National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for br anch pet

  1. Very fast doped LaBr.sub.3 scintillators and time-of-flight PET

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Kanai S.

    2006-10-31

    The present invention concerns very fast scintillator materials capable of resolving the position of an annihilation event within a portion of a human body cross-section. In one embodiment, the scintillator material comprises LaBr.sub.3 doped with cerium. Particular attention is drawn to LaBr.sub.3 doped with a quantity of Ce that is chosen for improving the timing properties, in particular the rise time and resultant timing resolution of the scintillator, and locational capabilities of the scintillator.

  2. br Owner br Facility br Type br Capacity br MW br Commercial...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Owner br Facility br Type br Capacity br MW br Commercial br Online br Date br Geothermal br Area br Geothermal br Region Coordinates Ahuachapan Geothermal Power Plant LaGeo SA de...

  3. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    81 § ¨ ¦ 81 LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON CALEDONIA HURON C REEK LEIC EST ER COL DEN ASH FORD INDIAN FALLS LAWTONS SAR DINIA RPD-037 -2 GLENWOOD PU LASKI PAVILION CON CORD COL LINS N ELM A ORC HARD PARK-H AMBU RG DANLEY CORNERS ST ILLWAT ER CHAFF EE-ARCAD E FAYETT E-WATERLOO LAKEVIEW JAVA SEN EC A W ELLER Y AU RORA E ZOAR BU FFALO TIOGA SILVER LAKE AKR ON ROM E RAT HBON E ALM A BET HANY WYOMING ULYSSES BR ANCH W SAN DY CREEK COL LINS BLOOMFIELD E LEBANON

  4. Jatropha BR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BR Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jatropha BR Place: Brazil Product: Brazilian-based consortium of five leading Brazilian companies engaged in the integrated jatropha curcas...

  5. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  6. Laboratory and cyclotron requirements for PET research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlyer, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes four types of PET facilities: Clinical PET with no radionuclide production; clinical PET with a small accelerator; clinical PET with research support; and research PET facilities. General facility considerations are also discussed.

  7. Photoinduced Br Desorption from CsBr Thin Films Grown on Cu(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halliday, Matthew T.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.; Shluger, AL

    2015-10-22

    Thin films of CsBr deposited onto metals such as copper are potential photocathode materials for light sources and other applications. We investigate desorption dynamics of Br atoms from CsBr films grown on insulator (KBr, LiF) and metal (Cu) substrates induced by sub-bandgap 6.4 eV laser pulses. The experimental results demonstrate that the peak kinetic energy of Br atoms desorbed from CsBr/Cu films is much lower than that for the hyperthermal desorption from CsBr/LiF films. Kelvin probe measurements indicate negative charge at the surface following Br desorption from CsBr/Cu films. Our ab initio calculations of excitons at CsBr surfaces demonstrate that this behavior can be explained by an exciton model of desorption including electron trapping at the CsBr surface. Trapped negative charges reduce the energy of surface excitons available for Br desorption. We examine the electron-trapping characteristics of low-coordinated sites at the surface, in particular, divacancies and kink sites. We also provide a model of cation desorption caused by Franck-Hertz excitation of F centers at the surface in the course of irradiation of CsBr/Cu films. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of photoinduced structural evolution of alkali halide films on metal substrates and activation of metal photocathodes coated with CsBr.

  8. Lanthanum halide scintillators for time-of-flight 3-D pet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karp, Joel S.; Surti, Suleman

    2008-06-03

    A Lanthanum Halide scintillator (for example LaCl.sub.3 and LaBr.sub.3) with fast decay time and good timing resolution, as well as high light output and good energy resolution, is used in the design of a PET scanner. The PET scanner includes a cavity for accepting a patient and a plurality of PET detector modules arranged in an approximately cylindrical configuration about the cavity. Each PET detector includes a Lanthanum Halide scintillator having a plurality of Lanthanum Halide crystals, a light guide, and a plurality of photomultiplier tubes arranged respectively peripherally around the cavity. The good timing resolution enables a time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanner to be developed that exhibits a reduction in noise propagation during image reconstruction and a gain in the signal-to-noise ratio. Such a PET scanner includes a time stamp circuit that records the time of receipt of gamma rays by respective PET detectors and provides timing data outputs that are provided to a processor that, in turn, calculates time-of-flight (TOF) of gamma rays through a patient in the cavity and uses the TOF of gamma rays in the reconstruction of images of the patient.

  9. Progress reported in PET recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The Goodyear Polyester Division has demonstrated its ability to break down polyethylene terephthalate (PET) from recycled plastic soft drink bottles and remanufacture the material into PET suitable for containers. Most people are familiar with PET in the form of lightweight, shatter resistant beverage bottles. About 20 percent of these beverage containers currently are being recycled. The recycled PET is currently used in many applications such as carpeting, pillow stuffing, sleeping bag filling, insulation for water heaters and non-food containers. This is the first step of Goodyear's increased efforts to recycle PET from containers into a material suitable for food packing. The project is extremely complex, involving sophisticated understanding of the chemical reactions involved, PET production and the technology testing protocols necessary to design a process that addresses all the technical, safety, and regulatory concerns. The research conducted so far indicated that additional processing beyond simply cleaning the shredded material, called flake, will be required to assure a quality polymer.

  10. The Dog Days of Summer - Capitalizing on the Pet Market

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Setting the Stage: Pet Market Statistics Featured Speaker Julie ... - 0% 11 Setting the Stage: Pet Market Statistics U.S. Homeowners Own a Lot of Pets... 13 ...

  11. X-ray absorption studies of mixed salt polymer electrolytes: ZnBr{sub 2}/CaBr{sub 2}-PEO, ZnBr{sub 2}/LiBr-PEO, and ZnBr{sub 2}/RbBr-PEO complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.; Yang, X.Q.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Y.

    1995-02-01

    Polyethylene oxide (PEO)-salt systems are an important new class of electrolytes that are being considered for many uses. X-ray absorption (XAS) studies of ZnBr{sub 2}-PEO complexes, at the Zn K edge, at temperatures between 25 and 120 C, indicate that additions of bromide salts of Li, Rb, or Ca result in the formation of ZnBr{sub 4}{sup {minus} 2} complexes with a Zn-Br bond length of 2.42 {angstrom}. XAS, at the Rb K edge, in mixed RbBr/ZnBr{sub 2}-PEO complexes with an excess of ZnBr{sub 2}, shows that the ZnBr{sub 2} causes the RbBr to dissolve in the polymer. The Rb{sup +} ions are weakly complexed with the PEO with an Rb-O bond distance of 2.93 {angstrom}.

  12. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C.; Scott, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

  13. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, R.C.; Scott, P.B.

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm is disclosed. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr, is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe/sub M/ to form XeBr.

  14. SynchroPET LLC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SynchroPET LLC America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 665 likes SynchroPET LLC Brookhaven National Laboratory Two of our devices have pre-clinical applications that can be very useful for drug development and research The RatCAP is a miniature PET scanner allows whole brain imaging in fully conscious rats for the first time. By far the world's smallest and lightest PET scanner, it is the only PET system able to be mounted on the head of a lab rat, allowing for the first-time functional

  15. Development of PET/MRI with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong Jung, Jiwoong; Kim, Sangsu; Lim, Hyun Keong; Im, Ki Chun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyun-wook; Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Jong Guk

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of the human brain. Methods: The PET detector block was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) array. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks, circularly mounted on a custom-made plastic base to form a ring with an inner diameter of 390 mm and axial length of 60 mm. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuit. The flat cables were shielded with a mesh-type aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.24 mm. The position decoder circuit and field programmable gate array-embedded DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box with a thickness of 10 mm and located at the rear of the MR bore inside the MRI room. A 3-T human MRI system with a Larmor frequency of 123.7 MHz and inner bore diameter of 60 cm was used as the PET/MRI hybrid system. A custom-made radio frequency (RF) coil with an inner diameter of 25 cm was fabricated. The PET was positioned between gradient and the RF coils. PET performance was measured outside and inside the MRI scanner using echo planar imaging, spin echo, turbo spin echo, and gradient echo sequences. MRI performance was also evaluated with and without the PET insert. The stability of the newly developed PET insert was evaluated and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were acquired. Results: No significant degradation of the PET performance caused by MR was observed when the PET was operated using various MR imaging sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio of MR images was slightly degraded due to the PET insert installed inside the MR bore while the homogeneity was maintained. The change of gain of the 256 GAPD/scintillator elements of a detector block was <3% for 60 min, and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were successfully acquired. Conclusions: Experimental results indicate that a compact and lightweight PET insert for hybrid PET/MRI can be developed using GAPD arrays and charge signal transmission method proposed in this study without significant interference.

  16. Improved production of Br atoms near zero speed by photodissociating laser aligned Br{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, L. Z., E-mail: lzdeng@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Yin, J. P., E-mail: jpyin@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2014-10-28

    We theoretically investigated the improvement on the production rate of the decelerated bromine (Br) atoms near zero speed by photodissociating laser aligned Br{sub 2} precursors. Adiabatic alignment of Br{sub 2} precursors exposed to long laser pulses with duration on the order of nanoseconds was investigated by solving the time-dependent Schrdinger equation. The dynamical fragmentation of adiabatically aligned Br{sub 2} precursors was simulated and velocity distribution of the Br atoms produced was analyzed. Our study shows that the larger the degree of the precursor alignment, ?cos{sup 2}???, the higher the production rate of the decelerated Br atoms near zero speed. For Br{sub 2} molecules with an initial rotational temperature of ?1 K, a ?cos{sup 2}??? value of ?0.88 can result in an improvement factor of over ?20 on the production rate of the decelerated Br atoms near zero speed, requiring a laser intensity of only ?1 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} for alignment.

  17. Preliminary upper limit on BR(D{sup {+-}}{r_arrow}{pi}{sup {...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Preliminary upper limit on BR(Dsup +-rarrowpisup +-musup +musup -) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary upper limit on BR(Dsup ...

  18. Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, Paul; Foster, Michael E.; Wong, Bryan M.; Doty, F. Patrick; Shah, Kanai; Squillante, Michael R.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; Hawrami, Rastgo; Tower, Josh; Yuan, Ding

    2014-01-21

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide, their commercial availability and application are limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. This investigation employed aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was used as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were studied using the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  19. Photoelectron Emission Studies in CsBr at 257 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maldonado, Juan R.; Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yun; Pianetta, Piero A.; Pease, Fabian W.; /Stanford U., Elect. Eng. Dept. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-09-28

    CsBr/Cr photocathodes were found [1,2] to meet the requirements of a multi-electron beam lithography system operating with a light energy of 4.8 eV (257nm). The fact that photoemission was observed with a light energy below the reported 7.3 eV band gap for CsBr was not understood. This paper presents experimental results on the presence of intra-band gap absorption sites (IBAS) in CsBr thin film photo electron emitters, and presents a model based on IBAS to explain the observed photoelectron emission behavior at energies below band gap. A fluorescence band centered at 330 nm with a FWHM of about 0.34 eV was observed in CsBr/Cr samples under 257 nm laser illumination which can be attributed to IBAS and agrees well with previously obtained synchrotron photoelectron spectra[1] from the valence band of CsBr films.

  20. PET

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    le DG fait l'introduction et laisse la parole à plusieurs intervenants au sujet de la physique des particules

  1. Combined PET/MRI scanner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlyer, David; Woody, Craig L.; Rooney, William; Vaska, Paul; Stoll, Sean; Pratte, Jean-Francois; O'Connor, Paul

    2007-10-23

    A combined PET/MRI scanner generally includes a magnet for producing a magnetic field suitable for magnetic resonance imaging, a radiofrequency (RF) coil disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet and a ring tomograph disposed within the magnetic field produced by the magnet. The ring tomograph includes a scintillator layer for outputting at least one photon in response to an annihilation event, a detection array coupled to the scintillator layer for detecting the at least one photon outputted by the scintillator layer and for outputting a detection signal in response to the detected photon and a front-end electronic array coupled to the detection array for receiving the detection signal, wherein the front-end array has a preamplifier and a shaper network for conditioning the detection signal.

  2. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Scanning

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Positron Scanning Resources with Additional Information Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanner Courtesy Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 'Positron Emission Tomography ... [is a medical imaging technique that] can track chemical reactions in living tissues and merges chemistry with biological imaging. Its strength has been in studies of the brain where there has been significant progress in investigations of drug addiction, aging, mental illness,

  3. Decommissioning of the BR3 reactor: status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noynaert, L.; Verstraeten, I.

    2007-07-01

    The BR3 plant at Mol in Belgium built at the end of the fifties was the first PWR plant built outside the USA. The reactor had a small net power output (10 MWe) but comprised all the loops and features of a commercial PWR plant. The BR3 plant was operated with the main objective of testing advanced PWR fuels under irradiation conditions similar to those encountered in large commercial PWR plants. The reactor was started in 1962 and shut down in 1987 after 25 years of continuous operation. Since 1989, SCK.CEN is decommissioning the BR3 PWR research reactor. The dismantling of the metallic components including reactor pressure vessel and internals is completed and extensively reported in the literature. The dismantling of auxiliary components and the decontamination of parts of the infrastructure are now going on. The decommissioning progress is continuously monitored and costs and strategy are regularly reassessed. The first part of the paper describes the main results and lessons learned from the reassessment exercises performed in 1994, 1999, 2004 and 2007. Impacts of changes in legal framework on the decommissioning costs will be addressed. These changes concern e.g. licensing aspects, clearance levels, waste management... The middle part of the paper discusses the management of activated and/or contaminated concrete. The costing exercise performed in 1995 highlighted that the management of activated and contaminated concrete is the second main cost item after the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel and internals. Different possible solutions were studied. These are evacuation as radioactive waste with or without supercompaction, recycling this 'radioactive' grout or concrete for conditioning of radioactive waste e.g. conditioning of metallic waste. The paper will give the results of the cost-benefit analysis made to select the solution retained. The last part of the paper will discuss the end goal of the decommissioning of the BR3. In the final decommissioning plan approved by ONDRAF/NIRAS, it was mentioned that the final goal of the BR3 decommissioning will be the 'green field' unless opportunities for reuse of the BR3 site will occur during decommissioning. A strategy of partial reuse of the BR3 facility is proposed and being discussed with the main stakeholders. The paper will give the present state of the discussion. (authors)

  4. A preliminary report on the photoionization efficiency spectrum, ionization energy and heat of formation of Br{sub 2}O; and the appearance energy of BrO{sup +} (Br{sub 2}O)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorn, R.P. Jr.; Monks, P.S.; Stief, L.J.; Kuo, S.C.; Zhang, Z.; Klemm, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    We report experimental results for the photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectrum of Br{sub 2}O along with the ionization energy (derived form the ionization threshold) and the appearance energy (AE) of BrO{sup +} (Br{sub 2}O). A value for the heat of formation of Br{sub 2}O is derived form the AE result. Experiments were performed by employing a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) apparatus coupled to beamline U-11 at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  5. Sinking a Pet's Teeth into Energy Saving | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sinking a Pet's Teeth into Energy Saving Sinking a Pet's Teeth into Energy Saving August 28, 2012 - 11:23am Addthis Ernie Tucker Editor, National Renewable Energy Laboratory The ...

  6. High time-resolution photodetectors for PET applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes recent developments aiming at the improvement of the time resolution of photodetectors used in positron emission tomography (PET). Promising photodetector candidates for future PET-time-of-flight (TOF) applications are also discussed.

  7. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vecchione, Theodore; Maldonado, Juan R.; Gierman, Stephen; Corbett, Jeff; Hartmann, Nick; Pianetta, Piero A.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Schmerge, John F.

    2015-04-03

    CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80 MV/m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 210?? torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  8. High gradient rf gun studies of CsBr photocathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vecchione, Theodore; Maldonado, Juan R.; Gierman, Stephen; Corbett, Jeff; Hartmann, Nick; Pianetta, Piero A.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Schmerge, John F.

    2015-04-03

    CsBr photocathodes have 10 times higher quantum efficiency with only 3 times larger intrinsic transverse emittance than copper. They are robust and can withstand 80 MV/m fields without breaking down or emitting dark current. They can operate in 2×10⁻⁹ torr vacuum and survive exposure to air. They are well suited for generating high pulse charge in rf guns without a photocathode transfer system.

  9. AmeriFlux BR-Sa3 Santarem-Km83-Logged Forest

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Goulden, Mike [University of California - Irvine

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site BR-Sa3 Santarem-Km83-Logged Forest. Site Description - Cleared forest. Logged site is near km 83 along BR-183.

  10. Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, April 2005 Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP...

  11. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.

    2001-06-25

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.

  12. Modular strategies for PET imaging agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, , J.M.

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging.

  13. Improved Growth Methods for LaBr3 Scintillation Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGregor, Douglas S

    2011-05-01

    The objective is to develop advanced materials for deployment as high-resolution gamma ray detectors. Both LaBr3 and CeBr3 are advanced scintillation materials, and will be studied in this research. Prototype devices, in collaboration Sandia National Laboratories, will be demonstrated along with recommendations for mass production and deployment. It is anticipated that improved methods of crystal growth will yield larger single crystals of LaBr3 for deployable room-temperature operated gamma radiation spectrometers. The growth methods will be characterized. The LaBr3 and CeBr3 scintillation crystals will be characterized for light yield, spectral resolution, and for hardness.

  14. Miniature 'Wearable' PET Scanner Ready for Use

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Paul Vaska

    2013-07-22

    Scientists from BNL, Stony Brook University, and collaborators have demonstrated the efficacy of a "wearable," portable PET scanner they've developed for rats. The device will give neuroscientists a new tool for simultaneously studying brain function and behavior in fully awake, moving animals.

  15. Natural Organobromine in Marine Sediments: New Evidence of Biogeochemical Br Cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A Leri; J Hakala; M Marcus; A Lanzirotti; C Reddy; S Myneni

    2011-12-31

    Organobromine (Br{sub org}) compounds, commonly recognized as persistent, toxic anthropogenic pollutants, are also produced naturally in terrestrial and marine systems. Several enzymatic and abiotic bromination mechanisms have been identified, as well as an array of natural Br{sub org} molecules associated with various marine organisms. The fate of the carbon-bromine functionality in the marine environment, however, remains largely unexplored. Oceanographic studies have noted an association between bromine (Br) and organic carbon (C{sub org}) in marine sediments. Even so, there has been no direct chemical evidence that Br in the sediments exists in a stable form apart from inorganic bromide (Br{sub inorg}), which is widely presumed conservative in marine systems. To investigate the scope of natural Br{sub org} production and its fate in the environment, we probed Br distribution and speciation in estuarine and marine sediments using in situ X-ray spectroscopy and spectromicroscopy. We show that Br{sub org} is ubiquitous throughout diverse sedimentary environments, occurring in correlation with C{sub org} and metals such as Fe, Ca, and Zn. Analysis of sinking particulate carbon from the seawater column links the Br{sub org} observed in sediments to biologically produced Br{sub org} compounds that persist through humification of natural organic matter (NOM). Br speciation varies with sediment depth, revealing biogeochemical cycling of Br between organic and inorganic forms as part of the burial and degradation of NOM. These findings illuminate the chemistry behind the association of Br with Corg in marine sediments and cast doubt on the paradigmatic classification of Br as a conservative element in seawater systems.

  16. Novel visible-light AgBr/Ag?PO? hybrids photocatalysts with surface plasma resonance effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yunfang Li, Xiuli; Wang, Yawen; Fan, Caimei

    2013-06-01

    Three kinds of AgBr/Ag?PO? hybrids were synthesised via an anion-exchange precipitation method and characterised by XRD, XPS, SEM, EDS, and UVvis. The results showed that AgBr/Ag?PO? hybrids displayed much higher photocatalytic activities than single Ag?PO? or AgBr under visible light (?>420 nm), and OH and h? were the major active species during the degradation process. Considering interstitial ions Ag?? on lattice gap of AgBr are easy to become sliver particle, we deduced the possible photocatalytic mechanism could be ascribed to the synergistic effects of the appropriate valence band position of Ag?PO? and AgBr, surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag?, reactive radical species Br?, and the Ag vacancy on the surface of catalysts. - Graphical abstract: The optical absorption and structural morphology of the as-prepared AgBr@Ag?PO? photocatalyst using an anion-exchange precipitation method are conductive to the photocatalytic degradation of organics in water. Highlights: Novel AgBr/Ag?PO? hybrids are synthesised by a facile method. AgBr/Ag?PO? hybrids show excellent photocatalytic activities under visible light. Interstitial ions are in favour of the formation of Ag particle. Surface plasmon resonance effect plays a key factor for light absorption. The photocatalytic mechanism for AgBr/Ag?PO? hybrids is studied.

  17. Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Spectroscopy provides valuable information about the temperature and density of a compressed pellet in a plasma. Elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals are used as components for spectrometers. Their elliptical geometry gives several

  18. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been calibrated photometrically in the range of 5.5 to 16 keV. The

  19. Apparatus for improving the working time of the XeBr laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sander, R.K.; Balog, G.; Seegmiller, E.T.

    1980-03-04

    In XeBr lasers which make use of HBr as the source of bromine, it has been found that the working life of the laser is limited because of dissociation of the HBr in the lasing region to form H/sub 2/ and Br/sub 2/. Accordingly, apparatus is disclosed for substantially improving the working time of the XeBr laser wherein means are provided for recombining H/sub 2/ and Br/sub 2/ into HBr and for continuously circulating the gaseous working medium from the lasing region through the recombination region.

  20. Apparatus for improving the working time of the XeBr laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sander, Robert K.; Balog, George; Seegmiller, Emma T.

    1982-01-01

    In XeBr lasers which make use of HBr as the source of bromine, it has been found that the working life of the laser is limited because of dissociation of the HBr in the lasing region to form H.sub.2 and Br.sub.2. Accordingly, apparatus is disclosed for substantially improving the working time of the XeBr laser wherein means are provided for recombining H.sub.2 and Br.sub.2 into HBr and for continuously circulating the gaseous working medium from the lasing region through the recombination region. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  1. X-ray photoemission analysis of chemically modified TlBr surfaces for improved radiation detectors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, A. J.; Voss, L. F.; Beck, P. R.; Graff, R. T.; Conway, A. M.; Nikolic, R. J.; Payne, S. A.; Lee, J. -S.; Kim, H.; Cirignano, L.; et al

    2013-01-12

    We subjected device-grade TlBr to various chemical treatments used in room temperature radiation detector fabrication to determine the resulting surface composition and electronic structure. As-polished TlBr was treated separately with HCl, SOCl2, Br:MeOH and HF solutions. High-resolution photoemission measurements on the valence band electronic structure and Tl 4f, Br 3d, Cl 2p and S 2p core lines were used to evaluate surface chemistry and shallow heterojunction formation. Surface chemistry and valence band electronic structure were correlated with the goal of optimizing the long-term stability and radiation response.

  2. Performance of LiAlloy/Ag(2)CrO(4) Couples in Molten CsBr-LiBr-KBr Eutectic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.; REINHARDT,FREDERICK W.

    1999-10-18

    The performance of Li-alloy/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} systems was studied over a temperature range of 250 C to 300 C, for possible use as a power source for geothermal borehole applications. Single cells were discharged at current densities of 15.8 and 32.6 mA/cm{sup 2} using Li-Si and Li-Al anodes. When tested in 5-cell batteries, the Li-Si/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} system exhibited thermal runaway. Thermal analytical tests showed that the Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} cathode reacted exothermically with the electrolyte on activation. Consequently, this system would not be practical for the envisioned geothermal borehole applications.

  3. Results for aliovalent doping of CeBr{sub 3} with Ca{sup 2+}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, Paul; Foster, Michael E.; Wong, Bryan M.; Patrick Doty, F.; Shah, Kanai; Squillante, Michael R.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; Hawrami, Rastgo; Tower, Joshua; Yuan, Ding

    2014-01-21

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr{sub 3}) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide, their commercial availability and application are limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. This investigation employed aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca{sup 2+}) was used as a dopant to strengthen CeBr{sub 3} without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca{sup 2+} dopant were grown, i.e., 1.9% of the CeBr{sub 3} molecules were replaced by CaBr{sub 2} molecules, to match our target replacement of 1 out of 54 cerium atoms be replaced by a calcium atom. Precisely the mixture was composed of 2.26 g of CaBr{sub 2} added to 222.14 g of CeBr{sub 3}. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca{sup 2+}-doped CeBr{sub 3} exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371?nm optical excitation for CeBr{sub 3}. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr{sub 3} crystals were studied using the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. Calculated lattice parameters are in agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr{sub 3}, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  4. Pet Food Safety A Shared Concern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, Robert L; Baker, Robert C; Charlton, Adrian J; Riviere, Jim E; Standaert, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    The safety of the food supply is a subject of intense interest to consumers, particularly as a result of large scale outbreaks that involve hundreds and sometimes thousands of consumers. During the last decade this concern about food safety has expanded to include the diets of companion animals as a result of several incidences of chemical toxicities and infectious disease transmission. This has led to increased research into the causes and controls for these hazards for both companion animals and their owners. The following summary provides an introduction to the issues, challenges, and new tools being developed to ensure that commercial pet foods are both nutritious and safe.

  5. Characterization of the LiSi/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/FeS(2) System for Potential Use as a Geothermal Borehole Power Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI, RONALD A.; REINHARDT, FREDERICK W.

    1999-10-18

    We are continuing to study the suitability of modified thermal-battery technology as a potential power source for geothermal borehole applications. Previous work focused on the LiSi/FeS{sub 2} couple over a temperature range of 350 C to 400 C with the LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic, which melts at 324.5 C. In this work, the discharge processes that take place in LiSi/CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic/FeS{sub 2} thermal cells were studied at temperatures between 250 C and 400 C using pelletized cells with immobilized electrolyte. The CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic was selected because of its lower melting point (228.5 C). Incorporation of a quasi-reference electrode allowed the determination of the relative contribution of each electrode to the overall cell polarization. The results of single-cell tests and limited battery tests are presented, along with preliminary data for battery stacks tested in a simulated geothermal borehole environment.

  6. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  7. Studies on Ca2+-Doped CeBr3 Scintillating Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, P. [NSTec; Foster, M. E. [SNL; Wong, B. M. [SNL; Doty, F. P. [SNL; Shah, K. [RMD; Squillante, M. [RMD; Glodo, J. [RMD; Yuan, D. [NSTec

    2013-07-03

    Despite the outstanding scintillation performance characteristics of cerium tribromide (CeBr3) and cerium-activated lanthanum tribromide (LaBr3:Ce), their commercial availability and application is limited due to the difficulties of growing large, crack-free single crystals from these fragile materials. The objective of this investigation was to employ aliovalent doping to increase crystal strength while maintaining the optical properties of the crystal. One divalent dopant (Ca2+) was investigated as a dopant to strengthen CeBr3 without negatively impacting scintillation performance. Ingots containing nominal concentrations of 1.9% of the Ca2+ dopant were grown. Preliminary scintillation measurements are presented for this aliovalently doped scintillator. Ca2+-doped CeBr3 exhibited little or no change in the peak fluorescence emission for 371 nm optical excitation for CeBr3. The structural, electronic, and optical properties of CeBr3 crystals were investigated using the density functional theory within generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The energy band structures and density of states were obtained. The optical properties of CeBr3, including the dielectric function, were calculated.

  8. Structure and properties of electronic and hole centers in CsBr from theoretical calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halliday, Matthew T.; Hess, Wayne P.; Shluger, Alexander L.

    2015-06-24

    The electronic structure, geometry, diffusion barriers and optical properties of fundamental defects of CsBr are calculated using hybrid functional DFT and TD- DFT methods. The B3LYP functional with a modified exchange contribution has been used in an embedded cluster scheme to model the structure and spectroscopic properties of self-trapped triplet exciton, interstitial Br atoms and ions, self-trapped holes and Br vacancies. The calculated migration barriers and positions of maxima of optical absorption bands are in good agreement with experiment, justifying the obtained defect geometries. The o*-center triplet exciton luminescence energy is also accurately calculated.

  9. Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications, April 2005 | Department of Energy Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, April 2005 Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, April 2005 The objective of this paper is to summarize the development status of air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)-water absorption chillers to guide future efforts to develop chillers for combined heat and power (CHP) applications in light-commercial buildings. The key

  10. Measurement of the Ratio of Branching Fractions Br(Bs -> Ds- pi+)/Br(B -> D- pi+) at CDF-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furic, Ivan Kresimir; /MIT

    2004-03-01

    The measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing is one of the flagship analyses for the Run II B physics program. The sensitivity of the measurement to the frequency of B{sub s}{sup 0} oscillations strongly depends on the number of reconstructed B{sub s}{sup 0} mesons. They present the measurement of the ratio of branching fractions Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}), which directly influences the number of B{sub s}{sup 0} events available for the measurement of B{sub s}{sup 0} mixing at CDF-II. They analyze 115 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the CDF-II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using a novel displaced track trigger. They reconstruct 78 {+-} 11 B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays at 1153 {+-} 45 B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays with good signal to background ratio. This is the world's largest sample of fully reconstructed B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} decays. They find the ratio of production fractions multiplied by the ratio of branching fractions to be: f{sub s}/f{sub d} {center_dot} Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 0.325 {+-} 0.046(stat) {+-} 0.034(syst) {+-} 0.084 (BR). Using the world average value of f{sub s}/f{sub d} = 0.26 {+-} 0.03, we infer that the ratio of branching fractions is: Br(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup -}{pi}{sup +})/Br(B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup -}{pi}{sup +}) = 1.25 {+-} 0.18(stat) {+-} 0.13(syst) {+-} 0.32(BR) {+-} 0.14(PR) where the last uncertainty is due to the uncertainty on the world average measurement of the ratio of B{sub s}{sup 0} to B{sup 0} production rates, f{sub s}/f{sub d}.

  11. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    81 81 LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON CALEDONIA HURON C REEK LEIC EST ER COL DEN ASH FORD INDIAN FALLS LAWTONS SAR DINIA RPD-037 -2 ...

  12. I 'RADIOPHARNACEUTICALS IN PET, PROGRESS AND PROMISE F

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4198 1 I 'RADIOPHARNACEUTICALS IN PET, PROGRESS AND PROMISE : F j - c ? R7 ~ . m f* -,.. Alfred P. Wolf and Joanna S. Fowler The PET method is designed to probe human biochemistry and physiology in both normal and pathological states. allow the determination or delineation of these biochemical or physiological parameters in a quantitative manner. The technology is driven by the short half-life of the major positron emitters, carbon-11, nitrogen-13 and fluorine- 18 and oxygen-15 and their

  13. Measurement of BR(Bu to phi K)/BR(Bu to J/psi K) at the collider detector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napora, Robert A

    2004-10-01

    This thesis presents evidence for the decay mode B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using (120 {+-} 7)pb{sup -1} of data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). This signal is then used to measure the branching ratio relative to the decay mode B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}. The measurement starts from reconstructing the two decay modes: B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}}, where {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}, where J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. The measurement yielded 23 {+-} 7 B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} events, and 406 {+-} 26 B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}} events. The fraction of B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}} events where the J/{psi} subsequently decayed to two muons (as opposed to two electrons) was found to be f{sub {mu}{mu}} = 0.839 {+-} 0.066. The relative branching ratio of the two decays is then calculated based on the equation: BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}})/BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}) = N{sub {phi}K}/N{sub {psi}K} {center_dot}f{sub {mu}{mu}} BR(J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -})/BR({phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}) {epsilon}{sub {mu}{mu}}K/{epsilon}KKK R({epsilon}{sub iso}). The measurement finds BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}})/BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}) = 0.0068 {+-} 0.0021(stat.) {+-} 0.0007(syst.). The B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} branching ratio is then found to be BR(B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}}) = [6.9 {+-} 2.1(stat.) {+-} 0.8(syst.)] x 10{sup -6}. This value is consistent with similar measurements reported by the e{sup +}e{sup -} collider experiments BaBar[1], Belle[2], and CLEO[3].

  14. MR-based motion correction for PET imaging using wired active MR microcoils in simultaneous PET-MR: Phantom study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Chuan; Brady, Thomas J.; El Fakhri, Georges; Ouyang, Jinsong; Ackerman, Jerome L.; Petibon, Yoann

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Artifacts caused by head motion present a major challenge in brain positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The authors investigated the feasibility of using wired active MR microcoils to track head motion and incorporate the measured rigid motion fields into iterative PET reconstruction. Methods: Several wired active MR microcoils and a dedicated MR coil-tracking sequence were developed. The microcoils were attached to the outer surface of an anthropomorphic{sup 18}F-filled Hoffman phantom to mimic a brain PET scan. Complex rotation/translation motion of the phantom was induced by a balloon, which was connected to a ventilator. PET list-mode and MR tracking data were acquired simultaneously on a PET-MR scanner. The acquired dynamic PET data were reconstructed iteratively with and without motion correction. Additionally, static phantom data were acquired and used as the gold standard. Results: Motion artifacts in PET images were effectively removed by wired active MR microcoil based motion correction. Motion correction yielded an activity concentration bias ranging from ?0.6% to 3.4% as compared to a bias ranging from ?25.0% to 16.6% if no motion correction was applied. The contrast recovery values were improved by 37%156% with motion correction as compared to no motion correction. The image correlation (mean standard deviation) between the motion corrected (uncorrected) images of 20 independent noise realizations and static reference was R{sup 2} = 0.978 0.007 (0.588 0.010, respectively). Conclusions: Wired active MR microcoil based motion correction significantly improves brain PET quantitative accuracy and image contrast.

  15. Lattice dynamics in perovskite halides CsSn X 3 with X = I , Br , Cl

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Lattice dynamics in perovskite halides CsSn X 3 with X = I , Br , Cl « Prev Next » Title: Lattice dynamics in perovskite halides CsSn X 3 with X = I , Br , Cl Authors: Huang, Ling-yi ; Lambrecht, Walter R. L. Publication Date: 2014-11-05 OSTI Identifier: 1180124 Grant/Contract Number: ER 46874-SC0008933 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review B Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 19; Journal ID: ISSN

  16. Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study Authors: Nelson, A J ; Swanberg, E L ; Voss, L F ; Graff, R T ; Conway, A M ; Nikolic, R J ; Payne, S A ; Kim, H ; Cirignano, L ; Shah, K Publication Date:

  17. TH-A-17A-01: Innovation in PET Instrumentation and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, M; Miyaoka, R; Shao, Y

    2014-06-15

    Innovation in PET instrumentation has led to the new millennium revolutionary imaging applications for diagnosis, therapeutic guidance, and development of new molecular imaging probes, etc. However, after several decades innovations, will the advances of PET technology and applications continue with the same trend and pace? What will be the next big thing beyond the PET/CT, PET/MRI, and Time-of-flight PET? How will the PET instrumentation and imaging performance be further improved by novel detector research and advanced imaging system development? Or will the development of new algorithms and methodologies extend the limit of current instrumentation and leapfrog the imaging quality and quantification for practical applications? The objective of this session is to present an overview of current status and advances in the PET instrumentation and applications with speakers from leading academic institutes and a major medical imaging company. Presenting with both academic research projects and commercial technology developments, this session will provide a glimpse of some latest advances and challenges in the field, such as using semiconductor photon-sensor based PET detectors to improve performance and enable new applications, as well as the technology trend that may lead to the next breakthrough in PET imaging for clinical and preclinical applications. Both imaging and image-guided therapy subjects will be discussed. Learning Objectives: Describe the latest innovations in PET instrumentation and applications Understand the driven force behind the PET instrumentation innovation and development Learn the trend of PET technology development for applications.

  18. CALiPER Application Summary Report 16. LED BR30 and R30 Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-07-01

    This report analyzes the independently tested performance of 13 LED products labeled as BR30 or R30 lamps. The test results indicate substantial improvement versus earlier CALiPER testing of similar products, and performance comparable to recent data from LED Lighting Facts and ENERGY STAR.

  19. Hydrogen for X-group exchange in CH3X, X = Cl, Br, I, OMe and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen for X-group exchange in CH3X, X Cl, Br, I, OMe and NMe2 byMonomeric 1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H22CeH: Experimental and Computational Support for a Carbenoid Mechanism Citation ...

  20. Recent Developments in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Instrumentation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1986-04-01

    This paper presents recent detector developments and perspectives for positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation used for medical research, as well as the physical processes in positron annihilation, photon scattering and detection, tomograph design considerations, and the potentials for new advances in detectors.

  1. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for Imaging Body Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krohn, Ken

    2001-04-25

    PET is a nuclear medicine technology for imaging chemical processes as they are occurring in the human body. This distinguishes it from conventional radiographic and NMR imaging, which depict anatomic changes that generally occur secondary to chemical changes. As our knowledge about human genomics and molecular biology increases and as we develop new approaches to therapy based on this biochemical information, it becomes increasingly important to be able to image important chemical processes occurring in vivo. Methods exist for imaging metabolic rates for energy utilization, cellular proliferation, and protein synthesis. The sending and receiving function of neurotransmitters can be imaged to test for mismatch in their communication function. Gene transfection can be imaged with PET reporters. All of these approaches allow the physician to better select the appropriate treatment for an individual patient, rather than basing treatment on historical experience for a population of similar patients. The technology for PET requires synthesis of positron emitting radioactive molecules, most commonly labeled with C-11 (20.4m) and F-18 (109.8 m) which are made on site with an accelerator. FNAL was involved in developing new RFQ technology for making PET isotopes. The technology also requires better imaging technology, including scintillators, and more robust algorithms for image reconstruction and data analysis.

  2. Geothermal br Resource br Area Geothermal br Resource br Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aluto Langano Geothermal Area Aluto Langano Geothermal Area East African Rift System Ethiopian Rift Valley Major Normal Fault Basalt MW K Amatitlan Geothermal Area Amatitlan...

  3. Investigation into Nanostructured Lanthanum Halides and CeBr{sub 3} for Nuclear Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, P., Guise, R., Mukhopadhyay, S., Yuan, D.

