for a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

progress to date and plans to develop a viable Rankine engine to harness useful brake power from wasted heat energy in heavy duty truck engine exhaust deer11singh.pdf More...

152

Carbon in the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere in the 21st century  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...rather than brake global warming. Keywords: climate change...and is a fingerprint of global human activity, a consequence of the combustion of coal, oil and gas that drives...dioxide increase is driving global warming, but there are other...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Maintenance Sheet for 2013 Chevrolet Volt  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0DU103929 Date Mileage Description Cost 342013 4,876 Replaced relay assembly, engine control module, and 12V battery - under warranty NC 342013 4,876 Reflashed parking brake...

154

Design and Simulation of Air Cooled Battery Thermal Management System Using Thermoelectric for a Hybrid Electric Bus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dynamic and electric parameters of HEVs and EVs such as acceleration, regenerative braking and battery charging/discharging depend on the battery system performance. Excessive or uneven temperature rise in a modu...

Vahid Esfahanian; Saber Ahmadi Renani

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Overview of the Advanced Combustion Engine R&D  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

high-efficiency engines using hydrocarbon-based (petroleum and non-petroleum) fuels and hydrogen Light-Duty Heavy-Duty 2010 2015 2015 2018 Engine brake thermal efficiency 45% 50%...

156

Vibration Isolation of a Locomotive Mounted Energy Storage Flywheel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Utilizing flywheels to store and reuse energy from regenerative braking on locomotives is a new technology being developed in the Vibration Control and Electromechanics Lab at Texas A&M. This thesis focuses on the motion analysis of a locomotive...

Zhang, Xiaohua

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

157

Vehicles | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicles and fuels can also put the brakes on air pollution and improve our environment. At least 250 million vehicles are in use in the...

158

Decentralized electric drives in the automobile  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Decentralized control units and electric motors for brake assistant, engine management, climate control system, or chassis stabilization are already being used to control a variety of functions in the vehicle....

Andreas Rau

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Two Suicidal Fatalities Due to the Ingestion of Chlorfenvinphos Formulations: Simultaneous Determination of the Pesticide and the Petroleum Distillates in Tissues by Gas ChromatographyFlame-Ionization Detection and Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......multiple containers containing automobile products nearby. The stomach...brake fluid, oil, and other automobile products nearby. The autopsy...were homogenized using an electric mixer blender model Ultraturrax...multiple containers containing automobile products nearby. The stomach......

Mara A. Martnez; Salom Ballesteros

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

LANL debuts hybrid garbage truck  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hybrid garbage truck LANL debuts hybrid garbage truck The truck employs a system that stores energy from braking and uses that pressure to help the truck accelerate after each...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Maintenance Records for 2010 Ford Fusion vin#4757  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ford Fusion VIN 3FADP0L34AR144757 Date Mileage Description Cost 1142010 6,330 Changed oil and filter and inspected brake system 46.83 2112010 12,302 Changed oil and filter...

162

Maintenance Records for 2010 Toyota Prius vin#0462  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DU2A5010462 Date Mileage Description Cost 11232009 5,935 Changed oil and filter, rotated tires, and inspected brakes 31.75 12182009 13,330 Changed oil and filter and inspected...

163

Maintenance Records for 2010 Honda Insight EX vin 0141  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Insight EX VIN JHMZE2H78AS010141 Date Mileage Description Cost 12102009 5,947 Changed oil and filter and inspected brake system 30.44 252010 11,011 Changed oil and filter and...

164

Chapter 9 -Forklift Operations Forklift Operations Safety Rules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, or hazardous locations. 19. Operators should not put their fingers, arms, or legs between the uprights that horn, lights, brakes, tires, gas supply, hydraulic lines, etc. are in safe working condition. Employees

165

Fault-tolerant control design for trajectory tracking in driver assistance systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-wheel-distributed traction/braking sys- tems was proposed by Ono et al. (2006). A yaw stability control system in whichFault-tolerant control design for trajectory tracking in driver assistance systems Bal´azs N.sename;luc.dugard}@gipsa-lab.grenoble-inp.fr Abstract: The paper proposes a control system with the brake and the steering for developing a driver

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

166

Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

Cutburth, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Note: Index has not been updated to reflect revisions to Chapters 2, 5 and new 11. AASHTO Green Book, 3-21 ballistic, 3-8  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 6-20 aging eyes, 3-16 air pollutant levels, 7-15 air pollutants, 7-13, 7-14 air pollution, 7-13 air-8 bifurcation behavior, 5-15 acceleration control, 3-24 block length, average, 6-20, 6-20, 6-22 acceleration-36 adaptive signals, 9-19 brake and carburetion systems, 7-8 adaptive signal control, 9-27 braking inputs, 3

Bertini, Robert L.

168

Response surface methodology based prediction of engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with canola oil methyl ester  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fuel injection timing and engine speed on engine performance and exhaust emission parameters using a diesel engine running on canola oil methyl ester (COME). COME was produced by means of the transesterification method and tested at full load with various engine speeds by changing fuel injection timing (12 15 and 18?CA) in a turbocharged direct injection (TDI) diesel engine. The experiments were designed using response surface methodology (RSM) which is one of the well-known design of experiment technique for predicting the responses engine performance and exhaust emission parameters from a second order polynomial equation obtained by modeling the relation between fuel injection timing (t) and engine speed (n) parameters. By using the second order full quadratic RSM models obtained from experimental results responses brake power brake torque brake mean effective pressure brake specific fuel consumption brake thermal efficiency exhaust gas temperature oxygen (O2) oxides of nitrogen (NOx) carbon dioxide (CO2) carbon monoxide (CO) and light absorption coefficient (K) affected from factors t and n were able to be predicted by 95% confidence interval.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Hybrid: Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

button highlighted Starting Button Cruising Button Passing Button Braking Button Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar button highlighted Starting Button Cruising Button Passing Button Braking Button Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar OVERVIEW Hybrid-electric vehicles combine the benefits of gasoline engines and electric motors to provide improved fuel economy. The engine provides most of the vehicle's power, and the electric motor provides additional power when needed, such as for accelerating and passing. This allows a smaller, more-efficient engine to be used. The electric power for the motor is generated from regenerative braking and from the gasoline engine, so hybrids don't have to be "plugged in" to an electrical outlet to recharge. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection.

170

TMV Technology Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TMV Technology Capabilities TMV Technology Capabilities Brake Stroke Monitor Brake monitoring systems are proactive maintenance systems that provide instant identification of wheel specific, out-of-adjustment, non-functioning or dragging brake issues. AC Shore Power Since the TMV is equipped with DC power in-vehicle, shore power is needed to 1) charge the batteries that supply power to those outlets and 2) be used when running off battery power is not necessary FMCSA Laptop The laptop contains key software which helps enforcement officials perform inspections, look up information, etc. This computer also contains software for the USDOT # reader. Electronic On-Board Recorder EOBRs remove the need for paper logs by automatically recording duty status and location. EOBRs help

171

Rubber friction and tire dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, e.g., in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (B.N.J. Persson, J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 18, 7789 (2006)). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to calculate accurate mu-slip (and the self-aligning torque) curves for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g., braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of Anti-Blocking System (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

B. N. J. Persson

2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

172

Prediction of torque and specific fuel consumption of a gasoline engine by using artificial neural networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study presents an artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict the torque and brake specific fuel consumption of a gasoline engine. An explicit ANN based formulation is developed to predict torque and brake specific fuel consumption of a gasoline engine in terms of spark advance, throttle position and engine speed. The proposed ANN model is based on experimental results. Experimental studies were completed to obtain training and testing data. Of all 81 data sets, the training and testing sets consisted of randomly selected 63 and 18 sets, respectively. An ANN model based on a back-propagation learning algorithm for the engine was developed. The performance and an accuracy of the proposed ANN model are found satisfactory. This study demonstrates that ANN is very efficient for predicting the engine torque and brake specific fuel consumption. Moreover, the proposed ANN model is presented in explicit form as a mathematical function.

Necla Kara Togun; Sedat Baysec

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Assessment of the fuel magnetisation capacity to improve fuel economy and enhance performance in a four-stroke SI engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the effect of fuel magnetisation on the overall performance of a four-stroke Spark Ignition (SI) engine. To achieve this objective, we have designed a set of experiments using the Mitsubishi 1.5 L (4G15) SI engine. Each experiment is performed in two phases: with and without the fuel magnetisation. The collected data was analysed to assess the overall performance of the engine at several operating conditions. Our study shows that fuel magnetiser can enhance the overall performance of a typical SI engine. However, the enhancement greatly depends on the operating condition of the engine. Specifically, the best-observed performance enhancement in the tested engine owing to the usage of the fuel magnetiser was to reduce the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) by 9% increase the Brake Power (BP) by 9% and boost the brake thermal efficiency (?b) from 29% to 31%.

Raed Kafafy; Wajdi Bin Ali; Waleed Faris

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Heel and toe driving on fuel cell vehicle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for providing nearly instantaneous power in a fuel cell vehicle. The method includes monitoring the brake pedal angle and the accelerator pedal angle of the vehicle, and if the vehicle driver is pressing both the brake pedal and the accelerator pedal at the same time and the vehicle is in a drive gear, activating a heel and toe mode. When the heel and toe mode is activated, the speed of a cathode compressor is increased to a predetermined speed set-point, which is higher than the normal compressor speed for the pedal position. Thus, when the vehicle brake is removed, the compressor speed is high enough to provide enough air to the cathode, so that the stack can generate nearly immediate power.

Choi, Tayoung; Chen, Dongmei

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

175

Hybrid: Overview  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

button highlighted Starting Button Cruising Button Passing Button Braking Button Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar button highlighted Starting Button Cruising Button Passing Button Braking Button Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar OVERVIEW Hybrid-electric vehicles combine the benefits of gasoline engines and electric motors to provide improved fuel economy. The engine provides most of the vehicle's power, and the electric motor provides additional power when needed, such as for accelerating and passing. This allows a smaller, more-efficient engine to be used. The electric power for the motor is generated from regenerative braking and from the gasoline engine, so hybrids don't have to be "plugged in" to an electrical outlet to recharge. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection.

176

MTDC Safety Sensor Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MTDC Safety Sensor Technology MTDC Safety Sensor Technology Background Beyond the standard duty cycle data collection system used in the Department of Energy's Medium Truck Duty Cycle program, additional sensors were installed on three test vehicles to collect several safety-related signals of interest to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. The real-time brake stroke, tire pressure, and weight information obtained from these sensors is expected to make possible a number of safety-related analyses such as determining the frequency and severity of braking events and tracking tire pressure changes over time. Because these signals are posted to the vehicle's databus, they also have the potential to be

177

Vendor / Technology A  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electronic Machines Corporation Electronic Machines Corporation Smart Infrared Inspection System Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology Corridor Safety Technology Showcase October 14, 2010 Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology Corridor Smart Infrared Inspection System (SIRIS) * Grant for a demonstration of thermal imaging technologies - Identify, in real time, faults and failures in tires, brakes and bearings mounted on commercial motor vehicles - Employ system along the interstate - Explore whether statistical tools can be developed that can predict impending tire, brake, or bearing failures SIRIS - Details * $1.4 M Research Grant * 3-year Project * Grant competitively awarded September 2006 to IEM, Inc. of Troy, NY * Supplemental $500K from NYSERDA for improved high

178

An evaluation of the mixing and oxygen transfer occurring in a deep aeration basin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, they often do not specify what type of power . Yunt defines four tvpes o f hor sepower for turbine aer ation systems. They are: (a) wire horsepower, (b) motor brake horsepower, (c) gearbox 'bnake horsepower, and ( d) delivered horsepower . Wir e ho..., they often do not specify what type of power . Yunt defines four tvpes o f hor sepower for turbine aer ation systems. They are: (a) wire horsepower, (b) motor brake horsepower, (c) gearbox 'bnake horsepower, and ( d) delivered horsepower . Wir e ho...

Andrews, Donald Craig

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

179

Author's personal copy Research article  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of heavy metals [23]. Glutathione reductase (GR) is the enzyme that, in conjunction with NADPH, catalyzes to heavy metal stresses have been the subject of several studies [9,21,31]. Srivas- tava et al. [27] found brake fern) accumulates large amounts of arsenic in its fronds without showing toxicity symptoms [19

Ma, Lena

180

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE IV Colloque C9, supplCment au Journal de Physique 111, Volume 3, dtcembre 1993  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corrosion during gasification of biomass and waste Rikard Kallstrom Studsvik Material AB, 61182 Nycoping oxychlorides, which easily brake the scale. During gasification of waste the situation is even worse, Sweden Abstract. - The gasificationof biomass and waste results in severe atmospheric corrosion con

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

ABIKE COMMUTER has a lot to consider before leaving for work. What route to take, considering hills and traffic?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, merely requiring the driver to shift his foot from gas pedal to brake, perhaps change gears, and more than 100 watts of propulsion power, or about what it takes to power a reading lamp. At 100 watts generate far more power than that (up to perhaps 500 watts for a racing cyclist, equivalent to the amount

Fajans, Joel

182

Ris6 Report No. 143 Danish Atomic Energy Commission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the reference (inching mode); in addition the motors brake rapidly because of the permanent magnetization-speed motion. #12;. 2 . Table of Contents Pftge Introduction 3 General Description 3 Shaft Digitiser 3 Decoder the reflected decimal code from the shaft digitizer either to decimal form or to binary-coded decimal

183

Yaw stability control design through a mixed sensitivity approach V. Cerone, M. Milanese, D. Regruto  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

which aims at enhancing the vehicle yaw stability is the Vehicle Dynamics Control system (VDC). Indeed systems is to compensate for the driver's inadequacy and generate a control yaw moment through either steering or braking control inputs or both. VDC system directly controls yaw moment by generating

Regruto, Diego

184

LATERAL VEHICLE STABILIZATION USING CONSTRAINED NONLINEAR CONTROL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

problems of designing a controller for the yaw dynamics are the nonlinearities which appear in the system, nonlinear systems, constraints. Abstract A lateral stabilization system for automotive vehicles is de of the vehicle during braking maneuvers. These systems were followed by traction control systems, which im- prove

Johansen, Tor Arne

185

VEHICLE DYNAMICS CONTROL WITH ROLLOVER PREVENTION FOR ARTICULATED HEAVY TRUCKS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in controlling vehicle yaw response. In this paper, a VDC system that improves yaw, lateral, and roll stability. The Vehicle Dynamics Control system (VDC) actively brakes individual wheels to directly influence vehicle yaw to generate a stabilizing yaw moment. VDC systems are typically designed so that application of differential

Peng, Huei

186

The Centre for Power Transmission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the stability of the system. Stability investigations Investigations into the effect of yaw inertia have been the efficacy of the Al- Ko automatic braking system, designed to aid the driver during an emergency, when the principles of yaw inertia at public events. In addition to this, a computer training `game' has been

Burton, Geoffrey R.

187

Demonstration of a Large Dissipative Haptic Environment Mike Vande Weghe1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on a spherical coordinate system ( ,,r ), while three free DOF built into the handle assembly allow for roll, pitch, and yaw rotations of the user's hand with respect to the endpoint. The device is intended for the full torque load, the design uses smaller, lighter brakes in conjunction with low-mass cable reduction

Matsuoka, Yoky

188

Operating Systems Introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the environment" 4 Introduction (2) ¿ Examples of real-time systems: ¿ plant control ¿ control of production systems ¿ space missions ¿ household appliances ¿ virtual / augmented reality #12;3 5 Introduction (3 of application: ¿ Automotive: · power-train control, air-bag control, steer by wire, brake by wire ¿ Aircraft

Bogliolo, Alessandro

189

Efficient high density train operations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference. During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

Gordon, Susanna P. (Oakland, CA); Evans, John A. (Hayward, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Associate Professor Visiting Scholar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficient and environment friendly compared with conventional vehicles that are powered by internal optimization of the power sources and the recovery of vehicle kinetic energy during braking and coasting the algorithms for the operation control and optimization of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle 4 . Based

Mi, Chunting "Chris"

191

Proceedingsof the American Control Conference Chicago, Illinois June 2000  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, engine clutch, CVT, electric motor, lead-acid battery, vehicle driveline, hydraulic brakes powertrain [3]. Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) are HEVs configured such that the electric motor of the vehicle's power ultimately comes from fuel. The battery is recharged by using the electric motor

Peng, Huei

192

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The Effect of Foot and Ankle Prosthetic Components on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ORIGINAL ARTICLE The Effect of Foot and Ankle Prosthetic Components on Braking and Propulsive, Neptune RR, Walden JG, Rogers WE, Bosker GW. The effect of foot and ankle pros- thetic components-9. Objective: To assess the influence of energy storage and return (ESAR) prosthetic feet and multi-axis ankles

193

SOONER MAGAZINE22 33 thousand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Traffic on Boyd Street, lead- ing straight to the University of Oklahoma's front door, was backed up for blocks. Such an impressive showing of brake lights and turn sig- nals usually was reserved for Satur a gridiron magnet. On this chilly No- vember evening, however, the spot- light was not on the exalted Owen

Oklahoma, University of

194

MTDC Safety Sensor Technology Beyond the standard duty cycle data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MTDC Safety Sensor Technology Background Beyond the standard duty cycle data collection system used in the Department of Energy's Medium Truck Duty Cycle program, additional sensors were installed on three test Administration. The real-time brake stroke, tire pressure, and weight information obtained from these sensors

195

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Entry, DEscEnt, anD LanDing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) TA09-6 1.1.1. Rigid Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) (cross cutting with TA05-Thermal Management) TA09-8 1.1.2. Flexible Thermal Protection Systems (cross cutting with TA05-Thermal Management) TA09-9 1 the atmosphere of a body for aerocapture or aero- braking (just "E"), landing on small or large bod- ies

Waliser, Duane E.

196

Manfred Huber 2011 1 Reasoning with Uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Logic - Applications Many everyday applications use Fuzzy Logic control Microwaves ABS brakes Camera Huber 2011 6 Fuzzy Inference (Control) Fuzzy Logic uses logic inference rules and defuzzification© Manfred Huber 2011 1 Reasoning with Uncertainty Fuzzy Logic #12;© Manfred Huber 2011 2 Fuzzy

Huber, Manfred

197

Urban Geochemistry:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...index.html With the rise in the use of diesel fuels, sulfate deposition was accompanied...in private gardens, and the mechanical wear of automobile parts (tires, brakes...polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the marine sediments of the Gulf of Naples estuary...

Stefano Albanese; Domenico Cicchella

198

Motor Pool Department The Motor Pool Department is responsible for the maintenance of over 550 Georgia Tech state  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and equipment, including filter, oil change, antifreeze, brakes, etc. · Provide road call services to Georgia. · Provide fleet management to Georgia Tech's state owned vehicles, LSVs and equipment; including Inventory and maintaining an inventory. · Customers are required to complete a service request form when bringing

199

Combustion joining of refractory materials: Carboncarbon composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Honeywell Aerospace, South Bend, Indiana 46628 Alexander S. Shteinberg ALOFT, Berkeley, California 94708 that manufacture C­C components, such as Honeywell Aerospace (South Bend, IN).3 For example, through C­C joining, Honeywell Aerospace could perform a refurbishment of the carbon brakes by bonding a new thin C­C element

Mukasyan, Alexander

200

Analysis and Design of a Novel Three-Level LLCC Inverter Supplying an Airborne Piezoelectric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analysis and Design of a Novel Three-Level LLCC Inverter Supplying an Airborne Piezoelectric Brake on the investigation of a novel single-phase three-level PWM inverter in the kW power range, feeding a high power multi suit best to the needs of ultrasonic motors has been conducted. A resonant inverter with LLCC

Paderborn, Universität

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

An experimental investigation of high performance natural gas engine with direct injection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents experimental results of a new compressed natural gas direct injection (CNG-DI) engine that has been developed from modification of a multi cylinder gasoline port injection (PI) engine. The original gasoline-PI engine was also modified to a CNG bi-fuel system. The test results obtained from CNG fuel using two different systems (i.e. bi-fuel and DI) have been investigated and compared with the original gasoline engine. The objective of this investigation is to compare the test results between CNG-DI, with CNG-BI and gasoline-PI engines with the same displacement volume. It was found that the CNG-DI engine produces similar brake power at 6000rpm and wide open throttle (WOT) but produces higher brake power at part load condition as compared to the original gasoline. The CNG-BI engine produces 23% lower brake power than the CNG-DI engine. The average brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the CNG-DI engine was 0.28% and 8% lower than gasoline-PI and CNG-BI engines respectively. The CNG-DI engine reduces 42% \\{NOx\\} emission as compared to the base engine. However, the CNG-DI engine produces higher HC and CO emissions as compared to the base engine. This paper discusses a review on the direct injection (DI) natural gas engine with new information along with other investigations.

M.A. Kalam; H.H. Masjuki

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

SOME REFLECTIONS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE IN AMERICA DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...part of the curriculum. The bills for purchase of scientific...essential. Both have as their materials the "thoughts of God," but...experiments such vessels, materials, and instruments as, if broken...a "center vent" hydraulic turbine, and also a railroad car brake...

I. Bernard Cohen

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory NSTX Experimental Proposal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Operations Chit Review Board (designated by Run Coordinator) MINOR MODIFICATIONS (Approved by Experimental and detailed nature of the inertial effects and dissipation mechanisms have yet to be determined. The strength, and neoclassical effects. Active braking of the plasma rotation by externally applied fields will be used to alter

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

204

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory NSTX Experimental Proposal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Responsible Division: Experimental Research Operations Chit Review Board (designated by Run Coordinator) MINOR redistribution and loss of fast ions resulting from the bursts. In addition, eternal braking fields eigenfunctions. Comparison with calculated BAAE eigenfunctions will improve understanding of the exact nature

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

205

ILLINOIS -RAILROAD ENGINEERING A Feasibility Study of MachineA Feasibility Study of Machine--Vision InspectionVision Inspection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

documented making defect trending difficult · Inefficient use of skilled labor (carmen) 4 Carmen 25 Cars Yard Questions and Comments #12;Slide 3 ILLINOIS - RAILROAD ENGINEERING Car Inspection Background Why are railcars cars inspected? · Safety · Efficiency Inspections address: · Braking System · Safety Appliances

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

206

Robust efficiency and actuator saturation explain healthy heart rate control and variability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...treated as compliant vessels, modeled in the form...iv) the metabolic consumption M; (v...multitasking, alcohol consumption, fatigue, or poor...signals (e.g., fuel or air rates, braking...ventilation V ? E , oxygen consumption V ? O 2 and carbon...

Na Li; Jerry Cruz; Chenghao Simon Chien; Somayeh Sojoudi; Benjamin Recht; David Stone; Marie Csete; Daniel Bahmiller; John C. Doyle

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

PM PEMs On-Road Investigation With and Without DPF Equipped Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

correlation between engine fuel consumption and emissionsengine for both the PPMD derived work and the PEMS derived work 86 Figure 5-3 Fuel consumptionFuel Consumption Results .. 86 Brake Specific Emissions 88 Lessons Learned and Operational Issues . 93 PEMS1 Caterpillar 2000 Engine

Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Johnson, K

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Evaluating the environmental quality impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games: magnetic monitoring of street dust in Beijing Olympic Park  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......angular particles to engine and brake abrasion...released from fossil fuel combustion in domestic...November to March when coal consumption in Beijing is ~30 million...spherules from fossil-fuel combustion. This effect...corrosion of the vehicle engine and body work (Fig......

Qingqing Qiao; Chunxia Zhang; Baochun Huang; John D. A. Piper

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Urban Geochemistry:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...per capita lead consumption in the United...coal-fired steam engine. The steam engine...burning of fossil fuels and the local...use of diesel fuels, sulfate deposition...tires, brakes, engine belts, mufflers...and fossil-fuel combustion...and material consumption, utilizing sensible...

Stefano Albanese; Domenico Cicchella

210

Sample RoutesData Acquisition System Setup Medium Truck Duty Cycle (MTDC)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

medium-duty vehicle energy efficiency research Collected Data Speed & Acceleration Fuel Consumption GPS real-world operations. Analysis of this data will provide information pertaining to the fuel Location Road Grade Engine Parameters Weight Brake and Tire Information Satellite Receiver eDAQ Data

211

A Monthly Safety Bulletin The Office of the NASA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was suspicious. I departed...and noticed the fuel consumption was more than normal. The right tank ran dry soon by a burned brake coil Refueling Retrospectives Fuel exhaustion and fuel mismanagement are common causes of engine failures and forced landings. A General Aviation (GA) pilot describes how he and his instructor

212

An Assessment of the Performance and Requirements for "Adiabatic" Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...brake fuel consumption) of heat-insulated...turbo-charged engines show-ing...Additional fuel economy because...conventional diesel for lower...are total fuel consumption. For most...conventional engines. nate the...45% ofthe fuel energy compared...conventional diesel engine...

JAMES ZUCCHETTO; PHILLIP MYERS; JOHN JOHNSON; DENNIS MILLER

1988-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

213

Low Temperature Pyrocarbon : a review Xavier Bourrat1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

missiles, etc... Basically the process involves a carbon fiber preform which is infiltrated by CVI as shown on Figure 2. #12;Figure 1 Aircraft brake disks (rotor and stator) made of carbon fiber-reinforced pyrocarbon. Figure 2 Carbon/carbon composite : carbon fiber-reinforced pyrocarbon (SEM picture of a failure surface

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

Introduction to special section on the Phoenix Mission: Landing Site Characterization Experiments, Mission Overviews, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

braking strategy. After a safe landing, twin fan-like solar panels are unfurled and provide the energy lander with a science payload inherited from MPL and 2001 instruments gives significant advantages, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 10 Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Katlenburg

Duck, Thomas J.

215

Maria Druzhinina Anna Stefanopoulou  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the vehicle's turbocharged diesel engine using a variable valve timing actuator. A model reference adaptive with backstepping procedure to account for com- pression braking actuator dynamics, with observers for various unmeasured quantities and with compensation schemes for actuator saturation. In addition to speed tracking

Stefanopoulou, Anna

216

Work Request Form -Georgia Tech Motor Pool Vehicle Number ___________________ Date: _____________________ Department: ________________________  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are experiencing) ____ Not Heating ____ Not Cooling Electrical and Electronics Systems (Please mark what best fits Signal Out Brake System/ Suspension and Steering (Please mark what best fits the description of the issue/ hard pedal Heating and A/C (Please mark what best fits the description of the issue you

217

138 Arvid Kappas Richards, J. M., & Gross, J. J. (2000). Emotion regulation and memory: The cog  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.), The nature of emotion: Fundamental ques tions (pp. 127-130). New York: Oxford University Press. Scherer, K of emotions. In M. Lewis &J. M. Haviland Jones (Eds.), Handbook ofemotions (2nd ed., pp. 3-15). New York, forcing her to slam on her brakes. You might expect Margot to have become enraged. But she remained quite

Gross, James J.

218

Holistic Data-Driven Diagnosis for Dependable Automotive Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the recall of 680,000 Mercedes-Benz E-Class vehicles due to issues with the electronic brake-by-wire system systems has focused on online detection followed by offline di- agnosis. For example, diagnostic trou- ble codes (DTCs) are set based on errors that are detected during vehicle opera- tion. Such errors

Rajkumar, Ragunathan "Raj"

219

Computer controlled synchronous shifting of an automatic transmission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the torque at the output of the transmission or drive wheels, the speed of the power source, and the hydraulic pressure applied to a clutch and brake. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift, a commanded transmission output torque, and commanded power source speed. A microprocessor processes the inputs and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake at a rate that satisfies the requirements for a short gear ratio change and smooth torque transfer between the friction elements.

Davis, Roy I. (9214 Abbey La., Ypsilanti, MI 48198); Patil, Prabhakar B. (10294 W. Outer Dr., Detroit, MI 48223)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Role of Friction in Materials Selection for Automotive Applications  

SciTech Connect

This is an invited article for a special issue of the ASM International monthly magazine that concerns "Automotive Materials and Applications." The article itself overviews frictional considerations in material selection for automobiles. It discusses implications for energy efficiency (engine friction) and safety (brakes) among other topics.

Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

What is about future high speed power line communication systems for in-vehicles networks ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by car manufacturers to fulfil the different communications between electronic control units (ECU related to the steering, traction, braking system (ABS), Electronic Stability Program (ESP), Electric of splicing that is necessary, as well as simplify and lighten the cable bundles The HomePlug Powerline

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

222

Solar Powered Commuter Vehicle Sponsored by: Andy Schoenberg, Ph.D. of SunzeeCar LLC. ; Advisor: Kent Udell, Ph. D.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an optimal speed of 40 mph. Thep p p graph below depicts the power usage over timeg p p p g for a single stop the system without Regenerative Braking · Convert an Average of 50% of Kineticg Energy Back into Electrical Energy · Increase the Range from 30 miles to 40g miles. (10 mile increase) Testing:g The car was driven

Provancher, William

223

Alternative Fuel Implementation Tool Kit Case Study on Electric Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in vehicle price. However, Durham's vendor did not agree to such a transfer. Durham used several specific The existing duty cycle/application was feasible for the 70-mile typical driving range of the LEAF The vehicle, brake and fluid checks as well as preventive diagnostics, with no need for oil changes. The LEAF's high

224

ccsd-00085161,version1-4Oct2006 Norm Based Causal Reasoning in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vehicle in front of me braked". Using a truth based approach; we can obtain all the logical consequences-mail : nouiouaf@lipn.univ-paris13.fr 1 Motivation Truth based entailments are not sufficient for a good a stable truth value. Thus, what we represent explicitly is the linear time of the events, as they really

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

Urban Geochemistry:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...coal-fired steam engine. The steam engine, together with other advances...With the rise in the use of diesel fuels, sulfate deposition...automobile parts (tires, brakes, engine belts, mufflers, etc...2013-010998 Environmental geology General geochemistry Mineralogical...

Stefano Albanese; Domenico Cicchella

226

This document contains the draft version of the following paper: W. Bejgerowski, J.W. Gerdes, S.K. Gupta, and H.A. Bruck. Design and fabrication of miniature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

members, (b) the reduction in backlash, and (c) potential energy storage in deflected members [2]. Using for a flapping wing micro air vehicle. Methods described in this paper are applicable to any lightweight, load-constant-force compression mechanisms, near-constant-force electrical connectors, bicycle brakes, bicycle derailleur

Gupta, Satyandra K.

227

Role of Hydrogen Peroxide in a Selected Emulsified Fuel Ratio and Comparing It to Diesel Fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(9) At higher load conditions, the brake thermal efficiency slightly increases for the hydrogen-peroxide-added emulsified fuel than for the remaining two fuels. ... Reduction of NOx, smoke, BSFC, and maximum combustion pressure by low compression ratios in a diesel engine fueled by emulsified fuel. ...

M. P. Ashok; C. G. Saravanan

2008-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

228

Dynamics of Tearing Modes during Strong Electron Cyclotron Heating on the FTU Tokamak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The localized electron cyclotron resonance heating power that can suppress sawteeth reconnection often drives m=2 tearing modes in a tokamak operating at constant current. The dynamics of mode onset and coupled mode evolution is described in detail and compared with a nonlinear theoretical model that identifies the effects of mode coupling, finite inertia of the rotating islands, and wall braking.

E. Lazzaro et al.

2000-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

229

VOLUME 84, NUMBER 26 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 26 JUNE 2000 Dynamics of Tearing Modes during Strong Electron Cyclotron Heating on the FTU Tokamak  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modes during Strong Electron Cyclotron Heating on the FTU Tokamak E. Lazzaro,1 A. Airoldi,1 A. Bruschi,1) The localized electron cyclotron resonance heating power that can suppress sawteeth reconnection often drives m braking. High power electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) is used for controlling the MHD activity

Vlad, Gregorio

230

PS3060: Perception and Action (L.3) Driving a vehicle: control of heading,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 PS3060: Perception and Action (L.3) Driving a vehicle: control of heading, collision avoidance 11, 12 of Bruce, Green & Georgeson 2003) · the ecological approach to vision: from insects to humans · collision: judging time to impact, braking a vehicle · heading: how you know in which direction you

Zanker, Johannes M.

231

Gille-ESYS 10 1 Should Alex Buy a Battery-Powered Car?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that use hydrogen fuel cells have a range of more than 200 miles, although they're outrageously expensive. ZEVs just aren't sufficiently environmental to justify their cost. For one thing, manufacturing a new their fuel efficiency is amazing. I was reading that they use regenerative braking to charge up

Gille, Sarah T.

232

Statistics of Entropy Production in Linearized Stochastic System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a wide class of linear stochastic problems driven off the equilibrium by a multiplicative asymmetric force. The force brakes detailed balance, maintained otherwise, thus producing entropy. The large deviation function of the entropy production in the system is calculated explicitly. The general result is illustrated using an example of a polymer immersed in a gradient flow and subject to thermal fluctuations.

