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1

Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity (RH). Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

Cook, DR

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

2

ARM Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) station: surf. heat flux and related data, 30-min  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-min estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

Cook, David

3

ARM Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) station: surf. heat flux and related data, 30-min  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-min estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

Cook, David

1993-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

4

ARM - Datastreams - 5ebbr  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ebbr ebbr Documentation Data Quality Plots Citation DOI: 10.5439/1025346 [ What is this? ] Generate Citation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Example 5ebbr Archive Data Plot Example 5ebbr Archive Data Plot Datastream : 5EBBR Energy Balance Bowen Ratio(EBBR) station: surf. Met & soil data for heat flux, 5-min Active Dates 1993.07.04 - 2014.01.09 Measurement Categories Radiometric Originating Instrument Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) Measurements Only measurements considered scientifically relevant are shown below by default. Show all measurements Measurement Units Variable Altitude above mean sea level m alt Atmospheric pressure kPa atmos_pressure ( time ) Base time in Epoch seconds since 1970-1-1 0:00:00 0:00 base_time

5

ARM - Instrument - ebbr  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govInstrumentsebbr Documentation EBBR : Handbook EBBR : Instrument Mentor Monthly Summary (IMMS) reports EBBR : Data Quality Assessment (DQA) reports ARM Data Discovery Browse Data...

6

Comparative Performance of Two Reversing Bowen Ratio Measurement Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the results of a comparative experiment between two Bowen ratio measurement systems conducted at the Petawawa National Forestry Institute, Chalk River, Ontario, in 1985. Both systems interchange the positions of the ...

J. H. McCaughey; D. W. Mullins; M. Publicover

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

A New Formulation for the Bowen Ratio over Saturated Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analytical expressions are presented for calculating the Bowen ratio, Bo = Hs/HL, from a quantity Bo* that is derived primarily from the surface temperature Ts and the assumption that the near-surface air is saturated (but not supersaturated) ...

Edgar L. Andreas; Beniamin A. Cash

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

The Story behind the Bowen Ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ira Sprague Bowen (1898–1973) was a prominent astrophysicist during the twentieth century. In his impressive oeuvre of work over the 50-year span (1920–70), there appears a lone contribution to the geophysical sciences on the subject of ...

J. M. Lewis

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer and the Surface: Oklahoma Mesonet and EBBR Heat Fluxes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer and the Surface: Oklahoma Mesonet and EBBR Heat Fluxes R. L. Coulter Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Surface layer estimates of surface sensible heat flux have been made at 10 - 14 locations within the Central Facility (CF) of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program site by using energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) stations located mostly in uncultivated areas. The advent of the Oklahoma Mesonet (OKM) with approximately 50 stations within the boundaries of the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site that measure a variety of meteorological parameters leads to the possibility of using the OKM to provide additional estimates of surface energy budget to augment

10

A Comparison of Sensible and Latent Heat Flux Calculations Using the Bowen Ratio and Aerodynamic Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis technique is outlined that calculates the sensible and latent heat fluxes by the Bowen ratio and aerodynamic methods, using profile measurements at any number of heights. Field measurements at two sites near Churchill, Manitoba, ...

David H. Halliwell; Wayne R. Rouse

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Evaluation of a Bowen Ratio Measurement System over Forest and Clear-Cut Sites at Petawawa, Ontario  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the features of a reversing measurement system for the determination of the Bowen ratio. Ten-junction thermopiles are used to measure wet- and dry-bulb temperature differences, and a single thermocouple gives absolute wet-...

J. H. McCaughey; D. M. Brintnell

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Suburban Energy Balance Estimates for Vancouver, B.C., Using the Bowen Ratio-Energy Balance Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The energy balance of a suburban site in Vancouver, B.C. in late summer is presented. The balance is obtained from direct measurements of net radiation, parameterized heat storage and turbulent fluxes determined according to the Bowen ratio-...

B. D. Kalanda; T. R. Oke; D. L. Spittlehouse

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Measurements of Aerodynamic Roughness, Bowen Ratio, and Atmospheric Surface Layer Height by Eddy Covariance and Tethersonde Systems Simultaneously over a Heterogeneous Rice Paddy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aerodynamic roughness, Bowen ratio, and friction velocity were measured over a rice paddy using tethersonde and eddy covariance (EC) systems. In addition, the height ranges of the atmospheric inertial sublayer (ISL) were derived using the ...

Jeng-Lin Tsai; Ben-Jei Tsuang; Po-Sheng Lu; Ken-Hui Chang; Ming-Hwi Yao; Yuan Shen

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Sensible Heat Flux by Surface Layer Scintillometry and Eddy Covariance over a Mixed Grassland Community as Affected by Bowen Ratio and MOST Formulations for Unstable Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of sensible heat flux for an extended period for unstable conditions using surface layer scintillometry (SLS) and eddy covariance (EC) and supplemented by Bowen ratio measurements for a mixed grassland community on the eastern ...

G. O. Odhiambo; M. J. Savage

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

ARM - Instrument Handbooks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bucket Rain Gauge DISDROMETER 2009 Doppler Lidar DL 2012 Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System ECOR 2011 Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station EBBR 2011 G-Band (183 GHz)...

16

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Bowen Lab - NJ 33  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bowen Lab - NJ 33 Bowen Lab - NJ 33 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Bowen Lab (NJ.33) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Bowen Engineering, Inc. NJ.33-1 Location: North Branch , New Jersey NJ.33-1 Evaluation Year: Circa 1990 NJ.33-2 Site Operations: Test runs of spray calcining of boiled down pitchblende raffinates was conducted on May 15 and 16, 1951. Equipment used was decontaminated on May 17. NJ.33-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote due to the limited quantities of material used and the duration of the tests, and subsequent cleanup of the site following the tests. NJ.33-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium NJ.33-1

17

1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bulk Aerodynamic Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Value Bulk Aerodynamic Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Value Added Product Corrections and Energy Balance Bowen Ratio CR10 Program Improvements D.R. Cook Environmental Research Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) system estimates vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat from vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity, soil heat storage and transfer, and net radiation. Over the past 12 years of measurements, many changes and improvements have been made to the physical system and measurement methodology. However, it was recently recognized that more changes would be beneficial. Algorithms have been added to the EBBR CR10 datalogger program to reduce the

18

ARM - VAP Process - baebbr  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Productsbaebbr Productsbaebbr Documentation & Plots Data Management Facility Plots (Quick Looks) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send VAP : Best-Estimate Fluxes From EBBR Measurements and Bulk Aerodynamics Calculations (BAEBBR) Instrument Categories Derived Quantities and Models The BAEBBR VAP calculates the bulk aerodynamic latent and sensible heat fluxes from Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Station meteorological measurements and uses these in place of the EBBR flux measurements when the Bowen ratio is between -1.6 and -0.45. The resultant dataset is considered to provide the "best estimate" of the diurnal cycle of fluxes. For more details, see http://science.arm.gov/vaps/baebbr.stm.

19

ARM - Datastreams - 30ebbr  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

banner Cart Icon Cart | Home | People | Site Index Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy About Science Campaigns Sites Instruments...

20

DISCLAIMER  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

37 37 Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Handbook DR Cook February 2011 Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research DR Cook, February 2011, DOE/SC-ARM/TR-037 iii Contents 1.0 General Overview ................................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Contacts ................................................................................................................................................ 1 2.1 Mentor .......................................................................................................................................... 1 2.2 Instrument Developer ................................................................................................................... 1

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bowen ratio ebbr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Examination of the Surface Energy Budget: A Comparison of Eddy Correlation and Bowen Ratio Measurement Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A reliable method for monitoring the surface energy budget is critical to the development and validation of numerical models and remote sensing algorithms. Unfortunately, closure of the energy budget remains difficult to achieve among measurement ...

Jerald A. Brotzge; Kenneth C. Crawford

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

The He II Fowler lines and the O III and N III Bowen fluorescence lines in the symbiotic nova RR Tel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new measure of reddening (E$_{(B-V)}$$\\sim$0.00) has been obtained from the comparison between the observed and the theoretical intensity decrement for 20 emission lines of the $\\ion{He}{ii}$ Fowler (n$\\to$3) series. This value has been confirmed by the STIS and IUE continuum distribution, and by the value of n$_H$ from the damped profile of the IS H Ly-$\\alpha$ line. We have obtained very accurate measurements for about thirty Bowen lines of $\\ion{O}{iii}$ and a precise determination of the efficiency in the O1 and O3 excitation channels (18 % and 0.7 %, respectively). The relative $\\ion{O}{iii}$ intensities are in good agreement with the predictions by Froese Fischer (1994). A detailed study of the decays from all levels involved in the Bowen mechanism has lead to the detection of two new $\\ion{O}{iii}$ Bowen lines near $\\lambda$ 2190. High resolution IUE data have shown a nearly linear decline with time, from 1978 to 1995, in the efficiency of the O1 and O3 processes, with a steeper slope for the O3 channel. A detailed study of the $\\ion{N}{iii}$ $\\lambda$ 4640 lines and of their excitation mechanism has shown that, recombination and continuum fluorescence being ruled out, line fluorescence remains the only viable mechanism to pump the 3d $^2D_{5/2}$ and 3d $^2D_{3/2}$ levels of $\\ion{N}{iii}$. We point out the important role of multiple scattering in the resonance lines of $\\ion{O}{iii}$ and $\\ion{N}{iii}$ near $\\lambda$ 374 and show that the observed $\\ion{N}{iii}$ line ratios and intensities can be explained in terms of line fluorescence by the three resonance lines of $\\ion{O}{iii}$ at $\\lambda$$\\lambda$ 374.432, 374.162 and 374.073 under optically thick conditions.

P. Selvelli; J. Danziger; P. Bonifacio

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

23

A Relationship between the Bowen Ratio and Sea–Air Temperature Difference under Unstable Conditions at Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At the air–sea interface, estimates of evaporation or latent heat flux and the Monin–Obukhov stability parameter require the measurements of dewpoint (Tdew) or wet-bulb temperature, which are not routinely available as compared to those of air (T...

S. A. Hsu

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Permian evolution of sandstone composition in a complex back-arc extensional to foreland basin: The Bowen Basin, eastern Australia  

SciTech Connect

The Bowen Basin is a Permo-Triassic, back-arc extensional to foreland basin that developed landward of an intermittently active continental volcanic arc associated with the eastern Australian convergent plate margin. The basin has a complex, polyphase tectonic history that began with limited back-arc crustal extension during the Early Permian. This created a series of north-trending grabens and half grabens which, in the west, accommodated quartz-rich sediment derived locally from surrounding, uplifted continental basement. In the east, coeval calc-alkaline, volcanolithic-rich, and volcaniclastic sediment was derived from the active volcanic arc. This early extensional episode was followed by a phase of passive thermal subsidence accompanied by episodic compression during the late Early Permian to early Late Permian, with little contemporaneous volcanism. In the west, quartzose sediment was shed from stable, polymictic, continental basement immediately to the west and south of the basin, whereas volcanolithic-rich sediment that entered the eastern side of the basin during this time was presumably derived from the inactive, and possibly partly submerged volcanic arc. During the late Late Permian, flexural loading and increased compression occurred along the eastern margin of the Bowen Basin, and renewed volcanism took place in the arc system to the east. Reactivation of this arc led to westward and southward spread of volcanolithic-rich sediment over the entire basin. Accordingly, areas in the west that were earlier receiving quartzose, craton-derived sediment from the west and south were overwhelmed by volcanolithic-rich, arc-derived sediment from the east and north. This transition from quartz-rich, craton-derived sediments to volcanolithic-rich, arc-derived sediments is consistent with the interpreted back-arc extensional to foreland basin origin for the Bowen Basin.

Baker, J.C. (Univ. of Queensland, (Australia). Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis); Fielding, C.R. (Univ. of Queensland, (Australia). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Caritat, P de (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Dept. of Geology); Wilkinson, M.M. (Santos Petroleum, Queensland (Australia))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

The He ii Fowler lines and the O iii and N iii Bowen fluorescence lines in the symbiotic nova RR Tel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Received.....; accepted Aims. A detailed study of the Oiii and Niii Bowen lines in the spectrum of RR Tel Methods. Absolute intensities for the Heii, Oiii, and Niii emission lines have been obtained from STIS, UVES, FEROS and IUE data, after re-calibration of UVES and FEROS on the STIS scale. Results. A new measure of reddening (E(B?V)?0.00) has been obtained from the comparison between the observed and the theoretical intensity decrement for 20 emission lines of the Heii Fowler (n?3) series. This value has been confirmed by the STIS and IUE continuum distribution, and by the value of nH from the damped profile of the IS H Ly-? line. We have obtained very accurate measurements for about thirty Bowen lines of Oiii and a precise determination of the efficiency in the O1 and O3 excitation channels (18 % and 0.7 %, respectively). The relative Oiii intensities are in good agreement with the predictions by Froese Fischer (1994). A detailed study of the decays from all levels involved in the Bowen mechanism has lead to the detection of two new Oiii Bowen lines near?2190. High resolution IUE data have shown a nearly linear decline with time, from 1978 to 1995, in the efficiency of the O1 and O3 processes, with a steeper slope for the O3 channel. A detailed study of the Niii? 4640 lines and of their excitation mechanism has shown that, recombination and continuum fluorescence being ruled out, line fluorescence remains the only viable mechanism to pump the 3d 2 D5/2 and 3d 2 D3/2 levels of Niii. We point out the important role of multiple scattering in the resonance lines of Oiii

P. Selvelli; J. Danziger; P. Bonifacio; Cifist Marie; Curie Excellence Team

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

ARM - Measurement - Soil heat flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

heat flux heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil heat flux A quantity measured according to the formula B = {lambda}(dT/dz), where {lambda} is the conductivity of the soil that the heat is moving through. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System External Instruments

27

ARM - Measurement - Latent heat flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsLatent heat flux govMeasurementsLatent heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Latent heat flux The time rate of flow for the specific enthalpy difference between two phases of a substance at the same temperature, typically water. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station

28

PowerPoint Presentation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A. Klein, 27 August 2007, p. 1 A. Klein, 27 August 2007, p. 1 Outline * New Focus Groups or Subcommittees - Surface Flux Measurement - Cloud-scale Vertical Velocity * Fall 2008 meeting Stephen A. Klein, 27 August 2007, p. 2 Surface Flux Measurement * Warren Wiscombe has asked that all instruments "have a home" in a working group * To that end, he has asked that the Cloud Modeling Working Group "take ownership" of the surface energy budget measurements as no other working group has an interest in these measurements * He has asked us to evaluate the efficacy of the Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBRs) and the Eddy Correlation (ECORs) instruments Stephen A. Klein, 27 August 2007, p. 3 Surface Flux Measurement * Warren would also like us to look at new measurement techniques such as the

29

X:\ARM_19~1\P283-315.WPD  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10 10 W m 2 ±5% ±20 W m 2 . 5 10Wm 2 Session Papers 301 Aspects of the Quality of Data from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Site Broadband Radiation Sensors M. E. Splitt University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma M. L. Wesely Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois A systematic evaluation of the performance of broadband In this paper, suggested uncertainty values correspond to radiometers at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site is needed to estimate the uncertainties of the irradiance observations. Here, net radiation observed with the net radiometer in the energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) station at the central facility is compared with the net radiation computed as the sum of component irradiances recorded by nearby pyranometers

30

ARM - Measurement - Net broadband total irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance govMeasurementsNet broadband total irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Net broadband total irradiance The difference between upwelling and downwelling, covering longwave and shortwave radiation. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System External Instruments ECMWF : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Model

31

ARM - Measurement - Sensible heat flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsSensible heat flux govMeasurementsSensible heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Sensible heat flux The time rate of flow for the energy transferred from a warm or hot surface to whatever is touching it, typically air. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System EBBR : Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station

32

ARM - Facility News Article  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September 30, 2010 [Facility News] September 30, 2010 [Facility News] Measurements of Total Surface Energy Now Available from Australia Bookmark and Share As shown in this photo at the wharf in Darwin, Australia, the new ECOR/SEBS station includes solar panels for power. As shown in this photo at the wharf in Darwin, Australia, the new ECOR/SEBS station includes solar panels for power. Measurements of sensible, latent, and carbon dioxide fluxes are valuable for refining both regional and global climate models. Since 1997, only ARM's Southern Great Plains site provided these continuous measurements using eddy correlation flux (ECOR) and energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) stations. Now, ARM's tropical site in Darwin, Australia, is also providing these measurements, thanks to the American Recovery and

33

"1. Scherer","Coal","Georgia Power Co",3400 "2. Bowen","Coal","Georgia Power Co",3234  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Georgia" Georgia" "1. Scherer","Coal","Georgia Power Co",3400 "2. Bowen","Coal","Georgia Power Co",3234 "3. Vogtle","Nuclear","Georgia Power Co",2302 "4. Wansley","Coal","Georgia Power Co",1793 "5. Edwin I Hatch","Nuclear","Georgia Power Co",1759 "6. Harllee Branch","Coal","Georgia Power Co",1607 "7. Yates","Coal","Georgia Power Co",1286 "8. McIntosh Combined Cycle Facility","Gas","Georgia Power Co",1257 "9. Murray Energy Facility","Gas","Duke Energy Generation Services",1250 "10. Wansley Combined Cycle","Gas","Southern Power Co",1143

34

Transformer Ratio Enhancement Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TRANSFORMER RATIO ENHANCEMENT EXPERIMENT A. Kanareykin, Euclid Concepts LLC, Solon, OH 44139, USA W. Gai, J. G. Power. ANL, Argonne, IL, 60439, USA E. Nenasheva, Ceramics Ltd., St....

35

ARM - Measurement - Isotope ratio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsIsotope ratio govMeasurementsIsotope ratio ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Isotope ratio Ratio of stable isotope concentrations. Categories Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes Field Campaign Instruments FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes Datastreams FLASK : Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes

36

Available Technologies: Compression Ratio Dehumidification  

The Compression Ratio Dehumidification technology will address a growing concern since energy efficiency standards became broadly adopted nationwide.

37

Eric Bowen, M.A. Patrick Manzi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fueled truck fleet of more than 100 refuse hauling vehicles and plans to add more will include exhaust from on-road vehicles and from materials handling equipment, dust from refuse renewable natural gas. CR&R plans to add 100 CNG/LNG vehicles to its fleet over the next

Mohaghegh, Shahab

38

High ratio recirculating gas compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

High ratio recirculating gas compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

Weinbrecht, J.F.

1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

40

ARM - Measurement - Backscatter depolarization ratio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsBackscatter depolarization ratio govMeasurementsBackscatter depolarization ratio ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscatter depolarization ratio The ratio of cross polarized to co-polarized elastic backscatter. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar RL : Raman Lidar Field Campaign Instruments HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar MIRAI : JAMSTEC Research Vessel Mirai MPL-AIR : Micropulse Lidar- Airborne

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bowen ratio ebbr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

Charles Mendler

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Variable ratio regenerative braking device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

High Transformer ratios in collinear wakefield accelerators.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on our previous experiment that successfully demonstrated wakefield transformer ratio enhancement in a 13.625 GHz dielectric-loaded collinear wakefield accelerator using the ramped bunch train technique, we present here a redesigned experimental scheme for even higher enhancement of the efficiency of this accelerator. Design of a collinear wakefield device with a transformer ratio R2, is presented. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2. To match the wavelength of the fundamental mode of the wakefield with the bunch length (sigmaz=2 mm) of the new Argonne wakefield accelerator (AWA) drive gun (where the experiment will be performed), a 26.625 GHz dielectric based accelerating structure is required. This transformer ratio enhancement technique based on our dielectric-loaded waveguide design will result in a compact, high efficiency accelerating structures for future wakefield accelerators.

Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanreykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

High Aspect Ratio Semiconductor Heterojunction Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Aspect Ratio Semiconductor Heterojunction Solar Cells Haoting Shen Prof. Redwing's Research and in-situ dopant for Si nanowires Y. Ke, X.J. Weng, J.M. Redwing, C.M. Eichfeld, T.R. Swisher, S

Yener, Aylin

46

Sulfate Washout Ratios in Winter Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Washout ratios for sulfate were computed from simultaneous measurements of sulfate in precipitation and in the air below cloud base. Stratification of the data according to predominant mode of precipitation growth (growth primarily by accretion ...

B. C. Scott

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.

Steiner, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; La Mont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eisele, William F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fresquez, Philip R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Naughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

48

Blowing Ratio Effects on Film Cooling Effectiveness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The research focuses on testing the film cooling effectiveness on a gas turbine blade suction side surface. The test is performed on a five bladed cascade with a blow down facility. Four different blowing ratios are used in this study, which are 0.5, 1.0, 1.6, and 2.0; mainstream flow conditions are maintained at exit Mach number of 0.7, 1.1 and 1.3. Nitrogen is injected as the coolant so that the oxygen concentration levels can be obtained for the test surface. Based on mass transfer analogy, film cooling effectiveness can be computed with pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique. The effect of blowing ratio on film cooling effectiveness is presented for each testing condition. The spanwise averaged effectiveness for each case is also presented to compare the blowing ratio and mainstream effect on film cooling effectiveness. Results show that due to effects of shock, the optimum blowing ratio is 1.6 for exit Mach number of 1.1 and 1.3; however; without the effects of shock, the optimum blowing ratio is 1.0 for exit Mach number of 0.7.

Liu, Kuo-Chun

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

50

A Generalized Savage-Dickey Ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this brief research note I present a generalized version of the Savage-Dickey Density Ratio for representation of the Bayes factor (or marginal likelihood ratio) of nested statistical models; the new version takes the form of a Radon-Nikodym derivative and is thus applicable to a wider family of probability spaces than the original (restricted to those admitting an ordinary Lebesgue density). A derivation is given following the measure-theoretic construction of Marin & Robert (2010), and the equivalent estimator is demonstrated in application to a distributional modeling problem.

Cameron, Ewan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Variation of equivalence ratio and element ratios in low-pressure premixed flames of aliphatic fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In previously published work it was found that the element ratios (such as C/O, H/O, H/C) and the equivalence ratio all varied in the flame zone of a low-pressure premixed fuel-rich benzene/oxygen/argon laminar flat flame. These variations were seen from analyses of both the data and detailed kinetic modeling. In the present work, seven additional flames were analyzed in the same manner, including five flames with a single hydrocarbon fuel (methane, acetylene, ethylene, allene, and propene) and two flames with a mixture of fuels (acetylene/allene, hydrogen/allene). All the flames had argon as the diluent, with pressures between 20 and 37.5 Torr, equivalence ratios between 1.6 and 2.5, cold gas velocities between 42 and 126 cm/sec. All of these flames showed variations in the element ratios and equivalence ratios. Furthermore, these variations changed in a consistent pattern with respect to the molecular weight of the fuel. In the flame zone, the percent change in the H/O, C/O and equivalence ratios increased with increasing molecular weight of the fuel, except for the hydrogen/allene flame in which the C/O ratio first increases, then decreases in the flame zone. Also, unlike all the other hydrocarbon flames, the C/O ratio decreases below its inlet value for the methane flame. The H/O and equivalence ratios decrease below their inlet values for the hydrogen/allene flame. These results are explained in terms of differential diffusion effects between the products and the reactants, which increase as the fuel becomes increasingly heavier than the major carbon- and hydrogen-containing products.

C. J. Pope; J. A. Miller

2000-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

52

Isotopic ratio method for determining uranium contamination  

SciTech Connect

The presence of high concentrations of uranium in the subsurface can be attributed either to contamination from uranium processing activities or to naturally occurring uranium. A mathematical method has been employed to evaluate the isotope ratios from subsurface soils at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant (RFP) and demonstrates conclusively that the soil contains uranium from a natural source and has not been contaminated with enriched uranium resulting from RFP releases. This paper describes the method used in this determination which has widespread application in site characterizations and can be adapted to other radioisotopes used in manufacturing industries. The determination of radioisotope source can lead to a reduction of the remediation effort.

Miles, R.E.; Sieben, A.K.

1994-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

53

CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main function of the CO instrument is to provide continuous accurate measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratio at the ARM SGP Central Facility (CF) 60-meter tower (36.607 °N, 97.489 °W, 314 meters above sea level). The essential feature of the control and data acquisition system is to record signals from a Thermo Electron 48C and periodically calibrate out zero and span drifts in the instrument using the combination of a CO scrubber and two concentrations of span gas (100 and 300 ppb CO in air). The system was deployed on May 25, 2005.

Biraud, S

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

54

High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

55

Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio  

SciTech Connect

Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Measurement of the Branching Ratio for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have measured the branching ratio B(\\Upsilon(1S) ! + \\Gamma ) using the CLEO II detector. A clean sample of tau pair events is identified via events containing two charged particles where exactly one of the particles is an identified electron. We find B(\\Upsilon(1S) ! + \\Gamma ) = (2:59 \\Sigma 0:12 +0:13 \\Gamma0:16 )%. The result is consistent with expectations from lepton universality. Permanent address: INP, Novosibirsk, Russia y Permanent address: University of Hawaii at Manoa 1 One of the interesting aspects of heavy quarkonia is that in the lower energy states the electromagnetic decays compete with the strong decays due to OZI suppression. In the b b system, the first three \\Upsilon resonances all lie below the threshold for strong decay into pairs of B mesons, and the measured leptonic decays are of the order of a few percent. For the \\Upsilon(1S), the world average of the branching ratio into tau pairs is (2:97 \\Sigma 0:35)% [1] based on two measureme...

Upsilon Gamma Cinabro; Ichep Ref; Gls Cleo Conf; M. Saulnier; G. Gollin

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

59

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published data and implications for climate forcing Title Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of...

60

Table E7.1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bowen ratio ebbr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Electronic branching ratio of the. tau. lepton  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using data accumulated by the CLEO I detector operating at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have measured the ratio {ital R}={Gamma}({tau}{r arrow}{ital e}{bar {nu}}{sub {ital e}}{nu}{sub {tau}})/{Gamma}{sub 1}, where {Gamma}{sub 1} is the {tau} decay rate to final states with one charged particle. We find {ital R}=0.2231{plus minus}0.0044{plus minus}0.0073 where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. Together with the measured topological one-charged-particle branching fraction, this yields the branching fraction of the {tau} lepton to electrons, {ital B}{sub {ital e}}=0.192{plus minus}0.004{plus minus}0.006.

Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Ro, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Schrenk, S.; Wang, R.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; Romero, V.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Sung, M.K.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Shibata, E.I.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Ernst, J.; Kroha, H.; Roberts, S.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Goldberg, M.; Haupt, T.; Horwitz, N.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Playfer, S.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Thulasidas, M.; Yao, W.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Letson, T.; Mestayer, M.D.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Chadha, M.; (CLEO Collaboration)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Ratio Statistics for Randomized Experiments in Precipitation Stimulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variety of ratio statistics has been used in the design and evaluation of weather modification experiments and their significance has usually been estimated by rerandomization. These ratios, and especially their logarithms, are asymptotically ...

K. Ruben Gabriel

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

The CALIPSO Automated Aerosol Classification and Lidar Ratio Selection Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Descriptions are provided of the aerosol classification algorithms and the extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) selection schemes for the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) aerosol products. One ...

Ali H. Omar; David M. Winker; Mark A. Vaughan; Yongxiang Hu; Charles R. Trepte; Richard A. Ferrare; Kam-Pui Lee; Chris A. Hostetler; Chieko Kittaka; Raymond R. Rogers; Ralph E. Kuehn; Zhaoyan Liu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Final Report on Isotope Ratio Techniques for Light Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The Isotope Ratio Method (IRM) is a technique for estimating the energy or plutonium production in a fission reactor by measuring isotope ratios in non-fuel reactor components. The isotope ratios in these components can then be directly related to the cumulative energy production with standard reactor modeling methods.

Gerlach, David C.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Meriwether, George H.; Reid, Bruce D.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: High-resolution, three-dimensional, compressional and shear wave velocity models, derived from microearthquake traveltimes, are used to map the distribution of Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso Geothermal Area, Inyo County, California. Spatial resolution of the three-dimensional Poisson's ratio and porosity distributions is estimated to be 0.5 km horizontally and 0.8 km vertically. Model uncertainties, + or -1% in the interior and + or -2.3% around the edge of the model, are estimated by a jackknife method. We use perturbations of r = V p /V s ratio and Psi = V p

66

Observation of Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Collinear Wakefield Acceleration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One approach to future high energy particle accelerators is based on the wakefield principle: a leading high-charge drive bunch is used to excite fields in an accelerating structure or plasma that in turn accelerates a trailing low-charge witness bunch. The transformer ratio R is defined as the ratio of the maximum energy gain of the witness bunch to the maximum energy loss of the drive bunch. In general, Rtransformer ratio limitation. We report here the first experimental study of the ramped bunch train (RBT) technique in a dielectric based accelerating structure. A single drive bunch was replaced by two bunches with charge ratio of 1 ratio 2.5 and a separation of 10.5 wavelengths of the fundamental mode. An average measured transformer ratio enhancement by a factor of 1.31 over the single drive bunch case was obtained.

Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Schoessow, P. [Euclid Techlabs LLC, Solon, Ohio 44139 (United States); Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois-60439 (United States)

2007-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

67

Table 6.2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" 2 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,"Consumption" " ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "Economic","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Row" "Characteristic(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","Factors"

68

" Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" 3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,,"Total United States" " 311 - 339","ALL MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES"

69

" Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" 3 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments within NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Row" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristic(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","Factors"

70

CONVERSION RATIOS IN SLIGHTLY ENRICHED URANIUM, WATER MODERATED LATTICES  

SciTech Connect

An experiment is described in which the conversion ratios were measured using highly enriched U-Al foils as catchers. Data are included on the ratios of epi-cadmium to sub-cadmium fission rates of U/sup 235/ in l% enriched U light water moderated lattices, and on conversion ratios of 1% enriched U light water moderated lattices. (J.R.D.)

Tassan, S.

1963-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

71

Rotating Heat Transfer in High Aspect Ratio Rectangular Cooling...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reynolds Number (Nu Nu o ) (f f o ) 24% Increase in Cooling Performance Rotating Heat Transfer in High Aspect Ratio Rectangular Cooling Passages with Shaped Turbulators...

72

Figure 34. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Title: Figure 34. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in the RFC west ...

73

Transformer Ratio Enhancement Using A Ramped Bunch Train In A...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

wakefleld accelerator - i.e. with either plasma or structure based wakefield accelerators. It is known that the transformer ratio cannot generally be greater than 2 for a...

74

Measurement of Magnetic Quadrupole-electric Dipole Mixing Ratios ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Measurement of Magnetic Quadrupole-electric Dipole Mixing Ratios and Angular Distribution Parameters in Atomic Inner-shell Transitions.

75

Mixed Layer Density Ratio from the Levitus Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis of the Levitus data is employed to examine Stommel's mixed layer density ratio regulator hypothesis. Three different methods of computing the lateral density ratio (Rl???T/??S) are used and the least squares method was found to have ...

Liang Gui Chen

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Guidelines and recommended terms for expression of stable-isotope-ratio and gas-ratio measurement results, {  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, geology, oceanography, and paleo- climatology. The Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic WeightsGuidelines and recommended terms for expression of stable- isotope-ratio and gas-ratio measurement results, { Tyler B. Coplen* U.S. Geological Survey, 431 National Center, Reston, VA 20192, USA To minimize

77

Transformer Ratio Enhancement for Structure-Based Wakefield Acceleration  

SciTech Connect

A limiting factor in the efficiency of wakefield accelerators is the fact that the transformer ratio R, the parameter that characterizes the energy transfer efficiency from the accelerating structure to the accelerated electron beam, is less than 2 for most technologically realizable beam-structure configurations. We are planning an experiment to study transformer ratio enhancement in a 13.625 GHz dielectric wakefield structure driven by a ramped bunch train. In this paper we present an experimental program for the demonstration of this Enhanced Transformer Ratio Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (ETR-DWA)

Kanareykin, A. [Euclid Techlabs LLC, Solon OH 44139 (United States); Gai, W.; Power, J.G. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL, 60439 (United States); Schoessow, P. [Tech-X Corp., Boulder CO, 80303 (United States)

2004-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

78

How Required Reserve Ratio Affects Distribution and Velocity of Money  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper the dependence of wealth distribution and the velocity of money on the required reserve ratio is examined based on a random transfer model of money and computer simulations. A fractional reserve banking system is introduced to the model where money creation can be achieved by bank loans and the monetary aggregate is determined by the monetary base and the required reserve ratio. It is shown that monetary wealth follows asymmetric Laplace distribution and latency time of money follows exponential distribution. The expression of monetary wealth distribution and that of the velocity of money in terms of the required reserve ratio are presented in a good agreement with simulation results.

Xi, N; Wang, Y; Xi, Ning; Ding, Ning; Wang, Yougui

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Figure 33. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 33. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in the SERC southeast ...

80

Figure 27. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 27. Ratio of average per megawatthour fuel costs for natural gas combined-cycle plants to coal-fired steam turbines in five cases, 2008-2040

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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81

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Oxygen and carbon isotope ratios were measured for hydrothermal minerals (silica, clay and calcite) from fractures and vugs in altered rhyolite, located between 28 and 129 m below surface (in situ temperatures ranging from 81 to 199°C) in Yellowstone drill holes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of formation of these minerals. The Δ18O values of the thirty-two analyzed silica samples (quartz, chalcedony, α-cristobalite, and β-cristobalite) range from -7.5 to +2.8‰. About one

82

Asymmetry of Charge Ratio for Low Energetic Muons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The WILLI calorimeter, installed in NIPNE Bucharest, is operated since several years for measuring charge ratio of atmospheric muons at low energies (Egeomagnetic field and also on features of the hadronic interaction.

Mitrica, Bogdan [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Horia Hulubei, Bucharest (Romania)

2008-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

83

Predictions of Saturation Ratio for Cloud Microphysical Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The saturation development equation is solved analytically to give a solution that is more general than the existing analytical solution. This analytical solution provides accurate predictions of the saturation ratio and allows the use of ...

Jen-Ping Chen

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Use of the “Odds Ratio” for Diagnosing Forecast Skill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates ways of quantifying the skill in forecasts of dichotomous weather events. The odds ratio, widely used in medical studies, can provide a powerful way of testing the association between categorical forecasts and ...

David B. Stephenson

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

86

Ne IX emission-line ratios in solar active regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emission-line ratios for Ne IX are derived and compared with observational data for solar active regions obtained with the SOLEX B spectrometer on the P78-1 satellite. Excellent agreement is obtained, providing support for the atomic data adopted in the calculations and resolving discrepancies between existing theoretical calculations and solar data. The calculated R-ratio for the low-density limit agrees well with the SOLEX observations. 47 references.

Keenan, F.P.; Mccann, S.M.; Kingston, A.E.; Mckenzie, D.L.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Increasing the transformer ratio at the Argonne wakefield accelerator.  