    2011-06-22

    This slide-show presents work on radiation detection with nanostructured lanthanum halides and CeBr{sub 3}. The goal is to extend the gamma energy response on both low and high-energy regimes by demonstrating the ability to detect low-energy x-rays and relatively high-energy activation prompt gamma rays simultaneously using the nano-structured lanthanum bromide, lanthanum fluoride, cerium bromide, or other nanocrystal material. Homogeneous and nano structure cases are compared.

  4. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, MC; Cho, KT; Weber, AZ; Lin, GY; Nguyen, TV

    2014-10-17

    The Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and (-) electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the (-) catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm(-2) and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm(-2). Maximum energy efficiency of 79 % is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt (-) electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.

  5. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br?/H? redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cho, Kyu Taek; Weber, Adam Z.; Lin, Guangyu; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2015-01-01

    The Br?/H? redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and () electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the () catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon-paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm-2 and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm-2. Maximum energy efficiency of 79% is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt () electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.

  6. A modified Stillinger-Weber potential for TlBr and its polymorphic extension

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xiaowang; Foster, Michael E.; Jones, Reese E.; Doty, F. Patrick; Yang, Pin; Fan, Hongyou

    2015-04-30

    TlBr is promising for g- and x- radiation detection, but suffers from rapid performance degradation under the operating external electric fields. To enable molecular dynamics (MD) studies of this degradation, we have developed a Stillinger-Weber type of TlBr interatomic potential. During this process, we have also addressed two problems of wider interests. First, the conventional Stillinger-Weber potential format is only applicable for tetrahedral structures (e.g., diamond-cubic, zinc-blende, or wurtzite). Here we have modified the analytical functions of the Stillinger-Weber potential so that it can now be used for other crystal structures. Second, past modifications of interatomic potentials cannot always bemore » applied by a broad community because any new analytical functions of the potential would require corresponding changes in the molecular dynamics codes. Here we have developed a polymorphic potential model that simultaneously incorporates Stillinger-Weber, Tersoff, embedded-atom method, and any variations (i.e., modified functions) of these potentials. As a result, we have implemented this polymorphic model in MD code LAMMPS, and demonstrated that our TlBr potential enables stable MD simulations under external electric fields.« less

  7. Response of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillators to 2.5 MeV fusion neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cazzaniga, C.; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.; Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Via Roberto Cozzi 53, Milano 20125 ; Tardocchi, M.; Croci, G.; Giacomelli, L.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Villari, S.; Weller, A.; Petrizzi, L.; Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-12-15

    Measurements of the response of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) to 2.5 MeV neutrons have been carried out at the Frascati Neutron Generator and at tokamak facilities with deuterium plasmas. The observed spectrum has been interpreted by means of a Monte Carlo model. It is found that the main contributor to the measured response is neutron inelastic scattering on {sup 79}Br, {sup 81}Br, and {sup 139}La. An extrapolation of the count rate response to 14 MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium plasmas is also presented. The results are of relevance for the design of ?-ray diagnostics of fusion burning plasmas.

  8. Characterization of low-melting electrolytes for potential geothermal borehole power supplies: The LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1998-05-01

    The suitability of modified thermal-battery technology for use as a potential power source for geothermal borehole applications is under investigation. As a first step, the discharge processes that take place in LiSi/LiBr-KBr-LiF/FeS{sub 2} thermal cells were studied at temperatures of 350 C and 400 C using pelletized cells with immobilized electrolyte. Incorporation of a reference electrode allowed the relative contribution of each electrode to the overall cell polarization to be determined. The results of single-cell tests are presented, along with preliminary data for cells based on a lower-melting CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic salt.

  9. Compact and mobile high resolution PET brain imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2011-02-08

    A brain imager includes a compact ring-like static PET imager mounted in a helmet-like structure. When attached to a patient's head, the helmet-like brain imager maintains the relative head-to-imager geometry fixed through the whole imaging procedure. The brain imaging helmet contains radiation sensors and minimal front-end electronics. A flexible mechanical suspension/harness system supports the weight of the helmet thereby allowing for patient to have limited movements of the head during imaging scans. The compact ring-like PET imager enables very high resolution imaging of neurological brain functions, cancer, and effects of trauma using a rather simple mobile scanner with limited space needs for use and storage.

  10. The Dog Days of Summer - Capitalizing on the Pet Market | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The Dog Days of Summer - Capitalizing on the Pet Market The Dog Days of Summer - Capitalizing on the Pet Market Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: The Dog Days of Summer - Capitalizing on the Pet Market, call slides and discussion summary. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Hit the Road: Applying Lessons from National Campaigns to a Local Context

  11. Measurement of ratio R = (BR(D{sup 0}{yields}K{pi}{pi}{pi})/BR(D{sup 0}{yields}K{pi})) in {pi}{sup -}-Nucleus interactions at 500 GeV/c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solano Salinas, C. J.; Paucarchuco, C.; Fernandez, A.; Sheaff, M.

    2007-10-26

    We report a very preliminary result on the measurement of the ratio of branching ratios, for two decays D{sup 0} meson, R = (BR(D{sup 0}{yields}K{pi}{pi}{pi})/BR(D{sup 0}{yields}K{pi})), using data from the E791 experiment. We find R = 1.96{+-}0.0286 (stat){+-}0.06 (sys). This is in agreement with and of similar precision to the current PDG average value 1.97{+-}0.09.

  12. Gamma-ray tracking method for pet systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihailescu, Lucian; Vetter, Kai M.

    2010-06-08

    Gamma-ray tracking methods for use with granular, position sensitive detectors identify the sequence of the interactions taking place in the detector and, hence, the position of the first interaction. The improved position resolution in finding the first interaction in the detection system determines a better definition of the direction of the gamma-ray photon, and hence, a superior source image resolution. A PET system using such a method will have increased efficiency and position resolution.

  13. PET computer programs for use with the 88-inch cyclotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gough, R.A.; Chlosta, L.

    1981-06-01

    This report describes in detail several offline programs written for the PET computer which provide an efficient data management system to assist with the operation of the 88-Inch Cyclotron. This function includes the capability to predict settings for all cyclotron and beam line parameters for all beams within the present operating domain of the facility. The establishment of a data base for operational records is also described from which various aspects of the operating history can be projected.

  14. Br-rich Tips of Calcified Crab Claws are Less Hard but More Fracture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resistant: A Comparison of Mineralized and Heavy-element Biological Materials Br-rich Tips of Calcified Crab Claws are Less Hard but More Fracture Resistant: A Comparison of Mineralized and Heavy-element Biological Materials figure 1 Figure 1. The heavy element biomaterial is the darker material at the tip of the shore crab claws. Figure "b" shows the same claw as "a" but after bead blasting. The claw tips are less eroded by the bead blasting than surrounding calcified

  15. Validation of a 4D-PET Maximum Intensity Projection for Delineation of an Internal Target Volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callahan, Jason; Kron, Tomas; Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne ; Schneider-Kolsky, Michal; Dunn, Leon; Thompson, Mick; Siva, Shankar; Aarons, Yolanda; Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne ; Binns, David; Hicks, Rodney J.; Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The delineation of internal target volumes (ITVs) in radiation therapy of lung tumors is currently performed by use of either free-breathing (FB) {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) or 4-dimensional (4D)-CT maximum intensity projection (MIP). In this report we validate the use of 4D-PET-MIP for the delineation of target volumes in both a phantom and in patients. Methods and Materials: A phantom with 3 hollow spheres was prepared surrounded by air then water. The spheres and water background were filled with a mixture of {sup 18}F and radiographic contrast medium. A 4D-PET/CT scan was performed of the phantom while moving in 4 different breathing patterns using a programmable motion device. Nine patients with an FDG-avid lung tumor who underwent FB and 4D-PET/CT and >5 mm of tumor motion were included for analysis. The 3 spheres and patient lesions were contoured by 2 contouring methods (40% of maximum and PET edge) on the FB-PET, FB-CT, 4D-PET, 4D-PET-MIP, and 4D-CT-MIP. The concordance between the different contoured volumes was calculated using a Dice coefficient (DC). The difference in lung tumor volumes between FB-PET and 4D-PET volumes was also measured. Results: The average DC in the phantom using 40% and PET edge, respectively, was lowest for FB-PET/CT (DCAir = 0.72/0.67, DCBackground 0.63/0.62) and highest for 4D-PET/CT-MIP (DCAir = 0.84/0.83, DCBackground = 0.78/0.73). The average DC in the 9 patients using 40% and PET edge, respectively, was also lowest for FB-PET/CT (DC = 0.45/0.44) and highest for 4D-PET/CT-MIP (DC = 0.72/0.73). In the 9 lesions, the target volumes of the FB-PET using 40% and PET edge, respectively, were on average 40% and 45% smaller than the 4D-PET-MIP. Conclusion: A 4D-PET-MIP produces volumes with the highest concordance with 4D-CT-MIP across multiple breathing patterns and lesion sizes in both a phantom and among patients. Freebreathing PET/CT consistently underestimates ITV when compared with 4D PET/CT for a lesion affected by respiration.

  16. Five Years of Cyclotron Radioisotope Production Experiences at the First PET-CT in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colmenter, L.; Coelho, D.; Esteves, L. M.; Ruiz, N.; Morales, L.; Lugo, I.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Liendo, J. A.; Greaves, E. D.; Barros, H.; Castillo, J.

    2007-10-26

    Five years operation of a compact cyclotron installed at PET-CT facility in Caracas, Venezuela is given. Production rate of {sup 18}F labeled FDG, operation and radiation monitoring experience are included. We conclude that {sup 18}FDG CT-PET is the most effective technique for patient diagnosis.

  17. Dual energy CT for attenuation correction with PET/CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Ting; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The authors evaluate the energy dependent noise and bias properties of monoenergetic images synthesized from dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisitions. These monoenergetic images can be used to estimate attenuation coefficients at energies suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. This is becoming more relevant with the increased use of quantitative imaging by PET/CT and SPECT/CT scanners. There are, however, potential variations in the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images as a function of energy. Methods: The authors used analytic approximations and simulations to estimate the noise and bias of synthesized monoenergetic images of water-filled cylinders with different shapes and the NURBS-based cardiac-torso (NCAT) phantom from 40 to 520 keV, the range of SPECT and PET energies. The dual-kVp spectra were based on the GE Lightspeed VCT scanner at 80 and 140 kVp with added filtration of 0.5 mm Cu. The authors evaluated strategies of noise suppression with sinogram smoothing and dose minimization with reduction of tube currents at the two kVp settings. The authors compared the impact of DECT-based attenuation correction with single-kVp CT-based attenuation correction on PET quantitation for the NCAT phantom for soft tissue and high-Z materials of bone and iodine contrast enhancement. Results: Both analytic calculations and simulations displayed the expected minimum noise value for a synthesized monoenergetic image at an energy between the mean energies of the two spectra. In addition the authors found that the normalized coefficient of variation in the synthesized attenuation map increased with energy but reached a plateau near 160 keV, and then remained constant with increasing energy up to 511 keV and beyond. The bias was minimal, as the linear attenuation coefficients of the synthesized monoenergetic images were within 2.4% of the known true values across the entire energy range. Compared with no sinogram smoothing, sinogram smoothing can dramatically reduce noise in the DECT-derived attenuation map. Through appropriate selection of tube currents for high and low kVp scans, DECT can deliver roughly the same amount of radiation dose as that of a single kVp CT scan, but could be used for PET attenuation correction with reduced bias in contrast agent regions by a factor of ?2.6 and slightly reduced RMSE for the total image. Conclusions: When DECT is used for attenuation correction at higher energies, there is a noise amplification that is dependent on the energy of the synthesized monoenergetic image of linear attenuation coefficients. Sinogram smoothing reduces the noise amplification in DECT-derived attenuation maps without increasing bias. With an appropriate selection of CT techniques, a DECT scan with the same radiation dose as a single CT scan can result in a PET image with improved quantitative accuracy.

  18. High temperature crystal structures and superionic properties of SrCl{sub 2}, SrBr{sub 2}, BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, Stephen; Norberg, Stefan T.; Ahmed, Istaq; Eriksson, Sten G.; Mohn, Chris E.

    2011-11-15

    The structural properties of the binary alkaline-earth halides SrCl{sub 2}, SrBr{sub 2}, BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2} have been investigated from ambient temperature up to close to their melting points, using the neutron powder diffraction technique. Fluorite-structured SrCl{sub 2} undergoes a gradual transition to a superionic phase at 900-1100 K, characterised by an increasing concentration of anion Frenkel defects. At a temperature of 920(3) K, the tetragonal phase of SrBr{sub 2} undergoes a first-order transition to a cubic fluorite phase. This high temperature phase shows the presence of extensive disorder within the anion sublattice, which differs from that found in superionic SrCl{sub 2}. BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2} both adopt the cotunnite crystal structure under ambient conditions. BaCl{sub 2} undergoes a first-order structural transition at 917(5) K to a disordered fluorite-structured phase. The relationship between the (disordered) crystal structures and the ionic conductivity behaviour is discussed and the influence of the size of the mobile anion on the superionic behaviour is explored. - Graphical abstract: Anomalous behaviour of the lattice expansion of SrCl{sub 2} at temperatures of {approx}1000 K is associated with the gradual transition to a superionic phase, whilst SrBr{sub 2} undergoes a first-order structural transition ({beta}{yields}{alpha}) to a fluorite-structured superionic phase at 920(3) K. Highlights: > Anomalous behaviour of the lattice expansion of SrCl{sub 2} occurs at temperatures {approx}1000 K. > Crystal structure of {beta}-SrBr{sub 2} is described in detail. > On heating, SrBr{sub 2} and BaCl{sub 2} transform to a fluorite-structured superionic phase. > Temperature dependence of the BaCl{sub 2} and BaBr{sub 2} structures is presented. > Nature of the superionic phases within the alkaline-earth halides is discussed.

  19. Evaluation of the spline reconstruction technique for PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kastis, George A. Kyriakopoulou, Dimitra; Gaitanis, Anastasios; Fernndez, Yolanda; Hutton, Brian F.; Fokas, Athanasios S.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: The spline reconstruction technique (SRT), based on the analytic formula for the inverse Radon transform, has been presented earlier in the literature. In this study, the authors present an improved formulation and numerical implementation of this algorithm and evaluate it in comparison to filtered backprojection (FBP). Methods: The SRT is based on the numerical evaluation of the Hilbert transform of the sinogram via an approximation in terms of custom made cubic splines. By restricting reconstruction only within object pixels and by utilizing certain mathematical symmetries, the authors achieve a reconstruction time comparable to that of FBP. The authors have implemented SRT in STIR and have evaluated this technique using simulated data from a clinical positron emission tomography (PET) system, as well as real data obtained from clinical and preclinical PET scanners. For the simulation studies, the authors have simulated sinograms of a point-source and three digital phantoms. Using these sinograms, the authors have created realizations of Poisson noise at five noise levels. In addition to visual comparisons of the reconstructed images, the authors have determined contrast and bias for different regions of the phantoms as a function of noise level. For the real-data studies, sinograms of an{sup 18}F-FDG injected mouse, a NEMA NU 4-2008 image quality phantom, and a Derenzo phantom have been acquired from a commercial PET system. The authors have determined: (a) coefficient of variations (COV) and contrast from the NEMA phantom, (b) contrast for the various sections of the Derenzo phantom, and (c) line profiles for the Derenzo phantom. Furthermore, the authors have acquired sinograms from a whole-body PET scan of an {sup 18}F-FDG injected cancer patient, using the GE Discovery ST PET/CT system. SRT and FBP reconstructions of the thorax have been visually evaluated. Results: The results indicate an improvement in FWHM and FWTM in both simulated and real point-source studies. In all simulated phantoms, the SRT exhibits higher contrast and lower bias than FBP at all noise levels, by increasing the COV in the reconstructed images. Finally, in real studies, whereas the contrast of the cold chambers are similar for both algorithms, the SRT reconstructed images of the NEMA phantom exhibit slightly higher COV values than those of FBP. In the Derenzo phantom, SRT resolves the 2-mm separated holes slightly better than FBP. The small-animal and human reconstructions via SRT exhibit slightly higher resolution and contrast than the FBP reconstructions. Conclusions: The SRT provides images of higher resolution, higher contrast, and lower bias than FBP, by increasing slightly the noise in the reconstructed images. Furthermore, it eliminates streak artifacts outside the object boundary. Unlike other analytic algorithms, the reconstruction time of SRT is comparable with that of FBP. The source code for SRT will become available in a future release of STIR.

  20. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  1. X-ray-absorption study of CuBr at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tranquada, J.M.; Ingalls, R.

    1986-09-15

    The x-ray-absorption spectrum of cuprous bromide has been measured as a function of pressure. The x-ray-absorption near-edge structure proved to be an excellent indicator of high-pressure phase transitions in this material. The normalized ''white-line'' peak heights at both the Cu and Br K-italic edges decreased on entering the tetragonal phase and increased in going to the NaCl structure. The zinc-blende to tetragonal phase transition took place over a very narrow pressure range centered at 46 +- 5 kbar. The transformation from the tetragonal to the NaCl structure, on the other hand, showed a broad mixed-phase region, suggesting a nucleation-and-growth mechanism for the transition. The mixed-phase region was centered at 75 +- 6 kbar. No evidence of a phase between the zinc-blende and tetragonal phases was observed, presumably because it does not exist. Analysis of the extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) clearly showed that there is no change in coordination in going from the zinc-blende to the tetragonal phase although the nearest-neighbor distance increases slightly. A much larger increase in R-italic/sub 1/ occurs at the transition to the NaCl structure, where the coordination increases from 4 to 6. The mean-square deviation in the nearest-neighbor bond length, sigma/sub 1//sup 2/, appears to be a fairly smooth function of nearest-neighbor distance, decreasing (or increasing) as R-italic/sub 1/ decreases (or increases) more or less independent of structure. Evidence from the literature was presented to suggest that the zinc-blende to tetragonal transition in CuBr (and also CuCl) should occur by shear deformation.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Brown Carbon (BrC) Chromophores in Secondary Organic Aerosol Generated From Photo-Oxidation of Toluene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Peng; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-09-28

    Atmospheric Brown carbon (BrC) is a significant contributor to light absorption and climate forcing. However, little is known about a fundamental relationship between the chemical composition of BrC and its optical properties. In this work, light-absorbing secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was generated in the PNNL chamber from toluene photo-oxidation in the presence of NOx (Tol-SOA). Molecular structures of BrC components were examined using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) and liquid chromatography (LC) combined with UV/Vis spectroscopy and electrospray ionization (ESI) high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The chemical composition of BrC chromophores and the light absorption properties of toluene SOA (Tol-SOA) depend strongly on the initial NOx concentration. Specifically, Tol-SOA generated under high-NOx conditions (defined here as initial NOx/toluene of 5/1) appears yellow and mass absorption coefficient of the bulk sample (MACbulk@365nm = 0.78 m2 g-1) is nearly 80 fold higher than that measured for the Tol-SOA sample generated under low-NOx conditions (NOx/toluene < 1/300). Fifteen compounds, most of which are nitrophenols, are identified as major BrC chromophores responsible for the enhanced light absorption of Tol-SOA material produced in the presence of NOx. The integrated absorbance of these fifteen chromophores accounts for 40-60% of the total light absorbance by Tol-SOA at wavelengths between 300 nm and 500 nm. The combination of tandem LC-UV/Vis-ESI/HRMS measurements provides an analytical platform for predictive understanding of light absorption properties by BrC and their relationship to the structure of individual chromophores. General trends in the UV/vis absorption by plausible isomers of the BrC chromophores were evaluated using theoretical chemistry calculations. The molecular-level understanding of BrC chemistry is helpful for better understanding the evolution and behavior of light absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere.

  3. F-18-FDG-PET Confined Radiotherapy of Locally Advanced NSCLC With Concomitant Chemotherapy: Results of the PET-PLAN Pilot Trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleckenstein, Jochen; Hellwig, Dirk; Kremp, Stephanie; Grgic, Aleksandar; Groeschel, Andreas; Kirsch, Carl-Martin; Nestle, Ursula; Ruebe, Christian

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The integration of fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the process of radiotherapy (RT) planning of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may improve diagnostic accuracy and minimize interobserver variability compared with target volume definition solely based on computed tomography. Furthermore, irradiating only FDG-PET-positive findings and omitting elective nodal regions may allow dose escalation by treating smaller volumes. The aim of this prospective pilot trial was to evaluate the therapeutic safety of FDG-PET-based RT treatment planning with an autocontour-derived delineation of the primary tumor. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had Stages II-III inoperable NSCLC, and simultaneous, platinum-based radiochemotherapy was indicated. FDG-PET and computed tomography acquisitions in RT treatment planning position were coregistered. The clinical target volume (CTV) included the FDG-PET-defined primary tumor, which was autodelineated with a source-to-background algorithm, plus FDG-PET-positive lymph node stations. Limited by dose restrictions for normal tissues, prescribed total doses were in the range of 66.6 to 73.8 Gy. The primary endpoint was the rate of out-of-field isolated nodal recurrences (INR). Results: As per intent to treat, 32 patients received radiochemotherapy. In 15 of these patients, dose escalation above 66.6 Gy was achieved. No Grade 4 toxicities occurred. After a median follow-up time of 27.2 months, the estimated median survival time was 19.3 months. During the observation period, one INR was observed in 23 evaluable patients. Conclusions: FDG-PET-confined target volume definition in radiochemotherapy of NSCLC, based on a contrast-oriented source-to-background algorithm, was associated with a low risk of INR. It might provide improved tumor control because of dose escalation.

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic and thermal properties of [Et{sub 4}N][Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]Br{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O (Et=ethyl)-A new compound with the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}]{sup 3+} cluster core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peric, Berislav; Jozic, Drazan; Planinic, Pavica; Brnicevic, Nevenka; Giester, Gerald

    2009-09-15

    A new hexanuclear cluster compound, [Et{sub 4}N][Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]Br{sub 4}.4H{sub 2}O (Et=ethyl) (1), with the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}]{sup 3+} cluster entity, was synthesized and characterized by elemental and TG/DTA analyses, IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy and by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction study. The presence of the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}]{sup 3+} unit was confirmed also by the room-temperature magnetic and EPR measurements. The compound crystallizes in the tetragonal I4{sub 1}/a space group, with a=14.299(5), c=21.241(5) A, Z=4, R{sub 1}(F)/wR{sub 2}(F{sup 2})=0.0296/0.0811. The structure contains discrete [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 3+} cations with an octahedron of metal atoms edge-bridged by bromine atoms and with water molecules occupying all six terminal positions. The cluster units are positioned in the vertices of the three-dimensional (pseudo)diamond lattice. The structure shows similarities with literature reported structures of cluster compounds crystallizing in the diamond (Fd3-barm) space group. - Graphical abstract: Two interpenetrating (pseudo)diamond nets formed by packing of the paramagnetic [Ta{sub 6}Br{sub 12}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 3+} (octahedral) and diamagnetic [Et{sub 4}N]{sup +} (spheres) cations.

  5. A Student Project to use Geant4 Simulations for a TMS-PET combination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altamirano, A.; Chamorro, A.; Hurtado, K.; Romero, C.; Wahl, D.; Zamudio, A.; Rueda, A.; Solano Salinas, C. J.

    2007-10-26

    Geant4 is one of the most powerful tools for MC simulation of detectors and their applications. We present a student project to simulate a combined Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation-Positron Emission Tomography (TMS-PET) system using Geant4. This project aims to study PET-TMS systems by implementing a model for the brain response to the TMS pulse and studying the simulated PET response. In order to increase the speed of the simulations we parallelise our programs and investigate the possibility of using GRID computing.

  6. SU-C-9A-06: The Impact of CT Image Used for Attenuation Correction in 4D-PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Y; Bowsher, J; Yan, S; Cai, J; Das, S; Yin, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the appropriateness of using 3D non-gated CT image for attenuation correction (AC) in a 4D-PET (gated PET) imaging protocol used in radiotherapy treatment planning simulation. Methods: The 4D-PET imaging protocol in a Siemens PET/CT simulator (Biograph mCT, Siemens Medical Solutions, Hoffman Estates, IL) was evaluated. CIRS Dynamic Thorax Phantom (CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA) with a moving glass sphere (8 mL) in the middle of its thorax portion was used in the experiments. The glass was filled with {sup 18}F-FDG and was in a longitudinal motion derived from a real patient breathing pattern. Varian RPM system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was used for respiratory gating. Both phase-gating and amplitude-gating methods were tested. The clinical imaging protocol was modified to use three different CT images for AC in 4D-PET reconstruction: first is to use a single-phase CT image to mimic actual clinical protocol (single-CT-PET); second is to use the average intensity projection CT (AveIP-CT) derived from 4D-CT scanning (AveIP-CT-PET); third is to use 4D-CT image to do the phase-matched AC (phase-matching- PET). Maximum SUV (SUVmax) and volume of the moving target (glass sphere) with threshold of 40% SUVmax were calculated for comparison between 4D-PET images derived with different AC methods. Results: The SUVmax varied 7.3%±6.9% over the breathing cycle in single-CT-PET, compared to 2.5%±2.8% in AveIP-CT-PET and 1.3%±1.2% in phasematching PET. The SUVmax in single-CT-PET differed by up to 15% from those in phase-matching-PET. The target volumes measured from single- CT-PET images also presented variations up to 10% among different phases of 4D PET in both phase-gating and amplitude-gating experiments. Conclusion: Attenuation correction using non-gated CT in 4D-PET imaging is not optimal process for quantitative analysis. Clinical 4D-PET imaging protocols should consider phase-matched 4D-CT image if available to achieve better accuracy.

  7. Ultrafast dynamics of strong-field dissociative ionization ofCH2Br2 probed by femtosecond soft x-ray transient absorptionspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loh, Zhi-Heng; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-01-15

    Femtosecond time-resolved soft x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy based on a high-order harmonic generation source is used to investigate the dissociative ionization of CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2} induced by 800 nm strong-field irradiation. At moderate peak intensities (2.0 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}), strong-field ionization is accompanied by ultrafast C-Br bond dissociation, producing both neutral Br ({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and Br* ({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) atoms together with the CH{sub 2}Br{sup +} fragment ion. The measured rise times for Br and Br* are 130 {+-} 22 fs and 74 {+-} 10 fs, respectively. The atomic bromine quantum state distribution shows that the Br/Br* population ratio is 8.1 {+-} 3.8 and that the Br {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} state is not aligned. The observed product distribution and the timescales of the photofragment appearances suggest that multiple field-dressed potential energy surfaces are involved in the dissociative ionization process. In addition, the transient absorption spectrum of CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup +} suggests that the alignment of the molecule relative to the polarization axis of the strong-field ionizing pulse determines the electronic symmetry of the resulting ion; alignment of the Br-Br, H-H, and C{sub 2} axis of the molecule along the polarization axis results in the production of the ion {tilde X}({sup 2}B{sub 2}), {tilde B}({sup 2}B{sub 1}) and {tilde C}({sup 2}A{sub 1}) states, respectively. At higher peak intensities (6.2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}), CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup +} undergoes sequential ionization to form the metastable CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}{sup 2+} dication. These results demonstrate the potential of core-level probing with high-order harmonic transient absorption spectroscopy for studying ultrafast molecular dynamics.

  8. A XANES and EXAFS Study of Hydration and Ion Pairing in Ambient Aqueous MnBr[subscript 2] Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yongsheng; Fulton, John L.; Partenheimer, Walter

    2008-09-25

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopies were used to probe the first-shell coordination structure of Mn(II) in aqueous MnBr{sub 2} solutions at ambient conditions from very dilute to the near saturation limit. The Mn K-edge EXAFS spectra for 0.05 and 0.2 m solutions showed that there was no Br(-I) in the first shell, and that the Mn(II) was fully hydrated with six water molecules in an octahedral arrangement. In contrast, for 6 m solution, the coordination number of water was reduced to about 5, and an average of about one bromine atom was present in the first shell as a contact ion pair. The 1s {yields} 4p transition at 6545.5 eV confirmed the observation of Mn-Br contact ion pairs at high concentrations and the 1s {yields} 3d transition at 6539.5 eV showed that the first shell coordination symmetry remained octahedral even in the presence of Mn-Br ion pairs.

  9. Electrodeposition of zinc on glassy carbon from ZnCl/sub 2/ and ZnBr/sub 2/ electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.; Gannon, E.

    1983-08-01

    The initial stages of the electrocrystallization of zinc from 3M ZnCl/sub 2/ and 3M ZnBr/sub 2/ on glassy carbon has been investigated using cyclic voltametry, the potential step method, and scanning electron microscopy. Particular care was taken to ensure electrolyte purity and to eliminate resistance effects in the measurements. The nucleation overvoltage in 3M ZnCl/sub 2/ was about 17 and about 12 mV in 3M ZnBr/sub 2/. In 3M ZnCl/sub 2/, the current transients from the potential step measurements could be fitted to a simple model that assumes instantaneous nucleation followed by growth of three dimensional centers under kinetic control. A similar mechanism is operative for 3M ZnBr/sub 2/ at low overvoltages. At higher overvoltages, the current transient is governed by mixed kinetic and diffusion control and cannot be fitted to a simple model. The lower nucleation overvoltage and the faster kinetics in 3M ZnBr/sub 2/ is correlated with the lower stability constants for the zinc bromide complexes. Erroneous results are obtained when resistance effects are not accounted for.

  10. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  11. Post-injection transmission attenuation measurements for PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M.E.; Carson, R.E.; Green, M.V.

    1988-02-01

    The feasibility of acquiring PET transmission information after tracer injection was studied using ring and rotating pin transmission sources. A combined transmission/emission scan was acquired, followed by an emission scan, used to subtract the emission counts from the transmission/emission data. The ratio of emission count rate for FDG brain scans to transmission count rate is 50-100% for a 5-mCi ring source and less than 5% for a 5-mCi pin source. Windowing of the sinogram, which rejects most random and scattered coincidences, also eliminates most emission counts. The magnitude and effects of residual random and scattered coincidences as well as increases in variability from tranmission/emission scans were studied. In addition, the results of combined transmission/emission scans for a high-contrast emission source distribution using ring and pin sources are described.

  12. 6.19 MicroPET Enhances Studies of Small Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is now a standard method for studying the metabolism of the brain, the heart, and cancer. ... R.W., Meadors, K., Phelps, M.E., "Brain imaging in small animals with MircoPET," ...

  13. F-18 Labeled Diabody-Luciferase Fusion Proteins for Optical-ImmunoPET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Anna M

    2013-01-18

    The goal of the proposed work is to develop novel dual-labeled molecular imaging probes for multimodality imaging. Based on small, engineered antibodies called â??diabodiesâ?, these probes will be radioactively tagged with Fluorine-18 for PET imaging, and fused to luciferases for optical (bioluminescence) detection. Performance will be evaluated and validated using a prototype integrated optical-PET imaging system, OPET. Multimodality probes for optical-PET imaging will be based on diabodies that are dually labeled with 18F for PET detection and fused to luciferases for optical imaging. 1) Two sets of fusion proteins will be built, targeting the cell surface markers CEA or HER2. Coelenterazine-based luciferases and variant forms will be evaluated in combination with native substrate and analogs, in order to obtain two distinct probes recognizing different targets with different spectral signatures. 2) Diabody-luciferase fusion proteins will be labeled with 18F using amine reactive [18F]-SFB produced using a novel microwave-assisted, one-pot method. 3) Sitespecific, chemoselective radiolabeling methods will be devised, to reduce the chance that radiolabeling will inactivate either the target-binding properties or the bioluminescence properties of the diabody-luciferase fusion proteins. 4) Combined optical and PET imaging of these dual modality probes will be evaluated and validated in vitro and in vivo using a prototype integrated optical-PET imaging system, OPET. Each imaging modality has its strengths and weaknesses. Development and use of dual modality probes allows optical imaging to benefit from the localization and quantitation offered by the PET mode, and enhances the PET imaging by enabling simultaneous detection of more than one probe.

  14. Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}: A highly efficient and stable composite photocatalyst for degradation of organic contaminants under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Jing; Zhao, Yijie; Lin, Haili; Xu, Benyan; Chen, Shifu

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts displayed excellent photocatalytic activities on the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light. The improved photocatalytic performance and stability of Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} originated from the synergetic effects of AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} interface and metallic Ag nanoparticles. O{sub 2}?, one of the reactive species, was responsible for the photodegradation of MO compared to H+ and OH. - Highlights: Novel Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalyst was reported. Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} had novel energy band combination between AgBr and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Synergetic effects of AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} interface and metallic Ag nanoparticles. Electron trapping role of metallic Ag dominated the stability of Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. - Abstract: Novel Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts were constructed via depositionprecipitation method and extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Under visible light (? > 420 nm), Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts displayed much higher photocatalytic activities than those of Ag/AgBr and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} for degradation of methyl orange (MO). 50% Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} presented the best photocatalytic performance, which was mainly attributed to the synergistic effects of AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} interface and the in situ metallic Ag nanoparticles for efficiently separating electronhole pairs. Furthermore, Ag/AgBr/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} remained good photocatalytic activity through 5 times of cycle experiments. Additionally, the radical scavengers experiment indicated that O{sub 2}{sup ?} was the main reactive species for the MO degradation under visible light.

  15. Direct molecular diffusion and micro-mixing for rapid dewatering of LiBr solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, S; Isfahani, RN; Moghaddam, S

    2014-03-01

    A slow molecular diffusion rate often limits the desorption process of an absorbate molecule from a liquid absorbent. To enhance the desorption rate, the absorbent is often boiled to increase the liquid vapor interfacial area. However, the growth of bubbles generated during the nucleate boiling process still remains mass-diffusion limited. Here, it is shown that a desorption rate higher than that of boiling can be achieved, if the vapor absorbent interface is continuously replenished with the absorbate-rich solution to limit the concentration boundary layer growth. The study is conducted in a LiBr-water-solution, in which the water molecules' diffusion rate is quite slow. The manipulation of the vapor solution interface concentration distribution is enabled by the mechanical confinement of the solution flow within microchannels, using a hydrophobic vapor-venting membrane and the implementation of microstructures on the flow channel's bottom wall. The microstructures stretch and fold the laminar streamlines within the solution film and produce vortices. The vortices continuously replace the concentrated solution at the vapor solution interface with the water-rich solution brought from the bottom and middle of the flow channel. The physics of the process is described using a combination of experimental and numerical studies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The corrosion phenomena in the coin cell BR2325 of the ``superstoichiometric fluorocarbon-lithium'' system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitkin, V.N.; Galkin, P.S.; Denisova, T.N.

    1998-07-01

    It was noted at the earlier study and at the longer observations of the novel various types of superstoichiometric fluorocarbon materials CF{sub 1+x}, where x = 0.1--0.33 (FCM) and their behavior, that despite of their known hygroscopity during a storage of samples in laboratory and technological utensils nevertheless occurs an appreciable sorption of atmospheric moisture. The color of samples does not change but sometimes there appears a smell of hydrogen fluoride and even corrosion of glasswares at a long storage. On the basis of these facts was assumed that at a long storage the slow reactions of HF producing with a sorption moisture can proceed. This phenomena is necessary to take into account for successful manufacturing of long life lithium cells based on superstoichiometric fluorocarbon composite cathodes (FCC). The chemistry of such slow hydrolytic process and especially of processes which can proceed at manufacturing of FCC earlier was not investigated also of any data in the literature in this occasion is not present. Just for this reason the authors undertook a study of the corrosion phenomena which can proceed in industrial sources of a current at a long storage under influence of slow hydrolysis of C-F bonds by moisture. The goal of the study was to search long term damages in the slightly wet FCM and based on these materials cathodic composites for fluorocarbon-lithium cells. As a model for corrosion process investigation they have chosen a standard coin lithium battery of a type BR2325.

  17. Photoluminescence characteristics of polariton condensation in a CuBr microcavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakayama, Masaaki Murakami, Katsuya; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Kim, DaeGwi

    2014-07-14

    We have investigated the photoluminescence (PL) properties of a CuBr microcavity at 10?K, including the temporal profiles, from the viewpoint of cavity-polariton condensation. The excitation energy density dependence of the PL intensity (band width) of the lower polariton branch at an in-plane wave vector of k{sub //}?=?0 exhibits a threshold-like increase (decrease). A large blueshift in the PL energy of ?10?meV caused by the cavity-polariton renormalization is correlated with the excitation energy density dependence of the PL intensity. The estimated density of photogenerated electron-hole pairs at the threshold is two orders lower than the Mott transition density. These results consistently demonstrate the occurrence of cavity-polariton condensation. In addition, we found that the PL rise and decay times are shortened dramatically by the cavity-polariton condensation, which reflects the bosonic final state stimulation in the relaxation process and the intrinsic cavity-polariton lifetime in the decay process.

  18. Synthesis and photocatalytic performance of an efficient Ag@AgBr/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} composite photocatalyst under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Yinghua; Lin, Shuanglong; Liu, Li; Hu, Jinshan; Cui, Wenquan

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: The plasmatic Ag@AgBr sensitized K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} composite photocatalysts. Ag@AgBr greatly increased visible light absorption for K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9}. The plamonic photocatalysts exhibited enhanced activity for the degradation of RhB. - Abstract: Ag@AgBr nanoparticle-sensitized K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} composite photocatalysts (Ag@AgBr/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9}) were prepared by a facile precipitationphotoreduction method. The photocatalytic activities of the Ag@AgBr/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} nanocomposites were evaluated for photocatalytic degradation of (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The composites exhibited excellent visible light absorption, which was attributable to the surface plasmon effect of Ag nanoparticles. The Ag@AgBr was uniformly scattered on the surface of K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} and possessed sizes in the range of 2050 nm. The loading amount of Ag@AgBr was also studied, and was found to influence the absorption spectra of the resulting composites. Approximately 95.9% of RhB was degraded by Ag@AgBr (20 wt.%)/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} after irradiation for 1 h. The stability of the material was also investigated by performing consecutive runs. Additionally, studies performed using radical scavengers indicated that O{sub 2}{sup ?} and Br{sup 0} acted as the main reactive species. Based on the experimental results, a photocatalytic mechanism for organics degradation over Ag@AgBr/K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} photocatalysts was proposed.