K. Turitsyn; M. Chertkov; V. Y. Chernyak; A. Puliafito

2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

233

Symmetric Periodic Orbits in Three Sub-Problems of the N-body Problem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study three sub-problems of the N-body problem that have two degrees of freedom, namely the n-pyramidal problem, the planar double-polygon problem, and the spatial double-polygon problem. We prove the existence of several families of symmetric periodic orbits, including ``Schubart-like" orbits and brake orbits, by using topological shooting arguments.

Nai-Chia Chen

2013-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

234

Mono inverter Multi parallel PMSM -Structure and Control strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a new and original Mono inverter Multi parallel Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) systemMono inverter Multi parallel PMSM - Structure and Control strategy Damien Bidarta , Maria Pietrzak, braking system...). However, a MMS with machines operating independently needs a high number of power

Boyer, Edmond

235

Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2012 Motorized Rolling Walker  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.16 ft.-lb. of torque Added a light-weight Li-Ion battery and a pulse-width-modulator controller battery capacity Tested the combined braking system to ensure they would stop the walker from moving with and without power Battery performed as desired, providing approximately 4 hours of use No yielding

Demirel, Melik C.

236

SOME REFLECTIONS ON THE STATE OF SCIENCE IN AMERICA DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and the front, photography, gas warfare, machine guns, and...of the nineteenth century, technology and engineering did not in...and science "in their developments." "Brethren scholars, men...a "center vent" hydraulic turbine, and also a railroad car brake...

I. Bernard Cohen

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Operation of a third generation wind turbine  

SciTech Connect

A modern wind turbine was installed on May 26, 1982, at the USDA Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas. This wind machine was used to provide electrical energy for irrigation pumping and other agricultural loads. The wind turbine purchased for this research is an Enertech Model 44, manufactured by Enertech Corporation, Norwich, Vermont. The horizontal-axis wind turbine has a 13.4 m diameter, three-bladed, fixed-pitch rotor on a 24.4-m tower. The blades are laminated epoxy-wood, and are attached to a steel hub. A 25-kW induction generator provides 240 V, 60 Hz, single-phase electrical power. The wind turbine operated 64 percent of the time, while being available to operate over 94 percent of the time. The unit had a net energy production of over 80,000 kWh in an average windspeed of 5.9 m/s at a height of 10 m in a 16-month period. The blade pitch was originally offset two degrees from design to maintain power production within the limitations of the gearbox, generator, and brakes. A maximum output of 23.2 kW averaged over a 15-second period indicated that with a new brake, the system was capable of handling more power. After a new brake was installed, the blade pitch was changed to one degree from design. The maximum power output measured after the pitch change was 29.3 kW. Modified blade tip brakes were installed on the wind turbine on July 7, 1983. These tip brakes increased power production at lower windspeeds while reducing power at higher windspeeds.

Vosper, F.C.; Clark, R.N.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Effects of altitude and fuel oxygen content on the performance of a high pressure common rail diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The change of intake oxygen content caused by altitude variation and the change of fuel oxygen content both affect the performance of diesel engines. In this paper, comparative experiments were performed on a high pressure common rail diesel engine fueled with pure diesel and biodieselethanoldiesel (abbreviated as BED) blends with oxygen content of 2%, 2.5%, and 3.2% in mass percentage at different atmospheric pressures of 81kPa, 90kPa, and 100kPa. Moreover, in order to study the effect of different fuel blends with the same oxygen content on the performance of the diesel engine, tests were conducted on the diesel engine fueled with the BED blend and a biodieseldiesel (abbreviated as BD) blend at 81kPa ambient pressure. The experimental results indicate that the influence of altitude variation on the full-load engine brake torque is not significant when the pure diesel fuel is used. With the increase of BED fuel oxygen content, the engine brake torque reduces. When the pure diesel fuel is used, with the increase of atmospheric pressure, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) decreases. As the fuel oxygen content increases, there is no significant difference in brake specific fuel consumption of the BED blends. And the values of brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) gradually decrease. Soot emissions of the diesel engine decrease with the increase of atmospheric pressure and fuel oxygen content. The effect of soot emission reduction by increasing the oxygen content of the fuel is more significant than the effect of increasing atmospheric pressure. The effects of BD and BED fuels with basically the same oxygen content on the full-load performance, fuel economy, and soot emissions of the diesel engine are different. The BSFC and soot emissions of the BED fuel are lower than those of the BD fuel.

Shaohua Liu; Lizhong Shen; Yuhua Bi; Jilin Lei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Microsoft PowerPoint - Denison Status.ppt [Compatibility Mode]  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DENISON TURBINE DENISON TURBINE REHABILITATION PLANNING REHABILITATION PLANNING Status Report Southwestern Federal Hydropower Conference 10 June 2010 By: Charlie Allen Chief, Turbomachinery Section y Hydroelectric Design Center US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG ® Historic Context Historic Context Late 1990's: Index Testing, 4% Efficiency Decrease g y Early 2000's: Generator Uprate Study Mid 2000's: Generator Rewinds Completed Capacity increase from 42.3 KVA to 53.5 KVA Capacity increase from 42.3 KVA to 53.5 KVA BUILDING STRONG ® PORTLAND DISTRICT 2 Unit Condition Unit Condition Units installed in late 1940's Badly Corroded Wicket Gates, Facing Plates, Stay Vanes Excessive Wicket Gate Leakage Brake Speed Switches reset to compensate Brake Speed Switches reset to compensate Runner Blade Entrance Edge Cavitation

240

MonthlyReport  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

74 74 Number of trips 399 Distance traveled (mi) 148 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 73% Average Trip Distance (mi) 0.4 Average Driving Speed (mph) 6.3 Average Stops per mile 35.5 Percent of Regen Braking Energy Recovery (%) 11% City Trips ( < 5 stops/mile & <37 mph avg) DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 423 Number of trips 27 Distance traveled (mi) 54 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 27% Average Trip Distance (mi) 2.0 Average Driving Speed (mph) 20.7 Average Stops per mile 3.5 Percent of Regen Braking Energy Recovery (%) 15% Highway Trips ( 37 mph avg) DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 0 Number of trips 0 Distance traveled (mi) 0 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 0% Average Trip Distance (mi) 0.0 Average Driving Speed (mph)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

MonthlyReport  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 Number of trips 493 Distance traveled (mi) 189 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 38% Average Trip Distance (mi) 0.4 Average Driving Speed (mph) 4.9 Average Stops per mile 28.7 Percent of Regen Braking Energy Recovery (%) 15% City Trips ( < 5 stops/mile & <37 mph avg) DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 377 Number of trips 67 Distance traveled (mi) 275 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 56% Average Trip Distance (mi) 4.1 Average Driving Speed (mph) 17.9 Average Stops per mile 3.7 Percent of Regen Braking Energy Recovery (%) 13% Highway Trips ( 37 mph avg) DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 438 Number of trips 1 Distance traveled (mi) 29 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 6% Average Trip Distance (mi) 28.7 Average Driving Speed (mph)

242

NREL: Fleet Test and Evaluation - Hydraulic Hybrid Drive Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydraulic Hybrid Drive Systems Hydraulic Hybrid Drive Systems NREL's Fleet Test and Evaluation Team conducts performance evaluations of hydraulic hybrid drive systems in delivery vehicles. Because hydraulic hybrids feature highly efficient regenerative braking systems and "engine off at idle" capabilities, they are ideal for parcel delivery applications where stop-and-go traffic is common. Hydraulic hybrid systems can capture up to 70% of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost during braking. This energy drives a pump, which transfers hydraulic fluid from a low-pressure reservoir to a high-pressure accumulator. When the vehicle accelerates, fluid in the high-pressure accumulator moves to the lower-pressure reservoir, which drives a motor and provides extra torque. This process can improve the vehicle's fuel economy

243

2009 BMW MINI EVAmerica fact sheet.pdf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3230 lb 3230 lb Delivered Curb Weight: 3306 lb Distribution F/R: 51/49 % GVWR: 3660 lb Payload 2 : 354 lb Performance Goal: 400 lb DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 97.1 inches Track F/R: 57.4/57.8 inches Length: 145.6 inches Width: 66.3 inches Height: 55.4 inches Ground Clearance: 6.0 inches Performance Goal: 5.0 inches CHARGER Level 1: Location: On-board Type: Conductive Input Voltages: 120VAC Level 2: Location: Off-board Type: Conductive Input Voltages: 240 VAC © 2009 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved BASE VEHICLE: 2009 BMW MINI E Seatbelt Positions: Two Standard Features: Front Wheel Drive Front Disc and Rear Disc Brakes Regenerative Braking With Coast Down Three-Point Safety Belts Speedometer Odometer State-Of-Charge Meter BATTERY Type: Lithium Ion Number of Modules: 48

244

MonthlyReport  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

505 505 Number of trips 601 Distance traveled (mi) 245 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 62% Average Trip Distance (mi) 0.4 Average Driving Speed (mph) 5.4 Average Stops per mile 34.8 Percent of Regen Braking Energy Recovery (%) 15% City Trips ( < 5 stops/mile & <37 mph avg) DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 373 Number of trips 35 Distance traveled (mi) 124 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 31% Average Trip Distance (mi) 3.5 Average Driving Speed (mph) 23.0 Average Stops per mile 3.7 Percent of Regen Braking Energy Recovery (%) 13% Highway Trips ( 37 mph avg) DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 319 Number of trips 3 Distance traveled (mi) 25 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 6% Average Trip Distance (mi) 8.5 Average Driving Speed (mph)

245

Hybrid: Cruising  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Button Cruising button highlighted Passing Button Braking Button Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar Button Cruising button highlighted Passing Button Braking Button Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar CRUISING The gasoline engine powers the vehicle at cruising speeds and, if needed, provides power to the battery for later use. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is moving. There are red arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the front wheels. There are blue arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the electric motor to the battery. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is moving. There are red arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the front wheels. There are blue arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the electric motor to the battery.

246

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

.eU) , .eU) , u.s. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA DETERMINATION RECIPIENT: Parker Hannifin, Aircraft Wheel and Brake Diy PROJECT TITl.E: Wind Turbine Electric Brake project Page 1 of2 STATE: OH Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Pro<:urement Instrument Number NEPA Control Number CID Number COP DE-EEOOOO296 GF0-10-053 0 Based on my review orthe information concerning tbe proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer- (autboriztd under DOE Order 4SI.1A), I have made the following determination: ex, EA, [IS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: B3.6 Siting. construction (or modification). operation . and decommissioning of facilities for indoor bench-scale research projects and conventional laboratory operations (for example. preparation of chemical standards and sample analysis):

247

MonthlyReport  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

613 613 Number of trips 89 Distance traveled (mi) 9 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 30% Average Trip Distance (mi) 0.1 Average Driving Speed (mph) 7.0 Average Stops per mile 44.5 Percent of Regen Braking Energy Recovery (%) 9% City Trips ( < 5 stops/mile & <37 mph avg) DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 487 Number of trips 8 Distance traveled (mi) 5 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 16% Average Trip Distance (mi) 0.6 Average Driving Speed (mph) 25.0 Average Stops per mile 3.8 Percent of Regen Braking Energy Recovery (%) 6% Highway Trips ( 37 mph avg) DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 487 Number of trips 7 Distance traveled (mi) 16 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 54% Average Trip Distance (mi) 2.3 Average Driving Speed (mph)

248

DOE Commercial Reference Buildings Summary of Changes Between Versions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Buildings Buildings Summary of Changes between Versions November 2012 1 Applicable Model(s) Change Changes from version 1.2_4.0 to 1.3_5.0 All Transitioned from EnergyPlus 4.0 to EnergyPlus 5.0 All For fan power calculations, fan nameplate horsepower corrected from 90% brake horsepower to 110% brake horsepower All Removed multipliers on roof surface infiltration because EnergyPlus now counts the roof surface in infiltration per exterior surface area calculations All Added parking lot exterior lighting All Updated headers to reflect new name for technical report reference All models with DX cooling Changed COP calculation to remove fan power at ARI conditions, not max. allowable fan power (see Ref. Bldgs. Technical Report for more info.) All models with DX cooling Changed cooling performance curves to reflect

249

Microsoft Word - solcar95.html  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FORCE FORCE VEHICLE SPECIFICATIONS CONVERTED VEHICLE Base Vehicle: 1995 Geo Metro VIN:2C1MR529XS6783464 Seatbelt Positions: Three Standard Features: Power Brakes Front Disk Brakes Front Wheel Drive Dual Air Bags AM/FM Stereo Radio w/Cassette Electric Heater Options as Tested: None BATTERY Manufacturer: GM Ovonic Type: 13.2EV85 Nickel Metal Hydride Number of Modules: 14 Weight of Module: 18 kg Weight of Pack(s): 254 kg Pack Locations: Undertrunk/Underhood Nominal Module Voltage: 13.2 V Nominal System Voltage: 185 V Nominal Capacity (1C): 85 Ah WEIGHTS Design Curb Weight: 2246 lbs Delivered Curb Weight: 2304 lbs Distribution F/R: 50/50 % GVWR: 2755 lbs GAWR F/R: 1432/1366 lbs Payload: 451 lbs Performance Goal: 664 lbs DIMENSIONS Wheelbase: 93.5 inches

250

MonthlyReport  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 Number of trips 1,610 Distance traveled (mi) 372 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 72% Average Trip Distance (mi) 0.2 Average Driving Speed (mph) 5.2 Average Stops per mile 32.1 Percent of Regen Braking Energy Recovery (%) 13% City Trips ( < 5 stops/mile & <37 mph avg) DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 383 Number of trips 114 Distance traveled (mi) 144 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 28% Average Trip Distance (mi) 1.3 Average Driving Speed (mph) 18.3 Average Stops per mile 3.8 Percent of Regen Braking Energy Recovery (%) 16% Highway Trips ( 37 mph avg) DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 549 Number of trips 5 Distance traveled (mi) 2 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 0% Average Trip Distance (mi) 0.4 Average Driving Speed (mph)

251

Hybrid: Cruising  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Button Cruising button highlighted Passing Button Braking Button Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar Button Cruising button highlighted Passing Button Braking Button Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar CRUISING The gasoline engine powers the vehicle at cruising speeds and, if needed, provides power to the battery for later use. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is moving. There are red arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the front wheels. There are blue arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the electric motor to the battery. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is moving. There are red arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the front wheels. There are blue arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the electric motor to the battery.

252

MonthlyReport  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

530 530 Number of trips 1,308 Distance traveled (mi) 495 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 69% Average Trip Distance (mi) 0.4 Average Driving Speed (mph) 5.6 Average Stops per mile 31.4 Percent of Regen Braking Energy Recovery (%) 15% City Trips ( < 5 stops/mile & <37 mph avg) DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 471 Number of trips 91 Distance traveled (mi) 175 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 24% Average Trip Distance (mi) 1.9 Average Driving Speed (mph) 16.6 Average Stops per mile 3.8 Percent of Regen Braking Energy Recovery (%) 13% Highway Trips ( 37 mph avg) DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 357 Number of trips 2 Distance traveled (mi) 49 Percent of total distance traveled (%) 7% Average Trip Distance (mi) 24.7 Average Driving Speed (mph)

253

Engines - Emissions Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EPRI Hybrid Electric Vehicle Working Group: HEV Costs and Emissions EPRI Hybrid Electric Vehicle Working Group: HEV Costs and Emissions Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are attractive options for increasing vehicle fuel economy and reducing emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases. Two automobile manufacturers have already introduced HEVs, and other manufacturers are planning to introduce their own models. One available HEV combines mass reduction (also applicable to conventional vehicles) with idle-stop, regenerative braking, and electric-drive assist to achieve a fuel economy more than 2.5 times the current Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard. The second HEV combines idle-stop, regenerative braking, electric assist acceleration, and continuously variable transmission (CVT) to achieve a fuel economy of more than twice the current CAFÉ standard, qualifying as a super ultra-low emissions vehicle (SULEV).

254

How Plug-in Hybrids Save Money  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Plug-in Hybrids Save Money How Plug-in Hybrids Save Money Plug-in hybrid recharging Plug-in hybrids reduce fuel costs by Using high-capacity batteries that allow them to operate on electricity from the outlet for significant distances-electricity typically costs less than half as much as gasoline Using a larger electric motor that typically allows the vehicle to use electricity at higher speeds than regular hybrids Using regenerative braking to recover energy typically wasted when you apply the brakes Plug-in hybrid designs differ, and your driving habits, especially the distance you drive between re-charging, can have a big effect on your fuel bill. My Plug-in Hybrid Calculator estimates gasoline and electricity costs for any available plug-in hybrid using your driving habits and fuel costs.

255

Enertech 15-kW wind-system development: Phase I. Design and analysis. Volume I. Executive summary  

SciTech Connect

A utility interfaced wind machine rated for 15 kW at 9 m/s (20.1 mph) has been designed to be cost effective in 5.4 m/s (12 mph) average wind sites. Approximately 18 months into the research and development program a completed design meeting contract specifications was submitted to the buyer. The design is for a horizontal axis, down wind machine which features three fixed pitch wood-epoxy blades and free yaw. Rotor diameter is 44 feet (13.4 meters). Unit shutdown is provided by an electrohydraulic brake. Blade tip brakes provide back-up rotor overspeed protection. Design merits have been verified through dynamic truck testing of a prototype unit.

Not Available

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Enertech 15-kW wind-system development. Phase I. Design and Analysis. Volume II. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

A utility interfaced wind machine rated for 15 kW at 9 m/s (20.1 mph) has been designed to be cost effective in 5.4 m/s (12 mph) average wind sites. Approximately 18 months into the research and development program a completed design meeting contract specifications was submitted to the buyer. The design is for a horizontal axis, down wind machine which features three fixed pitch wood-epoxy blades and free yaw. Rotor diameter is 44 feet (13.4 meters). Unit shutdown is provided by an electrohydraulic brake. Blade tip brakes provide back-up rotor overspeed protection. Design merits have been verified through dynamic truck testing of a prototype unit.

Dodge, D.M. (ed.)

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Combustion and performance of a diesel engine with preheated Jatropha curcas oil using waste heat from exhaust gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The viscosity and density of CJO (crude Jatropha oil) were reduced by heating it using the heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine with an appropriately designed helical coil heat exchanger. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combustion characteristics of a DI (direct injection) diesel engine using PJO (preheated Jatropha oil). It exhibited a marginally higher cylinder gas pressure, rate of pressure rise and heat release rate as compared to HSD (high speed diesel) during the initial stages of combustion for all engine loadings. Ignition delay was shorter for PJO as compared to HSD. The results also indicated that BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) and EGT (exhaust gas temperature) increased while BTE (brake thermal efficiency) decreased with PJO as compared to HSD for all engine loadings. The reductions in CO2 (carbon dioxide), HC (hydrocarbon) and \\{NOx\\} (nitrous oxide) emissions were observed for PJO along with increased CO (carbon monoxide) emission as compared to those of HSD.

Priyabrata Pradhan; Hifjur Raheman; Debasish Padhee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

An experimental study of the effect of a homogeneous combustion catalyst on fuel consumption and smoke emission in a diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation into the influence of a ferrous picrate based homogeneous combustion catalyst on fuel consumption and smoke emission of a laboratory diesel engine. The catalyst used in this study was supplied by Fuel Technology Pty. Ltd. The fuel consumption and smoke emission were measured as a function of engine load, speed and catalyst dosing ratio. The brake specific fuel consumption and smoke emission decreased as the dosing ratio of the catalyst doped in the diesel fuel increased. At the catalyst dosing ratio of 1:3200, the brake specific fuel consumption was reduced by from 2.1% to 2.7% and the smoke emission was reduced by from 6.7% to 26.2% at the full engine load at speeds from 2600rpm to 3400rpm. The results also indicated that the potential of the fuel saving seems to be greater when the engine was run under light load.

Mingming Zhu; Yu Ma; Dongke Zhang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Performance analysis and exhaust emissions of neem methyl ester operated compression ignition engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neem oil methyl ester (NOME) was prepared from neem oil using alkaline catalyzed transesterification. The important fuel properties of NOME 20% blend of NOME with diesel were compared with those of diesel. Optimum injection pressures were determined for neat diesel and NOME-20 blend. Comparison of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) brake thermal efficiency (BTE) exhaust gas temperature (EGT) and smoke density was done for diesel and NOME-20 blend at their respective optimum injection pressure. Higher BSFC a slight decrease in BTE and a sharp decrease in EGT and smoke density were recorded with NOME-20 blend. Emissions with NOME-20 blend were also compared with diesel emissions at their respective optimum injection pressures. Significant reductions in carbon monoxide hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen and increase in carbon-di-oxide were observed with NOME-20 blend. Hence neem biodiesel has an environmental importance over diesel and shows a promising future.

Vinod Singh Yadav; Kamal Kishore Khatri; Deepak Tanwar; Ajayta; Dilip Sharma; S. L. Soni

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Lightweight pressure vessels and unitized regenerative fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Energy storage systems have been designed using lightweight pressure vessels with unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). The vessels provide a means of storing reactant gases required for URFCs; they use lightweight bladder liners that act as inflatable mandrels for composite overwrap and provide a permeation barrier. URFC systems have been designed for zero emission vehicles (ZEVs); they are cost competitive with primary FC powered vehicles that operate on H/air with capacitors or batteries for power peaking and regenerative braking. URFCs are capable of regenerative braking via electrolysis and power peaking using low volume/low pressure accumulated oxygen for supercharging the power stack. URFC ZEVs can be safely and rapidly (<5 min.) refueled using home electrolysis units. Reversible operation of cell membrane catalyst is feasible without significant degradation. Such systems would have a rechargeable specific energy > 400 Wh/kg.

Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Weisberg, A.H.

1996-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Anti-slip regulator system (ASR)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When wheelspin occurs the anti-slip regulator system (ASR) regulates the drive torque in such a way that steerability is always retained, together with good forward traction. The microprocessor which performs the regulating function compares the wheel speed increase at each driven wheel with the vehicle acceleration, and calculates the 'excess torque' which is causing wheelspin, and eliminates it automatically by briefly actuating the wheel brake and/or by backing off the throttle. At low speeds the wheel with the greatest amount of wheelspin is slowed by an exactly calculated brake application with a simultaneous reduction of engine power, so that the amount of forward traction is determined by the greatest available surface adhesion. At higher speeds, however, in order to avoid undesired yaw reactions, the system operates only by reducing engine power delivery by the necessary amount, which means that the amount of tractive force is determined by the lower surface adhesion value in each case.

B.-G. Schulze; E. Lissel

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Performance and emission parameters optimization of mahua (Madhuca indica) based biodiesel in direct injection diesel engine using response surface methodology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mahua oil ethyl ester was prepared from mahua oil using potassium hydroxide as catalyst by trans-esterification. The important fuel properties of mahua biodiesel blends were compared with those of high speed diesel and biodiesel standards. Variation of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) brake thermal efficiency (BTE) Pmax CO NOx hydrocarbons and smoke opacity across compression ratio blending ratio and load were studied successfully using response surface methodology based on Central composite rotatable design. The trends similar to general theory of compression ignition engines (CI) were obtained. Optimum performance and emission parameters were determined by considering the significant variables affecting the diesel engine. Significant reduction in emissions at 23% blending ratio were observed as compared to neat diesel at optimum input variables. Hence mahua biodiesel is an environment friendly alternate fuel over diesel and has good scope to run the compression ignition engines.

Sunil Dhingra; Gian Bhushan; Kashyap Kumar Dubey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Full Hybrid: Overview  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

highlighted Starting button Low Speed button Cruising button Passing button Braking button Stopped button highlighted Starting button Low Speed button Cruising button Passing button Braking button Stopped button OVERVIEW Full hybrids use a gasoline engine as the primary source of power, and an electric motor provides additional power when needed. In addition, full hybrids can use the electric motor as the sole source of propulsion for low-speed, low-acceleration driving, such as in stop-and-go traffic or for backing up. This electric-only driving mode can further increase fuel efficiency under some driving conditions. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection.

264

Hybrid: Passing  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Button Passing button highlighted Braking Button Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar Button Passing button highlighted Braking Button Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar PASSING During heavy accelerating or when additional power is needed, the gasoline engine and electric motor are both used to propel the vehicle. Additional power from the battery is used to power the electric motor as needed. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is passing another vehicle. There are red arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the front wheels. There are blue arrows flowing from the battery to the electric engine to the front wheels. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is passing another vehicle. There are red arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the front wheels. There are blue arrows flowing from the battery to the electric engine to the front wheels.

265

Full Hybrid: Low Speed  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

highlighted Cruising button Passing button Braking button Stopped button highlighted Cruising button Passing button Braking button Stopped button LOW SPEED For initial acceleration and slow-speed driving, as well as reverse, the electric motor uses electricity from the battery to power the vehicle. If the battery needs to be recharged, the generator starts the engine and converts energy from the engine into electricity, which is stored in the battery. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. The car is moving at a low speed. There are arrows flowing from the battery to the electric motor to the power split device to the front wheels. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. The car is moving at a low speed. There are arrows flowing from the battery to the electric motor to the power split device to the front wheels.

266

High reduction transaxle for electric vehicle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A drivetrain (12) includes a transaxle assembly (16) for driving ground engaging wheels of a land vehicle powered by an AC motor. The transaxle includes a ratio change section having planetary gear sets (24, 26) and brake assemblies (28, 30). Sun gears (60, 62) of the gear sets are directly and continuously connected to an input drive shaft (38) driven by the motor. A first drive (78a) directly and continuously connects a planetary gear carrier (78) of gear sets (24) with a ring gear (68) of gear set (26). A second drive (80a) directly and continuously connects a planetary gear carrier (80) of gear set (26) with a sun gear (64) of a final speed reduction gear set (34) having a planetary gear carrier directly and continuously connected to a differential (22). Brakes (28, 30) are selectively engageable to respectively ground a ring gear 66 of gear set 24 and ring gear 68 of gear set 26.

Kalns, Ilmars (Plymouth, MI)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

EV America Skid Test Procedure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Revision 2 Effective October 1, 2007 Braking Test Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: _______________________________ Date: _________ Roberta Brayer Approved by: _________________________________________________ Date: _______________ Donald Karner Procedure ETA-HTP06 Revision 2 i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Objectives 1 2. Purpose 1 3. Documentation 1 4. Initial Conditions and Prerequisites 1 5. Testing Activity Requirements 3 5.3 Dry Controlled Test 4 6. Glossary 5 7. References 7 Appendices Appendix A - Handling Pad Test Data Sheet 8

268

Reducing Fuel Consumption through Semi-Automated Platooning with Class 8 Tractor Trailer Combinations (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

This poster describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's evaluation of the fuel savings potential of semi-automated truck platooning. Platooning involves reducing aerodynamic drag by grouping vehicles together and decreasing the distance between them through the use of electronic coupling, which allows multiple vehicles to accelerate or brake simultaneously. The NREL study addressed the need for data on American style line-haul sleeper cabs with modern aerodynamics and over a range of trucking speeds common in the United States.

Lammert, M.; Gonder, J.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Evaluation of oxides of nitrogen emissions for the purpose of their transient regulation from a direct injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of defining a regulatory standard for the maximum allowable emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from a heavy-duty diesel engine on an instantaneous basis is presented. The significance of this concept from a regulatory point of view is the possibility to realise a steady brake specific NOx emissions result independent of the test schedule used. The emissions of oxides of nitrogen from a state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engine have been examined on an integral as well as on an instantaneous basis over the Federal Test Procedure as well as over several other arbitrary transient cycles generated for this study. Three candidate standards of specific NOx emissions have been evaluated on a real-time, continuous basis. These include brake power specific, fuel mass specific, and carbon dioxide mass specific NOx emissions. Retaining the stock engine control module, the carbon dioxide specific emissions of NOx have been shown to be the most uniform, varying only by about 30% of its mean value regardless of the test schedule or engine operation. The instantaneous fuel specific NOx emissions are shown to be relatively less invariant and the least steady are the brake power specific emissions with a coefficient of variation of up to 200%. Advancing injection timing has been shown to have a wide range of authority over the specific emissions of oxides of nitrogen regardless of the units used, when operating at full load in the vicinity of peak torque speeds. The carbon dioxide specific NOx emissions have shown a linear dependence on the power specific emissions, independent of the examined operating conditions. The trade-off between better brake thermal efficiency, lower exhaust gas temperature at advanced timing and lower NOx emissions has also been shown to be independent of the units of the specific standard used.

Yasser Yacoub; Chris Atkinson

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

A comparative study of collection efficiencies using 0.80 and 1.2 micrometer pore size filters in evaluating airborne asbestos dust  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concerning the use of respirators by weavers of asbestos to avoid inhalation of the fibers. Charlemagne cleaned his asbestos tablecloth by passing it through fire. 7 The use of asbestos began more than 4. 500 years ago but did not become widespread until... its use in floor- tile, roofing fe" ts, and shingles, cements, textiles, brake linings, clutch facings, papers, and protective co &tinge ~ Asbestosis Inhalation of' significant amounts of' asbestos dust over an extended period of time can produce...

Holt, Grady Lynn

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

271

Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADM unit1-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM unit1-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. In the second and third quarters the focus of research has been on developing protocols for the formation of advanced brake composites and structural composites. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disks from coal combustion residues. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites.

Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

272

Design, implementation and preliminary evaluation of displacement and force control sticks on a flight simulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in every pursuit of mine. NOMENCLATURE Symbols A/D adbp Analog to digital Analog L digital board pointer bhp Brake horse power Diameter of propellor D/A FML Digital to analog Flight mechanics laboratory fpm Feet per minute fps Feet per second... rpm Revolutions per minute vn Airspeed VASI VME Visual aid slope indicator VERSA module device Vertical velocity Distance from threshold Difference from mean Distance from centerline Denotes deviation from desired value Glide slope angle...

Venugopal, Ravinder

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

273

Friction of Materials for Automotive Applications  

SciTech Connect

This brief overview of friction-related issues in materials for automobiles is invited for a special issue on automotive materials in the ASM journal AM&P. It describes a range of areas in a ground vehicle in which friction must be controlled or minimized. Applications range from piston rings to tires, and from brakes to fuel injector components. A perspective on new materials and lubricants, and the need for validation testing is presented.

Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Reducing Emissions of Persistent Organic Pollutants from a Diesel Engine by Fueling with Water-Containing Butanol Diesel Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An increasing energy demand and environmental pollution has motivated a search for bio-fuels, such as bio-diesels(1, 2) and bio-alcohols,(3, 4) that can be used as alternative fuels for diesel engines. ... In general, both bio-diesel and bio-alcohols, such as ethanol and butanol, have the advantages of higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and lower emissions of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC). ... Diesel Engine and Test Cycle ...

Yu-Cheng Chang; Wen-Jhy Lee; Hsi-Hsien Yang; Lin-Chi Wang; Jau-Huai Lu; Ying I. Tsai; Man-Ting Cheng; Li-Hao Young; Chia-Jui Chiang

2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

275

Second-generation heliostat development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The design, manufacture, testing and cost analysis of the second generation heliostat are described in volume I. Volume II consists of appendices of supporting material. These include the drawing tree for the heliostat, structural data of the rack assembly, drive mechanism, and mirror assemblies, tests and results, a trade study on the pedestal foundation design, cost analysis worksheets, study of an edge-support mirror module, and a study of a single-motor, differential brake heliostat drive mechanism. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Full Hybrid: Stopped  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Braking button Stopped button Braking button Stopped button STOPPED When the vehicle is stopped, such as at a red light, the gasoline engine and electric motor shut off automatically so that energy is not wasted in idling. All other systems, including the electric air conditioning, continue to run. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. the car is stopped at an intersection. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. the car is stopped at an intersection. Battery (highlighted): The battery stores energy generated from the gasoline engine or, during regenerative braking, from the electric motor. Since the battery powers the vehicle at low speeds, it is larger and holds much more energy than batteries used to start conventional vehicles. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. the car is stopped at an intersection. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. the car is stopped at an intersection.

277

A diesel engine study of conventional and alternative diesel and jet fuels: Ignition and emissions characteristics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Measurements of ignition delay, CO and NO emissions, and fuel consumption were carried out in a light-duty single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine for operation with petroleum and alternative hydroprocessed and FischerTropsch diesel and jet fuels. Ignition measurements carried out for a fixed engine speed and injection timing quantify the decrease in in-cylinder ignition delay with increasing derived cetane number (DCN) over a range of DCN relevant to diesel engine operation (DCN=4080) and show no discernible dependence of ignition delay on other fuel properties. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was found to decrease with increasing DCN with strong correlation due to a reduction in ignition time for fixed-injection-timed operation. Brake specific CO emissions were also found to decrease with increasing DCN due to increased time provided for CO burn out due to earlier ignition. Brake specific NO emissions were found to decrease with increasing hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratio, due to the lower peak combustion temperatures and thermal \\{NOx\\} occurring for fuels with higher H/C.