SciTech Connect

The transformer ratio is defined as the ratio of the maximum energy gain of the witness bunch to the maximum energy loss experienced by the drive bunch (or a bunch within a multidrive bunch train). This plays an important role in the collinear wakefield acceleration scheme. A high transformer ratio is desirable since it leads to a higher overall efficiency under similar conditions (e.g. the same beam loading, the same structure, etc.). One technique to enhance the transformer ratio beyond the ordinary limit of 2 is to use a ramped bunch train. The first experimental demonstration observed a transformer ratio only marginally above 2 due to the mismatch between the drive microbunch length and the frequency of the accelerating structure [C. Jing, A. Kanareykin, J. Power, M. Conde, Z. Yusof, P. Schoessow, and W. Gai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 144801 (2007)]. Recently, we revisited this experiment with an optimized microbunch length using a UV laser stacking technique at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility and measured a transformer ratio of 3.4. Measurements and data analysis from these experiments are presented in detail.

Power, J.G.; Conde, M.; Liu, W.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A. (High Energy Physics); (Euclid Techlabs, LLC)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Cesium Isotope Ratios as Indicators of Nuclear Power Plant Operations  

SciTech Connect

There are multiple paths by which radioactive cesium can reach the effluent from reactor operations. The radioactive 135Cs/137Cs ratios are controlled by these paths. In an effort to better understand the origin of this radiation, these 135Cs/137Cs ratios in effluents from three power reactor sites have been measured in offsite samples. These ratios are different from global fallout by up to six fold and as such cannot have a significant component from this source. A cesium ratio for a sample collected outside of the plant boundary provides integration over the operating life of the reactor. A sample collected inside the plant at any given time can be much different from this lifetime ratio. The measured cesium ratios vary significantly for the three reactors and indicate that the multiple paths have widely varying levels of contributions. There are too many ways these isotopes can fractionate to be useful for quantitative evaluations of operating parameters in an offsite sample, although it may be possible to obtain limited qualitative information for an onsite sample.

Darin Snyder; James Delmore; Troy Tranter; Nick Mann; Michael Abbott; John Olson

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Observation of Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Collinear Wakefield Acceleration  

SciTech Connect

The transformer ratio R is a parameter that characterizes the efficiency of the energy transferred from the drive beam to the trailing witness beam passing through a wakefield accelerating structure (all metal or dielectric based) or a plasma chamber. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2 for a single bunch in a collinear wakefield accelerator. The RBT is a train of electron bunches separated by half integer multiples wavelength of the wakefield. The charge of the leading bunch is lowest and subsequent bunch charges are increased in such a way as to maximize R. In this article, an experimental study of this scheme is presented in which an RBT of 2 bunches with charge ratio of 1:2.5 and bunch length {sigma}z = 2 mm were used to enhance the transformer ratio. Measurement results and data analysis show good agreement with theoretical predictions. The ETR technique demonstrated here can be used in any collinear wakefield accelerator configuration, either structure- or plasma-based.

Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A. [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, Solon, OH-44139 (United States); Power, J.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL-60439 (United States)

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

90

Observation of enhanced transformer ratio in collinear Wakefield acceleration.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transformer ratio R is a parameter that characterizes the efficiency of the energy transferred from the drive beam to the trailing witness beam passing through a wakefield accelerating structure (all metal or dielectric based) or a plasma chamber. Using a ramped bunch train (RBT) rather than a single drive bunch, the enhanced transformer ratio (ETR) technique is able to increase the transformer ratio R above the ordinary limit of 2 for a single bunch in a collinear wakefield accelerator. The RBT is a train of electron bunches separated by half integer multiples wavelength of the wakefield. The charge of the leading bunch is lowest and subsequent bunch charges are increased in such a way as to maximize R. In this article, an experimental study of this scheme is presented in which an RBT of 2 bunches with charge ratio of 1:2.5 and bunch length {sigma}{sub z} = 2 mm were used to enhance the transformer ratio. Measurement results and data analysis show good agreement with theoretical predictions. The ETR technique demonstrated here can be used in any collinear wakefield accelerator configuration, either structure- or plasma-based.

Power, J.; Conde, M.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Transformer ratio improvement for beam based plasma accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Increasing the transformer ratio of wakefield accelerating systems improves the viability of present novel accelerating schemes. The use of asymmetric bunches to improve the transformer ratio of beam based plasma systems has been proposed for some time[1, 2] but suffered from lack appropriate beam creation systems. Recently these impediments have been overcome [3, 4] and the ability now exists to create bunches with current profiles shaped to overcome the symmetric beam limit of R {<=} 2. We present here work towards experiments designed to measure the transformer ratio of such beams, including theoretical models and simulations using VORPAL (a 3D capable PIC code) [5]. Specifically we discuss projects to be carried out in the quasi-nonlinear regime [6] at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory and the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Lab.

O'Shea, Brendan; Rosenzweig, James; Barber, Samuel; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Williams, Oliver; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl [University of California, Los Angeles, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering, Los Angeles, CA 90089 U.S.A. and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Accelerator Test Facility, Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

92

Recent Experiment on Wakefield Transformer Ratio Enhancement at AWA  

SciTech Connect

One technique to enhance the transformer ratio beyond the ordinary limit of 2 in a collinear wakefield acceleration scheme is to use a ramped bunched train (RBT). The first experimental demonstration has been reported in [1]. However, due to the mismatch between the beam bunch length and frequency of the accelerating structure, the observed transformer ratio was only marginally above 2 in the earlier experiment. We recently revisited this experiment with an optimized bunch length using the laser stacking technique at Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility. A transformer ratio of 3.4 has been measured using two drive bunches. Attempting to use four drive bunches met with major challenges. In this article, measurement results and data analysis from these experiments are presented in detail.

Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A. [Euclid Techlabs, LLC, 5900 Harper Rd, Solon, OH 44139 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Liu, W.; Yusof, Z.; Gai, W. [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

93

Medium effects on charged pion ratio in heavy ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have recently studied in the delta-resonance--nucleon-hole model the dependence of the pion spectral function in hot dense asymmetric nuclear matter on the charge of the pion due to the pion p-wave interaction in nuclear medium. In a thermal model, this isospin-dependent effect enhances the ratio of negatively charged to positively charged pions in neutron-rich nuclear matter, and the effect is comparable to that due to the uncertainties in the theoretically predicted stiffness of nuclear symmetry energy at high densities. This effect is, however, reversed if we also take into account the s-wave interaction of the pion in nuclear medium as given by chiral perturbation theory, resulting instead in a slightly reduced ratio of negatively charged to positively charged pions. Relevance of our results to the determination of the nuclear symmetry energy from the ratio of negatively to positively charged pions produced in heavy ion collisions is discussed.

Che Ming Ko; Yongseok Oh; Jun Xu

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Measurement of Ground Level Muon Charge Ratio Using ECRS Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Muon charge ratio at the Earth's surface has been studied with a Geant4 based simulation for two different geomagnetic locations: Atlanta and Lynn Lake. The simulation results are shown in excellent agreement with the data from NMSU-WIZARD/CAPRICE and BESS experiments at Lynn Lake, At low momentum, ground level muon charge ratios show latitude dependent geomagnetic effects for both Atlanta and Lynn Lake from the simulation. The simulated charge ratio is 1.20 {+-} 0.05 (without geomagnetic field), 1.12 {+-} 0.05 (with geomagnetic field) for Atlanta and 1.22 {+-} 0.04 (with geomagnetic field) for Lynn Lake. These types of studies are very important for analyzing secondary cosmic ray muon flux distribution at Earth's surface and can be used to evaluate the parameter of atmospheric neutrino oscillations.

Sanjeewa, Hakmana; He Xiaochun; Cleven, Christopher [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

2006-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

95

High transformer ratio drive beams for wakefield accelerator studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For wakefield based acceleration schemes, use of an asymmetric (or linearly ramped) drive bunch current profile has been predicted to enhance the transformer ratio and generate large accelerating wakes. We discuss plans and initial results for producing such bunches using the 20 to 23 GeV electron beam at the FACET facility at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and sending them through plasmas and dielectric tubes to generate transformer ratios greater than 2 (the limit for symmetric bunches). The scheme proposed utilizes the final FACET chicane compressor and transverse collimation to shape the longitudinal phase space of the beam.

England, R. J.; Ng, C.-K.; Frederico, J.; Hogan, M. J.; Litos, M.; Muggli, P.; Joshi, C.; An, W.; Andonian, G.; Mori, W.; Lu, W. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Max Planck Institute for Physics, 80805 Munich (Germany); University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

96

Optimal ratio between phase basis and bit basis in QKD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the original BB84 protocol, we use the bit basis and the phase basis with the equal probability. Lo et al (J. of Cryptology, 18, 133-165 (2005)) proposed to modify the ratio between two bases for increasing the final key generation rate in the asymptotic setting. In the present letter, in order to treat this problem the non-asymptotic setting, we optimize the ratio between the two bases with exponential constraints for Eve's information distinguishability and the final error probability.

Hayashi, Masahito

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Stability of high. beta. large aspect ratio tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

High {beta}({beta}{much gt} {epsilon}/q{sup 2}) large aspect ratio ({epsilon} {much gt} 1) tokamak equilibria are shown to be always stable to ideal M.H.D. modes that are localized about a flux surface. Both the ballooning and interchange modes are shown to be stable. This work uses the analytic high {beta} large aspect ratio tokamak equilibria developed by Cowley et.al., which are valid for arbitrary pressure and safety factor profiles. The stability results make no assumption about these profiles or the shape of the boundary. 14 refs., 4 figs.

Cowley, S.C.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Cross Section to Multiplicity Ratios at Very High Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent data from the LHC makes it possible to examine an old speculation that at very high energy the total multiplicity and the cross section in elementary particle interactions vary in parallel with energy. Using fits incorporating the new data, it appears that the ratios of the total, elastic, and inelastic cross sections to the average multiplicity N can in fact approach constants at very high energy. The approach to the limit is however quite slow for the total and inelastic cross sections and is not yet reached at LHC energies. The elastic ratio sigma^{el}/N at 7 TeV, however, is not far from its asymptotic value.

M. M. Block; L. Stodolsky

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

99

A Link Between Black Holes and the Golden Ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a variational formalism to describe black holes solution in higher dimensions. Our procedure clarifies the arbitrariness of the radius parameter and, in particular, the meaning of the event horizon of a black hole. Moreover, our formalism enables us to find a surprising link between black holes and the golden ratio.

J. A. Nieto

2011-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

100

Dimension-Independent Positive-Partial-Transpose Probability Ratios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We conduct quasi-Monte Carlo numerical integrations in two very high (80 and 79)-dimensional domains -- the parameter spaces of rank-9 and rank-8 qutrit-qutrit (9 x 9) density matrices. We, then, estimate the ratio of the probability -- in terms of the Hilbert-Schmidt metric -- that a generic rank-9 density matrix has a positive partial transpose (PPT) to the probability that a generic rank-8 density matrix has a PPT (a precondition to separability/nonentanglement). Close examination of the numerical results generated -- despite certain large fluctuations -- indicates that the true ratio may, in fact, be 2. Our earlier investigation (eprint quant-ph/0410238) also yielded estimates close to 2 of the comparable ratios for qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit pairs (the only two cases where the PPT condition fully implies separability). Therefore, it merits conjecturing (as Zyczkowski was the first to do) that such Hilbert-Schmidt (rank-NM/rank-(NM-1)) PPT probability ratios are 2 for all NM-dimensional quantum systems.

Paul B. Slater

2005-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bowen ratio ebbr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Odds Ratio Forecasts Increase Precautionary Action for Extreme Weather Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

What is the best way to communicate the risk of rare but extreme weather to the public? One suggestion is to communicate the relative risk of extreme weather in the form of odds ratios; but, to the authors’ knowledge, this suggestion has never ...

Jared LeClerc; Susan Joslyn

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Generalized solar load ratio correlation for direct gain buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A generalized solar load ratio correlation has been developed for direct gain buildings by generating relationships between the correlation parameters and two fundamental design parameters. The first design parameter is the steady state conductance of the solar aperture, U/sub c/. The second is the effective heat capacity of the solar zone, EHC.

Wray, W.O.; Best, E.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

The proton form factor ratio results from Jefferson Lab  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of the proton form factors, GE p/GMp, has been measured extensively, from Q2 of 0.5 GeV2 to 8.5 GeV2, at the Jefferson Laboratory, using the polarization transfer method. This ratio is extracted directly from the measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the recoiling proton in elastic electron-proton scattering. The polarization transfer results are of unprecedented high precision and accuracy, due in large part to the small systematic uncertainties associated with the experimental technique. There is an approved experiment at JLab, GEP(5), to continue the ratio measurements to 12 GeV2. A dedicated experimental setup, the Super Bigbite Spectrometer (SBS), will be built for this purpose. It will be equipped with a focal plane polarimeter to measure the polarization of the recoil protons. The scattered electrons will be detected in an electromagnetic calorimeter. In this presentation, I will review the status of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors and discuss a number of theoretical approaches to describe nucleon form factors.

Vina Punjabi

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Non-tracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nontracking solar concentrator with a high concentration ratio is provided. The concentrator includes a plurality of energy absorbers which communicate with a main header by which absorbed heat is removed. Undesired heat flow of those absorbers not being heated by radiant energy at a particular instant is impeded, improving the efficiency of the concentrator.

Hinterberger, Henry (Batavia, IL)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Roundness and Aspect Ratio of Particles in Ice Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The frequency of occurrence of the aspect ratio and roundness of particles in ice clouds from aircraft observations have been examined. Images of cloud particles were measured by a cloud particle imager (CPI) at 2.3-?m resolution, installed on ...

Alexei Korolev; George Isaac

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Dynamic tracking of page miss ratio curve for memory management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Memory can be efficiently utilized if the dynamic memory demands of applications can be determined and analyzed at run-time. The page miss ratio curve(MRC), i.e. page miss rate vs. memory size curve, is a good performance-directed metric to serve this ... Keywords: memory management, power management, resource allocation

Pin Zhou; Vivek Pandey; Jagadeesan Sundaresan; Anand Raghuraman; Yuanyuan Zhou; Sanjeev Kumar

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

LITERATURE SURVEY ON ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO MEASUREMENTS - 2001-2005  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Along with my usual weekly review of the published literature for new nuclear data, I also search for new candidates for best measurements of isotopic abundances from a single source. Most of the published articles, that I previously had found in the Research Library at the Brookhaven Lab, have already been sent to the members of the Atomic Weights Commission, by either Michael Berglund or Thomas Walczyk. In the last few days, I checked the published literature for any other articles in the areas of natural variations in isotopic abundance ratios, measurements of isotopic abundance ratios on samples of extra-terrestrial material and isotopic abundance ratio measurements performed using ICPMS instruments. Hopefully this information will be of interest to members of the Commission, the sub-committee on isotopic abundance measurements (SIAM), members of the former sub-committee on natural isotopic fractionation (SNIF), the sub-committee on extra-terrestrial isotope ratios (SETIR), the RTCE Task Group and the Guidelines Task Group, who are dealing with ICPMS and TIMS comparisons. In the following report, I categorize the publications in one of four areas. Measurements performed using either positive or negative ions with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer, TIMS, instruments; measurements performed on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, ICPMS, instruments; measurements of natural variations of the isotopic abundance ratios; and finally measurements on extra-terrestrial samples with instrumentation of either type. There is overlap in these areas. I selected out variations and ET results first and then categorized the rest of the papers by TIMS and ICPMS.

HOLDEN, N.E.

2005-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

109

Determination of Actinide Isotope Ratios Using Glow Discharge Optogalvanic Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Diode-laser excited optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) of a glow discharge has been utilized to measure U-235/U-235 + U-238 isotope ratios. This ``optical mass spectrometric`` measurement has been demonstrated for a number of samples including uranium oxide, fluoride, and metal. Various diode-laser accessible atomic transitions in the 775 to 835 nm region have been evaluated; these transitions were chosen by considering OGS sensitivity and isotope shift. Using the 831.84 nm uranium line, for example, it was possible to measure the U-235/U-235 + U-238 isotope ratio (0.0026) of depleted uranium samples. A prototypical field instrument to make these measurements has been assembled and demonstrated. A U-236 spectral line was identified in a sample of enriched uranium, and an abundance sensitivity was measured.

Young, J.P.; Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Ramsey, J.M.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

The complex dynamics of wishful thinking: The critical positivity ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine critically the claims made by Fredrickson and Losada (2005) concerning the construct known as the "positivity ratio". We find no theoretical or empirical justification for the use of differential equations drawn from fluid dynamics, a subfield of physics, to describe changes in human emotions over time; furthermore, we demonstrate that the purported application of these equations contains numerous fundamental conceptual and mathematical errors. The lack of relevance of these equations and their incorrect application lead us to conclude that Fredrickson and Losada's claim to have demonstrated the existence of a critical minimum positivity ratio of 2.9013 is entirely unfounded. More generally, we urge future researchers to exercise caution in the use of advanced mathematical tools such as nonlinear dynamics and in particular to verify that the elementary conditions for their valid application have been met.

Nicholas J. L. Brown; Alan D. Sokal; Harris L. Friedman

2013-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

111

Radar antenna pointing for optimized signal to noise ratio.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of a radar echo signal will vary across a range swath, due to spherical wavefront spreading, atmospheric attenuation, and antenna beam illumination. The antenna beam illumination will depend on antenna pointing. Calculations of geometry are complicated by the curved earth, and atmospheric refraction. This report investigates optimizing antenna pointing to maximize the minimum SNR across the range swath.

Doerry, Armin Walter; Marquette, Brandeis [General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, CA

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

The charge ratio of the atmospheric muons at low energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From the nature of the muon production processes, it can be seen that the ratio of positive to negative cosmic muons has important information in both 'the atmospheric neutrino problem', and 'the hadronic interactions'. We have carried out an experiment for the measurement of the muon charge ratio in the cosmic ray flux in momentum range 0.112-0.178 GeV/c. The muon charge ratio is found to be 1.21{+-}0.01 with a mean zenith angle of 32 deg. {+-}5 deg. . From the measurements it has been obtained a zenithal angle distribution of muons as I({theta})=I(0)cos{sup n}{theta} with n=1.95{+-}0.13. An asymmetry has been observed in East-West directions because of the geomagnetic field. Meanwhile, in about the same momentum range, positive and negative muons have been studied on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations of the extensive air shower developement (Cosmic Ray Simulations for Kascade), using the Quark Gluon String model with JETs model as generator.

Bahmanabadi, M.; Samimi, J. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O.Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); ALBORZ Observatory, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheidaei, F. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O.Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghomi, M. Khakian [ALBORZ Observatory, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Similarity Moisture Dew Profiles within a Corn Canopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount of dewfall and dewrise to a corn canopy has been estimated over 7 nights by using the Bowen ratio energy balance technique and the soil diffusivity technique, respectively.

A. F. G. Jacobs; W. A. J. van Pul; A. van Dijken

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

An Analysis of the Effect of Local Heat Advection on Evaporation over Wet and Dry Surface Strips  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of local advection on evaporation and Bowen ratio over alternating crosswind infinite dry-warm and wet-cool surface strips (patches), by redistribution of surface heat, is analysed. The analysis shows that evaporation over the region ...

Ya Guo; Peter H. Schuepp

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Mixtures of Gaussians for Uncertainty Description in Bivariate Latent Heat Flux Proxies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new probabilistic approach for describing uncertainty in the ensembles of latent heat flux proxies. The proxies are obtained from hourly Bowen ratio and satellite-derived measurements, respectively, at several locations in ...

R. Wójcik; Peter A. Troch; H. Stricker; P. Torfs; E. Wood; H. Su; Z. Su

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Investigation of Knock limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock limited compression ratio of ethanol gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs. A single cylinder direct injection spark ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT conditions to determine the knock limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric compression ratio is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 13.66. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valvetrain that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve Closing (LIVC). The EIVC and LIVC strategies result in effective CR being reduced while maintaining the geometric expansion ratio. It was found that at substantially similar engine conditions, increasing the ethanol content of the fuel results in higher engine efficiency and higher engine power. These can be partially attributed to a charge cooling effect and a higher heating valve of a stoichiometric mixture for ethanol blends (per unit mass of air). Additional thermodynamic effects on and a mole multiplier are also explored. It was also found that high CR can increase the efficiency of ethanol fuel blends, and as a result, the fuel economy penalty associated with the lower energy content of E85 can be reduced by about a third. Such operation necessitates that the engine be operated in a de-rated manner for gasoline, which is knock-prone at these high CR, in order to maintain compatibility. By using EIVC and LIVC strategies, good efficiency is maintained with gasoline, but power is reduced by about 34%.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Youngquist, Adam D [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Moore, Wayne [Delphi; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Mixing Ratios of CO, CO2, CH4, and Isotope Ratios of Associated 13C, 18O,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Samples, Niwot Ridge, Colorado Air Samples, Niwot Ridge, Colorado Mixing Ratios of CO, CO2, CH4, and Isotope Ratios of Associated 13C, 18O, and 2H in Air Samples from Niwot Ridge, Colorado, and Montaña de Oro, California, USA (January 2004) image Abstract graphics Graphics data Data Investigator Stanley C. Tyler Department of Earth System Science University of California Irvine, CA DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1022 Description and Methods Air samples from Niwot Ridge, Colorado (41°N, 105°W) and Montaña de Oro, CA (35°N, 121°W) have been collected at approximately semi-monthly to monthly intervals since the mid 1990s. The beginning dates for each gas and isotope analyzed are as follows: GASLAB Flask Sampling Network Data Available (April 2003) Gas or isotope Niwot Ridge Montaña de Oro

118

Haar expectations of ratios of random characteristic polynomials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute Haar ensemble averages of ratios of random characteristic polynomials for the classical Lie groups K = O(N), SO(N), and USp(N). To that end, we start from the Clifford-Weyl algebera in its canonical realization on the complex of holomorphic differential forms for a C-vector space V. From it we construct the Fock representation of an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp associated to V. Particular attention is paid to defining Howe's oscillator semigroup and the representation that partially exponentiates the Lie algebra representation of sp in osp. In the process, by pushing the semigroup representation to its boundary and arguing by continuity, we provide a construction of the Shale-Weil-Segal representation of the metaplectic group. To deal with a product of n ratios of characteristic polynomials, we let V = C^n \\otimes C^N where C^N is equipped with its standard K-representation, and focus on the subspace of K-equivariant forms. By Howe duality, this is a highest-weight irreducible representation of the centralizer g of Lie(K) in osp. We identify the K-Haar expectation of n ratios with the character of this g-representation, which we show to be uniquely determined by analyticity, Weyl group invariance, certain weight constraints and a system of differential equations coming from the Laplace-Casimir invariants of g. We find an explicit solution to the problem posed by all these conditions. In this way we prove that the said Haar expectations are expressed by a Weyl-type character formula for all integers N \\ge 1. This completes earlier work by Conrey, Farmer, and Zirnbauer for the case of U(N).

A. Huckleberry; A. Puettmann; M. R. Zirnbauer

2007-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

119

Using Financial Ratios to Identify Romanian Distressed Companies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the context of the current financial crisis, when more companies are facing bankruptcy or insolvency, the paper aims to find methods to identify distressed firms by using financial ratios. The study will focus on identifying a group of Romanian listed companies, for which financial data for the year 2008 were available. For each company a set of 14 financial indicators was calculated and then used in a principal component analysis, followed by a cluster analysis, a logit model, and a CHAID classification tree.

Andreica, Madalina Ecaterina; Andreica, Marin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Haar expectations of ratios of random characteristic polynomials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute Haar ensemble averages of ratios of random characteristic polynomials for the classical Lie groups K = O(N), SO(N), and USp(N). To that end, we start from the Clifford-Weyl algebera in its canonical realization on the complex of holomorphic differential forms for a C-vector space V. From it we construct the Fock representation of an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp associated to V. Particular attention is paid to defining Howe's oscillator semigroup and the representation that partially exponentiates the Lie algebra representation of sp in osp. In the process, by pushing the semigroup representation to its boundary and arguing by continuity, we provide a construction of the Shale-Weil-Segal representation of the metaplectic group. To deal with a product of n ratios of characteristic polynomials, we let V = C^n \\otimes C^N where C^N is equipped with its standard K-representation, and focus on the subspace of K-equivariant forms. By Howe duality, this is a highest-weight irreducible representatio...

Huckleberry, A; Zirnbauer, M R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bowen ratio ebbr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Influence of Transport Variables on Isospin Transport Ratios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The symmetry energy in the nuclear equation of state affects many aspects of nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure, and nuclear reactions. Recent constraints from heavy ion collisions, including isospin diffusion observables, have started to put constraints on the symmetry energy below nuclear saturation density, but these constraints depend on the employed transport model and input physics other than the symmetry energy. To understand these dependencies, we study the influence of the symmetry energy, isoscaler mean field compressibility and momentum dependence, in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections, and light cluster production on isospin diffusion within the pBUU transport code. In addition to the symmetry energy, several uncertain issues strongly affect isospin diffusion, most notably the cross sections and cluster production. In addition, there is a difference in the calculated isospin transport ratios, depending upon whether they are computed using the isospin asymmetry of either the residue or of all forward moving fragments. Measurements that compare the isospin transport ratios of these two quantities would help place constraints on the input physics, such as the density dependence of the symmetry energy.

D. D. S. Coupland; W. G. Lynch; M. B. Tsang; P. Danielewicz; Yingxun Zhang

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

122

Energy Spectra, Altitude Profiles and Charge Ratios of Atmospheric Muons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new measurement of air shower muons made during atmospheric ascent of the High Energy Antimatter Telescope balloon experiment. The muon charge ratio mu+ / mu- is presented as a function of atmospheric depth in the momentum interval 0.3-0.9 GeV/c. The differential mu- momentum spectra are presented between 0.3 and about 50 GeV/c at atmospheric depths between 13 and 960 g/cm^2. We compare our measurements with other recent data and with Monte Carlo calculations of the same type as those used in predicting atmospheric neutrino fluxes. We find that our measured mu- fluxes are smaller than the predictions by as much as 70% at shallow atmospheric depths, by about 20% at the depth of shower maximum, and are in good agreement with the predictions at greater depths. We explore the consequences of this on the question of atmospheric neutrino production.

S. Coutu; J. J. Beatty; M. A. DuVernois; S. W. Barwick; E. Schneider; A. Bhattacharyya; C. R. Bower; J. A. Musser; A. Labrador; D. Muller; S. P. Swordy; E. Torbet; C. Chaput; S. McKee; G. Tarle; A. D. Tomasch; S. L. Nutter; G. A. deNolfo

2000-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

123

Additional solar/load ratio correlations for direct gain buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar/load ratio (SLR) correlations have been developed for two new reference direct gain designs. The new reference designs are identical to the originals except that the glazing air gap has been increased from 1/4 in. to 1/2 in. and a vector average of the local hourly windspeed was used in the thermal network calculations rather than an assumed average value of 15 m.p.h. Both of these modifications are realistic and enhance the predicted performance of direct gain buildings. A comprehensive set of mass sensitivity calculations has been performed in order to provide information needed to select an appropriate set of parameters for new lightweight direct gain designs for which additional SLR correlations will be developed. Representative results are reported.

Wray, W.O.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

All Metal Iron Core For A Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel concept for incorporating a iron core transformer within a axisymmetric toroidal plasma containment device with a high neutron flux is described. This design enables conceptual design of low aspect ratio devices which employ standard transformer-driven plasma startup by using all-metal high resistance separators between the toroidal field windings. This design avoids the inherent problems of a multiturn air core transformer which will inevitably suffer from strong neutron bombardment and hence lose the integrity of its insulation, both through long term material degradation and short term neutron- induced conductivity.. A full 3-dimensional model of the concept has been developed within the MAXWELL program and the resultant loop voltage calculated. The utility of the result is found to be dependent on the resistivity of the high resistance separators. Useful loop voltage time histories have been obtained using achievable resistivities.

D.A. Gates, C. Jun, I. Zatz, A. Zolfaghari

2010-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

125

Modular low-aspect-ratio high-beta torsatron  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fusion-reactor device is described which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low-aspect-ratio toroid in planed having the cylindrical coordinate relationship phi = phi/sub i/ + kz, where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and phi/sub i/ is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z = o plane. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a race track minor cross section. When vertical field coils and, preferably, a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic-field-surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack-shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

Sheffield, G.V.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Minimal Neutrino Texture with Neutrino Mass Ratio and Cabibbo Angle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present neutrino mass matrix textures in a minimal framework of the type-I seesaw mechanism where two right-handed Majorana neutrinos are introduced in order to reproduce experimental results of neutrino oscillations. The textures can lead to experimentally favored leptonic mixing angles described by the tri-bimaximal mixing with one additional rotation. We present minimal and next to minimal textures for the normal mass hierarchy case in a context of the texture zero. A minimal texture in the inverted hierarchy case is also constructed, which does not have any vanishing entries in a Dirac neutrino mass matrix. We also discuss some cases that model parameters in the textures are supposed to be a neutrino mass ratio and/or the Cabibbo angle. Predicted regions of mixing angles, a leptonic CP-violation parameter, and an effective mass for the neutrino-less double beta decay are presented in all textures.

Yusuke Shimizu; Ryo Takahashi; Morimitsu Tanimoto

2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

127

Improved load ratio method for predicting crack length  

SciTech Connect

The elastic compliance from unloading/reloading sequences in a load-displacement record estimates well crack length in elastic-plastic fracture toughness tests of compact tension [C(T)] and bending type specimens. The need for partial unloading of the specimen makes it difficult to run the test under static loading and impossible under either dynamic loading or very high temperatures. Furthermore, fracture toughness testing in which crack length is determined from elastic compliance requires high precision testing equipment and highly skilled technicians. As a result, such tests are confined usually to research laboratories and seldom used under production settings. To eliminate these problems, an improved load ratio method of predicting crack length is proposed that utilizes only the recorded load versus load-line displacement curve (or load versus crack-mouth-opening displacement curve) without unloading/reloading sequences. As a result, the instrumentation is much simpler than in the elastic compliance or potential drop methods. If only a monotonic load-displacement record is to be measured the fracture toughness test becomes almost as simple to perform as a tension test. The method described here improves in three ways the ``original load ratio method`` proposed by Hu et al. First, a blunting term is added to the crack length before maximum load. Second, a strain hardening correction is included after maximum load. And, third, the initial crack length and the physical (final) crack length measured at the end of the test serve to anchor the predicted crack lengths, forcing agreement between predicted and measured values. The method predicts crack extension with excellent accuracy in specimens fabricated from A302, A508, and A533B piping and pressure vessel steels, A588 and A572 structural steels, and HY-80 ship steel.

Chen, X.; Albrecht, P. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Inst. for Systems Research; Wright, W. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States). Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center; Joyce, J.A. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

129

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Rob Newsom; John Goldsmith

130

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

131

ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

132

ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

241Am (n,gamma) isomer ratio measurement  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy of the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemistry ratio. We have performed an activation experiment to measure the {sup 241}Am(n,{gamma}) cross section leading to either the ground state of {sup 242g}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 16 hr) which decays to {sup 242}Cm (t{sub 1/2} = 163 d) or the long-lived isomer {sup 242m}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 141 yr). This experiment will develop a new set of americium cross section evaluations that can be used with a measured {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am radiochemical measurement for nuclear forensic purposes. This measurement is necessary to interpret the {sup 242}Cm/{sup 241}Am ratio because a good measurement of this neutron capture isomer ratio for {sup 241}Am does not exist. The targets were prepared in 2007 from {sup 241}Am purified from LANL stocks. Gold was added to the purified {sup 241}Am as an internal neutron fluence monitor. These targets were placed into a holder, packaged, and shipped to Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, where they were irradiated at their Van de Graff facility in February 2008. One target was irradiated with {approx}25 keV quasimonoenergetic neutrons produced by the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction for 3 days and a second target was also irradiated for 3 days with {approx}500 keV neutrons. Because it will be necessary to separate the {sup 242}Cm from the {sup 241}Am in order to measure the amount of {sup 242}Cm by alpha spectrometry, research into methods for americium/curium separations were conducted concurrently. We found that anion exchange chromatography in methanol/nitric acid solutions produced good separations that could be completed in one day resulting in a sample with no residue. The samples were returned from Germany in July 2009 and were counted by gamma spectrometry. Chemical separations have commenced on the blank sample. Each sample will be spiked with {sup 244}Cm, dissolved and digested in nitric acid solutions. One third of each sample will be processed at a time. First, the gold will be removed by anion exchange chromatography. Then the {sup 242}Cm will be separated from the {sup 241}Am using the methanol/nitric acid anion exchange method. When a sufficient separation has been achieved, a deposit will be prepared and the {sup 242}Cm will be counted by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 241}Am fraction containing the long lived {sup 242m}Am will be allowed to decay into {sup 242}Cm for a period of {approx}6 months. After this time, the americium/curium separations will be repeated and the {sup 242}Cm that has grown in will be counted by alpha spectrometry. At the conclusion of the experiment, we will have cross section measurements for {sup 241}Am (n,{gamma}) {sup 242g}Am and {sup 241}Am (n,V) {sup 242m}Am at two energies.

Bond, Evelyn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vieira, David J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moody, Walter A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Slemmons, Alice K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

135

ISOTOPIC RATIOS IN TITAN's METHANE: MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING  

SciTech Connect

The existence of methane in Titan's atmosphere ({approx}6% level at the surface) presents a unique enigma, as photochemical models predict that the current inventory will be entirely depleted by photochemistry in a timescale of {approx}20 Myr. In this paper, we examine the clues available from isotopic ratios ({sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and D/H) in Titan's methane as to the past atmosphere history of this species. We first analyze recent infrared spectra of CH{sub 4} collected by the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer, measuring simultaneously for the first time the abundances of all three detected minor isotopologues: {sup 13}CH{sub 4}, {sup 12}CH{sub 3}D, and {sup 13}CH{sub 3}D. From these we compute estimates of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C = 86.5 {+-} 8.2 and D/H = (1.59 {+-} 0.33) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, in agreement with recent results from the Huygens GCMS and Cassini INMS instruments. We also use the transition state theory to estimate the fractionation that occurs in carbon and hydrogen during a critical reaction that plays a key role in the chemical depletion of Titan's methane: CH{sub 4} + C{sub 2}H {yields} CH{sub 3} + C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. Using these new measurements and predictions we proceed to model the time evolution of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and D/H in Titan's methane under several prototypical replenishment scenarios. In our Model 1 (no resupply of CH{sub 4}), we find that the present-day {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C implies that the CH{sub 4} entered the atmosphere 60-1600 Myr ago if methane is depleted by chemistry and photolysis alone, but much more recently-most likely less than 10 Myr ago-if hydrodynamic escape is also occurring. On the other hand, if methane has been continuously supplied at the replenishment rate then the isotopic ratios provide no constraints, and likewise for the case where atmospheric methane is increasing. We conclude by discussing how these findings may be combined with other evidence to constrain the overall history of the atmospheric methane.

Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Temelso, B. [Dean's Office, College of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837 (United States); Vinatier, S.; Bezard, B.; Coustenis, A. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Teanby, N. A. [School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queen's Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Mandt, K. E. [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Sherrill, C. D. [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 901 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (United States); Irwin, P. G. J. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Jennings, D. E.; Romani, P. N.; Flasar, F. M. [Planetary Systems Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

136

Modular low aspect ratio-high beta torsatron  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fusion reactor device in which the toroidal magnetic field and at least a portion of the poloidal magnetic field are provided by a single set of modular coils. The coils are arranged on the surface of a low aspect ratio toroid in planes having the cylindrical coordinate relationship .phi.=.phi..sub.i +kz where k is a constant equal to each coil's pitch and .phi..sub.i is the toroidal angle at which the i'th coil intersects the z=o plane. The device may be described as a modular, high beta torsation whose screw symmetry is pointed along the systems major (z) axis. The toroid defined by the modular coils preferably has a racetrack minor cross section. When vertical field coils and preferably a toroidal plasma current are provided for magnetic field surface closure within the toroid, a vacuum magnetic field of racetrack shaped minor cross section with improved stability and beta valves is obtained.

Sheffield, George V. (Hopewell, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ)

1984-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

137

The Impression to Drop Size Ratio for the Raindrop Foil Impactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A general calibration equation has been developed for the raindrop foil impactor. From experimental data the impression to drop size ratio is related to a nondimensional impact parameter and to the drop diameter to groove spacing ratio. These ...

R. L. Hobbs

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

A Microdrop Generator for the Calibration of a Water Vapor Isotope Ratio Spectrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A microdrop generator is described that produces water vapor with a known isotopic composition and volume mixing ratio for the calibration of a near-infrared diode laser water isotope ratio spectrometer. The spectrometer is designed to measure in ...

Rosario Q. Iannone; Daniele Romanini; Samir Kassi; Harro A. J. Meijer; Erik R. Th Kerstel

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Figure 87. Ratio of Brent crude oil price to Henry Hub spot ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sheet3 Sheet2 Sheet1 Figure 87. Ratio of Brent crude oil price to Henry Hub spot natural gas price in energy-equivalent terms, 1990-2040 Ratio Released:April 15, 2013

140

Effects of operating conditions, compression ratio, and gasoline reformate on SI engine knock limits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A set of experiments was performed to investigate the effects of air-fuel ratio, inlet boost pressure, hydrogen rich fuel reformate, and compression ratio on engine knock behavior. For each condition the effect of spark ...

Gerty, Michael D

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bowen ratio ebbr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Valuation Ratios and the Long-Run Stock Market Outlook: An Update  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of price--earnings ratios and dividend-price ratios as forecasting variables for the stock market is examined using aggregate annual US data 1871 to 2000 and aggregate quarterly data for twelve countries since 1970. Various simple efficient-markets models of financial markets imply that these ratios should be useful in forecasting future dividend growth, future earnings growth, or future productivity growth. We conclude that, overall, the ratios do poorly in forecasting any of these.

John Campbell; John Y. Campbell; Robert Shiller; Robert J. Shiller

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF HARDNESS RATIOS: MODELING AND COMPUTATIONS Taeyoung Park, 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF HARDNESS RATIOS: MODELING AND COMPUTATIONS Taeyoung Park, 1 Vinay L. Kashyap the nature of a photon spectrum is the so­called hardness ratio, which compares the numbers of counts observed in different passbands. The hardness ratio is especially useful to distinguish between

Wargelin, Bradford J.

143

BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF HARDNESS RATIOS: MODELING AND COMPUTATIONS Taeyoung Park,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BAYESIAN ESTIMATION OF HARDNESS RATIOS: MODELING AND COMPUTATIONS Taeyoung Park,1 Vinay L. Kashyap of a photon spectrum is the so-called hardness ratio, which compares the numbers of counts observed in different passbands. The hardness ratio is especially useful to distinguish between and categorize weak

Wargelin, Bradford J.

144

A case study on financial ratios via cross-graph quasi-bicliques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stocks with similar financial ratio values across years have similar price movements. We investigate this hypothesis by clustering groups of stocks that exhibit homogeneous financial ratio values across years, and then study their price movements. We ... Keywords: 3D subspace clustering, Financial data mining, Financial ratios analysis, Quasi-bicliques

Kelvin Sim; Guimei Liu; Vivekanand Gopalkrishnan; Jinyan Li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

In situ Carbon 13 and Oxygen 18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen Isotopes and Ratios » 13C and 18O Oxygen Isotopes and Ratios » 13C and 18O Ratios, Atmospheric CO2, Cape Grim In situ Carbon 13 and Oxygen 18 Ratios of Atmospheric CO2 from Cape Grim, Tasmania, Australia: 1982-1993 DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1014 data Data Investigators Francey R. J. and C. E. Allison Description Since 1982, a continuous program of sampling atmospheric CO2 to determine stable isotope ratios has been maintained at the Australian Baseline Air Pollution Station, Cape Grim, Tasmania (40°, 40'56"S, 144°, 41'18"E). The process of in situ extraction of CO2 from air, the preponderance of samples collected in conditions of strong wind from the marine boundary layer of the Southern Ocean, and the determination of all isotope ratios relative to a common high purity CO2 reference gas with isotopic δ13C close to

146

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

N7.1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998;" N7.1. Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS"," ","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","Factors"

147

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" 1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." " "," ",,,"Consumption"," " " "," ",,"Consumption","per Dollar"," " " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","RSE" "NAICS"," ","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Row" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","Factors"

148

Application of neural network for air-fuel ratio identification in spark ignition engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present work, Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is used for Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) identification in Spark Ignition (SI) engine. AFR identification is difficult due to nonlinear and dynamic behaviour of SI engines. Delays present in the engine ... Keywords: AFR sensors, RNNs, air-fuel ratio control, air-fuel ratio sensors, engine modelling, recurrent neural networks, simulation, spark ignition engines, virtual sensors

Samir Saraswati; Satish Chand

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Sodium-Lithium Ratio In Water Applied To Geothermometry Of Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Sodium-Lithium Ratio In Water Applied To Geothermometry Of Geothermal Reservoirs Jump to: navigation,...

150

Producing Gas-Oil Ratio Performance of Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This study presents a detailed analysis of producing gas-oil ratio performance characteristics from conventional reservoir to unconventional reservoir. Numerical simulations of various reservoir fluid… (more)

Lei, Guowen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Altering the volumetric expansion ratio of a Lysholm helical screw expander  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is an analysis of the effects of the volumetric expansion ratio on the operation of a Lysholm helical screw expander. Extensive testing of the University of California Lysholm engine with a 5.3 volumetric expansion ratio was performed. In this experiment, the expansion ratio has been reduced from 5.3 to 4.0. Tests were performed at a variety of speeds and qualities for a 5.0 pressure ratio and at a variety of speeds and pressure ratios for 99 percent quality. It was predicted that decreasing the volumetric expansion ratio would decrease the leakage fraction and thereby increase efficiency. This occurred as predicted. Isentropic efficiency increased 20 percent for 50 percent quality steam and 16 percent for 33 percent quality steam, all for an inlet pressure of 120 psia and a speed of 9000 rpm. A maximum efficiency of 47.2 percent was reached at 33 percent quality, 9000 rpm and a pressure ratio of 5.0. It was noted that the leakage rate did not appear to be a function of expansion ratio, as had been expected. Using this fact the previous empirical models of the engine were extended to include volumetric expansion ratio as a variable parameter.

Dunbar, M.K.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

RATIO COMPUTER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electronic computer circuit is described for producing an output voltage proportional to the product or quotient of tbe voltages of a pair of input signals. ln essence, the disclosed invention provides a computer having two channels adapted to receive separate input signals and each having amplifiers with like fixed amplification factors and like negatlve feedback amplifiers. One of the channels receives a constant signal for comparison purposes, whereby a difference signal is produced to control the amplification factors of the variable feedback amplifiers. The output of the other channel is thereby proportional to the product or quotient of input signals depending upon the relation of input to fixed signals in the first mentioned channel.

Post, R.F.

1958-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

153

Aspect Ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... with the mouse. Use the {mlx - false color - directional palette} menu. DOG - Direction of Gradient top. This display is useful ...

154

Measurement of lithium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS: application to seawater and natural carbonates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement of lithium isotope ratios by quadrupole-ICP-MS: application to seawater and natural method for lithium isotope ratio (7 Li/6 Li) determinations with low total lithium consumption ( lithium from all matrix elements using small volume resin (2 ml/3.4 meq AG 50W-X8) and low volume elution

Weston, Ken

155

Enhanced model and fuzzy strategy of air to fuel ratio control for spark ignition engines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various mathematical models for the air to fuel ratio and control for spark ignition (SI) engines have been proposed to satisfy technical specifications. This paper reveals an improvement of the mean value model (MVEM) and a simple yet effective nonlinear ... Keywords: Air-fuel ratio, FOPDDT, Fuzzy control, Internal combustion, Nonlinear control

Anurak Jansri; Pitikhate Sooraksa

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Research of Speed Ratio Matching Strategies of Hydro-Mechanical Continuously Variable Transmission System for Tractor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To realize the optimal power and best fuel economy performance of engine, the speed ratio matching strategies of tractor with hydro-mechanical continuously variable transmission (HMCVT) system are studied. The engine output torque model and fuel consumption ... Keywords: Tractor, Hydro-mechanical continuously variable transmission, Speed ratio, Matching strategies

Liyou Xu; Zhili Zhou; Fuyi Cao; Mingzhu Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

High density packings of equal circles in rectangles with variable aspect ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Arranging a fixed number n of equal non-overlapping circles in a rectangle with variable aspect ratio is a non-standard packing problem. It arises if one has to decide how a certain number of circular items should be packed into a rectangular box when ... Keywords: Circle packing, Container design, Hexagonal grid, Rectangular container, Variable aspect ratio

E. Specht

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Experimental Study of Air-Fuel Ratio Control Strategy for a Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the most attractive combustive features for hydrogen fuel is its wide range of flammability. The wide flammability limits allow hydrogen engine to be operated at extremely lean air–fuel ratios compared to conventional fuels. Concepts for ... Keywords: Hydrogen internal combustion engine, Air/Fuel ratio, Control strategy

Zhong-yu Zhao; Fu-shui Liu

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

On the Ratio of Sulfur Dioxide to Nitrogen Oxides as an Indicator of Air Pollution Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of sulfur dioxide to nitrogen oxides (RSN = SO2/NOx) is one indicator of air pollution sources. The role of this ratio in source attribution is illustrated here for the Ashdod area, located in the southern coastal plain of Israel. The ...

Ronit Nirel; Uri Dayan

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Effect of aspect ratio on convection in a porous enclosure with partially active thermal walls  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of the present numerical investigation is to understand the effect of aspect ratio and partially thermally active zones on convective flow and heat transfer in a rectangular porous enclosure. Five different heating and cooling zones are considered ... Keywords: Aspect ratio, Finite volume method, Natural convection, Partial heating, Porous medium

M. Bhuvaneswari; S. Sivasankaran; Y. J. Kim

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bowen ratio ebbr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Review: Estimation of California bearing ratio by using soft computing systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents the application of different methods (simple-multiple analysis and artificial neural networks) for the estimation of the California bearing ratio (CBR) from sieve analysis, Atterberg limits, maximum dry unit weight and optimum moisture ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Atterberg limits, California bearing ratio (CBR), Correlation, Maximum dry unit weight, Optimum moisture content, Sieve analysis

B. Yildirim; O. Gunaydin

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

On the ratio X/Y for some elliptically symmetric distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The distributions of the ratio X/Y are derived when (X,Y) has the elliptically symmetric Pearson-type II distribution, elliptically symmetric Pearson-type VII distribution and the elliptically symmetric Kotz-type distribution. Keywords: 33C90, 62E99, Elliptically symmetric distributions, Ratios of random variables

Saralees Nadarajah

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Periodic equivalence ratio modulation method and apparatus for controlling combustion instability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) method and apparatus significantly reduces and/or eliminates unstable conditions within a combustion chamber. The method involves modulating the equivalence ratio for the combustion device, such that the combustion device periodically operates outside of an identified unstable oscillation region. The equivalence ratio is modulated between preselected reference points, according to the shape of the oscillation region and operating parameters of the system. Preferably, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a first stable condition to a second stable condition, and, alternatively, the equivalence ratio is modulated from a stable condition to an unstable condition. The method is further applicable to multi-nozzle combustor designs, whereby individual nozzles are alternately modulated from stable to unstable conditions. Periodic equivalence ratio modulation (PERM) is accomplished by active control involving periodic, low frequency fuel modulation, whereby low frequency fuel pulses are injected into the main fuel delivery. Importantly, the fuel pulses are injected at a rate so as not to affect the desired time-average equivalence ratio for the combustion device.

Richards, George A.; Janus, Michael C.; Griffith, Richard A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Determination of Light Water Reactor Fuel Burnup with the Isotope Ratio Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the current project to demonstrate that isotope ratio measurements can be extended to zirconium alloys used in LWR fuel assemblies we report new analyses on irradiated samples obtained from a reactor. Zirconium alloys are used for structural elements of fuel assemblies and for the fuel element cladding. This report covers new measurements done on irradiated and unirradiated zirconium alloys, Unirradiated zircaloy samples serve as reference samples and indicate starting values or natural values for the Ti isotope ratio measured. New measurements of irradiated samples include results for 3 samples provided by AREVA. New results indicate: 1. Titanium isotope ratios were measured again in unirradiated samples to obtain reference or starting values at the same time irradiated samples were analyzed. In particular, 49Ti/48Ti ratios were indistinguishably close to values determined several months earlier and to expected natural values. 2. 49Ti/48Ti ratios were measured in 3 irradiated samples thus far, and demonstrate marked departures from natural or initial ratios, well beyond analytical uncertainty, and the ratios vary with reported fluence values. The irradiated samples appear to have significant surface contamination or radiation damage which required more time for SIMS analyses. 3. Other activated impurity elements still limit the sample size for SIMS analysis of irradiated samples. The sub-samples chosen for SIMS analysis, although smaller than optimal, were still analyzed successfully without violating the conditions of the applicable Radiological Work Permit

Gerlach, David C.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Hurley, David E.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

" Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" 1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;" " Unit: Varies." ,,,,"Consumption" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value" "NAICS",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments" "Code(a)","Subsector and Industry","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)" ,,"Total United States" 311,"Food",879.8,5,2.2 3112," Grain and Oilseed Milling",6416.6,17.5,5.7

167

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

168

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

SciTech Connect

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Stochastic Heating, Differential Flow, and the Alpha-to-Proton Temperature Ratio in the Solar Wind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We extend previous theories of stochastic ion heating to account for the motion of ions along the magnetic field. We derive an analytic expression for the ion-to-proton perpendicular temperature ratio in the solar wind for any ion species, assuming that stochastic heating is the dominant ion heating mechanism. This expression describes how this temperature ratio depends upon the average velocity of the ions along the magnetic field direction and the ratio of the parallel proton pressure to the magnetic pressure. We compare our model with previously published measurements of alpha particles and protons from the WIND spacecraft. We find that stochastic heating offers a promising explanation for these measurements when the fractional cross helicity and Alfven ratio at the proton-gyroradius scale have values that are broadly consistent with solar-wind measurements.

Chandran, B D G; Quataert, E; Kasper, J C; Isenberg, P A; Bourouaine, S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

An Interactive Nesting Algorithm for Stretched Grids and Variable Nesting Ratios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An existing two-way interactive grid-nesting technique is generalized to accommodate stretched grids and a spatially variable grid-nesting ratio. The new scheme applies the same reversibility constraint and possesses the same scalar and momentum ...

Robert L. Walko; Craig J. Tremback; Roger A. Pielke; William R. Cotton

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

The Relationship between Flux Coefficient and Entrainment Ratio in Density Currents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors explore the theoretical and empirical relationship between the nonlocal quantities of the entrainment ratio E, the appropriately depth- and time-averaged flux coefficient ?, and the bulk Froude number Fro in density currents. The main ...

Mathew Wells; Claudia Cenedese; C. P. Caulfield

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

A Methodology for Measuring Cirrus Cloud Visible-to-Infrared Spectral Optical Depth Ratios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowledge of cirrus cloud optical depths is necessary to understand the earth’s current climate and to model the cloud radiation impact on future climate. Cirrus clouds, depending on the ratio of their shortwave “visible” to longwave “infrared” ...

Daniel H. DeSlover; William L. Smith; Paivi K. Piironen; Edwin W. Eloranta

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Dynamic Cost-Loss Ratio Decision-making Model with an Autocorrelated Climate Variable  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dynamic decision-making problem is considered involving the use of information about the autocorrelation of a climate variable. Specifically, an infinite horizon, discounted version of the dynamic cost-loss ratio model is treated, in which only ...

Richard W. Katz

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

High Aspect Ratio Nano-Structured Pt-based PEM Fuel Cell Catalysts...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or * nanoplates - Ni, Co, and Fe have been selected as V.D.14 High Aspect Ratio Nano-Structured Pt-Based PEM Fuel Cell Catalysts Table 1. Technical Targets for...

175

Constraining the Ratio of Global Warming to Cumulative CO2 Emissions Using CMIP5 Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of warming to cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide has been shown to be approximately independent of time and emissions scenarios and directly relates emissions to temperature. It is therefore a potentially important tool for climate ...

Nathan P. Gillett; Vivek K. Arora; Damon Matthews; Myles R. Allen

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Constraining the ratio of global warming to cumulative CO2 emissions using CMIP5 simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of warming to cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide has been shown to be approximately independent of time and emissions scenario, and directly relates emissions to temperature. It is therefore a potentially important tool for climate ...

Nathan P. Gillett; Vivek K. Arora; Damon Matthews; Myles R. Allen

177

Thermal hydraulic design and analysis of a large lead-cooled reactor with flexible conversion ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis contributes to the Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation Project, a part of the Nuclear Cycle Technology and Policy Program funded by the Department of Energy through the Nuclear Energy ...

Nikiforova, Anna S., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Anisotropy of Poisson's Ratio in Transversely Isotropic Rocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Poisson's ratio of shales with different clay mineralogy and porosity and for many shale rocks around the world including brine?saturated Africa shales and sands

S. P. Tokmakova

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Vp-Vs Ratios In The Yellowstone National Park Region, Wyoming...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(1) Regions (0) Abstract: In this paper we study the variation of VpVs and Poisson's ratio () in the Yellowstone National Park region, using earthquakes which were well...

180

Total-to-peak ratios of high purity germanium gamma ray detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study is concerned with the percentage of [gamma]-rays of a certain energy having their energy correctly measured by a high purity Germanium [gamma]-ray detector. The ratio between the total counts and the counts ...

Nelson, Justin Matthew, 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bowen ratio ebbr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio of Tropospheric Aerosol: A Numerical Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An adequate estimation of the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter ratio S is important for solving the underdetermined single scattering lidar equation and for investigating the climate impact of aerosols. In this study, the extinction-to-...

Jörg Ackermann

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Design of passive decay heat removal system for the lead cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lead-cooled flexible conversion ratio fast reactor shows many benefits over other fast-reactor designs; however, the higher power rating and denser primary coolant present difficulties for the design of a passive decay ...

Whitman, Joshua (Joshua J.)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Laboratory Measurements of Small Raindrop Distortion. Part I: Axis Ratios and Fall Behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The resonant interactions between eddy shedding and drop oscillations postulated by Gunn for millimeter diameter raindrops were investigated in a series of laboratory measurements of axis ratio and fall behavior for water drops of d = 0.70–1.54 ...

Kenneth V. Beard; Rodney J. Kubesh; Harry T. Ochs III

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Axis Ratios of Water Drops Levitated in a Vertical Wind Tunnel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shapes of falling raindrops are often significantly altered by drop oscillations, complicating dual-polarization radar methods that rely on a predictable, monotonic variation of drop axis ratio ? with equivolume drop diameter d. This ...

B. K. Jones; J. R. Saylor

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Determination of green herbage ratio in grasslands using spectral reflectance. Methods and ground measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the suitability of spectral vegetation indexes for predicting green ratio (the percentage of green biomass with respect to the total phytomass) has been tested with the Italian Alps and New Zealand South Island grasslands. Considering ...

D. Gianelle; L. Vescovo

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Sensitivity of 5-cm Wavelength Polarimetric Radar Variables to Raindrop Axial Ratio and Drop Size Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity of polarimetric variables at a 5-cm wavelength to raindrop size and axial ratio is examined using T-matrix modeling of the scattering process for gamma raindrop size distributions fitted to tropical rainfall collected at Darwin, ...

T. D. Keenan; L. D. Carey; D. S. Zrni?; P. T. May

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Monte Carlo simulation of the effect of miniphantom on in-air output ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The aim of the study was to quantify the effect of miniphantoms on in-air output ratio measurements, i.e., to determine correction factors for in-air output ratio. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to simulate in-air output ratio measurements by using miniphantoms made of various materials (PMMA, graphite, copper, brass, and lead) and with different longitudinal thicknesses or depths (2-30 g/cm{sup 2}) in photon beams of 6 and 15 MV, respectively, and with collimator settings ranging from 3x3 to 40x40 cm{sup 2}. EGSnrc and BEAMnrc (2007) software packages were used. Photon energy spectra corresponding to the collimator settings were obtained from BEAMnrc code simulations on a linear accelerator and were used to quantify the components of in-air output ratio correction factors, i.e., attenuation, mass energy absorption, and phantom scatter correction factors. In-air output ratio correction factors as functions of miniphantom material, miniphantom longitudinal thickness, and collimator setting were calculated and compared to a previous experimental study. Results: The in-air output ratio correction factors increase with collimator opening and miniphantom longitudinal thickness for all the materials and for both energies. At small longitudinal thicknesses, the in-air output ratio correction factors for PMMA and graphite are close to 1. The maximum magnitudes of the in-air output ratio correction factors occur at the largest collimator setting (40x40 cm{sup 2}) and the largest miniphantom longitudinal thickness (30 g/cm{sup 2}): 1.008{+-}0.001 for 6 MV and 1.012{+-}0.001 for 15 MV, respectively. The MC simulations of the in-air output ratio correction factor confirm the previous experimental study. Conclusions: The study has verified that a correction factor for in-air output ratio can be obtained as a product of attenuation correction factor, mass energy absorption correction factor, and phantom scatter correction factor. The correction factors obtained in the present study can be used in studies involving in-air output ratio measurements using miniphantoms.

Li Jun; Zhu, Timothy C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

188

Dual to ratio-cumproduct estimator using known parameters of auxiliary variables  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper deals with the dual to ratio-cum-product estimator for population mean using known parameters of auxiliary variables. In this paper, dual to ratio-cum-product estimator of Singh and Tailor (2005) has been suggested. The Bias and mean squared error expressions have also been obtained up to the first degree of approximation. Suggested estimator has been compared theoretically as well as empirically.

Rajesh Tailor; Ritesh Tailor; Rajesh Parmar; Manish Kumar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Apparatus for controlling the air-fuel ratio in an internal combustion engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparatus for controlling the air-fuel ratio in an internal combustion engine to substantially maintain the ratio at a predetermined value while the engine is operating under various load conditions. The engine has a carburetor with an air passageway through which air is drawn into the engine. Fuel is supplied to the carburetor through a fuel system and mixed with air passing through the carburetor. The presence of oxygen in the combustion products, which is a function of the air-fuel ratio of the mixture, is sensed and a first electrical signal representative of the oxygen content is supplied. The first electrical signal is compared with a predetermined reference level which is a function of the predetermined value to produce a second electrical signal having first and second signal elements, a first signal element being produced when the air-fuel ratio of the mixture is greater than the predetermined level and a second signal element being produced when the ratio is less than the level. A control responsive to the second electrical signal supplies to an air metering unit a control signal by which the quantity of air introduced into the fuel system is controlled. A change in the control signal is produced whenever the second electrical signal has a transition from one signal element to the other thereby for the air metering unit to change the quantity of air introduced into the fuel system conduit by an amount necessary to substantially maintain the air-fuel ratio at the predetermined value.

Gantzert, T.R.; Hicks, D.L.; Lindberg, A.W.

1981-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

190

Particle backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio profiling with Raman lidar in south and north China  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol Raman lidar observations of profiles of the particle extinction and backscatter coefficients and the respective extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) were performed under highly polluted conditions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China in October 2004 and at Beijing during a clear period with moderately polluted to background aerosol conditions in January 2005. The anthropogenic haze in the PRD is characterized by volume light-extinction coefficients of particles ranging from approximately 200 to800 Mm-1 and lidar ratios mostly between 40 and 55 sr (average of47{+-}6 sr). Almost clean air masses were observed throughout the measurements of the Beijing campaign. These air masses originated from arid desert-steppe-like regions (greater Gobi area).Extinction values usually varied between 100 and300 Mm-1, and the lidar ratios were considerably lower (compared with PRD values) with values mostly from 30 to 45 sr (average of38{+-}7 sr). Gobi dust partly influenced the observations. Unexpectedly low lidar ratios of approximately 25 sr were found for a case of background aerosol with a low optical depth of 0.05. The low lidar ratios are consistent with Mie-scattering calculations applied to ground-based observations of particle size distributions.

Tesche, Matthias; Ansmann, Albert; Mueller, Detlef; Althausen, Dietrich; Engelmann, Ronny; Hu Min; Zhang Yuanghang

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Effect of recess pressure ratio on the characteristics of a hybrid bearing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hybrid (Combination Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic) bearings have shown good properties in testing and in consideration for applications such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump. However, properties have not been examined for a variation in the design parameters of radial clearance, recess pressure ratio, and recess to land area ratio while holding the other parameters constant. This thesis presents the theoretical and experimental characteristics for an orificecompensated, annulus-fed hybrid water journal bearing for variation in recess pressure ratio. Recess pressure ratio Pr is defined as [ ] where Pr is the recess pressure, P, is the supply pressure, and Pa is the discharge pressure. Rowe (1983) showed that the bearing load capacity can be maximized by a Pr value of 0.58 at the concentric position for hydrostatic bearings. Experimental results showed the maximum load capacity to bear near 0.58 with slight variation as rotor speed and supply pressure are varied. Test results show that maximum stiffness occurs over a range of Pr from 0.4 to 0.7 with variation in operating speed and supply pressure. The direct damping increases as recess pressure ratio is decreased. Whirl frequency ratio and torque show little variation with recess pressure ratio. Predictions are made using HYDROBEARC developed by San Andres (1992). Accuracy of prediction is analyzed by comparison with experimental test results and found to be adequate, with decreasing accuracy as supply pressure and especially rotor speed are increased. Previous work found the accuracy of prediction by HYDROBEARC to increase as the rotor speed is increased.

Ingram, Michael William

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Impurity Element Isotope Ratios in Nuclear Reactor Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis has been used to measure isotope ratios of selected impurity elements in irradiated reactor materials. Samples of reactor materials such as graphite or aluminum alloys are obtained from fuel channels or supporting materials. During reactor operations and fuel burn up, some isotopic abundances change due to nuclear reactions and provide sensitive indicators of neutron fluence. The rate of change is related to cross section for a particular isotope. Different isotopes can be used as indicators of burn up during different stages in the reactor operating history. Isotope ratios of B are useful indicators for low burnup stages early in reactor operations, Ti isotope ratios are useful at later burn up stages, and Cl isotope ratios are useful in both early and later stages. Knowledge of the sample position within the reactor also yields information on the fluence shape or profile. In a sequence of samples from one reactor, 10B/11B ratios decreased from near natural values of 0.25 to blasting, plasma etching, and vacuum furnace treatment.

Gerlach, David C.; Cliff, John B.; Hurley, David E.; Reid, Bruce D.; Little, Winston W.; Meriwether, George H.; Wickham, Anthony J.; Simmons, Tere A.

2006-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

193

Dust-to-gas ratio and star formation history of blue compact dwarf galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper investigates the origin of the observed large variety in dust-to-gas ratio among blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs). By applying our chemical evolution model, we find that the dust destruction can largely suppress the dust-to-gas ratio when the metallicity of a BCD reaches $12+\\log{\\rm (O/H)}\\sim 8$, i.e., a typical metallicity level of BCDs. We also show that dust-to-gas ratio is largely varied owing to the change of dust destruction efficiency that has two effects: (i) a significant contribution of Type Ia supernovae to total supernova rate; (ii) variation of gas mass contained in a star-forming region. While mass loss from BCDs was previously thought to be the major cause for the variance of dust-to-gas ratio, we suggest that the other two effects are also important. We finally discuss the intermittent star formation history, which naturally explains the large dispersion of dust-to-gas ratio among BCDs.

H. Hirashita; Y. Y. Tajiri; H. Kamaya

2002-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

194

Effects of fuel type and equivalence ratios on the flickering of triple flames  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study has been conducted in axisymmetric, co-flowing triple flames with different equivalence ratios of the inner and outer reactant streams (2propane/propane, propane/methane or methane/methane in the inner and outer streams respectively, have been used in the experiments. The structures of the triple flames have been compared for the different fuel combinations and equivalence ratios. The conditions under which triple flames exhibit oscillation have been identified. During the oscillation, the non-premixed flame and the outer lean premixed flame flicker strongly, while the inner rich premixed flame remains more or less stable. The flickering frequency has been evaluated through image processing and fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the average pixel intensity of the image frames. It is observed that, for all the fuel combinations, the frequency decreases with the increase in the outer equivalence ratio, while it is relatively invariant with the change in the inner equivalence ratio. However, an increase in the inner equivalence ratio affects the structure of the flame by increasing the heights of the inner premixed flame and non-premixed flame and also enlarges the yellow soot-laden zone at the tip of the inner flame. A scaling analysis of the oscillating flames has been performed based on the measured parameters, which show a variation of Strouhal number (St) with Richardson number (Ri) as St {proportional_to} Ri{sup 0.5}. The fuel type is found to have no influence on this correlation. (author)

Sahu, K.B.; Kundu, A.; Ganguly, R.; Datta, A. [Department of Power Engineering, Jadavpur University, Salt Lake Campus, Kolkata 700098 (India)

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

195

Ratios of heavy baryons to heavy mesons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heavy baryon/meson ratios Lambda(c)/D(0) and Lambda(b)/(B) over bar (0) in relativistic heavy ion collisions are studied in the quark coalescence model. For heavy baryons, we include production from coalescence of heavy quarks with free light quarks as well as with bounded light diquarks that might exist in the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma produced in these collisions. Including the contribution from decays of heavy hadron resonances and also that due to fragmentation of heavy quarks that are left in the system after coalescence, the resulting Lambda(c)/D(0) and Lambda(b)/(B) over bar (0) ratios in midrapidity (vertical bar y vertical bar heavy baryon/meson ratios is found to be sensitive to the heavy quark mass, with the Lambda(b)/(B) over bar (0) ratio being much flatter than the Lambda(c)/D(0) ratio. The latter peaks at the transverse momentum p(T) similar or equal to 0.8 GeV but the peak shifts to p(T) similar or equal to 2 GeV in the absence of diquarks.

Oh, Yongseok; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Yasui, Shigehiro.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Impact of aspect ratio on flow boiling of water in rectangular microchannels  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we focus on the impact of varying the aspect ratio of rectangular microchannels, on the overall pressure drop involving water boiling. An integrated system comprising micro-heaters, sensors and microchannels has been realized on (110) silicon wafers, following CMOS compatible process steps. Rectangular microchannels were fabricated with varying aspect ratios (width [W] to depth [H]) but constant hydraulic diameter of 142{+-}2{mu}m and length of 20 mm. The invariant nature of the hydraulic diameter is confirmed through two independent means: physical measurements using profilometer and by measuring the pressure drop in single-phase fluid flow. The experimental results show that the pressure drop for two-phase flow in rectangular microchannels experiences minima at an aspect ratio of about 1.6. The minimum is possibly due to opposing trends of frictional and acceleration pressure drops, with respect to aspect ratio. In a certain heat flux and mass flux range, it is observed that the two-phase pressure drop is lower than the corresponding single-phase value. This is the first study to investigate the effect of aspect ratio in two-phase flow in microchannels, to the best of our knowledge. The results are in qualitative agreement with annular flow model predictions. These results improve the possibility of designing effective heat-sinks based on two-phase fluid flow in microchannels. (author)

Singh, S.G.; Kulkarni, A.; Duttagupta, S.P. [Nanoelectronics Center, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Puranik, B.P.; Agrawal, A. [Suman Mashruwala Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

Argonne CNM Highlight: High density, high-aspect-ratio precision polyimide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High density, high-aspect-ratio precision polyimide nanofilters High density, high-aspect-ratio precision polyimide nanofilters Polyimide Nanofilter SEM of a polyimide film with holes ~250 nm in diameter and ~10 µm deep. The cross-sectional cut of the channels in the front are made visible by focused ion-beam milling. Collaborative users from Creatv MicroTech, Inc. and Los Alamos National Laboratory, working with CNM's Nanofabrication & Devices Group, have demonstrated a novel fabrication process that produces high-porosity polymer nanofilters with smooth, uniform. and straight pores and high aspect ratios. Nanofilters have a wide range of applications for various size-exclusion-based separations in bioseparation and nanomedicine, such as laboratory assays, removing bacteria and viruses, drug delivery devices,

198

36Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems- preliminary measurements from the  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems- preliminary measurements from the Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems- preliminary measurements from the Coso Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: 36Cl/Cl ratios in geothermal systems- preliminary measurements from the Coso Field Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The {sub 36}Cl/Cl isotopic composition of chlorine in geothermal systems can be a useful diagnostic tool in characterizing hydrologic structure, in determining the origins and age of waters within the systems, and in differentiating the sources of chlorine (and other solutes) in the thermal waters. The {sub 36}Cl/Cl values for several geothermal water samples and reservoir host rock samples from the Coso, California geothermal field have been measured for these purposes. The results

199

Branching ratio measurements of the 7.12-MeV state in 16O  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Knowledge of the gamma-ray branching ratios of the 7.12-MeV state of 16O is important for the extrapolation of the 12C(a,g)16O cross section to astrophysical energies. Ground state transitions provide most of the 12C(a,g)16O total cross section while cascade transitions have contributions of the order of 10-20%. Determining the 7.12-MeV branching ratio will result in a better extrapolation of the cascade and E2 ground state cross section to low energies. We report here on measurements on the branching ratio of the 7.12-MeV level in 16O.

C. Matei; C. R. Brune

2004-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

200

Influences of atmospheric conditions and air mass on the ratio of ultraviolet to total solar radiation  

SciTech Connect

The technology to detoxify hazardous wastes using ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation is being investigated by the DOE/SERI Solar Thermal Technology Program. One of the elements of the technology evaluation is the assessment and characterization of UV solar radiation resources available for detoxification processes. This report describes the major atmospheric variables that determine the amount of UV solar radiation at the earth's surface, and how the ratio of UV-to-total solar radiation varies with atmospheric conditions. These ratios are calculated from broadband and spectral solar radiation measurements acquired at SERI, and obtained from the literature on modeled and measured UV solar radiation. The following sections discuss the atmospheric effects on UV solar radiation and provide UV-to-total solar radiation ratios from published studies, as well as measured values from SERI's data. A summary and conclusions are also given.