  19. Viscosity and density of aqueous solutions of LiBr, LiCl, ZnBr[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2], and LiNO[sub 3]; 1: Single salt solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wimby, J.M.; Berntsson, T.S. . Dept. of Heat and Power Technology)

    1994-01-01

    New experimental data for the viscosity and density of the binary systems lithium chloride + water, lithium bromide + water, calcium chloride + water, lithium nitrate + water, and zinc bromide + water are presented. Densities are presented in tabular form and as 10-parameter correlations, while kinematic and dynamic viscosities are presented in tabular form. Data are presented in the concentration range from intermediate dilution to close to room temperature crystallization concentration. The temperature ranges are 20--70 C for density and 25--90 C for viscosity. When available, literature data are compared with the new data, and some disagreement is found. New thermogravimetric curves are presented for the dehydration of CaCl[sub 2], ZnBr[sub 2], and LiBr in order to enable evaluation of drying as a composition determination technique.

  20. Hydrogen for X-group exchange in CH3X, X = Cl, Br, I, OMe and NMe2

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    byMonomeric [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH: Experimental and Computational Support for a Carbenoid Mechanism (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Hydrogen for X-group exchange in CH3X, X = Cl, Br, I, OMe and NMe2 byMonomeric [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH: Experimental and Computational Support for a Carbenoid Mechanism Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen for X-group exchange in CH3X, X = Cl, Br, I, OMe and NMe2 byMonomeric [1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]2CeH: Experimental and Computational Support for

  1. Steady-State Thermal-Hydraulics Analyses for the Conversion of the BR2 Reactor to LEU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licht, J. R.; Bergeron, A.; Dionne, B.; Van den Branden, G.; Kalcheva, S.; Sikik, E.; Koonen, E.

    2015-12-01

    BR2 is a research reactor used for radioisotope production and materials testing. It’s a tank-in-pool type reactor cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and light water (Figure 1). The reactor core consists of a beryllium moderator forming a matrix of 79 hexagonal prisms in a hyperboloid configuration; each having a central bore that can contain a variety of different components such as a fuel assembly, a control or regulating rod, an experimental device, or a beryllium or aluminum plug. Based on a series of tests, the BR2 operation is currently limited to a maximum allowable heat flux of 470 W/cm2 to ensure fuel plate integrity during steady-state operation and after a loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure accident.

  2. Comparison of CsBr and KBr coated Cu photocathodes: Effects of laser irradiation and work function changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Weidong; VilayurGanapathy, Subramanian; Joly, Alan G.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chambers, Scott A.; Maldonado, Juan R.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2013-02-20

    Thin films (7 nm layers) of CsBr and KBr were deposited on Cu(100) to investigate photoemission properties of these potential photocathode materials. After thin film deposition and prolonged laser ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (266 nm picosecond laser) photoemission quantum efficiency increases by factors of 26 and 77 for KBr/Cu(100) and CsBr/Cu(100) photocathodes, respectively. Immediately following thin film deposition, a decrease in work function is observed, compared to bare Cu, in both cases. Quantum efficiency enhancements are attributed to the decrease in photocathode work function, due to the deposition of alkali halide thin films, and photo-induced processes, that introduce defect states into the alkali halide bandgap, induced by UV laser irradiation. It is possible that alkali metal formation occurs during UV irradiation and that this further contributes to photoemission enhancement. Our results suggest that KBr, a relatively stable alkali-halide, has potential for photocathode applications.

  3. Periodicity, Electronic Structures, and Bonding of Gold Tetrahalides [AuX4](-) (X = F, CI, Br, I, At, Uus)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wan-Lu; Li, Yong; Xu, Congqiao; Wang, Xue B.; Vorpagel, Erich R.; Li, Jun

    2015-12-07

    Systematic theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed to understand the periodicity and electronic structures of trivalent-gold halides using gold tetrahalides [AuX4]⁻ anions (X = F, Cl, Br, I, At, Uus). The [AuX4]⁻ (X = Cl, Br, I) anions were produced in gas phase and their negative-ion photoelectron spectra were obtained, which exhibited rich and well-resolved spectral peaks. We calculated the adiabatic as well as vertical electron detachment energies using density functional methods with scalar and spin-orbit coupling relativistic effects. The simulated photoelectron spectra based on these calculations are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Our results show that the trivalent Au(III) oxidation state becomes progressively less stable while Au(I) is preferred when the halides become heavier along the Period Table. This trend reveals that the oxidation state of metals in complexes can be manipulated through ligand design

  4. Ultralow dose computed tomography attenuation correction for pediatric PET CT using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Samuel L.; Shulkin, Barry L.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To develop ultralow dose computed tomography (CT) attenuation correction (CTAC) acquisition protocols for pediatric positron emission tomography CT (PET CT). Methods: A GE Discovery 690 PET CT hybrid scanner was used to investigate the change to quantitative PET and CT measurements when operated at ultralow doses (1035 mA s). CT quantitation: noise, low-contrast resolution, and CT numbers for 11 tissue substitutes were analyzed in-phantom. CT quantitation was analyzed to a reduction of 90% volume computed tomography dose index (0.39/3.64; mGy) from baseline. To minimize noise infiltration, 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) was used for CT reconstruction. PET images were reconstructed with the lower-dose CTAC iterations and analyzed for: maximum body weight standardized uptake value (SUV{sub bw}) of various diameter targets (range 837 mm), background uniformity, and spatial resolution. Radiation dose and CTAC noise magnitude were compared for 140 patient examinations (76 post-ASiR implementation) to determine relative dose reduction and noise control. Results: CT numbers were constant to within 10% from the nondose reduced CTAC image for 90% dose reduction. No change in SUV{sub bw}, background percent uniformity, or spatial resolution for PET images reconstructed with CTAC protocols was found down to 90% dose reduction. Patient population effective dose analysis demonstrated relative CTAC dose reductions between 62% and 86% (3.2/8.30.9/6.2). Noise magnitude in dose-reduced patient images increased but was not statistically different from predose-reduced patient images. Conclusions: Using ASiR allowed for aggressive reduction in CT dose with no change in PET reconstructed images while maintaining sufficient image quality for colocalization of hybrid CT anatomy and PET radioisotope uptake.

  5. Cs{sub 3}Zr{sub 6}Br{sub 15}Z (Z = C, B): A stuffed rhombohedral perovskite structure of linked clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, Ru-Yi; Corbett, J.D.

    1995-03-29

    The isostructural title compounds are synthesized in good yields form reactions of Zr, ZrBr{sub 4}, CsBr, and Z in sealed Ta tubing for {approximately}3 weeks at 850 {degrees}C. Their single-crystal data refinements established the products as Cs{sub 3.02(7)-}Zr{sub 6}Br{sub 14}C and Cs{sub 3.39(5)}Zr{sub 6}br{sub 15}B (R3c, Z = 6, a = 13.1031 (6), 13.116(1) {angstrom}, c = 35.800(3), 35.980(6) {angstrom}, R(F)/R{sub w} = 5.4/5.9, 5.4/4.4%, respectively). The structure is derived form a three-dimensional [Zr{sub 6}(Z)Br{sub 12}]Br{sub 6/2} network of four-rings (as in ReO{sub 6/2}) twisted into a rhombohedral perovskite analogous to VF{sub 3}. The three necessary Cs{sup +} cations are fractionally distributed over five sites that are far from optimal or common, with either eight asymmetric or only three close bromide neighbors. Refinement of a third Cs{sub 3.18(5)}Zr{sub 6}Br{sub 15}C structure at {minus}50 {degrees}C gave the same result with somewhat smaller positional distributions of the atoms.

  6. Palladium-catalyzed Br/D exchange of arenes: Selective deuterium incorporation with versatile functional group tolerance and high efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Honghai -Hai; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Hong, Kunlun

    2015-07-13

    There is a facile method for introducing one or more deuterium atoms onto an aromatic nucleus via Br/D exchange with high functional group tolerance and high incorporation efficiency is disclosed. Deuterium-labeled aryl chlorides and aryl borates which could be used as substrates in cross-coupling reactions to construct more complicated deuterium-labeled compounds can also be synthesized by this method.

  7. Palladium-catalyzed Br/D exchange of arenes: Selective deuterium incorporation with versatile functional group tolerance and high efficiency

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Honghai -Hai; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Hong, Kunlun

    2015-01-01

    There is a facile method for introducing one or more deuterium atoms onto an aromatic nucleus via Br/D exchange with high functional group tolerance and high incorporation efficiency is disclosed. Deuterium-labeled aryl chlorides and aryl borates which could be used as substrates in cross-coupling reactions to construct more complicated deuterium-labeled compounds can also be synthesized by this method.

  8. Magnetic excitations in the spin-1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zvyagin, S. A.; Ozerov, M.; Kamenskyi, D.; Wosnitza, J.; Krzystek, J.; Yoshizawa, D.; Hagiwara, M.; Hu, Rongwei; Ryu, Hyejin; Petrovic, C.; et al

    2015-11-27

    We present on high- field electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of magnetic excitations in the spin- 1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4. Frequency- field diagrams of ESR excitations are measured for different orientations of magnetic fields up to 25 T. We show that the substantial zero- field energy gap, Δ ≈ 9.5 K, observed in the low-temperature excitation spectrum of Cs2CuBr4 [Zvyagin et al:, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 077206 (2014)], is present well above TN. Noticeably, the transition into the long-range magnetically ordered phase does not significantly affect the size of the gap, suggesting that even below TN the high-energy spin dynamicsmore » in Cs2CuBr4 is determined by short-range-order spin correlations. The experimental data are compared with results of model spin-wave-theory calculations for spin-1/2 triangle-lattice antiferromagnet.« less

  9. Preventive maintenance system for the photomultiplier detector blocks of pet scanners

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Alejandro V.; Warner, Donald

    1995-01-24

    A system including a method and apparatus for preventive maintenance of PET scanner photomultiplier detector blocks is disclosed. The quantitive comparisons used in the method of the present invention to provide an indication in the form of a display or printout advising the user that the photomultiplier block is stable, intermittently unstable, or drifting unstable, and also advising of the expected date of failure of a photomultiplier block in the PET scanner. The system alerts the user to replace the defective photomultiplier block prior to catastrophic failure in a scheduled preventative maintenance program, thus eliminating expensive and unscheduled downtime of the PET scanner due to photomultiplier failure. The apparatus for carrying out the method of the present invention preferably resides in the host computer controlling a PET scanner. It includes a memory adapted for storing a record of a number of iterative adjustments that are necessary to calibrate the gain of a photomultiplier detector block i at a time t.sub.0, a time t.sub.1 and a time T, where T>t.sub.1 >t.sub.0, which is designated as Histo(i,j(t)). The apparatus also includes a processor configured by a software program or a combination of programmed RAM and ROM devices to perform a number of calculations and operations on these values, and also includes a counter for analyzing each photomultiplier detector block i=1 through I of a PET scanner.

  10. Preventive maintenance system for the photomultiplier detector blocks of PET scanners

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, A.V.; Warner, D.

    1995-01-24

    A system including a method and apparatus for preventive maintenance of PET scanner photomultiplier detector blocks is disclosed. The qualitative comparisons used in the method of the present invention to provide an indication in the form of a display or printout advising the user that the photomultiplier block is stable, intermittently unstable, or drifting unstable, and also advising of the expected date of failure of a photomultiplier block in the PET scanner. The system alerts the user to replace the defective photomultiplier block prior to catastrophic failure in a scheduled preventative maintenance program, thus eliminating expensive and unscheduled downtime of the PET scanner due to photomultiplier failure. The apparatus for carrying out the method of the present invention preferably resides in the host computer controlling a PET scanner. It includes a memory adapted for storing a record of a number of iterative adjustments that are necessary to calibrate the gain of a photomultiplier detector block i at a time t[sub 0], a time t[sub 1] and a time T, where T>t[sub 1]>t[sub 0], which is designated as Histo(i,j(t)). The apparatus also includes a processor configured by a software program or a combination of programmed RAM and ROM devices to perform a number of calculations and operations on these values, and also includes a counter for analyzing each photomultiplier detector block i=1 through I of a PET scanner. 40 figures.

  11. Interim PET After Two ABVD Cycles in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Outcomes Following the Continuation of Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simontacchi, Gabriele; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Ciammella, Patrizia; Buglione, Michela; Saieva, Calogero; Magrini, Stefano Maria; Livi, Lorenzo; Iotti, Cinzia; Botto, Barbara; Vaggelli, Luca; Re, Alessandro; Merli, Francesco; Ricardi, Umberto

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: This multicenter retrospective study was designed to evaluate the prognostic role of interim fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography (i-FDG-PET) in a cohort of patients affected with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated initially with adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy, and to assess the role of chemotherapy continuation plus radiation therapy for i-FDG-PET-positive patients. Methods and Materials: Data from 257 patients were retrieved from 4 hematology and radiation oncology departments. Inclusion criteria were stage I to IIAB HL, “intention-to-treat” AVBD plus radiation therapy, and FDG-PET at diagnosis and after the first 2 ABVD cycles. All i-FDG-PET scans underwent blinded local review by using the Deauville 5-point scoring system; patients were stratified as negative or positive using 2 Deauville score cutoff values, ≥3 or ≥4. Results: Median follow-up time was 56 months (range: 9-163 months); 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) for the whole cohort were 97.5% and 98.3%, respectively. Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 95.6%. After i-FDG-PET revision, 43 of 257 patients (16.7%) had a positive i-FDG-PET (Deauville scores: 3-5). Five-year PFS rates for i-FDG-PET-negative and i-FDG-PET-positive patients were 98.1% and 83.7%, respectively, if using a Deauville score cutoff of 3, and 97.7% and 78.6%, respectively, if using a cutoff of 4 (P=.0001). Five-year OS for i-FDG-PET-negative and i-FDG-PET-positive patients was 98.5% and 93.0%, respectively, if using a cutoff of 3, and 98.6% and 89.3%, respectively, if using a cutoff of 4 (P=.029 and P=.002). At univariate regression analysis, i-FDG-PET positivity was associated with worse OS and PFS. At multivariate analysis, performed only for PFS, i-FDG-PET positivity confirmed its negative impact (P=.002). Conclusions: i-FDG-PET is prognostic for PFS and OS in early-stage HL patients treated with combined modality therapy; the continuation of chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy is able to obtain durable, complete remission in most i-FDG-PET-positive patients.

  12. A comprehensive plant-wide assessment of Amcor PET Packaging at Fairfield, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Losh; Hui Choi; Yin Yin Wu; Bryan W. Hackett; Ahmad R. Ganji

    2008-02-29

    This report includes the results of the plant-wide assessment of AMCOR PET plants in Fairfield, City of Commerce, and Lathrop California. The project (except the assessment of Lathrop plant) was a cost shared effort between US Department of Energy through Golden Field Office, Golden CO and AMCOR PET Packaging Co. The DOE share of the plant-wide assessment cost was awarded to AMCOR PET in response to the RFP DE-PS36-05GO95009, the 2005 round of funding for Plant-Wide Energy Efficiency Opportunity Assessments. The plant-wide assessment included the processes, electrical and gas equipment. Current production practices have been evaluated against best practice standards, as well as utilization of modern technology to improve energy efficiency, reduce the wastes, and improve productivity.

  13. Sequential FDG-PET brachytherapy treatment planning in carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Lilie L.; Mutic, Sasa M.S.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Low, Daniel A.; Miller, Tom R.; Vicic, Milos; LaForest, Richard; Zoberi, Imran; Grigsby, Perry W. . E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of sequential {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging for brachytherapy treatment planning in patients with carcinoma of the cervix. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients with carcinoma of the cervix were included in this prospective study. The clinical stage of their disease was Ib (7), IIa (1), IIb (7), and IIIb (9). Patients were treated with irradiation and brachytherapy, with the majority receiving concurrent weekly cisplatin chemotherapy. Patients underwent diagnostic FDG-PET imaging before treatment, sequential FDG-PET brachytherapy imaging during treatment, and diagnostic FDG-PET 3 months after treatment completion. Delineation of the gross tumor volume, bladder, and rectum was performed for all scans using a commercially available treatment-planning system. Actual treatment delivery was based on two-dimensional orthogonal planning. Results: The mean gross tumor volume and percent coverage by the target isodose surface for the initial, mid, and last implant were 37 cm{sup 3}, 17 cm{sup 3}, and 10 cm{sup 3} and 68%, 76%, and 79%, respectively. Nine of 11 patients were found to have continued decrease in tumor volume as measured by FDG-PET, with 3 patients having complete regression of their tumor before treatment was completed. The maximal bladder and rectal doses obtained from three-dimensional dose-volume histograms were significantly higher than the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 38 bladder and rectal points obtained by two-dimensional treatment-planning. Conclusions: Sequential FDG-PET brachytherapy imaging identifies the tumor response in individual patients, potentially making patient-specific brachytherapy treatment planning possible.

  14. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity of visible-light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaojuan Tang, Duanlian; Tang, Fan; Zhu, Yunyan; He, Changfa; Liu, Minghua Lin, Chunxiang; Liu, Yifan

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: A plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst has been successfully synthesized. Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibit high visible light photocatalytic activity. Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst is stable and magnetically separable. - Abstract: A visible-light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized via a depositionprecipitation and photoreduction through a novel one-pot process. X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were employed to investigate the crystal structure, chemical composition, morphology, and optical properties of the as-prepared nanocomposites. The photocatalytic activities of the nanocomposites were evaluated by photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under visible light. The results demonstrated that the obtained Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites exhibited higher photocatalytic activity as compared to pure ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. In addition, the sample photoreduced for 20 min and calcined at 500 C achieved the highest photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the Ag/AgBr/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite has high stability under visible light irradiation and could be conveniently separated by using an external magnetic field.

  15. Distributed Microprocessor Automation Network for Synthesizing Radiotracers Used in Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Russell, J. A. G.; Alexoff, D. L.; Wolf, A. P.

    1984-09-01

    This presentation describes an evolving distributed microprocessor network for automating the routine production synthesis of radiotracers used in Positron Emission Tomography. We first present a brief overview of the PET method for measuring biological function, and then outline the general procedure for producing a radiotracer. The paper identifies several reasons for our automating the syntheses of these compounds. There is a description of the distributed microprocessor network architecture chosen and the rationale for that choice. Finally, we speculate about how this network may be exploited to extend the power of the PET method from the large university or National Laboratory to the biomedical research and clinical community at large. (DT)

  16. High-resolution PET [Positron Emission Tomography] for Medical Science Studies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Budinger, T. F.; Derenzo, S. E.; Huesman, R. H.; Jagust, W. J.; Valk, P. E.

    1989-09-01

    One of the unexpected fruits of basic physics research and the computer revolution is the noninvasive imaging power available to today's physician. Technologies that were strictly the province of research scientists only a decade or two ago now serve as the foundations for such standard diagnostic tools as x-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), ultrasound, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Furthermore, prompted by the needs of both the practicing physician and the clinical researcher, efforts to improve these technologies continue. This booklet endeavors to describe the advantages of achieving high resolution in PET imaging.

  17. Photo of the Week: Pre-PET Headgear | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-PET Headgear Photo of the Week: Pre-PET Headgear March 26, 2014 - 3:49pm Addthis In 1961, chemists at Brookhaven National Laboratory studied how to detect small brain tumors by analyzing the decay of radioactive material injected into the patient's bloodstream and absorbed by the tumor. To help them, BNL's Instrumentation Division built different arrays of detectors, and this circular type proved best. In the 1970s, BNL helped reconstruct the raw data received by the detectors into an image

  18. Nanostructured Lanthanum Halides and CeBr3 for Nuclear Radiation and Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Guss, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Ron Guise, Ding Yuan

    2010-06-09

    Scintillator materials are used to detect, and in some cases identify, gamma rays. Higher performance scintillators are expensive, hard to manufacture, fragile, and sometimes require liquid nitrogen or cooling engines. But whereas lower-quality scintillators are cheap, easy to manufacture, and more rugged, their performance is lower. At issue: can the desirable qualities of high-and low-performance scintillators be combined to achieve better performance at lower cost? Preliminary experiments show that a LaF{sub 3}:Ce oleic acid-based nanocomposite exhibits a photopeak when exposed to {sup 137}Cs source gamma-radiation. The chemical synthesis of the cerium-doped lanthanum halide nanoparticles are scalable and large quantities of material can be produced at a time, unlike typical crystal growth processes such as the Bridgeman process. Using a polymer composite (Figure 1), produced by LANL, initial measurements of the unloaded and 8% LaF{sub 3}:Ce-loaded sample have been made using {sup 137}Cs sources. Figure 2 shows an energy spectrum acquired for CeF{sub 3}. The lighter plot is the measured polymer-only spectrum and the black plot is the spectrum from the nanocomposite scintillator. As the development of this material continues, the energy resolution is expected to improve and the photopeak-to-Compton ratio will become greater at higher loadings. These measurements show the expected Compton edge in the polymer-only sample, and the Compton edge and photo-peak expected in the nanophosphor composites that LANL has produced. Using a porous VYCORR with CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dots, Letant has demonstrated that he has obtained signatures of the 241Am photopeak with energy resolution as good at NaI (Figure 3). We begin with the fact that CeBr{sub 3} crystals do not have a self-activity component as strong as the lanthanum halides. The radioactive 0.090% {sup 138}La component of lanthanum leads to significant self-activity, which will be a problem for very large detector volumes. Yet a significant strength of the nanostructure detector concept is the ability to create extremely large detector volumes by mixing nanoparticles into a transparent matrix. This would argue for use of nanoparticles other than lanthanum halides. Nanocomposites are easy to prepare; it is much less costly to use nanocomposites than to grow large whole crystals of these materials. The material can be fabricated at an industrial scale, further reducing cost. This material potentially offers the performance of $300/cc material (e.g., lanthanum bromide) at a cost of $1/cc. Because the material acts as a plastic, it is rugged and flexible, and can be made in large sheets, increasing the sensitivity of a detector using it. It would operate at ambient temperatures. Very large volumes of detector may be produced at greatly reduced cost, enhancing the non-proliferation posture of the nation for the same dollar value.

  19. Factors affecting degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) during pre-flotation conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caparanga, Alvin R. Basilia, Blessie A.; Dagbay, Kevin B.; Salvacion, Jonathan W.L.

    2009-09-15

    In general, plastics are exposed to different degrading agents in every procedure involved in their recovery from waste mixture and from subsequent recycling. In this study, two methods of pre-flotation conditioning were used to determine how these methods affect the general properties of the pre-conditioned PET particles to be recovered from the PET-PVC mixture. The first method comprised the conditioning of PET samples using an alkaline solution of nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) based on the patent by the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. The second method, developed in this study, was a conditioning process which used an alkali-less solution of the same nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) used in the first method. The following analytical methods were used to characterize properties of the pre-conditioned PET samples that were correlated to relative degradation of the samples: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), for thermal behavior of the samples; FT-IR spectroscopy, for functional groups present in the samples; and, Pohl's method, for carboxyl end-group concentration count. Results show that in addition to water the presence of NaOH in the conditioning solution contributes to the further degradation of the polymer.

  20. Preliminary design report: Babcock and Wilcox BR-100 100-ton rail/barge spent fuel shipping cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information on burnup credit as applied to the preliminary design of the BR-100 shipping cask. There is a brief description of the preliminary basket design and the features used to maintain a critically safe system. Following the basket description is a discussion of various criticality analyses used to evaluate burnup credit. The results from these analyses are then reviewed in the perspective of fuel burnups expected to be shipped to either the final repository or a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The hurdles to employing burnup credit in the certification of any cask are then outlines and reviewed. the last section gives conclusions reached as to burnup credit for the BR-100 cask, based on our analyses and experience. All information in this study refers to the cask configured to transport PWR fuel. Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel satisfies the criticality requirements so that burnup credit is not needed. All calculations generated in the preparation of this report were based upon the preliminary design which will be optimized during the final design. 8 refs., 19 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Impact of membrane characteristics on the performance and cycling of the Br-2-H-2 redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, MC; Cho, KT; Spingler, FB; Weber, AZ; Lin, GY

    2015-06-15

    The Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. In this paper, the effect of various aspects of material selection and processing of proton exchange membranes on the operation of the Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell is determined. Membrane properties have a significant impact on the performance and efficiency of the system. In particular, there is a tradeoff between conductivity and crossover, where conductivity limits system efficiency at high current density and crossover limits efficiency at low current density. The impact of thickness, pretreatment procedure, swelling state during cell assembly, equivalent weight, membrane reinforcement, and addition of a microporous separator layer on this tradeoff is assessed. NR212 (50 mu m) pretreated by soaking in 70 degrees C water is found to be optimal for the studied operating conditions. For this case, an energy efficiency of greater than 75% is achieved for current density up to 400 mA cm(-2), with a maximum obtainable energy efficiency of 88%. A cell with this membrane was cycled continuously for 3164 h. Membrane transport properties, including conductivity and bromine and water crossover, were found to decrease moderately upon cycling but remained higher than those for the as-received membrane. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a novel depth of interaction PET detector using highly multiplexed G-APD cross-strip encoding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, A. Parl, C.; Liu, C. C.; Pichler, B. J.; Mantlik, F.; Lorenz, E.; Renker, D.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a prototype PET detector module for a combined small animal positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) system. The most important factor for small animal imaging applications is the detection sensitivity of the PET camera, which can be optimized by utilizing longer scintillation crystals. At the same time, small animal PET systems must yield a high spatial resolution. The measured object is very close to the PET detector because the bore diameter of a high field animal MR scanner is limited. When used in combination with long scintillation crystals, these small-bore PET systems generate parallax errors that ultimately lead to a decreased spatial resolution. Thus, we developed a depth of interaction (DoI) encoding PET detector module that has a uniform spatial resolution across the whole field of view (FOV), high detection sensitivity, compactness, and insensitivity to magnetic fields. Methods: The approach was based on Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (G-APD) detectors with cross-strip encoding. The number of readout channels was reduced by a factor of 36 for the chosen block elements. Two 12 × 2 G-APD strip arrays (25μm cells) were placed perpendicular on each face of a 12 × 12 lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystal block with a crystal size of 1.55 × 1.55 × 20 mm. The strip arrays were multiplexed into two channels and used to calculate the x, y coordinates for each array and the deposited energy. The DoI was measured in step sizes of 1.8 mm by a collimated {sup 18}F source. The coincident resolved time (CRT) was analyzed at all DoI positions by acquiring the waveform for each event and applying a digital leading edge discriminator. Results: All 144 crystals were well resolved in the crystal flood map. The average full width half maximum (FWHM) energy resolution of the detector was 12.8% ± 1.5% with a FWHM CRT of 1.14 ± 0.02 ns. The average FWHM DoI resolution over 12 crystals was 2.90 ± 0.15 mm. Conclusions: The novel DoI PET detector, which is based on strip G-APD arrays, yielded a DoI resolution of 2.9 mm and excellent timing and energy resolution. Its high multiplexing factor reduces the number of electronic channels. Thus, this cross-strip approach enables low-cost, high-performance PET detectors for dedicated small animal PET and PET/MRI and potentially clinical PET/MRI systems.

  3. Tumor Response and Survival Predicted by Post-Therapy FDG-PET/CT in Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Julie K.; Siegel, Barry A.; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Myerson, Robert J.; Fleshman, James W.; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the response to therapy for anal carcinoma using post-therapy imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and to compare the metabolic response with patient outcome. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of 53 consecutive patients with anal cancer. All patients underwent pre- and post-treatment whole-body FDG-PET/computed tomography. Patients had been treated with external beam radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Whole-body FDG-PET was performed 0.9-5.4 months (mean, 2.1) after therapy completion. Results: The post-therapy PET scan did not show any abnormal FDG uptake (complete metabolic response) in 44 patients. Persistent abnormal FDG uptake (partial metabolic response) was found in the anal tumor in 9 patients. The 2-year cause-specific survival rate was 94% for patients with a complete vs. 39% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p = 0.0008). The 2-year progression-free survival rate was 95% for patients with a complete vs. 22% for patients with a partial metabolic response in the anal tumor (p < 0.0001). A Cox proportional hazards model of survival outcome indicated that a complete metabolic response was the most significant predictor of progression-free survival in our patient population (p = 0.0003). Conclusions: A partial metabolic response in the anal tumor as determined by post-therapy FDG-PET is predictive of significantly decreased progression-free and cause-specific survival after chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer.

  4. Dissociative adsorption of CH{sub 3}X (X = Br and Cl) on a silicon(100) surface revisited by density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Chen-Guang; Huang, Kai E-mail: wji@ruc.edu.cn; Ji, Wei E-mail: wji@ruc.edu.cn

    2014-11-07

    During the dissociative adsorption on a solid surface, the substrate usually participates in a passive manner to accommodate fragments produced upon the cleavage of the internal bond(s) of a (transient) molecular adsorbate. This simple picture, however, neglects the flexibility of surface atoms. Here, we report a Density Functional Theory study to revisit our early studies of the dissociative adsorption of CH{sub 3}X (X = Br and Cl) on Si(100). We have identified a new reaction pathway, which involves a flip of a silicon dimer; this new pathway agrees better with experiments. For our main exemplar of CH{sub 3}Br, insights have been gained using a simple model that involves a three-atom reactive center, Br-C-Si. When the silicon dimer flips, the interaction between C and Si in the Br-C-Si center is enhanced, evident in the increased energy-split of the frontier orbitals. We also examine how the dissociation dynamics of CH{sub 3}Br is altered on a heterodimer (Si-Al, Si-P, and Si-Ge) in a Si(100) surface. In each case, we conclude, on the basis of computed reaction pathways, that no heterodimer flipping is involved before the system transverses the transition state to dissociative adsorption.

  5. Field of view extension and truncation correction for MR-based human attenuation correction in simultaneous MR/PET imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumhagen, Jan O. Ladebeck, Ralf; Fenchel, Matthias; Braun, Harald; Quick, Harald H.; Faul, David; Scheffler, Klaus

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: In quantitative PET imaging, it is critical to accurately measure and compensate for the attenuation of the photons absorbed in the tissue. While in PET/CT the linear attenuation coefficients can be easily determined from a low-dose CT-based transmission scan, in whole-body MR/PET the computation of the linear attenuation coefficients is based on the MR data. However, a constraint of the MR-based attenuation correction (AC) is the MR-inherent field-of-view (FoV) limitation due to static magnetic field (B{sub 0}) inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities. Therefore, the MR-based human AC map may be truncated or geometrically distorted toward the edges of the FoV and, consequently, the PET reconstruction with MR-based AC may be biased. This is especially of impact laterally where the patient arms rest beside the body and are not fully considered. Methods: A method is proposed to extend the MR FoV by determining an optimal readout gradient field which locally compensates B{sub 0} inhomogeneities and gradient nonlinearities. This technique was used to reduce truncation in AC maps of 12 patients, and the impact on the PET quantification was analyzed and compared to truncated data without applying the FoV extension and additionally to an established approach of PET-based FoV extension. Results: The truncation artifacts in the MR-based AC maps were successfully reduced in all patients, and the mean body volume was thereby increased by 5.4%. In some cases large patient-dependent changes in SUV of up to 30% were observed in individual lesions when compared to the standard truncated attenuation map. Conclusions: The proposed technique successfully extends the MR FoV in MR-based attenuation correction and shows an improvement of PET quantification in whole-body MR/PET hybrid imaging. In comparison to the PET-based completion of the truncated body contour, the proposed method is also applicable to specialized PET tracers with little uptake in the arms and might reduce the computation time by obviating the need for iterative calculations of the PET emission data beyond those required for reconstructing images.

  6. Environmental effects on noble-gas hydrides: HXeBr, HXeCCH, and HXeH in noble-gas and molecular matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuge, Masashi E-mail: leonid.khriachtchev@helsinki.fi; Lignell, Antti; Rsnen, Markku; Khriachtchev, Leonid E-mail: leonid.khriachtchev@helsinki.fi

    2013-11-28

    Noble-gas hydrides HNgY (Ng is a noble-gas atom and Y is an electronegative group) are sensitive probes of local environment due to their relatively weak bonding and large dipole moments. We experimentally studied HXeBr in Ar, Kr, and N{sub 2} matrices, HXeCCH in Ne and N{sub 2} matrices, and HXeH in an N{sub 2} matrix. These are the first observations of noble-gas hydrides in an N{sub 2} matrix. An N{sub 2} matrix strongly increases the HXe stretching frequency of HXeBr and HXeCCH with respect to a Ne matrix, which is presumably due to a strong interaction between the HNgY dipole moment and quadrupole moments of the surrounding lattice N{sub 2} molecules. The spectral shift of HXeBr in an N{sub 2} matrix is similar to that in a CO{sub 2} matrix, which is a rather unexpected result because the quadrupole moment of CO{sub 2} is about three times as large as that of N{sub 2}. The HXe stretching frequencies of HXeBr and HXeCCH in noble-gas matrices show a trend of ?(Ne) < ?(Xe) < ?(Kr) < ?(Ar), which is a non-monotonous function of the dielectric constants of the noble-gas solids. The MP2(full) calculations of HXeBr and HXeCCH with the polarizable continuum model as well as the CCSD(T) calculations of the HXeBrNg and HXeCCHNg (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) complexes cannot fully explain the experimental observations. It is concluded that more sophisticated computational models should be used to describe these experimental findings.

  7. Stabilized wide bandgap MAPbBrxI3-x perovskite by enhanced grain size and improved crystallinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Miao; Bi, Cheng; Yuan, Yongbo; Bai, Yang; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-12-07

    In this study, the light instability of CH3NH3PbIxBr3x has been raised one of the biggest challenges for its application in tandem solar cells. Here we show that an improved crystallinity and grain size of CH3NH3PbIxBr3x films could stabilize these materials under one sun illumination, improving both the efficiency and stability of the wide-bandgap perovskite solar cells.

  8. A systematic investigation of PET Radionuclide Specific Activity on Miniaturization of Radiochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeanne M Link, PhD

    2012-03-08

    The PET radionuclides, 18F and 11C consist of very high radiation to mass amounts and should be easily adapted to new technologies such as â??chip chemistryâ? with nanofluidics. However, environmental contamination with nonradioactive fluorine, carbon and other trace contaminants add sufficient mass, micrograms to milligrams, to prevent adapting PET radiochemistry to the nanochip technologies. In addition, the large volumes of material required for beam irradiation make it necessary to also remove the 18F and 11C from their chemical matrices. These steps add contaminants. The work described in this report was a systematic investigation of sources of these contaminants and methods to reduce these contaminants and the reaction volumes for radiochemical synthesis. Several methods were found to lower the contaminants and matrices to within a factor of 2 to 100 of those needed to fully implement chip technology but further improvements are needed.

  9. Dedicated mobile high resolution prostate PET imager with an insertable transrectal probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2010-12-28

    A dedicated mobile PET imaging system to image the prostate and surrounding organs. The imaging system includes an outside high resolution PET imager placed close to the patient's torso and an insertable and compact transrectal probe that is placed in close proximity to the prostate and operates in conjunction with the outside imager. The two detector systems are spatially co-registered to each other. The outside imager is mounted on an open rotating gantry to provide torso-wide 3D images of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs. The insertable probe provides closer imaging, high sensitivity, and very high resolution predominately 2D view of the prostate and immediate surroundings. The probe is operated in conjunction with the outside imager and a fast data acquisition system to provide very high resolution reconstruction of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs.

  10. Precise Measurement of Strontium-82 Radioactivity in the Sr-Rb PET

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Generator | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Precise Measurement of Strontium-82 Radioactivity in the Sr-Rb PET Generator Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of

  11. CROSSED MOLECULAR BEAM STUDIES OF CHEMILUMINESCENT REACTIONS: F{sub 2} + I{sub 2}, Br{sub 2} and ICl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahler, C.C.; Lee, Y.T.

    1980-05-01

    The chemiluminescent bimolecular halogen-halogen reactions, F{sub 2} + I{sub 2}, Br{sub 2} and ICl, have been studied by the crossed molecular beam technique. Undispersed chemiluminescence was measured as a function of collision energy and, for I{sub 2} + F{sub 2}, as a function of the two beam pressures. Although no spectra were obtained to positively identify the emitters as IF*, ClF* and BrF*, arguments are given to support this identification. The observed reaction thresholds of 4.2 and 5.9 kcal/mole for I{sub 2} + F{sub 2} and ICl + F{sub 2} , respectively, are the same as the threshold energies for production of the stable trihalogens I{sub 2}F and ClF. This coincidence of threshold energies, as well as similar high collision energy behavior, implies that the chemiluminescent reaction proceeds via a stable trihalogen intermediate. This mechanism can explain our results and the results of other workers without resorting to a symmetry forbidden four center reaction mechanism. A threshold of 11.3 kcal/mole was found for Br{sub 2} + F{sub 2} , no threshold for Br{sub 2}F has been previously reported. Laser enhancement of the I{sub 2} + F{sub 2} reaction was attempted, but no enhancement was seen.