Sandeep Gowdagiri; Xander M. Cesari; Mingdi Huang; Matthew A. Oehlschlaeger

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Revised Pulsar Spindown  

SciTech Connect

We address the issue of electromagnetic pulsar spindown by combining our experience from the two limiting idealized cases which have been studied in great extent in the past: that of an aligned rotator where ideal MHD conditions apply, and that of a misaligned rotator in vacuum. We construct a spindown formula that takes into account the misalignment of the magnetic and rotation axes, and the magnetospheric particle acceleration gaps. We show that near the death line aligned rotators spin down much slower than orthogonal ones. In order to test this approach, we use a simple Monte Carlo method to simulate the evolution of pulsars and find a good fit to the observed pulsar distribution in the P-{dot P} diagram without invoking magnetic field decay. Our model may also account for individual pulsars spinning down with braking index n < 3, by allowing the corotating part of the magnetosphere to end inside the light cylinder. We discuss the role of magnetic reconnection in determining the pulsar braking index. We show, however, that n {approx} 3 remains a good approximation for the pulsar population as a whole. Moreover, we predict that pulsars near the death line have braking index values n > 3, and that the older pulsar population has preferentially smaller magnetic inclination angles. We discuss possible signatures of such alignment in the existing pulsar data.

Contopoulos, Ioannis; /Athens Academy; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2005-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

279

Effect of a homogeneous combustion catalyst on the combustion characteristics and fuel efficiency in a diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of a ferrous picrate based homogeneous combustion catalyst on the combustion characteristics and fuel efficiency was studied using a fully instrumented diesel engine. A naturally aspirated four stroke, single cylinder, air cooled, direct injection diesel engine was tested at engine speeds of 2800rpm, 3200rpm and 3600rpm under variable load conditions, with different dosing ratio of the catalyst in a commercial diesel fuel. The results indicated that the brake specific fuel consumption decreased and the brake thermal efficiency increased with the addition of the catalyst. At the catalyst dosing ratio of 1:10,000, the brake specific fuel consumption was reduced by 3.34.2% at light engine load of 0.12MPa and 2.02.4% at heavy engine load of 0.4MPa due to the application of the catalyst. From the in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate analysis, it was found that the catalyst reduced ignition delay and combustion duration of fuel in the engine, resulting in slightly higher peak cylinder pressure and faster heat release rate.

Mingming Zhu; Yu Ma; Dongke Zhang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Artificial neural networks based prediction of performance and exhaust emissions in direct injection engine using castor oil biodiesel-diesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study the performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine using castor oil biodiesel (COB)-diesel blended fuels were investigated experimentally and then predicted by artificial neural networks. For this aim castor oil was converted to its biodiesel via transesterification approach. Then the effects of the biodiesel percentage in blend engine load and speed on brake power brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) nitrogen oxides (NOx) carbon dioxide (CO2) carbon monoxide (CO) and particle matter (PM) have been considered. Fuel blends with various percentages of biodiesel (0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% and 30%) at various engine speeds and loads were tested. The results indicated that blends of COB with diesel fuel provide admissible engine performance; on the other side emissions decreased so much. Two types of neural networks a group method of data handling (GMDH) and feed forward were used for modeling of the diesel engine to predict brake power BSFC and exhaust emissions such as CO CO2 NOx and PM values. The comparison results demonstrate the superiority of the feed forward neural networkmodels over GMDH type models in terms of the statistical measures in the training and testing data but in the number of hidden neurons and model simplicity GMDH models are preferred.

M. H. Shojaeefard; M. M. Etghani; M. Akbari; A. Khalkhali; B. Ghobadian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

An investigation of the engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of coconut biodiesel in a high-pressure common-rail diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An experimental investigation on engine performance, emissions, combustion and vibration characteristics with coconut biodiesel fuels was conducted in a high-pressure common-rail diesel engine under five different load operations (0.17, 0.34, 0.52, 0.69 and 0.86MPa). The test fuels included a conventional diesel fuel and four different fuel blends of coconut biodiesel (B10, B20, B30 and B50). The results showed that biodiesel blended fuels have significant influences on the BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) and BSEC (brake specific energy consumption) at all engine loads. In general, the use of coconut biodiesel blends resulted in a reduction of BSCO (brake specific carbon monoxide) and smoke emissions regardless of the load conditions. A large reduction of 52.4% in smoke opacity was found at engine load of 0.86MPa engine load with B50. For combustion characteristics, a slightly shorter ignition delay and longer combustion duration were found with the use of biodiesel blends under all loading operations. It was found that generally the biodiesel blends produced lower peak heat release rate than baseline diesel. The vibration results showed that the largest reduction of 13.7% in RMS (root mean square) of acceleration was obtained with B50 at engine load of 0.86MPa with respect to the baseline diesel.

H.G. How; H.H. Masjuki; M.A. Kalam; Y.H. Teoh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Syngas (H2/CO) in a spark-ignition direct-injection engine. Part 1: Combustion, performance and emissions comparison with CNG  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The combustion, performance, and emissions of syngas (H2/CO) in a four-stroke, direct-injection, spark-ignition engine were experimentally investigated. The engine was operated at various speeds, ranging from 1500 to 2400rev/min, with the throttle being held in the wide-open position. The start of fuel injection was fixed at 180 before the top dead center, and the ignition advance was set at the maximal brake torque. The air/fuel ratio was varied from the technically possible lowest excess air ratio (?) to lean operation limits. The results indicated that a wider air/fuel operating ratio is possible with syngas with a very low coefficient of variation. The syngas produced a higher in-cylinder peak pressure and heat-release rate peak and faster combustion than for CNG. However, CNG produced a higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and lower brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). The BTE and BSFC of the syngas were on par to those of CNG at higher speeds. For the syngas, the total hydrocarbon emission was negligible at all load conditions, and the carbon monoxide emission was negligible at higher loads and increased under lower load conditions. However, the emission of nitrogen oxides was higher at higher loads with syngas.

Ftwi Yohaness Hagos; A. Rashid A. Aziz; Shaharin A. Sulaiman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Full Hybrid: Starting  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

highlighted Low Speed button Cruising button Passing button Braking button Stopped button highlighted Low Speed button Cruising button Passing button Braking button Stopped button STARTING When a full hybrid vehicle is initially started, the battery typically powers all accessories. The gasoline engine only starts if the battery needs to be charged or the accessories require more power than available from the battery. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. the car is stopped at an intersection. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. the car is stopped at an intersection. Battery (highlighted): The battery stores energy generated from the gasoline engine or, during regenerative braking, from the electric motor. Since the battery powers the vehicle at low speeds, it is larger and holds much more energy than batteries used to start conventional vehicles. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. the car is stopped at an intersection. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. the car is stopped at an intersection.

284

Hybrid: Starting  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

button highlighted Cruising Button Passing Button Braking Button Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar button highlighted Cruising Button Passing Button Braking Button Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar STARTING When the vehicle is started, the gasoline engine "warms up." If necessary, the electric motor acts as a generator, converting energy from the engine into electricity and storing it in the battery. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is moving. There are arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the electric motor to the battery. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is moving. There are arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the electric motor to the battery. Battery: The battery stores energy generated from the gasoline engine or, during regenerative braking, from the electric motor. Since the battery helps power the vehicle, it is larger and holds much more energy than batteries used to start conventional vehicles. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is moving. There are arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the electric motor to the battery.

285

Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. During the first two quarters of the project, the thrust of the work directed towards characterizing the various coal combustion residues and FGD residue, i.e., scrubber sludge. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADK unit l-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM, unit l-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}.0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disk,- from coal combustion residues. This has been achieved. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites. Also, these results along with mechanical behavior of the fabricated disks lead us to believe that the combination of surface altered PCC fly ash and scrubber sludge particles, together ed ash particles are ideal for our composite materials.

Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

286

Combustion behaviour of a heavy duty common rail marine Diesel engine fumigated with propane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents results from the testing of a heavy duty common rail marine Diesel engine with electronically controlled two stage liquid fuel injection, operating under load on a test bench with propane mixed into the inlet air at various rates. Results are presented for a range of engine loads, with brake mean effective pressure up to 22bar at 1800rpm. The electronic engine control unit is not modified and allowed to respond to the addition of propane according to its inbuilt map. This results in retarded injection timing with increased propane addition at some test points. At each test point, constant engine speed and brake torque are maintained for various rates of propane addition. Cylinder pressure and the injector activation voltage are recorded with a high speed data acquisition system. Apparent heat release rate is calculated from the measured cylinder pressure. At high rates of propane addition very high pressure rise rates and severe knock are measured. At the high brake mean effective pressure conditions tested, knock limits propane supply rates to less than 20% by energy. Small increases in thermal efficiency are indicated with moderate rates of propane addition. Exhaust emissions of NOx, CO, HC and smoke are measured. CO, HC and smoke emissions increase significantly with increasing propane addition. For high propane supply rates, two distinct peaks in heat release rate are measured. Analysis is made of the flammability of the propaneair mixtures at the elevated temperatures at the end of the compression stroke, using the modified BurgessWheeler Law. At propane supply rates greater than 25%, the propaneair mixture is flammable in its own right at compression temperature. The apparent heat release rate, fuel injection timing and flammability data allow analysis of the mechanism of the combustion process with propane fumigation.

L. Goldsworthy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

The Entire Engineering Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Archives Engineering Archives Engineering Archives, Since November 1991 Table of Contents: Strongest geometric figure Geometric figures - bridges High school preparation for engineering Engineering fields and mathematics Future of mechanical engineering Absorbing energy in a crash Braking force of automobiles US fast-breeder policy Fusion energy to power Electricity generation Photovoltaic motors Variable speed motor Space plane Building on the moon Why does the Shuttle turn on launch? Gyroscopes Triangulation Magnets in speakers Speaker impedance Permanent magnet manufacture E/M interference FM modulation Pressure rise in pipe expansion Drag coefficient and Reynolds' Number Boundary layers Cavitation Is it more efficient to turn off fluorescent Uninterruptable power supply Electrical current

288

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 seconds 3 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.3 seconds Maximum Speed: 74.3 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 103.4 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 13.4 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.4 seconds Maximum Speed: 74.8 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 104.0 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 153.0 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6 Distance (miles)

289

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 seconds 0 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.1 seconds Maximum Speed: 75.7 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 104.9 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 12.8 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.0 seconds Maximum Speed: 75.7 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 105.0 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 126.8 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6 Distance (miles)

290

NREL: Gearbox Reliability Collaborative - Gearbox Reliability Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Projects Projects Gearbox deficiencies are the result of many factors. Through gearbox modeling and testing, condition monitoring, and the failure database, the collaborative is expanding the industry's knowledge base, recommending efficient and cost-effective improvements, and facilitating immediate improvements in the gearbox life cycle. Gearbox Modeling and Testing Illustration of representative gearbox including the hub, main bearing, main shaft, gearbox, brake, high speed shaft, generator, and bed plate. A complete gearbox redesign has been completed in a collaborative effort between NREL and industry partners. This process documented and analyzed the design process and produced a new gearbox design that integrates knowledge from previous Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) activities.

291

FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership 2007 Highlights of Technical Accomplishments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FreedomCAR FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership 2007 Highlights of Technical Accomplishments Table of Contents Item Page Preface iv Vehicle Technologies Advanced Combustion & Emissions Control * Injection Timing Strongly Impacts H 2 - Air Mixing in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Engine 1 * Demonstrated 2007 Engine Efficiency Milestone of 42% Peak Brake Thermal Efficiency 2 * Kinetic Mechanism for Diesel Lean NO x Trap Regeneration 3 * Studies of Lean NO x Trap Aftertreatment Contribute to Diesel Vehicle Commercialization 4 Electrical & Electronics * Floating Loop Inverter 5 * Sintered Die Attachment 6 * Thermal Systems Analysis for Advanced Vehicle Power Electronics 7 * High Temperature DC Bus Capacitors 8 Electrochemical Energy Storage

292

Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

Hsu, John Sheungchun (Oak Ridge, TN)

2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

293

Data Protection and the Right to Reputation: Filling the Gaps After the Defamation Act 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and ideas informs political debate. It is a safety value: people are more ready to accept decisions that go against them if they can in principle seek to influence them. It acts as a brake on the abuse of power by public officials. It facilitates... to the publication of a defamatory statement.51 In Godfrey v Demon Internet [2001] Q.B. 201 an Internet Service Provider (IPS) sought to rely on this defence in relation to the republication of an anonymous posting made on a United States-based newsgroup...

Erdos, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

The Coughing Pulsar Magnetosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polar magnetospheric gaps consume a fraction of the electric potential that develops accross open field lines. This effect modifies significantly the structure of the axisymmetric pulsar magnetosphere. We present numerical stead-state solutions for various values of the gap potential. We show that a charge starved magnetosphere contains significantly less electric current than one with freely available electric charges. As a result, electromagnetic neutron star braking becomes inefficient. We argue that the magnetosphere may spontaneously rearrange itself to a lower energy configuration through a dramatic release of electromagnetic field energy and magentic flux. Our results might be relevant in understanding the recent December 27, 2004 burst observed in SGR 1806-20.

Ioannis Contopoulos

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

295

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figs.

Salyer, I.O.

1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

296

Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (PCM) is provided. The silica particles have a critical size of about 0.005 to about 0.025 microns and the PCM must be added to the silica in an amount of 75% or less PCM per combined weight of silica and PCM. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and particularly in applications for heat protection for heat sensitive items, such as aircraft flight recorders, and for preventing brake fade in automobiles, buses, trucks and aircraft. 3 figures.

Salyer, I.O.

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

297

Vertical axis wind turbine  

SciTech Connect

Wind turbines are largely divided into vertical axis wind turbines and propeller (Horizontal axis) wind turbines. The present invention discloses a vertical axis high speed wind turbine provided with a starting and braking control system. This vertical axis wind turbine is formed by having blades of a proper airfoil fitted to respective supporting arms provided radially from a vertical rotary axis by keeping the blade span-wise direction in parallel with the axis and being provided with a low speed control windmill in which the radial position of each operating piece varies with a centrifugal force produced by the rotation of the vertical rotary axis.

Kato, Y.; Seki, K.; Shimizu, Y.

1981-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

298

Regulated apparatus for the generation of electrical energy, such as a wind generator  

SciTech Connect

The invention relates to a regulated apparatus for the generation of electrical energy. A wind generator comprises a propeller having fixed blades and a generator connected by a transmission to the propeller and having sets of main and secondary brushes. The hub of the propeller comprises a rotor of an eddy-current brake whose inductor stator is supplied by a current delivered, starting from a certain speed , by the secondary brushes of the generator which are angularly shifted relative to their neutral position.

Kant, M.

1980-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Mack LNG vehicle development  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to install a production-ready, state-of-the-art engine control system on the Mack E7G natural gas engine to improve efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. In addition, the power rating was increased from 300 brake horsepower (bhp) to 325 bhp. The emissions targets were oxides of nitrogen plus nonmethane hydrocarbons of less than 2.5 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter of less than 0.05 g/bhp-hr on 99% methane. Vehicle durability and field testing were also conducted. Further development of this engine should include efficiency improvements and oxides of nitrogen reductions.

Southwest Research Institute

2000-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

300

Novel estimation of tyre-road friction coefficient and slip ratio using electrical parameters of traction motor for electric vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The estimation of the friction coefficient and the slip ratio is crucial for advanced traction control or anti-brake control of electric vehicles. In this paper, dynamic behaviours of electrical parameters of the traction motor under road change are modelled and analysed. Novel estimation only using the measurements of the armature voltage and the current is proposed. The proposed method is much quicker than traditional methods, contributing to adjust the vehicle's motion state more quickly and precisely. Further, it can eliminate the speed measuring devices of the wheel speed and the vehicle speed. Simulations verify the effectiveness.

Guoqing Xu; Kun Xu; Weimin Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Optimization of an Irreversible Diesel Cycle: Experimental Results of a Ceramic Coated Indirect-Injection Supercharged Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Technical Education Faculty and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sakarya University, Esentepe 54187, Sakarya, Turkey, and Maritime Faculty, Marine Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Tuzla, Turkey ... Effects of a ceramic coating on performance and exhaust emissions in the LHR engine have been compared to those obtained from the standard (STD) diesel engine based on the comparison of the STD and the LHR engines for identical airflow and brake mean effective pressure. ... Gataowski, J. A. Evaluation of a selectively-cooled single-cylinder 0.5-L Diesel engine; SAE paper No. 900693, Society of Automotive Engineers: Warrendale, PA, 1990. ...

A. Parlak; H. Yasar; H. S. Soyhan; C. Deniz

2008-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

302

Review and evaluation of Transamerica Delaval, Inc. , diesel engine reliability and operability: Grand Gulf Nuclear Station Unit 1  

SciTech Connect

PNL and its consultants conclude that the TDI diesel engines at the GGNS have the needed operability and reliability to fulfill their intended (auxiliary) emergency power function for the first refueling cycle. This conclusion is reached with a number of understandings regarding limits to the engine requirements, NRC concurrence with MP and L findings/conclusions regarding items to be supplied to NRC, limitations on the engine Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), and MP and L's implementation of the modifications to their proposed surveillance and maintenance program.

Not Available

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with methyl esters of pungam oil and rice bran oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biodiesel derived from vegetable oils and animal fats can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications. In this work, the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of various biodiesel (rice bran oil and pungam oil) and their blends are evaluated in a direct injection diesel engine. Lower ignition delay, higher peak pressure and heat release rate with almost same brake thermal efficiency are obtained for 20% biodiesel blend as compared with diesel fuel. They exhibited lower unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and soot emissions with a penalty of higher NOx emissions.

G. Lakshmi Narayana Rao; N. Nallusamy; S. Sampath; K. Rajagopal

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Effects of CH4, H2 and CO2 Mixtures on SI Gas Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Performance of a four-stroke spark ignition gas engine operated on mixtures of CH4, H2 and CO2 was studied. Experiments were carried out at a constant engine speed of 2,000rpm and throttle opening of 14% with various equivalence ratios. The results showed that the highest brake power output of 12.5kW and 35% thermal efficiency were achieved when operated with the mixture of 69.70% CH4, 9.95% H2 and 20.45% CO2 and the equivalence ratios between 1.0 and 0.82.

S. Chuayboon; S. Prasertsan; T. Theppaya; K. Maliwan; P. Prasertsan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Double acting stirling engine phase control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mechanical device for effecting a phase change between the expansion and compression volumes of a double-acting Stirling engine uses helical elements which produce opposite rotation of a pair of crankpins when a control rod is moved, so the phase between two pairs of pistons is changed by +.psi. and the phase between the other two pairs of pistons is changed by -.psi.. The phase can change beyond .psi.=90.degree. at which regenerative braking and then reversal of engine rotation occurs.

Berchowitz, David M. (Scotia, NY)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Influence of Biodiesel Fuel on the Combustion and Emission Formation in a Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The injector needle lift trace at low engine speed was almost identical for both fuels, while at maximum engine speed, a shorter injection delay was observed for biodiesel fuel and the injector needle opened earlier as with D2 fuel. ... Figure 1 Comparison of the engine torque (M), fuel consumption (Gh), and brake specific energy consumption (ge) at full load for biodiesel fuel (BD) and D2 fuel in (a) TAM and (b) MAN engines. ... (7)?Sanatore, A.; Cardone, M.; Rocco, V.; Prati, M. V. A comparative analysis of combustion process in DI diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel fuel. ...

Ales Hribernik; Breda Kegl

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Three-dimensional finite element modeling of a magnet array spinning above a conductor  

SciTech Connect

Drag forces due to eddy currents induced by the relative motion of a conductor and a magnetic field occur in many practical devices: motors, brakes, magnetic bearings, and magnetically levitated vehicles. Recently, finite element codes have included solvers for 3-D eddy current geometries and have the potential to be very useful in the design and analysis of these devices. In this paper, numerical results from three-dimensional modeling of a magnet array spinning above a conductor are compared to experimental results in order to assess the capabilities of these codes.

Lorimer, W.L.; Lieu, D.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Rossing, T.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

Recent Trends in Superstring Phenomenology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review for non-experts possible phenomenological scenari in String Theory. In particular we focus on vacuum configurations with intersecting and/or magnetized unoriented D-branes. We will show how a TeV scale tension may be compatible with the existence of Large Extra Dimensions and how anomalous U(1)'s can give rise to interesting signatures at LHC or in cosmic rays. Finally, we discuss unoriented D-brane instantons as a source of non-perturbative effects that can contribute to moduli stabilization and susy braking in combination with fluxes. We conclude with an outlook and directions for future work.

Massimo Bianchi

2009-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

309

Part-load performance and emissions of a spark ignition engine fueled with RON95 and RON97 gasoline: Technical viewpoint on Malaysias fuel price debate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Due to world crude oil price hike in the recent years, many countries have experienced increase in gasoline price. In Malaysia, where gasoline are sold in two grades; RON95 and RON97, and fuel price are regulated by the government, gasoline price have been gradually increased since 2009. Price rise for RON97 is more significant. By 2014, its per liter price is 38% more than that of RON95. This has resulted in escalated dissatisfaction among the mass. People argued they were denied from using a better fuel (RON97). In order to evaluate the claim, there is a need to investigate engine response to these two gasoline grades. The effect of gasoline RON95 and RON97 on performance and exhaust emissions in spark ignition engine was investigated on a representative engine: 1.6L, 4-cylinder Mitsubishi 4G92 engine with CR 11:1. The engine was run at constant speed between 1500 and 3500rpm with 500rpm increment at various part-load conditions. The original engine ECU, a hydraulic dynamometer and control, a combustion analyzer and an exhaust gas analyzer were used to determine engine performance, cylinder pressure and emissions. Results showed that RON95 produced higher engine performance for all part-load conditions within the speed range. RON95 produced on average 4.4% higher brake torque, brake power, brake mean effective pressure as compared to RON97. The difference in engine performance was more significant at higher engine speed and loads. Cylinder pressure and ROHR were evaluated and correlated with engine output. With RON95, the engine produces 2.3% higher fuel conversion efficiency on average but RON97 was advantageous with 2.3% lower brake specific fuel consumption throughout all load condition. In terms of exhaust emissions, RON95 produced 7.7% lower \\{NOx\\} emission but higher CO2, CO and HC emissions by 7.9%, 36.9% and 20.3% respectively. Higher octane rating of gasoline may not necessarily beneficial on engine power, fuel economy and emissions of polluting gases. Even though there is some advantage using RON97 in terms of emission reduction of CO2, CO and HC, the 38% higher price and higher \\{NOx\\} emission is more expensive in the long run. Therefore using RON95 is economically better and environmentally friendlier. The findings provide some techno-economic evaluation on the fuel price debate that surround the Malaysias population in the recent years. The increased of fuel price may have limited their ability to use higher octane gasoline but it did not negatively affecting the users as they perceive.

Taib Iskandar Mohamad; Heoy Geok How

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

New coke-sorting system at OAO Koks  

SciTech Connect

A new coke-sorting system has been introduced at OAO Koks. It differs from the existing system in that it has no bunkers for all-purpose coke but only bunkers for commercial coke. In using this system with coke from battery 4, the crushing of the coke on conveyer belts, at roller screens, and in the commercial-coke bunkers is studied. After installing braking elements in the coke path, their effectiveness in reducing coke disintegration and improving coke screening is investigated. The granulometric composition and strength of the commercial coke from coke battery 3, with the new coke-sorting system, is evaluated.

B.Kh. Bulaevskii; V.S. Shved; Yu.V. Kalimin; S.D. Filippov [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

Licenses Available in Energy & Utilities | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy and Utilities Energy and Utilities SHARE Energy and Utilities 200000741 Automatic Detection of Bone Fragments in Poultry 200000782 Droplet Acoustic Wave Sensors 200000784 Method for the Enhancement of Aqueous Cleaning Operations 200000785 Bulk Metallic Glass Surgical Tools and Orthopedic Implants 200000789 Device for Separating CO2 from Fossil Power Plant Emissions 200000791 Wheel Reaction Force Sensing Apparatus/Whole-Vehicle Brake Tester 200000796 Fossil Fuel Combined Cycle Power System 200000799 Method for Accelerated Curing of Coatings for Explosion Prevention and Other Needs Using Microwave Technology 200000807 Effective Switching Frequency Multiplier Inverter 200000809 Improved Response Microcantilever Thermal Detector 200000813 High Slot Utilization System for Electric Machines

312

The Coughing Pulsar Magnetosphere  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polar magnetospheric gaps consume a fraction of the electric potential that develops accross open field lines. This effect modifies significantly the structure of the axisymmetric pulsar magnetosphere. We present numerical stead-state solutions for various values of the gap potential. We show that a charge starved magnetosphere contains significantly less electric current than one with freely available electric charges. As a result, electromagnetic neutron star braking becomes inefficient. We argue that the magnetosphere may spontaneously rearrange itself to a lower energy configuration through a dramatic release of electromagnetic field energy and magentic flux. Our results might be relevant in understanding the recent December 27, 2004 burst observed in SGR 1806-20.

Contopoulos, I

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

MaintenanceRecords  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1/22/2010 1/22/2010 4,894 Changed oil and filter $60.70 12/18/2010 10,075 Changed oil and filter $60.70 12/22/2010 10,651 Replaced driver-side headlight $32.78 2/18/2011 20,255 Changed oil and filter $60.70 3/29/2011 25,267 Changed oil and filter $60.70 5/16/2011 30,509 Changed oil and filter and replaced fanbelt $116.20 6/28/2011 34,831 Replaced alternator/water pump belt and tow fees $80.50 7/8/2011 35,652 Changed oil and filter and replaced air filter $80.88 7/13/2011 35,885 Installed two tires $277.25 7/27/2011 36,982 Towed vehicle and replaced alternator/water pump belt $300.00 8/8/2011 37,738 Repaired left front tire $10.00 9/1/2011 40,384 Replaced alternator belt $45.00 9/8/2011 40,948 Changed oil and filter $60.70 10/22/2011 43,484 30K mile service $192.45 10/26/2011 43,492 Replaced front brake pads and cleaned and adjusted rear brake shoes

314

Full Hybrid: Cruising  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Cruising button highlighted Passing button Braking button Stopped button Cruising button highlighted Passing button Braking button Stopped button CRUISING PART 1 At speeds above mid-range, both the engine and electric motor are used to propel the vehicle. The gasoline engine provides power to the drive-train directly and to the electric motor via the generator. Go to next… stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. The car is moving. There are blue arrows flowing from the generator to the electric motor to the power split device to the front wheels. There are red arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the generator to the power split device to the front wheels. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. The car is moving. There are blue arrows flowing from the generator to the electric motor to the power split device to the front wheels. There are red arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the generator to the power split device to the front wheels.

315

FOR SALE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 Dodge Avenger ES, v6, sharp, 68K miles, 6 Dodge Avenger ES, v6, sharp, 68K miles, brand new tires & brakes, Looks & drives like new, $11,900. Call (847) 438-3193 or Joe x3743. s '92 Nissan Stanza SE, 4dr sedan, 5 spd manual, a/c, pb,ps, pw, moon/sun roof, 58K miles, $5,500. K. Gray, x4013 or kgray@fnal.gov. s '89 Toyota Corolla, 120K miles, very good cond., 4 door, a/c, $3,500 x8614 or wolfram@fnal.gov. s '89 Ford Taurus Wagon, 105K miles, $1,300 (avail. mid Oct), x8614 or wolfram@fnal.gov. s '89 Honda Accord DX, White, 5 spd, am/fm/cd, clean, 135K miles, new cv joints, very recent brakes, front tires, timing belt, water pump, & alternator. Very good cond. runs great, $2500. Call x5768 or (630) 879 - 5650. s '86 VW Golf GTI 3-dr htchbk, black, 5-sp, 133K highway miles, a/c, CD am/fm, sunroof,

316

MaintenanceRecords  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8/11/2011 8/11/2011 6,825 Changed oil and filter and replaced alternator belt $122.46 10/13/2011 11,287 Purchased two rear tires $120.24 10/19/2011 12,360 Changed oil and filter $64.20 11/23/2011 14,209 Replaced tailgate latch assembly $94.80 1/17/2012 18,254 Changed oil and filter $64.20 3/5/2012 22,872 Replaced serpentine belt $45.00 3/24/2012 24,753 Changed oil and filter $64.20 7/9/2012 30,143 30K mile service $215.75 8/14/2012 35,276 Changed oil and filter $64.33 9/6/2012 39,081 Replaced two tires $196.52 9/12/2012 39,989 Replaced serpentine belt $45.00 9/13/2012 40,377 Changed oil and filter $64.33 9/21/2012 41,795 Replaced two tires $181.83 10/1/2012 43,067 Replaced front brake pads, checked rear brakes, and resurfaced rotors $209.15 10/12/2012 45,457 Changed oil and filter $64.33 11/27/2012 50,630 Changed oil and filter

317

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0. Description of battery-powered electric vehicles 0. Description of battery-powered electric vehicles Vehicle type Description Micro or "mild" hybrid Vehicles with ICEs, larger batteries, and electrically powered auxiliary systems that allow the engine to be turned off when the vehicle is coasting or idle and then be quickly restarted. Regenerative braking recharges the batteries but does not provide power to the wheels for traction. Micro and mild hybrids are not connected to the electrical grid for recharging and are not considered as HEVs in this analysis. Full hybrid electric (HEV) Vehicles that combine an internal combustion engine with electric propulsion from an electric motor and battery. The vehicle battery is recharged by capturing some of the energy lost during braking. Stored energy is used to eliminate engine operation during idle, operate the vehicle at slow speeds for limited distances, and assist the ICE drivetrain throughout its drive cycle. Full HEV systems are configured in parallel, series, or power split systems, depending on how power is delivered to the drivetrain. HEVs are not connected to the electric grid for recharging.

318

Impact of high energy ball milling on the nanostructure of magnetitegraphite and magnetitegraphitemolybdenum disulphide blends  

SciTech Connect

Different, partly complementary and partly redundant characterization methods were applied to study the transition of magnetite, graphite and MoS{sub 2} powders to mechanically alloyed nanostructures. The applied methods were: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mssbauer spectroscopy (MS), Raman spectroscopy (RS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The main objective was to prepare a model material providing the essential features of a typical tribofilm forming during automotive braking, and to assess the impact of different constituents on sliding behaviour and friction level. Irrespective of the initial grain size, the raw materials were transferred to a nanocrystalline structure and mixed on a nanoscopic scale during high energy ball milling. Whereas magnetite remained almost unchanged, graphite and molybdenum disulphide were transformed to a nanocrystalline and highly disordered structure. The observed increase of the coefficient of friction was attributed to a loss of lubricity of the latter ingredient due to this transformation and subsequent oxidation. - Highlights: Characterization of microstructural changes induced by high energy ball milling Assessment of the potential of different characterization methods Impact of mechanical alloying on tribological performance revealed by tests Preparation of an artificial third body resembling the one formed during braking.

sterle, W., E-mail: Werner.oesterle@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Orts-Gil, G.; Gross, T.; Deutsch, C. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Hinrichs, R. [Instituto de Geocincias, UFRGS, P.O. Box 15001, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Vasconcellos, M.A.Z. [Instituto de Fsica, UFRGS, P.O. Box 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Zoz, H.; Yigit, D.; Sun, X. [Zoz Group, 57482 Wenden (Germany)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

A Novel Integrated Magnetic Structure Based DC/DC Converter for Hybrid Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Systems  

SciTech Connect

This manuscript focuses on a novel actively controlled hybrid magnetic battery/ultracapacitor based energy storage system (ESS) for vehicular propulsion systems. A stand-alone battery system might not be sufficient to satisfy peak power demand and transient load variations in hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV, PHEV). Active battery/ultracapacitor hybrid ESS provides a better solution in terms of efficient power management and control flexibility. Moreover, the voltage of the battery pack can be selected to be different than that of the ultracapacitor, which will result in flexibility of design as well as cost and size reduction of the battery pack. In addition, the ultracapacitor bank can supply or recapture a large burst of power and it can be used with high C-rates. Hence, the battery is not subjected to supply peak and sharp power variations, and the stress on the battery will be reduced and the battery lifetime would be increased. Utilizing ultracapacitor results in effective capturing of the braking energy, especially in sudden braking conditions.

Onar, Omer C [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Effects of oxygenated fuel blends on carbonaceous particulate composition and particle size distributions from a stationary diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A systematic study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of blending five different oxygenated compounds, diglyme (DGM), palm oil methyl ester (PME), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl adipate (DEA) and butanol (Bu) with ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD), on engine performance, particulate mass concentrations, organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon fractions of the particles and particle size distributions from a single cylinder, direct injection stationary diesel engine with the engine working at a constant engine speed and at three engine loads. A small increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was observed with the use of oxygenates blended with ULSD. All five oxygenates were found to be effective at reducing particulate mass emissions at medium and high engine loads, with butanol being the most effective and DGM being the least effective. Analysis of the relative contribution of changes in the OC and EC emissions to the reduction of particulate matter indicated that under the same oxygen content, EC made a dominant contribution to the reduction of particulate mass. The results also indicated that reduction in both particle mass and number emissions was affected not only by the oxygen content, but also by the chemical structure and thermophysical properties of oxygenates as well as engine operating conditions.