Riordan, C.J.; Hulstrom, R.L.; Myers, D.R.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bowen ratio ebbr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Competitive Ratio Analysis of Online Algorithms to Minimize Data Transmission Time in Energy Harvesting Communication System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the optimal online packet scheduling problem in a single-user energy harvesting wireless communication system, where energy is harvested from natural renewable sources, making future energy arrivals instants and amounts random in nature. The most general case of arbitrary energy arrivals is considered where neither the future energy arrival instants or amount, nor their distribution is known. The problem considered is to adaptively change the transmission rate according to the causal energy arrival information, such that the time by which all packets are delivered is minimized. We assume that all bits have arrived and are ready at the source before the transmission begins. For a minimization problem, the utility of an online algorithm is tested by finding its competitive ratio or competitiveness that is defined to be the maximum of the ratio of the gain of the online algorithm with the optimal offline algorithm over all input sequences. We derive a lower and upper bound on the competitive ratio of...

Vaze, Rahul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Co-composting of green waste and food waste at low C/N ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, co-composting of food waste and green waste at low initial carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios was investigated using an in-vessel lab-scale composting reactor. The central composite design (CCD) and response surface method (RSM) were applied to obtain the optimal operating conditions over a range of preselected moisture contents (45-75%) and C/N ratios (13.9-19.6). The results indicate that the optimal moisture content for co-composting of food waste and green waste is 60%, and the substrate at a C/N ratio of 19.6 can be decomposed effectively to reduce 33% of total volatile solids (TVS) in 12 days. The TVS reduction can be modeled by using a second-order equation with a good fit. In addition, the compost passes the standard germination index of white radish seed indicating that it can be used as soil amendment.

Kumar, Mathava; Ou, Y.-L. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001, University Road, Hsinchu City 30010, Taiwan (China); Lin, J.-G., E-mail: jglin@mail.nctu.edu.t [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001, University Road, Hsinchu City 30010, Taiwan (China)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Bayesian Integration of Isotope Ratios for Geographic Sourcing of Castor Beans  

SciTech Connect

Recent years have seen an increase in the forensic interest associated with the poison ricin, which is extracted from the seeds of the Ricinus communis plant. Both light element (C, N, O, and H) and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios have previously been used to associate organic material with geographic regions of origin. We present a Bayesian integration methodology that can more accurately predict the region of origin for a castor bean than individual models developed independently for light element stable isotopes or Sr isotope ratios. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in the ability to correctly classify regions based on the integrated model with a class accuracy of 6 0 . 9 {+-} 2 . 1 % versus 5 5 . 9 {+-} 2 . 1 % and 4 0 . 2 {+-} 1 . 8 % for the light element and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios, respectively. In addition, we show graphically the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset in respect to class prediction and how the integration of these datasets strengthens the overall model.

Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Hart, Garret L.; Ehleringer, James; West, Jason B.; Gill, Gary A.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Nano-scaled graphene platelets with a high length-to-width aspect ratio  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention provides a nano-scaled graphene platelet (NGP) having a thickness no greater than 100 nm and a length-to-width ratio no less than 3 (preferably greater than 10). The NGP with a high length-to-width ratio can be prepared by using a method comprising (a) intercalating a carbon fiber or graphite fiber with an intercalate to form an intercalated fiber; (b) exfoliating the intercalated fiber to obtain an exfoliated fiber comprising graphene sheets or flakes; and (c) separating the graphene sheets or flakes to obtain nano-scaled graphene platelets. The invention also provides a nanocomposite material comprising an NGP with a high length-to-width ratio. Such a nanocomposite can become electrically conductive with a small weight fraction of NGPs. Conductive composites are particularly useful for shielding of sensitive electronic equipment against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI), and for electrostatic charge dissipation.

Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

205

Mechanism of laser drilling superhigh-aspect-ratio holes in polymers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A brief review of recent theoretical and experimental studies of multipulse laser drilling keyholes in polymers is presented. The stationary keyhole profile is obtained after irradiation by a quite great number of laser pulses due to self-organisation processes and is a new more stable state of the surface irradiated by intense light. This concept together with ample experimental data obtained for various polymers form the basis of the analytical model of multipulse drilling holes with a superhigh depth - diameter ratio (300-600) (the so-called aspect ratio) by using UV excimer KrF laser radiation. The model reveals the main factors controlling the parameters of drilling holes by nanosecond UV pulses and, in particular, determines the conditions for drilling holes with virtually parallel side walls and very high aspect ratios. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of a.m. prokhorov)

Tokarev, V N, E-mail: tokarev@kapella.gpi.r [Natural Science Center, A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

206

Determination of Natural Beryllium (Be) in Soil and Swipe Samples Utilizing Yttrium/Beryllium Ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

1. Objective: A method to determine whether beryllium (Be) components in surface swipe samples are from a natural source is needed. 2. Methods: Soil samples and surface swipes from area facilities were analyzed for marker elements to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be). To be useful, the natural marker element must be present at reasonably consistent levels across the site, must correlate with the Be concentration, and not have the potential to be present from non-natural sources. 3. Results: The research on marker elements used to identify source pathways for beryllium (Be) concentrations demonstrates a clear correlation between Be and yttrium (Y) in natural soils on the Nevada National Security Site. The Y/Be ratio is proposed as a method to characterize the source of Be in soil and surface swipe samples and to aid in recommendations for follow up actions. Swipe samples are analyzed using an ICP/MS method and compared with results from soil samples. Natural soil constituent levels and the Y/Be Ratio range is determined for the occupied and historical facilities and surrounding areas. Y/Be ratios within the statistical range established indicate the Be is from a natural source. Y/Be ratios lower than this range indicate the presence of another Be source, and may then be correlated to alloy, ceramic, or other operational sources by the ratios of copper, nickel, cobalt, uranium, and/or niobium. Example case studies of evaluations of buildings with historical operational beryllium usage, current ongoing technical processes, and heavy equipment used in large building demolitions are included demonstrating the value of the ratio approach. 4. Conclusions: This differentiation is valuable as there is no known correlation between natural beryllium in soil and beryllium disease.

None

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

207

Direct and indirect effects of atmospheric conditions and soil moisture on surface energy partitioning revealed by a prolonged drought at a temperate forest site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mechanism that controls the variation of surface energy partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes at a temperate deciduous forest site in central Missouri, USA. Taking advantage of multiple micrometeorological and ecophysiological measurements and a prolonged drought in the middle of the 2005 growing season at this site, we studied how soil moisture, atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and net radiation affected surface energy partitioning. We stratified these factors to minimize potential confounding effects of correlation among them. We found that all three factors had direct effects on surface energy partitioning, but more important, all three factors also had crucial indirect effects. The direct effect of soil moisture was characterized by a rapid decrease in Bowen ratio with increasing soil moisture when the soil was dry and by insensitivity of Bowen ratio to variations in soil moisture when the soil was wet. However, the rate of decrease in Bowen ratio when the soil was dry and the level of soil moisture above which Bowen ratio became insensitive to changes in soil moisture depended on atmospheric conditions. The direct effect of increased net radiation was to increase Bowen ratio. The direct effect of VPD was very nonlinear: Increased VPD decreased Bowen ratio at low VPD but increased Bowen ratio at high VPD. The indirect effects were much more complicated. Reduced soil moisture weakened the influence of VPD but enhanced the influence of net adiation on surface energy partitioning. Soil moisture also controlled how net radiation influenced the relationship between surface energy partitioning and VPD and how VPD affected the relationship between surface energy partitioning and net radiation. Furthermore, both increased VPD and increased net radiation enhanced the sensitivity of Bowen ratio to changes in soil moisture and the effect of drought on surface energy partitioning. The direct and indirect effects of atmospheric conditions and soil moisture on surface energy partitioning identified in this paper provide a target for testing atmospheric general circulation models in their representation of land-atmosphere coupling.

Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Meyers, T. P. [NOAA ATDD; Pallardy, Stephen G. [University of Missouri; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Yang, Bai [ORNL; Heuer, Mark [ATDD, NOAA; Hosman, K. P. [University of Missouri; Riggs, Jeffery S [ORNL; Sluss, Daniel Wayne [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Scaling of the Longitudinal Electric Field and Transformer Ratio in a Nonlinear Plasma Wakefield Accelerator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The scaling of the two important figures of merit, the transformer ratio T and the longitudinal electric field E{sub z}, with the peak drive-bunch current I{sub p}, in a nonlinear plasma wakefield accelerator is presented for the first time. The longitudinal field scales as I{sub P}{sup 0.623{+-}0.007}, in good agreement with nonlinear wakefield theory ({approx}I{sub P}{sup 0.5}), while the unloaded transformer ratio is shown to be greater than unity and scales weakly with the bunch current. The effect of bunch head erosion on both parameters is also discussed.

Blumenfeld, I.; /SLAC; Clayton, C.E.; /UCLA; Decker, F.J.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC; Huang, C.; /UCLA; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.H.; /SLAC; Joshi, C.; /UCLA; Katsouleas, T.; /Southern California U.; Kirby, N.; /SLAC; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; /UCLA; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; /Southern California U.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.R.; /SLAC; Zhou, M.; /UCLA

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

209

Remote sounding of the mixing ratio of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from a satellite  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide is the most important atmospheric constituent contributing to the greenhouse effect in the earth-atmosphere system. Here, a method is presented for the remote sounding of the mixing ratio of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from a satellite, including the inversion method and preliminary calculation results. The results indicate that the measurement accuracy of the mixing ratio of carbon dioxide in 0.25 ppm, calculated according to volume, in ground field of view of 1,127 x 1,162 km[sup 2] for an instrument such as the HIRS-2 on the US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration meteorological satellite.

Zhaoxian Zhang (Shangai Inst. of Technical Physics (China))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

"Table A15. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Census Region and Economic" " Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991" ,,,"Consumption","Major" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","Byproducts(b)","Fuel Oil(c)"," " " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","as a Percent","as a Percent","RSE" " ","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","of Consumption","of Natural Gas","Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(percent)","(percent)","Factors"

211

"Table A45. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

5. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption" 5. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption" " for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Industry Group," " Selected Industries, and Value of Shipment Categories, 1994" ,,,,,"Major" ,,,"Consumption","Consumption per","Byproducts(c)","Fuel Oil(d)" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","Dollar of Value","as a Percent","as a Percent","RSE" "SIC",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","of Consumption","of Natural Gas","Row" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristics(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(percents)","(percents)","Factors"

212

"Table A46. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption" Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption" " for Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Industry Group," " Selected Industries, and Employment Size Categories, 1994" ,,,,,"Major" ,,,"Consumption","Consumption per","Byproducts(c)","Fuel Oil(d)" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","Dollar of Value","as a Percent","as a Percent","RSE" "SIC",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","of Consumption","of Natural Gas","Row" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristics(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(percents)","(percents)","Factors"

213

"Table A48. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" 8. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, and Economic" " Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" ,,,"Consumption","Major" " "," ","Consumption","per Dollar","Byproducts(b)","Fuel Oil(c)"," " " ","Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","as a Percent","as a Percent","RSE" " ","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","of Consumption","of Natural Gas","Row"

214

"Table A8. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

A8. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" A8. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Census Region, Industry Group, and" " Selected Industries, 1991" ,,,,,"Major" ,,,,"Consumption","Byproducts(b)" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar","as a","Fuel Oil(c) as" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","Percent of","a Percent of","RSE" "SIC"," ","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Consumsption","Natural Gas","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Groups and Industry","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(PERCENT)","(percent)","Factors"

215

"Table A51. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" 1. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Census Region and Economic" " Characteristics of the Establishment, 1991 " ,,,,,"Major" ,,,"Consumption","Consumption per","Byproducts(c)","Fuel Oil(d)" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","Dollar of Value","as a Percent","as a Percent","RSE" "SIC",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","of Consumption","of Natural Gas","Row" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristics(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(percent)","(percent)","Factors"

216

"Table A47. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" 7. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Census Region, Census Division, Industry Group, and" " Selected Industries, 1994" ,,,,,"Major" ,,,,"Consumption","Byproducts(b)" ,,,"Consumption","per Dollar","as a","Fuel Oil(c) as" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","of Value","Percent of","a Percent of","RSE" "SIC"," ","per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","Consumption","Natural Gas","Row" "Code(a)","Industry Group and Industry","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(percents)","(percents)","Factors"

217

Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine. 4 figs.

Frank, A.A.

1984-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

218

Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

Frank, Andrew A. (1034 Hillside Ave., Madison, WI 53705)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

"Table A50. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" 0. Selected Energy Operating Ratios for Total Energy Consumption for" " Heat, Power, and Electricity Generation by Industry Group," " Selected Industries, and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991 (Continued)" ,,,,,"Major" ,,,"Consumption","Consumption per","Byproducts(c)","Fuel Oil(d)" ,,"Consumption","per Dollar","Dollar of Value","as a Percent of","as a Percent","RSE" "SIC",,"per Employee","of Value Added","of Shipments","of Consumption","of Natural Gas","Row" "Code(a)","Economic Characteristics(b)","(million Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(thousand Btu)","(Percent)","(percent)","Factors"

220

The Effects of Variations in Buffer Gas Mixing Ratios on Commercial Carbon Dioxide Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Primary gas standards, gas chromatography, and frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy measurements have been used to assess the effect of variations in the argon mixing ratio on the CO2 mixing ratios reported by commercial cavity ring-...

D. A. Long; L. Gameson; G.-W. Truong; K. Bielska; A. Cygan; J. T. Hodges; J. R. Whetstone; R. D. van Zee

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bowen ratio ebbr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Pairing Measurements of the Water Vapor Isotope Ratio with Humidity to Deduce Atmospheric Moistening and Dehydration in the Tropical Midtroposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the isotope ratio of water vapor (expressed as the ? value) allow processes that control the humidity in the tropics to be identified. Isotopic information is useful because the change in ? relative to the water vapor mixing ratio (...

David Noone

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

3430 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 61, NO. 8, OCTOBER 2012 Experimental Validation of High-Voltage-Ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Validation of High-Voltage-Ratio Low-Input-Current-Ripple Converters for Hybrid Fuel Cell Supercapacitor

Simões, Marcelo Godoy

223

Modeling of interfaces in two-dimensional problems using solid finite elements with high aspect ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of standard solid finite elements with a very high aspect ratio is proposed to model the behavior of thin interface regions between distinct components of composite structural members. It is shown that these elements present the same kinematics ... Keywords: Bond-slip, Damage model, Finite elements, Interface model, Reinforced concrete, Strong discontinuity

O. L. Manzoli; A. L. Gamino; E. A. Rodrigues; G. K. S. Claro

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Neural network control of air-to-fuel ratio in a bi-fuel engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a neural network-based control system is proposed for fine control of the intake air/fuel ratio in a bi-fuel engine. This control system is an add-on module for an existing vehicle manufacturer's electronic control units (ECUs). Typically ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, bi-fuel engines, compressed natural gas (CNG), fuel injection control

G. Gnanam; S. R. Habibi; R. T. Burton; M. T. Sulatisky

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Unusually high (oxidizer/Pu) ratios in the macro-residues from plutonium-droplet combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual submillimeter-diameter droplets of /sup 239/Pu-0.6w/o Ga alloy were laser ignited and burned during free fall through air. As with a number of other active metals, plutonium droplets burn as coherent, intensely incandescent bodies that explode near the end of combustion. Compared to many other metals, however, the explosive event with plutonium droplets is relatively mild, and, in most experiments, an essentially intact spherule of oxidized material can be retrieved afterward from the combustion chamber. The oxidizer-to-plutonium atomic ratios (O/Pu) of the exploded spherules retrieved in the experiments seem unusually high - from 3- to 5-fold greater than the pre-explosion ratios. Some possible explanations of the high apparent O/Pu ratios are: (1) the particles may have become contaminated after the explosion but before the microweighing; (2) the analyses may have been performed with only partially dissolved specimens; (3) one or more elements heavier than the oxidizer elements (i.e. Ga) may have concentrated in the post explosion residue, giving a false indication of the O/Pu ratio; (4) the specimens may be supersaturated or otherwise metastable solutions of oxygen or other oxidizers quenched in at combustion temperatures; or (5) there might be hitherto unknown hyperstoichiometric oxygen and/or nitrogen compounds of plutonium which form at high temperatures. (JMT)

Nelson, L.S.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Empirical Modeling of Layered Integrated Water Vapor Using Surface Mixing Ratio in Nigeria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the available upper-air data for three stations in Nigeria (Lagos, a coastal station; Minna, an inland station; and Kano, a sub-Sahelian station), an intensive examination has been carried out on the linkage between surface mixing ratio rs ...

B. Adeyemi

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

The efficiency of the crude oil markets: Evidence from variance ratio tests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-form efficient market hy- pothesis for two oil crude markets (UK Brent and US West Texas Intermediate) is testedThe efficiency of the crude oil markets: Evidence from variance ratio tests Amélie CHARLES Audencia the random walk hypothesis for the crude oil markets, using daily data over the period 1982­2008. The weak

Recanati, Catherine

228

Deciphering the measured ratios of Iodine-131 to Cesium-137 at the Fukushima reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the relative abundance of the radioactive isotopes Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 produced by nuclear fission in reactors and compare it with data taken at the troubled Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The ratio of radioactivities of these two isotopes can be used to obtain information about when the nuclear reactions terminated.

Matsui, T

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Design of a 2400MW liquid-salt cooled flexible conversion ratio reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A 2400MWth liquid-salt cooled flexible conversion ratio reactor was designed, utilizing the ternary chloride salt NaCl-KCl-MgCI2 (30%-20%-50%) as coolant. The reference design uses a wire-wrapped, hex lattice core, and is ...

Petroski, Robert C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Activated Aging Dynamics and Negative Fluctuation-Dissipation Ratios Peter Mayer,1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Activated Aging Dynamics and Negative Fluctuation-Dissipation Ratios Peter Mayer,1,2 Se´bastien Le 2006) In glassy materials, aging proceeds at large times via thermal activation. We show that this can theoretical and numerical results for the activated aging regime of simple kinetically constrained models

Berthier, Ludovic

231

PIV Studies of Large Scale Structures in the Near Field of Small Aspect Ratio Elliptic Jets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The near flow field of small aspect ratio elliptic turbulent free jets (issuing from nozzle and orifice) was experimentally studied using a 2D PIV. Two point velocity correlations in these jets revealed the extent and orientation of the large scale structures ... Keywords: Axis switching, Elliptic jet, PIV, Spatial filtering, Two point correlation

G. Ramesh; L. Venkatakrishnan; A. Prabhu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

High-Spectral Resolution Lidar Measurement of Tropospheric Backscatter Ratio Using Barium Atomic Blocking Filters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Initial measurements of the aerosol backscatter ratio using a new atomic barium filter (FWHM from 2.0–3.0 GHz at 553.7 nm) in conjunction with a narrowband-pulsed dye laser system are reported. Using analog detection and a 0.2 m diameter ...

R. J. Alvarez II; L. M. Caldwell; V. H. Li; D. A. Krueger; C. Y. She

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Directional histogram ratio at random probes: A local thresholding criterion for capillary images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the development of micron-scale imaging techniques, capillaries can be conveniently visualized using methods such as two-photon and whole mount microscopy. However, the presence of background staining, leaky vessels and the diffusion of small fluorescent ... Keywords: Capillary, Directional histogram ratio, Image thresholding, Random probe, Two-photon imaging, Whole mount microscopy

Na Lu; Jharon Silva; Yu Gu; Scott Gerber; Hulin Wu; Harris Gelbard; Stephen Dewhurst; Hongyu Miao

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Modelling damping ratio and shear modulus of sand-mica mixtures using genetic programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents two Genetic Programming (GP) models for damping ratio and shear modulus of sand-mica mixtures based on experimental results. The experimental database used for GP modelling is based on a laboratory study of dynamic properties of saturated ... Keywords: Genetic programming, Leighton buzzard sand, Mica, Resonant column testing

Abdulkadir Cevik; Ali Firat Cabalar

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Temporal variability of uranium concentrations and 234 activity ratios in the Mississippi river and its tributaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845, United States c-basins exert the greatest control on Lower Mississippi River uranium concentration and isotope signatures; Uranium isotope ratios; Temporal variability; Tributary sources; Global riverine uranium flux 1

236

Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in human hair are related to geography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios in human hair are related to geography James R. Ehleringer, Salt Lake City, UT 84112; Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT the geographic region-of- origin of humans based on the stable isotope composition of their scalp hair

Ehleringer, Jim

237

Effect of species and wood to bark ratio on pelleting of southern woods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Six common southern hardwoods and loblolly pine were pelleted in a laboratory pellet mill. The pellet furnishes were blended to test the effect of different wood to bark ratios on pellet durability and production rate. Included was a ratio chosen to simulate the wood to bark ratio found in whole-tree chips. This furnish produced good quality pellets for all species tested. Pelleting of the pure wood of hardwoods was not successful; furnish routinely blocked the pellet mill dies. Pure pine wood, however, did produce acceptable pellets. It was noted that, as lignin and extractive content increased above a threshold level, the precentage of fines produced in a pellet durability test increased. Thus, all pine and tupelo wood/bark mixes produces high fines. This reduces the desirability of the pellets in the marketplace. Further research is necessary to confirm this relationship. This study suggests that both tree species and wood/bark ratio affect the durability of pellets and the rate with which they can be produced in a laboratory pellet mill. 9 references.

Bradfield, J.; Levi, M.P.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

On the Calibration and Performance of an Instrument for Measuring Total Water Mixing Ratio in Cloud  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An instrument which measures the total water mixing ratio in cloud has been calibrated to an accuracy of ±0.1 g kg?1 in the presence of liquid water contents ranging up to 7 g kg?1. Evaporation occurs in a labyrinth of heated plates and the ...

C. E. Coulman; M. A. Parker

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Mechanisms of Atomic Layer Deposition on Substrates with Ultrahigh Aspect Ratios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a very promising method for controlled coating of the inner surfaces of monolithic nanoporous aerogel (AG suited for coating substrates with ultrahigh aspect ratios (J103), including nanoporous solids. Here, we study the ALD of Cu and Cu3N on the inner surfaces of low-density nanoporous silica aerogel monoliths

Gordon, Roy

240

Free Boundary, High Beta Equilibrium in a Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak with Nearly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Free Boundary, High Beta Equilibrium in a Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak with Nearly Circular Plasma Boundary H. Qin A. Reiman September 25, 1996 Abstract An analytic solution is obtained for free. In the absence of surface currents at the plasma-vacuum in- terface, the free-boundary equilibrium solution

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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241

Free Boundary, High Beta Equilibrium in a Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak with Nearly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Free Boundary, High Beta Equilibrium in a Large Aspect Ratio Tokamak with Nearly Circular Plasma Boundary H. Qin A. Reiman September 25, 1996 Abstract An analytic solution is obtained for free. In the absence of surface currents at the plasma­vacuum in­ terface, the free­boundary equilibrium solution

242

High precision measurement of the proton elastic form factor ratio at low Q²  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experiment E08-007 measured the proton elastic form factor ratio [mu]GE/GM in the range of Q2 = 0.3-0.7(GeV/c)2 by recoil polarimetry. Data were taken in 2008 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Virginia, ...

Zhan, Xiaohui

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Measurement of the ratio B(t to Wb)/B(t to Wq)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ratio of the top quark branching fractions $\\mathcal{R}=B(t\\rightarrow Wb)/B(t\\rightarrow Wq)$, where $q$ can be a $d$, $s$, or a $b$ quark, is measured in the $t\\bar{t}$ dilepton final state.

CMS Collaboration

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Deciphering the measured ratios of Iodine-131 to Cesium-137 at the Fukushima reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the relative abundance of the radioactive isotopes Iodine-131 and Cesium-137 produced by nuclear fission in reactors and compare it with data taken at the troubled Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The ratio of radioactivities of these two isotopes can be used to obtain information about when the nuclear reactions terminated.

T. Matsui

2011-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

245

THE INFLUENCE OF THE MASS RATIO ON THE ACCELERATION OF PARTICLES BY FILAMENTATION INSTABILITIES  

SciTech Connect

Almost all sources of high-energy particles and photons are associated with jet phenomena. Prominent sources of such highly relativistic outflows are pulsar winds, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and gamma-ray bursts. The current understanding of these jets assumes diluted plasmas which are best described as kinetic phenomena. In this kinetic description, particle acceleration to ultrarelativistic speeds can occur in completely unmagnetized and neutral plasmas through insetting effects of instabilities. Even though the morphology and nature of particle spectra are understood to a certain extent, the composition of the jets is not known yet. While Poynting-flux-dominated jets (e.g., occurring in pulsar winds) are certainly composed of electron-positron plasmas, the understanding of the governing physics in AGN jets is mostly unclear. In this paper, we investigate how the constituting elements of an electron-positron-proton plasma behave differently under the variation of the fundamental mass ratio m{sub p} /m{sub e}. We initially studied unmagnetized counterstreaming plasmas using fully relativistic three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations to investigate the influence of the mass ratio on particle acceleration and magnetic field generation in electron-positron-proton plasmas. We covered a range of mass ratios m{sub p}/m{sub e} between 1 and 100 with a particle number composition of n{sub p}{sup +}/ n{sub e}{sup +} of 1 in one stream, therefore called the pair-proton stream. Protons are injected in the other one, therefore from now on called the proton stream, whereas electrons are present in both to guarantee charge neutrality in the simulation box. We find that with increasing proton mass the instability takes longer to develop and for mass ratios >20 the particles seem to be accelerated in two phases which can be accounted for by the individual instabilities of the different species. This means that for high mass ratios the coupling between electrons/positrons and the heavier protons, which occurs in low mass ratios, disappears.

Burkart, Thomas; Elbracht, Oliver; Ganse, Urs; Spanier, Felix, E-mail: fspanier@astro.uni-wuerzburg.d [Lehrstuhl fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

246

The marine and terrestrial ecology of a northern population of the Little Penguin, Eudyptula minor, from Bowen Island, Jervis Bay.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The breeding success of the Little Penguin was significantly higher in northern populations compared with documented southern colonies. Several southern colonies including Phillip Island in Victoria and… (more)

Fortescue, Martin

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios Lattice Boltzmann Method for Multiphase Flows with High Density and Viscosity Ratios Seckin Gokaltun, Dwayne McDaniel and David Roelant Florida International University, Miami, FL Background As a result of atomic weapons production, millions of gallons of radioactive waste was generated and stored in underground tanks at various U.S. Department of Energy sites. Department of Energy is currently in the process of transferring the waste from single shell tanks to double shell tanks. Various waste retrieval and processing methods are employed during the transfer of the waste. One such method, pulsed-air mixing, involves injection of discrete pulses of compressed air or inert gas at the bottom of the tank to produce large bubbles that rise due to buoyancy and mix the waste in the tank

248

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios;  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Next MECS will be fielded in 2015 Table 6.1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per Dollar Consumption per Dollar of Value NAICS per Employee of Value Added of Shipments Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million Btu) (thousand Btu) (thousand Btu) Total United States 311 Food 871.7 4.3 1.8 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6,239.5 10.5 3.6 311221 Wet Corn Milling 28,965.0 27.1 12.6 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 7,755.9 32.6 13.4 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 861.3 4.8 2.2 3115 Dairy Products 854.8 3.5 1.1 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing 442.9 3.5 1.2 312

249

Enhancement of the contrast ratio associated with surface waves in a metal pillar-slit structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple optical structure, termed a pillar-slit structure, is proposed to enhance the contrast ratio of the weak optical signal. The structure consists of a metal slit surrounded by two metal pillars and can be directly incorporated onto optical sensors. The waves excited on the incident surface are modulated by the pillars and then scattered by the slit entrance so as to generate the in-slit surface plasmon polaritons passing through the slit. The transmission power is modified by the surface wave intensity. This structure is capable of suppressing background and enhancing signal light simultaneously. A calculated illustration by the numerical simulation method shows that an increase of the contrast ratio can be exceeded 900 times.

Zhou Yunsong; Zhao Liming [Center of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Wang Huaiyu [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lan Sheng [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

THE MEASUREMENT OF OXYGEN TO METAL RATIO IN SOLID SOLUTIONS OF URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM DIOXIDES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A survey was made of methods potentially useful for the determination of the oxygen to metal ratio in mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium. A gravimetric method was selected as being the most promising for adaptation in a short period of time. Development of the technique resulted in a reliable method which meets the requirements for unirradiated mixed oxide fuel samples. The method, based upon an equilibrium weight at 700 deg C in dry hydrogen, was shown to be capable of measurement of O/(Pu + U) ratios in 20% PuO/sub 2/--80% UO/sub 2/ pellets with a standard deviation of plus or minus 0.001. (auth)

Lyon, W.L.

1963-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

Li, Ting (Ventura, CA)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

253

Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming  

SciTech Connect

The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

Li, Ting

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

254

Calculation of MCPR (minimum critical power ratio) for BWR transients using the BNL plant analyzer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The critical power ratio (CPR) is used for determining the thermal limits of boiling water reactors. In this study, critical power ratios for a series of transients run on the Brookhaven Plant Analyzer (BPA) (1) have been calculated. The transients include nominal base case simulations, simulations with variations in relief valve setpoints and the number of failed feedwater heaters, simulations at the 100% power, 75% flow point on the extended load line of the MEOD, and a simulation with partial feedwater heating. The plant represented with the BPA is a BWR/4 rated at 3293 MW with a 6.38 m (251'') vessel. Data were obtained by the Plant Analyzer Development Group at BNL from a variety of sources describing the Browns Ferry Plant.

Horak, W.C.; Diamond, D.J.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Two Channel Dielectric-Lined Rectangular High Transformer Ratio Accelerator Structure Experiment  

SciTech Connect

Current status of a two-channel cm-scale rectangular dielectric lined wakefield accelerator structure is described. This structure is installed at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility (AWA), and is presently being evaluated. The device has a transformer ratio of {approx}12.5:1. When driven by a {approx}50 nC single drive bunch it is expected to obtain {approx}6 MV/m acceleration gradient. Related issues are discussed.

Shchelkunov, S. V.; LaPointe, M. A. [Beam Physics Laboratory, Yale University, 272 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Hirshfield, J. L. [Beam Physics Laboratory, Yale University, 272 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Omega-P, Inc., 258 Bradley St., New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Marshall, T. C. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Omega-P, Inc., 258 Bradley St., New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Sotnikov, G. [NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine); Omega-P, Inc., 258 Bradley St., New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Gai, Wei; Conde, M.; Power, J.; Mihalcea, D. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

256

Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) Investigation for Residential and Small Commercial Air-Source Heat Pumps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric utilities frequently use the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) in air conditioning–based incentive programs to categorize energy efficiency and to quantify financial value. For residential and small commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps, SEER is determined by the procedures outlined in ANSI/AHRI Standard 210/240. Within Standard 210/240, SEER is calculated based on laboratory test results and equations that follow specific assumptions regarding indoor temperature, ...

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

257

A Stochastic Version of the Brass PF Ratio Adjustment of Age-Specific Fertility Schedules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimates of age-specific fertility rates based on survey data are known to suffer down-bias associated with incomplete reporting. Previously, William Brass (1964, 1965, 1968) proposed a series of adjustments of such data to reflect more appropriate levels of fertility through comparison with data on children-ever-born by age, a measure of cohort-specific cumulative fertility. His now widely-used Parity/Fertility or PF ratio method makes a number of strong assumptions, which have been the focus of an extended discussion in the literature on indirect estimation. However, while it is clear that the measures used in making adjusted age-specific fertility estimates with this method are captured with statistical uncertainty, little discussion of the nature of this uncertainty around PF-ratio based estimates of fertility has been entertained in the literature. Since both age-specific risk of childbearing and cumulative parity (children ever born) are measured with statistical uncertainty, an unknown credibility interval must surround every PF ratio-based estimate. Using the standard approach, this is unknown, limiting the ability to make statistical comparisons of fertility between groups or to understand stochasticity in population dynamics. This paper makes use of approaches applied to similar problems in engineering, the natural sciences, and decision analysis—often discussed under the title of uncertainty analysis or stochastic modeling—to characterize this uncertainty and to present a new method for making PF ratio-based fertility estimates with 95 percent uncertainty intervals. The implications for demographic analysis, between-group comparisons of fertility, and the field of statistical demography are explored.

Jack Baker; Adélamar Alcantara; Xiaomin Ruan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Letter to the Editor Explaining the mass-to-light ratios of globular clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Context. The majority of observed mass-to-light ratios of globular clusters are too low to be explained by ‘canonical’ cluster models, in which dynamical effects are not accounted for. Moreover, these models do not reproduce a recently reported trend of increasing M/L with cluster mass, but instead predict mass-to-light ratios that are independent of cluster mass for a fixed age and metallicity. Aims. This study aims to explain the M/L of globular clusters in four galaxies by including stellar evolution, stellar remnants, and the preferential loss of low-mass stars due to energy equipartition. Methods. Analytical cluster models are applied that account for stellar evolution and dynamical cluster dissolution to samples of globular clusters in Cen A, the Milky Way, M31 and the LMC. The models include stellar remnants and cover metallicities in the range Z = 0.0004—0.05. Results. Both the low observed mass-to-light ratios and the trend of increasing M/L with cluster mass can be reproduced by including the preferential loss of low-mass stars, assuming reasonable values for the dissolution timescale. This leads to a mass-dependent M/L evolution and increases the explained percentage of the observations from 39 % to 92%. Conclusions. This study shows that the hitherto unexplained discrepancy between observations and models of the massto-light ratios of globular clusters can be explained by dynamical effects, provided that the globular clusters exhibiting low M/L have dissolution timescales within the ranges assumed in this Letter. Furthermore, it substantiates that M/L cannot be assumed to be constant with mass at fixed age and metallicity.

J. M. Diederik Kruijssen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Determination of 235U/238U Ratio on Urine by ICP-MS  

SciTech Connect

LLNL Internal Dosimetry Program - The new procedure satisfies the requirement to determine {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratio in bioassay urine samples. MDA - The L{sub C} and MDA{sub 95} for {sup 235}U are well below the required detection limit of 0.00035 {mu}g/L. Turn around time - Analysis of 10 samples plus 2 QCs can be completed in one work day (8 hours).