  12. Microfluidics without channels: highly-flexible synthesis on a digital-microfluidic chip for production of diverse PET tracers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dam, Robert Michael [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is used for fundamental studies of living biological organisms and microbial ecosystems in applications ranging from biofuel production to environmental remediation to the study, diagnosis, and treatment monitoring of human disease. Routine access to PET imaging, to monitor biochemical reactions in living organisms in real time, could accelerate a broad range of research programs of interest to DOE. Using PET requires access to short-lived radioactive-labeled compounds that specifically probe the desired living processes. The overall aims of this project were to develop a miniature liquid-handling technology platform (called microfluidics) that increases the availability of diverse PET probes by reducing the cost and complexity of their production. Based on preliminary experiments showing that microfluidic chips can synthesis such compounds, we aimed to advance this technology to improve its robustness, increase its flexibility for a broad range of probes, and increase its user-friendliness. Through the research activities of this project, numerous advances were made; Tools were developed to enable the visualization of radioactive materials within microfluidic chips; Fundamental advances were made in the microfluidic chip architecture and fabrication process to increase its robustness and reliability; The microfluidic chip technology was shown to produce useful quantities of an example PET probes, and methods to further increase the output were successfully pursued; A universal chip was developed that could produce multiple types of PET probes, enabling the possibility of on demand synthesis of different probes; and Operation of the chip was automated to ensure minimal radiation exposure to the operator Based on the demonstrations of promising technical feasibility and performance, the microfluidic chip technology is currently being commercialized. It is anticipated that costs of microfluidic chips can be dramatically reduced in the future by leveraging economies of scale in the microelectronics industry, leading to low cost production of PET probes.

  13. Longitudinal, intermodality registration of quantitative breast PET and MRI data acquired before and during neoadjuvant chemotherapy: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atuegwu, Nkiruka C.; Williams, Jason M.; Li, Xia; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Abramson, Richard G.; Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-2675; Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-6838 ; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Abramson, Vandana G.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The authors propose a method whereby serially acquired DCE-MRI, DW-MRI, and FDG-PET breast data sets can be spatially and temporally coregistered to enable the comparison of changes in parameter maps at the voxel level. Methods: First, the authors aligned the PET and MR images at each time point rigidly and nonrigidly. To register the MR images longitudinally, the authors extended a nonrigid registration algorithm by including a tumor volume-preserving constraint in the cost function. After the PET images were aligned to the MR images at each time point, the authors then used the transformation obtained from the longitudinal registration of the MRI volumes to register the PET images longitudinally. The authors tested this approach on ten breast cancer patients by calculating a modified Dice similarity of tumor size between the PET and MR images as well as the bending energy and changes in the tumor volume after the application of the registration algorithm. Results: The median of the modified Dice in the registered PET and DCE-MRI data was 0.92. For the longitudinal registration, the median tumor volume change was −0.03% for the constrained algorithm, compared to −32.16% for the unconstrained registration algorithms (p = 8 × 10{sup −6}). The medians of the bending energy were 0.0092 and 0.0001 for the unconstrained and constrained algorithms, respectively (p = 2.84 × 10{sup −7}). Conclusions: The results indicate that the proposed method can accurately spatially align DCE-MRI, DW-MRI, and FDG-PET breast images acquired at different time points during therapy while preventing the tumor from being substantially distorted or compressed.

  14. Improved UTE-based attenuation correction for cranial PET-MR using dynamic magnetic field monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aitken, A. P.; Giese, D.; Tsoumpas, C.; Schleyer, P.; Kozerke, S.; Prieto, C.; Schaeffter, T.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI has been proposed as a way to produce segmented attenuation maps for PET, as it provides contrast between bone, air, and soft tissue. However, UTE sequences require samples to be acquired during rapidly changing gradient fields, which makes the resulting images prone to eddy current artifacts. In this work it is demonstrated that this can lead to misclassification of tissues in segmented attenuation maps (AC maps) and that these effects can be corrected for by measuring the true k-space trajectories using a magnetic field camera. Methods: The k-space trajectories during a dual echo UTE sequence were measured using a dynamic magnetic field camera. UTE images were reconstructed using nominal trajectories and again using the measured trajectories. A numerical phantom was used to demonstrate the effect of reconstructing with incorrect trajectories. Images of an ovine leg phantom were reconstructed and segmented and the resulting attenuation maps were compared to a segmented map derived from a CT scan of the same phantom, using the Dice similarity measure. The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated inin vivo cranial imaging in five healthy volunteers. Simulated PET data were generated for one volunteer to show the impact of misclassifications on the PET reconstruction. Results: Images of the numerical phantom exhibited blurring and edge artifacts on the bone–tissue and air–tissue interfaces when nominal k-space trajectories were used, leading to misclassification of soft tissue as bone and misclassification of bone as air. Images of the tissue phantom and thein vivo cranial images exhibited the same artifacts. The artifacts were greatly reduced when the measured trajectories were used. For the tissue phantom, the Dice coefficient for bone in MR relative to CT was 0.616 using the nominal trajectories and 0.814 using the measured trajectories. The Dice coefficients for soft tissue were 0.933 and 0.934 for the nominal and measured cases, respectively. For air the corresponding figures were 0.991 and 0.993. Compared to an unattenuated reference image, the mean error in simulated PET uptake in the brain was 9.16% when AC maps derived from nominal trajectories was used, with errors in the SUV{sub max} for simulated lesions in the range of 7.17%–12.19%. Corresponding figures when AC maps derived from measured trajectories were used were 0.34% (mean error) and −0.21% to +1.81% (lesions). Conclusions: Eddy current artifacts in UTE imaging can be corrected for by measuring the true k-space trajectories during a calibration scan and using them in subsequent image reconstructions. This improves the accuracy of segmented PET attenuation maps derived from UTE sequences and subsequent PET reconstruction.

  15. Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for stable radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, spect and pet imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Mausner, Leonard F.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    1997-06-17

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N'N",N'"-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy.

  16. Macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates for stable radiometal antibody conjugates for therapy, SPECT and PET imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1997-06-17

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N{prime}N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy. 4 figs.

  17. Compartment modeling of dynamic brain PETThe impact of scatter corrections on parameter errors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hggstrm, Ida Karlsson, Mikael; Larsson, Anne; Schmidtlein, C. Ross

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of scatter and its correction on kinetic parameters in dynamic brain positron emission tomography (PET) tumor imaging. The 2-tissue compartment model was used, and two different reconstruction methods and two scatter correction (SC) schemes were investigated. Methods: The GATE Monte Carlo (MC) software was used to perform 2 15 full PET scan simulations of a voxelized head phantom with inserted tumor regions. The two sets of kinetic parameters of all tissues were chosen to represent the 2-tissue compartment model for the tracer 3?-deoxy-3?-({sup 18}F)fluorothymidine (FLT), and were denoted FLT{sub 1} and FLT{sub 2}. PET data were reconstructed with both 3D filtered back-projection with reprojection (3DRP) and 3D ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM). Images including true coincidences with attenuation correction (AC) and true+scattered coincidences with AC and with and without one of two applied SC schemes were reconstructed. Kinetic parameters were estimated by weighted nonlinear least squares fitting of image derived timeactivity curves. Calculated parameters were compared to the true input to the MC simulations. Results: The relative parameter biases for scatter-eliminated data were 15%, 16%, 4%, 30%, 9%, and 7% (FLT{sub 1}) and 13%, 6%, 1%, 46%, 12%, and 8% (FLT{sub 2}) for K{sub 1}, k{sub 2}, k{sub 3}, k{sub 4}, V{sub a}, and K{sub i}, respectively. As expected, SC was essential for most parameters since omitting it increased biases by 10 percentage points on average. SC was not found necessary for the estimation of K{sub i} and k{sub 3}, however. There was no significant difference in parameter biases between the two investigated SC schemes or from parameter biases from scatter-eliminated PET data. Furthermore, neither 3DRP nor OSEM yielded the smallest parameter biases consistently although there was a slight favor for 3DRP which produced less biased k{sub 3} and K{sub i} estimates while OSEM resulted in a less biased V{sub a}. The uncertainty in OSEM parameters was about 26% (FLT{sub 1}) and 12% (FLT{sub 2}) larger than for 3DRP although identical postfilters were applied. Conclusions: SC was important for good parameter estimations. Both investigated SC schemes performed equally well on average and properly corrected for the scattered radiation, without introducing further bias. Furthermore, 3DRP was slightly favorable over OSEM in terms of kinetic parameter biases and SDs.

  18. Magnetic excitations in the spin-1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zvyagin, S. A.; Ozerov, M.; Kamenskyi, D.; Wosnitza, J.; Krzystek, J.; Yoshizawa, D.; Hagiwara, M.; Hu, Rongwei; Ryu, Hyejin; Petrovic, C.; Zhitomirsky, M. E.

    2015-11-27

    We present on high- field electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of magnetic excitations in the spin- 1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs2CuBr4. Frequency- field diagrams of ESR excitations are measured for different orientations of magnetic fields up to 25 T. We show that the substantial zero- field energy gap, Δ ≈ 9.5 K, observed in the low-temperature excitation spectrum of Cs2CuBr4 [Zvyagin et al:, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 077206 (2014)], is present well above TN. Noticeably, the transition into the long-range magnetically ordered phase does not significantly affect the size of the gap, suggesting that even below TN the high-energy spin dynamics in Cs2CuBr4 is determined by short-range-order spin correlations. The experimental data are compared with results of model spin-wave-theory calculations for spin-1/2 triangle-lattice antiferromagnet.

  19. Communication: Transfer ionization in a thermal reaction of a cation and anion: Ar{sup +} with Br{sup −} and I{sup −}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Johnsen, Rainer

    2013-11-07

    We present experimental evidence that reactions of argon cations Ar{sup +} with the halogen anions Br{sup −} and I{sup −} do not occur exclusively by mutual neutralization, but also produce the cations Br{sup +} or I{sup +} ions by transfer ionization (TI). The experiments were carried out in flowing-afterglow plasmas at gas temperatures between and 300 and 500 K, and employed a variant of the Variable Electron and Neutral Density Attachment Mass Spectrometry method. The measured TI rate coefficients are 1.9 ± 0.6 × 10{sup −9} cm{sup 3} s{sup −1} and 1.1 ± {sub 0.3}{sup 0.8}× 10{sup −9} cm{sup 3} s{sup −1} for the Br{sup −} and I{sup −} reactions, respectively. We find that the TI rate coefficients decline with temperature as T{sup −0.5} to T{sup −1}. No indication of TI was found in the reaction with Cl{sup −}, where it is endoergic.

  20. Characterization of silicon photomultipliers at National Nano-Fab Center for PET-MR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyoungtaek; Cho, Gyuseong; Sul, Woo Suk

    2014-10-15

    The silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) were fabricated for magnetic resonance compatible positron emission tomography (PET) applications using customized CMOS processes at National NanoFab Center. Each micro-cell consists of a shallow n+/p well junction on a p-type epitaxial wafer and passive quenching circuit was applied. The size of the SiPM is 3 3 mm{sup 2} and the pitch of each micro-cell is 65 ?m. In this work, several thousands of SiPMs were packaged and tested to build a PET ring detector which has a 60 mm axial and 390 mm radial field of view. I-V characteristics of the SiPMs are shown good uniformity and breakdown voltage is around 20 V. The photon detection efficiency was measured via photon counting method and the maximum value was recorded as 16% at 470 nm. The gamma ray spectrum of a Ge-68 isotope showed nearly 10% energy resolution at 511 keV with a 3 3 20 mm{sup 3} LYSO crystal.

  1. Effect of 200 keV Ar{sup +} implantation on optical and electrical properties of polyethyleneterepthalate (PET)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Rajiv Goyal, Meetika Sharma, Ambika; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Sharma, Annu; Kanjilal, D.

    2015-05-15

    In the present paper we have discussed the effect of 200 keV Ar{sup +} ions on the electrical and optical properties of PET samples. PET samples were implanted with 200 keV Ar{sup +} ions to various doses ranging from 1×10{sup 15} to 1×10{sup 17} Ar{sup +} cm{sup 2}. The changes in the electrical and optical properties of pristine and implanted PET specimens have been studied by using Keithley electrometer and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity has found to be increased with increasing ion dose. The optical studies have revealed the drastic alterations in optical band gap from 3.63 eV to 1.48 eV and also increase in number of carbon atoms per cluster from 215 to 537. Further, the change in the electrical conductivity and optical band gap has also been correlated with the formation of conductive islands in the implanted layers of PET.

  2. Neutron inelastic scattering investigation of the magnetic excitations in Cu{sub 2}Te{sub 2}O{sub 5}X{sub 2} (X=Br,Cl)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, S.J.; Majumdar, S.; Lees, M.R.; Paul, D. McK.; Bewley, R.I.; Levett, S.J.; Ritter, C.

    2005-06-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering investigations have been performed on the spin tetrahedral system Cu{sub 2}Te{sub 2}O{sub 5}X{sub 2} (X=Cl,Br). We report the observation of magnetic excitations with a dispersive component in both compounds, associated with the three-dimensional incommensurate magnetic order that develops below T{sub N}{sup Cl}=18.2 K and T{sub N}{sup Br}=11.4 K. The excitation in Cu{sub 2}Te{sub 2}O{sub 5}Cl{sub 2} softens as the temperature approaches T{sub N}{sup Cl}, leaving diffuse quasi-elastic scattering above the transition temperature. In the bromide, the excitations are present well above T{sub N}{sup Br}, which might be attributed to the presence of a degree of low dimensional correlations above T{sub N}{sup Br} in this compound.

  3. Expedited Synthesis of Fluorine-18 Labeled Phenols. A Missing Link in PET Radiochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Zhou, Dong

    2015-03-26

    Fluorine-18 (F-18) is arguably the most valuable radionuclide for positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging. However, while there are many methods for labeling small molecules with F-18 at aliphatic positions and on electron-deficient aromatic rings, there are essentially no reliable and practical methods to label electron-rich aromatic rings such as phenols, with F-18 at high specific activity. This is disappointing because fluorine-labeled phenols are found in many drugs; there are also many interesting plant metabolites and hormones that contain either phenols or other electron-rich aromatic systems such as indoles whose metabolism, transport, and distribution would be interesting to study if they could readily be labeled with F-18. Most approaches to label phenols with F-18 involve the labeling of electron-poor precursor arenes by nucleophilic aromatic substitution, followed by subsequent conversion to phenols by oxidation or other multi-step sequences that are often inefficient and time consuming. Thus, the lack of good methods for labeling phenols and other electron-rich aromatics with F-18 at high specific activity represents a significant methodological gap in F-18 radiochemistry that can be considered a “Missing Link in PET Radiochemistry”. The objective of this research project was to develop and optimize a series of unusual synthetic transformations that will enable phenols (and other electron-rich aromatic systems) to be labeled with F-18 at high specific activity, rapidly, reliably, and conveniently, thereby bridging this gap. Through the studies conducted with support of this project, we have substantially advanced synthetic methodology for the preparation of fluorophenols. Our progress is presented in detail in the sections below, and much has been published or presented publication; other components are being prepared for publication. In essence, we have developed a completely new method to prepare o-fluorophenols from non-aromatic precursors (diazocyclohexenones) by a novel reaction sequence that uses fluoride ion as a precursor and various activating electrophiles, and we have improved methods for the preparation of heterodiaryl iodonium salts. Both methods have been used to prepare interesting potential radiotracers. Other advances have been made in labeling dendrimeric nanoparticle structures of increasing interest for multimodal imaging and in advancing labeling through fluorosilane bonds. Thus, the progress we have made substantially fills the significant gap in PET radiochemistry that we originally identified, and it provides for the field new methodology that can be applied to a number of current challenges, including the preparation of several molecules of interest as radiotracers, such as 2-[18F]Fluoroestradiol (2-FES) and m-fluorotyrosine, which we have illustrated. These methods can be used by any skilled radiochemist interesting in preparing these agents or similar fluorine-18 labeled electron-rich arene systems of interested for PET biological imaging in the most general sense.

  4. Cholecystokinin-Assisted Hydrodissection of the Gallbladder Fossa during FDG PET/CT-guided Liver Ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Sanjit O.; Petre, Elena N.; Osborne, Joseph; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.

    2013-12-15

    A 68-year-old female with colorectal cancer developed a metachronous isolated fluorodeoxyglucose-avid (FDG-avid) segment 5/6 gallbladder fossa hepatic lesion and was referred for percutaneous ablation. Pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated a distended gallbladder abutting the segment 5/6 hepatic metastasis. In order to perform ablation with clear margins and avoid direct puncture and aspiration of the gallbladder, cholecystokinin was administered intravenously to stimulate gallbladder contraction before hydrodissection. Subsequently, the lesion was ablated successfully with sufficient margins, of greater than 1.0 cm, using microwave with ultrasound and FDG PET/CT guidance. The patient tolerated the procedure very well and was discharged home the next day.

  5. Parity violation in nuclear magnetic resonance frequencies of chiral tetrahedral tungsten complexes NWXYZ (X, Y, Z = H, F, Cl, Br or I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nahrwold, Sophie Berger, Robert; Clemens-Schöpf-Institute, Technical University Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 22, D-64287 Darmstadt ; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Fachbereich Chemie, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Str., D-35032 Marburg

    2014-01-14

    Density functional theory within the two-component quasi-relativistic zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) is used to predict parity violation shifts in {sup 183}W nuclear magnetic resonance shielding tensors of chiral, tetrahedrally bonded tungsten complexes of the form NWXYZ (X, Y, Z = H, F, Cl, Br or I), as well as for the heavier systems NWHAtF and NWH(117)F for comparison. The calculations reveal that sub-mHz accuracy is required to detect such tiny effects in this class of compounds, and that parity violation effects are very sensitive to the choice of ligands.

  6. SU-E-I-07: An Improved Technique for Scatter Correction in PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, S; Wang, Y; Lue, K; Lin, H; Chuang, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In positron emission tomography (PET), the single scatter simulation (SSS) algorithm is widely used for scatter estimation in clinical scans. However, bias usually occurs at the essential steps of scaling the computed SSS distribution to real scatter amounts by employing the scatter-only projection tail. The bias can be amplified when the scatter-only projection tail is too small, resulting in incorrect scatter correction. To this end, we propose a novel scatter calibration technique to accurately estimate the amount of scatter using pre-determined scatter fraction (SF) function instead of the employment of scatter-only tail information. Methods: As the SF depends on the radioactivity distribution and the attenuating material of the patient, an accurate theoretical relation cannot be devised. Instead, we constructed an empirical transformation function between SFs and average attenuation coefficients based on a serious of phantom studies with different sizes and materials. From the average attenuation coefficient, the predicted SFs were calculated using empirical transformation function. Hence, real scatter amount can be obtained by scaling the SSS distribution with the predicted SFs. The simulation was conducted using the SimSET. The Siemens Biograph 6 PET scanner was modeled in this study. The Software for Tomographic Image Reconstruction (STIR) was employed to estimate the scatter and reconstruct images. The EEC phantom was adopted to evaluate the performance of our proposed technique. Results: The scatter-corrected image of our method demonstrated improved image contrast over that of SSS. For our technique and SSS of the reconstructed images, the normalized standard deviation were 0.053 and 0.182, respectively; the root mean squared errors were 11.852 and 13.767, respectively. Conclusion: We have proposed an alternative method to calibrate SSS (C-SSS) to the absolute scatter amounts using SF. This method can avoid the bias caused by the insufficient tail information and therefore improve the accuracy of scatter estimation.

  7. Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva-Rodrguez, Jess Aguiar, Pablo; Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela , 15782, Galicia; Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigacin Sanitarias , Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia ; Snchez, Manuel; Mosquera, Javier; Luna-Vega, Vctor; Corts, Julia; Garrido, Miguel; Pombar, Miguel; Ruibal, lvaro; Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigacin Sanitarias , Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia; Fundacin Tejerina, 28003, Madrid

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manual ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Results: Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. Conclusions: The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.

  8. A chopper system for shortening the duration of pulsed supersonic beams seeded with NO or Br{sub 2} down to 13 μs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, Jessica; Rennick, Christopher J.; Softley, Timothy P.

    2015-05-15

    A chopper wheel construct is used to shorten the duration of a molecular beam to 13 μs. Molecular beams seeded with NO or with Br{sub 2} and an initial pulse width of ≥200 μs were passed through a spinning chopper wheel, which was driven by a brushless DC in vacuo motor at a range of speeds, from 3000 rpm to 80 000 rpm. The resulting duration of the molecular-beam pulses measured at the laser detection volume ranged from 80 μs to 13 μs and was the same for both NO and Br{sub 2}. The duration is consistent with a simple analytical model, and the minimum pulse width measured is limited by the spreading of the beam between the chopper and the detection point as a consequence of the longitudinal velocity distribution of the beam. The setup adopted here effectively eliminates buildup of background gas without the use of a differential pumping stage, and a clean narrow pulse is obtained with low rotational temperature.

  9. Design and experimental testing of the performance of an outdoor LiBr/H{sub 2}O solar thermal absorption cooling system with a cold store

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agyenim, Francis; Knight, Ian; Rhodes, Michael

    2010-05-15

    A domestic-scale prototype experimental solar cooling system has been developed based on a LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption system and tested during the 2007 summer and autumn months in Cardiff University, UK. The system consisted of a 12 m{sup 2} vacuum tube solar collector, a 4.5 kW LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption chiller, a 1000 l cold storage tank and a 6 kW fan coil. The system performance, as well as the performances of the individual components in the system, were evaluated based on the physical measurements of the daily solar radiation, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperatures, mass flow rates and electrical consumption by component. The average coefficient of thermal performance (COP) of the system was 0.58, based on the thermal cooling power output per unit of available thermal solar energy from the 12 m{sup 2} Thermomax DF100 vacuum tube collector on a hot sunny day with average peak insolation of 800 W/m{sup 2} (between 11 and 13.30 h) and ambient temperature of 24 C. The system produced an electrical COP of 3.6. Experimental results prove the feasibility of the new concept of cold store at this scale, with chilled water temperatures as low as 7.4 C, demonstrating its potential use in cooling domestic scale buildings. (author)

  10. Wakefield Simulation of CLIC PETS Structure Using Parallel 3D Finite Element Time-Domain Solver T3P

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candel, A.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; Syratchev, I.; /CERN

    2009-06-19

    In recent years, SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the parallel 3D Finite Element electromagnetic time-domain code T3P. Higher-order Finite Element methods on conformal unstructured meshes and massively parallel processing allow unprecedented simulation accuracy for wakefield computations and simulations of transient effects in realistic accelerator structures. Applications include simulation of wakefield damping in the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) power extraction and transfer structure (PETS).

  11. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-C-11]vorozole PET in healthy men and women

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Sung Won; Logan, Jean; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2015-02-19

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aims to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathological situations can be studied. Methods: C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected I.V in 13 men and 20 women (age range 23 to 67). PET data were acquired over a 90 minute period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2/day separated by 2-6 weeks, including brain and torso or pelvis scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned following pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (blocking studies). Time activity curves were obtained and standard uptake values (SUV) calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole body radiation exposures were calculated using Olinda software. Results: Liver uptake was higher than all other organs, but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs in men were higher than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than all other organs (ranging from 0.480.05 in lungs to 1.50.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.080.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than all other organs. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs In young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, while aging and cigarette smoking reduced C-vorozole uptake. Conclusions: PET with C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiological changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the human body. Baseline levels in breasts, lungs and bones are low, supporting further investigation of this tracer as a new tool for detection of aromatase-overexpressing primary tumors or metastases in these organs and optimization of treatment in cancer and other disorders in which aromatase inhibitors are useful.

  12. Radiolabeled Peptide Scaffolds for PET/SPECT - Optical in Vivo Imaging of Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deutscher, Susan

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this research is to develop phage display-selected peptides into radio- and fluoresecently- labeled scaffolds for the multimodal imaging of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. While numerous protein and receptor systems are being explored for the development of targeted imaging agents, the targeting and analysis of carbohydrate-lectin complexes in vivo remains relatively unexplored. Antibodies, nanoparticles, and peptides are being developed that target carbohydrate-lectin complexes in living systems. However, antibodies and nanoparticles often suffer from slow clearance and toxicity problems. Peptides are attractive alternative vehicles for the specific delivery of radionuclides or fluorophores to sites of interest in vivo, although, because of their size, uptake and retention may be less than antibodies. We have selected high affinity peptides that bind a specific carbohydrate-lectin complex involved in cell-cell adhesion and cross-linking using bacteriophage (phage) display technologies (1,2). These peptides have allowed us to probe the role of these antigens in cell adhesion. Fluorescent versions of the peptides have been developed for optical imaging and radiolabeled versions have been used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo imaging (3-6). A benefit in employing the radiolabeled peptides in SPECT and PET is that these imaging modalities are widely used in living systems and offer deep tissue sensitivity. Radiolabeled peptides, however, often exhibit poor stability and high kidney uptake in vivo. Conversely, optical imaging is sensitive and offers good spatial resolution, but is not useful for deep tissue penetration and is semi-quantitative. Thus, multimodality imaging that relies on the strengths of both radio- and optical- imaging is a current focus for development of new in vivo imaging agents. We propose a novel means to improve the efficacy of radiolabeled and fluorescently labeled peptides, including our lectin/carbohydrate- targeting peptides, by displaying the targeting epitopes on small ~29 amino acid cyclic plant protein scaffolds known as cyclotides. Cyclotides are extremely stable molecules with long serum half-lives and low kidney uptake (7). More than one copy of the peptide can be engineered into the cyclotide loops, thus increasing the avidity of the peptide construct for its target.

  13. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-C-11]vorozole PET in healthy men and women

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Sung Won; Logan, Jean; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2015-02-19

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with ¹¹C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aims to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathological situations can be studied. Methods: ¹¹C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected I.V in 13 men and 20 women (age range 23 to 67). PET data were acquired over a 90 minute period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2/day separated by 2-6 weeks, including brain and torso or pelvis scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned following pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (“blocking” studies). Time activity curves were obtained and standard uptake values (SUV) calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole body radiation exposures were calculated using Olinda software. Results: Liver uptake was higher than all other organs, but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs in men were higher than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than all other organs (ranging from 0.48±0.05 in lungs to 1.5±0.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.08±0.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than all other organs. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs In young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, while aging and cigarette smoking reduced ¹¹C-vorozole uptake. Conclusions: PET with ¹¹C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiological changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the human body. Baseline levels in breasts, lungs and bones are low, supporting further investigation of this tracer as a new tool for detection of aromatase-overexpressing primary tumors or metastases in these organs and optimization of treatment in cancer and other disorders in which aromatase inhibitors are useful.

  14. Evaluation of the Dopamine Hypothesis of ADHD with PET Brain Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Swanson, James [University of California, Irvine, California, United States

    2010-09-01

    The Dopamine (DA) Hypothesis of ADHD (Wender, 1971; Levy, 1990) suggests that abnormalities in the synaptic mechanisms of DA transmission may be disrupted, and specific abnormalities in DA receptors and DA transporters (DAT) have been proposed (see Swanson et al, 1998). Early studies with small samples (e.g., n = 6, Dougherty et al, 1999) used single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and the radioligand (123I Altropane) to test a theory that ADHD may be caused by an over expression of DAT and reported 'a 70% increase in age-corrected dopamine transporter density in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy controls' and suggested that treatment with stimulant medication decreased DAT density in ADHD patients and corrected an underlying abnormality (Krause et al, 2000). The potential importance of these findings was noted by Swanson (1999): 'If true, this is a major finding and points the way for new investigations of the primary pharmacological treatment for ADHD (with the stimulant drugs - e.g., methylphenidate), for which the dopamine transporter is the primary site of action. The potential importance of this finding demands special scrutiny'. This has been provided over the past decade using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Brain imaging studies were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in a relatively large sample of stimulant-naive adults assessed for DAT (11C cocaine) density and DA receptors (11C raclopride) availability. These studies (Volkow et al, 2007; Volkow et al, 2009) do not confirm the hypothesis of increased DAT density and suggest the opposite (i.e., decreased rather than increased DAT density), and follow-up after treatment (Wang et al, 2010) does not confirm the hypothesis that therapeutic doses of methylphenidate decrease DAT density and suggests the opposite (i.e., increased rather than decreased DAT density). The brain regions implicated by these PET imaging studies also suggest that a motivation deficit may contribute as much as an attention deficit to the manifestation of behaviors that underlie the symptoms of ADHD.

  15. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-C-11]vorozole PET in healthy men and women

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Sung Won; Logan, Jean; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2015-02-19

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with ¹¹C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aims to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathological situations can be studied. Methods: ¹¹C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected I.V in 13 men and 20 women (age range 23 to 67). PET data were acquired over a 90 minute period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2/day separated by 2-6 weeks, including brain and torso or pelvismore » scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned following pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (“blocking” studies). Time activity curves were obtained and standard uptake values (SUV) calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole body radiation exposures were calculated using Olinda software. Results: Liver uptake was higher than all other organs, but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs in men were higher than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than all other organs (ranging from 0.48±0.05 in lungs to 1.5±0.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.08±0.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than all other organs. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs In young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, while aging and cigarette smoking reduced ¹¹C-vorozole uptake. Conclusions: PET with ¹¹C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiological changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the human body. Baseline levels in breasts, lungs and bones are low, supporting further investigation of this tracer as a new tool for detection of aromatase-overexpressing primary tumors or metastases in these organs and optimization of treatment in cancer and other disorders in which aromatase inhibitors are useful.« less

  16. Comparison of prone versus supine 18F-FDG-PET of locally advanced breast cancer: Phantom and preliminary clinical studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Jason M.; Rani, Sudheer D.; Li, Xia; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Abramson, Richard G.; Arlinghaus, Lori R.; Lee, Tzu-Cheng; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Partridge, Savannah C.; Kang, Hakmook; Linden, Hannah M.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated how imaging of the breast with patients lying prone using a supportive positioning device markedly facilitates longitudinal and/or multimodal image registration. In this contribution, the authors primary objective was to determine if there are differences in the standardized uptake value (SUV) derived from [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in breast tumors imaged in the standard supine position and in the prone position using a specialized positioning device. Methods: A custom positioning device was constructed to allow for breast scanning in the prone position. Rigid and nonrigid phantom studies evaluated differences in prone and supine PET. Clinical studies comprised 18F-FDG-PET of 34 patients with locally advanced breast cancer imaged in the prone position (with the custom support) followed by imaging in the supine position (without the support). Mean and maximum values (SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max}, respectively) were obtained from tumor regions-of-interest for both positions. Prone and supine SUV were linearly corrected to account for the differences in 18F-FDG uptake time. Correlation, BlandAltman, and nonparametric analyses were performed on uptake time-corrected and uncorrected data. Results: SUV from the rigid PET breast phantom imaged in the prone position with the support device was 1.9% lower than without the support device. In the nonrigid PET breast phantom, prone SUV with the support device was 5.0% lower than supine SUV without the support device. In patients, the median (range) difference in uptake time between prone and supine scans was 16.4 min (13.430.9 min), which was significantlybut not completelyreduced by the linear correction method. SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} from prone versus supine scans were highly correlated, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.90, respectively. Prone SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} were significantly lower than supine in both original and uptake time-adjusted data across a range of index times (P < < 0.0001, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Before correcting for uptake time differences, BlandAltman analyses revealed proportional bias between prone and supine measurements (SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max}) that increased with higher levels of FDG uptake. After uptake time correction, this bias was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). Significant prone-supine differences, with regard to the spatial distribution of lesions relative to isocenter, were observed between the two scan positions, but this was poorly correlated with the residual (uptake time-corrected) prone-supine SUV{sub peak} difference (P = 0.78). Conclusions: Quantitative 18F-FDG-PET/CT of the breast in the prone position is not deleteriously affected by the support device but yields SUV that is consistently lower than those obtained in the standard supine position. SUV differences between scans arising from FDG uptake time differences can be substantially reduced, but not removed entirely, with the current correction method. SUV from the two scan orientations is quantitatively different and should not be assumed equivalent or interchangeable within the same subject. These findings have clinical relevance in that they underscore the importance of patient positioning while scanning as a clinical variable that must be accounted for with longitudinal PET measurement, for example, in the assessment of treatment response.

  17. Estimation of steady-state and transcient power distributions for the RELAP analyses of the 1963 loss-of-flow and loss-of-pressure tests at BR2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dionne, B.; Tzanos, C. P.

    2011-05-23

    To support the safety analyses required for the conversion of the Belgian Reactor 2 (BR2) from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, the simulation of a number of loss-of-flow tests, with or without loss of pressure, has been undertaken. These tests were performed at BR2 in 1963 and used instrumented fuel assemblies (FAs) with thermocouples (TC) imbedded in the cladding as well as probes to measure the FAs power on the basis of their coolant temperature rise. The availability of experimental data for these tests offers an opportunity to better establish the credibility of the RELAP5-3D model and methodology used in the conversion analysis. In order to support the HEU to LEU conversion safety analyses of the BR2 reactor, RELAP simulations of a number of loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure tests have been undertaken. Preliminary analyses showed that the conservative power distributions used historically in the BR2 RELAP model resulted in a significant overestimation of the peak cladding temperature during the transient. Therefore, it was concluded that better estimates of the steady-state and decay power distributions were needed to accurately predict the cladding temperatures measured during the tests and establish the credibility of the RELAP model and methodology. The new approach ('best estimate' methodology) uses the MCNP5, ORIGEN-2 and BERYL codes to obtain steady-state and decay power distributions for the BR2 core during the tests A/400/1, C/600/3 and F/400/1. This methodology can be easily extended to simulate any BR2 core configuration. Comparisons with measured peak cladding temperatures showed a much better agreement when power distributions obtained with the new methodology are used.

  18. Feasibility of a super high-energy-density battery of the Li/Br/F sub 3 electrochemical system. Final report, 15 August 1989-14 May 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frysz, C.A.; Pyszczek, M.F.; Ebel, S.J.

    1990-08-16

    Feasibility studies on the practical aspects of developing a lithium/bromine trifluoride battery have been studied. Efforts directed toward identifying materials for porous electrode separators, glasses for insulated electrical feed-throughs, and metals for lid, case and current collector fabrication via electrochemical testing techniques have resulted in a list of materials suitable for these applications. Prototype cells utilizing a spirally wound electrode configuration have been constructed and discharged. The use of lithium salts as an electrolyte additive has been explored, and has shown a positive effect on discharge performance. Through the use of currently available technology, however, the lithium/bromine trifluoride couple has not delivered energy density comparable to other high energy density lithium systems. This investigation has revealed that practical Li/BrF3 cell development will require further extensive fundamental electrochemical research.

  19. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/ZnO nanorods composites on graphene coated PET flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Lei, E-mail: leihuang@shnu.edu.cn; Guo, Guilue; Liu, Yang; Chang, Quanhong; Shi, Wangzhou

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: ZnO nanorods synthesized on CVD-graphene and rGO surfaces, respectively. ZnO/CVD-graphene and ZnO/rGO form a distinctive porous 3D structure. rGO/ZnO nanostructures possibility in energy storage devices. - Abstract: In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ZnO nanorods composites were synthesized on graphene coated PET flexible substrates. Both chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films were prepared following by hydrothermal growth of vertical aligned ZnO nanorods. Reduced graphene sheets were then spun coated on the ZnO materials to form a three dimensional (3D) porous nanostructure. The morphologies of the ZnO/CVD graphene and ZnO/rGO were investigated by SEM, which shows that the ZnO nanorods grown on rGO are larger in diameters and have lower density compared with those grown on CVD graphene substrate. As a result of fact, the rough surface of nano-scale ZnO on rGO film allows rGO droplets to seep into the large voids of ZnO nanorods, then to form the rGO/ZnO hierarchical structure. By comparison of the different results, we conclude that rGO/ZnO 3D nanostructure is more desirable for the application of energy storage devices.

  20. Incommensurate magnetic ordering in Cu{sub 2}Te{sub 2}O{sub 5}X{sub 2} (X=Cl,Br) studied by single crystal neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaharko, O.; Roennow, H.; Mesot, J.; Crowe, S. J.; Paul, D. McK.; Brown, P. J.; Daoud-Aladine, A.; Meents, A.; Wagner, A.; Prester, M.; Berger, H.

    2006-02-01

    Polarized and unpolarized neutron-diffraction studies have been carried out on single crystals of the coupled spin tetrahedra systems Cu{sub 2}Te{sub 2}O{sub 5}X{sub 2} (X=Cl,Br). A model of the magnetic structure associated with the propagation vectors k{sup '}{sub Cl}{approx_equal}(-0.150,0.422,(1/2)) and k{sup '}{sub Br}{approx_equal}(-0.172,0.356,(1/2)) and stable below T{sub N}=18 K for X=Cl and T{sub N}=11 K for X=Br is proposed. A feature of the model, common to both the bromide and chloride, is a canted coplanar motif for the four Cu{sup 2+} spins on each tetrahedron which rotates on a helix from cell to cell following the propagation vector. The Cu{sup 2+} magnetic moment determined for X=Br,0.395(5){mu}{sub B}, is significantly less than for X=Cl,0.88(1){mu}{sub B} at 2 K. The magnetic structure of the chloride associated with the wave vector k{sup '} differs from that determined previously for the wave vector k{approx_equal}(0.150,0.422,(1/2)) [O. Zaharko et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 217206(E) (2004)].

  1. Laser Raman spectroscopy study of the zinc and bromide ion complex equilibrium in zinc/bromine battery electrolytes. [2M ZnBr/sub 2/ and 1M KBr solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimes, P.G.; Larrabee, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Laser Raman spectroscopy was used to study the zinc and bromide ion complex equilibrium in zinc bromine battery model electrolytes. Solutions of zinc bromide with added KBr, HBr and N-methyl, N-ethyl morpholinium (MEM) bromide were examined and compared. Solutions studied ranged from 1 to 3 molar in zinc and from 2.5 to 8 molar in bromide. A typical Raman spectrum of a zinc bromide solution is shown in Figure 1. Each of the zinc species is identified, Zn/sup + +/ (aq), ZnBr/sup +/, ZnBr/sub 2/ (aq), ZnBr/sub 3//sup -/ and ZnBr/sub 4//sup 2 -/. By the use of peak heights or deconvolution/integration along with published Raman cross sections, the amount of each zinc species could be quantitatively determined. The addition of bromide ions to the zinc bromide solutions will shift the equilibrium toward higher bromide complexes. The added cations will influence the shifts. It has been noted that the conductivity of the electrolyte decreases when the quaternary ammonium ions are present compared to cations such as potassium or hydrogen. Significantly more free zinc is present in zinc bromide solutions with added KBr than with either MEMBr or HBr. Shifts are also noted with the other zinc ion containing species. It appears that the quaternary ammonium ions and possibly the pH could have a stabilizing effect on zinc bromide complex ion formation. 2 figs.