Zhi-Hui Zhang; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Design optimization of the electrically peaking hybrid (ELPH) vehicle. Research report  

SciTech Connect

Electrically Peaking Hybrid (ELPH) is a parallel hybrid electric vehicle propulsion concept that was invented at Texas A and M University, by the advanced vehicle systems research group. Over the past six years, design methodologies, component development, and system optimization work has been going on for this invention. This project was a first attempt in integrating the above developments into an optimized design of an ELPH passenger car. Design specifications were chosen for a full size passenger car, performing as well as any conventional car, over the EPA-FTP-75 combined city/highway drive cycles. The results of this design project were two propulsion systems. Both were appropriate for commercial production, from the points of view of cost, availability of the technologies, and components. One utilized regenerative braking and the other did not. Substantial fuel savings and emissions reductions resulted from simulating these designs on the FTP-75 drive cycle. For example, the authors` ELPH full size car, with regenerative braking, was capable of delivering over 50 miles per gallon in city driving, with corresponding reductions in its emissions. This project established the viability of the authors` ELPH concept and their design methodologies, in computer simulations. More work remains to be done on investigating more advanced power plants, such as fuel cells, and more advanced components, such as switched reluctance motor drives, for the authors` designs. Furthermore, the authors` design optimization can be carried out to more detailed levels, for prototyping and production.

Ehsani, M.; Gao, Y.; Butler, K.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Comparative Study of Performance and Combustion Characteristics of Conventional and Low Heat Rejection (Mullite Coated) Diesel Engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tests were performed on a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection, diesel engine whose piston crown, cylinder head and valves were coated with a 0.5 mm thickness of 3Al2O32SiO2 (mullite) (Al2O3 = 60%, SiO2 = 40%) over a 150 ?m thickness of NiCrAlY bond coat. The working conditions for the conventional engine (without coating) and LHR (mullite coated) engine were kept exactly same to ensure a comparison between the two configurations of the engine. This paper is intended to emphasis on performance and combustion characteristics of conventional and LHR (Mullite coated) diesel engines under identical conditions. Tests were carried out at same operational constraints i.e. air-fuel ratio and engine speed conditions for both conventional engine (without coating) and LHR (mullite coated) engines. The results showed that, there was as much as 1.8 % increasing on brake power for LHR (mullite coated) engine compared to conventional engine (without coating) at full load The average decrease in brake specific fuel consumption in the LHR engine compared with the conventional engine was 1.76 % for full engine load. However, there was increasing on cylinder gas pressure and net heat release rate for LHR engine compared to conventional engine. Also the results revealed that, there was as much as 22% increasing on exhaust gas temperature for LHR engine compared to conventional engine at full engine load.

S B Patond; S A Chaple; P N Shrirao; P I Shaikh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Application of semi-direct injection for spark-ignition engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper proposes an application of a motorcycle engine lean-burn system for improving engine efficiency and reducing exhaust emissions. This Semi-Direct Injection (SDI) system consists of a high swirl charge, injection during intake-valve opening, and air-assisted fuel injection. The fuel enters the cylinder directly through the intake valve near the middle intake stroke for a richer mixture around the spark plug. A 125 cc, 4-valve, Port-Fuel-Injection (PFI) engine was retrofitted by designing a control plate to enhance the swirl. The swirl ratio was increased to 3.8 and the lean limit was extended to 1.7 of lambda (excess air ratio). The engine was tested at the low-load region, which includes most operation points of the ECE-40 driving cycle. A complete engine performance map was conducted for comparison between SDI and original PFI engines. The results show that Brake-Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) decreased by 11.3%. Brake-specific exhaust emissions of NOx and CO decreased by 32.0% and 92.9%, respectively. The HC emission increased by 47.7%.

Yuh-Yih Wu; Bo-Chiuan Chen; Anh-Trung Tran

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Properties and performance of cotton seed oildiesel blends as a fuel for compression ignition engines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the evaluation of properties of straight vegetable cotton seed oil (CSO) and its blends with diesel fuel in various proportions to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine at constant speed of 1500 rev ? min . Diesel and CSO oil fuel blends (10% 30% 50% and 70%) were used to conduct engine performance and smoke emission tests at varying loads of 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% and 100% of full load in addition to their straight CSO and diesel fuel. The performance parameters of brake specific energy consumption (BSFC) brake thermal efficiency (BTE) mechanical efficiency (ME) exhaust gas temperature (EGT) and exhaust emission (smoke) were evaluated to find the optimum CSO and diesel fuel blend. From the experimental results the CSO10D90 blend fuel showed 3.7% reduction in BSFC 1.7% increase in BTE 6.7% increase in ME and 21.7% reduction in the smoke emissions in comparison with conventional diesel operated engine. Finally it is concluded that CSO10D90 can be used straight away in CI engines without any major modifications to the engine as it showed good performance and improved emission compared to all other fuels tested for the entire range of engine operation in comparison with diesel.

B. Murali Krishna; J. M. Mallikarjuna

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Effects of the blends containing low ratios of alternative fuels on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to experimentally investigate the effects of blends containing various alternative fuels and diesel fuel on the performance and emissions of a diesel engine. The considered parameters are brake power, specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency as well as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxide emissions. Blends of biodiesel, ethanol, methanol and vegetable oil with diesel fuel, each containing 15% alternative fuel in volume, were prepared. Then, these blends were tested in a naturally aspirated, direct injection diesel engine. The test results obtained with these blends were compared with those obtained with diesel fuel. It was found that the tested blends yielded usually different performance and emission characteristics compared to diesel fuel. The biodiesel blend resulted in performance parameters very close to those obtained in the use of diesel fuel. Ethanol and methanol blends yielded lower brake power, while they resulted in higher specific fuel consumption and lower carbon monoxide emissions. On the other hand, the vegetable oil blend yielded lower carbon monoxide emissions, while it caused only slight changes in the performance parameters.

Murat Karabektas; Gokhan Ergen; Murat Hosoz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Studies on dual fuel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis by response surface methodology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this present study a five factor three level Box-Behnken response surface design was used to study the effect of five independent variables such as diesel (40%100%) ethanol (0%-30%) pongamia oil methyl ester (POME) (0%30%) compressed natural gas (CNG) (0%20%) and load of the engine (0%100%) on the performance (brake thermal efficiency brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature) and emission characteristics (carbon mono-oxide (CO) carbon dioxides (CO2) unburnt hydrocarbon oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and smoke) of a single cylinder four stroke water cooled diesel engine converted to dual fuel system. It was operated with either diesel fuel or blend with CNG using an electronically controlled solenoid actuated valve mechanism. The experimental results showed that all the process variables have significant effect on the engine performance. The emission characteristics (CO CO2 NOX and Smoke) were significantly lower than the diesel fuel emissions. From the experimental results second order polynomial models were developed to predict the response variables. The optimal conditions were determined and it was found to be: Diesel 70% Ethanol 15% POME 15% CNG 10% and load 50% respectively with a desirability value of 0.894.

R. Senthilraja; V. Sivakumar; J. Prakash Maran

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Comparison of propane and methane performance and emissions in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine  

SciTech Connect

With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

328

Understanding white dwarf binary evolution with white dwarf/main sequence binaries: first results from SEGUE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Close white dwarf binaries make up a wide variety of objects such as double white dwarf binaries, which are possible SN Ia progenitors, cataclysmic variables, super soft sources, or AM CVn stars. The evolution and formation of close white dwarf binaries crucially depends on the rate at which angular momentum is extracted from the binary orbit. The two most important sources of angular momentum loss are the common envelope phase and magnetic braking. Both processes are so far poorly understood. Observational population studies of white dwarf/main sequence binaries provide the potential to significantly progress with this situation and to clearly constrain magnetic braking and the CE-phase. However, the current population of white dwarf/main sequence binaries is highly incomplete and heavily biased towards young systems containing hot white dwarfs. The SDSSII/SEGUE collaboration awarded us with 5 fibers per plate pair in order to fill this gap and to identify the required unbiased sample of old white dwarf/main sequence binaries. The success rate of our selection criteria exceeds 65% and during the first 10 months we have identified 41 new systems, most of them belonging to the missed old population.

M. R. Schreiber; A. Nebot Gomez-Moran; A. D. Schwope

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Experimental investigation of regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel blended with ethanol and dodecanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow-sulfur diesel as the main fuel, ethanol as the oxygenate additive and dodecanol as the solvent, to investigate the regulated and unregulated emissions of the engine under five engine loads at an engine speed of 1800revmin?1. Blended fuels containing 6.1%, 12.2%, 18.2% and 24.2% by volume of ethanol, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by mass of oxygen in the blended fuel, were used. The results indicate that with an increase in ethanol in the fuel, the brake specific fuel consumption becomes higher while there is little change in the brake thermal efficiency. Regarding the regulated emissions, HC and CO increase significantly at low engine load but might decrease at high engine load, \\{NOx\\} emission slightly decreases at low engine load but slightly increases at high engine load, while particulate mass decreases significantly at high engine load. For the unregulated gaseous emissions, unburned ethanol and acetaldehyde increase but formaldehyde, ethene, ethyne, 1,3-butadiene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decrease, especially at high engine load. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is found to reduce significantly most of the pollutants, including the air toxics.

C.S. Cheung; Yage Di; Zuohua Huang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Pulsar wind model for the spin-down behavior of intermittent pulsars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is observed that intermittent pulsars have higher slow down rate in the on state (radio-loud) than in the off state (radio-quiet). This gives the evidence that particle wind may play an important role in pulsar spindown. The effect of particle acceleration is included in modeling the rotational energy loss rate. Applying the pulsar wind model to the three intermittent pulsars (PSR B1931+24, PSR J1841-0500, and PSR J1832+0029), we calculate their magnetic field and inclination angle simultaneously. The braking index of intermittent pulsars is also predicted. The duty cycle of particle wind determined from timing observations is consistent with the duty cycle of the on state. It is shown that the particle number density may always be the Goldreich-Julian density. This may ensure that different on states of intermittent pulsars are stable. Observations on the inclination angle and braking index of intermittent pulsars may help to test different models of particle acceleration, as well as different models of p...

Li, L; Yan, W M; Yuan, J P; Xu, R X; Wang, N

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

A Bidirectional High-Power-Quality Grid Interface With a Novel Bidirectional Noninverted Buck Boost Converter for PHEVs  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will play a vital role in future sustainable transportation systems due to their potential in terms of energy security, decreased environmental impact, improved fuel economy, and better performance. Moreover, new regulations have been established to improve the collective gas mileage, cut greenhouse gas emissions, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. This paper primarily focuses on two major thrust areas of PHEVs. First, it introduces a grid-friendly bidirectional alternating current/direct current ac/dc dc/ac rectifier/inverter for facilitating vehicle-to-grid (V2G) integration of PHEVs. Second, it presents an integrated bidirectional noninverted buck boost converter that interfaces the energy storage device of the PHEV to the dc link in both grid-connected and driving modes. The proposed bidirectional converter has minimal grid-level disruptions in terms of power factor and total harmonic distortion, with less switching noise. The integrated bidirectional dc/dc converter assists the grid interface converter to track the charge/discharge power of the PHEV battery. In addition, while driving, the dc/dc converter provides a regulated dc link voltage to the motor drive and captures the braking energy during regenerative braking.

Onar, Omer C [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect

Reactivity controlled compression ignition is a low-temperature combustion technique that has been shown, both in computational fluid dynamics modeling and single-cylinder experiments, to obtain diesel-like efficiency or better with ultra-low nitrogen oxide and soot emissions, while operating primarily on gasoline-like fuels. This paper investigates reactivity controlled compression ignition operation on a four-cylinder light-duty diesel engine with production-viable hardware using conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Experimental results are presented over a wide speed and load range using a systematic approach for achieving successful steady-state reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion. The results demonstrated diesel-like efficiency or better over the operating range explored with low engine-out nitrogen oxide and soot emissions. A peak brake thermal efficiency of 39.0% was demonstrated for 2600 r/min and 6.9 bar brake mean effective pressure with nitrogen oxide emissions reduced by an order of magnitude compared to conventional diesel combustion operation. Reactivity controlled compression ignition emissions and efficiency results are compared to conventional diesel combustion operation on the same engine.

Curran, Scott [ORNL; Hanson, Reed M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Full Hybrid: Passing  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

highlighted Braking button Stopped button highlighted Braking button Stopped button PASSING PART 1 During heavy accelerating or when additional power is needed, the gasoline engine and electric motor are both used to propel the vehicle. Go to next… stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible while passing another vehicle. There are purple arrows flowing from the generator to the electric motor to the power split device to the front wheels. There are red arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the generator to the power split device to the front wheels. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible while passing another vehicle. There are purple arrows flowing from the generator to the electric motor to the power split device to the front wheels. There are red arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the generator to the power split device to the front wheels.

334

Global energy consumption due to friction in passenger cars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study presents calculations on the global fuel energy consumption used to overcome friction in passenger cars in terms of friction in the engine, transmission, tires, and brakes. Friction in tribocontacts was estimated according to prevailing contact mechanisms such as elastohydrodynamic, hydrodynamic, mixed, and boundary lubrication. Coefficients of friction in the tribocontacts were estimated based on available information in the literature on the average passenger car in use today, a car with todays advanced commercial tribological technology, a car with todays best advanced technology based upon recent research and development, and a car with the best technology forecasted in the next 10 years. The following conclusions were reached: In passenger cars, one-third of the fuel energy is used to overcome friction in the engine, transmission, tires, and brakes. The direct frictional losses, with braking friction excluded, are 28% of the fuel energy. In total, 21.5% of the fuel energy is used to move the car. Worldwide, 208,000 million liters of fuel (gasoline and diesel) was used in 2009 to overcome friction in passenger cars. This equals 360 million tonne oil equivalent per year (Mtoe/a) or 7.3millionTJ/a. Reductions in frictional losses will lead to a threefold improvement in fuel economy as it will reduce both the exhaust and cooling losses also at the same ratio. Globally, one passenger car uses on average of 340l of fuel per year to overcome friction, which would cost 510 euros according to the average European gas price in 2011 and corresponds to an average driving distance of 13,000km/a. By taking advantage of new technology for friction reduction in passenger cars, friction losses could be reduced by 18% in the short term (510 years) and by 61% in the long term (1525 years). This would equal worldwide economic savings of 174,000 million euros and 576,000 million euros, respectively; fuel savings of 117,000 million and 385,000 million liters, respectively; and CO2 emission reduction of 290 million and 960 million tonnes, respectively. The friction-related energy losses in an electric car are estimated to be only about half those of an internal combustion passenger car. Potential actions to reduce friction in passenger cars include the use of advanced coatings and surface texturing technology on engine and transmission components, new low-viscosity and low-shear lubricants and additives, and tire designs that reduce rolling friction.

Kenneth Holmberg; Peter Andersson; Ali Erdemir

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Fumigation of a heavy duty common rail marine diesel engine with ethanolwater mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A heavy duty common rail marine diesel engine operating with two stage injection is tested under load on a test bench with vapourised ethanolwater mixtures mixed into the inlet air at various rates. Ethanol/water mixture strengths of 93%, 72% and 45% by mass are tested. Results are presented for two engine loads at 1800rpm, with brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) 17bar and 20bar. At each test point, constant engine speed and brake torque are maintained for various rates of aqueous ethanol addition. Small increases in brake thermal efficiency are measured with moderate rates of ethanol addition at a BMEP of 20bar. Exhaust emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxygen and carbon dioxide, and exhaust opacity are measured. CO emissions and exhaust opacity tend to increase with increased ethanol addition. \\{NOx\\} emissions tend to decrease with increased ethanol addition and with increased water content. Hydrocarbon emissions remain low, near the detection limit of the analyser. Cylinder pressure and the electronically controlled two stage liquid fuel injection timing are recorded with a high speed data acquisition system. Apparent heat release rate is calculated from the measured cylinder pressure. The apparent heat release rate and fuel injection timing together allow analysis of the mechanism of the combustion process with ethanol fumigation. Two stage injection involves a small pre-injection of diesel fuel to reduce early pressure rise rates in normal diesel engine combustion. Even though injection timing is retarded by the Engine Control Unit as more ethanol is added, combustion timing effectively advances due to the effect of two stage injection. Where the ethanol/air mixture strength is above the lower flammability limit at compression temperatures, the mixture is ignited by the pre-injection and begins to burn rapidly by flame propagation and/or autoignitive propagation before the main liquid fuel injection begins. This occurs for ethanol energy substitution rates greater than 30%. Two distinct peaks in heat release rate appear at the higher ethanol rates. Severe knock becomes apparent for 34% ethanol. Two stage injection may be disadvantageous in these circumstances.

L. Goldsworthy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Radiation Safety  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brotherhood of Locomotive Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers & Trainmen Scott Palmer BLET Radiation Safety Officer New Hire Training New Hire study topics * GCOR * ABTH * SSI * Employee Safety * HazMat * Railroad terminology * OJT * 15-week class * Final test Hazardous Materials * Initial new-hire training * Required by OSHA * No specified class length * Open book test * Triennial module Locomotive Engineer Training A little bit older...a little bit wiser... * Typically 2-4 years' seniority * Pass-or-get-fired promotion * Intensive program * Perpetually tested to a higher standard * 20 Weeks of training * 15 of that is OJT * General Code of Operating Rules * Air Brake & Train Handling * System Special Instructions * Safety Instructions * Federal Regulations * Locomotive Simulators * Test Ride * Pass test with 90% Engineer Recertification

337

MonthlyReport  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Overall AC electrical energy consumption (AC Wh/mi)¹ 111 Overall DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi)² 71 Overall DC electrical energy captured from regenerative braking (DC Wh/mi) 61 Total number of trips 1,135 Total distance traveled (mi) 4,408 Trips in Charge Depleting (CD) mode³ Gasoline fuel economy (mpg) 22 DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 296 Number of trips 264 Percent of trips city | highway 100% | 0% Distance traveled (mi) 781 Percent of total distance traveled 18% Trips in both Charge Depleting & Charge Sustaining (CD/CS) modes Gasoline fuel economy (mpg) 19 DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 141 Number of trips 44 Percent of trips city | highway 96% | 4% Distance traveled CD | CS (mi) 333 | 389 Percent of total distance traveled CD | CS

338

Comparison of Standard 90.1-07 and the 2009 IECC with Respect to Commercial Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9054 9054 Comparison of Standard 90.1-07 and the 2009 IECC with Respect to Commercial Buildings December 11, 2009 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington 99352 iii Acronyms and Abbreviations AMCA Air Movement and Control Association ANSI American National Standards Institute ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials BECP Building Energy Codes Program bhp brake horsepower DCV demand control ventilation DDC Direct Digital Control (Systems) DOE U.S. Department of Energy EPACT Federal Energy Policy Act of 1992 hp horsepower HSPF Heating Seasonal Performance Factor

339

14Fermi 4/16/99  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rate Rate U.S. Postage P A I D Bartlett, IL Permit No. 146 CLASSIFIEDS FOR SALE s Õ87 Bonneville, orig 72K miles, loaded, moonroof, leather, good condition, needs some body work. $1,500. Carolyn Hines, x3788 or chines@fnal.gov. s Õ84 Toyota Camry, auto, 4 dr sedan, 116K miles, $700 obo. Call Colleen, x8887. s Õ71 Volkswagen square back, great collectorÕs car, good tires, brakes & Y2K compliant cooling system. $1,000 obo. Call x4364 or JudyU51@AOL.COM. s 19" Portland color TV remote ready but remote missing $45. US Divers Wet Suit Black $50; Parkway divers vest type buoyancy compensator w/auto-inflate $75. Atomic Arc Carbon Skis (195) w/bindings, ski bag, poles, size 12 boots, $150; king size Oak waterbed frame needs mattress $50; Elvis collector plates (4) $20 ea; 2 old

340

CX-009044: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

44: Categorical Exclusion Determination 44: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009044: Categorical Exclusion Determination Machining and Fabrication in 749-A CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/08/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office Hands-on activities covering the operation of lathes, milling machines, grinder, saws, and machines of both manual and Computer Numerical Control type. Also the fabrication of assemblies within the confines of 749-A using brakes, rollers, metal working machines (Piranha-type machines), arbor and hydraulic presses, threading machines, welding machines, and hand power tools of many kinds. CX-009044.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-009045: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009611: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-010120

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

CX-009045: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

9045: Categorical Exclusion Determination 9045: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009045: Categorical Exclusion Determination Machining and Fabrication in 723-A CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 08/08/2012 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office Hands-on activities covering the operation of lathes, milling machines, grinders, saws, and machines of both manual and Computer Numerical Control (CNC) type. Also the fabrication of assemblies within the confines of 723-A using brakes, rollers, metal working machines (Piranha-type machines), arbor and hydraulic presses, threading machines, welding machines, and hand power tools of many kinds. CX-009045.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-009044: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009590: Categorical Exclusion Determination

342

Gas-Saving Tips  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Gas-Saving Tips Gas-Saving Tips Some consumers believe fuel economy ratings are a fixed number, like engine size or cargo volume. However, a vehicle's fuel economy can vary significantly due to several factors, including how the vehicle is driven, the vehicle's mechanical condition, and the environment in which it is driven. That's good news. It means you may be able to improve your vehicle's gas mileage through proper maintenance and driving habits. In fact, studies suggest the average driver can improve his/her fuel economy by roughly 10 percent. Here are a few simple tips to help you get the best possible fuel economy from your vehicle and reduce your fuel costs. Adopt Good Driving Habits Drive Sensibly Aggressive driving (speeding, rapid acceleration and braking)

343

Test Drive: Honda FCX Clarity | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Test Drive: Honda FCX Clarity Test Drive: Honda FCX Clarity Test Drive: Honda FCX Clarity May 14, 2010 - 10:52am Addthis A member of the Energy Empowers team takes the Honda FCX Clarity for a drive outside the U.S. Department of Energy in Washington, D.C. | Photo by Sunita Satyapal A member of the Energy Empowers team takes the Honda FCX Clarity for a drive outside the U.S. Department of Energy in Washington, D.C. | Photo by Sunita Satyapal Paul Lester Communications Specialist for the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Stepping into the driver's seat of the hydrogen powered Honda FCX Clarity is like stepping into the future. A glowing blue 3-D dashboard displays hydrogen and battery levels and a power button fires up fuel cells that provide electricity. An advanced braking system warns the driver about

344

Challenge X 2006 Competition Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6: Virginia Tech Takes Top Honors 6: Virginia Tech Takes Top Honors A student team from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University won the second-year Challenge X: Crossover to Sustainable Mobility, a three-year engineering competition designed to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox. The Virginia Tech team developed and built a hybrid version of the Equinox that uses two electric motors and runs on E85, a fuel blend containing 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline. The Virginia Tech vehicle also exhibited the best braking and handling, the lowest tailpipe emissions, and the lowest petroleum usage. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors Corporation (GM) are the lead sponsors for Challenge X, in which 17 teams of North American engineering students are participating (see box). Argonne manages the competition every year.

345

Gas Mileage Tips - Driving More Efficiently  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Driving More Efficiently Driving More Efficiently Personalize Fuel Prices Select the fuel type and enter your fuel price to personalize savings estimates. Regular Midgrade Premium Diesel E85 CNG LPG $ 3.33 /gal Save My Prices Use Default Prices Click "Save My Prices" to apply your prices to other pages, or click "Use Default Prices" use national average prices. Drive Sensibly frustrated driver Aggressive driving (speeding, rapid acceleration and braking) wastes gas. It can lower your gas mileage by 33% at highway speeds and by 5% around town. Sensible driving is also safer for you and others, so you may save more than gas money. Fuel Economy Benefit: 5%-33% Equivalent Gasoline Savings: $0.17-$1.10/gallon Observe the Speed Limit (New Information) Graph showing MPG decreases rapidly at speeds above 50 mph

346

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY CATERPILLAR, INC. FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF PATENT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5NT42423; W(A)-05-052; CH-1339 5NT42423; W(A)-05-052; CH-1339 As set out in the attached waiver petition and in subsequent discussions with DOE Patent Counsel, Caterpillar, Inc. (Caterpillar) has requested an advance waiver of domestic and foreign patent rights for all subject inventions made under the above subject cooperative agreement. The waiver will apply to inventions made by Caterpillar employees and its subcontractors' employees, regardless of tier, except inventions made by subcontractors eligible to retain title to inventions pursuant to P.L. 96-517, as amended, and National Laboratories. Referring to item 2 of Caterpillar's petition, the purpose of this agreement is to develop a new air management and exhaust energy recovery system that will demonstrate a 10% improvement in thermal efficiency over the base engine (e.g. 40% brake efficiency to 44%) with

347

The Inside of a Wind Turbine | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Inside of a Wind Turbine The Inside of a Wind Turbine The Inside of a Wind Turbine 1 of 17 Tower: 2 of 17 Tower: Made from tubular steel (shown here), concrete, or steel lattice. Supports the structure of the turbine. Because wind speed increases with height, taller towers enable turbines to capture more energy and generate more electricity. Generator: 3 of 17 Generator: Produces 60-cycle AC electricity; it is usually an off-the-shelf induction generator. High-speed shaft: 4 of 17 High-speed shaft: Drives the generator. Nacelle: 5 of 17 Nacelle: Sits atop the tower and contains the gear box, low- and high-speed shafts, generator, controller, and brake. Some nacelles are large enough for a helicopter to land on. Wind vane: 6 of 17 Wind vane: Measures wind direction and communicates with the yaw drive to orient the

348

CMVRTC: Current Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Current reseach projects Current reseach projects Wireless Roadside Inspection Field Operational Test (WRI-FOT) Brake Defect Causation and Abatement Study Infrared-Based Screening System Overweight Vehicle Defect Study WRI-fot WRI-FOT roadmap In Fall of 2012, FMCSA kicked offed the WRI-FOT Program to validate technologies and methodologies that can improve safety through inspections using wireless technologies that convey real-time identification of commercial motor vehicles (CMV), drivers, and carriers, as well as information about the status of the vehicles and their drivers. It is believed that these inspections will (1) increase CMV safety, (2) increase inspection efficiency, (3) improve inspection effectiveness by reducing the probability of drivers bypassing CMV inspection stations and

349

[Cover page, Margins: Left 1 in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1/479 1/479 Real-Time Dynamic Brake Assessment Proof of Concept Test Final Report 1 November 2011 Prepared by Mary Beth Lascurain Hudson Oscar Franzese Gary Capps DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge. Web site http://www.osti.gov/bridge Reports produced before January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members of the public from the following source. National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone 703-605-6000 (1-800-553-6847) TDD 703-487-4639 Fax 703-605-6900 E-mail info@ntis.gov Web site http://www.ntis.gov/support/ordernowabout.htm Reports are available to DOE employees, DOE contractors, Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE)

350

ETAUTP6R0.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Revision 0 Effective March 23, 2001 Braking Test Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: _______________________________ Date:__________ Steven R. Ryan Approved by: _________________________________________________ Date: _______________ Jude M. Clark Procedure ETA-UTP006 Revision 0 2 ©2001 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Objectives 3 2.0 Purpose 3 3.0 Documentation 3 4.0 Initial Conditions and Prerequisites 4 5.0 Testing Activity Requirements 6 5.3 Dry Controlled Test 7 5.4 Wet Controlled Test 9 5.5 Wet Panic Test 11 6.0 Glossary 12 7.0 References 14 Appendices Appendix A - Handling Pad Test Data Sheet 15

351

Many Factors Affect MPG  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Many Factors Affect Fuel Economy Many Factors Affect Fuel Economy How You Drive Vehicle Maintenance Fuel Variations Vehicle Variations Engine Break-In Vehicles in traffic Quick acceleration and heavy braking can reduce fuel economy by up to 33 percent on the highway and 5 percent around town. New EPA tests account for faster acceleration rates, but vigorous driving can still lower MPG. Excessive idling decreases MPG. The EPA city test includes idling, but more idling will lower MPG. Driving at higher speeds increases aerodynamic drag (wind resistance), reducing fuel economy. The new EPA tests account for aerodynamic drag up to highway speeds of 80 mph, but some drivers exceed this speed. Cold weather and frequent short trips can reduce fuel economy, since your engine doesn't operate efficiently until it is warmed up. In colder

352

General requirements. - 1926.451  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=10752[3/30/2009 4:11:23 PM] dismantling or alteration. Such activities shall be performed only by experienced and trained employees selected for such work by the competent person. ..1926.451(f)(8) 1926.451(f)(8) Employees shall be prohibited from working on scaffolds covered with snow, ice, or other slippery material except as necessary for removal of such materials. 1926.451(f)(9) Where swinging loads are being hoisted onto or near scaffolds such that the loads might contact the scaffold, tag lines or equivalent measures to control the loads shall be used. 1926.451(f)(10) Suspension ropes supporting adjustable suspension scaffolds shall be of a diameter large enough to provide sufficient surface area for the functioning of brake and hoist

353

Vehicle Technologies Office: Parasitic Loss Reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Parasitic Loss Reduction Parasitic Loss Reduction Heavy vehicles lose a tremendous amount of energy to wind resistance and drag, braking, and rolling resistance. Such non-engine losses can account for an approximate 45% decrease in efficiency. Other sources of energy loss include: friction and wear in the power train, thermal (heat) loads, operation of auxiliary loads (air conditioning, heaters, refrigeration, etc.), and engine idling. The parasitic loss activity identifies methodologies that may reduce energy losses, and tests those in the laboratory. Promising technologies are then prototyped and tested onboard heavy vehicles. Once validated, technologies must be tested on-road to obtain durability, reliability, and life-cycle cost data for the developmental component and/or design strategy.

354

MonthlyReport  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Overall AC electrical energy consumption (AC Wh/mi)¹ 93 Overall DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi)² 71 Overall DC electrical energy captured from regenerative braking (DC Wh/mi) 40 Total number of trips 11,047 Total distance traveled (mi) 119,879 Trips in Charge Depleting (CD) mode³ Gasoline fuel economy (mpg) 25 DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 208 Number of trips 4,491 Percent of trips city | highway 92% | 8% Distance traveled (mi) 30,376 Percent of total distance traveled 25% Trips in both Charge Depleting & Charge Sustaining (CD/CS) modes Gasoline fuel economy (mpg) 22 DC electrical energy consumption (DC Wh/mi) 71 Number of trips 1,352 Percent of trips city | highway 69% | 31% Distance traveled CD | CS (mi) 12,772 | 20,001 Percent of total distance traveled CD | CS

355

Slide 1  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Spectrum Sciences & Software, Inc. Spectrum Sciences & Software, Inc. v. United States Breach of Contract The Facts The MAC * 1970s: The U.S. Air Force developed the munitions assembly conveyor (MAC), a bomb assembly line with a 4,000-pound capacity. * 1990s: The Air Force's increased reliance on guided bomb units ("smart" bombs) strained the MAC operating system - each assembled bomb weighed at least 2,800 pounds, slowing production. Pre-CRADA Activity * Spectrum, a munitions assembly systems manufacturer, undertook a significant, self-funded effort to upgrade the MAC: - Gantry. - Hoist. - Conveyor and braking systems. - Interface control board. - Work tables. - Lighting. * Spectrum needed the Air Force's cooperation to refine and test its improvements. * Spectrum negotiated with the Air Force a CRADA, which they signed

356

Fast-Tracking Drivetrain Electrification - Component Technology Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The four main components used in drivetrain electrification The four main components used in drivetrain electrification are energy storage systems, power electronics, electric machines/gearboxes, and control systems. Argonne is actively pursuing increased performance and efficiency of these components along with reducing manufacturing costs. Cost reduction is addressed by reducing materials cost/ quantity, reducing labor/processing steps, increasing performance for the same components, and optimizing efficiency for the same materials cost. Energy Storage System Components Argonne has partnered with Maxwell Technologies to investigate the benefits of actively combining high power density ultracapacitors via power electronics with high energy density Li-Ion (or other future chemistry) batteries. This combination potentially reduces the net ESS cost and provides full acceleration and braking power at low

357

National Wind Technology Center to Debut New Dynamometer (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New test facility will be used to accelerate the New test facility will be used to accelerate the development and deployment of next-generation wind energy technologies. This fall, the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will open a new dynamometer test facility. Funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the new facility will offer wind industry engineers a unique opportunity to conduct a wide range of tests on the mechanical and electrical power producing systems of a wind turbine including generators, gearboxes, power converters, bearings, brakes, lubrication, cooling, and control systems. Dynamometers enable industry and testing agencies to verify the performance and reliability

358

Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved ETA-TP006  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Revision 2 Effective March 1, 1997 Braking Test Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: _______________________________ Date:__________ Jude M. Clark Approved by: _________________________________________________ Date: _______________ Donald B. Karner Procedure ETA-TP006 Revision 2 2 ©1997 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Objectives 3 2.0 Purpose 3 3.0 Documentation 3 4.0 Initial Conditions and Prerequisites 4 5.0 Testing Activity Requirements 6 5.3 Dry Controlled Test 7 5.4 Wet Controlled Test 9 5.5 Wet Panic Test 11 6.0 Glossary 12 7.0 References 14 Appendices Appendix A - Handling Pad Test Data Sheet 15

359

Full Hybrid: Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

highlighted Stop/Start button banner graphic: blue bar highlighted Stop/Start button banner graphic: blue bar subbanner graphic: gray bar Overview Button highlighted Starting button Low Speed button Cruising button Passing button Braking button Stopped button OVERVIEW Full hybrids use a gasoline engine as the primary source of power, and an electric motor provides additional power when needed. In addition, full hybrids can use the electric motor as the sole source of propulsion for low-speed, low-acceleration driving, such as in stop-and-go traffic or for backing up. This electric-only driving mode can further increase fuel efficiency under some driving conditions. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection.