Collins, L; Gobaleza, A; Langston, R; Radev, R; Than, C; Wong, C; Wood-Zika, A

2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

260

Measurement of the Neutron Magnetic Form Factor at Using the Ratio Method on Deuterium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the magnetic form factor of the neutron using the 11 GeV electron beam in the upgraded CEBAF and CLAS12 to the higher Q2 that will be available with the 12-GeV upgrade of CEBAF. We will use the ratio]). With the 12-GeV upgrade of CEBAF, Gp E/Gp M and Gn M can be measured up to Q2 14 GeV2 and for Gn E up to Q2

Gilfoyle, Jerry

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bowen ratio ebbr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Gautchi's ratio and the Volume of the unit ball in R^n.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Let Omega(n) be the volume of the unit ball in R^n. We formulate as an infinite product the gamma function ratio gamma(x+1/2)/gamma(x),x>0, which allows us to reproduce and /or produce a variety of formulas and inequalities, some of them seemingly new, concerning Omega(n-1)/Omega(n),and (Omega(n))^2/Omega(n-1)Omega(n+1)

D. Karayannakis

262

Monthly Atmospheric 13C/12C Isotopic Ratios for 11 SIO Stations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Isotopes » 13C/12C Isotopic Ratios for Isotopes » 13C/12C Isotopic Ratios for 11 SIO Stations Monthly Atmospheric 13C/12C Isotopic Ratios for 11 SIO Stations graphics Graphics data Data Investigators R.F. Keeling, S.C. Piper, A.F. Bollenbacher, and S.J. Walker Scripps CO2 Program http://scrippsco2.ucsd.edu/ University of California, La Jolla, California 92093-0244, U.S.A. Period of Record 1977-2008 Methods Stable isotopic measurements for atmospheric 13C/12C and 18O/16O at global sampling sites were initiated by Dr. C.D. Keeling and co-workers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) in 1977. These isotopic measurements complement the continuing global atmospheric and oceanic CO2 measurements initiated by Keeling in 1957. This work is currently being continued under the direction of R.F. Keeling, who also runs a parallel program at SIO to

263

Howe pairs, supersymmetry, and ratios of random characteristic polynomials for the unitary groups U(N)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the classical compact Lie groups K = U(N) the autocorrelation functions of ratios of random characteristic polynomials are studied. Basic to our treatment is a property shared by the spinor representation of the spin group with the Shale-Weil representation of the metaplectic group: in both cases the character is the analytic square root of a determinant or the reciprocal thereof. By combining this fact with Howe's theory of supersymmetric dual pairs (g,K), we express the K-Haar average product of p ratios of characteristic polynomials and q conjugate ratios as a character which is associated with an irreducible representation of the Lie superalgebra g = gl(n|n) for n = p+q. This primitive character is shown to extend to an analytic radial section of a real supermanifold related to gl(n|n), and is computed by invoking Berezin's description of the radial parts of Laplace-Casimir operators for gl(n|n). The final result for the character looks like a natural transcription of the Weyl character formula to the context of highest-weight representations of Lie supergroups. While several other works have recently reproduced our results in the stable range where N is no less than max(p,q), the present approach covers the full range of matrix dimensions N. To make this paper accessible to the non-expert reader, we have included a chapter containing the required background material from superanalysis.

J. B. Conrey; D. W. Farmer; M. R. Zirnbauer

2005-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

264

Study for radionuclide transfer ratio of aerosols generated during heat cutting  

SciTech Connect

The metallic elements with a low melting point and high vapor pressure seemed to transfer in aerosols selectively at dismantling reactor internals using heat cutting. Therefore, the arc melting tests of neutron irradiated zirconium alloy were conducted to investigate the radionuclide transfer behavior of aerosols generated during the heat cutting of activated metals. The arc melting test was conducted using a tungsten inert gas welding machine in an inert gas or air atmosphere. The radioactive aerosols were collected by filter and charcoal filter. The test sample was obtained from Zry-2 fuel cladding irradiated in a Japanese boiling water reactor for five fuel cycles. The activity analysis, chemical composition measurement and scanning electron microscope observation of aerosols were carried out. Some radionuclides were enriched in the aerosols generated in an inert gas atmosphere and the radionuclide transfer ratio did not change remarkably by the presence of air. The transfer ratio of Sb-125 was almost the same as that of Co-60. It was expected that Sb-125 was enriched from other elements since Sb is an element with a low melting point and high vapor pressure compared with the base metal (Zr). In the viewpoint of the environmental impact assessment, it became clear that the influence if Sb-125 is comparable to Co-60. The transfer ratio of Mn-54 was one order higher compared with other radionuclides. The results were discussed on the basis of thermal properties and oxide formation energy of the metallic elements. (authors)

Iguchi, Yukihiro; Baba, Tsutomu; Kawakami, Hiroto [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization - JNES (Japan); Kitahara, Takashi; Watanabe, Atsushi [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Kodama, Mitsuhiro [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd. (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Climate controls on forest soil C isotope ratios in the Southern Appalachian Mountains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large portion of terrestrial carbon (C) resides in soil organic carbon (SOC). The dynamics of this large reservoir depend on many factors, including climate. Measurements of {sup 13}C:{sup 12}C ratios, C concentrations, and C:N ratios at six forest sites in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA) were used to explore several hypotheses concerning the relative importance of factors that control soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and SOC turnover. Mean {delta}{sup 13}C values increased with soil depth and decreasing C concentrations along a continuum from fresh litter inputs to more decomposed soil constituents. Data from the six forest sites, in combination with data from a literature review, indicate that the extent of change in {delta}{sup 13}C values from forest litter inputs to mineral soil is significantly associated with mean annual temperature. The findings support a conceptual model of vertical changes in forest soil {delta}{sup 13}C values, C concentrations, and C:N ratios that are interrelated through climate controls on decomposition. The authors hypothesize that, if other environmental factors are not limiting, then temperature and litter quality indirectly control the extent of isotopic fractionation during SOM decomposition in temperate forest ecosystems.

Garten, C.T. Jr.; Cooper, L.W.; Post, W.M. III; Hanson, P.J.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Climate controls on forest soil C isotope ratios in the southern Appalachian Mountains  

SciTech Connect

A large portion of terrestrial carbon (C) resides in soil organic carbon (SOC). The dynamics of this large reservoir depend on many factors, including climate. Measurements of {sup 13}C:{sup 12}C ratios, C concentrations, and C:N ratios at six forest sites in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (USA) were used to explore several hypotheses concerning the relative importance of factors that control soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and SOC turnover. Mean {delta}{sup 13}C values increased with soil depth and decreasing C concentrations along a continuum from fresh litter inputs to more decomposed soil constituents. Data from the six forest sites, in combination with data from a literature review, indicate that the extent of change in {delta}{sup 13}C values from forest litter inputs to mineral soil (20 cm deep) is significantly associated with mean annual temperature. The findings support a conceptual model of vertical changes in forest soil {delta}{sup 13}C values, C concentrations, and C:N ratios that are interrelated through climate controls on decomposition. We hypothesize that, if other environmental factors (like soil moisture) are not limiting, then temperature and litter quality indirectly control the extent of isotopic fractionation during SOM decomposition in temperate forest ecosystems.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Cooper, Lee W [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Support vector machine with genetic algorithm for forecasting of key-gas ratios in oil-immersed transformer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Failures of power transformer are related with key-gas ratios C"2H"2/C"2H"4, CH"4/H"2 and C"2H"4/C"2H"6 strongly. Forecasting of these ratios of key-gas in power transformer oil is very significant to detect and identify incipient failures of transformer ... Keywords: Genetic algorithm, Key-gas ratios forecasting, Power transformer, Support vector machine

Sheng-wei Fei; Cheng-liang Liu; Yu-bin Miao

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Quantifying Uranium Isotope Ratios Using Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry: The Influence of Laser Parameters on Relative Ionization Probability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4.5 Uranium Isotope Ratio Measurements . . . . . .4.32 Uranium sputtered from three U-rich materials of varying uranium isotopic

Isselhardt, Brett Hallen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Recoil Polarization Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio to High Momentum Transfer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon characterize the effect of its internal structure on its response to an electromagnetic probe as studied in elastic electronnucleon scattering. These form factors are functions of the squared four-momentum transfer Q2 between the electron and the proton. The two main classes of observables of this reaction are the scattering cross section and polarization asymmetries, both of which are sensitive to the form factors in different ways. When considering large f momentum transfers, double-polarization observables offer superior sensitivity to the electric form factor. This thesis reports the results of a new measurement of the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at high momentum transfer using the recoil polarization technique. A polarized electron beam was scattered from a liquid hydrogen target, transferring polarization to the recoiling protons. These protons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer which was used to reconstruct their kinematics, including their scattering angles and momenta, and the position of the interaction vertex. A proton polarimeter measured the polarization of the recoiling protons by measuring the azimuthal asymmetry in the angular distribution of protons scattered in CH2 analyzers. The scattered electron was detected in a large acceptance electromagnetic calorimeter in order to suppress inelastic backgrounds. The measured ratio of the transverse and longitudinal polarization components of the scattered proton is directly proportional to the ratio of form factors GpE=GpM. The measurements reported in this thesis took place at Q2 =5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV2, and represent the most accurate measurements of GpE in this Q2 region to date.

Andrew Puckett

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Alpha and gamma radiation effects on air-water systems at high gas/liquid ratios  

SciTech Connect

Radiolysis tests were conducted on air-water systems to examine the effects of radiation on liquid phase chemistry under high gas/liquid volume (G/L) ratios that are characteristic of an unsaturated nuclear waste repository setting. Test parameters included temperatures of 25, 90, and 200{degrees}C; gamma vs. alpha radiation; dose rates of {approximately}3500 and 50,000 rad/h; and G/L ratios of 10 and 100. Formate, oxalate, and total organic carbon contents increased during irradiation of the air-water systems in gamma and alpha tests at low-dose rate ({approximately}3500 rad/h). Increases in organic components were not observed for tests run at 200{degrees}C or high-dose rates (50,000 rad/h). In the tests where increases in organics occurred, the formate and oxalate were preferentially enriched in solutions that were rinsed from the test vessel walls. Nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is the dominant anion produced during the radiolysis reactions. Significant nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) also occurs in some high-dose rate tests, with the reduced form of nitrogen possibly resulting from reactions with the test vessels. These results indicate that nitrogen acids are being produced and concentrated in the limited quantities of solution present in the tests. Nitrate + nitrite production varied inversely with temperature, with the lowest quantities being detected for the higher temperature tests. The G(NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} + NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) values for the 25, 90, and 200{degrees}C experiments with gamma radiation are 3.2 {+-} 0.7, 1.3 {+-} 1.0, and 0.4 {+-} 0.3, respectively. Thus, the elevated temperatures expected early in the life of a repository may counteract pH decreases resulting from nitrogen acid production. Little variation was observed in G values as a function of dose rate or gas/liquid ratio.

Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Planar silicon fabrication process for high-aspect-ratio micromachined parts  

SciTech Connect

Surface-micromachined silicon inertial sensors are limited to relatively high-G applications in part because of the fundamental limitations on proof mass imposed by the manufacturing technology. At the same time, traditional micromolding technologies such as LIGA do not lend themselves to integration with electronics, a capability which is equally necessary for high-performance inertial sensors. The silicon micromolding processes described in this report promise to offer both larger proof masses and integrability with on-chip electronics. In Sandia`s silicon micromolding process, the proof mass is formed using a mold which is first recessed into the substrate using a deep silicon trench etch, then lined with a sacrificial or etch-stop layer, and filled with mechanical polysilicon. Since the mold is recessed into the substrate, the whole micromechanical structure can be formed, planarized, and integrated with standard silicon microelectronic circuits before the release etch. In addition, unlike surface-micromachined parts, the thickness of the molded parts is limited by the depth of the trench etch (typically 10--50 {micro}m) rather than the thickness of deposited polysilicon (typically 2 {micro}m). The fact that the high-aspect-ratio section of the device is embedded in the substrate enables the monolithic integration of high-aspect-ratio parts with surface-micromachined mechanical parts, and, in the future, also electronics. The authors anticipate that such an integrated mold/surface micromachining/electronics process will offer versatile high-aspect-ratio micromachined structures that can be batch-fabricated and monolithically integrated into complex microelectromechanical systems including high-performance inertial sensing systems.

Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Microelectronics Development Lab.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

USING THE X-RAY EMISSION LINES OF SEYFERT 2 AGN TO MEASURE ABUNDANCE RATIOS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We measure the metal abundance ratios in the X-ray photoionized gas located near the narrow line region of a sample of Seyfert 2 AGN. The high-resolution X-ray spectra observed with the Chandra high- and low-energy transmission grating spectrometers are compared with models of the resonant scattering and recombination emission from a plasma in thermal balance, and with multiple temperature zones. The abundance ratios in the sample are close to the Solar values, with slight over-abundances of N in NGC 1068, and of Ne in NGC 4151. Our X-ray spectral models use fewer degrees of freedom than previous works. Motivation. Our goal is to use X-ray abundance measurements to cross-calibrate with the optical spectra of quasars. These optical spectra are used to measure the star formation history of the early Universe. 1 To Determine the Abundance Ratios, we fit the Seyfert 2 spectra with models of photoionized plasmas, and then search for deviations in the data from Solar abundances, as shown in Fig. 1. The fluxes of radiative recombination continuum (RRC) features and the radiative recombination (RR) forbidden lines depend little on radiation transfer effects, so they are the most reliable abundance indicators. At low continuum optical depths, the recombination emission flux scales linearly with abundances. Our model allows us to fit the RRC and RR fluxes by accounting for the broad ionization distribution in the plasma. X-ray Emission Line Model. We model a photoionized plasma in ionization equilibrium and thermal balance with a grid of zones, each with ionization parameter log ? = 1.0, 1.5,...4.5 (in c.g.s. units). The XSTAR plasma code yields the charge state distribution of each zone. 2 In order to calculate the recombination emission, we use the photoelectric cross sections

Mario A. Jimenez-garate; Toan Khu

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Analytical Validation of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Pharmaceutical Development: the Measurement of Carbon-14 Isotope Ratio.  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an isotope based measurement technology that utilizes carbon-14 labeled compounds in the pharmaceutical development process to measure compounds at very low concentrations, empowers microdosing as an investigational tool, and extends the utility of {sup 14}C labeled compounds to dramatically lower levels. It is a form of isotope ratio mass spectrometry that can provide either measurements of total compound equivalents or, when coupled to separation technology such as chromatography, quantitation of specific compounds. The properties of AMS as a measurement technique are investigated here, and the parameters of method validation are shown. AMS, independent of any separation technique to which it may be coupled, is shown to be accurate, linear, precise, and robust. As the sensitivity and universality of AMS is constantly being explored and expanded, this work underpins many areas of pharmaceutical development including drug metabolism as well as absorption, distribution and excretion of pharmaceutical compounds as a fundamental step in drug development. The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of {sup 14}C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the {sup 14}C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least one year, linear over 4 orders of magnitude with an analytical range from one tenth Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Further, accuracy was excellent between 1 and 3 percent while precision expressed as coefficient of variation is between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of carbon-14 (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with {sup 14}C corresponds to 30 fg equivalents. AMS provides an sensitive, accurate and precise method of measuring drug compounds in biological matrices.

Keck, B D; Ognibene, T; Vogel, J S

2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

275

Variability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio on cosmological scales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

So far the only seemingly significant indication of a cosmological variation exists for the proton-to-electron mass ratio as stated by Reinhold et al. (2006). The measured indication of variation is based on the combined analysis of H2 absorption systems in the spectra of Q0405-443 and Q0347-383 at z=2.595 and z=3.025, respectively. The high resolution data of the latter is reanalyzed in this work to examine the influence of different fitting procedures and further potential nonconformities. This analysis cannot reproduce the significance achieved by the previous detection.

Martin Wendt; Dieter Reimers

2008-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

276

Study of nuclear effects in the deuteron and extraction of neutron to proton stucture function ratio  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We performed a combined analysis of electron, muon, neutrino, and anti-neutrino deep inelastic scattering structure functions of hydrogen and deuterium, within the framework of quark-parton model. The neutron to proton structure function ratio was obtained using three different techniques: electron and muon scattering experiments on deuterium and hydrogen by using traditional Fermi motion corrections; extrapolation of the EMC effect on heavy targets to deuterium and free nucleons; and using Be and C data. At high x there is a disagreement between these data. 10 refs., 2 figs.

Bodek, A. (Rochester Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Physics); Dasu, S. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Rock, S.E. (American Univ., Washington, DC (USA))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Application of Domain Decomposition to the Evaluation of Fermion Determinant Ratios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the fluctuations in the case of mass reweighting for N_f=2 Wilson fermions. We use a domain decomposition factorization of the fermion determinant. Ratios of determinants are estimated stochastically. We study the stochastic and the ensemble fluctuations as a function of the volume V and the mass shift Delta m. With our result it is possible to estimate the cost and the effectiveness of mass reweighting. In addition we introduce a stochastic estimation for the one flavor case without using the square root.

Jacob Finkenrath; Francesco Knechtli; Björn Leder

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

278

Continuum modes in rotating plasmas: General equations and continuous spectra for large aspect ratio tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

A theory for localized low-frequency ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) modes in axisymmetric toroidal systems is generalized to take into account both toroidal and poloidal equilibrium plasma flows. The general set of equations describing the coupling of shear Alfven and slow (sound) modes and defining the continuous spectrum of rotating plasmas in axisymmetric toroidal systems is derived. The equations are applied to study the continuous spectra in large aspect ratio tokamaks. The unstable continuous modes in the case of predominantly poloidal plasma rotation with the angular velocity exceeding the sound frequency are found. Their stabilization by the shear Alfven coupling effect is studied.

Lakhin, V. P. [NRC ''Kurchatov Institute'', 1 Kurchatov Sqr., Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Ilgisonis, V. I. [NRC ''Kurchatov Institute'', 1 Kurchatov Sqr., Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); People's Friendship University of Russia, 3 Ordzhonikidze Str., Moscow 117198 (Russian Federation)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Solar abundances and helioseismology: fine structure spacings and separation ratios of low-degree p modes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have used 4752 days of data collected by the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) to determine very precise oscillation frequencies of acoustic low-degree modes that probe the solar core. We compare the fine (small frequency) spacings and frequency separation ratios formed from these data with those of different solar models. We find that models constructed with low metallicity are incompatible with the observations. The results provide strong support for lowering the theoretical uncertainties on the neutrino fluxes. These uncertainties had recently been raised due to the controversy over the solar abundances.

Sarbani Basu; William J. Chaplin; Yvonne Elsworth; Roger New; Aldo M. Serenelli; Graham A. Verner

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

280

Fuel ion ratio measurements in reactor relevant neutral beam heated fusion plasmas  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present a method to derive n{sub t}/n{sub d} using the ratio of the thermonuclear neutron emission to the beam-target neutron emission. We apply it to neutron spectroscopy data from the magnetic proton recoil spectrometer taken during the deuterium tritium experiment at JET. n{sub t}/n{sub d}-values obtained using neutron spectroscopy are in qualitative agreement with those from other diagnostics measuring the isotopic composition of the exhaust in the divertor.

Hellesen, C.; Eriksson, J.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Skiba, M.; Weiszflog, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

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281

Studying Clouds and Aerosols with Lidar Depolarization Ratio and Backscatter Relationships  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation consists of three parts, each devoted to a particular issue of significant importance for CALIPSO lidar observation of depolarization ratio (delta) and backscatter (gamma?) to improve current understanding of the microphysical properties of clouds and aerosols. The relationships between depolarization ratio and backscatter allow us to retrieve particle thermodynamic phase and shape and/or orientation of aerosols and clouds. The first part is devoted to the investigation of the relationships between lidar backscatter and the corresponding depolarization ratio for different cloud classifications and aerosol types. For each cloud and aerosol types, layer-averaged backscatter and backscattering depolarization ratio from the CALIPSO measurements are discussed. The present results demonstrate the unique capabilities of the CALIPSO lidar instrument for determining cloud phase and aerosols subtypes. In the second part, we evaluate the MODIS IR cloud phase with the CALIPSO cloud products. The three possible misclassifications of MODIS IR cloud phasealgorithm, which are studied by Nasiri and Kahn (2008) with radiative transfer modeling, are tested by comparing between MODIS IR phase and CALIOP observations. The current results support their hypotheses, which is that the MODIS phase algorithm may tend to classify thin cirrus clouds as water clouds or mixed phase clouds or unknown, and classify midlevel and/or mid-temperature clouds as mixed or unknown phase. In the third part, we present a comparison of mineral dust aerosol retrievals from two instruments, MODIS and CALIPSO lidar. And, we implement and evaluate a new mineral dust detection algorithm based on the analysis of thin dust radiative signature. In comparison, three commonly used visible and IR mineral dust detection algorithms, including BTD procedure, D parameter method, and multi-channel image algorithm, are evaluated with CALIPSO aerosol classification. The comparison reveals that those dust detection algorithms are not effective for optically thin dust layers, but for thick dust storm. The new algorithm using discriminant analysis with CALIPSO observation is much better in detecting thin dust layer of optical thickness between 0.1 and 2.

Cho, Hyoun-Myoung

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Next MECS will be conducted in 2010 Table 6.1 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006 Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per Dollar Consumption per Dollar of Value NAICS per Employee of Value Added of Shipments Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million Btu) (thousand Btu) (thousand Btu) Total United States 311 Food 879.8 5.0 2.2 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6,416.6 17.5 5.7 311221 Wet Corn Milling 21,552.1 43.6 18.2 31131 Sugar Manufacturing 6,629.2 31.3 12.2 3114 Fruit and Vegetable Preserving and Specialty Foods 1,075.3 5.5 2.8 3115 Dairy Products 956.3 4.3 1.3 3116 Animal Slaughtering and Processing 493.8 4.4 1.6 312

283

Whole-Organism Concentration Ratios for Plutonium in Wildlife from Past US Nuclear Research Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Whole-organism concentration ratios (CR{sub wo-media}) for plutonium (Pu) in wildlife were calculated using data from the broad range of organism types and environmental settings of the US nuclear research program. Original sources included site-specific reports and scientific journal articles typically from 1960s to 80s research. Most of the calculated CR{sub wo-media} values are new to existing data sets, and, for some wildlife categories, serve to fill gaps or add to sparse data including those for terrestrial reptile; freshwater bird, crustacean and zooplankton; and marine crustacean and zooplankton. Ratios of Pu concentration in the whole-organism to that in specific tissues and organs are provided here for a range of freshwater and marine fish. The CR{sub wo-media} values in fish living in liquid discharge ponds were two orders of magnitude higher than those for similar species living in lakes receiving Pu from atmospheric fallout, suggesting the physico-chemical form of the source Pu can dominate over other factors related to transfer, such as organism size and feeding behavior. Small rodent data indicated one to two order of magnitude increases when carcass, pelt, and gastrointestinal tract were included together in the whole-organism calculation compared to that for carcass alone. Only 4% of Pu resided in the carcass of small rodents compared to 75% in the gastrointestinal tract and 21% in the pelt.

johansen, M.; Kamboj; Kuhne, W.

2012-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

284

Particle decay branching ratios for states of astrophysical importance in 19Ne  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have measured proton and alpha-particle branching ratios of excited states in 19Ne formed using the 19F(3He,t) reaction at a beam energy of 25 MeV. These ratios have a large impact on the astrophysical reaction rates of 15O(alpha,gamma), 18F(p,gamma) and 18F(p,alpha), which are of interest in understanding energy generation in x-ray bursts and in interpreting anticipated gamma-ray observations of novae. We detect decay protons and alpha-particles using a silicon detector array in coincidence with tritons measured in the focal plane detector of our Enge split-pole spectrograph. The silicon array consists of five strip detectors of the type used in the Louvain-Edinburgh Detector Array, subtending angles from 130 degrees to 165 degrees with approximately 14% lab efficiency. The correlation angular distributions give additional confidence in some prior spin-parity assignments that were based on gamma branchings. We measure Gamma_p/Gamma=0.387+-0.016 for the 665 keV proton resonance, which agrees well with the direct measurement of Bardayan et al.

D. W. Visser; J. A. Caggiano; R. Lewis; W. B. Handler; A. Parikh; P. D. Parker

2003-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

285

Engineering design issues of a low aspect ratio tokamak volumetric neutron source  

SciTech Connect

Engineering design issues of a volumetric neutron source (VNS) based on a steady state low aspect ratio DT tokamak are presented. At the present the major radius is 0.8 m, the minor radius 0.6 m for an aspect ratio of 1.33, the plasma current is 10.1 MA, the toroidal field at the major radius is 1.8 T, the fusion power is 39 MW giving an average neutron wall loading of 1.0 MW/m(2) on the outboard side with an available testing area of 10 m(2). Two neutral beams delivering more than 20 MW are used to drive the steady state fusion plasma. A single turn unshielded water cooled dispersion strengthened (DS) Cu centerpost is used in conjunction with a conducting Cu bell jar which acts as a vacuum boundary and the return legs for the toroidal field (TF) coils. The centerpost is 9 m long, carries 7.2 MA and is specially shaped to minimize ohmic heating, which is calculated using temperature dependent DS Cu properties and increases in resistivity due to nuclear transmutations are accounted for. A naturally diverted plasma scrapeoff layer dominated by pressure-driven instabilities is assumed giving a peak heat flux of 5.2 MW/m(2) on the diverter plates. Fabrication approaches for the centerpost and its replacement time lines have been estimated to be feasible and reasonable.

Sviatoslavky, I. N. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

THE INFLUENCE OF DEUTERATION AND TURBULENT DIFFUSION ON THE OBSERVED D/H RATIO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of turbulent mixing on the chemistry of the interstellar medium (ISM) has so far received little attention. Previous studies of this effect have suggested that it might play an important role in mixing the various phases of the ISM. In this paper, we examine the potential effects of turbulent diffusion on the deuterium chemistry within molecular clouds. We find that such mixing acts to reduce the efficiency of deuteration in these clouds by increasing the ionization fraction and reducing freeze-out of heavy molecules. This leads to lower abundances for many deuterated species. We also examine the influence of turbulent mixing on the transition from atomic hydrogen to H{sub 2} and from atomic deuterium to HD near the cloud edge. We find that including turbulent diffusion in our models serves to push these transitions deeper into the cloud and helps maintain a higher atomic fraction throughout the cloud envelope. Based on these findings, we propose a new process to account for the significant scatter in the observed atomic D/H ratio for galactic sightlines extending beyond the Local Bubble. Although several mechanisms have been put forward to explain this scatter, they are unable to fully account for the range in D/H values. We suggest a scenario in which turbulent mixing of atomic and molecular gas at the edges of molecular clouds causes the observed atomic D/H ratio to vary by a factor of {approx}2.

Bell, T. A.; Phillips, T. G.; Lis, D. C. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Willacy, K.; Allen, M., E-mail: tab@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2011-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

287

Branching ratio for a light Higgs boson to decay into. mu. /sup +/. mu. /sup -/ pairs  

SciTech Connect

We evaluate the effects of final-state interactions on the decay of a light Higgs boson to two pions. Although the formalism is completely general and can be applied to any strong-interaction decay mode of the Higgs boson, we are particularly interested in the regime where the Higgs-boson mass m/sub h/ satisfies the constraint 2m/sub ..pi../ratio to two muons. Since the two-muon mode is the cleanest signature for identifying the Higgs boson, it is important to obtain a good determination of this branching ratio. We find B(h..--> mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/) approx. =0/sup -2/--10/sup -1/.

Raby, S.; West, G.B.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

High Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio at Low Q2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiment E08-007 measured the proton elastic form factor ratio ?pGE/GM in the range of Q2 = 0.3?0.7(GeV/c)2 by recoil polarimetry. Data were taken in 2008 at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Virginia, USA. A 1.2 GeV polarized electron beam was scattered off a cryogenic hydrogen target. The recoil proton was detected in the left HRS in coincidence with the elasticly scattered electrons tagged by the BigBite spectrometer. The proton polarization was measured by the focal plane polarimeter (FPP). In this low Q2 region, previous measurement from Jefferson Lab Hall A (LEDEX) along with various fits and calculations indicate substantial deviations of the ratio from unity. For this new measurement, the proposed statistical uncertainty (< 1%) was achieved. These new results are a few percent lower than expected from previous world data and fits, which indicate a smaller GEp at this region. Beyond the intrinsic interest in nucleon structure, the new results also have implications in determining the proton Zemach radius and the strangeness form factors from parity violation experiments.

Xiaohui Zhan

2010-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

Physics Basis for High-Beta, Low-Aspect-Ratio Stellarator Experiments  

SciTech Connect

High-beta, low-aspect-ratio (compact) stellarators are promising solutions to the problem of developing a magnetic plasma configuration for magnetic fusion power plants that can be sustained in steady-state without disrupting. These concepts combine features of stellarators and advanced tokamaks and have aspect ratios similar to those of tokamaks (2-4). They are based on computed plasma configurations that are shaped in three dimensions to provide desired stability and transport properties. Experiments are planned as part of a program to develop this concept. A beta = 4% quasi-axisymmetric plasma configuration has been evaluated for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX). It has a substantial bootstrap current and is shaped to stabilize ballooning, external kink, vertical, and neoclassical tearing modes without feedback or close-fitting conductors. Quasi-omnigeneous plasma configurations stable to ballooning modes at beta = 4% have been evaluated for the Quasi-Omnigeneous Stellarator (QOS) experiment. These equilibria have relatively low bootstrap currents and are insensitive to changes in beta. Coil configurations have been calculated that reconstruct these plasma configurations, preserving their important physics properties. Theory- and experiment-based confinement analyses are used to evaluate the technical capabilities needed to reach target plasma conditions. The physics basis for these complementary experiments is described.

A. Brooks; A.H. Reiman; G.H. Neilson; M.C. Zarnstorff; et al

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

A new technology for producing hydrogen and adjustable ratio syngas from coke oven gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About 15 billion Nm{sup 3} coke oven gas (COG) is emitted into the air in Shanxi Province in China as air pollutants. It is also a waste of precious chemical resources. In this study, COG was purified respectively by four methods including refrigeration, fiberglass, silica gel, and molecular sieve. Purified COG was separated by a prism membrane into two gas products. One consists mainly of H{sub 2} ({gt}90 vol %) and the other is rich in CH{sub 4} ({gt}60 vol %) with their exact compositions to vary with the membrane separation pressure and outlet gas flow ratio. The gas rich in CH{sub 4} was partially oxidized with oxygen in a high-temperature fixed-bed quartz reactor charged with coke particles of 10 mm size. At 1200-1300{sup o}C, a CH{sub 4} conversion of {gt}99% could be obtained. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the synthesis product gas can be adjusted in the range 0.3-1.4, very favorable for further C1 synthesis. 10 refs., 17 figs., 1t ab.

Jun Shen; Zhi-zhong Wang; Huai-wang Yang; Run-sheng Yao [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Department of Chemical Engineering

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Vertical 2-?m Heterodyne Differential Absorption Lidar Measurements of Mean CO2 Mixing Ratio in the Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertical mean CO2 mixing ratio measurements are reported in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and in the lower free troposphere (FT), using a 2-?m heterodyne differential absorption lidar (HDIAL). The mean CO2 mixing ratio in the ABL is ...

Fabien Gibert; Pierre H. Flamant; Juan Cuesta; Didier Bruneau

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Thermodynamic modeling of performance of a Miller cycle with engine speed and variable specific heat ratio of working fluid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of an air standard Miller cycle is analyzed using finite-time thermodynamics. The results show that if the compression ratio is less than certain value, the increase of the value of the specific heat ratio will make the power output bigger. ... Keywords: Finite-time processes, Friction, Heat resistance, Internal irreversibility, Miller heat-engine

Rahim Ebrahimi

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Automatic cup-to-disc ratio estimation using active contours and color clustering in fundus images for glaucoma diagnosis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we propose a new automatic technique for the segmentation of the Optic Disc (OD) and optic nerve head (cup) regions in retinographies for glaucoma diagnosis. It provides an estimation of the Cup-to-Disc Ratio, the main clinical indicator ... Keywords: K-means, cup-to-disc-ratio, glaucoma, retinal images

Irene Fondón; Francisco Núñez; Mercedes Tirado; Soledad Jiménez; Pedro Alemany; Qaisar Abbas; Carmen Serrano; Begoña Acha

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Large-eddy simulations of air flow and turbulence within and around low aspect ratio cylindrical open-top chambers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flow around cylindrical open-top chambers (OTCs) with aspect ratios (i.e., height-to-diameter ratios) much less than unity is investigated using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model. The solid structures are represented using the immersed ...

Philip Cunningham; Rodman R. Linn; Eunmo Koo; Cathy J. Wilson

295

Consistent predictable patterns in the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of animal proteins consumed by modern  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consistent predictable patterns in the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of animal proteins, IN 47907, USA 4 University of Utah, Department of Geology & Geophysics, 115 S 1460 E, Salt Lake City, UT acid hydrogen (d2 H) and oxygen (d18 O) isotope ratios is a common feature in systems where isotopic

Ehleringer, Jim

296

Quasars Are Not Light-Bulbs: Testing Models of Quasar Lifetimes with the Observed Eddington Ratio Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the observed distribution of Eddington ratios as a function of supermassive black hole (BH) mass to constrain models of AGN lifetimes and lightcurves. Given the observed AGN luminosity function, a model for AGN lifetimes (time above a given luminosity) translates directly to a predicted Eddington ratio distribution. Models for self-regulated BH growth, in which feedback produces a 'blowout' decay phase after some peak luminosity (shutting down accretion) make specific predictions for the lifetimes distinct from those expected if AGN are simply gas starved (without feedback) and very different from simple phenomenological 'light bulb' models. Present observations of the Eddington ratio distribution, spanning 5 decades in Eddington ratio, 3 in BH mass, and redshifts z=0-1, agree with the predictions of self-regulated models, and rule out 'light-bulb', pure exponential, and gas starvation models at high significance. We compare the Eddington ratio distributions at fixed BH mass and fixed luminosity (both ...

Hopkins, Philip F

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Climatic Consequences of Leaf Presence in the Eastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At the time of leaf emergence in deciduous forests, markedly enhanced evapotranspiration leads to a rapid drop in the Bowen ratio. A small fraction of this surface flux alteration converges into the boundary layer, and this can be detected in the ...

David R. Fitzjarrald; Otávio C. Acevedo; Kathleen E. Moore

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

RAPID COMMUNICATIONS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2005; 19: 34423450  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and oxygen isotope ratios of bottled waters of the world Gabriel J. Bowen1 *, David A. Winter2 , Howard J Biology Department, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA 2 Department of Geology, University of Calfornia, Davis, CA 95616, USA 3 Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA

Ehleringer, Jim

299

ANALYSIS OF RICIN TOXIN PREPARATIONS FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID ABUNDANCE AND ISOTOPE RATIO INFORMATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes method development and preliminary evaluation for analyzing castor samples for signatures of purifying ricin. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a problem of protein purification using common biochemical methods. Indications of protein purification will likely manifest themselves as removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein, types of biochemical constituents in the seed are the castor oil and various carbohydrates. The oil comprises roughly half the seed weight while the carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining “mash” left after oil and hull removal. Different castor oil and carbohydrate components can serve as indicators of specific toxin processing steps. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicates a step to remove oil from the seeds. The relative amounts of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-like compounds, including arabinose, xylose, myo-inositol fucose, rhamnose, glucosamine and mannose detected in the sample can also indicate specific processing steps. For instance, the differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine indicates enrichment for the protein fraction of the seed using protein precipitation. The methods developed in this project center on fatty acid and carbohydrate extraction from castor samples followed by derivatization to permit analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Method descriptions herein include: the source and preparation of castor materials used for method evaluation, the equipment and description of procedure required for chemical derivatization, and the instrument parameters used in the analysis. Two types of derivatization methods describe analysis of carbohydrates and one procedure for analysis of fatty acids. Two types of GC-MS analysis is included in the method development, one employing a quadrupole MS system for compound identification and an isotope ratio MS for measuring the stable isotope ratios of deuterium and hydrogen (D/H) in fatty acids. Finally, the method for analyzing the compound abundance data is included. This study indicates that removal of ricinoleic acid is a conserved consequence of each processing step we tested. Furthermore, the stable isotope D/H ratio of ricinoleic acid distinguished between two of the three castor seed sources. Concentrations of arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucosamine and myo-inositol differentiated between crude or acetone extracted samples and samples produced by protein precipitation. Taken together these data illustrate the ability to distinguish between processes used to purify a ricin sample as well as potentially the source seeds.

Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Colburn, Heather A.; Moran, James J.; Melville, Angela M.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

DOE/SC-ARM/TR-128 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Value-Added Product April 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. Government or any agency thereof. The views and

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301

Image transmission over OFDM channel with rate allocation scheme and minimum peak-toaverage power ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper proposes new scheme for efficient rate allocation in conjunction with reducing peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Modification of the set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) image coder is proposed to generate four different groups of bit-stream relative to its significances. The significant bits, the sign bits, the set bits and the refinement bits are transmitted in four different groups. The proposed method for reducing the PAPR utilizes twice the unequal error protection (UEP), using the Read-Solomon codes (RS), in conjunction with bit-rate allocation and selective interleaving to provide minimum PAPR. The output bit-stream from the source code (SPIHT) will be started by the most significant types of bits (first group of bits). The optimal unequal error protection (UEP) of the four groups is proposed based on the channel destortion. The proposed structure provides significant improvement in bit error rate (BER) performance. Per...

Mohammed, Usama S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of a relativistic Hagedorn resonance gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The new state of matter produced at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider reveals a strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma with an extremely small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s. We calculate the eta/s of an equilibrated hadron matter characterized by a relativistic hadron resonance gas with a Hagedorn mass spectrum that grows exponentially with the hadron mass. We find with increase in temperature of the system the eta/s value decreases due to rapid increase in the multiplicity of massive resonances. In the vicinity of the critical temperature for deconfinement transition, the minimum value of eta/s in the Hagedorn resonance gas is found to be consistent with the current estimates for a strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma.

Subrata Pal

2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

303

Nonlinear oscillations and waves in an arbitrary mass ratio cold plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well known that nonlinear standing oscillations in an arbitrary mass ratio cold plasma always phase mix away. However, there exist nonlinear electron-ion traveling wave solutions, which do not exhibit phase mixing because they have zero ponderomotive force. The existence of these waves has been demonstrated using a perturbation method. Moreover, it is shown that cold plasma BGK waves [Albritton et al., Nucl. Fusion 15, 1199 (1975)] phase mix away if ions are allowed to move and the scaling of phase mixing is found to be different from earlier work [Sengupta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1867 (1999)]. Phase mixing of these waves has been further verified in 1-D particle in cell simulation.

Verma, Prabal Singh [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Design and development of a continuously variable ratio transmission for automotive vehicles. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work accomplished between July 1974 and October 1978 in a program directed toward the design and development of a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT) for an automotive vehicle is reported. The following major accomplishments were achieved: the laboratory and mathematical projections establishing the viability of the program and the predicted attainment of the primary goal of fuel economy were verified; the proposed Concept Demonstration prototype hydromechanical transmission (HMT) was completed from design to operation; the HMT was thoroughly tested in the laboratory and on the road and its in-vehicle performance was verified by independent testing laboratories; and design of a second generation Pre-Production HMT has proceeded to the point of confirming the practicality of the automotive HMT size and weight; most of the necessary information has been generated which could permit its production cost/competitiveness to be evaluated. (LCL)

None

1978-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

305

Detecting extreme mass ratio inspirals with LISA using time-frequency methods II: search characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inspirals of stellar-mass compact objects into supermassive black holes constitute some of the most important sources for LISA. Detection of these sources using fully coherent matched filtering is computationally intractable, so alternative approaches are required. In a previous paper (Wen and Gair 2005, gr-qc/0502100), we outlined a detection method based on looking for excess power in a time-frequency spectrogram of the LISA data. The performance of the algorithm was assessed using a single `typical' trial waveform and approximations to the noise statistics. In this paper we present results of Monte Carlo simulations of the search noise statistics and examine its performance in detecting a wider range of trial waveforms. We show that typical extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) can be detected at distances of up to 1--3 Gpc, depending on the source parameters. We also discuss some remaining issues with the technique and possible ways in which the algorithm can be improved.

Gair, J; Gair, Jonathan; Wen, Linqing

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Detecting extreme mass ratio inspirals with LISA using time-frequency methods II: search characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The inspirals of stellar-mass compact objects into supermassive black holes constitute some of the most important sources for LISA. Detection of these sources using fully coherent matched filtering is computationally intractable, so alternative approaches are required. In a previous paper (Wen and Gair 2005, gr-qc/0502100), we outlined a detection method based on looking for excess power in a time-frequency spectrogram of the LISA data. The performance of the algorithm was assessed using a single `typical' trial waveform and approximations to the noise statistics. In this paper we present results of Monte Carlo simulations of the search noise statistics and examine its performance in detecting a wider range of trial waveforms. We show that typical extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) can be detected at distances of up to 1--3 Gpc, depending on the source parameters. We also discuss some remaining issues with the technique and possible ways in which the algorithm can be improved.

Jonathan Gair; Linqing Wen

2005-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

307

Spent fuel sabotage aerosol ratio program : FY 2004 test and data summary.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. The program also provides significant technical and political benefits in international cooperation. We are quantifying the Spent Fuel Ratio (SFR), the ratio of the aerosol particles released from HEDD-impacted actual spent fuel to the aerosol particles produced from surrogate materials, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber. In addition, we are measuring the amounts, nuclide content, size distribution of the released aerosol materials, and enhanced sorption of volatile fission product nuclides onto specific aerosol particle size fractions. These data are the input for follow-on modeling studies to quantify respirable hazards, associated radiological risk assessments, vulnerability assessments, and potential cask physical protection design modifications. This document includes an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, during FY 2004. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of FY 2004. All available test results, observations, and aerosol analyses plus interpretations--primarily for surrogate material Phase 2 tests, series 2/5A through 2/9B, using cerium oxide sintered ceramic pellets are included. Advanced plans and progress are described for upcoming tests with unirradiated, depleted uranium oxide and actual spent fuel test rodlets. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program is coordinated with the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks (WGSTSC) and supported by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Brucher, Wenzel (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Koch, Wolfgang (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Loiseau, Olivier (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Mo, Tin (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Billone, Michael C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Autrusson, Bruno A. (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Young, F. I. (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Coats, Richard Lee; Burtseva, Tatiana (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Luna, Robert Earl; Dickey, Roy R.; Sorenson, Ken Bryce; Nolte, Oliver (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Thompson, Nancy Slater (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC); Hibbs, Russell S. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC); Gregson, Michael Warren; Lange, Florentin (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Tsai, Han-Chung (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Temperature determined by isobaric yield ratio in heavy-ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work focuses on the study of temperature associated with the final heavy fragments in reactions induced by both the neutron-proton symmetric and the neutron-rich projectiles, and with incident energy ranges from 60$A$ MeV to 1$A$ GeV. Isobaric yield ratio (IYR) is used to determine the temperature of heavy fragments. Cross sections of measured fragment in reactions are analyzed, and a modified statistical abrasion-ablation (SAA) model is used to calculate the yield of fragment in 140$A$ MeV $^{64}$Ni + $^{9}$Be and 1$A$ GeV $^{136}$Xe + $^{208}$Pb reactions. Relatively low $T$ of heavy fragments are obtained in different reactions ($T$ ranges from 1 to 3MeV). $T$ is also found to depend on the neutron-richness of the projectile. The incident energy affects $T$ very little. $\\Delta\\mu/T$ (the ratio of the difference between the chemical potential of neutron and proton to temperature) is found to increase linearly as $N/Z$ of projectile increases. It is found that $T$ of the $^{48}$Ca reaction, for which IYRs are of $A<50$ isobars, is affected greatly by the temperature-corrected $\\Delta B(T)$. But $T$ of reactions using IYRs of heavier fragments are only slightly affected by the temperature-corrected $\\Delta B(T)$. The SAA model analysis gives a consistent overview of the results extracted in this work. $T$ from IYR, which is for secondary fragment, is different from that of the hot emitting source. $T$ and $\\Delta\\mu$ are essentially governed by the sequential decay process.

C. W. Ma; J. Pu; Y. G. Ma; R. Wada; S. S. Wang

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Self-force on extreme mass ratio inspirals via curved spacetime effective field theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this series we construct an effective field theory (EFT) in curved spacetime to study gravitational radiation and backreaction effects. We begin in this paper with a derivation of the self-force on a compact object moving in the background spacetime of a supermassive black hole. The EFT approach utilizes the disparity between two length scales, which in this problem are the size of the compact object and the radius of curvature of the background spacetime, to treat the orbital dynamics of the compact object, described as an effective point particle, separately from its tidal deformations. Ultraviolet divergences are regularized using Hadamard's {\\it partie finie} to isolate the non-local finite part from the quasi-local divergent part. The latter is constructed from a momentum space representation for the graviton retarded propagator and is evaluated using dimensional regularization in which only logarithmic divergences are relevant for renormalizing the parameters of the theory. As a first important application of this framework we explicitly derive the first order self-force given by Mino, Sasaki, Tanaka, Quinn and Wald. Going beyond the point particle approximation, to account for the finite size of the object, we demonstrate that for extreme mass ratio inspirals the motion of a compact object is affected by tidally induced moments at $O(\\epsilon^4)$, in the form of an Effacement Principle. The relatively large radius-to-mass ratio of a white dwarf star allows for these effects to be enhanced until the white dwarf becomes tidally disrupted, a potentially $O(\\epsilon^2)$ process, or plunges into the supermassive black hole. This work provides a new foundation for further exploration of higher order self force corrections, gravitational radiation and spinning compact objects.

Chad R. Galley; B. L. Hu

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

310

The p/pi ratio pT-dependence in the RHIC range od baryo-chemical potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The BRAHMS measurement of proton-to-pion ratios in Au+Au and p+p collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV is presented as a function of transverse momentum and collision centrality within the pseudorapidity range 0 = 1.5 GeV/c. For these energy and pseudorapidity interval no centrality dependency of p/pi ratio is observed. The baryon-to-meson ratio of nucleus-nucleus data are consistent with results obtained for p+p interactions.

N. Katrynska; P. Staszel

2008-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

311

1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the ECOR and CO2FLX4m systems were made for south winds (nearly bare ground or corn crop). For north winds, ECOR and EBBR sensible heat flux agreed very well and ECOR latent...

312

Parameterization of Joint Frequency Distributions of Potential Temperature and Water Vapor Mixing Ratio in the Daytime Convective Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Joint frequency distributions (JFDs) of potential temperature (?) versus water vapor mixing ratio (r) within the convective boundary layer were measured during a new field experiment named Boundary Layer Experiment 1996 (BLX96). These JFDs were ...

Larry K. Berg; Roland B. Stull

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Assimilating AIRS Temperature and Mixing Ratio Profiles Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter Approach for Convective-Scale Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One satellite data product that has received great interest in the numerical weather prediction community is the temperature and mixing ratio profiles derived from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on board the Aqua satellite. ...

Thomas A. Jones; David J. Stensrud

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Reliability analysis of a passive cooling system using a response surface with an application to the Flexible Conversion Ratio Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comprehensive risk-informed methodology for passive safety system design and performance assessment is presented and demonstrated on the Flexible Conversion Ratio Reactor (FCRR). First, the methodology provides a framework ...

Fong, Christopher J. (Christopher Joseph)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Investigation of aspect ratio of hole drilling from micro to nanoscale via focused ion beam fine milling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Holes with different sizes from microscale to nanoscale were directly fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) milling in this paper. Maximum aspect ratio of the fabricated holes can be 5:1 for the hole with large size with ...

Fu, Yongqi

316

Variability of SO=4, Total Sulfate, NO?3, and Total Nitrate Scavenging Ratios for the Frontal Boundary Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation and air concentration data collected during a U.S. Department of Energy–sponsored Frontal Boundary Study (FBS) were used to calculate scavenging ratios. The precipitation data were collected on a 100 km × 100 km surface grid ...

W. E. Davis; J. M. Thorp; R. N. Lee

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Snow-to-Liquid Ratio Variability and Prediction at a High-Elevation Site in Utah’s Wasatch Mountains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contemporary snowfall forecasting is a three-step process involving a quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF), determination of precipitation type, and application of a snow-to-liquid ratio (SLR). The final step is often performed using ...

Trevor I. Alcott; W. James Steenburgh

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Independent Verification of Research Reactor Operation (Analysis of the Georgian IRT-M Reactor by the Isotope Ratio Method)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NA-24) develops technologies to aid in implementing international nuclear safeguards. The Isotope Ratio Method (IRM) was successfully developed in 2005 – 2007 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Republic of Georgia’s Andronikashvili Institute of Physics as a generic technology to verify the declared operation of water-moderated research reactors, independent of spent fuel inventory. IRM estimates the energy produced over the operating lifetime of a fission reactor by measuring the ratios of the isotopes of trace impurity elements in non-fuel reactor components.The Isotope Ratio Method is a technique for estimating the energy produced over the operating lifetime of a fission reactor by measuring the ratios of the isotopes of impurity elements in non-fuel reactor components.

Cliff, John B.; Frank, Douglas P.; Gerlach, David C.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Little, Winston W.; Reid, Bruce D.; Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Abramidze, Sh; Rostomashvili, Z.; Kiknadze, G.; Dzhavakhishvily, O.; Nabakhtiani, G.

2010-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

319

HIGH-GRADIENT, HIGH-TRANSFORMER-RATIO, DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The Phase I work reported here responds to DoE'ss stated need "...to develop improved accelerator designs that can provide very high gradient (>200 MV/m for electrons...) acceleration of intense bunches of particles." Omega-P'�s approach to this goal is through use of a ramped train of annular electron bunches to drive a coaxial dielectric wakefield accelerator (CDWA) structure. This approach is a direct extension of the CDWA concept from acceleration in wake fields caused by a single drive bunch, to the more efficient acceleration that we predict can be realized from a tailored (or ramped) train of several drive bunches. This is possible because of a much higher transformer ratio for the latter. The CDWA structure itself has a number of unique features, including: a high accelerating gradient G, potentially with G > 1 GeV/m; continuous energy coupling from drive to test bunches without transfer structures; inherent transverse focusing forces for particles in the accelerated bunch; highly stable motion of high charge annular drive bunches; acceptable alignment tolerances for a multi-section system. What is new in the present approach is that the coaxial dielectric structure is now to be energized by-not one-�but by a short train of ramped annular-shaped drive bunches moving in the outer coaxial channel of the structure. We have shown that this allows acceleration of an electron bunch traveling along the axis in the inner channel with a markedly higher transformer ratio T than for a single drive bunch. As described in this report, the structure will be a GHz-scale prototype with cm-scale transverse dimensions that is expected to confirm principles that can be applied to the design of a future THz-scale high gradient (> 500 MV/m) accelerator with mm-scale transverse dimensions. We show here a new means to significantly increase the transformer ratio T of the device, and thereby to significantly improve its suitability as a flexible and effective component in a future high energy, high gradient accelerator facility. We predict that the T of a high gradient CDWA can be increased by a substantial factor; this enhancement is dramatically greater than what has been demonstrated heretofore. This large enhancement in T that we predict arises from using a train of three or four drive bunches in which the spacing of the bunches and their respective charges are selected according to a simple principle that requires each bunch lose energy to the wakefields at the same rate, so as not to sacrifice drive beam efficiency�¢����as would be the case if one bunch exhausted its available energy while others had not. It is anticipated that results from the study proposed here can have a direct impact on design of the dielectric accelerator in a TeV-scale collider concept, and in the accelerator for an x-ray FEL.

Jay L. Hirshfield

2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

320

HIGH LATITUDE ULYSSES OBSERVATIONS OF THE H/HE INTENSITY RATIO UNDER SOLAR MINIMUM AND SOLAR MAXIMUM CONDITIONS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We analyze measurements of the 0.5-1.0 MeV/nucleon H/He intensity ratio from the Ulysses spacecraft during its first (1992-94) and second (1999-2000) ascent to southern high latitude regions of the heliosphere. These cover a broad range of heliocentric distances (from 5.2 to 2.0 AU) and out-of-ecliptic latitudes (from 18{degree}S to 80{degree}S). During Ulysses' first southern pass, the HI-SCALE instrument measured a series of enhanced particle fluxes associated with the passage of a recurrent corotating interaction region (CIR). Low values ({approximately}6) of the H/He ratio were observed in these recurrent corotating events, with a clear minimum following the passage of the corotating reverse shock. When Ulysses reached high southern latitudes (>40{degree}S), the H/He ratio always remained below {approximately}10 except during two transient solar events that brought the ratio to high (>20) values. Ulysses' second southern pass was characterized by a higher average value of the H/He ratio. No recurrent pattern was observed in the energetic ion intensity which was dominated by the occurrence of transient events of solar origin. Numerous CIRs, many of which were bounded by forward and reverse shock pairs, were still observed in the solar wind and magnetic field data. The arrival of those CIRs at Ulysses did not always result in a decrease of the H/He ratio; on the contrary, many CIRs showed a higher H/He ratio than some transient events. Within a CIR, however, the H/He ratio usually increased around the forward shock and decreased towards the reverse shock. Throughout the second ascent to southern heliolatitudes, the H/He ratio seldom decreased below {approximately}10 even at high latitudes (>40{degree}S). We interpret these higher values of the H/He ratio in terms of the increasing level of solar activity together with the poor definition and short life that corotating solar wind structures have under solar maximum conditions. The global filling of the heliosphere by transient solar events and the fact that in 1999-2000 Ulysses observed only intermediate (<650 km s{sup {minus}1}) solar wind speed (whose contents in pick-up He is less energetic than in the fast solar wind streams observed in 1992-1994) favored the protons with respect to alpha particles. Hence the fact that the average values of the H/He ratio observed by Ulysses during the rising phase of the solar cycle (1999-2000) were higher than those observed during the declining phase (1992-1994).

J. GOSLING; D. LARIO; ET AL

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

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321

A helium-cooled blanket design of the low aspect ratio reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An aggressive low aspect ratio scoping fusion reactor design indicated that a 2 GW(e) reactor can have a major radius as small as 2.9 m resulting in a device with competitive cost of electricity at 49 mill/kWh. One of the technology requirements of this design is a high performance high power density first wall and blanket system. A 15 MPa helium-cooled, V-alloy and stagnant LiPb breeder first wall and blanket design was utilized. Due to the low solubility of tritium in LiPb, there is the concern of tritium migration and the formation of V-hydride. To address these issues, a lithium breeder system with high solubility of tritium has been evaluated. Due to the reduction of blanket energy multiplication to 1.2, to maintain a plant Q of > 4, the major radius of the reactor has to be increased to 3.05 m. The inlet helium coolant temperature is raised to 436 C in order to meet the minimum V-alloy temperature limit everywhere in the first wall and blanket system. To enhance the first wall heat transfer, a swirl tape coolant channel design is used. The corresponding increase in friction factor is also taken into consideration. To reduce the coolant system pressure drop, the helium pressure is increased from 15 to 18 MPa. Thermal structural analysis is performed for a simple tube design. With an inside tube diameter of 1 cm and a wall thickness of 1.5 mm, the lithium breeder can remove an average heat flux and neutron wall loading of 2 and 8 MW/m(2), respectively. This reference design can meet all the temperature and material structural design limits, as well as the coolant velocity limits. Maintaining an outlet coolant temperature of 650 C, one can expect a gross closed cycle gas turbine thermal efficiency of 45%. This study further supports the use of helium coolant for high power density reactor design. When used with the low aspect ratio reactor concept a competitive fusion reactor can be projected at 51.9 mill/kWh.

Wong, C.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Cerbone, R.; Cheng, E.T. [TSI Research, Solana Beach, CA (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

MHD EQUILIBRIUM AND STABILITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR HIGH-ASPECT-RATIO ARIES-I TOKAMAK REACTORS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Browse > Conferences> Fusion Engineering, 1989. Pro Back to Results MHD equilibrium and stability considerations for high-aspect-ratio ARIES-I tokamak reactors .102446 searchabstract .Peng, Y.-K.M. ; Strickler, D.J. ; Hogan, J.T. ; Whitson, J.C. ; Bathke, C.G. ; Evans, K., Jr. ; Jardin, S.C. ; Klasky, M. ; Leuer, J.A. ; Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., TN This paper appears in: Fusion Engineering, 1989. Proceedings., IEEE Thirteenth Symposium on Issue Date : 2-6 Oct 1989 On page(s): 1278 - 1282 vol.2 Meeting Date : 02 Oct 1989-06 Oct 1989 INSPEC Accession Number: 3809362 Digital Object Identifier : 10.1109/FUSION.1989.102446 Date of Current Version : 06 August 2002 Abstract The requirements of (1) an external poloidal-field coil (PFC) system with minimum stored energy, (2) double-null divertor plasmas with elongated D shape, (3) adequate passive stabilization of plasma vertical displacement by a vacuum vessel located behind the blanket zone, and (4) an enhanced plasma beta limit in the first stability regime are incorporated in the Advanced Reactor Innovation and Evaluation Study-I (ARIES-I) concept for a high-field tokamak reactor with high aspect ratio (A=4.5). The plasma current and pressure profiles are also made consistent with enhanced bootstrap current and reduced current drive power by means of ion cyclotron wave or neutral beam injection. These lead to plasmas characterized by an elongation of 1.8 to the divertor X-point, a triangularity of 0.7, a safety factor of ~1.5, a safety factor at the edge >4, a plasma beta of ~2%, and a poloidal beta of ~0.5. With a plasma current of 11 MA, a toroidal field of 13 T at the major radius of 6.5 m, and over 3.5 m of clearance between the PFCs and the plasma edge, the stored energy in the PFC system ranges from 20 GJ during plasma operation at low beta, to 12 GJ during plasma operation at high beta.

Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL; Strickler, Dennis J [ORNL

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Synthesis and Electric Field-Manipulation of High Aspect Ratio Barium Titanate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this thesis is to develop high dielectric constant nanoparticle dispersion for switchable aircraft antenna systems. Two steps were designed to achieve the objective. First, obtain high dielectric, high aspect ratio nanoparticles and disperse them in dielectric oil medium. Second, manipulate the particle-oil dispersion using an external alternating current (AC) electric field to increase the effective dielectric constant. In order to obtain high dielectric dispersions, different sizes and shapes of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles were purchased and measured. However, after a number of experiments detailed in the thesis, it was found that none of the commercially available nanoparticles could satisfy our requirements for a minimum effective dielectric constant. Thus, to achieve the goals above, we synthesized high aspect ratio BaTiO3 nanowires with BaC2O4 and TiO2 powders as precursors using a molten salt method. The as-synthesized BaTiO3 nanowires were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping. The nanowires have a diameter ranging from 100 nm to 300 nm, and their lengths range from 1.5 micrometers to 5 micrometers. Mechanical stirring and bath sonication were used to obtain even colloidal dispersions. Different concentrations of BaTiO3 nanoparticles well dispersed in the oil medium were successfully manipulated using AC electric field. To monitor the change in microstructure of BaTiO3 nanoparticles, optical microscopy was used to observe the alignment of particles in the sample under the applied electric field. Various parameters including the magnitude, frequency, and duration of the electric field, and the concentration of BaTiO3 nanoparticles were investigated to achieve the optimal alignment of nanoparticles. The experimental results were validated by theoretical analysis using Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule. It was demonstrated that the effective dielectric constant of the colloidal dispersions would increase with the increase of the magnitude, frequency and duration of applied electric field. Synthesized BaTiO3 nanowire-based dispersions exhibit significant enhancement of the effective dielectric constant compared to other colloidal materials. The effective dielectric constant of 5 wt percent BaTiO3-oil dispersions could reach up to 10 when aligned at 1000 V/mm electric field at 1 kHz frequency for 1 hour.

Li, Junjia

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Optimization of Drive-Bunch Current Profile for Enhanced Transformer Ratio in Beam-Driven Acceleration Techniques  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, wakefield acceleration has gained attention due to its high acceleration gradients and cost effectiveness. In beam-driven wakefield acceleration, a critical parameter to optimize is the transformer ratio. It has been shown that current shaping of electron beams allows for enhanced (> 2) transformer ratios. In this paper we present the optimization of the pulse shape of the drive bunch for dielectric-wakefield acceleration.

Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Prokop, C.R.; /Northern Illinois U.; Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

2012-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

325

Quasars Are Not Light-Bulbs: Testing Models of Quasar Lifetimes with the Observed Eddington Ratio Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use the observed distribution of Eddington ratios as a function of supermassive black hole (BH) mass to constrain models of AGN lifetimes and lightcurves. Given the observed AGN luminosity function, a model for AGN lifetimes (time above a given luminosity) translates directly to a predicted Eddington ratio distribution. Models for self-regulated BH growth, in which feedback produces a 'blowout' decay phase after some peak luminosity (shutting down accretion) make specific predictions for the lifetimes distinct from those expected if AGN are simply gas starved (without feedback) and very different from simple phenomenological 'light bulb' models. Present observations of the Eddington ratio distribution, spanning 5 decades in Eddington ratio, 3 in BH mass, and redshifts z=0-1, agree with the predictions of self-regulated models, and rule out 'light-bulb', pure exponential, and gas starvation models at high significance. We compare the Eddington ratio distributions at fixed BH mass and fixed luminosity (both are consistent, but the latter are much less constraining). We present empirical fits to the lifetime distribution and show how the Eddington ratio distributions place tight limits on AGN lifetimes at various luminosities. We use this to constrain the shape of the typical AGN lightcurve, and provide simple analytic fits. Given independent constraints on episodic lifetimes, most local BHs must have gained their mass in no more than a couple of bright episodes, in agreement with merger-driven fueling models.

Philip F. Hopkins; Lars Hernquist

2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

326

Fine structure collision strengths and line ratios for [Ne V] in infrared and optical sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improved collisions strengths for the mid-infrared and optical transitions in Ne V are presented. Breit-Pauli R-Matrix calculations for electron impact excitation are carried out with fully resolved near-threshold resonances at very low energies. In particular, the fine structure lines at 14 micron and 24 micron due to transitions among the ground state levels 1s^22s^22p^3 (^3P_{0,1,2}), and the optical/near-UV lines at 2973, 3346 and 3426 Angstrom transitions among the ^3P_{0,1,2}, ^1D_2, ^1S_0 levels are described. Maxwellian averaged collision strengths are tabulated for all forbidden transistion within the ground configuration. Significant differences are found in the low temperature range Te < 10000 K for both the FIR and the opitcal transitions compared to previous results. An analysis of the 14/24 line ratio in low-energy-density (LED) plasma conditions reveals considerable variation; the effective rate coefficient may be dominated by the very low-energy behaviour rather than the maxwellian averaged...

Dance, Michael; Nahar, Sultana N; Pradhan, Anil K

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Helioseismic Constraints on the Solar Ne/O Ratio and Heavy Element Abundances  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the constraints imposed by helioseismic data on the solar heavy element abundances. In prior work we argued that the measured depth of the surface convection zone R_CZ and the surface helium abundance Y_surf were good metallicity indicators which placed separable constraints on light metals (CNONe) and the heavier species with good relative meteoritic abundances. The resulting interiors-based abundance scale was higher than some published studies based on 3D model atmospheres at a highly significant level. In this paper we explore the usage of the solar sound speed in the radiative interior as an additional diagnostic, and find that it is sensitive to changes in the Ne/O ratio even for models constructed to have the same R_CZ and Y_surf. Three distinct helioseismic tests (opacity in the radiative core, ionization in the convection zone, and the core mean molecular weight) yield consistent results. Our preferred O, Ne and Fe abundances are 8.86 +/-0.04, 8.15 +/-0.17 and 7.50 +/-0.05 respectively. Th...

Delahaye, F; Pinsonneault, L; Zeippen, C J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Determination of the 242Pu Branching Ratio via Alpha-Gamma Coincidence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When the burn-up is high, the {sup 242}Pu isotopic content becomes more important. The traditional correlation method will fail. The {sup 242}Pu isotopic content in the sample plays an essential role if the neutron coincidence method is used to quantify the total amount of plutonium. In one of the earlier measurements we had a chance to measure an isotopic pure (> 99.95 %) {sup 242}Pu thick sample and realized that the difference in the branching ratio (BR) value among current nuclear data3) for the two important gamma-rays at 103.5-keV and 158.8-keV. In this study, the thick sample was counted on a 15% ORTEC safeguards type HPGe to further improve BR determination of the 159-keV gamma-ray. Furthermore, we have made a thin {sup 242}Pu sample from the thick sample and performed alpha-gamma coincidence measurements. Our preliminary gamma-ray BR results are 4.37(6) E-4, 2.79(8) E-5, and 2.25(8) E-6 for 44.9-keV, 103.5-keV, and 158.9-keV, respectively.

Wang, T F

2012-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

329

Stable nitrogen isotope ratios in wet and dry nitrate deposition collected with an artificial tree  

SciTech Connect

Amounts of dry NO{sub 3}-N deposition and N isotope ratios in wet and dry NO{sub 3}-N deposition have been simultaneously determined by examining differences between precipitation collected by open funnels and throughfall collected beneath an artificial Christmas tree. Samples were collected in a forest clearing on Walker Branch Watershed, near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. From mid-summer to early autumn, NO{sub 3}-N fluxes beneath the artificial tree were always greater than those measured in precipitation indicating the tree's effectiveness as a passive collector of dry NO{sub 3}-N deposition. Dry NO{sub 3}-N deposition averaged 60 {+-} 9% of total (wet and dry) deposition. The mean ({+-} SD) calculated {delta}{sup 15}N value for NO{sub 3}-N in dry deposition was + 5.6 {+-} 2.1{per_thousand} (n = 6 sampling periods ranging from 4 to 15 days). On average, this was {approx} 6{per_thousand} heavier than measured {delta}{sup 15}N values for NO{sub 3}-N in precipitation. The calculated {delta}{sup 15}N value for NO{sub 3}-N in dry deposition was consistent with that expected if NO{sub x} precursors to HNO{sub 3} vapor (the major constituent of dry deposition at this site) originated principally from coal combustion.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Neutron spectroscopy as a fuel ion ratio diagnostic: Lessons from JET and prospects for ITER  

SciTech Connect

The determination of the fuel ion ratio n{sub t}/n{sub d} in ITER is required at a precision of 20%, time resolution of 100 ms, spatial resolution of a/10, and over a range of 0.016 keV and for n{sub T}/n{sub D}<0.6. A crucial issue is the signal-to-background situation in the measurement of the weak 2.5 MeV emission from DD reactions in the presence of a background of scattered 14 MeV DT neutrons. Important experimental input and corroboration for this assessment are presented from the time-of-flight neutron spectrometer at JET where the presence of a strong component of backscattered neutrons is observed. Neutron emission components on ITER due to beam-thermal and tritium-tritium reactions can further enhance the prospects for NES.

Ericsson, G.; Conroy, S.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Andersson Sunden, E.; Cecconello, M.; Eriksson, J.; Hellesen, C.; Sangaroon, S.; Weiszflog, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University (EURATOM-VR Association), SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Bubble confinement in flow boiling of FC-72 in a ''rectangular'' microchannel of high aspect ratio  

SciTech Connect

Boiling in microchannels remains elusive due to the lack of full understanding of the mechanisms involved. A powerful tool in achieving better comprehension of the mechanisms is detailed imaging and analysis of the two-phase flow at a fundamental level. Boiling is induced in a single microchannel geometry (hydraulic diameter 727 {mu}m), using a refrigerant FC-72, to investigate the effect of channel confinement on bubble growth. A transparent, metallic, conductive deposit has been developed on the exterior of the rectangular microchannel, allowing simultaneous uniform heating and visualisation to be achieved. The data presented in this paper is for a particular case with a uniform heat flux applied to the microchannel and inlet liquid mass flowrate held constant. In conjunction with obtaining high-speed images and videos, sensitive pressure sensors are used to record the pressure drop across the microchannel over time. Bubble nucleation and growth, as well as periodic slug flow, are observed in the microchannel test section. The periodic pressure fluctuations evidenced across the microchannel are caused by the bubble dynamics and instances of vapour blockage during confined bubble growth in the channel. The variation of the aspect ratio and the interface velocities of the growing vapour slug over time, are all observed and analysed. We follow visually the nucleation and subsequent both 'free' and 'confined' growth of a vapour bubble during flow boiling of FC-72 in a microchannel, from analysis of our results, images and video sequences with the corresponding pressure data obtained. (author)

Barber, Jacqueline [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, The King's Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Aix-Marseille Universite (UI, UII) - CNRS Laboratoire IUSTI, UMR 6595, 5 Rue Enrico Fermi, Marseille 13453 (France); Brutin, David; Tadrist, Lounes [Aix-Marseille Universite (UI, UII) - CNRS Laboratoire IUSTI, UMR 6595, 5 Rue Enrico Fermi, Marseille 13453 (France); Sefiane, Khellil [School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, The King's Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Aspect ratio effect on heat transfer in rotating two-pass rectangular channels with smooth walls and ribbed walls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study experimentally investigates the effects of rotation, the buoyancy force, and the channel aspect ratio on heat transfer in two-pass rotating rectangular channels. The experiments are conducted with two surface conditions: smooth walls and 45?? angled ribbed walls. The channel aspect ratios include 4:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4. Four Reynolds numbers are studied: 5000, 10000, 25000 and 40000. The rotation speed is fixed at 550 rpm for all tests, and for each channel, two channel orientations are studied: 90?? and 45?? or 135??, with respect to the plane of rotation. Rib turbulators are placed on the leading and trailing walls of the channels at an angle of 45?? to the flow direction. The ribs have a 1.59 by 1.59 mm square cross section, and the rib pitch-to-height ratio (P/e) is 10 for all tests. The effects of the local buoyancy parameter and channel aspect ratio on the regional Nusselt number ratio are presented. Pressure drop data are also measured for both smooth and ribbed channels in rotating and non-rotating conditions. The results show that increasing the local buoyancy parameter increases the Nusselt number ratio on the trailing surface and decreases the Nusselt number ratio on the leading surface in the first pass for all channels. However, the trend of the Nusselt number ratio in the second pass is more complicated due to the strong effect of the 180?? turn. Results are also presented for this critical turn region of the two-pass channels. In addition to these regions, the channel averaged heat transfer, friction factor, and thermal performance are determined for each channel. With the channels having comparable Nusselt number ratios, the 1:4 channel has the superior thermal performance because it incurs the least pressure penalty. In this study, the author is able to systematically analyze, correlate, and conclude the thermal performance comparison with the combination of rotation effects on five different aspect ratio channels with both smooth walls and rib turbulated walls.

Fu, Wen-Lung

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

AN OBSERVATIONAL DETERMINATION OF THE PROTON TO ELECTRON MASS RATIO IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an effort to resolve the discrepancy between two measurements of the fundamental constant mu, the proton to electron mass ratio, at early times in the universe we reanalyze the same data used in the earlier studies. Our analysis of the molecular hydrogen absorption lines in archival Very Large Telescope/Ultraviolet and Visible Echelle Spectrometer (UVES) spectra of the damped Lyman alpha systems in the quasi-stellar objects Q0347-383 and Q0405-443 yields a combined measurement of a DELTAmu/mu value of (-7 +- 8) x 10{sup -6}, consistent with no change in the value of mu over a time span of 11.5 Gyr. Here, we define DELTAmu as (mu {sub z} - mu{sub 0}) where mu {sub z} is the value of mu at a redshift of z and mu{sub 0} is the present-day value. Our null result is consistent with the recent measurements of King et al., DELTAmu/mu = (2.6 +- 3.0) x 10{sup -6}, and inconsistent with the positive detection of a change in mu by Reinhold et al. Both of the previous studies and this study are based on the same data but with differing analysis methods. Improvements in the wavelength calibration over the UVES pipeline calibration is a key element in both of the null results. This leads to the conclusion that the fundamental constant mu is unchanged to an accuracy of 10{sup -5} over the last 80% of the age of the universe, well into the matter dominated epoch. This limit provides constraints on models of dark energy that invoke rolling scalar fields and also limits the parameter space of supersymmetric or string theory models of physics. New instruments, both planned and under construction, will provide opportunities to greatly improve the accuracy of these measurements.