  2. Synthesis of macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates and their use for preparing stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy, spect and pet imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Mausner, Leonard F.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    1995-06-27

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N'N",N'"-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N',N",N'"-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy.

  3. Synthesis of macrocyclic polyaminocarboxylates and their use for preparing stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy, SPECT and PET imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1995-06-27

    A simple method for the synthesis of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane N,N{prime}N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane N,N{prime},N{double_prime},N{prime}{double_prime}-tetraacetic acid involves cyanomethylating 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane or 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane to form a tetranitrile and hydrolyzing the tetranitrile. These macrocyclic compounds are functionalized through one of the carboxylates and then conjugated to various biological molecules including monoclonal antibodies. The resulting conjugated molecules are labeled with radiometals for SPECT and PET imaging and for radiotherapy. 4 figs.

  4. Wakefield Computations for the CLIC PETS using the Parallel Finite Element Time-Domain Code T3P

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candel, A; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.; Schussman, G.; Ko, K.; Syratchev, I.; /CERN

    2009-06-19

    In recent years, SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD) has developed the high-performance parallel 3D electromagnetic time-domain code, T3P, for simulations of wakefields and transients in complex accelerator structures. T3P is based on advanced higher-order Finite Element methods on unstructured grids with quadratic surface approximation. Optimized for large-scale parallel processing on leadership supercomputing facilities, T3P allows simulations of realistic 3D structures with unprecedented accuracy, aiding the design of the next generation of accelerator facilities. Applications to the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) Power Extraction and Transfer Structure (PETS) are presented.

  5. SU-E-J-104: Single Photon Image From PET with Insertable SPECT Collimator for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, J; Yoon, D; Suh, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of our proposed system is to confirm the feasibility of extraction of two types of images from one positron emission tomography (PET) module with an insertable collimator for brain tumor treatment during the BNCT. Methods: Data from the PET module, neutron source, and collimator was entered in the Monte Carlo n-particle extended (MCNPX) source code. The coincidence events were first compiled on the PET detector, and then, the events of the prompt gamma ray were collected after neutron emission by using a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) collimator on the PET. The obtaining of full width at half maximum (FWHM) values from the energy spectrum was performed to collect effective events for reconstructed image. In order to evaluate the images easily, five boron regions in a brain phantom were used. The image profiles were extracted from the region of interest (ROI) of a phantom. The image was reconstructed using the ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm. The image profiles and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were compiled for quantitative analysis from the two kinds of reconstructed image. Results: The prompt gamma ray energy peak of 478 keV appeared in the energy spectrum with a FWHM of 41 keV (6.4%). On the basis of the ROC curve in Region A to Region E, the differences in the area under the curve (AUC) of the PET and SPECT images were found to be 10.2%, 11.7%, 8.2% (center, Region C), 12.6%, and 10.5%, respectively. Conclusion: We attempted to acquire the PET and SPECT images simultaneously using only PET without an additional isotope. Single photon images were acquired using an insertable collimator on a PET detector. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Future Planning (MSIP)(Grant No.2009 00420) and the Radiation Technology R and D program (Grant No.2013M2A2A7043498), Republic of Korea.

  6. FDG-PET/CT Imaging Predicts Histopathologic Treatment Responses after Neoadjuvant Therapy in Adult Primary Bone Sarcomas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Benz, Matthias R.; Czernin, Johannes; Tap, William D.; Eckardt, Jeffrey J.; Seeger, Leanne L.; Allen-Auerbach, Martin S.; Dry, Sarah M.; Phelps, Michael E.; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Eilber, Fritz C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose . Tmore » he aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether FDG-PET allows an accurate assessment of histopathologic response to neoadjuvant treatment in adult patients with primary bone sarcomas. Methods . Twelve consecutive patients with resectable, primary high grade bone sarcomas were enrolled prospectively. FDG-PET/CT imaging was performed prior to the initiation and after completion of neoadjuvant treatment. Imaging findings were correlated with histopathologic response. Results . Histopathologic responders showed significantly more pronounced decreases in tumor FDG-SUVmax from baseline to late follow up than non-responders ( 64 ± 19 % versus 29 ± 30 %, resp.; P = .03 ). Using a 60% decrease in tumor FDG-uptake as a threshold for metabolic response correctly classified 3 of 4 histopathologic responders and 7 of 8 histopathologic non-responders as metabolic responders and non-responders, respectively (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 88%). Conclusion . These results suggest that changes in FDG-SUVmax at the end of neoadjuvant treatment can identify histopathologic responders and non-responders in adult primary bone sarcoma patients.« less

  7. Hanford Speakers Bureau<br>>Frequently Asked Questions - Hanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the topics covered by the Hanford Speakers Bureau? The presentation covers various strategies for cleaning up the 586 square miles Hanford Site. Speakers can provide an...

  8. SU-D-9A-04: Brain PET/CT Imaging On a Scanner with a Large Axial Field-Of-View

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, M; Gerbaudo, V; Hamberg, L; Seaver, K; Kijewski, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Large axial field-of-view (FOV) PET/CT scanners are valued for high sensitivity. Brain PET image quality may depend on the head position within the FOV. We investigated the precision of activity estimation for brain PET imaging when the brain was positioned at the end (END) and in the middle (CEN) of the FOV. The additional CT dose for the CEN position was recorded. Methods: An image quality (Jaszczak) phantom and a striatal phantom were filled with F-18 and positioned in END and CEN locations. For each phantom and each location, we acquired a ∼1-hr listmode PET, rebinned the data into 10 frames with equal number of coincidence events, and reconstructed each frame using an iterative algorithm. For the striatal phantom, END and CEN were compared by drawing on each image three regions of interest (ROI) in axially separated uniform areas. The standard deviation of the activity estimation within each ROI was averaged over the 10 images. The coefficient of variation (CV) for activity estimation was calculated at each position. Image quality was assessed by inspecting the resolution bar pattern in the Jaszczak phantom at two different head positions. Results: The CV was the lowest for ROIs near the center of the FOV. For slices near the end, not only was the CV highest, but also the resolution pattern was degraded. CTDIvol summarized in the dose report indicated that the CT dose was ∼ 10% higher for CEN as compared to END position. Conclusion: Positioning the brain in the middle of the FOV in a large FOV PET/CT scanner allows more precise measurement of tracer uptake and better image quality at the cost of increased CT dose. For the end location longer scan times may minimize image quality degradation without any additional CT dose.

  9. High field magnetotransport and point contact Andreev reflection measurements on CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}BrDegenerate magnetic semiconductor single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borisov, K. Coey, J. M. D.; Stamenov, P.; Alaria, J.

    2014-05-07

    Single crystals of the metallically degenerate fully magnetic semiconductors CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}Br have been prepared by the Chemical Vapour Transport method, using either Se or Br as transport agents. The high-quality, millimetre-sized, octahedrally faceted, needle- and platelet-shaped crystals are characterised by means of high field magnetotransport (?{sub 0}H? 14?T) and Point Contact Andreev Reflection. The relatively high spin polarisation observed |P|>0.56, together with the relatively low minority carrier effective mass of 0.25 m{sub e}, and long scattering time 10{sup ?13}?s, could poise these materials for integration in low- and close-to-room temperature minority injection bipolar heterojunction transistor demonstrations.

  10. Improvement of {gamma}-ray energy resolution of LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+} scintillation detectors by Sr{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} co-doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alekhin, M. S.; Haas, J. T. M. de; Khodyuk, I. V.; Dorenbos, P.; Kraemer, K. W.; Menge, P. R.; Ouspenski, V.

    2013-04-22

    Commercially available LaBr{sub 3}:5% Ce{sup 3+} scintillators show with photomultiplier tube readout about 2.7% energy resolution for the detection of 662 keV {gamma}-rays. Here we will show that by co-doping LaBr{sub 3}:Ce{sup 3+} with Sr{sup 2+} or Ca{sup 2+} the resolution is improved to 2.0%. Such an improvement is attributed to a strong reduction of the scintillation light losses that are due to radiationless recombination of free electrons and holes during the earliest stages (1-10 ps) inside the high free charge carrier density parts of the ionization track.

  11. The new bern PET cyclotron, its research beam line, and the development of an innovative beam monitor detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braccini, Saverio

    2013-04-19

    The new Bern cyclotron laboratory aims at industrial radioisotope production for PET diagnostics and multidisciplinary research by means of a specifically conceived beam transfer line, terminated in a separate bunker. In this framework, an innovative beam monitor detector based on doped silica and optical fibres has been designed, constructed, and tested. Scintillation light produced by Ce and Sb doped silica fibres moving across the beam is measured, giving information on beam position, shape, and intensity. The doped fibres are coupled to commercial optical fibres, allowing the read-out of the signal far away from the radiation source. This general-purpose device can be easily adapted for any accelerator used in medical applications and is suitable either for low currents used in hadrontherapy or for currents up to a few {mu}A for radioisotope production, as well as for both pulsed and continuous beams.

  12. 3D inpatient dose reconstruction from the PET-CT imaging of {sup 90}Y microspheres for metastatic cancer to the liver: Feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fourkal, E.; Veltchev, I.; Lin, M.; Meyer, J.; Koren, S.; Doss, M.; Yu, J. Q.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The introduction of radioembolization with microspheres represents a significant step forward in the treatment of patients with metastatic disease to the liver. This technique uses semiempirical formulae based on body surface area or liver and target volumes to calculate the required total activity for a given patient. However, this treatment modality lacks extremely important information, which is the three-dimensional (3D) dose delivered by microspheres to different organs after their administration. The absence of this information dramatically limits the clinical efficacy of this modality, specifically the predictive power of the treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a 3D dose calculation technique that is based on the PET imaging of the infused microspheres.Methods: The Fluka Monte Carlo code was used to calculate the voxel dose kernel for {sup 90}Y source with voxel size equal to that of the PET scan. The measured PET activity distribution was converted to total activity distribution for the subsequent convolution with the voxel dose kernel to obtain the 3D dose distribution. In addition, dose-volume histograms were generated to analyze the dose to the tumor and critical structures.Results: The 3D inpatient dose distribution can be reconstructed from the PET data of a patient scanned after the infusion of microspheres. A total of seven patients have been analyzed so far using the proposed reconstruction method. Four patients underwent treatment with SIR-Spheres for liver metastases from colorectal cancer and three patients were treated with Therasphere for hepatocellular cancer. A total of 14 target tumors were contoured on post-treatment PET-CT scans for dosimetric evaluation. Mean prescription activity was 1.7 GBq (range: 0.583.8 GBq). The resulting mean maximum measured dose to targets was 167 Gy (range: 71311 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 70% of target (D70) was 68 Gy (range: 25155 Gy). Mean minimum dose to 90% of target (D90) was 53 Gy (range: 13125 Gy).Conclusions: A three-dimensional inpatient dose reconstruction method has been developed that is based on the PET/CT data of a patient treated with {sup 90}Y microspheres. It allows for a complete description of the absorbed dose by the tumor and critical structures. It represents the first step in building predictive models for treatment outcomes for patients receiving this therapeutic modality as well as it allows for better analysis of patients' dose response and will ultimately improve future treatment administration.

  13. Optical absorption and luminescence spectroscopy of U{sup 3+} in K{sub 2}La{ital X}{sub 5} ({ital X}=Cl,Br,I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andres, H.P.; Kraemer, K.; Guedel, H.

    1996-08-01

    The title compounds were synthesized and high-resolution absorption and luminescence spectra measured in the near-infrared, VIS, and near UV regions. The visible absorption spectra are dominated by very intense 5{ital f}{r_arrow}6{ital d} bands overlapping with {ital f}-{ital f} transitions. The onset of the first {ital f}-{ital d} absorption is shifted from 46000 cm{sup {minus}1} in K{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5}:Nd{sup 3+} to 15000 cm{sup {minus}1} in K{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5}:U{sup 3+}. Crystal-field splittings in corresponding {sup 2{ital S}+1}{ital L}{sub {ital J}} multiplets are greater by typically a factor of 2 in the U{sup 3+} doped crystal, thus reflecting the larger extension and stronger interaction of the 5{ital f} electrons with the ligands. {ital f}-{ital f} transitions are typically two orders of magnitude more intense in K{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5}:U{sup 3+} than in K{sub 2}LaCl{sub 5}:Nd{sup 3+}. Along the halide series K{sub 2}La{ital X}{sub 5}:U{sup 3+} ({ital X}=Cl,Br,I) the differences in the position of corresponding {ital f}-{ital d} and {ital f}-{ital f} transitions, crystal-field splittings, vibronic intensities, and excited-state lifetimes can be explained with the increasing covalency, the decreasing phonon energies, the increasing electron-phonon coupling, and the increasing U-{ital X} distances. The {ital f}-{ital d} excited states provide a nonradiative bypass of some {ital f}-{ital f} excited states in the case of all these halide lattices. The excited-state dynamics are determined by a delicate interplay of radiative and nonradiative relaxation processes, they are strongly dependent on the nature of {ital X}. Multiphonon relaxation processes are least competitive in the iodide due to the very low value of 106 cm{sup {minus}1} for the highest-energy phonons. A cross-relaxation mechanism determines the dynamics of the iodide at room temperature. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. The Role of Pretreatment FDG-PET in Treating Cervical Cancer Patients With Enlarged Pelvic Lymph Node(s) Shown on MRI: A Phase 3 Randomized Trial With Long-Term Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Shinn-Yn; Tsai, Chien-Sheng; Chang, Yu-Chen; Ng, Koon-Kwan; Chang, Ting-Chang; Kao, Wei-Heng; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Hong, Ji-Hong

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: This report is the second analysis of a prospective randomized trial to investigate the impact of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on cervical cancer patients with enlarged pelvic lymph nodes identified by magnetic resonance imaging. Methods and Materials: Patients with newly diagnosed cervical cancer with enlarged pelvic lymph nodes but free of enlarged para-aortic lymph nodes (PALN) were eligible. Patients were randomized to receive either pretreatment FDG-PET (PET arm) or not (control arm). The whole pelvis was the standard irradiation field for all patients except those with FDG-avid extrapelvic findings. Results: In all, 129 patients were enrolled. Pretreatment PET detected extrapelvic metastases in 7 patients. No new patient experienced treatment failure during the additional 4-year follow-up period. There were no significant differences between the PET arm and the control arm regarding overall survival, disease-free survival, and freedom from extrapelvic metastasis. In the control arm, 8 of 10 patients with PALN relapse had limited extrapelvic nodal failures; their 5-year disease-specific survival was 34.3%. By contrast, only 1 of 5 patients with PALN relapse in the PET arm experienced such limited failures; their 5-year survival rate was 0%. Conclusions: Although the pretreatment detection of PALN did not translate into survival benefit, it indeed decreased the need for extended-field concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

  15. Distribution Atlas of Proliferating Bone Marrow in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Measured by FLT-PET/CT Imaging, With Potential Applicability in Radiation Therapy Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Belinda A.; Callahan, Jason; Bressel, Mathias; Simoens, Nathalie; Everitt, Sarah; Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J.; Burbury, Kate; MacManus, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Proliferating bone marrow is exquisitely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Knowledge of its distribution could improve radiation therapy planning to minimize unnecessary marrow exposure and avoid consequential prolonged myelosuppression. [18F]-Fluoro-3-deoxy-3-L-fluorothymidine (FLT)–positron emission tomography (PET) is a novel imaging modality that provides detailed quantitative images of proliferating tissues, including bone marrow. We used FLT-PET imaging in cancer patients to produce an atlas of marrow distribution with potential clinical utility. Methods and Materials: The FLT-PET and fused CT scans of eligible patients with non-small cell lung cancer (no distant metastases, no prior cytotoxic exposure, no hematologic disorders) were reviewed. The proportions of skeletal FLT activity in 10 predefined bony regions were determined and compared according to age, sex, and recent smoking status. Results: Fifty-one patients were studied: 67% male; median age 68 (range, 31-87) years; 8% never smokers; 70% no smoking in the preceding 3 months. Significant differences in marrow distribution occurred between sex and age groups. No effect was detected from smoking in the preceding 3 months. Using the mean percentages of FLT uptake per body region, we created an atlas of the distribution of functional bone marrow in 4 subgroups defined by sex and age. Conclusions: This atlas has potential utility for estimating the distribution of active marrow in adult cancer patients to guide radiation therapy planning. However, because of interindividual variation it should be used with caution when radiation therapy risks ablating large proportions of active marrow; in such cases, individual FLT-PET scans may be required.

  16. SU-E-J-250: A Methodology for Active Bone Marrow Protection for Cervical Cancer Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Using 18F-FLT PET/CT Image

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, C; Yin, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare a radiation therapy treatment planning that would spare active bone marrow and whole pelvic bone marrow using 18F FLT PET/CT image. Methods: We have developed an IMRT planning methodology to incorporate functional PET imaging using 18F FLT/CT scans. Plans were generated for two cervical cancer patients, where pelvicactive bone marrow region was incorporated as avoidance regions based on the range: SUV>2., another region was whole pelvic bone marrow. Dose objectives were set to reduce the volume of active bone marrow and whole bone marraw. The volumes of received 10 (V10) and 20 (V20) Gy for active bone marrow were evaluated. Results: Active bone marrow regions identified by 18F FLT with an SUV>2 represented an average of 48.0% of the total osseous pelvis for the two cases studied. Improved dose volume histograms for identified bone marrow SUV volumes and decreases in V10(average 18%), and V20(average 14%) were achieved without clinically significant changes to PTV or OAR doses. Conclusion: Incorporation of 18F FLT/CT PET in IMRT planning provides a methodology to reduce radiation dose to active bone marrow without compromising PTV or OAR dose objectives in cervical cancer.

  17. SU-E-QI-17: Dependence of 3D/4D PET Quantitative Image Features On Noise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, J; Budzevich, M; Zhang, G; Latifi, K; Dilling, T; Balagurunathan, Y; Gu, Y; Grove, O; Feygelman, V; Gillies, R; Moros, E; Lee, H.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quantitative imaging is a fast evolving discipline where a large number of features are extracted from images; i.e., radiomics. Some features have been shown to have diagnostic, prognostic and predictive value. However, they are sensitive to acquisition and processing factors; e.g., noise. In this study noise was added to positron emission tomography (PET) images to determine how features were affected by noise. Methods: Three levels of Gaussian noise were added to 8 lung cancer patients PET images acquired in 3D mode (static) and using respiratory tracking (4D); for the latter images from one of 10 phases were used. A total of 62 features: 14 shape, 19 intensity (1stO), 18 GLCM textures (2ndO; from grey level co-occurrence matrices) and 11 RLM textures (2ndO; from run-length matrices) features were extracted from segmented tumors. Dimensions of GLCM were 256256, calculated using 3D images with a step size of 1 voxel in 13 directions. Grey levels were binned into 256 levels for RLM and features were calculated in all 13 directions. Results: Feature variation generally increased with noise. Shape features were the most stable while RLM were the most unstable. Intensity and GLCM features performed well; the latter being more robust. The most stable 1stO features were compactness, maximum and minimum length, standard deviation, root-mean-squared, I30, V10-V90, and entropy. The most stable 2ndO features were entropy, sum-average, sum-entropy, difference-average, difference-variance, difference-entropy, information-correlation-2, short-run-emphasis, long-run-emphasis, and run-percentage. In general, features computed from images from one of the phases of 4D scans were more stable than from 3D scans. Conclusion: This study shows the need to characterize image features carefully before they are used in research and medical applications. It also shows that the performance of features, and thereby feature selection, may be assessed in part by noise analysis.

  18. Islet-selectivity of G-protein coupled receptor ligands evaluated for PET imaging of pancreatic {beta}-cell mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cline, Gary W.; Zhao, Xiaojian; Jakowski, Amy B.; Soeller, Walter C.; Treadway, Judith L.

    2011-09-02

    Highlights: {yields} We screened G-protein coupled receptors for imaging pancreatic. {yields} Database mining and immunohistochemistry identified GPCRs enriched in {beta}-cells. {yields} In vitro and in vivo assays were used to determine exocrine vs endocrine specificity. {yields} GPCR candidates for imaging of {beta}-cell mass are Prokineticin-1R, mGluR5, and GLP-1R. -- Abstract: A critical unmet need exists for methods to quantitatively measure endogenous pancreatic {beta}-cell mass (BCM) for the clinical evaluation of therapies to prevent or reverse loss of BCM and diabetes progression. Our objective was to identify G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed with a high degree of specificity to islet {beta}-cells for receptor-targeted imaging of BCM. GPCRs enriched in pancreatic islets relative to pancreas acinar and hepatic tissue were identified using a database screen. Islet-specific expression was confirmed by human pancreas immunohistochemistry (IHC). In vitro selectivity assessment was determined from the binding and uptake of radiolabeled ligands to the rat insulinoma INS-1 832/13 cell line and isolated rat islets relative to the exocrine pancreas cell-type, PANC-1. Tail-vein injections of radioligands into rats were used to determine favorable image criteria of in vivo biodistribution to the pancreas relative to other internal organs (i.e., liver, spleen, stomach, and lungs). Database and IHC screening identified four candidate receptors for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation for PET imaging of BCM: prokineticin-1 receptor (PK-1R), metabotropic glutamate receptor type-5 (mGluR5), neuropeptide Y-2 receptor (NPY-2R), and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R). In vitro specificity ratios gave the following receptor rank order: PK-1R > GLP-1R > NPY-2R > mGluR5. The biodistribution rank order of selectivity to the pancreas was found to be PK-1R > VMAT2 {approx} GLP-1R > mGluR5. Favorable islet selectivity and biodistribution characteristics suggest several GPCRs as potential targets for PET imaging of pancreatic BCM.

  19. Location of gap nodes in the organic superconductors {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} and {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}Br determined by magnetocalorimetry.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, L.; Taylor, O. J.; Schlueter, J. A.; Carrington, A.; Materials Science Division; Univ. Bristol

    2010-07-16

    We report specific-heat measurements of the organic superconductors {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} and {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br. When the magnetic field is rotated in the highly conducting planes at low temperature (T = 0.4 K), we observe clear oscillations of specific heat which have a strong fourfold component. The observed strong field and temperature dependence of this fourfold component identifies it as originating from nodes in the superconducting energy gap which point along the in-plane crystal axes (d{sub xy} symmetry).

  20. Clinical Value of [{sup 11}C]Methionine PET for Stereotactic Radiation Therapy With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to Metastatic Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miwa, Kazuhiro; Department of Clinical Brain Sciences, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Minokamo, Gifu ; Matsuo, Masayuki; Shinoda, Jun; Aki, Tatsuki; Yonezawa, Shingo; Department of Clinical Brain Sciences, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Minokamo, Gifu ; Ito, Takeshi; Asano, Yoshitaka; Department of Clinical Brain Sciences, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, Minokamo, Gifu ; Yamada, Mikito; Yokoyama, Kazutoshi; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Yano, Hirohito; Iwama, Toru

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the clinical impact of {sup 11}C-labeled methionine-positron emission tomography (MET-PET) for stereotactic radiation therapy with intensity modulated radiation therapy (SRT-IMRT) in metastatic brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Forty-two metastatic brain tumors were examined. All tumors were treated with SRT-IMRT using a helical tomotherapy system. Gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined and drawn on the stereotactic magnetic resonance (MR) image, taking into account the respective contributions of MR imaging and MET-PET. Planning target volume (PTV) encompassed the GTV-PET plus a 2-mm margin. SRT-IMRT was performed, keeping the dose for PTV at 25-35 Gy in 5 fractions. The ratio of the mean value of MET uptake to the contralateral normal brain (L/N ratio) was plotted for the PTV prior to SRT-IMRT, at 3 months following SRT-IMRT, and at 6 months following SRT-IMRT. Tumor characteristic changes of MET uptake before and after SRT-IMRT were evaluated quantitatively, comparing them with MRI examination. Results: Mean {+-} SD L/N ratios were 1.95 {+-} 0.83, 1.18 {+-} 0.21, and 1.12 {+-} 0.25 in the pre-SRT-IMRT group, in the 3 months post-SRT-IMRT group, and in the 6 months post-SRT-IMRT group, respectively. Differences in the mean L/N ratio between the pre-SRT-IMRT group and the 3-month post-SRT-IMRT group and between the pre-SRT-IMRT group and the 6 month post-SRT-IMRT group were statistically significant, irrespective of MRI examination. Conclusions: We showed examples of metastatic lesions demonstrating significant decreases in MET uptake following SRT-IMRT. MET-PET seems to have a potential role in providing additional information, although MRI remains the gold standard for diagnosis and follow-up after SRT-IMRT. The present study is a preliminary approach, but to more clearly define the impact of PET-based radiosurgical assessment, further experimental and clinical analyses are required.

  1. Effect of externally applied pressure on the magnetic behavior of Cu{sub 2}Te{sub 2}O{sub 5}(Br{sub x}Cl{sub 1-x}){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, S. J.; Lees, M. R.; Paul, D. M. K.; Bewely, R. I.; Taylor, J.; McIntyre, G.; Zaharko, O.; Berger, H.

    2006-04-01

    The effect of externally applied pressure on the magnetic behavior of Cu{sub 2}Te{sub 2}O{sub 5}(Br{sub x}Cl{sub 1-x}){sub 2} with x=0, 0.73, and 1, is investigated by a combination of magnetic susceptibility, neutron diffraction, and neutron inelastic scattering measurements. The magnetic transition temperatures of the x=0 and 0.73 compositions are observed to increase linearly with increasing pressure at a rate of 0.23(2) and 0.04(1) K/kbar, respectively. However, the bromide shows contrasting behavior with a large suppression of the transition temperature under pressure, at a rate of -0.95(9) K/kbar. In neutron inelastic scattering measurements of Cu{sub 2}Te{sub 2}O{sub 5}Br{sub 2} under pressure only a small change to the ambient pressure magnetic excitations were observed. A peak in the density of states was seen to shift from {approx}5 meV in ambient pressure to {approx}6 meV under an applied pressure of 11.3 kbar, which was associated with an increase in the overall magnetic coupling strength.

  2. Spectral indices measurements using miniature fission chambers at the MINERVE zero-power reactor at CEA using calibration data obtained at the BR1 reactor at SCK.CEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De lanaute, N. Blanc; Mellier, F.; Lyoussi, A.; Domergue, C.; Di Salvo, J. [CEA, DEN, DER, SPEX, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance, (France); Borms, L.; Wagemans, J. [CEN SCK, Belgian Nucl Res Ctr, B-2400 Mol, (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    Spectral indices measurements performed in 2004 at the CEA MINERVE facility loaded with the R-UO{sub 2} lattice, using calibration data acquired at the SCK center dot CEN BR1 facility in 2001, resulted in ambivalent conclusions. On one hand, spectral indices involving only fissile isotopes gave consistent discrepancies between calculation and experiment. On the other hand, spectral indices involving both fissile and fertile isotopes, in particular the {sup 238}U(n, f)/{sup 235}U(n, f) spectral index, showed inconsistent results depending on the type of calibration data used. For different reasons, no definitive explanation was given at that time. In 2009, the preparation of the AMMON program at the EOLE facility motivated the manufacturing of a new set of detectors. At the same time, the re-installation of the R1-UO{sub 2} lattice in MINERVE provided the opportunity to carry out again a spectral indices measurement campaign. Nevertheless, although the isotopic compositions of active deposits were better known than previously, the comparison between experimental results and calculations still lead to inconsistent discrepancies. In April 2010, a new calibration series conducted again at the BR1 facility allowed the CEA to reanalyze the spectral indices measurements performed in 2009. With these very latest calibration data, experimental values of spectral indices finally matched calculations within the uncertainty margins. This paper also sums up the work that has been achieved to explain the incoherencies observed in 2004. (authors)

  3. Mathematical modeling of positron emission tomography (PET) data to assess radiofluoride transport in living plants following petiolar administration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Converse, Alexander K.; Ahlers, Elizabeth O.; Bryan, Tom W.; Hetue, Jackson D.; Lake, Katherine A.; Ellison, Paul A.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J.; Williams, Paul H.; et al

    2015-03-15

    Background: Ion transport is a fundamental physiological process that can be studied non-invasively in living plants with radiotracer imaging methods. Fluoride is a known phytotoxic pollutant and understanding its transport in plants after leaf absorption is of interest to those in agricultural areas near industrial sources of airborne fluoride. Here we report the novel use of a commercial, high-resolution, animal positron emission tomography (PET) scanner to trace a bolus of [¹⁸F]fluoride administered via bisected petioles of Brassica oleracea, an established model species, to simulate whole plant uptake of atmospheric fluoride. This methodology allows for the first time mathematical compartmental modelingmore » of fluoride transport in the living plant. Radiotracer kinetics in the stem were described with a single-parameter free- and trapped-compartment model and mean arrival times at different stem positions were calculated from the free-compartment time-activity curves. Results: After initiation of administration at the bisected leaf stalk, [¹⁸F] radioactivity climbed for approximately 10 minutes followed by rapid washout from the stem and equilibration within leaves. Kinetic modeling of transport in the stem yielded a trapping rate of 1.5 +/- 0.3%/min (mean +/- s.d., n = 3), velocity of 2.2 +/- 1.1 cm/min, and trapping fraction of 0.8 +/- 0.5%/cm. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of physiologically meaningful transport parameters of fluoride in living plants is possible using standard positron emission tomography in combination with petiolar radiotracer administration. Movement of free fluoride was observed to be consistent with bulk flow in xylem, namely a rapid and linear change in position with respect to time. Trapping, likely in the apoplast, was observed. Future applications of the methods described here include studies of transport of other ions and molecules of interest in plant physiology.« less

  4. Solid-state synthesis, structure and properties of a novel open-framework cadmium selenite bromide: [Cd{sub 10}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 8}Br{sub 4}]·HBr·H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wen-Tong; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Wang, Guan-E; Chen, Hui-Fen; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2013-08-15

    A novel open-framework cadmium selenite bromide, [Cd{sub 10}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 8}Br{sub 4}]·HBr·H{sub 2}O (1), has been obtained by a solid-state reaction at 450 °C, and the structure has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 crystallizes in Pbcm of the orthorhombic system: a=10.882(3), b=16.275(5), c=18.728(6) Å, V=3317(2) Å{sup 3}, R1/wR2=0.0411/0.0659. Compound 1 is characteristic of a novel 3-D open-framework structure, composing {sub ∞}{sup 2}[CdSeO{sub 3}] layers and the pillars of edge-shared CdO{sub 3}Br{sub 2} square pyramids. The lattice water molecules and the HBr molecules locate in the voids of the framework. Optical absorption spectrum of 1 reveals the presence of an optical gap of 1.65 eV. Solid-state photoluminescent study indicates that compound 1 exhibits strong violet emission. TG–DSC measurement shows that compound 1 is thermally stable up to 200 °C. - Graphical abstract: A metal selenite halide has been synthesized and features a 3-D open-framework structure, composing edge-shared CdO{sub 8} decahedra and pillars of edge-sharing pentahedra. UV–vis, TG–DSC and luminescent measurements are also reported. Highlights: • This paper reports a novel cadmium selenite bromide obtained by an intermediate-temperature solid-state reaction. • The title compound is characteristic of a novel 3-D open-framework structure, composing {sub ∞}{sup 2}[CdSeO{sub 3}] layers and the pillars of edge-shared CdO{sub 3}Br{sub 2} square pyramids. • The title compound is thermally stable up to 200 °C. • The title compound has an optical gap of 1.65 eV and exhibits strong violet emission.

  5. SU-E-QI-03: Compartment Modeling of Dynamic Brain PET - The Effect of Scatter and Random Corrections On Parameter Errors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Häggström, I; Karlsson, M; Larsson, A; Schmidtlein, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of corrections for random and scattered coincidences on kinetic parameters in brain tumors, by using ten Monte Carlo (MC) simulated dynamic FLT-PET brain scans. Methods: The GATE MC software was used to simulate ten repetitions of a 1 hour dynamic FLT-PET scan of a voxelized head phantom. The phantom comprised six normal head tissues, plus inserted regions for blood and tumor tissue. Different time-activity-curves (TACs) for all eight tissue types were used in the simulation and were generated in Matlab using a 2-tissue model with preset parameter values (K1,k2,k3,k4,Va,Ki). The PET data was reconstructed into 28 frames by both ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and 3D filtered back-projection (3DFBP). Five image sets were reconstructed, all with normalization and different additional corrections C (A=attenuation, R=random, S=scatter): Trues (AC), trues+randoms (ARC), trues+scatters (ASC), total counts (ARSC) and total counts (AC). Corrections for randoms and scatters were based on real random and scatter sinograms that were back-projected, blurred and then forward projected and scaled to match the real counts. Weighted non-linearleast- squares fitting of TACs from the blood and tumor regions was used to obtain parameter estimates. Results: The bias was not significantly different for trues (AC), trues+randoms (ARC), trues+scatters (ASC) and total counts (ARSC) for either 3DFBP or OSEM (p<0.05). Total counts with only AC stood out however, with an up to 160% larger bias. In general, there was no difference in bias found between 3DFBP and OSEM, except in parameter Va and Ki. Conclusion: According to our results, the methodology of correcting the PET data for randoms and scatters performed well for the dynamic images where frames have much lower counts compared to static images. Generally, no bias was introduced by the corrections and their importance was emphasized since omitting them increased bias extensively.

  6. Mutual neutralization of atomic rare-gas cations (Ne{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, Kr{sup +}, Xe{sup +}) with atomic halide anions (Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, I{sup −})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Johnsen, Rainer

    2014-01-28

    We report thermal rate coefficients for 12 reactions of rare gas cations (Ne{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, Kr{sup +}, Xe{sup +}) with halide anions (Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, I{sup −}), comprising both mutual neutralization (MN) and transfer ionization. No rate coefficients have been previously reported for these reactions; however, the development of the Variable Electron and Neutral Density Attachment Mass Spectrometry technique makes it possible to measure the difference of the rate coefficients for pairs of parallel reactions in a Flowing Afterglow-Langmuir Probe apparatus. Measurements of 18 such combinations of competing reaction pairs yield an over-determined data set from which a consistent set of rate coefficients of the 12 MN reactions can be deduced. Unlike rate coefficients of MN reactions involving at least one polyatomic ion, which vary by at most a factor of ∼3, those of the atom-atom reactions vary by at least a factor 60 depending on the species. It is found that the rate coefficients involving light rare-gas ions are larger than those for the heavier rare-gas ions, but the opposite trend is observed in the progression from Cl{sup −} to I{sup −}. The largest rate coefficient is 6.5 × 10{sup −8} cm{sup 3} s{sup −1} for Ne{sup +} with I{sup −}. Rate coefficients for Ar{sup +}, Kr{sup +}, and Xe{sup +} reacting with Br{sub 2}{sup −} are also reported.

  7. Experimental and ab initio studies of the reactive processes in gas phase i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}Br and i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}OH collisions with potassium ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lpez, E.; Lucas, J. M.; Andrs, J. de; Albert, M.; Aguilar, A., E-mail: a.aguilar@ub.edu [Departament de Qumica Fsica, Institut de Qumica Terica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Mart i Franqus, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bofill, J. M. [Departament de Qumica Orgnica, Institut de Qumica Terica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Mart i Franqus, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bassi, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit degli Studi di Trento, 38123 Povo-Trento (Italy)

    2014-10-28

    Collisions between potassium ions and neutral i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}Br and i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}OH, all in their electronic ground state, have been studied in the 0.1010.00 eV center of mass (CM) collision energy range, using the radiofrequency-guided ion beam technique. In K{sup +} + i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}Br collisions KHBr{sup +} formation was observed and quantified, while the analogous KH{sub 2}O{sup +} formation in K{sup +} + i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}OH was hardly detected. Moreover, formation of the ion-molecule adducts and their decomposition leading to C{sub 3}H{sub 7}{sup +} and either KBr or KOH, respectively, have been observed. For all these processes, absolute cross-sections were measured as a function of the CM collision energy. Ab initio structure calculations at the MP2 level have given information about the potential energy surfaces (PESs) involved. In these, different stationary points have been characterized using the reaction coordinate method, their connectivity being ensured by using the intrinsic-reaction-coordinate method. From the measured excitation function for KHBr{sup +} formation the corresponding thermal rate constant at 303 K has been calculated. The topology of the calculated PESs allows an interpretation of the main features of the reaction dynamics of both systems, and in particular evidence the important role played by the potential energy wells in controlling the reactivity for the different reaction channels.