360

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Daimler Trucks North America LLC for an Advance Waiver of Domestic and Daimler Trucks North America LLC for an Advance Waiver of Domestic and Foreign Invention Rights under DOE Contract No. DE-EE0003348, W(A) 2012-027, CH-1665 The Petitioner, Daimler Trucks North America (Daimler) was awarded the subject cooperative agreement with DOE for the performance of work entitled , "Recovery Act-Class 8 Truck Efficiency Improvement Project" . The purpose of the program is to develop and demonstrate a 50% improvement in overall freight efficiency on a heavy-duty Class 8 tractor-trailer measure in ton-miles per gallon . This includes the development of an engine capable of achieving 50% brake thermal efficiency. A secondary objective is to identify, through modeling and analysis , key pathways to achieving a long-term goal of developing a 55% efficient heavy-duty diesel engine.

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361

file:///E|/ev/test/evasc.shtml  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Auxiliary Systems Impacts Auxiliary Systems Impacts As with gasoline-powered vehicles, electric vehicles have a number of auxiliary systems. Some systems, such as the radio/tape player, lights, and horn, operate the same way as they do on a gasoline- powered vehicle. Other systems, such as the power steering and power brakes, require an additional small electric motor and have minor impact on the vehicle range. However, the air conditioning and heating systems on electric vehicles are different and can have a dramatic impact on the range. Federal safety standards require all vehicles to have adequate heating and defrosting systems. The heater/defroster system is easily operated in a conventional gasoline-powered vehicle because a supply of heated water from the engine cooling system is readily available. Electric vehicles do not have this

362

Test Drive: Honda FCX Clarity | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Test Drive: Honda FCX Clarity Test Drive: Honda FCX Clarity Test Drive: Honda FCX Clarity May 14, 2010 - 10:52am Addthis A member of the Energy Empowers team takes the Honda FCX Clarity for a drive outside the U.S. Department of Energy in Washington, D.C. | Photo by Sunita Satyapal A member of the Energy Empowers team takes the Honda FCX Clarity for a drive outside the U.S. Department of Energy in Washington, D.C. | Photo by Sunita Satyapal Paul Lester Communications Specialist, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Stepping into the driver's seat of the hydrogen powered Honda FCX Clarity is like stepping into the future. A glowing blue 3-D dashboard displays hydrogen and battery levels and a power button fires up fuel cells that provide electricity. An advanced braking system warns the driver about

363

Stop/Start: Overview  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Stop/Start button highlighted banner graphic: blue bar Stop/Start button highlighted banner graphic: blue bar subbanner graphic: gray bar Overview button highlighted Driving button Braking button subbanner graphic: gray bar OVERVIEW Stop/Start hybrids are not true hybrids since electricity from the battery is not used to propel the vehicle. However, the Stop/Start feature is an important, energy-saving building block used in hybrid vehicles. Stop/Start technology conserves energy by shutting off the gasoline engine when the vehicle is at rest, such as at a traffic light, and automatically re-starting it when the driver pushes the gas pedal to go forward. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric starter/generator visible. Car is stopped at an intersection.

364

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

91 - 20000 of 26,764 results. 91 - 20000 of 26,764 results. Download CX-003854: Categorical Exclusion Determination University of New Haven Solar Testing and Training Lab (Connecticut) CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 09/02/2010 Location(s): New Haven, Connecticut Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-003854-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-002146: Categorical Exclusion Determination Wind Turbine Electric Brake Project CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 02/22/2010 Location(s): Ohio Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office http://energy.gov/nepa/downloads/cx-002146-categorical-exclusion-determination Download CX-006327: Categorical Exclusion Determination Illinois-City-Waukegan CX(s) Applied: A9, A11, B2.5, B5.1

365

NREL: Learning - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player This video provides an overview of the Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems and its research. Video produced for NREL by Fireside Production. Text Version We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. And we can help to reduce our nation's growing reliance on imported oil by running our vehicles on renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicles and fuels can also put the brakes on air pollution and improve our environment. At least 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States today. They include all kinds of passenger cars, trucks, vans, buses, and large

366

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Machining and Fabrication in 723-A Machining and Fabrication in 723-A Savannah River Site Aiken/Aiken/South Carolina Hands-on activities covering the operation of lathes, milling machines, grinders, saws, and machines of both manual and Computer Numerical Control (CNC) type. Also the fabrication of assemblies within the confines of 723-A using brakes, rollers, metal working machines (Piranha-type machines), arbor and hydraulic presses, threading machines, welding machines, and hand power tools of many kinds. B3.6 - Small-scale research and development, laboratory operations, and pilot projects Andrew R. Grainger Digitally signed by Andrew R. Grainger DN: cn=Andrew R. Grainger, o=DOE-SR, ou=EQMD, email=drew.grainger@srs.gov, c=US Date: 2012.08.08 18:47:21 -04'00' 08/08/2012

367

How Hybrids Work  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Hybrids Work How Hybrids Work Diagram of full hybrid vehicle components, including (1) an internal combustion engine, (2) an electric motor, (3) a generator, (4) a power split device, and (5) a high-capacity battery. Flash Animation: How Hybrids Work (Requires Flash 6.0 or higher) HTML Version: How Hybrids Work Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) combine the benefits of gasoline engines and electric motors and can be configured to obtain different objectives, such as improved fuel economy, increased power, or additional auxiliary power for electronic devices and power tools. Some of the advanced technologies typically used by hybrids include Regenerative Braking. The electric motor applies resistance to the drivetrain causing the wheels to slow down. In return, the energy from the

368

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9. Vehicle types that do not rely solely on a gasoline internal combustion engine for motive and accessory power 9. Vehicle types that do not rely solely on a gasoline internal combustion engine for motive and accessory power Vehicle type Description Micro hybrid Vehicles with gasoline engines, larger batteries, and electrically powered auxiliary systems that allow the engine to be turned off when the vehicle is coasting or idling and then quickly restarted. Regenerative braking recharges the batteries but does not provide power to the wheels for traction. Hybrid electric (gasoline or diesel) Vehicles that combine internal combustion and electric propulsion engines but have limited all-electric range and batteries that cannot be recharged with grid power. Diesel Vehicles that use diesel fuel in a compression-ignition internal combustion engine. Plug-in hybrid electric Vehicles that use battery power for driving some distance, until a minimum level of

369

Sensitivity to Error Fields in NSTX High Beta Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

It was found that error field threshold decreases for high ? in NSTX, although the density correlation in conventional threshold scaling implies the threshold would increase since higher ? plasmas in our study have higher plasma density. This greater sensitivity to error field in higher ? plasmas is due to error field amplification by plasmas. When the effect of amplification is included with ideal plasma response calculations, the conventional density correlation can be restored and threshold scaling becomes more consistent with low ? plasmas. However, it was also found that the threshold can be significantly changed depending on plasma rotation. When plasma rotation was reduced by non-resonant magnetic braking, the further increase of sensitivity to error field was observed.

Jong-Kyu Park, Jonathan E. Menard, Stefan P. Gerhardt, Richard J. Buttery, Steve A. Sabbagh, Ronald E. Bell and Benoit P. LeBlanc

2011-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

370

Modelling the Corona of HD 189733 in 3D  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The braking of main sequence stars originates mainly from their stellar wind. The efficiency of this angular momentum extraction depends on the rotation rate of the star, the acceleration profile of the wind and the coronal magnetic field. The derivation of scaling laws parametrizing the stellar wind torque is important for our understanding of gyro-chronology and the evolution of the rotation rates of stars. In order to understand the impact of complex magnetic topologies on the stellar wind torque, we present three- dimensional, dynamical simulations of the corona of HD 189733. Using the observed complex topology of the magnetic field, we estimate how the torque associated with the wind scales with model parameters and compare those trends to previously published scaling laws.

Strugarek, Antoine; Matt, Sean P; Rville, Victor; Donati, Jean-Franois; Moutou, Claire; Fares, Rim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Experimental study on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of rubber seed oil-diesel blends in a DI diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work, experiments have been carried out to assess the suitability of rubber seed oil and its blends with diesel in a diesel engine. Tests were conducted with different blends of R80-D20 (80% of rubber seed oil and 20% of diesel by volume) and R70-D30 (70% of rubber seed oil and 30% of diesel by volume). Experimental results indicate that the brake thermal efficiency increases from 26.5% to 27.7% with the optimum blend of R70-D30. There is a reduction in emissions is also observed except NOx level at all loads. Smoke emission reduces drastically from 6.1 to 4.7 BSU. Combustion parameters indicated a decrease in ignition delay and combustion duration compared with neat RSO. This will also contribute to higher heat release rate in the premixed combustion phase. Current investigations reveal that the performance of R70-D30 blend is closer to diesel.

V. Edwin Geo; G. Nagarajan; B. Nagalingam

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes  

SciTech Connect

We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Power conversion apparatus and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power conversion apparatus includes an interfacing circuit that enables a current source inverter to operate from a voltage energy storage device (voltage source), such as a battery, ultracapacitor or fuel cell. The interfacing circuit, also referred to as a voltage-to-current converter, transforms the voltage source into a current source that feeds a DC current to a current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also provides means for controlling and maintaining a constant DC bus current that supplies the current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also enables the current source inverter to charge the voltage energy storage device, such as during dynamic braking of a hybrid electric vehicle, without the need of reversing the direction of the DC bus current.

Su, Gui-Jia (Knoxville, TN)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

374

Diesol: an alternative fuel for compression ignition engines  

SciTech Connect

Physical properties including specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, heat of combustion, flash point, cetane number and distillation curves are presented for several blends of No. 2 diesel fuel and soybean oil. The mixture is referred to as Diesol. The soybean oil received a minimal amount of refining by water-washing to remove most of the lecithin type gums. The Diesol fuels were tested in a Cooperative Fuel Research single cylinder diesel test engine to determine the short time engine performance using soybean oil as a diesel fuel extender. Brake specific fuel consumption, volumetric fuel consumption, exhaust smoke opacity and power were determined. Various blends of Diesol were also tested in a multicylinder diesel commercial power system. Results are presented to show the comparison between Diesol blends and diesel fuel. The fuel properties and engine performance test results indicate that soybean oil would be a viable extender of diesel fuel for compression-ignition engines.

Cochran, B.J.; Baldwin, J.D.C.; Daniel, L.R. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Magnetized hypermassive neutron star collapse: a central engine for short gamma-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A hypermassive neutron star (HMNS) is a possible transient formed after the merger of a neutron star binary. In the latest magnetohydrodynamic simulations in full general relativity, we find that a magnetized HMNS undergoes `delayed' collapse to a rotating black hole (BH) as a result of angular momentum transport via magnetic braking and the magnetorotational instability. The outcome is a BH surrounded by a massive, hot torus with a collimated magnetic field. The torus accretes onto the BH at a quasi-steady accretion rate ~10 solar mass/s; the lifetime of the torus is ~10 ms. The torus has a temperature \\sim 10^{12} K, leading to copious neutrino-antineutrino thermal radiation. Therefore, the collapse of an HMNS is a promising scenario for generating short-duration gamma-ray bursts and an accompanying burst of gravitational waves and neutrinos.

Masaru Shibata; Matthew D. Duez; Yuk Tung Liu; Stuart L. Shapiro; Branson C. Stephens

2005-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

376

Electric vehicle drive train with direct coupling transmission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric vehicle drive train includes an electric motor and an associated speed sensor, a transmission operable in a speed reduction mode or a direct coupled mode, and a controller responsive to the speed sensor for operating the transmission in the speed reduction mode when the motor is below a predetermined value, and for operating the motor in the direct coupled mode when the motor speed is above a predetermined value. The controller reduces the speed of the motor, such as by regeneratively braking the motor, when changing from the speed reduction mode to the direct coupled mode. The motor speed may be increased when changing from the direct coupled mode to the speed reduction mode. The transmission is preferably a single stage planetary gearbox.

Tankersley, Jerome B. (Fredericksburg, VA); Boothe, Richard W. (Roanoke, VA); Konrad, Charles E. (Roanoke, VA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Remote control of an agricultural tractor in SAE field upset tests  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Division of Safety Research in Morgantown, West Virginia is addressing the problem of injuries due to agricultural tractor rollovers, and improvements to rollover protective structures (ROPS). As part of this research, the NIOSH, Pittsburgh Research Laboratory modified a Ford model 4600 agricultural tractor for remote control operation, and used this tractor to conduct SAE field upset tests. Modifications to the tractor involved installing a protective framework, electrical actuators for fuel, brake, clutch, and steering controls, and a radio link for remote operation. The tractor has been used to complete over 30 total side and back upset tests, with no failures of the remote control system. These tests have allowed NIOSH researchers to study the performance of currently available ROPS, use this information for the development of improved ROPS designs, and test a NIOSH-developed prototype automatically deploying ROPS.

T.J. Lutz; G.T. Homce

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Power Modulation Investigation for High Temperature (175-200 degrees Celcius) Automotive Application  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid electric vehicles were re-introduced in the late 1990s after a century dominated by purely internal combustion powered engines[1]. Automotive players, such as GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, Honda, and Toyota, together with major energy producers, such as BPAmoco, were the major force in the development of hybrid electric vehicles. Most notable was the development by Toyota of its Prius, which was launched in Japan in 1997 and worldwide in 2001. The shift to hybrids was driven by the fact that the sheer volume of vehicles on the road had begun to tax the ability of the environment to withstand the pollution of the internal combustion engine and the ability of the fossil fuel industry to produce a sufficient amount of refined gasoline. In addition, the number of vehicles was anticipated to rise exponentially with the increasing affluence of China and India. Over the last fifteen years, major advances have been made in all the technologies essential to hybrid vehicle success, including batteries, motors, power control and conditioning electronics, regenerative braking, and power sources, including fuel cells. Current hybrid electric vehicles are gasoline internal combustion--electric motor hybrids. These hybrid electric vehicles range from micro-hybrids, where a stop/start system cuts the engine while the vehicle is stopped, and mild hybrids where the stop/start system is supplemented by regenerative braking and power assist, to full hybrids where the combustion motor is optimized for electric power production, and there is full electric drive and full regenerative braking. PSA Peugeot Citroen estimates the increased energy efficiency will range from 3-6% for the micro-hybrids to 15-25% for the full hybrids.[2] Gasoline-electric hybrids are preferred in US because they permit long distance travel with low emissions and high gasoline mileage, while still using the existing refueling infrastructure. One of the most critical areas in which technology has been advancing has been the development of electronics that can operate in the high temperature environments present in hybrid vehicles. The temperatures under the hood for a gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle are comparable to those for traditional internal combustion engines. This is known to be a difficult environment with respect to commercial-grade electronics, as there are surface and ambient temperatures ranging from 125 C to 175 C. In addition, some hybrid drive electronics are placed in even harsher environments, such as on or near the brakes, where temperatures can reach 250 C. Furthermore, number of temperature cycles experienced by electronics in a hybrid vehicle is different from that experienced in a traditional vehicle. A traditional internal combustion vehicle will have the engine running for longer periods, whereas a mild or micro-hybrid engine will experience many more starts and stops.[3] This means that hybrid automotive electronics will undergo more cycles of a potential wider temperature cycle than standard automotive electronics, which in turn see temperature cycles of 2 to 3 times the magnitude of the {Delta}T = 50 C-75 C experienced by commercial-grade electronics. This study will discuss the effects of these harsh environments on the failure mechanisms and ultimate reliability of electronic systems developed for gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles. In addition, it will suggest technologies and components that can reasonably be expected to perform well in these environments. Finally, it will suggest areas where further research is needed or desirable. Areas for further research will be highlighted in bold, italic type. It should be noted that the first area where further research is desirable is in developing a clearer understanding of the actual hybrid automotive electronics environment and how to simulate it through accelerated testing, thus: Developing specific mission profiles and accelerated testing protocols for the underhood environment for hybrid cars, as has previously been done for gasoline-powered vehicles, is an important area for further st

McCluskey, F. P.

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

(Construction of a wind turbine). Final report  

SciTech Connect

A wind powered electrical generator was built by industrial arts students working in electricity, woodworking, and metal technology facilities. The blades were originally aluminum frames covered with sailcloth. These were replaced with hand-carved laminated basswood blades. Original plans called for a bullet and downwind propeller, but this was replaced with an upwind propeller and an aft-mounted tailfin. A V-belt and pulley drive transmits power from the turbine and a motorcycle brake stops the machine during high winds and/or for safe servicing. The original 13 volt, 105 amp alternator was replaced by a 12 volt, 100 amp dc generator. Publicity and dissemination events are listed as well as expenditures. (LEW)

Devine, L.E.

1982-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

380

Comparison of blends of conventional diesel fuel and CRBO containing high levels of FFA in a DI diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work attempts to analyse the ability of high free fatty acid (FFA) crude rice bran oil (CRBO) in replacing diesel partially in a compression ignition (CI) engine. It was observed that the delay period and the maximum rate of pressure rise for CRBO blends are lower than diesel and is almost inversely proportional to FFA content. Maximum heat release rate for CRBO blends are lower and occur earlier than that of diesel. CRBO blends require longer duration to release 90% of heat than diesel and it decreases with increase in FFA content of CRBO. When operating with CRBO blends, all emission parameters were decreased significantly with a marginal increase in CO emission than that of diesel without affecting the brake thermal efficiency of the engine. It is concluded that higher FFA of CRBO blends does not inhibit its ability to be utilised as a fuel in CI engines.

S. Saravanan; G. Lakshmi Narayana Rao; S. Sampath; G. Nagarajan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Application of Taguchi's orthogonal array in reducing the NOx emission of a stationary diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main objective of this investigation is to reduce the NOx emission of a stationary diesel engine with less sacrifice on smoke intensity and brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Fuel injection timing, percentage of EGR and fuel injection pressure are chosen as factors influencing the objective. Three levels were chosen in each factor and design of experiments method was employed to design the experiments. Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array was used to conduct the engine tests with different levels of the chosen factors. Test results were analysed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) method and ANOVA table was formed for each response variable. From the ANOVA table the most influencing factor and also the significance of each factor affecting the NOx emission, smoke intensity and BTE was found out. Response graph was drawn for each response variable to determine the optimum combination of the factor levels. This optimum combination was confirmed experimentally. [Received: November 14, 2010; Accepted: March 17, 2011

S. Saravanan; G. Nagarajan; R. Ramanujam; S. Sampath

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Assessment of fuel efficiency of neem biodiesel (Azadirachta indica) in a single cylinder diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Increase of petroleum diesel usage and its environmental pollution necessitate the study of alternate fuel production. Vegetable oils are the viable alternate form of non-polluted, renewable fuel to diesel engines. In this work, the non-edible oil, neem (Azadirachta indica) was used to produce biodiesel by a two step transesterification process. The fuel properties of the biodiesel thus produced were determined by standard methods. It is further tested in a single cylinder diesel engine by mixing with petroleum diesel in various percentages. The brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and specific fuel consumption (SFC) of the engine running with biodiesel blends (10-50%) were compared with the petroleum diesel. The results have shown that the performance of the diesel engine was similar as that of normal diesel and thus the use of biodiesel in diesel engine is viable.

M. Mathiyazhagan; T. Elango; T. Senthilkumar; A. Ganapathi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

The comparative analysis of diesel engine combustion and emission parameters fuelled with palm oil methyl esters and its diesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, the combustion and emission characteristics of a direct injection compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel-Palm Oil Methyl Ester (POME) blends are investigated. This study shows that the ignition delay decreases with increase in the POME addition. The maximum rate of pressure rise and maximum rate of heat release decreases with increase in POME addition at all loads. As the percentage of POME in the blend increases, the crank angle at which the maximum rate of heat release takes place advances. The brake thermal efficiency decreases with increase in POME addition. The unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and soot intensity decreases, while nitrogen oxides (NOx) increase with increase in POME addition. [Received: April 4, 2008; Accepted: November 24, 2008

G. Lakshmi Narayana Rao; S. Saravanan; P. Selva Ilavarasi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Hydrogen engine performance analysis project. Second annual report  

SciTech Connect

Progress in a 3 year research program to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines is reported. Fifteen hydrogen engine configurations will be subjected to performance and emissions characterization tests. During the first two years, baseline data for throttled and unthrottled, carburetted and timed hydrogen induction, Pre IVC hydrogen-fueled engine configurations, with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and water injection, were obtained. These data, along with descriptions of the test engine and its components, the test apparatus, experimental techniques, experiments performed and the results obtained, are given. Analyses of other hydrogen-engine project data are also presented and compared with the results of the present effort. The unthrottled engine vis-a-vis the throttled engine is found, in general, to exhibit higher brake thermal efficiency. The unthrottled engine also yields lower NO/sub x/ emissions, which were found to be a strong function of fuel-air equivalence ratio. (LCL)

Adt, Jr., R. R.; Swain, M. R.; Pappas, J. M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Test results of a Stirling engine utilizing heat exchanger modules with an integral heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

The Heat Pipe Stirling Engine (HP-1000), a free-piston Stirling engine incorporating three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe, has been tested at the NASA-Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The heat exchanger modules were designed to reduce the number of potential flow leak paths in the heat exchanger assembly and incorporate a heat pipe as the link between the heat source and the engine. An existing RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine was modified to operate using the heat exchanger modules. This paper describes heat exchanger module and engine performance during baseline testing. Condenser temperature profiles, brake power, and efficiency are presented and discussed.

Skupinski, R.C.; Tower, L.K.; Madi, F.J.; Brusk, K.D.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using esters of palm olein/soybean oil blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this experimental study, the engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel direct injection engine using mixed palm olein??soybean vegetable oil ethyl ester (POSEE) and methyl ester (POSME) have been examined. The results of experimental studies have shown that the torque and brake power output of an engine, which uses biodiesels, is slightly lower and specific fuel consumption is higher than in an engine using conventional diesel fuel. It has also been observed that there is a decrease in both carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, which indicates an advantage of exhaust emissions. Although methyl ester's CO2 emissions decreased compared with those of diesel fuel, NO and NOX emissions were higher with the biodiesels.

Imdat Taymaz; Mucahit Sengil

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

The effect of thin ceramic coatings on petrol engine performance and emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study of the effects of thin ceramic coatings on the performance and emissions of a spark-ignited petrol engine was conducted. A modified 2.5 litre GM engine with ceramic-coated pistons, liners, head, valves and ports was used. Experimental results obtained from the ceramic engine were compared with baseline metal engine data. It was shown that at low-speed, part-load conditions encountered in typical driving cycles, the ceramic engine could achieve up to 18% higher brake power and 5% lower specific fuel consumption. The ceramic coating did not produce any observable knock in the engine and showed no significant wear during testing. It was concluded that judicious application of thin ceramic coatings to petrol engines could be a useful means for improving performance and fuel economy.

D.N. Assanis

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

On fuel-optimal velocity control of a motor vehicle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the motor vehicle velocity control that, under certain well-defined conditions, ensures a minimum fuel consumption. To this purpose, a vehicle with a stepped mechanical transmission is considered, assuming that the gear is unchanged during the movement. The optimal control problem is formulated for different cases and solved by applying Pontryagin's maximum principle. Whenever there is a singular solution, it is shown to correspond to the uniform motion law. The optimal velocity controls include the following phases that may be combined in different ways: deceleration without engine shut-off (null engine power), strong decelerative braking, constant speed movement and full-throttle acceleration. Examples are presented by using the experimental data on engine fuel consumption. The stress falls on the significant reductions in fuel consumption that can be achieved compared to uniform motion.

A.P. Stoicescu

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Experimental investigations on diesel engine fuelled with methyl esters of cotton seed oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this investigation, cotton seed methyl ester (CSME) was prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst. The engine performance was analysed with different blends of biodiesel and was compared with neat diesel. It was concluded that the lower blends of biodiesel are closer to diesel as far as thermal efficiency is concerned. In the lower blends, the brakes specific fuel consumption is also comparatively reduced. The smoke density also increases for the blends of methyl ester of cotton seed oil diesel compared to neat diesel operation. The oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission level are decreased with the blends of methyl ester of cotton seed oil compared to neat diesel. The results proved that the use of biodiesel (produced from cotton seed oil) in compression ignition engine is a viable alternative to diesel.

M. Saravanan; A. Anbarasu; M. Loganathan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Testing Waste Olive Oil Methyl Ester as a Fuel in a Diesel Engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this sense, to gain knowledge about the implications of its use, waste olive oil methyl ester was evaluated as a fuel for diesel engines during a 50-h short-term performance test in a diesel direct-injection Perkins engine. ... At the beginning of the last century, Rudolph Diesel fueled a diesel engine with the oil of an African groundnut (peanut), thus demonstrating the idea of using vegetable oil as a substitute for No. 2 diesel fuel. ... In this way, we obtained a volume value for each trio of working values, making a brake-specific fuel consumption comparison between different tests or fuels possible, as shown in Table 2, where Vi is the volume value for each test and V50 corresponds to that of No. 2 diesel fuel after 50 h (the test that showed the minimum value). ...

M. P. Dorado; E. Ballesteros; J. M. Arnal; J. Gmez; F. J. Lpez Gimnez

2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

391

Performance and emissions of a diesel tractor engine fueled with marine diesel and soybean methyl ester  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that is cleaner than petrodiesel. Biodiesel can be used directly as fuel for a diesel engine without having to modify the engine system. It has the major advantages of having high biodegradability, excellent lubricity and no sulfur content. This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of soybean methyl ester (SME) and its blend with marine diesel fuel from 5%, 20% and 50% blends by volume and in running a diesel engine with these fuels. The results indicate that the use of biodiesel produces lower smoke opacity (up to 74%), but higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) (up to 12%) compared to marine fuel (MF). The measured carbon monoxide (CO) emissions of B5 and B100 fuels were found to be 3% and 52% lower than that of the MF, respectively.

B. Gokalp; E. Buyukkaya; H.S. Soyhan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Control system for a hybrid powertrain system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vehicle includes a powertrain with an engine, first and second torque machines, and a hybrid transmission. A method for operating the vehicle includes operating the engine in an unfueled state, releasing an off-going clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a first continuously variable mode, and applying a friction braking torque to a wheel of the vehicle to compensate for an increase in an output torque of the hybrid transmission resulting from releasing the off-going clutch. Subsequent to releasing the off-going clutch, an oncoming clutch which when engaged effects operation of the hybrid transmission in a second continuously variable mode is synchronized. Subsequent to synchronization of the oncoming clutch, the oncoming clutch is engaged.

Naqvi, Ali K.; Demirovic, Besim; Gupta, Pinaki; Kaminsky, Lawrence A.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

393

Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

394

Mathematical modeling for the performance and emission parameters of dual fuel diesel engine using hydrogen as secondary fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, mathematical models were developed to correlate the brake thermal efficiency, un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxides and oxides of nitrogen by varying engine parameters like Load and Gaseous (H2) fuel substitution. The developed models can be used to predict the important performance and emission parameters for diesel-hydrogen operation in various combinations at different loads within the experimental domain. Response surface methodology (RSM) has been applied for developing the models using the techniques of design of experiments and multi linear regression analysis. General factorial design was used to plan the experiments. Second order response surface models were found to be the most suitable in the present work. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the experimental results at 95% confidence level revealed that the developed models are significant. Comparison of experimental output with those predicted by the developed models showed close proximity having high correlation coefficients R2 for the various response variables.

A.E. Dhole; R.B. Yarasu; D.B. Lata; S.S. Baraskar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Submerged electricity generation plane with marine current-driven motors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An underwater apparatus for generating electric power from ocean currents and deep water tides. A submersible platform including two or more power pods, each having a rotor with fixed-pitch blades, with drivetrains housed in pressure vessels that are connected by a transverse structure providing buoyancy, which can be a wing depressor, hydrofoil, truss, or faired tube. The platform is connected to anchors on the seafloor by forward mooring lines and a vertical mooring line that restricts the depth of the device in the water column. The platform operates using passive, rather than active, depth control. The wing depressor, along with rotor drag loads, ensures the platform seeks the desired operational current velocity. The rotors are directly coupled to a hydraulic pump that drives at least one constant-speed hydraulic-motor generator set and enables hydraulic braking. A fluidic bearing decouples non-torque rotor loads to the main shaft driving the hydraulic pumps.

Dehlsen, James G.P.; Dehlsen, James B.; Fleming, Alexander

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Bailer for top head drive rotary well drills  

SciTech Connect

A bailer mounted to the derrick of a top head drive well drilling rig is described. The bailer includes a winch line drum mounted by a bracket to the derrick. A positive displacement hydraulic motor mounts one end of the drum and receives fluid under pressure from the existing hydraulic pressure supply. Valving is provided to allow reverse operation of the motor so equipment can either be raised or lowered relative to the derrick. The hydraulic delivery line to the motor includes a one way restrictor that will allow relatively free passage of fluid to the motor in a driving or lifting mode but will reverse flow of fluid from the motor, thereby affording a braking effect for lowering a load at a selected rate.

Bartholomew, L.

1980-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

397

Design of oilfree all turbo-type helium refrigerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have designed a high efficient, compact 300 W oilfree all turbo-type heliumrefrigerator capable of long maintenance free continuous operation. The main compressor at ambient temperature which is driven by a helium gas turbine attached to the same shaft, is supported by magnetic bearings, and, has an inlet and outlet pressure of 0.35 \\{MPa\\} and 0.7 MPa. Four turbo expanders are employed, including one at 80 K because LN2 is not used in this system. Each expander drives a cold compressor, accompanying a generator brake by use of an induction motor. This provides very easy control. Variable nozzles are adopted to the expanders, and the number of valves are diminished as much as possible to reduce line pressure loss. Concerning a heat exchanger, we have examined a micro tube laminar flow heat exchanger which is compact and enables high efficiency at low temperature. This heat exchanger can reduce pressure loss greatly.

N. Saji; S. Nagai; H. Asakura; Y. Kaneko

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Experimental investigations of the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a biodiesel (ethyl ester of fish oil) fuelled direct-injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thirst for fuel is steadily increasing as technology continues to open new areas of exploration. At the same time, the indiscriminate extraction of fossil fuels may also result in pollutant emissions which cause major impacts on ecological systems. In order to overcome the above problems, a suitable biodiesel should be used to replace the diesel fuel. Hence, in this work, feasibility of using biodiesel prepared from fish oil was investigated. Experimental tests were carried out to evaluate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder, constant speed engine using several blends under variable load conditions. It was found that NOx, HC and CO emission was reduced for blends along with a marginal increase of brake thermal efficiency and smoke. The ignition delay and maximum heat release rate were reduced compared to diesel. Ultimately, fish oil can indeed become the appropriate source for biodiesel with environmental benefits.

G. Sakthivel; G. Nagarajan; M. Ilangkumaran

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Multipoint laser vibrometer for modal analysis  

SciTech Connect

Experimental modal analysis of multifrequency vibration requires a measurement system with appropriate temporal and spatial resolution to recover the mode shapes. To fully understand the vibration it is necessary to be able to measure not only the vibration amplitude but also the vibration phase. We describe a multipoint laser vibrometer that is capable of high spatial and temporal resolution with simultaneous measurement of 256 points along a line at up to 80 kHz. The multipoint vibrometer is demonstrated by recovering modal vibration data from a simple test object subject to transient excitation. A practical application is presented in which the vibrometer is used to measure vibration on a squealing rotating disk brake.

MacPherson, William N.; Reeves, Mark; Towers, David P.; Moore, Andrew J.; Jones, Julian D. C.; Dale, Martin; Edwards, Craig

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

A Waste Heat Recovery System for Light Duty Diesel Engines  

SciTech Connect

In order to achieve proposed fuel economy requirements, engines must make better use of the available fuel energy. Regardless of how efficient the engine is, there will still be a significant fraction of the fuel energy that is rejected in the exhaust and coolant streams. One viable technology for recovering this waste heat is an Organic Rankine Cycle. This cycle heats a working fluid using these heat streams and expands the fluid through a turbine to produce shaft power. The present work was the development of such a system applied to a light duty diesel engine. This lab demonstration was designed to maximize the peak brake thermal efficiency of the engine, and the combined system achieved an efficiency of 44.4%. The design of the system is discussed, as are the experimental performance results. The system potential at typical operating conditions was evaluated to determine the practicality of installing such a system in a vehicle.