Thompson, Rodger I.; Bechtold, Jill; Eisenstein, Daniel; Fan, Xiaohui; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Shirley, Yancey L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Black, John H. [Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Martins, Carlos [Centro de AstrofIsica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Prochaska, J. Xavier, E-mail: rit@email.arizona.ed, E-mail: jbechtold@as.arizona.ed, E-mail: deisenstein@as.arizona.ed, E-mail: fan@as.arizona.ed, E-mail: yshirley@as.arizona.ed, E-mail: John.Black@chalmers.s, E-mail: robk@ast.cam.ac.u, E-mail: C.J.A.P.Martins@damtp.cam.ac.u, E-mail: xavier@ucolick.or [Lick Observatory and University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

MHD equilibrium and stability considerations for high-aspect-ratio ARIES-I tokamak reactors  

SciTech Connect

The requirements of an external poloidal field coil (PFC) system with minimum stored energy, double-null divertor plasmas with elongated D shape, adequate passive stabilization of plasma vertical displacement by a vacuum vessel located behind the blanket zone, and an enhanced plasma beta limit in the first stability regime are incorporated in the ARIES-I concept for a high-field tokamak reactor with high aspect ratio (A = 4.5). The plasma current and pressure profiles are also made consistent with enhanced bootstrap current I{sub bs} and reduced current drive power by means of ion cyclotron wave (ICW) or neutral beam (NB) injection. These lead to plasmas characterized by an elongation k{sub x} of 1.8 to the divertor X-point, a triangularity {delta}{sub x} of 0.7, a safety factor q on axis of q{sub 0} {approx} 1.5, a safety factor at the edge q{sub 95} > 4, a plasma beta {beta} {approx} 2%, and a poloidal beta given by {epsilon}{beta}{sub p} {approx} 0.5 ({epsilon} = 1/A). With a plasma current I{sub p} of 11 MA, a toroidal field B{sub t} of 13 T at the major radius R{sub 0} of 6.5 m, and over 3.5 m of clearance between the PFCs and the plasma edge, the stored energy in the PFC system ranges from 20 GJ during plasma operation at low beta to 12 GJ during plasma operation at high beta. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Peng, Y.K.M.; Strickler, D.J.; Hogan, J.T.; Whitson, J.C.; Bathke, C.G.; Evans, K. Jr.; Jardin, S.C.; Klasky, M.; Leuer, J.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.; Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (USA); General Atomics, San Diego, CA (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by radionuclide releases) of waste disposal facilities and decommissioning sites.

Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

A HIGH SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO COMPOSITE SPECTRUM OF GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS  

SciTech Connect

We present a composite spectrum of 60 long duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows with redshifts in the range 0.35 < z < 6.7 observed with low-resolution optical spectra. The composite spectrum covers the wavelength range 700-6600 A in the rest frame and has a mean signal-to-noise ratio of 150 per 1 A pixel and reaches a maximum of {approx}300 in the range 2500-3500 A. Equivalent widths are measured from metal absorption lines from the Ly{alpha} line to {approx}5200 A, and associated metal and hydrogen lines are identified between the Lyman break and Ly{alpha} line. The average transmission within the Lyman forest is consistent with that found along quasar lines of sight. We find a temporal variation in fine-structure lines when dividing the sample into bursts observed within 2 hr from their trigger and those observed later. Other lines in the predominantly neutral gas show variations too, but this is most likely a random effect caused by weighting of individual strong absorption lines and which mimics a temporal variation. Bursts characterized with high- or low-prompt GRB energy release produce afterglows with similar absorption line strengths, and likewise for bursts with bright or faint optical afterglows. Bursts defined as dark from their optical to X-ray spectral index have stronger absorption lines relative to the optically bright bursts. The composite spectrum has strong Ca II and Mg II absorption lines as commonly found in dusty galaxies, however, we find no evidence for dust or a significant molecular content based on the non-detection of diffuse interstellar bands. Compared to starburst galaxy spectra, the GRB composite has much stronger fine-structure lines, while metal absorption lines are weaker.

Christensen, L. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Bolzmanstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fynbo, J. P. U. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen Oe (Denmark); Prochaska, J. X. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Thoene, C. C.; De Ugarte Postigo, A. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, 23807, Merate (Italy); Jakobsson, P., E-mail: lise.christensen@ph.tum.de [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids producing a small plume containing uranium atoms. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for uranium. It is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. High speed sample scanning and pinpoint characterization allow measurements on millions of particles/hour to detect and analyze the enrichment of trace uranium in samples. The spectrometer is assembled using commercially available components at comparatively low cost, and features a compact and low power design. Future designs can be engineered for reliable, autonomous deployment within an industrial plant environment. Two specific applications of the spectrometer are under development: 1) automated unattended aerosol sampling and analysis and 2) on-site small sample destructive assay measurement. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) safeguards verification. The aerosol measurement instrument, LAARS-environmental sampling (ES), collects aerosol particles from the plant environment in a purpose-built rotating drum impactor and then uses LAARS-ES to quickly scan the surface of the impactor to measure the enrichments of the captured particles. The current approach to plant misuse detection involves swipe sampling and offsite analysis. Though this approach is very robust it generally requires several months to obtain results from a given sample collection. The destructive assay instrument, LAARS-destructive assay (DA), uses a simple purpose-built fixture with a sampling planchet to collect adsorbed UF6 gas from a cylinder valve or from a process line tap or pigtail. A portable LAARS-DA instrument scans the microgram quantity of uranium collected on the planchet and the assay of the uranium is measured to ~0.15% relative precision. Currently, destructive assay samples for bias defect measurements are collected in small sample cylinders for offsite mass spectrometry measurement.

Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Phillips, Jon R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Forecast for the Planck precision on the tensor to scalar ratio and other cosmological parameters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Planck satellite is right now measuring with unprecedented accuracy the primary Background CMB anisotropies. The Standard Model of the Universe (including inflation) provides the context to analyze the CMB and other data. The Planck performance for r, the tensor to scalar ratio related to primordial B mode polarization, will depend on the quality of the data analysis. The Ginsburg Landau approach to inflation allows to take high benefit of the CMB data. The fourth degree double well inflaton potential gives an excellent fit to the current CMB+LSS data. We evaluate the Planck precision to the recovery of cosmological parameters within a reasonable toy model for residuals of systematic effects of instrumental and astrophysical origin based on publicly available information.We use and test two relevant models: the LambdaCDMr model, i.e. the standard LambdaCDM model augmented by r, and the LambdaCDMrT model, where the scalar spectral index, n_s, and r are related through the theoretical `banana-shaped' curve r = r(n_s) coming from the double-well inflaton potential. In the latter case, r = r(n_s) is imposed as a hard constraint in the MCMC data analysis. We take into account the white noise sensitivity of Planck in the 70, 100 and 143 GHz channels as well as the residuals from systematics errors and foregrounds. Foreground residuals turn to affect only the cosmological parameters sensitive to the B modes. The best value for r in the presence of residuals turns to be about r simeq 0.04 for both the LambdaCDMr and the LambdaCDMrT models. We compute the B mode detection probability by the most sensitive HFI-143 channel. At the level of foreground residual equal to 30% of our toy model only a 68% CL detection of r is very likely. For a 95% CL detection the level of foreground residual should be reduced to 10% or lower of the adopted toy model (ABRIDGED).

C. Burigana; C. Destri; H. J. de Vega; A. Gruppuso; N. Mandolesi; P. Natoli; N. G. Sanchez

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

339

Thermodynamic Modeling and Analysis of the Ratio of Heat to Power Based on a Conceptual CHP System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CHP system not only produces electrical energy, but also produces thermal energy. An extensive analysis of the CHP market reveals that one of the most important engineering characteristics is flexibility. A variable heat-to-power ratio has compelling advantages over a fixed one and enables a power plant to achieve reliability and flexibility, which are very important characteristics for a CHP system. In this paper, a conceptual SOFC/GT CHP system is presented. The parameters' effect on the variable heat-to-power ratio is investigated. As SOFC reactors are still under development, a flexible simulation tool based on mass and energy balances coupled with appropriate expressions for the reaction kinetics, thermodynamic constants and material properties, is presented for adaptation to different cell geometries and operating conditions. Simulation results show that the SOFC/GT CHP system's advantage over the engine is that a low stack running temperature can achieve a low heat-to- power ratio.

Liu, Z.; Li, X.; Liu, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Measurements of electron density and temperature in the H-1 heliac plasma by helium line intensity ratios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron density and temperature distributions in the H-1 heliac plasma are measured using the helium line intensity ratio technique based on a collisional-radiative model. An inversion approach with minimum Fisher regularization is developed to reconstruct the ratios of the local emission radiances from detected line-integrated intensities. The electron density and temperature inferred from the He I 667.8/728.1 and He I 728.1/706.5 nm line ratios are in good agreement with those from other diagnostic techniques in the inner region of the plasma. The electron density and temperature values appear to be a little high in the outer region of the plasma. Some possible causes of the discrepancy in the outer region are discussed.

Ma Shuiliang; Howard, John; Blackwell, Boyd D.; Thapar, Nandika [Plasma Research Laboratory, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bowen ratio ebbr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Fisher ratio method applied to third-order separation data to identify significant chemical components of metabolite extracts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is about applying a Fisher ratio method to entire four dimensional (4D) data sets from third-order instrumentation data. The Fisher ratio method uses a novel indexing scheme to discover the unknown chemical differences among known classes of complex samples. This is the first report of a Fisher ratio analysis procedure applied to entire 4D data sets of third-order separation data, which, in this case, is comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses of metabolite extracts using all of the collected mass channels. Current analysis methods for third-order separation data use only userdefined subsets of the 4D data set.

Pierce, Karisa M.; Hoggard, Jamin C.; Hope, Janiece L.; Rainey, Petrie M.; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Jack, Rhona M.; Wright, Bob W.; Synovec, Robert E.

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

A Measurement of the holographic minimum observable beam branching ratio in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber  

SciTech Connect

Holography has been used successfully in combination with conventional optics for the first time in a large cryogenic bubble chamber, the 15-Foot Bubble Chamber at Fermilab, during a physics run. The innovative system combined the reference beam with the object beam, illuminating a conical volume of {approx} 1.4 m{sup 3}. Bubble tracks from neutrino interactions with a width of {approx} 120 {micro}m have been recorded with good contrast. The ratio of intensities of the object light to the reference light striking the film is called the Beam Branching Ratio. We obtained in our experiment an exceedingly small minimum-observable ratio of (0.54 {+-} 0.21) x 10{sup -7}. The technology has the potential for a wide range of applications.

Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand,; De Wolf, E.A.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Brussels U., IIHE /CERN /Punjab U. /Fermilab /Hawaii U. /Imperial Coll., London /IIT, Chicago /Jammu U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Oxford U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /Stevens Tech. /Tufts U.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Spectrum and Charge Ratio of Vertical Cosmic Ray Muons up to Momenta of 2.5 TeV/c  

SciTech Connect

The ALEPH detector at LEP has been used to measure the momentum spectrum and charge ratio of vertical cosmic ray muons underground. The sea-level cosmic ray muon spectrum for momenta up to 2.5 TeV/c has been obtained by correcting for the overburden of 320 meter water equivalent (mwe). The results are compared with Monte Carlo models for air shower development in the atmosphere. From the analysis of the spectrum the total flux and the spectral index of the cosmic ray primaries is inferred. The charge ratio suggests a dominantly light composition of cosmic ray primaries with energies up to 10{sup 15} eV.

Schmelling, M.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Hashim, N.O.; /Kenyatta U. Coll.; Grupen, C.; /Siegen U.; Luitz, S.; /SLAC; Maciuc, F.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Mailov, A.; /Siegen U.; Muller, A.-S.; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.; Sander, H.-G.; /Mainz U., Inst. Phys.; Schmeling, S.; /CERN; Tcaciuc, R.; /Siegen U.; Wachsmuth, H.; /CERN; Zuber, K.; /Dresden, Tech. U.

2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

344

The Resonance of the Surface Waves. The H/V Ratio in the Metropolitan Area of Bucharest  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work is to evaluate the natural period of oscillation T{sub 0} for soils in Bucharest city area. We will start by examine the elastic waves excited at the surface of an isotropic body by an oscillatory, localized force (Rayleigh waves). We define the 'H/V'-ratio as the ratio of the intensity of the in-plane waves (horizontal waves) to the intensity of the perpendicular-to-the-plane waves (vertical waves). It is shown that this ratio exhibits a resonance at a frequency which is close to the frequency of the transverse waves. It may serve to determine Poison's ratio of the body. We consider the ratio H/V of the horizontal to the vertical component of the Fourier spectrum for the seismic events recorded at 34 locations during the period October 2003 to August 2004. The method gives reliable data regarding the fundamental frequencies for soil deposits and the results of this experiment allows us to improve the known distribution of T{sub 0}--regularly calculated with the approximate formula T = 4h/v{sub s}. The earthquakes with M{sub w}>4 that occurred on 21.01.2004, 07.02.2004, 17.03.2004 and 04.04.2004 will be used as input to compute H/V ratios for each site of a URS stations in the area of Bucharest city. The H/V ratio is also calculated from noise recordings in the same areas. Computation of H/V spectral ratios are performed by means of the SeismicHandler and J-SESAME software showing the reliability of the method used for the sites located in Bucharest. The fundamental period obtained for the majority of sites is in accordance with already known results. By obtaining the fundamental period for much more and different spots situated in the Bucharest area we covered the zones where these data did not exist before. This study is significant in seismic risk mitigation for the Bucharest city area, for a safer seismic design and for the improvement of microzonation efforts.

Balan, Stefan F.; Cioflan, Carmen O.; Apostol, Bogdan F.; Tataru, Dragos; Grecu, Bogdan [National Institute for Earth Physics, Calugareni 12, PO Box MG2, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

345

Measurement of Neutron-to-Gamma-ray Production Ratios, n/, from (, n) Reactions for their Application to Assay TRU Waste  

SciTech Connect

We report on the measurement of neutron-to-?-ray production ratios from (a,n) reactions for three matrices CaF2, Al2O3, and MgO using a-emitting 244Cm deposited in the respective matrix. These ratios allow the determination of neutron emission rates from (a,n) reactions on the target nuclides from ?-ray spectra. These measurements may be useful in correcting neutron singles counts of transuranic waste for the neutrons produced from a-reactions with the matrix materials.

Gehrke, Robert James; Baker, John David; Hartwell, John Kelvin; Riddle, Catherine Lynn; McGrath, Christopher Andrew

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

The combined effects on fluid flow during compression of piston bowl shape and offset, and swirl ratio  

SciTech Connect

Computational results are presented of air flow during the compression stroke of three engines with differently shaped piston bowls. The three dimensional computer code uses orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems to body fit the engine shapes. A parametric variation of bowl offset position and swirl ratio is performed to assess their effects on the mean flow and the turbulence parameters. The bowl shape and swirl ratio are found to be most influential. Bowl offset is less important except when combined with swirl in which case significant effects are made on the mean flow and to a lesser extent on the turbulence.

Watkins, A.P.; Dessipris, S.; Khaleghi, H.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Effect of Cavity Wall Temperature and Opening Ratio on the Natural Convection Heat Loss Characteristics of a Solar Cavity Receiver  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The natural convection heat loss characteristics of a solar cavity receiver have been investigated by numerical simulation method. The results show that, the natural convection heat loss, the convection heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number increase ... Keywords: solar cavity receiver, cavity wall temperature, opening ratio, natural convection heat loss

Lan Xiao; Shuang-Ying Wu; You-Rong Li

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Drop Shapes and Axis Ratio Distributions: Comparison between 2D Video Disdrometer and Wind-Tunnel Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparisons of drop shapes between measurements made using 2D video disdrometer (2DVD) and wind-tunnel experiments are presented. Comparisons are made in terms of the mean drop shapes and the axis ratio distributions. Very close agreement of the ...

M. Thurai; V. N. Bringi; M. Szakáll; S. K. Mitra; K. V. Beard; S. Borrmann

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Repetitive Decision Making and the Value of Forecasts in the Cost?Loss Ratio Situation: A Dynamic Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purposes of this paper are to describe a dynamic model for repetitive decision?making in the cost–loss ratio situation and to present some theoretical and numerical results related to the optimal use and economic value of weather forecasts ...

Allan H. Murphy; Richard W. Katz; Robert L. Winkler; Wu-Ron Hsu

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Decision Making and the Value of Forecasts in a Generalized Model of the Cost-Loss Ratio Situation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meteorologists have devoted considerable attention to studies of the use and value of forecasts in a simple two-action, two-event decision-making problem generally referred to as the cost-loss ratio situation, An N-action, N-event generalization ...

Allan H. Murphy

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

On the Relationship between the Quality and Value of Forecasts in the Generalized Cost-Loss Ratio Situation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the relationship between the quality and value of forecast in the context of a generalized N-action, N-event model of the cost-loss ratio situation. The forecasts of interest are imperfect categorical forecasts, calibrated ...

Yin-Sheng Chen; Martin Ehrendorfer; Allan H. Murphy

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Optimization of the exposure parameters with signal-to-noise ratios considering human visual characteristics in digital mammography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of digital mammography systems has become widespread recently However, the optimal exposure parameters are uncertain in clinical practice We need to optimize the exposure parameter in digital mammography while maximizing image quality and minimizing ... Keywords: average glandular dose, detective quantum efficiency, digital mammography, noise equivalent quanta, noise power spectrum, signal-to-noise ratio

Maki Yamada; Yuri Kato; Naotoshi Fujita; Yoshie Kodera

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Oil shale retorting: Part 3, a correlation of shale oil 1-alkene/n-alkane ratios with yield  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Shale oil obtained by pyrolyzing oil shale in an autogeneous or inert gas environment was analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography. It was found that ratios of l-alkenes to n-alkanes in the liquid oil correlate linearly with the percent of oil yield.

Coburn, T.T.; Bozak, R.E.; Clarkson, J.E.; Campbell, J.H.

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Dietary and Physiological Controls on the Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Hair from Mid-20th Century  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dietary and Physiological Controls on the Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Hair from Mid-20th Lafayette, IN 47907 3 IsoForensics, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84108 4 Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 KEY WORDS stable isotopes; keratin; model ABSTRACT

Ehleringer, Jim

355

Quantifying Uranium Isotope Ratios Using Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry: The Influence of Laser Parameters on Relative Ionization Probability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) has been developed as a method to measure relative uranium isotope abundances. In this approach, RIMS is used as an element-selective ionization process to provide a distinction between uranium atoms and potential isobars without the aid of chemical purification and separation. We explore the laser parameters critical to the ionization process and their effects on the measured isotope ratio. Specifically, the use of broad bandwidth lasers with automated feedback control of wavelength was applied to the measurement of {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratios to decrease laser-induced isotopic fractionation. By broadening the bandwidth of the first laser in a 3-color, 3-photon ionization process from a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz to about 10 GHz, the variation in sequential relative isotope abundance measurements decreased from >10% to less than 0.5%. This procedure was demonstrated for the direct interrogation of uranium oxide targets with essentially no sample preparation. A rate equation model for predicting the relative ionization probability has been developed to study the effect of variation in laser parameters on the measured isotope ratio. This work demonstrates that RIMS can be used for the robust measurement of uranium isotope ratios.

Isselhardt, B H

2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

356

Zn-Al layered double hydroxide prepared at different molar ratios: Preparation, characterization, optical and dielectric properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The co-precipitation method was used to prepare Zn-Al-NO{sub 3}-LDH at different Zn{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} molar ratios (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) and pH value of 7.5. The structure, textural, composition and morphological properties were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The crystallinity of LDH samples were found to improve as molar ratio decreased which is attributed to the distortion of the hydroxide layers networks of the LDH crystal by the larger difference in ionic radii of Zn{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+}. The optical band gap energy of LDH samples were evaluated using absorbance data from UV-Vis-NIR Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Band gaps were affected by the variation of the Zn{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} molar ratio is due to the formation of the low crystalline phases (ZnO and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}). The water molecules and anionic NO{sub 3}{sup -} in the LDH interlayer were responsible for the generation of the dielectric response. This response can be described by an anomalous low frequency dispersion using the second type of Universal Power Law. The dominance of ZnO dipoles and charge carriers (NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions) in the dielectric relaxation increases with the increasing molar ratio. - Graphical abstract: (a) Schematic diagram of Zn-Al- NO{sub 3}-LDH shows the LDH structure, (b) Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra and c. The dielectric constant versus frequency of Zn-Al- NO{sub 3}-LDH samples. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn-Al-NO{sub 3}-LDH was prepared at different Zn{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} molar ratios (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystallinity of LDH phase decreased with increase of Zn{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} molar ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optical band gaps of LDH samples have been measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dielectric response of LDH can be described by anomalous low frequency dispersion.

Ahmed, Abdullah Ahmed Ali [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Talib, Zainal Abidin, E-mail: zainalat@science.upm.edu.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zobir bin Hussein, Mohd [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zakaria, Azmi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

357

Measurement of the Cosmic-Ray Antiproton to Proton Abundance Ratio between 4 and 50 GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new measurement of the antiproton to proton abundance ratio, pbar/p, in the cosmic radiation. The HEAT-pbar instrument, a balloon borne magnet spectrometer with precise rigidity and multiple energy loss measurement capability, was flown successfully in Spring 2000, at an average atmospheric depth of 7.2 g/cm^2. A total of 71 antiprotons were identified above the vertical geomagnetic cut-off rigidity of 4.2 GV. The highest measured proton energy was 81 GeV. We find that the pbar/p abundance ratio agrees with that expected from a purely secondary origin of antiprotons produced by primary protons with a standard soft energy spectrum.

A. S. Beach; J. J. Beatty; A. Bhattacharyya; C. Bower; S. Coutu; M. A. DuVernois; A. W. Labrador; S. McKee; S. A. Minnick; D. Muller; J. Musser; S. Nutter; M. Schubnell; S. Swordy; G. Tarle; A. Tomasch

2001-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

358

Atmospheric carbon diooxide mixing ratios from the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory cooperative flask sampling network, 1967-1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This data report documents monthly atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratios and measurements obtained by analyzing individual flask air samples for the NOAA/CMDL global cooperative flask sampling network. Measurements include land-based sampling sites and shipboard measurements covering 14 latitude bands in the Pacific Ocean and South China Sea. Analysis of the NOAA/CMDL flask CO{sub 2} database shows a long-term increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} mixing ratios since the late 1960s. This report describes how the samples are collected and analyzed and how the data are processed, defines limitations, and restrictions of the data, describes the contents and format of the data files, and provides tabular listings of the monthly carbon dioxide records.

Conway, T.J.; Tans, P.P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States); BBoden, T.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Isospin-dependent pion in-medium effects on the charged-pion ratio in heavy ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using results from the chiral perturbation theory for the s-wave interaction and the Delta-resonance model for the p-wave interaction of pions with nucleons, we evaluated the spectral functions of pions in asymmetric nuclear matter with unequal proton and neutron densities. We find that in hot dense neutron-rich matter the strength of the spectral function of positively charged pions at low energies is somewhat larger than that of negatively charged pions. In a thermal model, this isospin-dependent effect slightly reduces the ratio of negatively charged to positively charged pions that are produced in heavy ion collisions induced by radioactive beams. The relevance of our results to the determination of the nuclear symmetry energy from the measured ratio of negatively to positively charged pions produced in heavy ion collisions is discussed.

Xu, Jun; Ko, Che Ming; Oh, Yongseok.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Study of Support Amplification Factors for Various Frequency and Mass Ratios of Idealized Equipment Mounted on a Support Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project studied the dynamic amplification factor of a support structure for various equipment–to–support mass and frequency ratios for cases in which utility substation equipment is mounted on a support structure and subject to IEEE standard 693, IEEE Recommended Practice for Seismic Design of Substations. The project is one of several sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Seismic Working Group, which was organized to conduct tests at appropriate ...

2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bowen ratio ebbr" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Influence of content and particle size of waste pet bottles on concrete behavior at different w/c ratios  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this work was to study the mechanical behavior of concrete with recycled Polyethylene Therephtalate (PET), varying the water/cement ratio (0.50 and 0.60), PET content (10 and 20 vol%) and the particle size. Also, the influence of the thermal degradation of PET in the concrete was studied, when the blends were exposed to different temperatures (200, 400, 600 {sup o}C). Results indicate that PET-filled concrete, when volume proportion and particle size of PET increased, showed a decrease in compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic pulse velocity; however, the water absorption increased. On the other hand, the flexural strength of concrete-PET when exposed to a heat source was strongly dependent on the temperature, water/cement ratio, as well as on the PET content and particle size. Moreover, the activation energy was affected by the temperature, PET particles location on the slabs and water/cement ratio.

Albano, C. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)], E-mail: carmen.albano@ucv.ve; Camacho, N. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)], E-mail: nelsoncamachog@gmail.com; Hernandez, M. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Mecanica, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Matheus, A.; Gutierrez, A. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ingenieria, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

Global dynamics of high area-to-mass ratios GEO space debris by means of the MEGNO indicator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we provide an extensive analysis of the global dynamics of high-area-to-mass ratios geosynchronous (GEO) space debris, applying a recent technique developed by Cincotta et al. (2000), Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits (MEGNO), which provides an efficient tool to investigate both regular and chaotic components of the phase space. We compute a stability atlas, for a large set of near-geosynchronous space debris by numerically computing the MEGNO indicator, to provide an accurate understanding of the location of stable and unstable orbits as well as the timescale of their exponential divergence in case of chaotic motion. The results improve the analysis presented in Breiter et al. (2005a) notably by considering the particular case of high-area-to-mass ratios space debris. The results indicate that chaotic orbits region can be highly relevant, especially for very high area-to-mass ratios. Then, we provide some numerical investigations and an analytical theory which lead to a detailed understanding of the resonance structures appearing in the phase space. These analyses bring to the fore a relevant class of secondary resonances on both sides of the well-known pendulum-like pattern of geostationary space debris, leading to complex dynamics of such objects.

S. Valk; N. Delsate; A. Lemaitre; T. Carletti

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

363

Assessment of Non-traditional Isotopic Ratios by Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Nuclear Activities: Annual Report Year 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to identify isotopic ratios suitable for analysis via mass spectrometry that distinguish between commercial nuclear reactor fuel cycles, fuel cycles for weapons grade plutonium, and products from nuclear weapons explosions. Methods will also be determined to distinguish the above from medical and industrial radionuclide sources. Mass spectrometry systems will be identified that are suitable for field measurement of such isotopes in an expedient manner. Significant progress has been made with this project within the past year: (1) Isotope production from commercial nuclear fuel cycles and nuclear weapons fuel cycles have been modeled with the ORIGEN and MCNPX codes. (2) MCNPX has been utilized to calculate isotopic inventories produced in a short burst fast bare sphere reactor (to approximate the signature of a nuclear weapon). (3) Isotopic ratios have been identified that are good for distinguishing between commercial and military fuel cycles as well as between nuclear weapons and commercial nuclear fuel cycles. (4) Mass spectrometry systems have been assessed for analysis of the fission products of interest. (5) A short-list of forensic ratios have been identified that are well suited for use in portable mass spectrometry systems.

Biegalski, S; Buchholz, B

2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

364

The Search for Meterorites with Complex Exposure Histories Amoung Ordinary Chondrites with Low 3HE/21NE Ratios  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In calculating cosmic-ray exposure ages of meteorites it is generally assumed that the meteoroids were expelled from a shielded position within their parent body and then experienced a single stage exposure before colliding with Earth. The combination of noble gas and radionuclide measurements in several large meteorites, such as Jilin and Bur Ghelaui, have revealed complex exposure histories: i.e. an initial exposure on the surface of an asteroid (or within meter-sized meteoroid), followed by a second exposure as a smaller object. In fact, orbital dynamics calculations predicted that at least 30% of the meteorites arriving on Earth experienced two- or multiple-stage exposure histories [1]. More recently, after the recognition that the Yarkovsky effect plays an important role in delivering meteorites from the asteroid belt to Earth-crossing orbits, it was confirmed that complex exposure histories should be common [2]. Nevertheless, despite the ability to measure a wide range of radionuclides with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), only a few meteorites with complex exposure histories have been identified [e.g. 3,4]. The question is whether the relatively paucity of complex exposure histories is real or have we simply overlooked complex-exposure histories. In this work we focus on meteorites with low {sup 3}He/{sup 21}Ne ratios, since it is known that most meteorites with complex exposure histories have relatively low {sup 3}He/{sup 21}Ne ratios, i.e. the {sup 3}He/{sup 21}Ne ratio is below the ''Bern-line''. Several hypotheses have been suggested for these low {sup 3}He/{sup 21}Ne ratios, including solar heating in low-perihelion orbits, shock-related diffusion of He during the collision that ejected the meteoroid, or an artifact of high shielding conditions [4]. The first two hypotheses seem to be supported by low radiogenic {sup 4}He concentrations in samples with low {sup 3}He, whereas Monte Carlo calculations have shown that some of the low {sup 3}He/{sup 21}Ne ratios may be due to high shielding conditions in objects with radii > 1m [5]. To elucidate these issues, we selected 15 samples with known noble gas concentrations [6] for radionuclide studies and obtained aliquots of the samples adjacent to those measured for noble gases. The specific goal is the identification of complex exposure histories among samples having low {sup 3}He/{sup 21}Ne ratios. All samples have {sup 3}He deficiencies of >20% relative to the ''Bern-line'' (Table 1). Most of the selected samples also have low {sup 22}Ne/{sup 21}Ne ratios ({le}1.1), indicative of high shielding during most of their cosmic-ray exposure (Table 1), whereas one sample (Suizhou) was selected because of its relatively low {sup 81}Kr concentration [7]. In addition, we selected QUE 93021, for which initial radionuclide results suggested a short exposure age. Here we present cosmogenic {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al and {sup 36}Cl in stone and metal fractions for the 16 ordinary chondrites listed in Table 1.

Welton, K C; Nishiizumi, K; Caffee, M W

2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

365

The Influence of Blank-Width Ratio on Stress Field during Heavy Axial Forgings Manufacturing with Horizontal V-Shaped Anvils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The forging method with horizontal V-shaped anvils (HVA) is effective in the control of inner stress states, metal tissue, etc. FEM numerical simulation is conducted for the HVA forging method, given the blank-width ratio 0.5, 1.0 and 1.2, respectively, ... Keywords: horizontal V-shaped anvil, anvil-width ratio, blank-width ratio, axial forging, stress field

Li Li; Wang Qian; Yu Suoqing; Ni Liyong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCE RATIOS IN STARS OF THE OUTER GALACTIC DISK. IV. A NEW SAMPLE OF OPEN CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect

We present radial velocities and chemical abundances for nine stars in the old, distant open clusters Be18, Be21, Be22, Be32, and PWM4. For Be18 and PWM4, these are the first chemical abundance measurements. Combining our data with literature results produces a compilation of some 68 chemical abundance measurements in 49 unique clusters. For this combined sample, we study the chemical abundances of open clusters as a function of distance, age, and metallicity. We confirm that the metallicity gradient in the outer disk is flatter than the gradient in the vicinity of the solar neighborhood. We also confirm that the open clusters in the outer disk are metal-poor with enhancements in the ratios [{alpha}/Fe] and perhaps [Eu/Fe]. All elements show negligible or small trends between [X/Fe] and distance (<0.02 dex kpc{sup -1}), but for some elements, there is a hint that the local (R{sub GC} < 13 kpc) and distant (R{sub GC} > 13 kpc) samples may have different trends with distance. There is no evidence for significant abundance trends versus age (<0.04 dex Gyr{sup -1}). We measure the linear relation between [X/Fe] and metallicity, [Fe/H], and find that the scatter about the mean trend is comparable to the measurement uncertainties. Comparison with solar neighborhood field giants shows that the open clusters share similar abundance ratios [X/Fe] at a given metallicity. While the flattening of the metallicity gradient and enhanced [{alpha}/Fe] ratios in the outer disk suggest a chemical enrichment history different from that of the solar neighborhood, we echo the sentiments expressed by Friel et al. that definitive conclusions await homogeneous analyses of larger samples of stars in larger numbers of clusters. Arguably, our understanding of the evolution of the outer disk from open clusters is currently limited by systematic abundance differences between various studies.

Yong, David [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Carney, Bruce W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Friel, Eileen D., E-mail: yong@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: bruce@physics.unc.edu, E-mail: efriel@indiana.edu [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

James Spillane

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Various Carbon to Carbon Bond Lengths Inter-related via the Golden Ratio, and their Linear Dependence on Bond Energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work presents the relations between the carbon to carbon bond lengths in the single, double and triple bonds and in graphite, butadiene and benzene. The Golden ratio, which was shown to divide the Bohr radius into two parts pertaining to the charged particles, the electron and proton, and to divide inter-atomic distances into their cationic and anionic radii, also plays a role in the carbon-carbon bonds and in the ionic/polar character of those in graphite, butadiene and benzene. Further, the bond energies of the various CC bonds are shown to vary linearly with the bond lengths.

Raji Heyrovska

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

369

The effect of expansion-ratio limitations on positive-displacement, total-flow geothermal power systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Combined steam-turbine/positive-displacement engine (PDE) geothermal power systems are analyzed thermodynamically and compared with optimized reference flash-steam plants. Three different configurations of combined systems are considered. Treated separately are the cases of self-flowing and pumped wells. Two strategies are investigated that help overcome the inherent expansion-ratio limitation of PDE's: pre-flashing and pre-mixing. Parametrically-obtained results show the required minimum PDE efficiency for the combined system to match the reference plant for various sets of design conditions.

DiPippo, R.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Recoil Polarization Measurements of the Proton Electromagnetic Form Factor Ratio to Q^2 = 8.5 GeV^2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Among the most fundamental observables of nucleon structure, electromagnetic form factors are a crucial benchmark for modern calculations describing the strong interaction dynamics of the nucleon's quark constituents; indeed, recent proton data have attracted intense theoretical interest. In this letter, we report new measurements of the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio using the recoil polarization method, at momentum transfers Q2=5.2, 6.7, and 8.5 GeV2. By extending the range of Q2 for which GEp is accurately determined by more than 50%, these measurements will provide significant constraints on models of nucleon structure in the non-perturbative regime.