  8. {sup 18}F-FLT uptake kinetics in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A PET imaging study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Dan Fenwick, John D.; Chalkidou, Anastasia; Landau, David B.; Marsden, Paul K.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To analyze the kinetics of 3{sup ′}-deoxy-3{sup ′}-[F-18]-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) uptake by head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and involved nodes imaged using positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Two- and three-tissue compartment models were fitted to 12 tumor time-activity-curves (TACs) obtained for 6 structures (tumors or involved nodes) imaged in ten dynamic PET studies of 1 h duration, carried out for five patients. The ability of the models to describe the data was assessed using a runs test, the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and leave-one-out cross-validation. To generate parametric maps the models were also fitted to TACs of individual voxels. Correlations between maps of different parameters were characterized using Pearson'sr coefficient; in particular the phosphorylation rate-constants k{sub 3-2tiss} and k{sub 5} of the two- and three-tissue models were studied alongside the flux parameters K{sub FLT-2tiss} and K{sub FLT} of these models, and standardized uptake values (SUV). A methodology based on expectation-maximization clustering and the Bayesian information criterion (“EM-BIC clustering”) was used to distil the information from noisy parametric images. Results: Fits of two-tissue models 2C3K and 2C4K and three-tissue models 3C5K and 3C6K comprising three, four, five, and six rate-constants, respectively, pass the runs test for 4, 8, 10, and 11 of 12 tumor TACs. The three-tissue models have lower AIC and cross-validation scores for nine of the 12 tumors. Overall the 3C6K model has the lowest AIC and cross-validation scores and its fitted parameter values are of the same orders of magnitude as literature estimates. Maps ofK{sub FLT} and K{sub FLT-2tiss} are strongly correlated (r = 0.85) and also correlate closely with SUV maps (r = 0.72 for K{sub FLT-2tiss}, 0.64 for K{sub FLT}). Phosphorylation rate-constant maps are moderately correlated with flux maps (r = 0.48 for k{sub 3-2tiss} vs K{sub FLT-2tiss} and r = 0.68 for k{sub 5} vs K{sub FLT}); however, neither phosphorylation rate-constant correlates significantly with SUV. EM-BIC clustering reduces the parametric maps to a small number of levels—on average 5.8, 3.5, 3.4, and 1.4 for K{sub FLT-2tiss}, K{sub FLT}, k{sub 3-2tiss}, and k{sub 5.} This large simplification is potentially useful for radiotherapy dose-painting, but demonstrates the high noise in some maps. Statistical simulations show that voxel level noise degrades TACs generated from the 3C6K model sufficiently that the average AIC score, parameter bias, and total uncertainty of 2C4K model fits are similar to those of 3C6K fits, whereas at the whole tumor level the scores are lower for 3C6K fits. Conclusions: For the patients studied here, whole tumor FLT uptake time-courses are represented better overall by a three-tissue than by a two-tissue model. EM-BIC clustering simplifies noisy parametric maps, providing the best description of the underlying information they contain and is potentially useful for radiotherapy dose-painting. However, the clustering highlights the large degree of noise present in maps of the phosphorylation rate-constantsk{sub 5} and k{sub 3-2tiss}, which are conceptually tightly linked to cellular proliferation. Methods must be found to make these maps more robust—either by constraining other model parameters or modifying dynamic imaging protocols.

  9. Use of InSpector{sup TM} 1 1000 Instrument with LaBr{sub 3} for Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) Applications at the Westinghouse Hematite Decommissioning Project (HDP) - 13132

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritchard, Megan; Guido, Joe

    2013-07-01

    The Westinghouse Hematite Decommissioning Project (HDP) is a former nuclear fuel cycle facility that is currently undergoing decommissioning. One aspect of the decommissioning scope is remediation of buried nuclear waste in unlined burial pits. The current Nuclear Criticality Safety program relies on application of criticality controls based on radiological setpoints from a 2 x 2 Sodium Iodide (NaI) detector. Because of the nature of the material buried (Low Enriched Uranium (LEU), depleted uranium, thorium, and radium) and the stringent threshold for application of criticality controls based on waste management (0.1 g {sup 235}U/L), a better method for {sup 235}U identification and quantification has been developed. This paper outlines the early stages of a quick, in-field nuclear material assay and {sup 235}U mass estimation process currently being deployed at HDP. Nuclear material initially classified such that NCS controls are necessary can be demonstrated not to require such controls and dispositioned as desired by project operations. Using Monte Carlo techniques and a high resolution Lanthanum Bromide (LaBr) detector with portable Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA), a bounding {sup 235}U mass is assigned to basic geometries of nuclear material as it is excavated. The deployment of these methods and techniques has saved large amounts of time and money in the nuclear material remediation process. (authors)

  10. Tumor Metabolism and Perfusion in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Pretreatment Multimodality Imaging With {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Schoeder, Heiko; Lee, Nancy Y.; Stambuk, Hilda E.; Wang Ya; Fury, Matthew G.; Patel, Senehal G.; Pfister, David G.; Shah, Jatin P.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Shukla-Dave, Amita

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), and {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([{sup 18}F]FDG PET) of nodal metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) for assessment of tumor biology. Additionally, pretreatment multimodality imaging was evaluated for its efficacy in predicting short-term response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Metastatic neck nodes were imaged with {sup 1}H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET in 16 patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC, before treatment. Short-term patient radiological response was evaluated at 3 to 4 months. Correlations among {sup 1}H-MRS (choline concentration relative to water [Cho/W]), DCE-MRI (volume transfer constant [K{sup trans}]; volume fraction of the extravascular extracellular space [v{sub e}]; and redistribution rate constant [k{sub ep}]), and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET (standard uptake value [SUV] and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) were calculated using nonparametric Spearman rank correlation. To predict short-term responses, logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between Cho/W and TLG ({rho} = 0.599; p = 0.031). Cho/W correlated negatively with heterogeneity measures of standard deviation std(v{sub e}) ({rho} = -0.691; p = 0.004) and std(k{sub ep}) ({rho} = -0.704; p = 0.003). Maximum SUV (SUVmax) values correlated strongly with MRI tumor volume ({rho} = 0.643; p = 0.007). Logistic regression indicated that std(K{sup trans}) and SUVmean were significant predictors of short-term response (p < 0.07). Conclusion: Pretreatment multimodality imaging using {sup 1}H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET is feasible in HNSCC patients with nodal metastases. Additionally, combined DCE-MRI and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET parameters were predictive of short-term response to treatment.

  11. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

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  12. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    BIG PINEY TIP TOP BIR D CANYON SWAN FONTEN ELL E LABARGE HOGSBACK CHIMNEY BUT TE BIG PINEY AREA TIP TOP UNI T LINCOLN ROAD BLU E FOREST DEER HILL FOGART Y CREEK GREEN RIVER BEND ...

  13. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (1) and Robert King (2) (1) Z, Inc., (2) Energy Information Administration BIG PINEY TIP ... BLU E FOREST SWAN DEER HILL FOGART Y CREEK GREEN RIVER BEND DRY PINEY SWAN S HOGSBACK AREA ...

  14. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    BOE Reserve Class No 2001 reserves 0.1 - 10 MBOE 10.1 - 100 MBOE 100.1 - 1,000 MBOE 1,000.1 - 10,000 MBOE 10,000.1 - 100,000 MBOE > 100,000 MBOE Basin Outline ID The mapped oil and gas field boundary outlines were created by the Reserves and Production Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration pursuant to studies required by Section 604 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act Amendments of 2000 (P.L. 106-469). The boundaries are not informed by subsurface structural

  15. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Reserve Class No 2001 gas reserves 0.1 - 10 MMCF 10.1 - 100 MMCF 100.1 - 1,000 MMCF 1,000.1 - 10,000 MMCF 10,000.1 - 100,000 MMCF > 100,000 MMCF Basin Outline ID The mapped oil and gas field boundary outlines were created by the Reserves and Production Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration pursuant to studies required by Section 604 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act Amendments of 2000 (P.L. 106-469). The boundaries are not informed by subsurface

  16. BR UFF BIG PINEY WILD ROSE BLU E GAP BR UFF UNIT WAMSUT TER

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Reserve Class No 2001 liquids reserves 0.1 - 10 Mbbl 10.1 - 100 Mbbl 100.1 - 1,000 Mbbl 1,000.1 - 10,000 Mbbl 10,000.1 - 100,000 Mbbl Basin Outline ID The mapped oil and gas field boundary outlines were created by the Reserves and Production Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration pursuant to studies required by Section 604 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act Amendments of 2000 (P.L. 106-469). The boundaries are not informed by subsurface structural

  17. Method for selective recovery of PET-usable quantities of [.sup.18 F] fluoride and [.sup.13 N] nitrate/nitrite from a single irradiation of low-enriched [.sup.18 O] water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferrieri, Richard A.; Schlyer, David J.; Shea, Colleen

    1995-06-13

    A process for simultaneously producing PET-usable quantities of [.sup.13 N]NH.sub.3 and [.sup.18 F]F.sup.- for radiotracer synthesis is disclosed. The process includes producing [.sup.13 N]NO.sub.2.sup.- /NO.sub.3.sup.- and [.sup.18 F]F.sup.- simultaneously by exposing a low-enriched (20%-30%) [.sup.18 O]H.sub.2 O target to proton irradiation, sequentially isolating the [.sup.13 N]NO.sub.2.sup.- /NO.sub.3.sup.- and [.sup.18 F]F.sup.- from the [.sup.18 O]H.sub.2 O target, and reducing the [.sup.13 N]NO.sub.2.sup.- /NO.sub.3.sup.- to [.sup.13 N]NH.sub.3. The [.sup.13 N]NH.sub.3 and [.sup.18 F]F.sup.- products are then conveyed to a laboratory for radiotracer applications. The process employs an anion exchange resin for isolation of the isotopes from the [.sup.18 O]H.sub.2 O, and sequential elution of [.sup.13 N]NO.sub.2.sup.- /NO.sub.3.sup.- and [ .sup.18 F]F.sup.- fractions. Also the apparatus is disclosed for simultaneously producing PET-usable quantities of [.sup.13 N]NH.sub.3 and [.sup.18 F]F.sup.- from a single irradiation of a single low-enriched [.sup.18 O]H.sub.2 O target.

  18. Application of Two Phase (Liquid/Gas) Xenon Gamma-Camera for the Detection of Special Nuclear Material and PET Medical Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinsey, Daniel Nicholas

    2013-08-27

    The McKinsey group at Yale has been awarded a grant from DTRA for the building of a Liquid Xenon Gamma Ray Color Camera (LXe-GRCC), which combines state-of-the-art detection of LXe scintillation light and time projection chamber (TPC) charge readout. The DTRA application requires a movable detector and hence only a single phase (liquid) xenon detector can be considered in this case. We propose to extend the DTRA project to applications that allow a two phase (liquid/gas) xenon TPC. This entails additional (yet minimal) hardware and extension of the research effort funded by DTRA. The two phase detector will have better energy and angular resolution. Such detectors will be useful for PET medical imaging and detection of special nuclear material in stationary applications (e.g. port of entry). The expertise of the UConn group in gas phase TPCs will enhance the capabilities of the Yale group and the synergy between the two groups will be very beneficial for this research project as well as the education and research projects of the two universities. The LXe technology to be used in this project has matured rapidly over the past few years, developed for use in detectors for nuclear physics and astrophysics. This technology may now be applied in a straightforward way to the imaging of gamma rays. According to detailed Monte Carlo simulations recently performed at Yale University, energy resolution of 1% and angular resolution of 3 degrees may be obtained for 1.0 MeV gamma rays, using existing technology. With further research and development, energy resolution of 0.5% and angular resolution of 1.3 degrees will be possible at 1.0 MeV. Because liquid xenon is a high density, high Z material, it is highly efficient for scattering and capturing gamma rays. In addition, this technology scales elegantly to large detector areas, with several square meter apertures possible. The Yale research group is highly experienced in the development and use of noble liquid detectors for astrophysics, most recently in the XENON10 experiment. The existing facilities at Yale are fully adequate for the completion of this project. The facilities of the UConn group at the LNS at Avery Point include a (clean) lab for detector development and this group recently delivered an Optical Readout TPC (O-TPC) for research in Nuclear Astrophysics at the TUNL in Duke University. The machine shop at UConn will be used (free of charge) for producing the extra hardware needed for this project including grids and frames.

  19. Magnetic field, frequency and temperature dependence of complex conductance of ultrathin La1.65Sr0.45CuO4/La2CuO4 films and the organic superconductors κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. A. Gasparov; Bozovic, I.; He, Xi; Dubuis, G.; Pavuna, D.; Kushch, N. D.; Yagubskii, E. B.; Schlueter, J. A.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we used atomic-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) to synthesize bilayer films of a cuprate metal (La1.65Sr0.45CuO4) and a cuprate insulator (La2CuO4), in which interface superconductivity occurs in a layer that is just one-half unit cell thick. We have studied the magnetic field and temperature dependence of the complex sheet conductance, σ(ω), of these films, and compared them to κκ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br single crystals. The magnetic field H was applied both parallel and perpendicular to the 2D conducting layers. Experiments have been carried out at frequencies between 23 kHz and 50 MHz using either two-coil mutual inductance technique, or the LC resonators with spiral or rectangular coils. The real and the imaginary parts of the mutual-inductance M(T,ω) between the coil and the sample were measured and converted to complex conductivity. For H perpendicular to the conducting layers, we observed almost identical behavior in both films and κ-Br single crystals: (i) the transition onset in the inductive response, Lk–1(T) occurs at a temperature lower by 2 K than in Re σ(T), (ii) this shift is almost constant with magnetic field up to 8 T; (iii) the vortex diffusion constant D(T) is exponential due to pinning of vortex cores. These results can be described by the extended dynamic theory of the Berezinski–Kosterlitz–Thouless (BKT) transition and dynamics of bound vortex–antivortex pairs with short separation lengths.

  20. Magnetic field, frequency and temperature dependence of complex conductance of ultrathin La1.65Sr0.45CuO4/La2CuO4 films and the organic superconductors κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    V. A. Gasparov; Bozovic, I.; He, Xi; Dubuis, G.; Pavuna, D.; Kushch, N. D.; Yagubskii, E. B.; Schlueter, J. A.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we used atomic-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) to synthesize bilayer films of a cuprate metal (La1.65Sr0.45CuO4) and a cuprate insulator (La2CuO4), in which interface superconductivity occurs in a layer that is just one-half unit cell thick. We have studied the magnetic field and temperature dependence of the complex sheet conductance, σ(ω), of these films, and compared them to κκ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br single crystals. The magnetic field H was applied both parallel and perpendicular to the 2D conducting layers. Experiments have been carried out at frequencies between 23 kHz and 50 MHz using either two-coil mutual inductance technique, or themore » LC resonators with spiral or rectangular coils. The real and the imaginary parts of the mutual-inductance M(T,ω) between the coil and the sample were measured and converted to complex conductivity. For H perpendicular to the conducting layers, we observed almost identical behavior in both films and κ-Br single crystals: (i) the transition onset in the inductive response, Lk–1(T) occurs at a temperature lower by 2 K than in Re σ(T), (ii) this shift is almost constant with magnetic field up to 8 T; (iii) the vortex diffusion constant D(T) is exponential due to pinning of vortex cores. These results can be described by the extended dynamic theory of the Berezinski–Kosterlitz–Thouless (BKT) transition and dynamics of bound vortex–antivortex pairs with short separation lengths.« less

  1. Method for selective recovery of PET-usable quantities of [{sup 18}F] fluoride and [{sup 13}N] nitrate/nitrite from a single irradiation of low-enriched [{sup 18}O] water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Shea, C.

    1995-06-13

    A process for simultaneously producing PET-usable quantities of [{sup 13}N]NH{sub 3} and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} for radiotracer synthesis is disclosed. The process includes producing [{sup 13}N]NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} simultaneously by exposing a low-enriched (20%-30%) [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O target to proton irradiation, sequentially isolating the [{sup 13}N]NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} from the [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O target, and reducing the [{sup 13}N]NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to [{sup 13}N]NH{sub 3}. The [{sup 13}N]NH{sub 3} and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} products are then conveyed to a laboratory for radiotracer applications. The process employs an anion exchange resin for isolation of the isotopes from the [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O, and sequential elution of [{sup 13}N]NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} fractions. Also the apparatus is disclosed for simultaneously producing PET-usable quantities of [{sup 13}N]NH{sub 3} and [{sup 18}F]F{sup {minus}} from a single irradiation of a single low-enriched [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O target. 2 figs.

  2. MO-G-17A-07: Improved Image Quality in Brain F-18 FDG PET Using Penalized-Likelihood Image Reconstruction Via a Generalized Preconditioned Alternating Projection Algorithm: The First Patient Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidtlein, CR; Beattie, B; Humm, J; Li, S; Wu, Z; Xu, Y; Zhang, J; Shen, L; Vogelsang, L; Feiglin, D; Krol, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the performance of a new penalized-likelihood PET image reconstruction algorithm using the 1{sub 1}-norm total-variation (TV) sum of the 1st through 4th-order gradients as the penalty. Simulated and brain patient data sets were analyzed. Methods: This work represents an extension of the preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) for emission-computed tomography. In this new generalized algorithm (GPAPA), the penalty term is expanded to allow multiple components, in this case the sum of the 1st to 4th order gradients, to reduce artificial piece-wise constant regions (“staircase” artifacts typical for TV) seen in PAPA images penalized with only the 1st order gradient. Simulated data were used to test for “staircase” artifacts and to optimize the penalty hyper-parameter in the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) sense. Patient FDG brain scans were acquired on a GE D690 PET/CT (370 MBq at 1-hour post-injection for 10 minutes) in time-of-flight mode and in all cases were reconstructed using resolution recovery projectors. GPAPA images were compared PAPA and RMSE-optimally filtered OSEM (fully converged) in simulations and to clinical OSEM reconstructions (3 iterations, 32 subsets) with 2.6 mm XYGaussian and standard 3-point axial smoothing post-filters. Results: The results from the simulated data show a significant reduction in the 'staircase' artifact for GPAPA compared to PAPA and lower RMSE (up to 35%) compared to optimally filtered OSEM. A simple power-law relationship between the RMSE-optimal hyper-parameters and the noise equivalent counts (NEC) per voxel is revealed. Qualitatively, the patient images appear much sharper and with less noise than standard clinical images. The convergence rate is similar to OSEM. Conclusions: GPAPA reconstructions using the 1{sub 1}-norm total-variation sum of the 1st through 4th-order gradients as the penalty show great promise for the improvement of image quality over that currently achieved with clinical OSEM reconstructions.

  3. Enhancement of Br ( B d → μ + μ - ) / Br ( B s → μ + μ - ) in supersymmetric unified models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2015-05-14

    We explain the 2.3σ deviation in the recent measurements of the neutral B meson decays into muon pairs from the standard model prediction in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified models using antisymmetric coupling as a new source of flavor violation. We show a correlation between the Bd→μ⁺μ⁻ decay and the CP phase in the Bd→J/ψK decay and that their deviations from the standard model predictions can be explained after satisfying constraints arising from various hadronic and leptonic rare decay processes, B-B¯, K-K¯ oscillation data, and electric dipole moments of electron and neutron. The allowed parameter space is typically representedmore » by pseudoscalar Higgs mass mA≤1 TeV and tanβH(≡vu/vd)≲20 for squark and gluino masses around 2 TeV.« less

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 03: Application of the non-negative matrix factorization technique to [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ dynamic PET data for the early detection of Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Dong-Chang; Jans, Hans; McEwan, Sandy; Riauka, Terence; Martin, Wayne; Wieler, Marguerite

    2014-08-15

    In this work, a class of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) technique known as alternating non-negative least squares, combined with the projected gradient method, is used to analyze twenty-five [{sup 11}C]-DTBZ dynamic PET/CT brain data. For each subject, a two-factor model is assumed and two factors representing the striatum (factor 1) and the non-striatum (factor 2) tissues are extracted using the proposed NMF technique and commercially available factor analysis software “Pixies”. The extracted factor 1 and 2 curves represent the binding site of the radiotracer and describe the uptake and clearance of the radiotracer by soft tissues in the brain, respectively. The proposed NMF technique uses prior information about the dynamic data to obtain sample time-activity curves representing the striatum and the non-striatum tissues. These curves are then used for “warm” starting the optimization. Factor solutions from the two methods are compared graphically and quantitatively. In healthy subjects, radiotracer uptake by factors 1 and 2 are approximately 35–40% and 60–65%, respectively. The solutions are also used to develop a factor-based metric for the detection of early, untreated Parkinson's disease. The metric stratifies healthy subjects from suspected Parkinson's patients (based on the graphical method). The analysis shows that both techniques produce comparable results with similar computational time. The “semi-automatic” approach used by the NMF technique allows clinicians to manually set a starting condition for “warm” starting the optimization in order to facilitate control and efficient interaction with the data.

  5. Abraham Hot Springs Geothermal Area Northern Basin and Range...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    br Brophy br Model br Moeck br Beardsmore br Type br Volume br Geothermal br Region Mean br Reservoir br Temp br Mean br Capacity Abraham Hot Springs Geothermal Area Northern Basin...

  6. Adaptation of the modified BoucWen model to compensate for hysteresis in respiratory motion for the list-mode binning of cardiac SPECT and PET acquisitions: Testing using MRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dasari, Paul K. R.; Shazeeb, Mohammed Salman; Knik, Arda; Lindsay, Clifford; Mukherjee, Joyeeta M.; Johnson, Karen L.; King, Michael A.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Binning list-mode acquisitions as a function of a surrogate signal related to respiration has been employed to reduce the impact of respiratory motion on image quality in cardiac emission tomography (SPECT and PET). Inherent in amplitude binning is the assumption that there is a monotonic relationship between the amplitude of the surrogate signal and respiratory motion of the heart. This assumption is not valid in the presence of hysteresis when heart motion exhibits a different relationship with the surrogate during inspiration and expiration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the novel approach of using the BoucWen (BW) model to provide a signal accounting for hysteresis when binning list-mode data with the goal of thereby improving motion correction. The study is based on the authors previous observations that hysteresis between chest and abdomen markers was indicative of hysteresis between abdomen markers and the internal motion of the heart. Methods: In 19 healthy volunteers, they determined the internal motion of the heart and diaphragm in the superiorinferior direction during free breathing using MRI navigators. A visual tracking system (VTS) synchronized with MRI acquisition tracked the anteriorposterior motions of external markers placed on the chest and abdomen. These data were employed to develop and test the BoucWen model by inputting the VTS derived chest and abdomen motions into it and using the resulting output signals as surrogates for cardiac motion. The data of the volunteers were divided into training and testing sets. The training set was used to obtain initial values for the model parameters for all of the volunteers in the set, and for set members based on whether they were or were not classified as exhibiting hysteresis using a metric derived from the markers. These initial parameters were then employed with the testing set to estimate output signals. Pearsons linear correlation coefficient between the abdomen, chest, average of chest and abdomen markers, and BoucWen derived signals versus the true internal motion of the heart from MRI was used to judge the signals match to the heart motion. Results: The results show that the BoucWen model generated signals demonstrated strong correlation with the heart motion. This correlation was slightly larger on average than that of the external surrogate signals derived from the abdomen marker, and average of the abdomen and chest markers, but was not statistically significantly different from them. Conclusions: The results suggest that the proposed model has the potential to be a unified framework for modeling hysteresis in respiratory motion in cardiac perfusion studies and beyond.

  7. Advanced Instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.

    1985-04-01

    This paper summarizes the physical processes and medical science goals that underlay modern instrumentation design for Positron Emission Tomography. The paper discusses design factors such as detector material, crystalphototube coupling, shielding geometry, sampling motion, electronics design, time-of-flight, and the interrelationships with quantitative accuracy, spatial resolution, temporal resolution, maximum data rates, and cost.

  8. Materials Data on CuTe2Br (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. Materials Data on Tl2TeBr6 (SG:128) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Materials Data on BiTeBr (SG:156) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Materials Data on BrO2F (SG:9) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Materials Data on Li6Br3N (SG:12) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Materials Data on B5H6Br (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Materials Data on H4BrN (SG:215) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: SPIE Optics & Photonics, San Diego, CA, United States, Aug 17 - Aug ...

  16. RELAP5 Model Description and Validation for the BR2 Loss-of-Flow Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licht, J. R.; Dionne, B.; Van den Branden, G.; Sikik, E.; Koonen, E.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a description of the RELAP5 model, the calibration method used to obtain the minor loss coefficients from the available hydraulic data and the LOFA simulation results compared to the 1963 experimental tests for HEU fuel.

  17. Materials Data on Cd(W3Br7)2 (SG:201) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Materials Data on CdBr2 (SG:186) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Materials Data on Ta(TeBr3)2 (SG:2) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on Ta3(Se4Br3)2 (SG:2) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-19

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Materials Data on Pd(SeBr3)2 (SG:2) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Materials Data on Bi(TeBr2)2 (SG:2) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. Materials Data on CrBrO (SG:59) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Materials Data on Cs2SbBr6 (SG:0) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Look at the Impact of Building, Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP) and Innovation, June ... 2004 Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater

  6. Materials Data on Th6CoBr15 (SG:229) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Materials Data on ThBrN (SG:129) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. Spectroscopic Evidence for a High-Spin Br-Fe(IV)-Oxo Intermediate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fungicides and antibiotics. Four classes of enzymes are now known to catalyze halogenation reactions: 1) vanadium haloperoxidases, 2) heme haloperoxidases, 3)...

  9. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    BOE Reserve Class No 2001 reserves 0.1 - 10 MBOE 10.1 - 100 MBOE 100.1 - 1000 MBOE 1000.1 - 10,000 MBOE 10,000.1 - 100,000 MBOE > 100,000 MBOE Appalachian Basin Boundary C a n a d a N Y P A N Y U S A Appalachian Basin, NY Area (Panel 1 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 BOE

  10. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Reserve Class No 2001 Liiquids Reserves 0.1 - 10 Mbbl 10.1 - 100 Mbbl 100.1 - 1000 Mbbl 1000.1 - 10,000 Mbbl Appalachian Basin Boundary C a n a d a N Y P A N Y U S A Appalachian Basin, NY Area (Panel 1 of 7) Oil and Gas Fields By 2001 Liquids

  11. Materials Data on PH9C3Br3N (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Materials Data on PH4Br (SG:129) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Materials Data on PaBr4 (SG:141) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Materials Data on PaBr5 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Materials Data on S4(BrN)3 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Reserve Class No 2001 Liiquids Reserves 0.1 - 10 Mbbl 10.1 - 100 Mbbl 100.1 - 1000 Mbbl 1000.1 - 10,000 Mbbl Appalachian Basin Boundary C a n a d a N Y P A N Y U S A ...

  17. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    BOE Reserve Class No 2001 reserves 0.1 - 10 MBOE 10.1 - 100 MBOE 100.1 - 1000 MBOE 1000.1 - 10,000 MBOE 10,000.1 - 100,000 MBOE > 100,000 MBOE Appalachian Basin Boundary C a n a d ...

  18. Modeling carbon nanotube growth on the catalyst-substrate surface subjected to reactive plasma [<br>

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Aarti; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2014-06-15

    The paper presents a theoretical model to study the growth of the carbon nanotube (CNT) on the catalyst substrate surface subjected to reactive plasma. The charging rate of the CNT, kinetics of electron, ions and neutral atoms, the growth rate of the CNT because of diffusion and accretion of ions on the catalyst nanoparticle inclusion of the issue of the plasma sheath is undertaken in the present model. Numerical calculations on the effect of ion density and temperature and the substrate bias on the growth of the CNT have been carried out for typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that the height of CNT increases with the ion density of carbon ions and radius of CNT decreases with hydrogen ion density. The substrate bias also affects the growth rate of the CNT. The field emission characteristics from the CNTs can be analyzed from the results obtained.

  19. Materials Data on Y4OsBr4 (SG:15) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on Rb3Os2Br9 (SG:194) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Materials Data on OsBr4 (SG:61) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Materials Data on K2OsBr6 (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. Materials Data on LiBr (SG:225) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Materials Data on Pd(PbBr3)2 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Materials Data on Tl3PdBr5 (SG:61) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Materials Data on KAl2Br7 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Materials Data on KPb2Br5 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. Materials Data on K2(NbBr3)3 (SG:12) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  9. Method of increments for the halogen molecular crystals: Cl, Br, and I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steenbergen, Krista G.; Gaston, Nicola; Müller, Carsten; Paulus, Beate

    2014-09-28

    Method of increments (MI) calculations reveal the n-body correlation contributions to binding in solid chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Secondary binding contributions as well as d-correlation energies are estimated and compared between each solid halogen. We illustrate that binding is entirely determined by two-body correlation effects, which account for >80% of the total correlation energy. One-body, three-body, and exchange contributions are repulsive. Using density-fitting (DF) local coupled-cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples for incremental calculations, we obtain excellent agreement with the experimental cohesive energies. MI results from DF local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (LMP2) yield considerably over-bound cohesive energies. Comparative calculations with density functional theory and periodic LMP2 method are also shown to be less accurate for the solid halogens.

  10. Materials Data on CuSe3Br (SG:53) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Materials Data on La5(AlBr)4 (SG:140) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-02-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  12. Materials Data on Ga2PdBr8 (SG:12) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  13. Materials Data on Tb6Br7 (SG:12) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Materials Data on Hg3(SeBr)2 (SG:12) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Materials Data on Tb5Br8 (SG:12) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Materials Data on IrBr3 (SG:12) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Authors: Nelson, A J ; ...

  18. Materials Data on RbBr (SG:221) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  19. Materials Data on CsBr (SG:221) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. Materials Data on CuW3Br7 (SG:201) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Materials Data on W3Br8 (SG:64) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2015-03-24

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  2. Tank Farm Closure & Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement <br>

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (DOE/EIS-0391) - Hanford Site Statements Tank Closure & WM EIS Info Documents CERCLA Five-Year Review NEPA - Categorical Exclusions NEPA - Environmental Assessments NEPA - Environmental Impact Statements Environmental Management Performance Reports Tank Farm Closure & Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0391) Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) has prepared a Final Environmental

  3. Materials Data on HgBrO3 (SG:15) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Materials Data on CsHgBr3 (SG:221) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  5. Materials Data on Tl4HgBr6 (SG:128) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Materials Data on Hg3(TeBr)2 (SG:199) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Materials Data on C(Se2Br)2 (SG:33) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. PET And Bioluminescent Imaging Aid Evaluation Of Stem Cells'...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interactive.snm.orgindex.cfm?PageID903&CFID27713770&CFTOKEN13840564 Submitted: Tuesday, December 4, 2007 - 12:00am...

  9. Materials Data on Na3Al3Si3AgBrO12 (SG:9) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Materials Data on SiP3H29C10BrN (SG:14) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    2014-11-02

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  11. Feasibility of a superhigh energy-density battery of the Li/BrF sub 3 electrochemical system. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyszczek, M.F.; Ebel, S.J.; Frysz, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, design and construction of a material-handling and measurement system along with the apparatus required for waste material disposal has been completed. Preliminary corrosion screening of potential case materials is currently underway. A review of the literature, has led us to the use of Monel (trademark) 400 as the material of construction for the handling and measurement system. The inherent stability of this material with bromine trifluoride in its liquid state is crucial to ensure that contamination does not occur during storage and handling. For applications which require a flexible or transparent material, items fabricated from perfluoroalkyoxy polymers (Teflon) (trademark PFA) were utilized. One such application encountered was in the design of the graduated tank which allows visual inspection of the material prior to dispensing. Containers used for compatibility/corrosion testing were also constructed of PFA.

  12. Popular Science Recognizes Innovative Solar Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COAL D EGAS BLU E CREEK COAL DEGAS BR OOKWOOD C OAL D EGAS ST AR ROBIN SONS BEND COAL D EGAS BLU FF COR INNE MOU NDVILLE COAL D EGAS BLU EGU T CR EEK WH ITE OAK CREEK COAL DEGAS BEAVERT ON BLU FF FAYETTE W SN EAD S CREEK SPLU NGE PAR HAM N MUSGR OVE CR EEK MCCRAC KEN MOU NTAIN DAVIS C HAPEL BAC ON BLOOMING GROVE MT Z ION FAIRVIEW JASPER BLOWHORN CREEK MAPLE BRAN CH KEN NEDY COAL F IRE CR EEK MCGEE LAKE SILOAM MILLPOR T FERNBANK DAVIS C HAPEL NE DETROIT E BEANS F ERRY LEXIN GT ON PET ERSON COAL

  13. Pyrrolo isoquinolines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Z.

    2000-01-01

    Compounds of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X, Y, and R, independently of one another, is each a H; halogen, wherein said halogen is selected from the group consisting of .sup.123 I, .sup.124 I, .sup.125 I, .sup.131 I, .sup.75 Br, .sup.76 Br, .sup.77 Br, .sup.82 Br, .sup.18 F, or .sup.210 At; small alkyl, small alkenyl, or small alkynyl, any of which contains from one to about six carbon atoms and optionally having a carbon atom replaced by an O or S; or halogen substituted-small alkyl, halogen substituted-small alkenyl, or halogen substituted-small alkynyl wherein said compound contains at least one radioacitve halogen. The compounds bind to the serotonin transporter. Depending upon the choice of halogen substituent, the compounds are useful for PET or SPECT imaging, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other conditions associated with defects of serotonin transporter function.

  14. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Credit: James Pryatel<br>>br>>

  15. Timeline and Updates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1.5.2<br>cray-tpsl1.5.2<br>cray-trilinos11.12.1.5<br>craype2.5.0<br>craypkg-gen1.3.2<br>fftw3.3.4.6<br>iobuf2.0.6<br>papi5.4.1.3<br>parallel-netcdf...

  16. PET: An Emerging Tool in the Fight Against Cancer |GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Today, doctors are armed with more weapons than ever before, ... Cancer is complex If there is one universal lesson we can ... allowing doctors to monitor for any change over time. ...

  17. Improved Production and Separation Technologies for Non-standard PET Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, Michael J. [Washington University, St. Louis, MO] [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Lapi, Suzanne [Washington University, St. Louis, MO] [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Brief summary of activity issues, concerns, successes: Project 1 is completed. We have optimized plating parameters with the new target bodies and slanted target plating system. The target station has been mounted on the end of the beamline, service lines have been nstalled to allow for helium and water cooling. We have routinely produced copper-64 using the new slanted target system in conjunction with our automated system. In project 2, we successfully fabricated and tested microfluidic extraction devices made out of two organic solvent-resistant polymers, thiolene and SIFEL. Initially, we developed analytical and computational models to describe the extraction process, and used the model to design the microfluidic devices. Then we optimized the microfabrication procedures to manufacture microreactors, followed by optimization of the operational parameters to obtain a stable aqueous-organic interface, which is critical for efficient extraction. When we tested the thiolene devices for extraction of copper-64, we observed very low extraction efficiencies (less than 5%) due to adhesion of copper to thiolene. However, we observed very high extraction efficiencies with SIFEL devices (greater than 95%), which are due to the high interfacial area for extraction and shorter diffusion lengths.

  18. Dynamic Positron Emission Tomography [PET] in Man Using Small Bismuth Germanate Crystals

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Derenzo, S. E.; Budinger, T. F.; Huesman, R. H.; Cahoon, J. L.

    1982-04-01

    Primary considerations for the design of positron emission tomographs for medical studies in humans are the need for high imaging sensitivity, whole organ coverage, good spatial resolution, high maximum data rates, adequate spatial sampling with minimum mechanical motion, shielding against out of plane activity, pulse height discrimination against scattered photons, and timing discrimination against accidental coincidences. We discuss the choice of detectors, sampling motion, shielding, and electronics to meet these objectives.

  19. The Dog Days of Summer - Capitalizing on the Pet Market | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Hit the Road: Applying Lessons from National Campaigns to a Local Context (201) Strengthening the Front Lines: Sales Training and Continuing Education for Contractors

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of PET and SPECT imaging of {sup 90}Y...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The amount of activity was 163 MBq, with an acquisition time of 40 min. Results: The ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 07 ISOTOPES AND RADIATION ...

  1. Feasibility of a superhigh energy-density battery of the Li/BrF sub 3 electrochemical system. Progress report, 15 October-15 December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyszczek, M.F.; Ebel, S.J.; Frysz, C.A.

    1989-12-15

    The feasibility of developing a lithium/bromine trifluoride battery is being studied. Critical to this product development is materials selection. Consequently, efforts have been directed toward identifying candidate porous electrode separators, glasses for insulated electrical feed-throughs and metals for lid, case, and current-collector fabrication. Samples were evaluated via electrochemical testing techniques and one month storage in Teflon vials. Vial test results for metal samples did not vary significantly from those reported in technical report 0001AA. Of the separator samples tested, Raychem proves to be most promising. Further study is required regarding glass selection. Electrochemical testing is still in progress.

  2. Evidence for penguin-diagram decays: First observation of [ital B][r arrow][ital K][sup *](892)[gamma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammar, R.; Ball, S.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Copty, N.; Davis, R.; Hancock, N.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Patton, S.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Savinov, V.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; O'Neill, J.J.; Severini, H.; Sun, C.R.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Daubenmeir, M.; Fulton, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Skovpen, Y.; Sung, M.; White, C.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.L.; Wood, M.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Fast, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miao, T.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Wang, P.N.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.H.; Dominick, J.; Sanghera, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; He, D.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Muh

    1993-08-02

    We have observed the decays [ital B][sup 0][r arrow][ital K][sup *](892)[sup 0][gamma] and [ital B][sup [minus

  3. Development of a promising filtration method for liquid clarification in nuclear facilities. [For TMI-2 water, reprocessing dissolver solutions, ZnBr/sub 2/ shielding solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, E.D.; Knauer, J.B.; Byrd, L.A.; Ross, R.G.; Savage, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    Conclusions reached are that deep beds of diatomaceous earths are especially attractive for clarification of radioactive solutions, or slurries containing insoluble radioactive material, because the diatomaceous material provides a noncompressible medium that is retentive for a wide variety of particle sizes. Also, the diatomaceous material, because of its inorganic composition, is resistant to degradation by radiation from the retained particulate matter. Its silicious character is especially appropriate for conversion to vitrified or cement-type waste forms. This paper studied the use of diatomaceous earth to filter synthetic TMI-2 water, reprocessing dissolver solutions, and zinc bromide solutions (hot-cell shielding).

  4. emergency preparedness

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    to provide assurances of an effective response:<br ><br >Structured TrainingDrills Program<br >A comprehensive, coordinated, and documented program of training...

  5. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (M) release date: January 29, 2016 for November 2015 data<br>Next monthly release: End of February 2016 (December 2015 data)<br>><---Re...

  6. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Release Date: January 28, 2016 for November 2015 data<br>Next Monthly Release: End of February 2016 for December 2015 data<br>><---b>Month...

  7. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    04, 2016<br>Next Release Date: February 18, 2016 <---<br>PJM West data for 2005-2012Re-released---><br>>

  8. Property:Incentive/Amt | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    19-211unit<br > LED or Induction HE Garage: 43-483unit<br > LED Traffic (Red, Yellow, Green): 19unit<br > LED Traffic (Pedestrian): 7unit<br > Occupancy...