Briggs, Thomas E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership 2010 Highlights of Technical Accomplishments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership 2010 Highlights of Technical Accomplishments Table of Contents Item Page Preface v Vehicle Technologies Advanced Combustion & Emissions Control * Dual-Fuel (Gasoline+Diesel) RCCI Offers High Efficiency and Low Emissions in Engines 1 * Turbocharger Technology to Deliver Better Performance and Reduced Fuel Consumption 2 * Late Intake Valve Closing Improves Tradeoff Between Diesel-Engine Smoke and NO x Emissions 3 * Modeling of Lean NO x Trap Chemistry 4 * Neutron Radiography Non-Destructive Image of EGR Cooler and DPF Build- ups 5 * Accurate Detailed Chemical Kinetic Surrogate Model for Gasoline 6 * Sources of Inefficiency Identified in Light-Duty, Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion 7 * 2010 FreedomCAR Engine Milestone for 45% Brake Thermal Efficiency Met 8

402

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY GENERAL MOTORS CORPORATION FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ADVANCE WAIVER ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN INVENTION RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO. DE-FC26-04NT42278; W(A)-04-070, CH-1248 The Petitioner, General Motors Corporation (GM) was awarded this cooperative agreement for the performance of work entitled, "Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery". The project will address a wide range of crucial economic, engineering and scientific questions to bring this nascent technology from laboratory to market place. This will be a team effort focusing on utilizing the latest materials research breakthrough: incorporating these innovations into thermoelectric modules and subsystems, and integrating them into vehicles. The goal of the program is to achieve and demonstrate a 10% improvement over current brake

403

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Volvo Technology of America Inc. for an Advance Waiver of Volvo Technology of America Inc. for an Advance Waiver of Domestic and Foreign Invention Rights under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-EE0004232; W(A)-2011-053, CH-1628 The Petitioner, Volvo Technology of America, Inc., (Volvo) was awarded this cooperative agreement for the performance of work entitled "Supertruck Initiative for Maximum Utilized Loading in the United States". The goal of the cooperative agreement is to develop a vehicle combination that meets or exceeds the objectives stipulated by DOE in the Supertruck Funding Opportunity Announcement, including 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) of the engine/combustion system, and 50% improvement in Transport Efficiency when compared to a state-of-the-art MY 2009 baseline vehicle. This waiver is for inventions of Volvo employees only.

404

 

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hybrid Hybrid VIN #JT2BK12U620041883 Date Mileage Description Cost 5/21/2002 15,069 Change oil and rotate tires $ 27.00 7/12/2002 22,574 Change oil and rotate tires $ 27.70 8/15/2002 27,889 Replace 2 tires, oil change $ 147.14 9/16/2002 32,943 Change Oil and 2 tire replacement $ 185.38 10/15/2002 39,932 Change oil and rotate tires $ 30.87 12/9/2002 45,826 Change Oil and rotate tires $ 29.11 1/27/2003 53,812 Change oil and rotate tires $ 30.34 3/12/2003 61,511 30000 miles interval ervice $ 390.31 4/21/2003 67,935 Oil Change ,tire rotation, brake adjustment $ 88.26 4/30/2003 69,012 4 Tires exchanged $ 108.91

405

Reinforcement learning of dynamic collaborative driving Part II: lateral adaptive control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In dynamic collaborative driving, multiple vehicles coordinate their motion to optimise road usage using shared information. The basic prerequisites for a vehicle participating in dynamic collaborative driving are longitudinal and lateral control. This paper focuses on the lateral vehicle control on which higher-level manoeuvres such as entering or exiting a formation are based. Each vehicle involved is a composite nonlinear system powered by an internal combustion engine, equipped with automatic transmission, rolling on rubber tyres with hydraulic braking systems and steering system. A vehicle model is introduced which serves as the control system design platform. A lateral adaptive preview control system which uses Monte Carlo Reinforcement Learning (RL) is introduced. The results of the RL phase and the performance of the adaptive preview control system for a single automobile as well as the performance in a multi-vehicle platoon are presented.

Luke Ng; Christopher M. Clark; Jan Paul Huissoon

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Reinforcement learning of dynamic collaborative driving Part I: longitudinal adaptive control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dynamic collaborative driving involves the motion coordination of multiple vehicles using shared information from vehicles instrumented to perceive their surroundings in order to improve road usage and safety. A basic requirement of any vehicle participating in dynamic collaborative driving is longitudinal control. Without this capability, higher-level coordination is not possible. Each vehicle involved is a composite non-linear system powered by an internal combustion engine, equipped with automatic transmission, rolling on rubber tyres with a hydraulic braking system. This paper focuses on the problem of longitudinal motion control. A longitudinal vehicle model is introduced which serves as the control system design platform. A longitudinal adaptive control system that uses Monte Carlo Reinforcement Learning (RL) is introduced. The results of the RL phase and the performance of the adaptive control system for a single automobile, as well as the performance in a multi-vehicle platoon, are presented.

Luke Ng; Christopher M. Clark; Jan Paul Huissoon

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Advanced Hybrid Propulsion and Energy Management System for High Efficiency, Off Highway, 240 Ton Class, Diesel Electric Haul Trucks  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to reduce the fuel consumption of off-highway vehicles, specifically large tonnage mine haul trucks. A hybrid energy storage and management system will be added to a conventional diesel-electric truck that will allow capture of braking energy normally dissipated in grid resistors as heat. The captured energy will be used during acceleration and motoring, reducing the diesel engine load, thus conserving fuel. The project will work towards a system validation of the hybrid system by first selecting an energy storage subsystem and energy management subsystem. Laboratory testing at a subscale level will evaluate these selections and then a full-scale laboratory test will be performed. After the subsystems have been proven at the full-scale lab, equipment will be mounted on a mine haul truck and integrated with the vehicle systems. The integrated hybrid components will be exercised to show functionality, capability, and fuel economy impacts in a mine setting.

Richter, Tim; Slezak, Lee; Johnson, Chris; Young, Henry; Funcannon, Dan

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

408

Stationary flywheel energy storage systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this system study is to find out industrial applications of Stationary Flywheel Energy Accumulators. The economic value for the consumer and the effects on the power supply grid should be investigated. As to overall economy, compensation of short time maximum power out-put seems to be more favorable at the power stations. An additional possibility for energy storage by flywheels is given where otherwise lost energy can be used effectively, according to the successful brake energy storage in vehicles. Under this aspect the future use of flywheels in wind-power-plants seems to be promising. Attractive savings of energy can be obtained by introducing modern flywheel technology for emergency power supply units which are employed for instance in telecommunication systems. Especially the application for emergency power supply, in power stations and in combination with wind energy converters needs further investigation.

Gilhaus, A.; Hau, E.; Gassner, G.; Huss, G.; Schauberger, H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Effect of E85 on RCCI Performance and Emissions on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine - SAE World Congress  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the effect of E85 on load expansion and FTP modal point emissions indices under reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) operation on a light-duty multi-cylinder diesel engine. A General Motors (GM) 1.9L four-cylinder diesel engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline or E85. Controlling the fuel reactivity in-cylinder by the adjustment of the ratio of premixed low-reactivity fuel (gasoline or E85) to direct injected high reactivity fuel (diesel fuel) has been shown to extend the operating range of high-efficiency clean combustion (HECC) compared to the use of a single fuel alone as in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) or premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The effect of E85 on the Ad-hoc federal test procedure (FTP) modal points is explored along with the effect of load expansion through the light-duty diesel speed operating range. The Ad-hoc FTP modal points of 1500 rpm, 1.0bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP); 1500rpm, 2.6bar BMEP; 2000rpm, 2.0bar BMEP; 2300rpm, 4.2bar BMEP; and 2600rpm, 8.8bar BMEP were explored. Previous results with 96 RON unleaded test gasoline (UTG-96) and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) showed that with stock hardware, the 2600rpm, 8.8bar BMEP modal point was not obtainable due to excessive cylinder pressure rise rate and unstable combustion both with and without the use of EGR. Brake thermal efficiency and emissions performance of RCCI operation with E85 and ULSD is explored and compared against conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and RCCI operation with UTG 96 and ULSD.

Curran, Scott [ORNL; Hanson, Reed M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Experimental Investigation of Fuel-Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion Mode in a Multi-Cylinder, Light-Duty Diesel Engine  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was performed to provide the combustion and emission characteristics resulting from fuel-reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion mode utilizing dual-fuel approach in a light-duty, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline before intake valve opening (IVO) and early-cycle, direct injection of diesel fuel was used as the charge preparation and fuel blending strategy. In order to achieve the desired auto-ignition quality through the stratification of the fuel-air equivalence ratio ( ), blends of commercially available gasoline and diesel fuel were used. Engine experiments were performed at an engine speed of 2300rpm and an engine load of 4.3bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). It was found that significant reduction in both nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was realized successfully through the RCCI combustion mode even without applying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). However, high carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were observed. The low combustion gas temperature during the expansion and exhaust processes seemed to be the dominant source of high CO emissions in the RCCI combustion mode. The high HC emissions during the RCCI combustion mode could be due to the increased combustion quenching layer thickness as well as the -stratification at the periphery of the combustion chamber. The slightly higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the RCCI combustion mode was observed than the other combustion modes, such as the conventional diesel combustion (CDC) mode, and single-fuel, premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. The parametric study of the RCCI combustion mode revealed that the combustion phasing and/or the peak cylinder pressure rise rate of the RCCI combustion mode could be controlled by several physical parameters premixed ratio (rp), intake swirl intensity, and start of injection (SOI) timing of directly injected fuel unlike other low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies.

Cho, Kukwon [ORNL] [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL] [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL] [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Bio-Diesel (B100)-Ignited Methane and Propane Combustion in a Four Cylinder Turbocharged Compression Ignition Engine  

SciTech Connect

Different combustion strategies and fuel sources are needed to deal with increasing fuel efficiency demands and emission restrictions. One possible strategy is dual fueling using readily available resources. Propane and natural gas are readily available with the current infrastructure and biodiesel is growing in popularity as a renewable fuel. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel combustion of methane (as a surrogate for natural gas) and propane as primary fuels with biodiesel pilots in a 1.9 liter, turbocharged, 4 cylinder diesel engine at 1800 rev/min. Experiments were performed with different percentage energy substitutions (PES) of propane and methane and at different brake mean effective pressures (BMEP/bmep). Brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and smoke) were also measured. Maximum PES levels for B100-methane dual fuelling were limited to 70% at 2.5 bar bmep and 48% at 10 bar bmep, and corresponding values for B100-propane dual fuelling were 64% and 43%, respectively. Maximum PES was limited by misfire at 2.5 bar bmep and the onset of engine knock at 10 bar bmep. Dual fuel BTEs approached straight B100 values at 10 bar bmep while they were significantly lower than B100 values at 2.5 bar bmep. In general dual fuelling was beneficial in reducing NOx and smoke emissions by 33% and 50%, respectively from baseline B100 levels; however, both CO and THC emissions were significantly higher than baseline B100 levels at all PES and loads.

Shoemaker, N. T.; Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Krishnan, S. R.; Srinivasan, K. K.

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

412

Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

Pike, Edward

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

413

DRIVE CYCLE EFFICIENCY AND EMISSIONS ESTIMATES FOR REACTIVITY CONTROLLED COMPRESSION IGNITION IN A MULTI-CYLINDER LIGHT-DUTY DIESEL ENGINE  

SciTech Connect

In-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel to achieve Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to reduce NOx and PM emissions while maintaining or improving brake thermal efficiency as compared to conventional diesel combustion (CDC). The RCCI concept has an advantage over many advanced combustion strategies in that by varying both the percent of premixed gasoline and EGR rate, stable combustion can be extended over more of the light-duty drive cycle load range. Changing the percent premixed gasoline changes the fuel reactivity stratification in the cylinder providing further control of combustion phasing and pressure rise rate than the use of EGR alone. This paper examines the combustion and emissions performance of light-duty diesel engine using direct injected diesel fuel and port injected gasoline to carry out RCCI for steady-state engine conditions which are consistent with a light-duty drive cycle. A GM 1.9L four-cylinder engine with the stock compression ratio of 17.5:1, common rail diesel injection system, high-pressure EGR system and variable geometry turbocharger was modified to allow for port fuel injection with gasoline. Engine-out emissions, engine performance and combustion behavior for RCCI operation is compared against both CDC and a premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) strategy which relies on high levels of EGR dilution. The effect of percent of premixed gasoline, EGR rate, boost level, intake mixture temperature, combustion phasing and pressure rise rate is investigated for RCCI combustion for the light-duty modal points. Engine-out emissions of NOx and PM were found to be considerably lower for RCCI operation as compared to CDC and PCCI, while HC and CO emissions were higher. Brake thermal efficiency was similar or higher for many of the modal conditions for RCCI operation. The emissions results are used to estimate hot-start FTP-75 emissions levels with RCCI and are compared against CDC and PCCI modes.

Curran, Scott [ORNL; Briggs, Thomas E [ORNL; Cho, Kukwon [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Conceptual Design For Interplanetary Spaceship Discovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the recently revived national interest in Lunar and Mars missions this design study was undertaken by the author in an attempt to satisfy the long?term space exploration vision of human travel to the Moon Mars and beyond with a single design or family of vehicles. This paper describes a conceptual design for an interplanetary spaceship of the not?to?distant future. It is a design that is outwardly similar to the spaceship Discovery depicted in the novel 2001 A Space Odyssey and film of the same name. Like its namesake this spaceship could one day transport a human expedition to explore the moons of Jupiter. This spaceship Discovery is a real engineering design that is capable of being implemented using technologies that are currently at or near the state?of?the?art. The ships main propulsion and electrical power are provided by bi?modal nuclear thermal rocket engines. Configurations are presented to satisfy four basic Design Reference Missions: (1) a high?energy mission to Jupiters moon Callisto (2) a high?energy mission to Mars (3) a low?energy mission to Mars and (4) a high?energy mission to the Moon. The spaceship design includes dual strap?on boosters to enable the high?energy Mars and Jupiter missions. Three conceptual lander designs are presented: (1) Two types of Mars landers that utilize atmospheric and propulsive braking and (2) a lander for Callisto or Earths Moon that utilizes only propulsive braking. Spaceship Discovery offers many advantages for human exploration of the Solar System: (1) Nuclear propulsion enables propulsive capture and escape maneuvers at Earth and target planets eliminating risky aero?capture maneuvers. (2) Strap?on boosters provide robust propulsive energy enabling flexibility in mission planning shorter transit times expanded launch windows and free?return abort trajectories from Mars. (3) A backup abort propulsion system enables crew aborts at multiple points in the mission. (4) Clustered NTR engines provide engine out redundancy. (5) The design efficiently implements galactic cosmic ray shielding using main propellant liquid hydrogen. (6) The design provides artificial gravity to mitigate crew physiological problems on long?duration missions. (7) The design is modular and can be launched using the proposed upgrades to the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles or Shuttle?derived heavy lift launch vehicles. (8) High value modules are reusable for Mars and Lunar missions. (9) The design has inherent growth capability and can be tailored to satisfy expanding mission requirements to enable an in?family progression to the Moon Mars and beyond.

Mark G. Benton Sr.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Gas Mileage Tips - Mobile  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gas Mileage Tips Gas Mileage Tips Drive sensibly Agressive Driver Save 5% to 33% by avoiding speeding and aggressive accelerating and braking. Save: $0.16-$1.07 per gallon Obey the speed limit 65 mph sign Each 5 mph you drive over 50 mph can lower gas mileage by 7% or more. Save: $0.23-$0.45 per gallon Keep your engine properly tuned Man and woman looking under hood Fixing an out-of-tune engine can improve its efficiency by 4% on average. Save: $0.13 per gallon Keep tires properly inflated Woman checking tire pressure Under-inflated tires can lower gas mileage by 0.3% for every 1 psi drop in pressure of all four tires. Save: Up to $0.10 per gallon Remove un-needed cargo Woman shopping for a car An extra 50 to 100 pounds can lower gas mileage by about 1% to 2%. Save: $0.03-$0.06 per gallon

416

SNAP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mission Home Page Mission Home Page - Spacecraft / Instruments - Science - E/PO - People cutaway image of SNAP The Universe is a big place... and it's getting bigger every day. Our current model of the Universe, called the Big Bang Model, is that the Universe originated approximately 13.7 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since. It was always assumed that expansion was slowing, with the gravity of the Universe itself applying the brakes. But shortly before the end of the 20th century astronomers got a big surprise: the Universe was not slowing down, it was speeding up, the expansion ever accelerating. Very little is known about this accelerated expansion, and less is known about its cause. The SuperNova Acceleration Probe, or SNAP, will fill the wide gaps in our knowledge. It will study exploding stars called supernovae, as well as the gentle smearing of the light from distant galaxies due to gravity - called weak gravitational lensing - and put limits on what may or may not be the force driving the outward pull on the Universe. SNAP will investigate over one thousand square degrees of sky - more than 5000 times the size of the full Moon! - with a 500 megapixel camera.

417

TITLE  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

FORCE CONTROL INDUSTRIES,'INC. 1 FORCE CONTROL INDUSTRIES,'INC. 1 2 3 0 7 2 CONTROL %60 Dixie Hwy.. Zip 45014 P.O. Box l a . Z p 45018 11W b l e . Sule F Failfield. Ohio T w M i g a n a8083 Phone: (513) 868-0900 Phone: !B10) 52441= FAX. (513) 868-2105 F . U i81C.l 52d-1208 C,ir Shear Clutch & Brake Systems November 10.1994 U. S. Deparbnent of Energy Oak Ridge Operations office Ann: AD-424, Katy Kates P.O. Box 2001 Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Dear Ms. Kates, In furtherance of the August 24,1994 letter from Doug Shook, his subsequent conversation with our legal counsel, Timothy A. Gamy, follow-up with Steve Priest, and your letter of November 4,1994, the modifications you have proposed to the real estate license are acceptabte to us. As you suggested, we have made the changes to the real estate license heretofore submitted to us, and we have enclosed three copies of

418

NEWTON, Ask a Scientist at Argonne National Labs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Earth Historic Rotation Rates Earth Historic Rotation Rates Name: Nikki Status: student Grade: 6-8 Location: AZ Country: USA Date: Spring 2012 Question: Did Earth ever spin faster than it does now? Did Earth ever have 18 hour days instead of 24 hours? Replies: Nikki, Earth rotates on its axis and continues to slow down because of tidal braking. Yes, it is the tides that result in the ever-slowing rotation of Earth. The main cause of the tides is the moon. That is, the ocean is constantly being pulled toward the moon while Earth rotates under this bulge of water. In order for the sun to be overhead at noon we add one second to the clock about every eighteen months. Yes, that is true, Earth's rotation slows by aboutone second every eighteen months. About 600,000,000 years ago, there were 420 days in one year! About 300,000,000 years ago there were 395 days in one year. Today, there are about 365.25 days per year.

419

Bracken, Maidenhair and Walking Ferns  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bracken, Maidenhair and Walking Ferns Bracken, Maidenhair and Walking Ferns Nature Bulletin No. 673-A April 1, 1978 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation BRACKEN, MAIDENHAIR AND WALKING FERNS A year ago, in Bulletin No. 633-A, we pointed out that ferns were the first plants on earth to have a true root system and a system of channels -- vascular tissues -- that conduct water and dissolved chemicals from the roots to the leaves where food is manufactured by means of specialized cells containing chlorophyll. The Bracken or Brake, most widely distributed of all ferns, is common in Great Britain, continental Europe, Africa, and throughout North America. Most ferns are found in rich, moist shady places and limestone cliffs but not bracken. It prefers and thrives on poor barren soils, sandy semi-shaded ridges, old pastures, dry open woodlands and burned-over areas. We have lots of this "weed" in the Palos preserves and those in southeastern Cook County.

420

A Look Inside the Detroit Auto Show | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Look Inside the Detroit Auto Show A Look Inside the Detroit Auto Show A Look Inside the Detroit Auto Show January 12, 2011 - 1:15pm Addthis Kerry Duggan Waking up at 4:30AM is not my idea of fun. But after I witnessed the 6:30AM unveiling of the shiny new Porsche 918 RSR Hybrid at the North American International Auto Show, I got over it. To those who know cars, its lineage is in the #22 Porsche 917 race car, winner of the LeMans in 1971. With a top speed of 140 mph, the new 918 RSR combines the power of a 563-horsepower V-8 engine and a dual inertial flywheel system to produce a total 767-horsepower. On the efficiency side, a Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) allows the two 75-kW flywheels to capture wasted energy when the brakes are applied. The Porsche president said that their goal is to achieve high fuel efficiency in extreme driving

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421

Flying Squirrels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flying Squirrels Flying Squirrels Nature Bulletin No. 176-A January 23, 1965 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Seymour Simon, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation FLYING SQUIRRELS Few people ever see a Flying Squirrel, although they are widely distributed throughout the wooded areas of the northern hemisphere and numerous in many localities. Unlike other squirrels, they sleep all day in their dens, coming out at dusk to feed and play during the night -- less in winter than in summer. They spend more time in the trees and less on the ground than any other squirrel. Most distinctive, of course, is their ability to glide thru the air. Flying squirrels do not fly. On each side of the body is a loose elastic membrane or fold of skin, covered with fur and extending from the wrist of the foreleg to the ankle of the hind leg, with a delicate rod of cartilage, attached only to the wrist, at the edge. Another membrane fills the triangular space between the foreleg and the neck and sides of the head. When the animal leaps outward from a tree, it spreads its legs so that, in the flaring membranes stretched between them, it appears almost square and flat -- shape and sails diagonally downward in a long swooping glide. Its long bushy tail, broad' and flat, is used as a rudder and as a brake to make the short graceful swoop upward when it lands on another tree.

422

HyMotion GEN 2 Fact Sheet - backup.pdf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1.6 seconds 1.6 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 19.3 seconds Maximum Speed: 78.9 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 106.5 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 12.4 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 19.8 seconds Maximum Speed: 76.7 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 107.0 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 153.0 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6 Distance (miles) Fuel Economy (mpg) AC Energy Consumed gy gy (kWh) 7 Distance (miles) Fuel Economy (mpg) AC Energy Consumed gy gy (kWh) 7 10 157.8 2.03 10 92.0 1.57 20 164.4 4.03 20 102.3 3.10 40 119.0 4.95 40 91.3 4.66 60 97.6 4.98 60 79.0 4.66 80 87.0 4.98 80 73.0 4.66 100 80.7 4.98 100 69.5 4.66 200 68.0 4.98 200 62.4 4.66 Fuel Economy with A/C Off 1 Cold Start Charge Depleting 2 : Fuel Economy: 155.2 MPG A AC kWh Consumed 7 : 0.204 kWh/mi Charge Depleting

423

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0.5 seconds 0.5 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 18.6 seconds Maximum Speed: 83.2 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 100.6 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 10.6 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 18.6 seconds Maximum Speed: 82.8 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 101.9 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 145.1 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6,10 Distance (miles) Fuel Economy (mpg) AC Energy Consumed (kWh) 7 Distance (miles) Fuel Economy (mpg) AC Energy Consumed (kWh) 7 10 118.5 2.85 10 53.0 1.80 20 116.8 5.49 20 56.6 3.37 40 116.0 10.50 40 58.0 6.38 60 90.7 11.34 60 55.3 9.48 80 76.6 11.34 80 51.4 11.11 100 68.0 11.34 100 47.2 11.13 200 50.9 11.34 200 38.7 11.13 Fuel Economy with A/C Off 1 Cold Start Charge Depleting 2 : Fuel Economy: 119.7 MPG AC kWh Consumed 7 : 0.282 kWh/mi Charge Depleting

424

Calculation of Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity with a Particle Simulation in the Tokamak Magnetic Breaking Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Accurate calculation of perturbed distribution function #14;?f and perturbed magnetic fi eld #14;?B is essential to achieve prediction of non-ambipolar transport and neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) in perturbed tokamaks. This paper reports a study of the NTV with a #14;?f particle code (POCA) and improved understanding of magnetic braking in tokamak experiments. POCA calculates the NTV by computing #14;f with guiding-center orbit motion and using #14;B from the ideal perturbed equilibrium code (IPEC). POCA simulations are compared with experimental estimations for NTV, which are measured from angular momentum balance (DIII-D) and toroidal rotational damping rate (NSTX). The calculation shows good agreement in total NTV torque for the DIII-D discharge, where an analytic neoclassical theory also gives a consistent result thanks to relatively large aspect-ratio and slow toroidal rotations. In NSTX discharges, where the aspect-ratio is small and the rotation is fast, the theory only gives a qualitative guide for predicting NTV. However, the POCA simulation largely improves the quantitative NTV prediction for NSTX. It is discussed that a self- consistent calculation of ?#14;B using general perturbed equilibria is eventually necessary since a non-ideal plasma response can change the perturbed eld and thereby the NTV torque.

Kimin Kim, et al

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

425

Advanced Aerodynamic Devices to Improve the Performance, Economics, Handling, and Safety of Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) to develop advanced aerodynamic devices to improve the performance, economics, stability, handling and safety of operation of Heavy Vehicles by using previously-developed and flight-tested pneumatic (blown) aircraft technology. Recent wind-tunnel investigations of a generic Heavy Vehicle model with blowing slots on both the leading and trailing edges of the trailer have been conducted under contract to the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. These experimental results show overall aerodynamic drag reductions on the Pneumatic Heavy Vehicle of 50% using only 1 psig blowing pressure in the plenums, and over 80% drag reductions if additional blowing air were available. Additionally, an increase in drag force for braking was confirmed by blowing different slots. Lift coefficient was increased for rolling resistance reduction by blowing only the top slot, while downforce was produced for traction increase by blowing only the bottom. Also, side force and yawing moment were generated on either side of the vehicle, and directional stability was restored by blowing the appropriate side slot. These experimental results and the predicted full-scale payoffs are presented in this paper, as is a discussion of additional applications to conventional commercial autos, buses, motor homes, and Sport Utility Vehicles.

Robert J. Englar

2001-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

426

An overview of performance measures for heavy commercial vehicles in North America  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent studies, it has become apparent that a set of safety-related performance measures for heavy vehicles can be useful in the design process as well as in the more conventional realm of screening heavy vehicles by regulation. In Canada, these regulations control, separately, the combined trailer length and overall vehicle length, total vehicle weight, maximum axle-load, multiple-axle group spacing, and the characteristics of a few selected components of new vehicles (e.g. service and emergency air and/or hydraulic brake systems). None of the existing regulations has been applied for quantifying the dynamic properties of individual vehicles, either newly designed or already in service; instead they have been used to qualify classes or groupings of vehicles. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the efforts made in North America to develop a set of safety-related performance measures and promote their use for determining and controlling the dynamic quality of heavy vehicles on an individual basis from both the design and regulatory standpoints.

M. El-Gindy

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Special Fluid Viscous Dampers For The Messina Strait Bridge  

SciTech Connect

The Messina Strait Bridge would be the world's longest suspension bridge, with a design earthquake characterised by a PGA value of 0.58 g and a distance between the ipocenter and the bridge of 15 km. Said critical structure of course would need a suitable restraint system for traffic braking loads, wind and seismic actions. Each type of load requires a specific behaviour of the restraint system, making its design a big challenge.The restraint system comprises special types of fluid viscous dampers, installed both in longitudinal and transverse direction, both at the towers and at the anchorages. In seismic conditions they behave as viscous dampers, to reduce the forces on the structural elements and the movements of the bridge deck. But in service dynamic conditions, e.g. under traffic or wind load, the devices shall behave like shock transmission units, thus preventing the longitudinal and transverse movements of the deck.FIP Industriale cooperated with the selected General Contractor, a consortium lead by Impregilo, in the design of said viscous dampers. This paper describes the main features of said devices.

Colato, Gian Paolo; Infanti, Samuele; Castellano, Maria Gabriella [FIP Industriale spa, Via Scapacchio 41, 35030 Selvazzano Dentro (Italy)

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

428

Turbulent drag reduction through oscillating discs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The changes of a turbulent channel flow subjected to oscillations of wall flush-mounted rigid discs are studied by means of direct numerical simulations. The Reynolds number is $R_\\tau$=$180$, based on the friction velocity of the stationary-wall case and the half channel height. The primary effect of the wall forcing is the sustained reduction of wall-shear stress, which reaches a maximum of 20%. A parametric study on the disc diameter, maximum tip velocity, and oscillation period is presented, with the aim to identify the optimal parameters which guarantee maximum drag reduction and maximum net energy saving, computed by taking into account the power spent to actuate the discs. This may be positive and reaches 6%. The Rosenblat viscous pump flow is used to predict the power spent for disc motion in the turbulent channel flow and to estimate localized and transient regions over the disc surface subjected to the turbulent regenerative braking effect, for which the wall turbulence exerts work on the discs. The...

Wise, Daniel J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Use of Fault Tree Analysis for Automotive Reliability and Safety Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Fault tree analysis (FTA) evolved from the aerospace industry in the 1960's. A fault tree is deductive logic model that is generated with a top undesired event in mind. FTA answers the question, ''how can something occur?'' as opposed to failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) that is inductive and answers the question, ''what if?'' FTA is used in risk, reliability and safety assessments. FTA is currently being used by several industries such as nuclear power and chemical processing. Typically the automotive industries uses failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) such as design FMEAs and process FMEAs. The use of FTA has spread to the automotive industry. This paper discusses the use of FTA for automotive applications. With the addition automotive electronics for various applications in systems such as engine/power control, cruise control and braking/traction, FTA is well suited to address failure modes within these systems. FTA can determine the importance of these failure modes from various perspectives such as cost, reliability and safety. A fault tree analysis of a car starting system is presented as an example.

Lambert, H

2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

430

AB Levitator and Electricity Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The author researched this new idea - support of flight by any aerial vehicles at significant altitude solely by the magnetic field of the planet. It is shown that current technology allows humans to create a light propulsion (AB engine) which does not depend on air, water or ground terrain. Simultaniosly, this revolutionary thruster is a device for the storage of electricity which is extracted and is replenished (during braking) from/into the storage with 100 percent efficiency. The relative weight ratio of this engine is 0.01 - 0.1 (from thrust). For some types of AB engine (toroidal form) the thrust easily may be changed in any direction without turning of engine. The author computed many projects using different versions of offered AB engine: small device for levitation-flight of a human (including flight from Earth to Outer Space), fly VTOL car (track), big VTOL aircrat, suspended low altitude stationary satellite, powerful Space Shuttle-like booster for travel to the Moon and Mars without spending energ...

Bolonkin, A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Performance Analysis of Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery System for Stationary CNG Engine Based on Organic Rankine Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to improve the electric efficiency of a stationary compressed natural gas (CNG) engine, a set of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system with internal heat exchanger (IHE) is designed to recover exhaust energy that is used to generate electricity. R416A is selected as the working fluid for the waste heat recovery system. According to the first and second laws of thermodynamics, the performances of the ORC system for waste heat recovery are discussed based on the analysis of engine exhaust waste heat characteristics. Subsequently, the stationary CNG engine-ORC with IHE combined system is presented. The electric efficiency and the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) are introduced to evaluate the operating performances of the combined system. The results show that, when the evaporation pressure is 3.5MPa and the engine is operating at the rated condition, the net power output and the thermal efficiency of the ORC system with IHE can reach up to 62.7kW and 12.5%, respectively. Compared with the stationary CNG engine, the electric efficiency of the combined system can be increased by a maximum 6.0%, while the BSFC can be reduced by a maximum 5.0%.

Songsong Song; Hongguang Zhang; Zongyong. Lou; Fubin Yang; Kai Yang; Hongjin Wang; Chen Bei; Ying Chang; Baofeng Yao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Northeast regional biomass program. Second & third quarterly reports, October 1, 1995--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is comprised of the following states: Connecticut. Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Vermont. It is managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the CONEG Policy Research Center, Inc. The Northeast states face several near-term barriers to the expanded use of biomass energy. Informational and technical barriers have impeded industrial conversions, delaying the development of a wood energy supply infrastructure. Concern over the environmental impacts on resources are not well understood. Public awareness and concern about safety issues surrounding wood energy use has also grown to the point of applying a brake to the trend of increases in residential applications of biomass energy. In addition, many residential, industrial, and commercial energy users are discouraged from using biomass energy because of the convenience factor. Regardless of the potential for cost savings, biomass energy sources, aside from being perceived as more esoteric, are also viewed as more work for the user. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is designed to help the eleven Northeastern states overcome these obstacles and achieve their biomass energy potentials. The objective of this program in the current and future years is to increase the role of biomass fuels in the region`s energy mix by providing the impetus for states and the private sector to develop a viable Northeast biomass fuels market.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Fumigation of alcohol in a light duty automotive diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

A light-duty automotive diesel engine was fumigated with methanol and ethanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditions. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. For all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific NO/sub x/ concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears as though ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulate emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.

Broukhiyan, E.M.H.; Lestz, S.S.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Feasibility study of a 6V-92TA homogeneous auto-ignited two-stroke (HAT) compressed-natural-gas-engine. Topical report, August 1989-May 1990  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project was to modify a two-stroke 6V-92TA diesel engine to operate on natural gas using a simple system with gas addition to the compressor inlet and a spark plug for cold start and non-autoignition engine operation. The engine was to be operated at most speed-load conditions by autoignition of the premixed gas-air mixture. This concept is referred to as the Homogeneous Auto-Ignited Two-Stroke (HAT). Autoignition of carbureted natural gas was achieved at various loads and speeds in a 6V-92TA engine modified for operating on natural gas with the HAT concept. However, HAT engine operation up to 277 hp at 2100 rpm (diesel coach rating) was not achieved because early ignition in some cylinders caused knock and excessive heat transfer. Instead, the engine was operated up to 226 hp (767 N.m) at 2100 rpm, 181 hp (780 N.m) at 1650 rpm, 130 hp (773 N.m) at 1200 rpm, and 34 hp (368 N.m) at 650 rpm. Maximum brake thermal efficiency measured was 33.4% at 2100 rpm/219 hp. The corrected efficiency (to compensate for the unburned natural gas lost during the scavenging process) was higher than this. Steady-state emissions show very low NOx, total unburned HC lower than expected and reasonable CO levels. The lean air-fuel mixture and unburned exhaust gases in the cylinder resulted in very low NOx emissions.

Kakwani, R.M.; Winsor, R.E.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Ethanol fuel for diesel tractors  

SciTech Connect

The use of ethanol fuel in turbocharged diesel tractors is considered. The investigation was performed to evaluate the conversion of a diesel tractor for dual-fueling with ethanol by attaching a carburetor to the inlet air system or with the use of an alcohol spray-injection kit. In this system the mixture of water and alcohol is injected into the air stream by means of pressure from the turbocharger. The carburetor was attached to a by-pass apparatus which allowed the engine to start and shut off on diesel alone. Approximately 46% of the energy for the turbocharged 65 kW diesel tractor could be supplied by carbureted ethanol, and about 30% by the spray-injection approach. Knock limited the extent of substitution of ethanol for diesel fuel. The dual-fueling with ethanol caused a slight increase in brake thermal efficiency. Exhaust temperatures were much lower for equivalent high torque levels. Maximum power was increased by 36% with the spray-injection approach and about 59% with carburetion.

da Cruz, J.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

An improved energy management strategy for FC/UC hybrid electric vehicles propelled by motor-wheels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The hybridization of the fuel-cell electric-vehicle (FCEV) by a second energy source has the advantage of improving the system's dynamic response and efficiency. Indeed, an ultra-capacitor (UC) system used as an energy storage device fulfills the FC slowest dynamics during fast power transitions and recovers the braking energy. In FC/UC hybrid vehicles, the search for a suitable power management approach is one of the main objectives. In this paper, an improved control strategy managing the active power distribution between the two energy sources is proposed. The UC reference power is calculated through the DC link voltage regulation. For the FC power demand, an algorithm with five operating modes is developed. This algorithm, depending on the UC state of charge (SOC) and the vehicle speed level, minimizes the FC power demand transitions and therefore ameliorates its durability. The traction power is provided using two permanent magnetic synchronous motor-wheels to free more space in the vehicle. The models of the FC/UC vehicle system parts and the control strategy are developed using MATLAB software. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy.

Islem Lachhab; Lotfi Krichen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

V444 Cyg X-ray and polarimetric variability: Radiative and Coriolis forces shape the wind collision region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results from a study of the eclipsing, colliding-wind binary V444 Cyg that uses a combination of X-ray and optical spectropolarimetric methods to describe the 3-D nature of the shock and wind structure within the system. We have created the most complete X-ray light curve of V444 Cyg to date using 40 ksec of new data from Swift, and 200 ksec of new and archived XMM-Newton observations. In addition, we have characterized the intrinsic, polarimetric phase-dependent behavior of the strongest optical emission lines using data obtained with the University of Wisconsin's Half-Wave Spectropolarimeter. We have detected evidence of the Coriolis distortion of the wind-wind collision in the X-ray regime, which manifests itself through asymmetric behavior around the eclipses in the system's X-ray light curves. The large opening angle of the X-ray emitting region, as well as its location (i.e. the WN wind does not collide with the O star, but rather its wind) are evidence of radiative braking/inhibition occurri...

Lomax, Jamie R; Hoffman, Jennifer L; Russell, Christopher M P; De Becker, Michael; Corcoran, Michael F; Davidson, James W; Neilson, Hilding R; Owocki, Stan; Pittard, Julian M; Pollock, Andy M T

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Impact of thermal barrier coating application on the combustion, performance and emissions of a diesel engine fueled with waste cooking oil biodieseldiesel blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biodiesel fuel was produced from waste cooking oil by transesterification process. B20 and B50 blends of biodieselpetroleum diesel were prepared. These blends and D2 fuels were tested in a single cylinder CI engine. Performance, combustion and emission values of the engine running with the mentioned fuels were recorded. Then the piston and both exhaust and intake valves of the test engine were coated with layers of ceramic materials. The mentioned parts were coated with 100?m of NiCrAl as lining layer. Later the same parts were coated with 400?m material of coating that was the mixture of 88% of ZrO2, 4% of MgO and 8% of Al2O3. After the engine coating process, the same fuels were tested in the coated engine at the same operation condition. Finally, the same engine out parameters were obtained and compared with those of uncoated engine parameters in order to find out how this modification would change the combustion, performance and emission parameters. Results showed that the modification of the engine with coating process resulted in better performance, especially in considerably lower brake specific fuel consumption (Bsfc) values. Besides, emissions of the engine were lowered both through coating process and biodiesel usage excluding the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission. In addition, the results of the coated engine are better than the uncoated one in terms of cylinder gas pressure, heat release rate (HRR) and heat release (HR).

Selman Ayd?n; Cenk Say?n

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Performance and emissions of a dual fuel operated diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vegetable oil and its esters (biodiesel) are the renewable alternative fuels that can be used as a substitute for diesel in the diesel engines. The vegetable oil fuelled diesel engine results in lower efficiency and higher smoke emission. Hence in this work, an attempt has been made to use inedible and under utilised mahua oil (MO) as a substitute for diesel by fumigating liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) along with the air. A single cylinder diesel engine was modified to work in dual fuel mode by suitable retrofitting. The MO was injected into the cylinder using a fuel pump and LPG was fumigated along with the air. In MO + LPG dual fuel mode, 9% increase in brake thermal efficiency and 35% reduction in smoke emission of the engine were observed as compared to the sole fuel mode with MO. Also, the engine performance characteristics in MO + LPG dual fuel mode are close to sole fuel mode with diesel. From this work, it is concluded that LPG can be fumigated along with the air to increase the performance of MO fuelled agricultural diesel engine.

N. Kapilan; R.P. Reddy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

An experimental investigation on the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of preheated calophyllum inophyllum linn oil (honne oil) fed DI diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present work examines the use of a non-edible vegetable oil namely honne oil, a new possible source of alternative fuel for diesel engine. The use of honne oil (unheated and preheated) in an agricultural direct injection (DI) diesel engine has not been reported in the literature. The high viscosity of honne oil can be reduced by preheating (preheated to 60C). The effect of temperature on the viscosity of honne oil has been investigated. Using preheated honne oil, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and exhaust gas temperature (EGT) is increased compared to unheated honne oil. The emissions such as smoke opacity (SO), CO and HC of preheated honne oil were reduced and NOx emissions of preheated honne oil were increased compared to unheated honne oil. Premixed combustion phase of preheated honne oil is better than unheated honne oil and ND. Hence, preheated honne oil could be used in diesel engine for short-term application without any engine modification and adverse effect.

B.K. Venkanna; C. Venkataramana Reddy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING  

SciTech Connect

The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

Garrett, A.

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

442

4.12 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Transport  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter reviews the several applications of hydrogen and fuel cells in transport. Early fuel cell markets have tested hydrogen for auxiliary power applications, but other fuels such as methanol, natural gas, and propane have been preferred because they are more available. Until now, the best successes have been forklifts where battery propulsion can be inflexible and hydrogen competes economically. However, the mainstream medium-term market is in buses, taxis, and fleet vehicles with passenger cars following close behind as the infrastructure of hydrogen filling stations becomes more widespread. It is becoming clear that the hybrid fuel cell/battery combination works best in such fleets because there is a need for batteries or supercapacitors providing pulse power and also for regenerative braking. Boats and ships represent a possible application in later years if the leisure market can be tapped and extended. In ports, fuel cell auxiliary power has already proved attractive in terms of emission reductions, and the same is true for airports. Aircraft applications will take longer to develop fully but small lightweight planes are using hydrogen at the present time because it can be generated via solar cells on the wings. Unmanned air vehicles driven by fuel cells are more likely to use propane because such lightweight fuel is easily available

K. Kendall; B.G. Pollet

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Investigation of Resistive Wall Mode Stabilization Physics in High-beta Plasmas Using Applied Non-axisymmetric Fields in NSTX  

SciTech Connect

The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) offers an operational space characterized by high-beta (?t = 39%, ?N > 7, ?N/?no-wall N > 1.5) and low aspect ratio (A > 1.27) to leverage the plasma parameter dependences of RWM stabilization and plasma rotation damping physics giving greater confidence for extrapolation to ITER. Significant new capability for RWM research has been added to the device with the commissioning of a set of six nonaxisymmetric magnetic field coils, allowing generation of fields with dominant toroidal mode number, n, of 13. These coils have been used to study the dependence of resonant field amplification on applied field frequency and RWMstabilization physics by reducing the toroidal rotation profile belowits steady-state value through non-resonant magnetic braking. Modification of plasma rotation profiles shows that rotation outside q = 2.5 is not required for passive RWM stability and there is large variation in the RWM critical rotation at the q = 2 surface, both of which are consistent with distributed dissipation models.

Sontag, A. C.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Zhu, W.; Menard, J. E.; Bell, R. E.; Bialek, J. M.; Bell, M. G.; Gates, D. A.; Glasser, A. H.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Shaing, K. C.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K. L.

2009-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

444

Revised Pulsar Spindown  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We address the issue of electromagnetic pulsar spindown by combining our experience from the two limiting idealized cases which have been studied in great extent in the past: that of an aligned rotator where ideal MHD conditions apply, and that of a misaligned rotator in vacuum. We construct a spindown formula that takes into account the misalignment of the magnetic and rotation axes, and the magnetospheric particle acceleration gaps. We show that near the death line aligned rotators spin down much slower than orthogonal ones. In order to test this approach, we use a simple Monte Carlo method to simulate the evolution of pulsars and find a good fit to the observed pulsar distribution in the P-Pdot diagram without invoking magnetic field decay. Our model may also account for individual pulsars spinning down with braking index n 3, and that the older pulsar population has preferentially smaller magnetic inclination angles. We discuss possible signatures of such alignment in the existing pulsar data.

Ioannis Contopoulos; Anatoly Spitkovsky

2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

445

Revised Pulsar Spindown  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We address the issue of electromagnetic pulsar spindown by combining our experience from the two limiting idealized cases which have been studied in great extent in the past: that of an aligned rotator where ideal MHD conditions apply, and that of a misaligned rotator in vacuum. We construct a spindown formula that takes into account the misalignment of the magnetic and rotation axes, and the magnetospheric particle acceleration gaps. We show that near the death line aligned rotators spin down much slower than orthogonal ones. In order to test this approach, we use a simple Monte Carlo method to simulate the evolution of pulsars and find a good fit to the observed pulsar distribution in the P-Pdot diagram without invoking magnetic field decay. Our model may also account for individual pulsars spinning down with braking index n 3, and that the older pulsar population has preferentially smaller magnetic inclination angles. We discuss possible signatures of such alignment in the existing pulsar data.

Contopoulos, I; Contopoulos, Ioannis; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Field Operations Program Activities Status Report  

SciTech Connect

The Field Operations Program is an electric vehicle testing and evaluation program sponsored by US Department of Energy and managed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Program's goals are to evaluate electric vehicles in real-world applications and environments, support electric vehicle technology advancement, develop infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use, support increased use of electric vehicles in federal fleets, and increase overall awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles. This report covers Program activities from fiscal year 1997 through mid-fiscal year 1999. The Field Operations Program succeeded the Site Operator Program, which ended in September 1996. Electric vehicle testing conducted by the Program includes baseline performance testing (EV America testing), accelerated reliability (life-cycle) testing, and fleet testing. The baseline performance parameters include accelerations, braking, range, energy efficiency, and charging time. The Program collects accelerated reliability and fleet operations data on electric vehicles operated by the Program's Qualified Vehicle Testing (QVT) partners. The Program's QVT partners have over 3 million miles of electric vehicle operating experience.

J. E. Francfort; D. V. O'Hara; L. A. Slezak

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Site operator program final report for fiscal years 1992 through 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Site Operator Program was an electric vehicle testing and evaluation program sponsored by US Department of Energy and managed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Program`s goals included the field evaluation of electric vehicles in real-world applications and environments; the support of electric vehicle technology advancement; the development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles. This report covers Program activities from 1992 to 1996. The Site Operator Program ended in September 1996, when it was superseded by the Field Operations Program. Electric vehicle testing included baseline performance testing, which was performed in conjunction with EV America. The baseline performance parameters included acceleration, braking, range, energy efficiency, and charging time. The Program collected fleet operations data on electric vehicles operated by the Program`s thirteen partners, comprising electric utilities, universities, and federal agencies. The Program`s partners had over 250 electric vehicles, from vehicle converters and original equipment manufacturers, in their operating fleets. Test results are available via the World Wide Web site at http://ev.inel.gov/sop.

Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Bassett, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Birasco, S. [Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States)] [and others

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Northeast regional biomass program: Second and Third quarterlies and final report, January 1994--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is comprised of the following states: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania. Rhode Island and Vermont. It is managed for the Department of Energy (DOE) by the CONEG Policy Research Center, Inc. The Northeast states face several near-term barriers to the expanded use of biomass energy. Informational and technical barriers have impeded industrial conversions, delaying the development of a wood energy supply infrastructure. Concern over the environmental impacts on resources are not well understood. Public awareness and concern about safety issues surrounding wood energy use has also grown to the point of applying a brake to the trend of increases in residential applications of biomass energy. In addition, many residential, commercial, industrial, and commercial energy users are discouraged from using biomass energy because of the convenience factor. Regardless of the potential for cost savings, biomass energy sources, aside from being perceived as more esoteric, are also viewed as more work for the user. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is designed to help the eleven states overcome obstacles and achieve biomass energy potentials.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Northeast Regional Biomass Program first and second quarter reports, October 1, 1994--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Northeast states face several near-term barriers to the expanded use of biomass energy. Informational and technical barriers have impeded industrial conversions, delaying the development of a wood energy supply infrastructure. Concern over the environmental impacts on resources are not well understood. Public awareness and concern about safety issues surrounding wood energy use has also grown to the point of applying a brake to the trend of increases in residential applications of biomass energy. In addition, many residential commercial, industrial, and commercial energy users are discouraged from using biomass energy because of the convenience factor. Regardless of the potential for cost savings, biomass energy sources, aside from being perceived as more esoteric, are also viewed as more work for the user. The Northeast Regional biomass Program (NRBP) is designed to help the eleven Northeastern states overcome these obstacles and achieve their biomass energy potentials. The objective of this program in the current and future years is to increase the role of biomass fuels in the region`s energy mix by providing the impetus for states and the private sector to develop a viable Northeast biomass fuels market. This paper contains a management report, state program summaries, technical project status report, and technology transfer activities.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in dynamical spacetimes: Numerical methods and tests  

SciTech Connect

Many problems at the forefront of theoretical astrophysics require the treatment of magnetized fluids in dynamical, strongly curved spacetimes. Such problems include the origin of gamma-ray bursts, magnetic braking of differential rotation in nascent neutron stars arising from stellar core collapse or binary neutron star merger, the formation of jets and magnetized disks around newborn black holes, etc. To model these phenomena, all of which involve both general relativity (GR) and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we have developed a GRMHD code capable of evolving MHD fluids in dynamical spacetimes. Our code solves the Einstein-Maxwell-MHD system of coupled equations in axisymmetry and in full 3+1 dimensions. We evolve the metric by integrating the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura equations, and use a conservative, shock-capturing scheme to evolve the MHD equations. Our code gives accurate results in standard MHD code-test problems, including magnetized shocks and magnetized Bondi flow. To test our code's ability to evolve the MHD equations in a dynamical spacetime, we study the perturbations of a homogeneous, magnetized fluid excited by a gravitational plane wave, and we find good agreement between the analytic and numerical solutions.

Duez, Matthew D.; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Stephens, Branson C. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

451

The Magnetic Field in the Class 0 Protostellar Disk of L1527  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present subarcsecond (~0.35") resolved observations of the 1.3 mm dust polarization from the edge-on circumstellar disk around the Class 0 protostar L1527. The inferred magnetic field is consistent with a dominantly toroidal morphology; there is no significantly detected vertical poloidal component to which observations of an edge-on disk are most sensitive. This suggests that angular momentum transport in Class 0 protostars (when large amounts of material are fed down to the disk from the envelope and accreted onto the protostar) is driven mainly by magnetorotational instability rather than magnetocentrifugal winds at 50 AU scales. In addition, with the data to date there is an early, tentative trend that R>30 AU disks have so far been found in Class 0 systems with average magnetic fields on the 1000 AU scale strongly misaligned with the rotation axis. The absence of such a disk in the aligned case could be due to efficient magnetic braking that disrupts disk formation. If this is the case, this implies t...

Segura-Cox, Dominique M; Stephens, Ian W; Fernandez-Lopez, Manuel; Kwon, Woojin; Tobin, John J; Li, Zhi-Yun; Crutcher, Richard

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Combustion, performance and emission analysis of diesel engine fuelled with methyl esters of Pongamia oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The methyl esters of vegetable oils, known as biodiesel are increasingly becoming popular because of their low environmental impact and potential as a green alternative fuel for diesel engine, and that they would not require significant modification of existing engine hardware. Methyl ester of Pongamia oil (PME) is derived through transesterification process. Experimental investigations have been carried out to examine properties, performance and emissions of different blends (B00, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100) of PME comparison to diesel. A computer assisted single cylinder constant speed water cooled four stroke direct diesel engine (5 HP), which is commonly used in the agricultural sector for driving the pumps and small electrical generators is selected for the experimental investigation. The performance, emissions and combustion characteristics are analysed. The combustion parameters considered for this analysis are cylinder pressure and rate of heat release. The brake thermal efficiency is slightly reduced and hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions in the exhaust are reduced when fuelled with methyl esters compared to diesel. But the NOx emissions are high when fuelled with methyl esters compared to diesel. [Received: December 11, 2009; Accepted: March 21, 2010

T. Hari Prasad; K. Hema Chandra Reddy; M. Muralidhara Rao

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Efficiency and emissions of a spark ignition engine fueled with synthetic gases obtained from catalytic decomposition of biogas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of the tests developed in a naturally aspirated spark ignition engine, intended for installation in vehicles, fueled with synthetic gases obtained from catalytic decomposition of biogas. The experimental tests were carried out at three equivalence ratios and different speeds and loads. Two synthetic blends were used and the results were compared with those of gasoline and methane. Efficiency and emissions were calculated for the different fuels under the same operation conditions and it was found that at lean equivalence ratios, brake thermal efficiency with synthetic gases approached to the traditional fuels and even improved it at ?=0.7. BSCO2 emissions increased due to the CO2 content of the gaseous blends. While CO increased at stoichiometric conditions, it decreased at lean conditions because the H2 contained in synthetic gases improved combustion at these conditions. BSHC measured were very low with synthetic gases because of the low content of methane in blends. The change in the fraction of H2 and CO2 of the synthetic blends led to quite different results in BSNOx. Syngas 1 \\{BSNOx\\} emissions were the lowest of all fuels, while syngas 2 \\{BSNOx\\} were the highest because of its high H2 fraction.

J. Arroyo; F. Moreno; M. Muoz; C. Monn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Impact of N2 dilution on combustion and emissions in a spark ignition CNG engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to reduce \\{NOx\\} (nitrogen oxides) emissions, N2 (nitrogen) was introduced as dilution gas to dilute mixture with a specially-designed injection device. The impacts of varying N2 DR (dilution ratio) on the combustion and the exhaust emissions were investigated, including engine heat release rate, indicator diagram, NOx, CO (carbon monoxide), THC (total hydrocarbon) emissions and so on. For this study, a modified 6.6L CNG (compressed natural gas) engine was tested and N2 was injected into the end of intake manifold by a specially-designed device. The results showed that N2 dilution has a significant influence on the combustion and the exhaust emissions. With the rise of N2 DR, the maximum of pressure in cylinder and the maximum of heat release rate exhibited decrease trends, the centre of heat release curve showed a moving backward tendency. Higher N2 DR exhibited lower \\{NOx\\} (1781%) emissions, but higher emissions of THC (378%) and CO (128%). The change of BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) can be ignored with N2 DR no more than 167%. Satisfactory results can be obtained, with lower \\{NOx\\} (31%) emissions, lower BSFC (0.5%), and relatively higher THC (6%) and CO (1%) emissions, when N2 DR is 67%.

Zhongshu Wang; Hongbin Zuo; Zhongchang Liu; Weifeng Li; Huili Dou

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Assessing the human cardiovascular response to moderate exercise: feature extraction by support vector regression  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study aims to quantitatively describe the steady-state relationships among percentage changes in key central cardiovascular variables (i.e. stroke volume, heart rate (HR), total peripheral resistance and cardiac output), measured using non-invasive means, in response to moderate exercise, and the oxygen uptake rate, using a new nonlinear regression approachsupport vector regression. Ten untrained normal males exercised in an upright position on an electronically braked cycle ergometer with constant workloads ranging from 25 W to 125 W. Throughout the experiment, was determined breath by breath and the HR was monitored beat by beat. During the last minute of each exercise session, the cardiac output was measured beat by beat using a novel non-invasive ultrasound-based device and blood pressure was measured using a tonometric measurement device. Based on the analysis of experimental data, nonlinear steady-state relationships between key central cardiovascular variables and were qualitatively observed except for the HR which increased linearly as a function of increasing . Quantitative descriptions of these complex nonlinear behaviour were provided by nonparametric models which were obtained by using support vector regression.

Lu Wang; Steven W Su; Branko G Celler; Gregory S H Chan; Teddy M Cheng; Andrey V Savkin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

An Optimization Model for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The necessity for environmentally conscious vehicle designs in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change have induced significant investment towards enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. More recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have held great intuitive appeal and have attracted considerable attention. PHEVs have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the commercial transportation sector. They are especially appealing in situations where daily commuting is within a small amount of miles with excessive stop-and-go driving. The research effort outlined in this paper aims to investigate the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium-duty PHEV. An optimization framework is developed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, e.g., pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the optimal design with respect to motor/generator and battery size. A comparison between the conventional and PHEV configurations with equivalent size and performance under the same driving conditions is conducted, thus allowing an assessment of the fuel economy and GHG emissions potential improvement. The post-transmission parallel configuration yields higher fuel economy and less GHG emissions compared to pre-transmission configuration partly attributable to the enhanced regenerative braking efficiency.

Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

NASA Lewis Stirling engine computer code evaluation  

SciTech Connect

In support of the US Department of Energy's Stirling Engine Highway Vehicle Systems program, the NASA Lewis Stirling engine performance code was evaluated by comparing code predictions without engine-specific calibration factors to GPU-3, P-40, and RE-1000 Stirling engine test data. The error in predicting power output was /minus/11 percent for the P-40 and 12 percent for the RE-1000 at design conditions and 16 percent for the GPU-3 at near-design conditions (2000 rpm engine speed versus 3000 rpm at design). The efficiency and heat input predictions showed better agreement with engine test data than did the power predictions. Concerning all data points, the error in predicting the GPU-3 brake power was significantly larger than for the other engines and was mainly a result of inaccuracy in predicting the pressure phase angle. Analysis into this pressure phase angle prediction error suggested that improvement to the cylinder hysteresis loss model could have a significant effect on overall Stirling engine performance predictions. 13 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

Sullivan, T.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

RO-VIBRATIONAL CO DETECTED IN THE {beta} PICTORIS CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK  

SciTech Connect

We present high-resolution near-infrared spectra of {beta} Pictoris-a nearby young star with a debris disk. Fundamental low-J CO absorption lines are detected and strict upper limits are placed on the flux of v = 2-1 low-J CO emission lines. The limit on the UV fluorescent emission flux in the v = 2-1 lines is used to place a tight constraint on the inner extent of the CO gas. Assuming H I is the primary collision partner, the sub-thermal population of the low-J v = 0 rotational levels constrains the density of the gas in the disk to n{sub H} = (2.5{sup +7.1}{sub -1.2}) x 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}. If the distribution of hydrogen follows that of the other metals in the disk, we find that the mass of the gas in the disk is 0.17{sup +0.47}{sub -0.08} M{sub +}. We compare this mass to the gas mass necessary to brake the metals in the disk through ion-neutral reactions.

Troutman, Matthew R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Najita, Joan R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Rettig, Terrence W. [Center for Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Brittain, Sean D., E-mail: mtroutm@clemson.edu, E-mail: khinkle@noao.edu, E-mail: najita@noao.edu, E-mail: trettig@nd.edu, E-mail: sbritt@clemson.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 118 Kinard Laboratory, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Measuring M dwarf Winds with DAZ White Dwarfs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs with metal lines, so-called DAZs, show evidence for ongoing accretion of material onto their surfaces. Some DAZs are known to have unresolved M dwarf companions, which could account for the observed accretion through a stellar wind. I combine observed Ca abundances of the DAZs with information on the orbital separation of their M dwarf companions to infer the mass loss rate of the M dwarfs. I find that for three of the six known DAZs with M dwarf companions, a stellar wind can plausibly explain the observed accretion on the white dwarfs assuming Bondi-Hoyle accretion of solar abundance stellar winds on the order of 10$^{-14}-10^{-16}\\Msun$ yr$^{-1}$. The rest of the sample have companions with orbits $\\gtorder$ 1~AU, and require companion mass loss rates of $> 10^{-11}\\Msun$ yr$^{-1}$. I conclude that there must be an alternative explanation for accretion of material onto DAZs with widely separated companions. The inferred winds for two of the close binaries are orders of magnitude smaller than typically assumed for the angular momentum loss of red dwarf-white dwarf pairs due to magnetic braking from a stellar wind and may seriously affect predictions for the formation rate of CVs with low mass companions.

J. H. Debes

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

A parametric study for specific fuel consumption of an intercooled diesel engine using a neural network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Turbocharging is a process wherein the amount of oxygen used in a combustion reaction is increased to raise output and decrease specific fuel consumption. On account of this, fuel economy and thermal efficiency are more important for all engines. The use of an intercooler reduces the temperature of intake air to the engine, and this cooler and denser air increases thermal and volumetric efficiency. Most research projects on engineering problems usually take the form of experimental studies. However, experimental research is relatively expensive and time consuming. In recent years, Neural Networks (NNs) have increasingly been used in a diverse range of engineering applications. In this study, various parametric studies are executed to investigate the interrelationship between a single variable and two steadies and two constant parameters on the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, g/kWh). The variables selected are engine speed, load and Crankshaft Angel (CA). The data used in the present study were obtained from previous experimental research by the author. These data were used to enhance, train and test a NN model using a MATLAB-based program. The results of the NN based model were found to be convincing and were consistent with the experimental results. The trained NN based model was then used to perform the parametric studies. The performance of the NN based model and the results of parametric studies are presented in graphical form and evaluated.

Abdullah Uzun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Performance and emission evaluation of biodiesel fueled diesel engine abetted with exhaust gas recirculation and Ni coated catalytic converter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article summarizes the results of a laboratory exertion to evaluate the performance and emission parameters of a single cylinder water cooled direct injection diesel engine with and without the aid of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as well as with and without the assistance of nickel coated catalytic converter. Neat diesel ethyl esters of waste frying oil (B100) and its diesel blends (B20 and B40) were used as test fuels to assess the various engine operating parameters. Conjointly in this work the effects of emission characteristics by incorporating nickel coated catalytic converter along with 0% 15% and 20% of HOT EGR technique are elaborately discussed. Experimental results proved that the diesel engine operated up to B40 blends assisted by catalytic converter and 15% EGR level showed an adequate reduction in oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust pipe. Also EGR level up to 15% proved reasonable brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption when the test engine operated up to B40 biodiesel-diesel blends.

D. Subramaniam; A. Murugesan; A. Avinash

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Experimental investigation on thermal barrier coated diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-ethanol-diethyl ether blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work diesel-biodiesel-ethanol (DBE) and diesel-biodiesel-diethyl ether (DBD) fuels are tested with normal diesel engine and the diesel engine coated with the layers of aluminum oxide (Al 2O3) of 0.3?mm and yttria-stabilized zirconia of 0.2?mm. The various performance and emission parameters are analyzed and determined. The experimental work was carried out in a single cylinder water cooled engine coupled with eddy current dynamometer. The AVL make five gas analyzer and smoke meter were used to measure the different exhaust pollutants. The result shows that the brake thermal efficiency of coated engine is more than that of base diesel at high loads. The thermal barrier coated engine using fuel as diesel biodiesel and ethanol (TDBE) produces the lowest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions among all the fuels that are selected. In addition it produces the lowest carbon dioxide (CO2) at higher loads. Both the thermal barrier coated engine using fuel as diesel biodiesel and diethyl ether (TDBD) and TDBE have higher NOx emissions among almost all the fuels used. The TDBE and TDBD have higher smoke emissions at initial loads but eventually show lower smoke emissions at higher loads. The thermal barrier coated diesel engine fueled with DBE and DBD shows an increase in engine power and specific fuel consumption as well as significant improvements in exhaust gas emissions except NOx.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Design of the human computer interface on the telerobotic small emplacement excavator  

SciTech Connect

The small emplacement excavator (SEE) is a ruggedized military vehicle with backhoe and front loader used by the U.S. Army for explosive ordinance disposal (EOD) and general utility excavation activities. This project resulted from a joint need in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for a remote controlled excavator for buried waste operations and the U.S. Department of Defense for remote EOD operations. To evaluate the feasibility of removing personnel from the SEE vehicle during high-risk excavation tasks, a development and demonstration project was initiated. Development of a telerobotic SEE (TSEE) was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a project funded jointly by the U.S. Army and the DOE. The TSEE features teleoperated driving, a telerobotic backhoe with four degrees of freedom, and a teleoperated front loader with two degrees of freedom on the bucket. Remote capabilities include driving (forward, reverse, brake, steering), power takeoff shifting to enable digging modes, deploying stabilizers, excavation, and computer system booting.

Thompson, D.H.; Killough, S.M.; Burks, B.L.; Draper, J.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

464

Optimisation of transient response of a gasoline engine with variable geometry turbine turbocharger  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Maintaining transient torque response is challenging on turbocharged engines because of the period of time required to accelerate the turbocharger. Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) turbochargers offer a route to improve the transient response. In order to explore the transient operation without any limitation imposed by the production control strategy, an on line search was conducted using a series of open loop actuator trajectories applied to a VGT turbocharger installed on a gasoline engine. The trade-off between the responses in different stages in the transient event has been illustrated. The time required to reach 50% of maximum torque rise (T50) was improved by up to 0.54s (35.5%) whilst the turbocharger acceleration was maintained. Fully closing the VGT resulted in high exhaust back pressure and low volumetric efficiency. This suggests that a simple boost pressure feedback control will likely not deliver optimised performance due to the excessive exhaust back pressure, reducing the available brake torque during the early part of the transient. Therefore, a model based control strategy may be required.

H. Tang; S. Akehurst; C.J. Brace; S. Garrett; L. Smith

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Wireless Transfer of Electricity in Outer Space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author offers conclusions from his research of a revolutionary new idea - transferring electric energy in the hard vacuum of outer space wirelessly, using a plasma power cord as an electric cable (wire). He shows that a certain minimal electric currency creates a compressed force that supports the plasma cable in the compacted form. A large energy can be transferred hundreds of millions of kilometers by this method. The required mass of the plasma cable is only hundreds of grams. He computed the macroprojects: transference of hundreds kilowatts of energy to Earth Space Station, transferring energy to the Moon or back, transferring energy to a spaceship at distance 100 million of kilometers, the transfer energy to Mars when one is located at opposed side of the distant Sun, transfer colossal energy from one of Earth's continents to another continent (for example, between Europe-USA) wirelessly-using Earth ionosphere as cable, using Earth as gigantic storage of electric energy, using the plasma ring as huge MagSail for moving of spaceships. He also demonstrates that electric currency in a plasma cord can accelerate or brake spacecraft and space apparatus.

Alexander Bolonkin

2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

466

Investigating the low-temperature impedance increase of lithium-ion cells.  