  9. T'

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    I;ts'J-F.; +X'l'W 20, ,57 I::anch T;3 cl:l:i xi ,.&A O.Cfice J su T>J 3x : sz,TjC; 03 NO&( Q>i ...

  10. Lu1-xI3:Cex--A Scintillator for gamma ray spectroscopy and time-of-flight PET

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Kanai S.

    2009-03-17

    The present invention concerns very fast scintillator materials comprising lutetium iodide doped with Cerium Lu.sub.1-xI.sub.3:Ce.sub.x; LuI.sub.3:Ce). The LuI.sub.3 scintillator material has surprisingly good characteristics including high light output, high gamma ray stopping efficiency, fast response, low cost, good proportionality, and minimal afterglow that the material is useful for gamma ray spectroscopy, medical imaging, nuclear and high energy physics research, diffraction, non-destructive testing, nuclear treaty verification and safeguards, and geological exploration. The timing resolution of the scintillators of the present invention provide compositions capable of resolving the position of an annihilation event within a portion of a human body cross-section.

  11. 2013 Nuclear Workforce Development ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Practice in Nuclear Medicine Radiopharmacy Patient Care Medical Imaging & Computers Moderator: Deborah M. Gibbs, MEd, PET, CNMT Lead Nuclear Medicine PET Facility...

  12. Measurement of sigma p anti-p --> Z . Br (Z --> 2tau) in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abulencia, A.

    2007-02-01

    We present a measurement of the inclusive production cross-section for Z bosons decaying to tau leptons in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. We use a channel with one hadronically-decaying and one electronically-decaying tau. This measurement is based on 350 pb{sup -1} of CDF Run II data. Using a sample of 504 opposite sign e{tau} events with a total expected background of 190 events, we obtain {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} Z) {center_dot} {Beta}(Z {yields} {tau}{tau}) = 263 {+-} 23(stat) {+-} 14(syst) {+-} 15(lumi) pb, in agreement with the next-to-next-to-leading order QCD prediction. This is the first CDF cross section measurement using hadronically-decaying taus in Run II.

  13. acquisition management

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    the science, technology, and engineering base; and,

  14. Continue NNSA management reforms.
  1. Lu.sub.1-xI.sub.3:Ce.sub.x-a scintillator for gamma-ray spectroscopy and time-of-flight pet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Kanai S.

    2008-02-12

    The present invention includes very fast scintillator materials including lutetium iodide doped with Cerium (Lu.sub.1-xI.sub.3:Ce.sub.x; LuI.sub.3:Ce). The LuI.sub.3 scintillator material has surprisingly good characteristics including high light output, high gamma-ray stopping efficiency, fast response, low cost, good proportionality, and minimal afterglow that the material is useful for gamma-ray spectroscopy, medical imaging, nuclear and high energy physics research, diffraction, non-destructive testing, nuclear treaty verification and safeguards, and geological exploration.

  2. Synthesis of 4-substituted-trans-1, 2-diaminocyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate metal chelating agents for the preparation of stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy and SPECT and PET imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1994-03-08

    Cyclo agents are described which are useful in forming antibody-metal conjugates which are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming these compounds are disclosed including 4-haloacetamido-trans-1,2diaminocyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate and 4-isothiocyanato-trans-1,2diamino cyclohexane-N,N,N',N'-tetra acetic acid. No Drawings

  3. X-ray studies of concentrated aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, K.F. Jr.; Warburton, W.K.; Fontaine, A.

    1987-07-01

    Concentrated aqueous solutions of three transition metal bromides (ZnBr/sub 2/, CuBr/sub 2/, and NiBr/sub 2/) and an alkali bromide (RbBr) have been studied with differential anomalous scattering (DAS) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The aq-ZnBr/sub 2/ solutions exhibit considerable inner-shell ion complexing with the formation of tetrahedral complexes about the Zn/sup 2 +/. In aq-CuBr/sub 2/, the Cu/sup 2 +/ has an octahedral coordination shell. Most of the anions are bound directly to the cations in both solutions. In contrast, there are only a few Ni--Br nearest neighbors in aq-NiBr/sub 2/. Instead, cations and anions share hydrating water molecules. Preliminary data show that any ion complexing in aq-RbBr must be weak. These results are in good agreement with published thermodynamic studies.

  4. Development of radiohalogenated muscarinic ligands for the in vivo imaging of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Alterations in the density of acetylcholinergic muscarinic receptors (m-AChR) have been observed in various dementias. This has spurred interest in the development of radiohalogenated ligands which can be used for the non-invasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques. We have developed a new ligand 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ({alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP,12) which demonstrates high affinity for the muscarinic receptor. When labeled with radioiodine it has been shown to be selective and specific for m-ACHR. Initial studies on the separation and in vivo evaluation of the various isomers of IQNP have shown that the stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the configuration around the double bond play an important role in m-AChR subtype specificity. In vivo evaluation of these stereoisomers demonstrate that E-(R,R)-IQNP has a high affinity for the M{sub 1} muscarinic subtype while Z-(R,R)-IQNP demonstrate a high affinity for M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} receptor subtypes. These data demonstrate IQNP (12) has potential for use in the non-evasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A brominated analogue, ``BrQNP,`` in which the iodine has been replaced by a bromine atom, has also been prepared and was shown to block the in vivo uptake of IQNP in the brain and heart and therefore has potential for positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of m-AChR.

  5. Profiles in garbage: Polyethylene terephthalate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, C.

    1997-11-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a plastic resin used primarily to make bottles. Soft drinks -- along with salad dressing, fruit juices, peanut butter, and other household and consumer products -- use PET bottles. PET also is used for film, sheeting for cups and food trays, oven-safe trays, and other uses. PET is a relatively new packaging resin, first commercialized in the early 1970s. Because it is an ``engineered`` resin, PET is more expensive than commodity resins such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and, for the same reason, it is usually the highest valued plastic recyclable.

  6. Correction of MRI-induced geometric distortions in whole-body small animal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PET-MRI (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Correction of MRI-induced geometric distortions in whole-body small animal PET-MRI Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Correction of MRI-induced geometric distortions in whole-body small animal PET-MRI Purpose: The fusion of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data can be a challenging task in whole-body PET-MRI. The quality of the registration between these two modalities in large field-of-views (FOV) is

  7. Impact of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Before and After Definitive Radiation Therapy in Patients With Apparently Solitary Plasmacytoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Paul J.; Hicks, Rodney J.; Wirth, Andrew; Ryan, Gail; Seymour, John F.; Prince, H. Miles

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on management of patients with apparently isolated plasmacytoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with apparently solitary plasmacytoma who underwent FDG-PET for staging or restaging were identified from a central PET database. They were either candidates for or had received definitive radiation therapy (RT). Results: Seventeen patients had initial staging scans for bone (n = 11) or soft tissue (n = 6) plasmacytomas, and 11 had PET scans after RT. Only 1 of 14 known untreated sites of plasmacytoma was not identified on staging PET (lesion sensitivity = 93%). Three plasmacytomas were excised before PET. Staging PET influenced management in 6 of 17 patients (35%) by showing multiple myeloma (n = 1), discouraging RT after complete resection (n = 1), excluding plasmacytoma at a second site (n = 1), by increasing RT fields (n = 2), or by suggesting sarcoidosis (n = 1). Fifteen of 17 patients with initial staging PET scans received definitive RT. Restaging PET scans after RT showed complete metabolic response in 8 of 11 cases and progressive disease in 2. Two patients with either no response or partial metabolic response had late responses. Staging sestamibi and PET scans were concordant in five of six occasions (one sestamibi scan was false negative). Conclusions: FDG-PET has value for staging and RT planning in plasmacytoma and potentially could have a role in response-assessment after RT. Slow resolution of FDG uptake posttreatment does not necessarily imply an adverse prognosis.

  8. A=4Li (1992TI02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    experiments (1990BR14, 1990BR17) that detect 4Li states in the particle spectra of breakup reactions. It may even be possible that these experiments are not detecting the 2-and...

  9. uranium

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    a> <BR ><BR >

    NNSA Removes U.S.-Origin HEU from Jamaica, Makes the Caribbean HEU Free http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesnnsa-removes-u.s.-origin-heu-jamaica-mak...

  10. Continuous Nanofiber/Nanotube Manufacturing System - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 100-1000x higher with similarly sized new design<br > <br > Choose between nanofibers and nanotubes 3rd (Current) Generation Performance Optimization 1.1kW 10-20 mgh,...

  11. The Hydrogen Laboratory and The Brazilian Reference Center for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... impacts, possible hydrogen sources, energy needs and mix Thank you Contacts: Newton Pimenta Neves Jr. nevesjr@ifi.unicamp.br Cristiano da Silva Pinto cspinto@ifi.unicamp.br

  12. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... quad of beams in NIF, will generate short bursts of X-rays to backlight high-density ICF targets and other HED experiments. <br>>

  13. cyber

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    and the review of information prior to public release or posting to publicly available web sites to assure it does not contain data that would assist an adversary.<br ><br...

  14. IT

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    and the review of information prior to public release or posting to publicly available web sites to assure it does not contain data that would assist an adversary.<br ><br...

  15. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1,053-nm radiation to the 527-nm second harmonic (2) wavelength (visible green light). ... ultraviolet radiation at the third harmonic (3).<br>>

  16. and Respond

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    nuclear materials and the security implications of the global deployment of civil nuclear power.<br ><br >The FY 2015 NPCR is available for download

  17. Prevent Counter

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    nuclear materials and the security implications of the global deployment of civil nuclear power.<br ><br >The FY 2015 NPCR is available for download

  18. Lattice dynamics in perovskite halides CsSn X 3 with X = I ,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lattice dynamics in perovskite halides CsSn X 3 with X I , Br , Cl Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lattice dynamics in perovskite halides CsSn X 3 with X I , Br , Cl ...

  19. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LiBr MSH and Brnsted acid and not by LiBr. Metal salts could potentially serve as Lewis acids for "one- pot" downstream tandem reactions. Deng et al. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res....

  20. The Potential for Renewable Energy Development to Benefit Restoration of the Salton Sea. Analysis of Technical and Market Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagne, Douglas; Haase, Scott; Oakleaf, Brett; Hurlbut, David; Akar, Sertac; Wall, Anna; Turchi, Craig; Pienkos, Philip; Melius, Jennifer; Melaina, Marc

    2015-11-01

    This report summarizes the potential for renewable energy development in the Salton Sea region, as well as the potential for revenues from this development to contribute financially to Salton Sea restoration costs. It considers solar, geothermal, biofuels or nutraceutical production from algae pond cultivation, desalination using renewable energy, and mineral recovery from geothermal fluids. <br/> <br/> <br/>

  1. Synthesis of 4-substituted-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate metal chelating agents for the preparation of stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy and SPECT and PET imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, R.C.; Kolsky, K.L.; Mausner, L.F.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1997-06-03

    Cyclohexyl chelating agents useful in forming antibody-metal conjugates which are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes are synthesized. New compounds and processes of forming these compounds are disclosed including 4-haloacetamido-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate and 4-isothiocyanato-trans-1,2-diamino cyclohexane-N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetra acetic acid.

  2. Synthesis of 4-substituted-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate metal chelating agents for the preparation of stable radiometal antibody immunoconjugates for therapy and spect and pet imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mease, Ronnie C.; Kolsky, Kathryn L.; Mausner, Leonard F.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    1997-06-03

    Cyclohexyl chelating agents useful in forming antibody-metal conjugates useful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming these compounds are disclosed including 4-haloacetamido-trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexyl polyaminocarboxylate and 4-isothiocyanato-trans-1,2-diamino cyclohexane-N, N, N', N'-tetra acetic acid.

  3. Protonation Studies of a Tungsten Dinitrogen Complex Supported by a Diphosphine Ligand Containing a Pendant Amine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Egbert, Jonathan D.; Chen, Shentan; Helm, Monte L.; Bullock, R. Morris; Mock, Michael T.

    2014-05-12

    Treatment of trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)] (dppe = Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2; PEtNMePEt = Et2PCH2N(Me)CH2PEt2) with three equivalents of tetrafluoroboric acid (HBF4?Et2O) at -78 C generated the seven-coordinate tungsten hydride trans-[W(N2)2(H)(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)][BF4]. Depending on the temperature of the reaction, protonation of a pendant amine is also observed, affording trans-[W(N2)2(H)(dppe)(PEtNMe(H)PEt)][BF4]2, with formation of the hydrazido complex, [W(NNH2)(dppe)(PEtNMe(H)PEt)][BF4]2, as a minor product. Similar product mixtures were obtained using triflic acid (HOTf). Upon acid addition to the carbonyl analogue, cis-[W(CO)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)], the seven-coordinate carbonyl-hydride complex, trans-[W(CO)2(H)(dppe)(PEtN(H)MePEt)][OTf]2 was generated. The mixed diphosphine complex without the pendant amine in the ligand backbone, trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(depp)] (depp = Et2P(CH2)3PEt2), was synthesized and treated with HBF4?Et2O, selectively generating a hydrazido complex, [W(NNH2)(F)(dppe)(depp)][BF4]. Computational analysis was used to probe proton affinity of three sites of protonation, the metal, pendant amine, and N2 ligand in these complexes. Room temperature reactions with 100 equivalents of HOTf produced NH4+ from reduction of the N2 ligand (electrons come from W). The addition of 100 equivalents HOTf to trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)] afforded 0.88 0.02 equivalents NH4+, while 0.36 0.02 equivalents of NH4+was formed upon treatment of trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(depp)], the complex without the pendant amine. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources were provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  4. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Findings During Therapy Predict Outcome in Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated With Chemotherapy Alone but Not in Those Who Receive Consolidation Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabaja, Bouthaina S.; Hess, Kenneth; Shihadeh, Ferial; Podoloff, Donald A.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Mawlawi, Osama; Arzu, Isidora; Oki, Yasuhiro; Hagemeister, Fredrick B.; Fayad, Luis E.; Rodriguez, Alma

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the value of mid-therapy positron emission tomography (PET) findings for predicting survival and disease progression in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, considering type of therapy (chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively evaluated 294 patients with histologically confirmed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with respect to age, sex, disease stage, International Prognostic Index score, mid-therapy PET findings (positive or negative), and disease status after therapy and at last follow-up. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared according to mid-therapy PET findings. Results: Of the 294 patients, 163 (55%) were male, 144 (49%) were age >61 years, 110 (37%) had stage I or II disease, 219 (74%) had International Prognostic Index score ≤2, 216 (73%) received ≥6 cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, and 88 (30%) received consolidation radiation therapy. Five-year PFS and OS rates were associated with mid-therapy PET status: PFS was 78% for those with PET-negative (PET−) disease versus 63% for PET-positive (PET+) disease (P=.024), and OS was 82% for PET− versus 62% for PET+ (P<.002). These associations held true for patients who received chemotherapy only (PFS 71% for PET− vs 52% PET+ [P=.012], OS 78% for PET− and 51% for PET+ [P=.0055]) but not for those who received consolidation radiation therapy (PFS 84% PET− vs 81% PET+ [P=.88]; OS 90% PET− vs 81% PET+ [P=.39]). Conclusion: Mid-therapy PET can predict patient outcome, but the use of consolidation radiation therapy may negate the significance of mid-therapy findings.

  5. Aluminum electroplating on steel from a fused bromide electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Laura A. Wurth; Eric J. Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie J. Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven M. Frank; Guy L. Frederickson; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBrKBrCsBrAlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminum on steel substrates. The electrolytewas prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBrKBrCsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminum coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminum coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggested that the coatings did display a good corrosionresistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminum coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminumcoating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  6. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  7. Low-Cost, High Efficiency Integration of SSL and Building Controls using a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PET Power Distribution System | Department of Energy High Efficiency Integration of SSL and Building Controls using a PET Power Distribution System Low-Cost, High Efficiency Integration of SSL and Building Controls using a PET Power Distribution System Lead Performer: VoltServer Inc. - East Greenwich, RI DOE Total Funding: $999,122 Project Term: July 28, 2015 - July 27, 2017 Funding Opportunity: FY2015 Phase II Release 2 SBIR Awards PROJECT OBJECTIVE This project will demonstrate a novel

  8. The EIS Comment-Response Process (DOE, 2004) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Dog Days of Summer - Capitalizing on the Pet Market The Dog Days of Summer - Capitalizing on the Pet Market Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: The Dog Days of Summer - Capitalizing on the Pet Market, call slides and discussion summary. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Leveraging Seasonal Opportunities for Marketing Energy Efficiency Hit the Road: Applying Lessons from National Campaigns to a Local Context (201)

  9. Wavelength Comparison Radio Infrared Ultraviolet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nuclear Medicine Radioactive isotopes are commonly used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Positron emitters are used in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to generate ...

  10. New Methods in Motion Tracking to Generate Motion-Corrected Tomographi...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CT, PET, and SPECT images of unrestrained live subjects. Data from these systems are critical to medical and pharmaceutical research. Using this method, researchers at ORNL have...

  11. Los Alamos ChamberFest

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alike to showcase their products and services to the public. Entertainment will include music, a car show, pet activity area, and the always popular, kids activity area featuring...

  12. STATES GOVERNMENT S. R. Sapirle~, Manager, Oak Ridge Operations

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Laboratories, Frankford Arsenal, Fhiladelphia 37, Pa. This material will be used in experimental research. It s ex,- petted that all material will be salvaged and returned td your...

  13. SEQUEDEX

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diseases (whether arising from bacteria, parasites, or viruses; characterizing gut, oral and skin microbiomes of humans, livestock, and pets; metagenomics of soils, rivers,...

  14. Slide 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    field trial of exchange ('12). - Successful engagement with DOE Office of Science and Japan enabled project continuation during year of 0 appropriation. - J Mar Pet Geol (Jan....

  15. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... SynchroPET's technology can be paired with an existing MRI machine for a simultaneous image. These advances will accelerate the creation of new pharmaceuticals to treat cancers, ...

  16. Tongwei Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with animal feed as its core business, and it is also involved in industries such as chemistry, IT, bioengineering, international trade, pet food, building and real estate as...

  17. Sheltering in Place | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    everyone inside (including pets). Close all doors and windows. Turn off and close all ventilation systems, including: Air conditioning Attic & exhaust fans Furnaces Fireplace...

  18. Student Entrepreneurs Driving Loyola Biodiesel Program | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... On any given day, she's immersed in biodiesel production, methanol recovery, community outreach or her own pet project, creating a bar soap to complement the liquid soaps the ...

  19. Waste-to-Energy Workshop Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... conversion of manure and organic substrates (waste) to middle distillate fuels ... with solid feedstocks (biomass, coal, pet coke, etc.) - Catalytic hydrothermal ...

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... waste plastics by froth flotation for recycling industry Wang, Chong-Qing ; Wang, Hui, ... PET from MWP was designed. - Abstract: Recycling is an effective way to manage plastic ...

  1. Positron emission tomography probes for imaging immune activation and selected cancers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radu, Caius G.; Witte, Owen N.; Nair-Gill, Evan David; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Shu, Chengyi J.; Czernin, Johannes

    2012-01-24

    Compounds for use as PET probes and methods for synthesizing and using these, comprising [.sup.18F]D-FAC and other cytosine and adenosine analogs.

  2. Multimodality Plant Imaging of Small Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeJesus, Onofre T.

    2015-03-12

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive imaging technique used to diagnose disease and monitor therapy. PET imaging has had tremendous impact in healthcare delivery resulting in improved outcomes and reduced costs. The discovery and development of PET is one of the achievements of the Department of Energys (DOE) support of the peaceful uses of the atom. This project is a logical extension of the use of the PET technique to live plant imaging to advance DOEs biological and environmental initiatives.

  3. Low-Cost, High Efficiency Integration of SSL and Building Controls...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Packet Energy Transfer (PET) power-supply design that improved conversion efficiency to ... Lighting Pedestrian Areas Daylighting Digital Dimmer R2R Production of Low-Cost ...

  4. Environment/Health/Safety (EHS): Radiation Protection Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    facility BELLA facility BELLA facility BELLA NDCX NDCX Gretina Gamma particle device PET Scanner APEX APEX APEX LASER LASER Rifle, CO Rifle, CO The group: Authorizes work with...

  5. Picture of the Week: Hot cells for medical isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the diagnosis of cardiac disease, calibration of PET scanners which in turn diagnose cancer, neurological disease, inflammatory diseases, trauma, and other circulatory diseases,...

  6. Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Facility (NIF) target chamber at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Figure 1 shows the arrangement of the elliptical PET crystals in the snout of a NIF target ...

  7. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ...

  8. Radio-isotope production scale-up at the University of Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nickles, Robert Jerome

    2014-06-19

    Our intent has been to scale up our production capacity for a subset of the NSAC-I list of radioisotopes in jeopardy, so as to make a significant impact on the projected national needs for Cu-64, Zr-89, Y-86, Ga-66, Br-76, I-124 and other radioisotopes that offer promise as PET synthons. The work-flow and milestones in this project have been compressed into a single year (Aug 1, 2012- July 31, 2013). The grant budget was virtually dominated by the purchase of a pair of dual-mini-cells that have made the scale-up possible, now permitting the Curie-level processing of Cu-64 and Zr-89 with greatly reduced radiation exposure. Mile stones: 1. We doubled our production of Cu-64 and Zr-89 during the grant period, both for local use and out-bound distribution to ≈ 30 labs nationwide. This involved the dove-tailing of beam schedules of both our PETtrace and legacy RDS cyclotron. 2. Implemented improved chemical separation of Zr-89, Ga-66, Y-86 and Sc-44, with remote, semi-automated dissolution, trap-and-release separation under LabView control in the two dual-mini-cells provided by this DOE grant. A key advance was to fit the chemical stream with miniature radiation detectors to confirm the transfer operations. 3. Implemented improved shipping of radioisotopes (Cu-64, Zr-89, Tc-95m, and Ho-163) with approved DOT 7A boxes, with a much-improved FedEx shipping success compared to our previous steel drums. 4. Implemented broad range quantitative trace metal analysis, employing a new microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer (Agilent 4200) capable of ppb sensitivity across the periodic table. This new instrument will prove essential in bringing our radiometals into FDA compliance needing CoA’s for translational research in clinical trials. 5. Expanded our capabilities in target fabrication, with the purchase of a programmable 1600 oC inert gas tube furnace for the smelting of binary alloy target materials. A similar effort makes use of our RF induction furnace, allowing small scale metallurgy with greater control. This alloy feedstock was then used to electroplate cyclotron targets with elevated melting temperatures capable of withstanding higher beam currents. 6. Finished the beam-line developments needed for the irradiation of low-melting target materials (Se and Ga) now being used for the production of Br-76, and radioactive germanium (68, 69, 71Ge). Our planned development of I-124 production has been deferred, given the wide access from commercial suppliers. The passing of these milestones has been the subject of the previous quarterly reports. These signature accomplishments were made possible by the DOE support, and have strengthened the infrastructure at the University of Wisconsin, provided the training ground for a very talented graduate research assistant (Mr. Valdovinos) and more than doubled our out-shipments of Cu-64 and Zr-89.

  9. T'

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    j: ;;I : T' j-jE: i t 1 \ ,iu" I;ts'J-F.; ~+X'l'W~ 20, ,$57 I::<c?:v: : ;T pl F ;, -j~eiss~;&el~~-;, ~~~:x!',~al engineer, ~cchnical Cr-anch T;3 cl:l:i xi ~,.&A O.Cfice !J su T>J 3x : sz\,T[jC; 03 NO&( Q>i SU~c$LJ.]~&jCT AT-32 \XTA ' ~~~A?~~IfR~ I&LfX l~LULJT~.Cll..Z~~~~C p" ,- ' \' , , i;l ,,"p' ,~~?;""r~~~~, >,a .;. .,-' $" Y' J pi\rSs;lcJj tJT ~~$TIC~~:3J, LEtCX~ C@>L?AllY Tf-j.! ' < nqiF1 lMc>\:$.:,.,. ::~;{li~tS.Lc, + J

  10. Apparatus and method for downhole injection of radioactive tracer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, R.M.; Archuleta, J.; Fink, C.F.

    The disclosure relates to downhole injection of radioactive /sup 82/Br and monitoring its progress through fractured structure to determine the nature thereof. An ampule containing granular /sup 82/Br is remotely crushed and water is repeatedly flushed through it to cleanse the instrument as well as inject the /sup 82/Br into surrounding fractured strata. A sensor in a remote horehole reads progress of the radioactive material through fractured structure.

  11. Apparatus and method for downhole injection of radioactive tracer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Robert M.; Archuleta, Jacobo R.; Fink, Conrad F.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure relates to downhole injection of radioactive .sup.82 Br and monitoring its progress through fractured structure to determine the nature thereof. An ampule containing granular .sup.82 Br is remotely crushed and water is repeatedly flushed through it to cleanse the instrument as well as inject the .sup.82 Br into surrounding fractured strata. A sensor in a remote borehole reads progress of the radioactive material through fractured structure.

  12. Microsoft Word - NMMSS News DEC 23 08 Update.doc

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    IS SPONSORED BY DOE AND NRC NMMSS news PUBLISHED PERIODICALLY BY & FOR NMMSS USERS December 23, 2008 SPECIAL EDITION NUREG/BR-0007, Rev.6 Published The NRC wishes to inform industry that it has published its update of NUREG/BR-0007. This NUREG was updated to reflect changes to NMMSS reports that become effective January 1, 2009. Link to the updated NUREG: http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/nuregs/brochures/br0007/r6/index.html

  13. U

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NRC Has Published Draft Updates of NUREG/BR-0006 & 0007 For Public Comment In the March 21, 2007 Federal Register (electronic link) the NRC publicized proposed revisions to NUREG/BR- 0006 and NUREG/BR-0007 for public comment. Following is a repeat of some of the information contained in this Federal Register. "The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is proposing revisions to NUREG/BR-0006, Instructions for the Preparation and Distribution of Material Transaction Reports, and

  14. Next Generation Household Refrigerator | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Household Refrigerator Next Generation Household Refrigerator Embraco's high efficiency, oil-free linear compressor.<br > Credit: Whirlpool Embraco's high ...

  15. hrp

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Program<br >NNSA possesses approximately half of the Department of Energy (DOE) active personnel security clearances, including 65% of the "Q" (which is for...

  16. Membranes Optimized for High Conductivity and Low Crossover of Redox Flow Cells 2015-033

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2015-05-19

    Researchers at Berkeley Lab have determined that membrane properties have a significant impact on the performance and efficiency of the bromine-hydrogen (Br...

  17. New Configuration and Materials for Scalable Bioelectrochemical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marketing Summary2.pdf (160 KB) Proposed spiral wound BES system for more efficient waste treatment and energy production.<br > Proposed spiral wound BES system for...

  18. Doc...~En.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... ..,,..,.... - .. I&i3:scD .::-:, TO-340 .":: ..' . - ' - -. ' . .." ,.. .;.. Very traly yours;, -' .X :, Doc...En. ' Br.:Re&ng ';;a' : , Div. Reading File ., ,, ., ,.-...

  19. Microfluidic Polymer Valves - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact SNL About This Technology Check valve incorporating a mobile polymer <br >monolith into a multiple-level silica microchannel. Check valve incorporating a mobile polymer ...

  20. Property:References | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    F Fault Mapping + Curewitz and Karsen, 1997, http:www.sciencedirect.comsciencearticlepiiS0377027397000279 <br>Caskey and Wesnousky, 2000, http:...

  1. Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (2007) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    area Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R. (1 January 2010) IMPROVED METHODS FOR MAPPING PERMEABILITY AND HEAT SOURCES IN GEOTHERMAL AREAS USING MICROEARTHQUAKE DATA Additional...

  2. High Performance Buildings Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    >Owner: Miller Brothers Construction Inc.<br >

  3. Advanced Hybrid Water Heater using Electrochemical Compressor...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Chemical Compression (ECC) technology to operate a heat pump cycle using water as the working fluid<br > Image: Xergy Xergy is using its Electro Chemical Compression (ECC) ...

  4. 10-04-2010 CA-B-10-0154

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    develop a novel fieldable laser-induced incandescence sensor to measure black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) organic aerosols and their optical and chemical characteristics. ...

  5. Vykson Formerly Turbine Developments NI Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vykson Formerly Turbine Developments NI Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vykson (Formerly Turbine Developments (NI) Ltd) Place: Canterbury, England, United Kingdom Zip: BR6...

  6. Hanford Site C Tank Farm Meeting Summary

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    4800 EDTECN: DRF UC: Cost Center: Charge Code: B&R Code: Total Pages: 13 Key Words: Waste Management Area C, Performance Assessment, tank closure, waste inventory...

  7. Hanford Site C Tank Farm Meeting Summary

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EDTECN: DRF UC: Cost Center: Charge Code: B&R Code: Total Pages: 16 Key Words: Waste Management Area C, Perfonnance Assessment, tank closure, waste inventory...

  8. RECII'IENT:Solazyme, Inc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solazyme proposes to construct the SzlBR on Parcel 2 of the existing PMP Fermentation ... facilities are currently zoned for industrial, manufacturing, or laboratory uses and ...

  9. Rotartica | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Bizkaia), Spain Zip: 48970 Product: Spain-based, manufacturer of compact LiBr absorption chillers (suitable for detached houses). References: Rotartica1 This article is a...

  10. pnnl

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    caption" ><br >PNNL physicist Bob Runkle (middle) explains the nuances of neutron detection to physics students MatthewMichalak,Univ. of Wisconsin...

  11. nuclear security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    caption" ><br >PNNL physicist Bob Runkle (middle) explains the nuances of neutron detection to physics students MatthewMichalak,Univ. of Wisconsin...

  12. Contract No. DE-AC27-OIRVI4136

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DIRECTION B&R No. Budget Description Appropriation Symbol (Control Point) Authority PD 1250 1110462 1,180,000.00 Subtotal - Budgetary Control Points including Program...

  13. Doc.~:Ru.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .' , .' c,j .c; Distriblition: ;. <; ..,:L.D.i&%.ay,FiN-OR00 Doc.:Ru. ,.,. 75. ' Br..Reading 'ire' ,lliv. Read&q File ,: '. ,, .-' . ...: - SURNAME.....

  14. Property:Incentive/EquipReqs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) + Appliances must be Energy Star<br > ENERGY STAR Heat Pump Replacement: Existing HP must be SEER 13 and HSPF...

  15. DE-AC05-06OR23100

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    referenced Work Authorization(s): Work Authorization Number Work Authorization Title FD04103636 Revision 0 (Attachment 1) B&R No. FD0412000 Completing National Priority List...

  16. DE-AC05-06OR23100

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    referenced Work Authorization(s): Work Authorization Number Work Authorization Title FD04019OR36 ARRA-1 Rev 04 (Attachment 1) B&R No. FD412000 Characterization,...

  17. DE-AC05-06OR23100

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    referenced Work Authorization(s): Work Authorization Number Work Authorization Title FD04019OR36 ARRA-1 Rev 04 (Attachment 1) B&R No. FD0412000 Characterization,...

  18. DE-AC05-06OR23100

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    referenced Work Authorization(s): Work Authorization Number Work Authorization Title FD04019OR36 ARRA-1 Rev 03 (Attachment 1) B&R No. FD412000 Characterization,...

  19. Property:Incentive/EligSysSize | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    minimum<br > Recycled Energy: 15 Megawatt maximum Alameda Municipal Power - Solar Photovoltaics Rebate Program (California) + Maximum size is 1 MW or 110% of customer's...

  20. Enncloc&et

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .T I. 0 ,; ..i ,I.. ' (,' . . .._ . . . . . . . . . Enncloc&et tm w&r Farm (ln quild.) Res. Ser. Br. 'Feed Idtrls. Fin&" Beenrkm

  1. defense

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    >Madelyn Creedon, Assistant Secretary for Global Strategic Affairs<br >Andrew Weber, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical & Biological Defense...

  2. sherwood-randall

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    made stops at several tour locations to get a first-hand look at the advanced manufacturing operations.<br >

  3. Development of a Bio-Based, Inexpensive, Noncorrosive, Nonflammable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of a Bio-Based, Inexpensive, Noncorrosive, Nonflammable Phenolic Foam for ... Inside the lab of Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE) in Boston, MA<br ...

  4. C:\\Forms\\DOE F 1350.4.cdr

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Equipment (check) 12. Other Equipment (check) 13. If Audio Recording Requested, DOE Br. ... No Projection Services Required Projectors (vu-graph) Projectors: 35mm Audio Tape Player ...

  5. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, April 2005 Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low

  6. Building Envelope Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MA<br > Photo Courtesy of Fraunhofer CSE, Photo Credit: Trent Bell Development of a Bio-Based, Inexpensive, Noncorrosive, Nonflammable Phenolic Foam for Building Insulation ...

  7. Windows Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lead Performer: Heliotrope Technologies - Oakland, CA Partner: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Berkeley, CA Image of porous silica material in alcohol.<br > Photo credit: ...

  8. FOIA Frequently Requested Documents: Definitized Subcontract...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ZDO-2-30628-09. Subcontract between Midwest Research Institute National Renewable Energy Laboratory and ... More Documents & Publications CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype<br > ...

  9. Impact of 18F-Fluoro-2-Deoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Treatment Strategy and Radiotherapy Planning for Stage I-II Hodgkin Disease: A Prospective Multicenter Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pommier, Pascal; Dussart, Sophie; Girinsky, Theodore; Chabaud, Sylvie; Lagrange, Jean Leon; Nguyen, Tan Dat; Beckendorff, Veronique; D'Hombres, Anne; Artignan, Xavier; Bondiau, Pierre Yves; Carrie, Christian; Giammarile, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To quantify the impact of preradiotherapy 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) on treatment strategy and radiotherapy planning for patients with Stage I/II Hodgkin disease included in a large prospective multicenter study. Patients and Methods: Conventional computed tomography and FDG-PET were performed just before the planned radiotherapy. The radiotherapy plan was first elaborated under blinded conditions for FDG-PET data. Then, the medical staff was asked to confirm or not confirm the treatment strategy and, if appropriate, to modify the radiotherapy plan based on additional information from FDG-PET. Results: Between January 2004 and January 2006, 137 patients were included (124 were available for analysis) in 11 centers (108 adults, 16 children). All but 1 patient had received chemotherapy before inclusion. Prechemotherapy work-up included FDG-PET for 61 patients, and data were available for elaboration of the first radiotherapy plan. Based on preradiotherapy FDG-PET data, the radiotherapy was cancelled in 6 patients (4.8%), and treatment plan modifications occurred in 16 patients (12.9%): total dose (11 patients), CTV volume (5 patients), number of beam incidences (6 patients), and number of CTV (6 patients). The concordance between the treatment strategies with or without preradiotherapy FDG-PET was 82.3%. Concordance results were not significantly different when prechemotherapy PET-CT information was available. Conclusion: Preradiotherapy FDG-PET for treatment planning in Hodgkin lymphoma may lead to significant modification of the treatment strategy and the radiotherapy planning in patients with Stage I or II Hodgkin disease, even in those who have undergone FDG-PET as part of the prechemotherapy work-up.

  10. Role of Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography in the Management of Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mistrangelo, Massimiliano; Pelosi, Ettore; Bello, Marilena; Ricardi, Umberto; Milanesi, Enrica; Cassoni, Paola; Baccega, Massimo; Filippini, Claudia; Racca, Patrizia; Lesca, Adriana; Munoz, Fernando H.; Fora, Gianluca; Skanjeti, Andrea; Cravero, Francesca; Morino, Mario

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Pre- and post-treatment staging of anal cancer are often inaccurate. The role of positron emission tomograpy-computed tomography (PET-CT) in anal cancer is yet to be defined. The aim of the study was to compare PET-CT with CT scan, sentinel node biopsy results of inguinal lymph nodes, and anal biopsy results in staging and in follow-up of anal cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty-three consecutive patients diagnosed with anal cancer underwent PET-CT. Results were compared with computed tomography (CT), performed in 40 patients, and with sentinel node biopsy (SNB) (41 patients) at pretreatment workup. Early follow-up consisted of a digital rectal examination, an anoscopy, a PET-CT scan, and anal biopsies performed at 1 and 3 months after the end of treatment. Data sets were then compared. Results: At pretreatment assessment, anal cancer was identified by PET-CT in 47 patients (88.7%) and by CT in 30 patients (75%). The detection rates rose to 97.9% with PET-CT and to 82.9% with CT (P=.042) when the 5 patients who had undergone surgery prior to this assessment and whose margins were positive at histological examination were censored. Perirectal and/or pelvic nodes were considered metastatic by PET-CT in 14 of 53 patients (26.4%) and by CT in 7 of 40 patients (17.5%). SNB was superior to both PET-CT and CT in detecting inguinal lymph nodes. PET-CT upstaged 37.5% of patients and downstaged 25% of patients. Radiation fields were changed in 12.6% of patients. PET-CT at 3 months was more accurate than PET-CT at 1 month in evaluating outcomes after chemoradiation therapy treatment: sensitivity was 100% vs 66.6%, and specificity was 97.4% vs 92.5%, respectively. Median follow-up was 20.3 months. Conclusions: In this series, PET-CT detected the primary tumor more often than CT. Staging of perirectal/pelvic or inguinal lymph nodes was better with PET-CT. SNB was more accurate in staging inguinal lymph nodes.