SciTech Connect

Low-temperature performance loss is a significant barrier to commercialization of lithium-ion cells in hybrid electric vehicles. Increased impedance, especially at temperatures below 0 C, reduces the cell pulse power performance required for cold engine starts, quick acceleration, or regenerative braking. Here we detail electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data on binder- and carbon-free layered-oxide and spinel-oxide electrodes, obtained over the +30 to ?30 C temperature range, in coin cells containing a lithium-preloaded Li{sub 4/3}Ti{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} composite (LTOc) counter electrode and a LiPF{sub 6}-bearing ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte. For all electrodes studied, the impedance increased with decreasing cell temperature; the increases observed in the midfrequency arc dwarfed the increases in ohmic resistance and diffusional impedance. Our data suggest that the movement of lithium ions across the electrochemical interface on the active material may have been increasingly hindered at lower temperatures, especially below 0 C. Low-temperature performance may be improved by modifying the electrolyte-active material interface (for example, through electrolyte composition changes). Increasing surface area of active particles (for example, through nanoparticle use) can lower the initial electrode impedance and lead to lower cell impedances at -30 C.

Abraham, D. P.; Heaton, J. R.; Kang, S.-H.; Dees, D. W.; Jansen, A. N.; Chemical Engineering

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of DI diesel engine running on blends of calophyllum inophyllum linn oil (honne oil)/diesel fuel/kerosene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kerosene (K)/diesel fuel (D)/honne oil (H) blends have a potential to improve the performance and emissions and to be alternatives to neat diesel fuel (ND) and has not been reported in the literature. Experiments have been conducted on DI diesel engine when fuelled with ND, H10 (10%H + 90%D, by volume) to H30, HK10 (10%H + 45%K + 45%D), HK20 (20%H + 40%K + 40%D) and HK30 (30%H + 35%K + 35%D). The emissions [CO, HC and smoke density (SD)] of fuel blend HK20 are found to be lowest, with CO and HC dropping significantly. The NOx level is higher with HK10 to HK30 compared to ND and H10 to H30. The brake thermal efficiency of HK10 to HK30 is almost the same and it is higher as compared to ND and H10 to H30. There is a good trade off between NOx and SD. Peak cylinder pressure and premixed combustion phase increases as kerosene content increases.

B.K. Venkanna; C. Venkataramana Reddy

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Investigation on combustion characteristics of crude rice bran oil methyl ester blend as a heavy duty automotive engine fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work, an attempt was made to test the suitability of crude rice bran oil methyl ester (CRBME) blend as a heavy duty automotive engine fuel. A four stroke, six cylinder direct injection 117.6 kW turbo-charged compression ignition (CI) engine was used for the work. The operation of the engine with CRBME blend showed that the peak pressure increased with lower maximum rate of pressure rise and maximum heat release rate with shorter delay period. Burning rate of the CRBME blend was slower and required a higher crank angle to complete the combustion cycle when compared to diesel. The brake thermal efficiency of the CRBME blend was lower than that of diesel at all speeds except at 2300rpm. As the measured combustion and performance parameters for CRBME blend differs only by a smaller magnitude when compared with diesel, this investigation ensures the suitability of the CRBME blend as fuel for heavy duty automotive engine without any design modifications [Received: August 12, 2010; Accepted: August 29, 2010

S. Saravanan; G. Nagarajan; S. Sampath

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Understanding fuel savings mechanisms from hybrid vehicles to guide optimal battery sizing for India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Global transportation-related CO2 emissions are expected to substantially increase by 2050, with a majority of growth coming from rapidly developing countries like India. To understand the potential for using hybrid vehicles to limit the CO2 emissions growth, this paper compares driving conditions and the fuel savings potential of hybrids in the USA and India. It is shown that hybrids offer more fuel savings potential in India than in the USA, largely because of the limited highway driving in India. In order of relative importance, the analysis shows that fuel savings from power-split hybrids come from: 1) enabling higher efficiency engine operation; 2) energy recovered from regenerative braking; 3) engine shutdown. This understanding of the fuel savings mechanisms of hybrids and their relative importance is used in assessing how smaller battery capacities for hybrids in India can be used to reduce costs for this highly cost-sensitive market while preserving fuel savings. A parametric analysis of battery size on fuel savings mechanisms is carried out, and it is shown that hybrid vehicles for Indian driving conditions should ideally have a power capacity between 15 and 20 kW, with 10 kW as a lower limit.

Samveg Saxena; Amol Phadke; Anand Gopal; Venkat Srinivasan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

A high-resolution spectropolarimetric survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars - II. Rotation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the analysis of the rotational properties of our sample of Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) and related stars for which we have obtained high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations. Using the projected rotational velocities measured at the surface of the stars, we have calculated the angular momentum of the sample and plotted it as a function of age. We have then compared the angular momentum and the vsini distributions of the magnetic to the non-magnetic HAeBe stars. Finally we have predicted the vsini of the non-magnetic, non-binary ("normal") stars in our sample when they reach the ZAMS, and compared them to various catalogues of the vsini of main-sequence stars. First, we observe that magnetic HAeBe stars are much slower rotators than normal stars, indicating that they have been more efficiently braked than the normal stars. In fact, the magnetic stars have already lost most of their angular momentum, despite their young ages (lower than 1 Myr for some of them). Secondly, our analysis suggests that the...

Alecian, E; Catala, C; Grunhut, J H; Landstreet, J D; Bhm, T; Folsom, C P; Marsden, S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Magnetism and rotation in Herbig Ae/Be stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Among the main sequence intermediate mass A and B stars, around 5% host large-scale organized magnetic fields. Most of these stars are very slow rotators compared to their non-magnetic counterparts, and show photospheric abundance anomalies. They are referred to as the Ap/Bp stars. One of the greatest challenges, today is to understand the origin of their magnetic field and their slow rotation. The favoured hypothesis is a fossil origin of the magnetic field, in which the magnetic fields of Ap/Bp stars are relics of those which existed in the parental molecular clouds during the formation. This implies that the magnetic field must survive all the initial phases of the stellar evolution and especially the pre-main sequence (PMS) phase. This is consistent with the general belief that magnetic braking occurs during the PMS phase, which sheds angular momentum and slows the rotation of these stars. In this context, we proceeded with a survey of a sample of around 50 PMS Herbig Ae/Be stars, using the new spectropol...

Alecian, E; Catala, C; Folsom, C; Grunhut, J; Donati, J -F; Petit, P; Bagnulo, S; Bhm, T; Bouret, J -C; Landstreet, J D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

The stellar wind cycles and planetary radio emission of the Tau Boo system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tau Boo is an intriguing planet-host star that is believed to undergo magnetic cycles similar to the Sun, but with a duration that is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the solar cycle. With the use of observationally derived surface magnetic field maps, we simulate the magnetic stellar wind of Tau Boo by means of three-dimensional MHD numerical simulations. As the properties of the stellar wind depend on the particular characteristics of the stellar magnetic field, we show that the wind varies during the observed epochs of the cycle. Although the mass loss-rates we find (~2.7e-12 Msun/yr) vary less than 3 per cent during the observed epochs of the cycle, our derived angular momentum loss-rates vary from 1.1 to 2.2e32erg. The spin-down times associated to magnetic braking range between 39 and 78Gyr. We also compute the emission measure from the (quiescent) closed corona and show that it remains approximately constant through these epochs at a value of ~10^{50.6} cm^{-3}. This suggests that a ma...

Vidotto, A A; Jardine, M; Donati, J F; Opher, M; Moutou, C; Catala, C; Gombosi, T I

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

TEC as electric generator in an automobile catalytic converter  

SciTech Connect

Modern cars use more and more electric power due to more on-board electric systems, e.g., ABS brakes, active suspension systems, electric windows, chair adjustment systems and electronic engine control systems. One possible energy source for electricity generation is to use the waste heat from the car`s engine, which generally is as much as 80% of the total energy from the combustion of the gasoline. Maybe the best location to tap the excess heat is the Catalytic Converter (Cat) in the exhaust system or perhaps at the exhaust pipes close to the engine. The Cat must be kept within a certain temperature interval. Large amounts of heat are dissipated through the wall of the Cat. A Thermionic Energy Converter (TEC) in coaxial form could conveniently be located around the ceramic cartridge of the Cat. Since the TEC is a rather good heat insulator before it reaches its working temperature the Cat will reach working temperature faster, and the final temperature of it can be controlled better when encapsulated in a concentric TEC arrangement. It is also possible to regulate the temperature of the Cat and the TEC by controlling the electrical load of the TEC. The possible working temperatures of present and future Cats appear very suitable for the new low work function collector TEC, which has been demonstrated to work down to 470 K.

Svensson, R. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Holmlid, L. [Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

474

Influence of using emulsified diesel fuel on the performance and pollutants emitted from diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This manuscript investigates the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions for a water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinders, and direct injection diesel engine. Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 030% by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000rpm. It was found that, in general, the using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) has a minimum value at 5% water content and 2000rpm. The torque (T), the break mean effective pressure (BMEP) and thermal efficiency (?th) are found to have maximum values under these conditions. The emission CO2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. \\{NOx\\} produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions. And as the percentage of water content in the emulsion increases, the emitted amount of oxygen also increases.

Ali Alahmer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Solar sorption refrigeration in Africa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solar sorption refrigeration technologies are regarded as a promising way to meet the growing refrigeration needs in Africa, for thermal comfort, foods and crops, vaccines and medicines conservation. Sorption technologies projects and studies have been reported in Africa since the late 1970s. This paper describes the most representative reported research activities and projects in various African climatic conditions. An emphasis is put on demonstrative plants involving absorption, adsorption or desiccant cooling applications. From this overview, it appears that a lot of achievements have been made, though applications are mainly focused on small-size cold boxes for foods and vaccines preservation; no direct building air conditioning based on adsorption or absorption has been reported. Mediterranean countries seems to offer the best weather conditions for solar sorption refrigeration applications and plenty of related activities could be identified in these countries. A more adequate design for each of other climatic zones in Africa may then be relevant. As anywhere, the high cost of these technologies remains the main the biggest brake to their diffusion in Africa.

Kokouvi Edem NTsoukpoe; Daniel Yamegueu; Justin Bassole

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Collisionless absorption, hot electron generation, and energy scaling in intense laser-target interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Among the various attempts to understand collisionless absorption of intense ultrashort laser pulses a variety of models has been invented to describe the laser beam target interaction. In terms of basic physics collisionless absorption is understood now as the interplay of the oscillating laser field with the space charge field produced in the plasma. A first approach to this idea is realized in Brunel's model the essence of which consists in the formation of an oscillating charge cloud in the vacuum in front of the target. The investigation of statistical ensembles of orbits shows that the absorption process is localized at the ion-vacuum interface and in the skin layer: Single electrons enter into resonance with the laser field thereby undergoing a phase shift which causes orbit crossing and braking of Brunel's laminar flow. This anharmonic resonance acts like an attractor for the electrons and leads to the formation of a Maxwellian tail in the electron energy spectrum. Most remarkable results of our inves...

Liseykina, T; Murakami, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Development of a new feed channel spacer for reverse osmosis elements. Phase 2 final report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

During Phase 1, computer modeling techniques were used as the prime instrument of evaluation of designs for a new feed channel spacer to replace the 30 mil thick standard mesh (Vexar) spacer currently used in ROWPU [Reverse Osmosis Water Processing Unit] spiral-wound elements. A hemispherical peg model, based on a Bed of Nails concept developed in Phase 1, was selected for prototype production of spiral-wound elements for field testing. Evaluation in the See-Thru test cell to observe pressure drops through the spacer, feed mixing patterns and ease of cleaning fouled membrane samples showed considerable benefit over Vexar. This design would be suitable for production by roll embossing (or rotary punching) methods instead of expensive injection molding techniques. A 10{1/2} inch die set was fabricated to prove this concept using a 12 ton press brake. Due to a number of factors, however, the equipment did not work as anticipated and numerous modifications are currently in progress. This work will continue at no cost to the government until completed. A seawater test system has been constructed for field testing of various commercially available feed channel spacers for comparison with the Vexar spacer.

Milstead, C.E.; Riley, R.L.

1998-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

478

Experimental study on combustion and emissions performance of a hybrid syngasgasoline engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of syngas addition on the performance of a 1.6L gasoline engine at lean condition was investigated in the paper. The syngas which produced by the onboard ethanol catalytic decomposition was mainly composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A tube array reforming reactor was mounted on the engine tailpipe to produce syngas. During the test, the engine was run at 1800rpm and a manifolds absolute pressure of 61.5kPa. The spark timing for the maximum brake torque was adopted for all tests. The engine spark timing, injection timing and duration of the gasoline were controlled by a hybrid electronic control unit communicated with the engine original electronic control unit. The syngas volume fraction in the total intake gas was gradually increased from 0% to 1.84%. The gasoline flow rate was decreased to ensure that the global excess air ratio of the fuelair mixture in cylinder at about 1.20. The test results confirmed that the syngas addition helped improve the indicated thermal efficiency and shorten the combustion duration. HC, \\{NOx\\} emissions and particle total number per cubic centimeter were reduced after the syngas addition at lean condition.

Changwei Ji; Xiaoxu Dai; Shuofeng Wang; Chen Liang; Bingjie Ju; Xiaolong Liu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

4 - Frictionvibration interactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Generally, friction could be treated as a dynamical variable in a dynamical system with a sliding interface. For convenience, the effect of friction on vibrations and the effect of vibrations on friction have been treated separately. The close-loop feedback effects of frictionvibration interactions have rarely been paid attention due to limited engineering applications. Both friction and vibration have been simplified and quantified by order-reduced models. There are many unique dynamic phenomena and underlying mechanisms associated with the vibrations of a system with friction, just to name a few: stick-slip, self-excited vibrations, modal coupling, sprag-slip, loss of contact, parametric resonance, etc. Friction-induced vibrations usually exhibit time-varying, nonlinear and stochastic properties. On the other hand, there are certain underlying mechanisms associated with the effect of vibrations on the friction reductions. This chapter will comprehensively survey varied characteristics of vibrations in systems having friction. Then a detailed consideration of the current understanding of vibration-induced friction reduction will be given. Also the single-degree-of-freedom system, multiple-degree-of-freedom system and continuous system are discussed. Finally, several applications in science and engineering are presented, which include stick-slip associated with earthquakes, friction vibrations of rod in sucker pumping system, and automotive brake vibrations and noise.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND OPTIMAL POWER CONTROL STRATEGY FOR AN ECO?FRIENDLY HYBRID VEHICLE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a new concept for a hybrid vehicle using a torque and speed splitting technique. It is implemented by the newly developed controller in combination with a two degree of freedom epicyclic gear transmission. This approach enables optimization of the power split between the less powerful electrical motor and more powerful engine while driving a car load. The power split is fundamentally a dual?energy integration mechanism as it is implemented by using the epicyclic gear transmission that has two inputs and one output for a proper power distribution. The developed power split control system manages the operation of both the inputs to have a known output with the condition of maintaining optimum operating efficiency of the internal combustion engine and electrical motor. This system has a huge potential as it is possible to integrate all the features of hybrid vehicle known to?date such as the regenerative braking system series hybrid parallel hybrid series/parallel hybrid and even complex hybrid (bidirectional). By using the new power split system it is possible to further reduce fuel consumption and increase overall efficiency.

N. Mir Nasiri; Frederick T. A. Chieng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "braking anti-lock brakes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Extending the Constant Power Speed Range of the Brushless DC Motor through Dual Mode Inverter Control -- Part I: Theory and Simulation  

SciTech Connect

An inverter topology and control scheme has been developed that can drive low-inductance, surface-mounted permanent magnet motors over the wide constant power speed range required in electric vehicle applications. This new controller is called the dual-mode inverter control (DMIC) [1]. The DMIC can drive either the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) with sinusoidal back emf, or the brushless dc machine (BDCM) with trapezoidal emf in the motoring and regenerative braking modes. In this paper we concentrate on the BDCM under high-speed motoring conditions. Simulation results show that if all motor and inverter loss mechanisms are neglected, the constant power speed range of the DMIC is infinite. The simulation results are supported by closed form expressions for peak and rms motor current and average power derived from analytical solution to the differential equations governing the DMIC/BDCM drive for the lossless case. The analytical solution shows that the range of motor inductance that can be accommodated by the DMIC is more than an order of magnitude such that the DMIC is compatible with both low- and high-inductance BDCMs. Finally, method is given for integrating the classical hysteresis band current control, used for motor control below base speed, with the phase advance of DMIC that is applied above base speed. The power versus speed performance of the DMIC is then simulated across the entire speed range.

Lawler, J.S.

2001-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

482

Advanced natural-gas-fueled-engine development. Part 1: design and analyses. Final report, April 1985-July 1986  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research program was to design an advanced natural gas engine (NG 1990) to be produced in the 1990's which will have high thermal efficiency and 40,000 hours durability of the valve-train components before major engine overhaul. Preliminary design and feasibility of the NG 1990 advanced natural gas engine was completed. A natural gas engine simulation model predicts up to 43.6% brake thermal efficiency (5840 Btu/hp-hr BSFC) for the advanced engine with the advanced concepts like K-Miller cycle (early intake valve closing), lean burn combustion - A/F ratio = 24.5, high compression ratio up to 14:1, higher turbocharger efficiency of 63.2% overall, and axially stratified charge combustion system resulting in fast burning. The use of K-Miller cycle reduces the in-cylinder gas temperatures and allows engine operation at 14:1 compression ratio without knock tendencies. The design and analyses of the NG 1990 engine and its components like K-Miller system were completed in the program.

Kamo, R.; Walson, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Kamo, L.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition  

SciTech Connect

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

A Look Inside the Detroit Auto Show | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Look Inside the Detroit Auto Show A Look Inside the Detroit Auto Show A Look Inside the Detroit Auto Show January 12, 2011 - 1:15pm Addthis Kerry Duggan Waking up at 4:30AM is not my idea of fun. But after I witnessed the 6:30AM unveiling of the shiny new Porsche 918 RSR Hybrid at the North American International Auto Show, I got over it. To those who know cars, its lineage is in the #22 Porsche 917 race car, winner of the LeMans in 1971. With a top speed of 140 mph, the new 918 RSR combines the power of a 563-horsepower V-8 engine and a dual inertial flywheel system to produce a total 767-horsepower. On the efficiency side, a Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) allows the two 75-kW flywheels to capture wasted energy when the brakes are applied. The Porsche president said that their goal is to achieve high fuel efficiency in extreme driving

485

Award  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PROSPECT received R&D 100 award for 2001 PROSPECT received R&D 100 award for 2001 Drs. Ying Xu and Dong Xu received R&D 100 award in 2001 for the development of PROSPECT. The R&D 100 awards program is designed to honor significant commercial promise in products, materials or processes developed by the international research and development community. Technologies are nominated in open competition and judged by technical experts selected by the Illinois-based R&D Magazine. The magazine uses technical criteria to select the 100 most significant, unique or promising entries from the nominations received. The Chicago Tribune has called the awards "The Oscars of Invention." Others have referred to the R&D 100 Awards as the "Nobel Prizes of Applied Research." Past winners have included breakthroughs like Polacolor film, the flashcube, the digital wristwatch, antilock brakes, the automated teller machine, the liquid crystal display, the halogen lamp, the fax machine, and Fruitrim fat replacer.

486

Hydromechanical transmission with compound planetary assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power transmission having three distinct ranges: (1) hydrostatic, (2) simple power-split hydromechanical, and (3) compound power-split hydromechanical. A single compound planetary assembly has two sun gears, two ring gears, and a single carrier with two sets of elongated planet gears. The two sun gears may be identical in size, and the two ring gears may be identical in size. A speed-varying module in driving relationship to the first sun gear is clutchable, in turn, to (1) the input shaft and (2) the second sun gear. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being the one clutchable to either the input shaft or to the second sun gear. The other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, is connected in driving relation to the first sun gear. A brake grounds the carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output shaft through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode, the first ring gear being rigidly connected to the output shaft. The input shaft is also clutchable to the second ring gear of the compound planetary assembly.

Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias (late of San Francisco, CA); Weseloh, William E. (San Diego, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Transmission with a first-stage hydrostatic mode and two hydromechanical stages  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power transmission having two planetary assemblies, each having at least one carrier with planet gears, at least one sun gear, and at least one ring gear. A speed-varying module is connected in driving relation to the input shaft and in driving relationship to the sun gear or gears of the first planetary assembly. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being connected in driving relation to the input shaft, the other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, being connected in driving relation to the sun gear. The input shaft is also connected directly to a sun gear of the second planetary assembly and is further connectable by a clutch to a carrier of the first planetary assembly. Another clutch enables connecting the carrier of the first planetary assembly to a ring gear of the second planetary assembly. A brake grounds the first carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output through a ring gear of the first planetary assembly in a hydrostatic mode. The carrier of the second planetary assembly is connected in rigid driving relationship to that first ring gear, and in all ranges these two elements transmit the drive to the output shaft.

Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias (late of San Fransisco, CA); Weseloh, William E. (San Diego, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Selection of best biodiesel blend for IC engines: an integrated approach with FAHP-TOPSIS and FAHP-VIKOR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study is to select the best blend using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) technique. The six alternative fuel blends diesel, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 are prepared by varying the amount of diesel in biodiesel. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exhaust gas temperature (EGT), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), smoke, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are considered as evaluation criteria. A single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection diesel engine (4.4 kW) was used for exploratory analysis of evaluation criteria at different load conditions. Two models fuzzy analytical hierarchy process-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FAHP-TOPSIS) and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (FAHP-VIKOR, in Serbian) are proposed to evaluate the best blend. Here, the FAHP is used to analyse the structure of best blend selection and to determine the weights of the criteria. The TOPSIS and VIKOR are used to obtain the final ranking of the blend. [Received: July 10, 2012; Accepted: October 16, 2012].

G. Sakthivel; M. Ilangkumaran; G. Nagarajan; P. Shanmugam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Development of decision support system to select the best fuel blend in IC engines to enhance the energy efficiency  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes an application of hybrid MCDM technique for the selection of optimum blend in fish oil biodiesel among the six alternative fuel blends diesel, B20, B40, B60, B80 and B100 which is prepared by varying the amount of diesel with biodiesel. Brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exhaust gas temperature (EGT), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), smoke, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), ignition delay (ID), combustion duration (CD) and maximum rate of pressure rise (MRPR) are considered as evaluation criteria. A single cylinder, constant speed and direct injection diesel engine with a rated output of 4.4 kW was used for exploratory analysis of evaluation criteria at different load conditions. The proposed model, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) is integrated with elimination et and choice translating reality (ELECTRE) to evaluate the optimum blend. Here the FAHP is used to determine the relative weights of the criteria, whereas ELECTRE is used for obtaining the final ranking of alternative blends.

G. Sakthivel; M. Ilangkumaran

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Dynamic Analysis of Floating Wind Turbines During Pitch Actuator Fault, Grid Loss, and Shutdown  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coupled non-linear aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulations of three types of floating wind turbines (spar, semi- submersible, and tension leg platform) are carried out for several fault cases over a range of environmental conditions based on correlated wind and wave data from the North Sea. Three particular fault scenarios are considered: 1) blade seize, where the pitch actuator of one blade is blocked, 2) blade seize, recognized by the controller and followed by shutdown (grid disconnection and aerodynamic braking), and 3) grid loss followed by shutdown. The platform motions and structural loads caused by fault events are compared to loads encountered during normal operation and during selected extreme weather conditions. Although the global motions and mooring line loads tend to be largest during stormaconditions, selected platforms experience large pitch or yaw motions due to blade seize and shutdown. Imbalance loads due to blade seize can lead to particularly large loads on the blades and tower, andethe shutdown process can impose relatively large edgewise blade loads.

Erin E. Bachynski; Mahmoud Etemaddar; Marit I. Kvittem; Chenyu Luan; Torgeir Moan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing properties and, for magnetars, it provides the energy budget for the outburst activity and high quiescent luminosities (usually well above the rotational energy budget). We aim at unifying this observational variety by linking the results of the state-of-the-art 2D magneto-thermal simulations with observational data. The comparison between theory and observations allows to place two strong constraints on the physical properties of the inner crust. First, strong electrical currents must circulate in the crust, rather than in the star core. Second, the innermost part of the crust must be highly resistive, which is in principle in agreement with the presence of a novel phase of matter so-called nuclear pasta phase.

Vigan, Daniele; Miralles, Juan A; Rea, Nanda

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Advanced Techniques for Power System Identification from Measured Data  

SciTech Connect

Time-synchronized measurements provide rich information for estimating a power-system's electromechanical modal properties via advanced signal processing. This information is becoming critical for the improved operational reliability of interconnected grids. A given mode's properties are described by its frequency, damping, and shape. Modal frequencies and damping are useful indicators of power-system stress, usually declining with increased load or reduced grid capacity. Mode shape provides critical information for operational control actions. This project investigated many advanced techniques for power system identification from measured data focusing on mode frequency and damping ratio estimation. Investigators from the three universities coordinated their effort with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Significant progress was made on developing appropriate techniques for system identification with confidence intervals and testing those techniques on field measured data and through simulation. Experimental data from the western area power system was provided by PNNL and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for both ambient conditions and for signal injection tests. Three large-scale tests were conducted for the western area in 2005 and 2006. Measured field PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) data was provided to the three universities. A 19-machine simulation model was enhanced for testing the system identification algorithms. Extensive simulations were run with this model to test the performance of the algorithms. University of Wyoming researchers participated in four primary activities: (1) Block and adaptive processing techniques for mode estimation from ambient signals and probing signals, (2) confidence interval estimation, (3) probing signal design and injection method analysis, and (4) performance assessment and validation from simulated and field measured data. Subspace based methods have been use to improve previous results from block processing techniques. Bootstrap techniques have been developed to estimate confidence intervals for the electromechanical modes from field measured data. Results were obtained using injected signal data provided by BPA. A new probing signal was designed that puts more strength into the signal for a given maximum peak to peak swing. Further simulations were conducted on a model based on measured data and with the modifications of the 19-machine simulation model. Montana Tech researchers participated in two primary activities: (1) continued development of the 19-machine simulation test system to include a DC line; and (2) extensive simulation analysis of the various system identification algorithms and bootstrap techniques using the 19 machine model. Researchers at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks focused on the development and testing of adaptive filter algorithms for mode estimation using data generated from simulation models and on data provided in collaboration with BPA and PNNL. There efforts consist of pre-processing field data, testing and refining adaptive filter techniques (specifically the Least Mean Squares (LMS), the Adaptive Step-size LMS (ASLMS), and Error Tracking (ET) algorithms). They also improved convergence of the adaptive algorithms by using an initial estimate from block processing AR method to initialize the weight vector for LMS. Extensive testing was performed on simulated data from the 19 machine model. This project was also extensively involved in the WECC (Western Electricity Coordinating Council) system wide tests carried out in 2005 and 2006. These tests involved injecting known probing signals into the western power grid. One of the primary goals of these tests was the reliable estimation of electromechanical mode properties from measured PMU data. Applied to the system were three types of probing inputs: (1) activation of the Chief Joseph Dynamic Brake, (2) mid-level probing at the Pacific DC Intertie (PDCI), and (3) low-level probing on the PDCI. The Chief Joseph Dynamic Brake is a 1400 MW disturbance to the system and is injected for a ha

Pierre, John W.; Wies, Richard; Trudnowski, Daniel

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

493

Levelized cost-benefit analysis of proposed diagnostics for the Ammunition Transfer Arm of the US Army`s Future Armored Resupply Vehicle  

SciTech Connect

The US Army`s Project Manager, Advanced Field Artillery System/Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (PM-AFAS/FARV) is sponsoring the development of technologies that can be applied to the resupply vehicle for the Advanced Field Artillery System. The Engineering Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has proposed adding diagnostics/prognostics systems to four components of the Ammunition Transfer Arm of this vehicle, and a cost-benefit analysis was performed on the diagnostics/prognostics to show the potential savings that may be gained by incorporating these systems onto the vehicle. Possible savings could be in the form of reduced downtime, less unexpected or unnecessary maintenance, fewer regular maintenance checks. and/or tower collateral damage or loss. The diagnostics/prognostics systems are used to (1) help determine component problems, (2) determine the condition of the components, and (3) estimate the remaining life of the monitored components. The four components on the arm that are targeted for diagnostics/prognostics are (1) the electromechanical brakes, (2) the linear actuators, (3) the wheel/roller bearings, and (4) the conveyor drive system. These would be monitored using electrical signature analysis, vibration analysis, or a combination of both. Annual failure rates for the four components were obtained along with specifications for vehicle costs, crews, number of missions, etc. Accident scenarios based on component failures were postulated, and event trees for these scenarios were constructed to estimate the annual loss of the resupply vehicle, crew, arm. or mission aborts. A levelized cost-benefit analysis was then performed to examine the costs of such failures, both with and without some level of failure reduction due to the diagnostics/prognostics systems. Any savings resulting from using diagnostics/prognostics were calculated.

Wilkinson, V.K.; Young, J.M.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Apparatus producing constant cable tension for intermittent demand  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosed apparatus produces constant tension in superconducting electrical cable, or some other strand, under conditions of intermittent demand, as the cable is unreeled from a reel or reeled thereon. The apparatus comprises a pivotally supported swing frame on which the reel is rotatably supported, a rotary motor, a drive train connected between the motor and the reel and including an electrically controllable variable torque slip clutch, a servo transducer connected to the swing frame for producing servo input signals corresponding to the position thereof, a servo control system connected between the transducer and the clutch for regulating the torque transmitted by the clutch to maintain the swing frame in a predetermined position, at least one air cylinder connected to the swing frame for counteracting the tension in the cable, and pressure regulating means for supplying a constant air pressure to the cylinder to establish the constant tension in the cable, the servo system and the clutch being effective to produce torque on the reel in an amount sufficient to provide tension in the cable corresponding to the constant force exerted by the air cylinder. The drive train also preferably includes a fail-safe brake operable to its released position by electrical power in common with the servo system, for preventing rotation of the reel if there is a power failure. A shock absorber and biasing springs may also be connected to the swing frame, such springs biasing the frame toward its predetermined position. The tension in the cable may be measured by force measuring devices engageable with the bearings for the reel shaft, such bearings being supported for slight lateral movement. The reel shaft is driven by a Shmidt coupler which accommodates such movement.

Lauritzen, Ted (Lafayette, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Piston Bowl Optimization for RCCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine  

SciTech Connect

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that that produces low NO{sub x} and PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine at 3 operating points. These operating points were chosen to cover a range of conditions seen in the US EPA light-duty FTP test. The operating points were chosen by the Ad Hoc working group to simulate operation in the FTP test. The fueling strategy for the engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. At these 3 points, the stock engine configuration is compared to operation with both the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and custom machined pistons designed for RCCI operation. The pistons were designed with assistance from the KIVA 3V computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. By using a genetic algorithm optimization, in conjunction with KIVA, the piston bowl profile was optimized for dedicated RCCI operation to reduce unburned fuel emissions and piston bowl surface area. By reducing these parameters, the thermal efficiency of the engine was improved while maintaining low NOx and PM emissions. Results show that with the new piston bowl profile and an optimized injection schedule, RCCI brake thermal efficiency was increased from 37%, with the stock EURO IV configuration, to 40% at the 2,600 rev/min, 6.9 bar BMEP condition, and NOx and PM emissions targets were met without the need for exhaust after-treatment.

Hanson, Reed M [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Reitz, Rolf [University of Wisconsin; Kokjohn, Sage [University of Wisconsin, Madison

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Optimization of combustion bowl geometry for the operation of kapok biodiesel Diesel blends in a stationary diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of this research work is to optimize the combustion bowl geometry of a single cylinder stationary diesel engine for the effective operation of KME (kapok methyl ester) diesel blends. Considering that the reported design modification would render the benefit of adaptation of higher blends of KME, in this study, two different combustion chamber geometries such as TRCC (trapezoidal combustion chamber) and TCC (toroidal combustion chamber) were chosen in addition to the convention design of HCC (hemispherical combustion chamber). In the experimental investigation, suitable blends such as B25 (25% KME+75% diesel), B50 (50% KME+50% diesel), B75 (75% KME+25% diesel) and B100 (100% KME) were tested in a diesel engine with various combustion chamber geometries as mentioned above. Based on the results obtained from this study, TCC was shown to exhibit better performance and emission than TRCC and HCC for all test blends. Further, when compared to diesel, B25 and B50 were found to be the optimum blends with HCC and TCC, respectively, while TRCC seldom evinced better engine characteristics for any of the blends. Categorically, B50 showed a 5.2% increase in BTE (brake thermal efficiency) than diesel with TCC, whereas emissions such as CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke were reduced by 15.7% and 7.8%, respectively, with a comparable NOX (nitrogen oxides) emission with diesel. Similarly, combustion for B50 with TCC was found to be better than diesel, manifesting an increase in maximum heat release rate that that of diesel. Conclusively, from the experimental study, TCC was recognized as an ideal choice of combustion chamber design for the operation of blends up to B50 in a diesel engine.

S. Vedharaj; R. Vallinayagam; W.M. Yang; C.G. Saravanan; P.S. Lee

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

A demonstration of retro-traverse using a semi-autonomous land vehicle  

SciTech Connect

A Jeep Cherokee has been modified by Sandia National Laboratories to allow remote control either by teleoperation or through computer generated commands (autonomy). This vehicle has been used for development of hardware and software and in the demonstration of concepts for compu