  11. Aridity changes in the Tibetan Plateau in a warming climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yanhong; Li, Xia; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Chen, Deliang; Xu, Jianwei

    2015-03-10

    Desertification in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has drawn increasing attention in the recent decades. It has been postulated as a consequence of climate aridity due to the observed warming. This study quantifies the aridity changes in the TP and attributes the changes to different climatic factors. Using the ratio of P/PET (precipitation to potential evapotranspiration) as an aridity index to indicate changes in dryness and wetness in a given area, P/PET was calculated using observed records at 83 stations in the TP, with PET calculated using the Penman–Monteith (PM) algorithm. Spatial and temporal changes of P/PET in 1979-2011 are analyzed.more » Results show that stations located in the arid and semi-arid northwestern TP are becoming significantly wetter and stations in the semi-humid southeastern TP are becoming drier, though not significantly, in the recent three decades. The aridity change patterns are significantly correlated with precipitation, sunshine duration and diurnal temperature range changes at confidence level of 99.9% from two-tail t-test. Temporal correlations also confirm the significant correlation between aridity changes with the three variables, with precipitation being the most dominant driver of P/PET changes at interannual time scale. PET changes are insignificant but negatively correlated with P/PET in the cold season. In the warm season, however, correlation between PET changes and P/PET changes are significant at confidence level of 99.9% when the cryosphere melts near the surface. Significant correlation between wind speed changes and aridity changes occurs in limited locations and months. Consistency in the climatology pattern and linear trends in surface air temperature and precipitation calculated using station data, gridded data, and nearest grid-to-stations for the TP average and across sub-basins indicate the robustness of the trends despite the large spatial heterogeneity in the TP that challenge climate monitoring.« less

  12. Aridity changes in the Tibetan Plateau in a warming climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanhong; Li, Xia; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Chen, Deliang; Xu, Jianwei

    2015-03-10

    Desertification in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has drawn increasing attention in the recent decades. It has been postulated as a consequence of climate aridity due to the observed warming. This study quantifies the aridity changes in the TP and attributes the changes to different climatic factors. Using the ratio of P/PET (precipitation to potential evapotranspiration) as an aridity index to indicate changes in dryness and wetness in a given area, P/PET was calculated using observed records at 83 stations in the TP, with PET calculated using the Penman–Monteith (PM) algorithm. Spatial and temporal changes of P/PET in 1979-2011 are analyzed. Results show that stations located in the arid and semi-arid northwestern TP are becoming significantly wetter and stations in the semi-humid southeastern TP are becoming drier, though not significantly, in the recent three decades. The aridity change patterns are significantly correlated with precipitation, sunshine duration and diurnal temperature range changes at confidence level of 99.9% from two-tail t-test. Temporal correlations also confirm the significant correlation between aridity changes with the three variables, with precipitation being the most dominant driver of P/PET changes at interannual time scale. PET changes are insignificant but negatively correlated with P/PET in the cold season. In the warm season, however, correlation between PET changes and P/PET changes are significant at confidence level of 99.9% when the cryosphere melts near the surface. Significant correlation between wind speed changes and aridity changes occurs in limited locations and months. Consistency in the climatology pattern and linear trends in surface air temperature and precipitation calculated using station data, gridded data, and nearest grid-to-stations for the TP average and across sub-basins indicate the robustness of the trends despite the large spatial heterogeneity in the TP that challenge climate monitoring.

  13. Predicting Outcome in Patients with Rhabdomyosarcoma: Role of [{sup 18}F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, Dana L.; Wexler, Leonard H.; Fox, Josef J.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V.; Schoder, Heiko; Price, Alison N.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) response of the primary tumor after induction chemotherapy predicts outcomes in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Methods and Materials: After excluding those with initial tumor resection, 107 patients who underwent FDG-PET after induction chemotherapy at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from 2002 to 2013 were reviewed. Local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated according to FDG-PET response and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) at baseline (PET1/SUV1), after induction chemotherapy (PET2/SUV2), and after local therapy (PET3/SUV3). Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal cutoff for dichotomization of SUV1 and SUV2 values. Results: The SUV1 (<9.5 vs ≥9.5) was predictive of PFS (P=.02) and OS (P=.02), but not LC. After 12 weeks (median) of induction chemotherapy, 45 patients had negative PET2 scans and 62 had positive scans: 3-year PFS was 72% versus 44%, respectively (P=.01). The SUV2 (<1.5 vs ≥1.5) was similarly predictive of PFS (P=.005) and was associated with LC (P=.02) and OS (P=.03). A positive PET3 scan was predictive of worse PFS (P=.0009), LC (P=.05), and OS (P=.03). Conclusions: [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is an early indicator of outcomes in patients with RMS. Future prospective trials may incorporate FDG-PET response data for risk-adapted therapy and early assessment of new treatment regimens.

  14. Magnetocaloric Refrigerator/Freezer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Magnetocaloric Refrigerator/Freezer Magnetocaloric Refrigerator/Freezer Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. <br /> Photo courtesy of General Electric Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. Photo courtesy of General Electric Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. <br /> Photo courtesy of General Electric Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: General Electric -

  15. Capacity Value: Evaluation of WECC Rule of Thumb; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, Michael; Ibanez, Eduardo

    2015-06-09

    This presentation compares loss of load expectation and wind and solar capacity values to the rules of thumb used in the Western Interconnection planning and provides alternative recommendations to the modeling efforts of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council's Transmission Expansion Planning Policy Committee. <br/>/>

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetocaloric Refrigerator/Freezer Magnetocaloric Refrigerator/Freezer Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. <br /> Photo courtesy of General Electric Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. Photo courtesy of General Electric Researchers demonstrate General Electric's magnetocaloric system. <br /> Photo courtesy of General Electric Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: General Electric -

  17. Recent content in Green Button Applications | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jun 2012 - 15:45 Blog entry OpenEI green button SDK Vgarud 5 Feb 2013 - 11:17 Question Hi Vivek-<br>>I reached... NickL 8 Feb 2013 - 14:03 Answer Probably the best reference...

  18. ,"U.S. Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015,"6/30/1987" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_dwns_dc_nus_mbblpd_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_dwns_dc_nus_mbblpd_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015,"6/30/1936" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_cons_psup_dc_nus_mbblpd_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_cons_psup_dc_nus_mbblpd_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  20. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015,"6/30/1981" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_move_expc_a_ep00_eex_mbbl_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_expc_a_ep00_eex_mbbl_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  1. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015,"6/30/1973" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_move_neti_a_ep00_imn_mbblpd_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_neti_a_ep00_imn_mbblpd_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  2. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015,"6/30/1936" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_move_res_a_eppr_im0_mbbl_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_res_a_eppr_im0_mbbl_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  3. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015,"6/30/1993" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_pct_dc_nus_pct_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_pct_dc_nus_pct_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"4/27/2016

  4. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015,"6/30/1936" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_refp_dc_nus_mbbl_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_refp_dc_nus_mbbl_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"4/27/2016

  5. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015,"6/30/1913" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_stoc_typ_d_nus_sae_mbbl_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_stoc_typ_d_nus_sae_mbbl_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  6. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015,"6/30/1993" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_stoc_typ_d_nus_skn_mbbl_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_stoc_typ_d_nus_skn_mbbl_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  7. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    56,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1981" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_stoc_typ_d_nus_skr_mbbl_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_stoc_typ_d_nus_skr_mbbl_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  8. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015,"6/30/1913" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_stoc_wstk_dcu_nus_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_stoc_wstk_dcu_nus_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"4/27/2016

  9. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","2/2016","1/15/1981" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_move_expc_a_ep00_eex_mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_expc_a_ep00_eex_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  10. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","2/2016","1/15/1973" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_move_neti_a_ep00_imn_mbblpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_neti_a_ep00_imn_mbblpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  11. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","2/2016","1/15/1986" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_move_pipe_dc_r20-r10_mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_pipe_dc_r20-r10_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  12. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","2/2016","1/15/1986" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_move_ptb_dc_r20-r10_mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_ptb_dc_r20-r10_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  13. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","2/2016","1/15/1936" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_move_res_a_eppr_im0_mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_res_a_eppr_im0_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  14. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","2/2016","1/15/1986" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_move_tb_dc_r20-r10_mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_tb_dc_r20-r10_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  15. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","2/2016","1/15/1981" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_inpt_dc_nus_mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_inpt_dc_nus_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  16. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","2/2016","1/15/1993" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_pct_dc_nus_pct_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_pct_dc_nus_pct_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  17. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","2/2016","1/15/1985" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_unc_dcu_nus_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_unc_dcu_nus_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  18. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Monthly","2/2016","1/15/1993" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_stoc_typ_d_nus_skn_mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_stoc_typ_d_nus_skn_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    60,"Monthly","2/2016","1/15/1981" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","5/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_stoc_typ_d_nus_skr_mbbl_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_stoc_typ_d_nus_skr_mbbl_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  20. ,"Finished Motor Gasoline Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual",2015,"6/30/1993" ,"Release Date:","4/29/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","8/31/2016" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_stoc_st_a_epm0f_str_mbbl_a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_stoc_st_a_epm0f_str_mbbl_a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202)

  1. Local environment in poly(ethylene oxide)-zinc bromide complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chintipalli, S.; Frech, R.; Grady, B.

    1996-12-31

    This study examines atomic-level local environments in Poly(ethylene oxide)-zinc bromide+lithium bromide (PEO){sub 20}[(ZnBr{sub 2}){sub 1-x} (LiBr){sub x}] complexes using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Specific features in the Raman spectra were used to show that the zinc bromide species changes from ZnBr{sub 2} to ZnBr{sub 3}{sup -} to ZnBr{sub 4}{sup 2-} when x is varied from 0 to 0.8. XAS showed a similar change in oxygen coordination number from 4 to 0 when x is varied from 0 to 0.8. This study shows that lithium atoms displace zinc atoms from ether oxygen speciation indicating that lithium coordination to ether oxygens is thermodynamically favored. The effect of adding polar plasticizers is also discussed.

  2. Chamber wall interactions with HBr/Cl{sub 2}/O{sub 2} plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Ashutosh K.; Ohashi, Tomohiro; Donnelly, Vincent M.

    2015-07-15

    The authors have studied the interaction of HBr/Cl{sub 2}/O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasmas with reactor chamber wall deposits, with and without Si etching, using the spinning wall technique. The spinning wall is part of the reactor chamber walls, allowing near-real-time analysis of the composition of surface layers via Auger electron spectrometry and determination of species desorbing off the walls by mass spectrometry. In HBr plasmas with no bias voltage on the Si substrate, and hence no Si etching, HBr is ?30% dissociated, and H{sub 2} and Br{sub 2} form in the plasma. Layers deposited on the reactor chamber contained little if any Br under these conditions. Adding O{sub 2} to an HBr plasma leads to formation of H{sub 2}O and increased Br{sub 2} (compared to a pure HBr plasma) products that desorb from the spinning wall. H{sub 2}O has a very long residence time on the surface. With bias voltage applied to the Si substrate in an HBr plasma, mass spectrometer signals are prominent for SiBr and SiBr{sub 3}, and weaker for SiBr{sub 2}, SiBr{sub 4}, Si{sub 2}Br{sub 4}, Si{sub 2}Br{sub 5}, and Si{sub 2}OBr{sub 5}. Under these conditions, a SiO{sub x}Br{sub y} layer deposits on the spinning wall. Adding 20% O{sub 2} to HBr stops etching and eliminates Br from the surface layer, indicating that Br on the reactor walls is a result of SiBr{sub x} impingement and not from bromination by impinging Br. With HBr/Cl{sub 2} plasmas and no bias on the stage, a SiO{sub x}Cl{sub y} layer deposits, and no Br is detected. HCl, BrCl, and Br{sub 2} were detected in the line-of-sight leak, around the spinning wall, of a HBr/Cl{sub 2} (1:1) gas mixture in the absence of a plasma. Residence time analysis of species in the chamber and a change in the product distribution with a change in the composition of the layer deposited on the chamber wall suggest that reactions forming these products in the absence of a plasma occur on the reactor walls. With a plasma and bias on the Si substrate, both Br and Cl incorporate in the layer, and a rich spectrum with numerous SiCl{sub x}Br{sub y} peaks was observed up to at least 500 amu. The spectrum does not change with the addition of 6% O{sub 2}. Adding 20% O{sub 2} suppresses Br adsorption, but Cl still adsorbs. In 40% O{sub 2}/HBr/Cl{sub 2} plasmas with stage bias, Cl adsorption also ceases and no etching products are observed in the mass spectrum.

  3. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hollywood Palms Employee Appreciation Day For more discounts, visit the employee discount Web page. In the News Crunch time for pet theory on dark matter From Nature, Jan. 21, 2015...

  4. OpenMPCon_Sept_2015NerscWeb

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... DAPPLE Data Parallel C DC++ DCE++ DDD DICE. DIPC DOLIB DOME DOSMOS. DRL DSM-Threads Ease . ... PH PEACE PCU PET PETSc PENNY Phosphorus POET. Polaris POOMA POOL-T PRESTO P-RIO ...

  5. THREE SBIR GRANTS AWARDED FOR SSL TECHNOLOGY | Department of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    using a PET Power Distribution System Summary: This Phase II project will demonstrate a novel approach to reducing cost of SSL ownership by 35% or more by simultaneously reducing...

  6. Addiction Studies with Positron Emission Tomography

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Joanna Fowler

    2010-01-08

    Brookhaven scientist Joanna Fowler describes Positron Emission Technology (PET) research at BNL which for the past 30 years has focused in the integration of basic research in radiotracer chemistry with the tools of neuroscience to develop new scientific

  7. Microsoft PowerPoint - Das_2015_StaffScienceHighlight_ACSPhotonic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    obtained in a single step. Moreover, we report USC processing on TiO 2 ITO-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates to realize flexible perovskite solar cells with PCE...

  8. Microsoft PowerPoint - Xiao_NanoLett-2013.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of GaS nanosheet photodetectors made on SiO 2 Si substrates and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates exhibit a photo-responsivity at 254nm up to 4.2 AW...

  9. Isotopes Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are saving lives, advancing cutting-edge research and keeping the U.S. safe. Products stress and rest Stress and rest Rb-82 PET images in a patient with dipyridamole...

  10. 6.20 Mapping Human Brain Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 612011 6.20 Mapping Human Brain Function Many mysteries of the human brain have been unraveled by positron emission tomography (PET), an imaging tool used worldwide to diagnose ...

  11. CX-001909: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    MRC Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Recycling FacilityCX(s) Applied: B5.1Date: 04/20/2010Location(s): Chicago, IllinoisOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  12. 48x96 poster template

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 -4000 -2000 0 2000 reflectivity relative angle, microradians Measured Values Gaussian Fit Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Introduction and Measurement Goals Spectroscopy provides valuable information about the temperature and density of a compressed pellet in a plasma. Elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals are used as components for spectrometers. Their elliptical geometry gives several advantages

  13. L-[METHYL-{sup 11}C] Methionine Positron Emission Tomography for Target Delineation in Malignant Gliomas: Impact on Results of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahasittiwat, Pawinee; Mizoe, Jun-etsu Hasegawa, Azusa; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Kyosan; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Yanagi, Takeshi; Takagi, Ryou D.D.S.; Pattaranutaporn, Pittayapoom; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To assess the importance of {sup 11}C-methionine (MET)-positron emission tomography (PET) for clinical target volume (CTV) delineation. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study analyzed 16 patients with malignant glioma (4 patients, anaplastic astrocytoma; 12 patients, glioblastoma multiforme) treated with surgery and carbon ion radiotherapy from April 2002 to Nov 2005. The MET-PET target volume was compared with gross tumor volume and CTV, defined by using computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Correlations with treatment results were evaluated between positive and negative extended volumes (EVs) of the MET-PET target for CTV. Results: Mean volumes of the MET-PET targets, CTV1 (defined by means of high-intensity volume on T2-weighted MRI), and CTV2 (defined by means of contrast-enhancement volume on T1-weighted MRI) were 6.35, 264.7, and 117.7 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Mean EVs of MET-PET targets for CTV1 and CTV2 were 0.6 and 2.2 cm{sup 3}, respectively. The MET-PET target volumes were included in CTV1 and CTV2 in 13 (81.3%) and 11 patients (68.8%), respectively. Patients with a negative EV for CTV1 had significantly greater survival rate (p = 0.0069), regional control (p = 0.0047), and distant control time (p = 0.0267) than those with a positive EV. Distant control time also was better in patients with a negative EV for CTV2 than those with a positive EV (p = 0.0401). Conclusions: For patients with malignant gliomas, MET-PET has a possibility to be a predictor of outcome in carbon ion radiotherapy. Direct use of MET-PET fused to planning computed tomography will be useful and yield favorable results for the therapy.

  14. 2013 Nuclear Workforce Development Day

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Workforce Development Day ∎ Tuesday, October 22, 2013 Nuclear Medicine Topics:  Pathways of Practice in Nuclear Medicine  Radiopharmacy  Patient Care  Medical Imaging & Computers Moderator: Deborah M. Gibbs, MEd, PET, CNMT Lead Nuclear Medicine / PET Facility Administrator Georgia Regents University Panel Members: Jim Corley, MS, RPh- Associate Professor Georgia Regents University George David, MS, FAAPM- Medical Physicist Georgia Regents University Dr. Gregory

  15. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    refmg_a_epm0_ptg_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_refmg_a_epm0_ptg_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"4/27/2016 2:42:01

  16. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    refoth_a_epm0_ptg_dpgal_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pri_refoth_a_epm0_ptg_dpgal_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"4/27/2016 2:45:43

  17. Impact of [{sup 18}F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography on Staging and Management of Early-Stage Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirth, Andrew Foo, Marcus; Seymour, John F.; MacManus, Michael P.; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: Accurate staging is critical to select patients with early-stage (I-II) follicular lymphoma (ESFL) suitable for involved-field radiotherapy (IFRT) and to define the radiotherapy portal. We evaluated the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET on staging, treatment, and outcome for patients with ESFL on conventional staging. Methods and Materials: Forty-two patients with untreated ESFL (World Health Organization Grade I-IIIa, or 'low grade') following a minimum of physical examination, computerized tomography, and bone marrow examination (conventional assessment) and who had staging PET from June 1997 to June 2006 were studied retrospectively. Stage allocation was based on routine imaging reports. Disease sites, stage, and management plan were recorded based on conventional assessment or conventional assessment plus PET. Results: FDG avidity was demonstrated in 97% of patients in whom disease was evident on conventional assessment after biopsy. PET findings suggested a change of stage or management in 19 patients: 13 (31%) who were upstaged to Stage III-IV, altering ideal management from IFRT to systemic therapy, and 6 (14%) who had the involved field enlarged, including 4 upstaged from Stage I to II. Of these 19 cases, PET findings were considered true positive in 8 patients, indeterminate in 10, and false positive in only 1 patient. Conclusions: Our data confirm that ESFL is usually FDG-avid. In routine practice, PET has the potential to upstage and thereby alter management in a high proportion of patients with apparent ESFL.

  18. Raman spectral studies of aqueous zinc bromide solutions to 300/sup 0/C at pressures of 9 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.M.; Crerar, D.A.; Irish, D.E.

    1988-08-01

    A Raman spectral study of 14 solutions of varying bromide to zinc ratios was conducted up to 300/sup 0/C and 9 MPa. The tetra-, tri-, di- as well as the mono-bromozinc complexes were identified. The signal from the ZnBr/sup +/ complex increased in intensity as temperature increased, for solutions of low bromide- to-zinc ratios. The ZnBr/sub 4//sup 2 -/ species was favored at higher Br/Zn ratios, and higher temperatures favored the formation of the species ZnBr/sub 2/ and ZnBr/sup +/ at the expense of ZnBr/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and ZnBr/sub 3//sup -/. Although solvated water is probably present in these zinc-bromo complexes, they found no evidence of O-Zn vibrations other than for Zn(H/sub 2/O)/sub 6//sup 2 +/. However, spectra of successive dilutions of solutions with high bromide to zinc ratios show a relative change in species populations thereby suggesting that water activity plays a decisive role in complex formation. For the first time trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (HTFMS) has been used as an internal standard in Raman spectroscopy. This permitted quantitative measurement of stepwise stability constants.

  19. Comparison of the Distributions of Bromine, Lead and Zinc in Tooth and Bone from an Ancient Peruvian Burial site by X-ray Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin,R.; Naftel, S.; Nelson, A.; Sapp, W.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence was used to study the distribution of selected trace elements (Zn, Pb, and Br) in tooth and bone samples obtained from an individual from a pre-Columbian archaeological site (Cabur) located on the north coast of Peru. The results show that Zn, Pb, and Br are present in both the teeth and bone samples and that the Zn and Pb seem to be confined to similar regions (cementum and periostium), while Br shows a novel distribution with enrichment close to the Haversian canals and (or) in regions that appear to be Ca deficient.

  20. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Historic Lasers <h3>Argus Laser Bay</h3>The two-beam Argus laser came online In 1976. Use of Argus increased knowledge about laser propagation limits and helped LLNL Laser Program researchers develop technologies needed for the next generation of laser fusion systems.<br/><br/><a href="content/assets/images/media/photo-gallery/large/nif-1109-17874.jpg" target="_blank">Download hi-res image</a><br/><a

  1. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Construction <h3>Victor Reis</h3>Victor Reis, the Assistant Secretary for the Department of Energy's Defense Programs, played a key leadership role in the 1990s in defining the emerging Stockpile Stewardship Program and the need for the National Ignition Facility.<br/><br/><a href="content/assets/images/media/photo-gallery/large/nif-1209-18052.jpg" target="_blank">Download hi-res image</a><br/><a

  2. SU-E-J-148: Evaluating Tumor Response with a Commercially Available Deformable Registration System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowling, J; Ramsey, C [Thompson Cancer Survival Center, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present a method for evaluating the response to treatment using a commercially available deformable image registration software package (Velocity Medical Systems) and repeat PET/CT imaging. This technique can be used to identify volumes that are risk for tumor recurrence. Methods: Response to treatment was evaluated using PET/CT images acquired prior-to and post-treatment for radiation therapy patients treated with concurrent chemotherapy. Velocity (Version 3.0.1) was used to deform the initial PET/CT to the post treatment PET/CT. The post-treatment PET images were then subtracted from the pre-treatment PET images. The resulting re-sampled image is a three-dimensional SUV difference map that shows pixels with increasing SUV values. SUV values increases greater than 2.5 in the post treatment images were identified for additional follow-up. Results: A total of 5 Lung patients were analyzed as part of this study. One lung patient in the cohort had an SUV increase of +3.28 that was identified using the SUV difference map. This volume of increased uptake was located outside the treatment field and adjacent to the 35 Gy isodose line. The remaining four patients all had SUV decreases inside the planning target volume, and no unexpected areas of increase outside the irradiated volumes. All five patients were analyzed using standard tools inside the Velocity application. Conclusion: The response to treatment can easily be measured using serial PET/CT images and a commercially available deformable image registration. This provides both the radiation oncologists and medical oncologists with a quantitative assessment of their treatment to use in patient follow-up.

  3. Brazil-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1.1 Sao Paulo Metro Line 5 Project 1.2 BR-GEF Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Project (STAQ) 1.3 First Programmatic Development Policy Loan for Sustainable...

  4. small buisness

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    DOE prime contractors.<BR >

  5. I!' L;I)

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    If possi?Ae, a slight deisy should be xade br'txeel: the withdrawing of the slugs from the chuck and tiye .:pening ;si the loading zoct to ally the oil m is.;: and fumes to be ...

  6. PrintRes_PeriodicChartPostCard2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    56 Ba Barium 73 Ta Tantalum 19 K Potassium 20 Ca Calcium 21 Sc Scandium 22 Ti Titanium 30 Zn Zinc 31 Ga Gallium 32 Ge Germanium 33 As Arsenic 34 Se Selenium 35 Br Bromine ...

  7. A=5He (59AJ76)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absolute differential cross sections are reported (BR58B). For Ed > 3.71 MeV, deuteron breakup (reaction (c)) is energetically possible. The cross section for this process has been...

  8. Distribution:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    bav@ @esiaw*cp Suppl. file 'Br & Div rf's shealth (lic.only) UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL NUCLEAB MATERIAL LICENSE pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 ...

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - Oxford_MiniBooNE_and_SterileNus.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -3 < BR < 4.0 x 10 -3 (90% CL) + e + e unlikely to explain LSND signal (also will be investigated by TWIST exp. at TRIUMF) 10 Adding Sterile Neutrinos to...

  10. CENSUS","FIPST","OWNER","PMOVER","FUELTYP","COCODE","PLTCODE...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... GAS & ELECTRIC CO","HAMILTON BR",5400,,52224,0,0,1285,,,86,2601400,0,...14,1,05336,"FO2","IC" 31,39,5,2,2,605,1,"HAMILTON (CITY OF)","HAM MUN EL",128000,"LIGHT ...

  11. 63,01,1,1,,10,1,"ALABAMA POWER CO","BANKHEAD DM",0,,50022,0,0...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... GAS & ELECTRIC CO","HAMILTON BR",0,,52224,0,0,1287,,,88,953200,0,0,11...14,1,05336,"FO2","IC" 31,39,5,2,2,605,1,"HAMILTON (CITY OF)","HAM MUN EL",0,"LIGHT ...

  12. CENSUS","FIPST","OWNER","PMOVER","FUELTYP","COCODE","PLTCODE...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... GAS & ELECTRIC CO","HAMILTON BR",5390,,14328,0,0,1283,,,84,3696700,0,...14,1,50806,"FO2","IC" 31,39,5,2,2,605,1,"HAMILTON (CITY OF)","HAM MUN EL",127991,"LIGHT ...

  13. 63,01,1,1,,10,1,"ALABAMA POWER CO","BANKHEAD DM",0,,19500,1293...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... GAS & ELECTRIC CO","HAMILTON BR",0,,1432800,1293,,,94,1962,0,0,1168,0...14,1,50806,"FO2","IC" 31,39,5,2,6,605,1,"HAMILTON (CITY OF)","HAM MUN EL",0,"BIT ...

  14. CENSUS","FIPST","OWNER","PMOVER","FUELTYP","COCODE","PLTCODE...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... GAS & ELECTRIC CO","HAMILTON BR",0,,52224,0,0,1286,,,87,1321000,0,0,1...14,1,05336,"FO2","IC" 31,39,5,2,2,605,1,"HAMILTON (CITY OF)","HAM MUN EL",0,"LIGHT ...

  15. 63,01,1,1,,10,1,"ALABAMA POWER CO","BANKHEAD DM",0,,50022,0,0...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... GAS & ELECTRIC CO","HAMILTON BR",0,,52224,0,0,1288,,,89,633000,0,0,58...14,1,05336,"FO2","IC" 31,39,5,2,2,605,1,"HAMILTON (CITY OF)","HAM MUN EL",0,"LIGHT ...

  16. 63,01,1,1,,10,1,"ALABAMA POWER CO","BANKHEAD DM",0,,50022,0,0...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... GAS & ELECTRIC CO","HAMILTON BR",0,,52224,0,0,1289,,,90,1884,0,0,791,...14,1,05336,"FO2","IC" 31,39,5,2,2,605,1,"HAMILTON (CITY OF)","HAM MUN EL",0,"LIGHT ...

  17. CENSUS","FIPST","OWNER","PMOVER","FUELTYP","COCODE","PLTCODE...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... GAS & ELECTRIC CO","HAMILTON BR",5390,,52224,0,0,1284,,,85,1431000,0,...14,1,05336,"FO2","IC" 31,39,5,2,2,605,1,"HAMILTON (CITY OF)","HAM MUN EL",127991,"LIGHT ...

  18. Property:Incentive/MaxInc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + 20% of the annual C&I Standard Offer Program budget AEP SWEPCO - SMART Source Solar PV Program (Texas) + Residential: 15,000<br > Non-residential: 30,000 AEP Texas Central...

  19. sandia

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    to learn more.<br >

    Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hy...

  20. snl

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    to learn more.<br >

    Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hy...

  1. Transport Energy Impact Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.

    2015-05-13

    Presented at the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Spring 2015 Symposium on May 13, 2015, this presentation by Jeff Gonder of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides information about NREL's transportation energy impact analysis of connected and automated vehicles. <br/>

  2. Exclusive and inclusive decays of B mesons into D sub s mesons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bortoletto, D.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Jain, V.; Mestayer, M.D.; Moneti, G.C.; Sharma, V.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Skwarnicki, T.; Thulasidas, M.; Csorna, S.E.; Letson, T.; Alexander, J.; Artuso, M.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Cassel, D.G.; Cheu, E.; Coffman, D.M.; Crawford, G.; DeWire, J.W.; Drell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Halling, A.M.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kreinick, D.L.; Lewis, J.D.; Mistry, N.B.; Mueller, J.; Namjoshi, R.; Nandi, S.; Nordberg, E.; O'Grady, C.; Peterson, D.; Pisharody, M.; Riley, D.; Sapper, M.; Silverman, A.; Stone, S.; Worden, H.; Worris, M.; Sadoff, A.J.; Avery, P.; Besson, D.; Garren, L.; Yelton, J.; Bowcock, T.; Kinoshita, K.; Pipkin, F.M.; Procario, M.; Wilson, R.; Wolinski, J.; Xiao, D.; Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Haas, P.; Lam, H.; Jawahery, A.; Park, C.H.; Kubota, Y.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Fulton, R.; Hempstead, M.; Jensen, T.; Johnson, D.R.; Kagan, H.; Kass

    1990-04-30

    We have studied the production of {ital D}{sub {ital s}} mesons in the decays of {ital B} mesons at the {Upsilon}(4{ital S}) resonance. We report on the first observation of exclusive {ital B}-meson decays {ital B}{r arrow}{ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup {minus}}{ital D*}{sup +}, {ital B}{r arrow}{ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup {minus}}{ital D}{sup +}, and {ital B}{r arrow}{ital D}{sub {ital s}}{sup {minus}}{ital D}{sup 0}. We also present a new measurement of the branching ratio and the momentum spectrum for the inclusive decay {ital B}{r arrow}{ital D}{sub {ital s}X}.

  3. Microsoft PowerPoint - lndustry Issues and Perspectives _ Eris...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Question regarding the shipment of irradiated reactor fuel: 2 BR-0006 2.1 In the case of spent fuel shipments, in accordance with 10 CFR 73.37, "Requirements for ...

  4. Critical Materials Institute - invention disclosures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a>

  5. High Command Fidelity Electromagnetically Driven Calorimeter (High-CoFi EleDriCal) <br >Patent...

  6. CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype<br > Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater Prototype Credit: Oak ...

  7. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    rack and system diagram for the CO2 refrigeration system.<br > Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Refrigeration System Workshop 2: Advanced HVAC&R ...

  8. Advanced Plasma Power APP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: EC2A 1BR Product: London-based geoplasma process technology developer for waste-to-energy systems. Coordinates: 51.506325,...

  9. ARM - PI Product - NOAA PMEL Station Chemistry Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PMEL Station Chemistry Data Submicron and supermicron samples are analyzed by ion chromatography for Cl-, NO3-, SO4-2, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca+2. The analysis of MSA-, Br-,...

  10. A=17F (1986AJ04)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6AJ04) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 17F) GENERAL: See (1982AJ01) and Table 17.17 [Table of Energy Levels] (in PDF or PS). Nuclear models: (1982ZH01, 1983BR29, 1984ZI04, 1985ME06). Special states: (1981WI1K, 1983AU1B, 1983BR29, 1983WI15, 1984ANZV, 1985ME06, 1985SH24). Electromagnetic transitions: (1982BR24, 1983BR29, 1983TO08, 1984SAZW, 1985AL21). Astrophysical questions: (1981WA1Q, 1981WE1F, 1982WI1B). Complex reactions involving 17F: (1984GR08, 1984HI1A, 1984HO23). Pion reactions: (1980CR03).

  11. Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kistler, R.W.; Doe and B.R. Published Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 111984 DOI 10.1007BF01150293 Citation Bacon, C.R.; Kurasawa, H.; Delevaux, M.H.; Kistler,...

  12. Revised Manuscript

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Masses, Winnipeg, Canada, 1967 (Winnipeg Univ. Manitoba Press, 1967) 508 1967BR1F F.P. Brady, J.A. Jungerman and J.C. Young, Nucl. Phys. A98 (1967) 241 1967CA17 P. Camiz, Nuovo...

  13. DE-AC05-06OR23100

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Work Authorization(s): Work Authorization Number Work Authorization Title WA No. FD04019OR36 (Revision No. 01) (Attachment 1) B&R No. fd0-41200 Characterization,...

  14. DE-AC05-06OR23100

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    referenced Work Authorization(s): Work Authorization Number Work Authorization Title FD04020OR36 Rev. 1 (Attachment 1a) B&R No. FD0412000 Characterization of Isotope Row...

  15. DE-AC05-06OR23100

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    referenced Work Authorization(s): Work Authorization Number Work Authorization Title FD04020OR36 (Attachment 1a) B&R No. FD0412000 Characterization of Isotope Row Facilities...

  16. Minoan Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Minoan Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Minoan Group Place: Kent, England, United Kingdom Zip: BR5 1XB Sector: Solar Product: UK-based developer of resorts in Greece that...

  17. A=19Ne (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 19Ne) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 19.21 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). Nuclear models:(1983BR29, 1983PO02). Special states:...

  18. A=18Ne (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 18Ne) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 18.22 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). Model calculations:(1982ZH01, 1983BR29, 1984SA37,...

  19. A=20F (1987AJ02)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7AJ02) (See Energy Level Diagrams for 20F) GENERAL: See (1983AJ01) and Table 20.2 Table of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). Model calculations:(1978WI1B, 1982HA43, 1983BR29,...

  20. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: A Guide to Developing Air...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The history of air-cooled LiBr chillercooler development suggests that developing such a ... Engine Coolant Waste Heat"; 1999. 4. Arizona Board of Regents, U.S. patent 6155057, ...

  21. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    imagesmediaphoto-gallerylarge40-60-0999-188411.jpg" target"blank">Download hi-res image<br>Direct Link...

  1. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    imagesmediaphoto-gallerylargenifexterior2013-050402.jpg" target"blank">Download hi-res image<br>Direct Link

    NIF...

  2. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assetsimagesmediaphoto-gallerywebP1186612-lg.jpg" target"blank">Download hi-res image<br>Direct Link

    Master...

  3. Microsoft Word - S05212_2008 Post-Closure InspRpt.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... B.R. Anderson Pond Lower Little Cr. 1 Lower Little Cr. 2 James Lowe Pond Nobles Pond Howard Smith Pond Figure 7. Tritium Decay Trend and Off-Site Surface Water Sample ...

  4. Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Smith, T.M., M.A. Christon, E. Baglietto and H. Luo, "Assessment of Models for Near Wall ... Romano, P., N. Horelik, B.R. Herman, A.G. Nelson, B. Forget and K. Smith, "OpenMC: A ...

  5. Braxenergy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 04002020 Sector: Renewable Energy Year Founded: 2007 Phone Number: 55 11 3889-2233 Website: www.braxenergy.com.br Coordinates: -23.572237, -46.6499856 Show Map...

  6. Exploiting Intrinsic Triangular Geometry in Relativistic He 3...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GrantContract Number: FG02-03ER412244; BR2012-038; AC02-05CH11231; 20120775PRD4; de-sc0008027 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review Letters ...

  7. LED Directional Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-11-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that provides an overview of the current performance of LED PAR-, BR-, R-, and AR-shaped lamps, which were all investigated by CALiPER in 2012.

  8. JNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMlSSiON

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Radgn could emanatethrough the surficial slag and enter the atmodphe're to be blown downwind. A common wind direction is from the northw&t br west. Radon thus blown may accumulate ...

  9. snl

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    to learn more.<br >

    Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrog...

  10. sandia

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    to learn more.<br >

    Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrog...

  11. Low-Cost, Haziness-Free, Transparent Insulation Based On a Porous...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Image of porous silica material in alcohol.<br > Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Image of porous silica material in alcohol. Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Lead ...

  12. A=11B (1980AJ01)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy Levels (in PDF or PS). Shell model: (1977BO07, 1977JA14, 1977TE01, 1978BO31). Cluster, collective and rotational models: (1976BR26, 1977BO07, 1977NI1A, 1977OK1C,...

  13. CEM_Metrics_and_Technical_Note_7_14_10.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    clothes dryer<br > Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Heat Pump Clothes Dryer CEMMetricsandTechnicalNote71410.pdf Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States

  14. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency. <br>> This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.<br>> For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …). <br>> INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.<br>>

  15. Stabilized thallium bromide radiation detectors and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leao, Cedric Rocha; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2015-11-24

    According to one embodiment, a crystal includes thallium bromide (TlBr), one or more positively charged dopants, and one or more negatively charged dopants. According to another embodiment, a system includes a monolithic crystal including thallium bromide (TlBr), one or more positively charged dopants, and one or more negatively charged dopants; and a detector configured to detect a signal response of the crystal.

  16. Effects of PV Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, Peter; Button, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spataru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen

    2015-06-14

    The goals of the project were: Determine applicability of transmission line method (TLM) to evaluate sheet resistance of soils on module glass;<br/>Evaluate various soils on glass for changes in surface resistance and their ability to promote potential-induced degradation with humidity (PID);<br/>Evaluate PID characteristics, rate, and leakage current increases on full-size mc-Si modules associated with a conductive soil on the surface.

  17. Appliance Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC, Water Heating, & Appliances » Appliance Projects Appliance Projects This project seeks to demonstrate a ventless residential dryer with an energy factor greater than 4.04.<br /> Photo credit: GE Global Research Energy Efficient Clothes Dryer with IR Heating and Electrostatic Precipitator Lead Performer: GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY Schematics of a heat pump clothes dryer<br /> Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Heat Pump Clothes Dryer Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National

  18. Gulf Coast's Texas City Sees Easy Energy Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Applications, April 2005 | Department of Energy objective of this paper is to summarize the development status of air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)-water absorption chillers to guide future efforts to develop chillers for combined heat and power (CHP) applications in light-commercial buildings. The key technical barrier to air-cooled operation is the increased tendency for LiBr solutions to crystallize in the absorber when heat-rejection temperatures rise. PDF icon

  19. Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Residential Absorption Heat Pump Water Heater Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Diagram of absorption heat pump water heater. <br /> Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Diagram of absorption heat pump water heater. Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Diagram of absorption heat pump water heater. <br /> Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Lead Performer: Oak

  20. Photo Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control Room <h3>NIF Control Room</h3>The NIF control room is inspired by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mission Control room in Houston, Texas. Control room operators access data through a hierarchy of on-screen graphics menus. Operators can also view videos of the laser beams and target from camera sensors incorporated into the beampath and Target Chamber.<br/><br/><a