A. J. R. Puckett; E. J. Brash; M. K. Jones; W. Luo; M. Meziane; L. Pentchev; C. F. Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; F. R. Wesselmann; A. Ahmidouch; I. Albayrak; K. A. Aniol; J. Arrington; A. Asaturyan; H. Baghdasaryan; F. Benmokhtar; W. Bertozzi; L. Bimbot; P. Bosted; W. Boeglin; C. Butuceanu; P. Carter; S. Chernenko; E. Christy; M. Commisso; J. C. Cornejo; S. Covrig; S. Danagoulian; A. Daniel; A. Davidenko; D. Day; S. Dhamija; D. Dutta; R. Ent; S. Frullani; H. Fenker; E. Frlez; F. Garibaldi; D. Gaskell; S. Gilad; R. Gilman; Y. Goncharenko; K. Hafidi; D. Hamilton; D. W. Higinbotham; W. Hinton; T. Horn; B. Hu; J. Huang; G. M. Huber; E. Jensen; C. Keppel; M. Khandaker; P. King; D. Kirillov; M. Kohl; V. Kravtsov; G. Kumbartzki; Y. Li; V. Mamyan; D. J. Margaziotis; A. Marsh; Y. Matulenko; J. Maxwell; G. Mbianda; D. Meekins; Y. Melnik; J. Miller; A. Mkrtchyan; H. Mkrtchyan; B. Moffit; O. Moreno; J. Mulholland; A. Narayan; S. Nedev; Nuruzzaman; E. Piasetzky; W. Pierce; N. M. Piskunov; Y. Prok; R. D. Ransome; D. S. Razin; P. Reimer; J. Reinhold; O. Rondon; M. Shabestari; A. Shahinyan; K. Shestermanov; S. Sirca; I. Sitnik; L. Smykov; G. Smith; L. Solovyev; P. Solvignon; R. Subedi; E. Tomasi-Gustafsson; A. Vasiliev; M. Veilleux; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; S. Wood; Z. Ye; Y. Zanevsky; X. Zhang; Y. Zhang; X. Zheng; L. Zhu

2010-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

371

Higher order terms in the inflation potential and the lower bound on the tensor to scalar ratio r  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research Highlights: > In Ginsburg-Landau (G-L) approach data favors new inflation over chaotic inflation. > n{sub s} and r fall inside a universal banana-shaped region in G-L new inflation. > The banana region for the observed value n{sub s}=0.964 implies 0.021 Fermion condensate inflaton potential is a double well in the G-L class. - Abstract: The MCMC analysis of the CMB + LSS data in the context of the Ginsburg-Landau approach to inflation indicated that the fourth degree double-well inflaton potential in new inflation gives an excellent fit of the present CMB and LSS data. This provided a lower bound for the ratio r of the tensor to scalar fluctuations and as most probable value r {approx_equal} 0.05, within reach of the forthcoming CMB observations. In this paper we systematically analyze the effects of arbitrarily higher order terms in the inflaton potential on the CMB observables: spectral index n{sub s} and ratio r. Furthermore, we compute in close form the inflaton potential dynamically generated when the inflaton field is a fermion condensate in the inflationary universe. This inflaton potential turns out to belong to the Ginsburg-Landau class too. The theoretical values in the (n{sub s}, r) plane for all double well inflaton potentials in the Ginsburg-Landau approach (including the potential generated by fermions) fall inside a universal banana-shaped region B. The upper border of the banana-shaped region B is given by the fourth order double-well potential and provides an upper bound for the ratio r. The lower border of B is defined by the quadratic plus an infinite barrier inflaton potential and provides a lower bound for the ratio r. For example, the current best value of the spectral index n{sub s} = 0.964, implies r is in the interval: 0.021 < r < 0.053. Interestingly enough, this range is within reach of forthcoming CMB observations.

Destri, C., E-mail: Claudio.Destri@mib.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Universita Milano-Bicocca and INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Vega, H.J. de, E-mail: devega@lpthe.jussieu.fr [LPTHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI) et Denis Diderot (Paris VII), Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 7589, Tour 24, 5eme. etage, Boite 126, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, Cedex 05 (France); Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); Sanchez, N.G., E-mail: Norma.Sanchez@obspm.fr [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Laboratoire Associe au CNRS UMR 8112, 61, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Essays in monetary policy conduction and its effectiveness: monetary policy rules, probability forecasting, central bank accountability, and the sacrifice ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Monetary policy has been given either too many positive attributes or, in contrast, only economy-disturbing features. Central banks must take into account a wide variety of factors to achieve a proper characterization of modern economies for the optimal implementation of monetary policy. Such is the case of central bank accountability and monetary policy effectiveness. The objective of this dissertation is to examine these two concerns relevant to the current macroeconomic debate. The analyses are carried out using an innovative set of tools to extract presumably important information from historical data of selected macroeconomic indicators. This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay explores the causality between the elements of the "celebrated" Taylor rule, using a Structural Vector Autoregression approach on US data. Directed acyclical graph techniques and Bayesian search models are used to identify the contemporaneous causal structure in the construction of impulse-response functions. Further analysis is performed by evaluating the implications of performing standard innovation-accounting procedures, derived from a Structural Vector Autoregression on interest rates, inflation, and unemployment. This is examined whenever a causal structure is imposed vs. when it is observed. We find that the interest rate causes inflation and unemployment. This suggests that the Fed has not followed a Taylor rule in any of the two periods under study. This result differs significantly to the case when the causal structure is imposed. The second essay presents an incentive-compatible approach based on proper scoring rules to evaluate density forecasts in order to reduce the central banks' accountability problem. Our results indicate that the surveyed forecasters have done a "better" job than the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC). The third essay analyzes the causal structure of the factors that are presumed to influence the effectiveness of monetary policy, represented by the sacrifice ratio. Directed acyclical graph methods are used to identify the causal flow between such determinants and the sacrifice ratio. We find evidence that, while wage rigidities and central bank independence are the two major determinants of the sacrifice ratio, the degree of openness has no direct effect on the sacrifice ratio.

Gabriel, Casillas Olvera,

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Radionuclide Ratio Analyst Tool  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Kendra M. Foltz Biegalski This memo recommends the installation of several upgrades and additions to the Radionuclide Monitoring Software (RMS) into operations at the Center for Monitoring Research (CMR). The software additions and upgrades described herein provide new functionality and improved results to many aspects of radionuclide data analysis. This software was developed under the Technical Verification and Analytical Support (TVAS) program at the CMR. This software has been running on the TVAS development network from 3 months to 2 years. Statement of Objective The objective of this proposal is the implementation of additions and upgrades to the RMS software into CMR operations. The following additional software components are recommended:

unknown authors

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Precision Ratio Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... magnitude and phase angle) of transformers for primary ... If the test conditions and the device under ... the secondary burden for each transformer or for ...

2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

375

Activity Dependent Branching Ratios in Stocks, Solar X-ray Flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld Sandpile Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We define an activity dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series $X_{t}$. The branching ratio $b_x$ is defined as $b_x= E[\\xi_x/x]$. The random variable $\\xi_x$ is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to $x$, so $\\xi_x=\\{X_{t+1}|X_t=x\\}$. If $b_x>1$, the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to $x$, while if $b_xprices we find $b_x=1$ within statistical uncertainty, for all $x$, consistent with an ``efficient market hypothesis''. For stock volumes, solar X-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, $b_x$ is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power law behavior. For solar X-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where $b_x \\simeq 1$, which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. Thi...

Martin, Elliot; Paczuski, Maya

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Constraining the origin of the rising cosmic ray positron fraction with the boron-to-carbon ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rapid rise in the cosmic ray positron fraction above 10 GeV, as measured by PAMELA and AMS, suggests the existence of nearby primary sources of high energy positrons, such as pulsars or annihilating/decaying dark matter. In contrast, the spectrum of secondary positrons produced through the collisions of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium is predicted to fall rapidly with energy, and thus is unable to account for the observed rise. It has been proposed, however, that secondary positrons could be produced and then accelerated in nearby supernova remnants, potentially explaining the observed rise, without the need of primary positron sources. Yet, if secondary positrons are accelerated in such shocks, other secondary cosmic ray species (such as boron nuclei, and antiprotons) will also be accelerated, leading to rises in the boron-to-carbon and antiproton-to-proton ratios. The measurements of the boron-to-carbon ratio by the PAMELA and AMS collaborations, however, show no sign of such a rise. With this new data in hand, we revisit the secondary acceleration scenario for the rising positron fraction. Assuming that the same supernova remnants accelerate both light nuclei (protons, helium) and heavier cosmic ray species, we find that no more than ~25% of the observed rise in the positron fraction can result from this mechanism (at the 95% confidence level)

Ilias Cholis; Dan Hooper

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

377

Leptonic decay-constant ratio f_{K^+}/f_{pi^+} from lattice QCD with physical light quarks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A calculation of the ratio of leptonic decay constants f_{K^+}/f_{\\pi^+} makes possible a precise determination of the ratio of CKM matrix elements |V_{us}|/|V_{ud}| in the Standard Model, and places a stringent constraint on the scale of new physics that would lead to deviations from unitarity in the first row of the CKM matrix. We compute f_{K^+}/f_{\\pi^+} numerically in unquenched lattice QCD using gauge-field ensembles recently generated that include four flavors of dynamical quarks: up, down, strange, and charm. We analyze data at four lattice spacings a ~ 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, and 0.15 fm with simulated pion masses down to the physical value 135 MeV. We obtain f_{K^+}/f_{\\pi^+} = 1.1947(26)(37), where the errors are statistical and total systematic, respectively. This is our first physics result from our N_f = 2+1+1 ensembles, and the first calculation of f_{K^+}/f_{\\pi^+} from lattice-QCD simulations at the physical point. Our result is the most precise lattice-QCD determination of f_{K^+}/f_{\\pi^+}, with an error comparable to the current world average. When combined with experimental measurements of the leptonic branching fractions, it leads to a precise determination of |V_{us}|/|V_{ud}| = 0.2309(9)(4) where the errors are theoretical and experimental, respectively.

A. Bazavov; C. Bernard; C. DeTar; J. Foley; W. Freeman; Steven Gottlieb; U. M. Heller; J. E. Hetrick; J. Kim; J. Laiho; L. Levkova; M. Lightman; J. Osborn; S. Qiu; R. L. Sugar; D. Toussaint; R. S. Van de Water; R. Zhou

2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

378

Statistical Continuum Theory for the Effective Conductivity of Fiber Filled Polymer Composites: Effect of Orientation Distribution and Aspect Ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effective conductivity of polymer composites, filled with conducting fibers such as carbon nanotubes, is studied using statistical continuum theory. The fiber orientation distribution in the matrix plays a very important role on their effective properties. To take into account their orientation, shape and distribution, two-point and three-point probability distribution functions are used. The effect of fibers orientation is illustrated by comparing the effective conductivity of microstructures with oriented and non-oriented fibers. The randomly oriented fibers result in an isotropic effective conductivity. The increased fiber orientation distribution can lead to higher anisotropy in conductivity. The effect of fiber’s aspect ratio on the effective conductivity is studied by comparing microstructures with varying degrees of fiber orientation distribution. Results show that the increase in anisotropy leads to higher conductivity in the maximum fiber orientation distribution direction and lower conductivity in the transverse direction. These results are in agreement with various models from the literature that show the increase of the aspect ratio of fibers improves the electrical and thermal conductivity.

Mikdam, Amed; Makradi, A.; Ahzi, Said; Garmestani, Hamid; Li, Dongsheng; Remond, Y.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

380

Changes in mixing ratio and isotopic composition of CO2 in urban air from the Los Angeles basin, California, between 1972 and 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reflects a change in the relative proportion of natural gas and petroleum products burned in the regionChanges in mixing ratio and isotopic composition of CO2 in urban air from the Los Angeles basin December 2008. [1] Atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and C and O isotopic compositions are reported for the Los

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381

Large-Eddy Simulations of Air Flow and Turbulence within and around Low-Aspect-Ratio Cylindrical Open-Top Chambers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flow around cylindrical open-top chambers (OTCs) with aspect ratios (i.e., height-to-diameter ratios) much less than unity is investigated using a large-eddy simulation (LES) model. The solid structures are represented using the immersed ...

Philip Cunningham; Rodman R. Linn; Eunmo Koo; Cathy J. Wilson

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Landslide susceptibility mapping using frequency ratio, logistic regression, artificial neural networks and their comparison: A case study from Kat landslides (Tokat-Turkey)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to compare the landslide susceptibility mapping methods of frequency ratio (FR), logistic regression and artificial neural networks (ANN) applied in the Kat County (Tokat-Turkey). Digital elevation model (DEM) was first constructed ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Frequency ratio, GIS, Kat (Tokat-Turkey), Landslide, Logistic regression, Susceptibility map

I??k Yilmaz

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Formation Kinetics of Nitric Oxide of Biodiesel Relative to Petroleum Diesel under Comparable Oxygen Equivalence Ratio in a Homogeneous Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interest in biodiesel has piqued with advent of stringent emissions regulations. Biodiesel is a viable substitute for petroleum diesel because biodiesel produces significantly lower particulate and soot emissions relative to petroleum diesel. Higher nitric oxide (NO) emissions for biodiesel, however, are of primary concern in biodiesel-fueled engines. Search for an in-cylinder technique to reduce NO emissions for biodiesel has motivated studies to gain an improved understanding of fundamental factors that drive increase in NO emissions with biodiesel. Potential factors include fuel-bound oxygen, fuel-bound nitrogen and post-flame gas temperature. The role of fuel-bound oxygen however is debated in the literature. The research objective of this study is to computationally determine if biodiesel and petroleum diesel yield equivalent concentrations of NO with the same oxygen equivalence ratio in a 0-D homogeneous reactor, to explain the role of fuel-bound oxygen in biodiesel on increases in NO emissions with biodiesel. The results from this study indicate that the biodiesel surrogate yields higher NO emissions than the n-heptane because of its lower oxygen consumption efficiency. The lower oxygen consumption efficiency for biodiesel is likely because of the slower decomposition of the individual components and the blending ratios of the biodiesel surrogate blend. The relative differences in combustion efficiency of individual components of the biodiesel blend suggest this conclusion. The more efficient burning of the methyl esters relative to the n-heptane in biodiesel surrogate perhaps indicates the favorable role of fuel-bound oxygen in the fuel’s combustion. The low utilization of oxygen by the biodiesel surrogate could not be explained in this study. The dominance of NO2 H ? NO OH and N NO ? N2 O mechanisms during biodiesel combustion however explain the high NO emissions for the biodiesel surrogate relative to the n-heptane. The biodiesel may yield lower NO emissions than the petroleum diesel if the blending ratios for the biodiesel are adjusted such that combustion efficiency of biodiesel and petroleum diesel is same or the NO2 H ? NO OH and N NO ? N2 O mechanisms are suppressed during biodiesel combustion.

Rathore, Gurlovleen K.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Ratio of produced gas to produced water from DOE's EDNA Delcambre No. 1 geopressured-geothermal aquifer gas well test  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A paper presented by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) at the Third Geopressured-Geothermal Energy Conference hypothesized that the high ratio of produced gas to produced water from the No. 1 sand in the Edna Delcambre No. 1 well was due to free gas trapped in pores by imbibition over geological time. This hypothesis was examined in relation to preliminary test data which reported only average gas to water ratios over the roughly 2-day steps in flow rate. Subsequent public release of detailed test data revealed substantial departures from the previously reported computer simulation results. Also, data now in the public domain reveal the existence of a gas cap on the aquifier tested. This paper describes IGT's efforts to match the observed gas/water production with computer simulation. Two models for the occurrence and production of gas in excess of that dissolved in the brine have been used. One model considers the gas to be dispersed in pores by imbibition, and the other model considers the gas as a nearby free gas cap above the aquifier. The studies revealed that the dispersed gas model characteristically gave the wrong shape to plots of gas production on the gas/water ratio plots such that no reasonable match to the flow data could be achieved. The free gas cap model gave a characteristically better shape to the production plots and could provide an approximate fit to the data of the edge of the free gas cap is only about 400 feet from the well.Because the geological structure maps indicate the free gas cap to be several thousand feet away and the computer simulation results match the distance to the nearby Delcambre Nos. 4 and 4A wells, it appears that the source of the excess free gas in the test of the No. 1 sand may be from these nearby wells. The gas source is probably a separate gas zone and is brought into contact with the No. 1 sand via a conduit around the No. 4 well.

Rogers, L.A.; Randolph, P.L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

The Golden Ratio Prediction for the Solar Angle from a Natural Model with A5 Flavour Symmetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We formulate a consistent model predicting, in the leading order approximation, maximal atmospheric mixing angle, vanishing reactor angle and tan {\\theta}_12 = 1/{\\phi} where {\\phi} is the Golden Ratio. The model is based on the flavour symmetry A5 \\tiems Z5 \\times Z3, spontaneously broken by a set of flavon fields. By minimizing the scalar potential of the theory up to the next-to-leading order in the symmetry breaking parameter, we demonstrate that this mixing pattern is naturally achieved in a finite portion of the parameter space, through the vacuum alignment of the flavon fields. The leading order approximation is stable against higher-order corrections. We also compare our construction to other models based on discrete symmetry groups.

Feruglio, Ferruccio

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

The Golden Ratio Prediction for the Solar Angle from a Natural Model with A5 Flavour Symmetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We formulate a consistent model predicting, in the leading order approximation, maximal atmospheric mixing angle, vanishing reactor angle and tan {\\theta}_12 = 1/{\\phi} where {\\phi} is the Golden Ratio. The model is based on the flavour symmetry A5 \\times Z5 \\times Z3, spontaneously broken by a set of flavon fields. By minimizing the scalar potential of the theory up to the next-to-leading order in the symmetry breaking parameter, we demonstrate that this mixing pattern is naturally achieved in a finite portion of the parameter space, through the vacuum alignment of the flavon fields. The leading order approximation is stable against higher-order corrections. We also compare our construction to other models based on discrete symmetry groups.

Ferruccio Feruglio; Alessio Paris

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

387

Measurement of the branching ratio for the decay K sub L sup 0 r arrow. mu. mu  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concurrent with our search for the decays {ital K}{sub {ital L}}{sup 0}{r arrow}{mu}e and {ital K}{sub {ital L}}{sup 0}{r arrow}ee, we have observed 87 {ital K}{sub {ital L}}{sup 0}{r arrow}{mu}{mu} events. Normalizing this sample to the simultaneous observation of the decay {ital K}{sub {ital L}}{sup 0}{r arrow}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}, we obtain the branching ratio {ital B}({ital K}{sub {ital L}}{sup 0}{r arrow}{mu}{mu}) =(5.8{plus minus}0.6(stat){plus minus}0.4 (syst)) {times}10{sup {minus}9}.

Mathiazhagan, C.; Molzon, W.R. (University of California, Irvine, California 92717 (US)); Cousins, R.D.; Konigsberg, J.; Kubic, J.; Melese, P.; Rubin, P.; Slater, W.E.; Wagner, D. (University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024); Hart, G.W.; Kinnison, W.W.; Lee, D.M.; McKee, R.J.; Milner, E.C.; Sanders, G.H.; Ziock, H.J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545); Arisaka, K.; Knibbe, P.; Urheim, J. (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104); Axelrod, S.

1989-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

388

Alkali injection system with controlled CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 ratios for combustion of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature combustion process for an organic fuel containing sulfur n which the nitrogen of air is replaced by carbon dioxide for combination with oxygen with the ratio of CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 being controlled to generate combustion temperatures above 2000 K. for a gas-gas reaction with SO.sub.2 and an alkali metal compound to produce a sulfate and in which a portion of the carbon-dioxide rich gas is recycled for mixing with oxygen and/or for injection as a cooling gas upstream from heating exchangers to limit fouling of the exchangers, with the remaining carbon-dioxide rich gas being available as a source of CO.sub.2 for oil recovery and other purposes.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Design and development of a continuously variable ratio transmission for an automotive vehicle. Phase IV. Quarterly progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress in the design and development of a continuously variable ratio transmission for an automotive vehicle is reported. The Major automotive hydromechanical transmission development problem continues to be the reduction of hydrostatic noise and the project plan, therefore, concentrated on the new hydrostatic module. The potential for achieving acceptably low noise levels in the second generation hydromechanical transmission is to be assessed by comparing the noise levels of the hydrostatic modules for the first and second generation transmissions. A set of twelve test points was selected comprising of road load steady state and wide-open-throttle acceleration at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mph. The module operating conditions for the two transmissions at each of these twelve points were calculated. Baseline noise data was measured on the first generation module. The results are given testing of co-axial hydrostatic module for second generation hydromechanical transmission will be emphasized. (LCL)

None

1978-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Fabrication and characterization of analyzer gratings with high aspect ratios for phase contrast imaging using a Talbot interferometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, X-ray imaging based on the differential phase contrast gained more and more attention to be used in X-ray imaging. Among other techniques like crystal-based diffraction and propagation methods, the grating based Talbot interferometry offers an approach measuring phase modulations of X-rays while passing low absorbing objects. The Talbot interferometer yields for highly efficient X-ray imaging signals for hard X-rays with energies above 10 keV. One factor with high impact on the imaging performance of such grating interferometers is the gratings quality. We introduce a fabrication process allowing both, the fabrication of phase modulating and analyzer gratings with high aspect ratios, up to 100. Structural deviations from the optimal geometry of the gratings are investigated and their influence on the obtained image quality is discussed.

Kenntner, Johannes; Altapova, Venera; Grund, Thomas; Pantenburg, Franz Josef; Meiser, Jan; Baumbach, Tilo; Mohr, Juergen [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Laboratory for Application of Synchrotron Radiation, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Laboratory for Application of Synchrotron Radiation, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

391

Effect of variation of angle of inclination on the performance of low-concentration-ratio compound parabolic concentrating solar collectors  

SciTech Connect

Thermal heat transfer in line-axis, symmetric, compound parabolic concentrating solar energy collectors (CPCs) has been investigated and a theoretical numerical model has been developed. The model allows the effect of the angle of axial inclination of an east-west aligned CPC and hence the effect of the latitudinal and tracking configuration of the CPC system on performance to be determined. The internal and external convective heat transfer correlations employed are angular dependent. The variation of convective, radiative, conductive and overall heat transfer coefficients and system efficiency for a range of angular inclinations, concentration ratios, total insolations and beam to diffuse insolation factors are presented graphically. The results demonstrate that there is a 10% variation in convective heat transfer with angle of inclination for low concentration CPCs (i.e. C=1.5). 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

A.F. Kothdiwala; Norton, B.; Eames, P.C. [Univ. of Ulster, Antrim (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

Branching ratio and CP Asymmetry of B{yields}{rho}{eta}{sup (')} decays in the perturbative QCD approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we calculate the branching ratios and CP-violating asymmetries for B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{eta}{sup (')} and B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{eta}{sup (')} decays in the perturbative QCD factorization approach. In this approach, we not only calculate the usual factorizable contributions, but also evaluate the nonfactorizable and annihilation type contributions. Besides the current-current operators, the contributions from the QCD and electroweak penguin operators are also taken into account. The theoretical predictions for the branching ratios are Br(B{sup +}{yields}{rho}{sup +}{eta}{sup (')}){approx_equal}9x10{sup -6} and Br(B{sup 0}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}{eta}{sup (')}){approx_equal}5x10{sup -8}, which agree well with the measured values and currently available experimental upper limits. We also predict large CP-violating asymmetries in these decays: A{sub CP}{sup dir}({rho}{sup {+-}}{eta}){approx_equal}-13%, A{sub CP}{sup dir}({rho}{sup {+-}}{eta}{sup '}){approx_equal}-18%, A{sub CP}{sup dir}({rho}{sup 0}{eta}){approx_equal}-41%, A{sub CP}{sup dir}({rho}{sup 0}{eta}{sup '}){approx_equal}-27%, A{sub CP}{sup mix}({rho}{sup 0}{eta}){approx_equal}+25%, and A{sub CP}{sup mix}({rho}{sup 0}{eta}{sup '}){approx_equal}+11%, which can be tested by the current or future B factory experiments.

Liu Xin; Wang Huisheng; Xiao Zhenjun; Guo Libo; Lue Caidian [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210097 (China); CCAST (World Laboratory), P.O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China) and Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, P.O. Box 918(4) Beijing 100049 (China)

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Alkali injection system with controlled CO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ ratios for combustion of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature combustion process for an organic fuel containing sulfur in which the nitrogen of air is replaced by carbon dioxide for combination with oxygen with the ratio of CO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ being controlled to generate combustion temperatures above 2000/sup 0/K for a gas-gas reaction with SO/sub 2/ and an alkali metal compound to produce a sulfate and in which a portion of the carbon-dioxide rich gas is recycled for mixing with oxygen and/or for injection as a cooling gas upstream from heating exchangers to limit fouling of the exchangers, with the remaining carbon-dioxide rich gas being available as a source of CO/sub 2/ for oil recovery and other purposes. Several advantages are associated with the invention. First, by using a low CO/sub 2//O/sub 2/ ratio, higher flame temperatures can be achieved, thereby substantially promoting the gas-gas reaction between alkali atoms and sulfur gases. Second, by providing a means for injecting additional CO/sub 2/ at various locations removed from the combustion zone, the heat transfer rate and cooling of the alkali sulfates can be tightly controlled without suffering either the loss in efficiency inherent in conventional gas recycle techniques or the added cost associated with the larger mass throughput rate and heat transfer surface area. Third, there is the ability to use the concept in retrofit applications by tailoring the CO/sub 2/ quantity recycled to match the heat utilization performance previously achieved using air as the oxidizing medium. Fourth, a natural reduction in nitrous oxides is achieved by eliminating the reaction of oxygen with the nitrogen in the oxidizer.

Berry, G.F.

1986-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

394

Band gap tunability of molecular beam epitaxy grown lateral composition modulated GaInP structures by controlling V/III flux ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lateral composition modulated (LCM) GaInP structures were grown on (001) GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy with different V/III flux ratios. Band gap of LCM structures could be tuned from 1.93 eV to 1.83 eV by decreasing flux ratio while maintaining the same photoluminescence intensity, enhanced light absorption, and widened absorption spectrum. It is shown that for band gap tuning of LCM structures, flux ratio adjustment is a more viable method compared to growth temperature adjustment.

Park, K. W. [School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Park, C. Y. [Micro Systems Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. T. [School of Information and Communications, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Photonics and Applied Physics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

395

A Calorimetric Jet Engine Technique for Estimating the Condensed Water Mixing Ratio in Cumulus Clouds for Cloud Physical and Weather Modification Research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique has been developed for deriving estimates of condensed water mixing ratio in cumulus clouds from measurements of potential temperature in the air in the compressor of a jet engine. Condensate that enters the engine at low temperatures ...

Griffith Morgan; Mark Schormann; Erika Botha; Graeme K. Mather

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

On-Site Calibration for High Precision Measurements of Water Vapor Isotope Ratios Using Off-Axis Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stable isotope ratio measurements of atmospheric water vapor (?18Ov and ?2Hv) are scarce relative to those in precipitation. This limitation is rapidly changing due to advances in absorption spectroscopy technology and the development of ...

Joshua Rambo; Chun-Ta Lai; James Farlin; Matt Schroeder; Ken Bible

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

The Ratio of Diffuse to Direct Solar Irradiance (Perpendicular to the Sun's Rays) with Clear Skies—A Conserved Quantity Throughout the Day  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of diffuse irradiance to direct normal is a conserved quantity throughout the day. Though its absolute value depends on the condition of the atmosphere, ground reflection and obstruction of horizon, once this value is established (by a ...

William A. Peterson; Inge Dirmhirn

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease CausationChapter 25 The Importance of the Omega-3 and Omega-6 Ratio: Brain Biochemistry, Cognition, and Behavior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fatty Acids in Health Promotion and Disease Causation Chapter 25 The Importance of the Omega-3 and Omega-6 Ratio: Brain Biochemistry, Cognition, and Behavior Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Pres

399

Aspect Ratio Effect of Functionalized/Non-Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on the Mechanical Properties of Cementitious Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to investigate the use of functionalized/non-functionalized multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as reinforcements for the Portland cement paste. The unique geometrical characteristics of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), as well as its unique mechanical properties such as high strength, ductility and stiffness, were the vital motivation for this study. In this research, we combined this unique material (CNTs) with concrete which is the most used man-made material. When compared to other composite materials, a limited amount of research has been conducted on the CNTs/cement composites. In order to investigate how the aspect ratio of functionalized/non-functionalized MWCNTs affects the mechanical properties of cementitious composites, ten different mixes of the MWCNTs/cement composites were prepared and tested. The different batches had a fixed water/cement ratio of 0.4, and variations of MWCNTs length, concentration and surface treatment. The cement nanocomposites were cast in small-scale specimens (beams) for the three-point flexural testing. Four major mechanical properties were evaluated at ages of 7, 14, and 28 days from the casting day: the maximum flexural strength, ultimate strain capacity (ductility), modulus of elasticity, and modulus of toughness. The results for the different nanocomposite batches were compared with the plain cement (reference) batch. The mechanical testing results showed that at 28 days almost all of the MWCNTs composites increased the flexural strength of the cement nanocomposites. At 28 days, the long MWCNTs increased the flexural strength more than the short MWCNTs. In general, the ultimate strain (ductility) of the short MWCNTs nanocomposites was higher than the ultimate strain of the long MWCNTs nanocomposites. The flexural strength of short 0.2 percent MWNT and long 0.04 percent MWNT (OH) increased by 269 percent and 83 percent, respectively, compared to the plain cement sample at 28 days. The highest ductility at 28 days for the short 0.1 percent MWNT and the short 0.2 percent MWNT was 86 percent and 81 percent, respectively. Clear evidence was obtained from the SEM images for micro-crack bridging; many of the MWCNTs were stretching across the micro-cracks. In conclusion, CNTs as nano reinforcements, can effectively improve certain mechanical properties of the cement paste composites.

Ashour, Ahmad

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Determination of Plutonium Isotope Ratios at Very Low Levels by ICP-MS using On-Line Electrochemically Modulated Separations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrochemically modulated separations (EMS) are shown to be a rapid and selective means of extracting and concentrating Pu from complex solutions prior to isotopic analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP?MS). This separation is performed in a flow injection mode, on?line with the ICP?MS. A three?electrode, flow?by electrochemical cell is used to accumulate Pu at an anodized glassy carbon electrode by redox conversion of Pu(III) to Pu (IV&VI). The entire process takes place in 2% v/v (0.46M) HNO3. No redox chemicals or acid concentration changes are required. Plutonium accumulation and release is redox dependent and controlled by the applied cell potential. Thus large transient volumetric concentration enhancements can be achieved. Based on more negative U(IV) potentials relative to Pu(IV), separation of Pu from uranium is efficient, thereby eliminating uranium hydride interferences. EMS?ICP?MS isotope ratio measurement performance will be presented for femtogram to attogram level plutonium concentrations.

Liezers, Martin; Lehn, Scott A.; Olsen, Khris B.; Farmer, Orville T.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

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401

High C/O Ratio and Weak Thermal Inversion in the Very Hot Atmosphere of Exoplanet WASP-12b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in a planet provides critical information about its primordial origins and subsequent evolution. A primordial C/O greater than 0.8 causes a carbide-dominated interior as opposed to a silicate-dominated composition as found on Earth, and the atmospheres can also differ from those in the Solar System. The solar C/O is 0.54. Here we report an analysis of dayside multi-wavelength photometry of the transiting hot-Jupiter WASP-12b that reveals C/O >= 1 in its atmosphere. The atmosphere is abundant in CO. It is depleted in water vapor and enhanced in methane by over two orders of magnitude each compared to a solar-abundance chemical-equilibrium model at the expected temperatures. We also find that the extremely irradiated atmosphere (T > 2,500 K) of WASP-12b lacks a prominent thermal inversion, or a stratosphere, and has very efficient day- night energy circulation. The absence of a strong thermal inversion is in stark contrast to theoretical predictions for the most highly irradiate...

Madhusudhan, Nikku; Stevenson, Kevin B; Nymeyer, Sarah; Campo, Christopher J; Wheatley, Peter J; Deming, Drake; Blecic, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A; Lust, Nate B; Anderson, David R; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Britt, Christopher B T; Bowman, William C; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F L; Pollacco, Don; West, Richard G

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Standard Model False Vacuum Inflation: Correlating the Tensor-to-Scalar Ratio to the Top Quark and Higgs Boson masses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For a narrow band of values of the top quark and Higgs boson masses, the Standard Model Higgs potential develops a false minimum at energies of about $10^{16}$ GeV, where primordial Inflation could have started in a cold metastable state. A graceful exit to a radiation-dominated era is provided, e.g., by scalar-tensor gravity models. We pointed out that if Inflation happened in this false minimum, the Higgs boson mass has to be in the range $126.0 \\pm 3.5$ GeV, where ATLAS and CMS subsequently reported excesses of events. Here we show that for these values of the Higgs boson mass, the inflationary gravitational wave background has be discovered with a tensor-to-scalar ratio at hand of future experiments. We suggest that combining cosmological observations with measurements of the top quark and Higgs boson masses represents a further test of the hypothesis that the Standard Model false minimum was the source of Inflation in the Universe.

Isabella Masina; Alessio Notari

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

403

Detecting extreme mass ratio inspiral events in LISA data using the Hierarchical Algorithm for Clusters and Ridges (HACR)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the most exciting prospects for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is the detection of gravitational waves from the inspirals of stellar-mass compact objects into supermassive black holes. Detection of these sources is an extremely challenging computational problem due to the large parameter space and low amplitude of the signals. However, recent work has suggested that the nearest extreme mass ratio inspiral (EMRI) events will be sufficiently loud that they might be detected using computationally cheap, template-free techniques, such as a time-frequency analysis. In this paper, we examine a particular time-frequency algorithm, the Hierarchical Algorithm for Clusters and Ridges (HACR). This algorithm searches for clusters in a power map and uses the properties of those clusters to identify signals in the data. We find that HACR applied to the raw spectrogram performs poorly, but when the data is binned during the construction of the spectrogram, the algorithm can detect typical EMRI events at distances of up to $\\sim2.6$Gpc. This is a little further than the simple Excess Power method that has been considered previously. We discuss the HACR algorithm, including tuning for single and multiple sources, and illustrate its performance for detection of typical EMRI events, and other likely LISA sources, such as white dwarf binaries and supermassive black hole mergers. We also discuss how HACR cluster properties could be used for parameter extraction.

Jonathan R Gair; Gareth Jones

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

404

Sensitivity of transitions in internal rotor molecules to a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, methanol was identified as a sensitive target system to probe variations of the proton-to-electron mass ratio {mu}[Jansen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 100801 (2011)]. The high sensitivity of methanol originates from the interplay between overall rotation and hindered internal rotation of the molecule; that is, transitions that convert internal rotation energy into overall rotation energy, or vice versa, have an enhanced sensitivity coefficient, K{sub {mu}}. As internal rotation is a common phenomenon in polyatomic molecules, it is likely that other molecules display similar or even larger effects. In this paper we generalize the concepts that form the foundation of the high sensitivity in methanol and use this to construct an approximate model which makes it possible to estimate the sensitivities of transitions in internal rotor molecules with C{sub 3v} symmetry, without performing a full calculation of energy levels. We find that a reliable estimate of transition sensitivities can be obtained from the three rotational constants (A, B, and C) and three torsional constants (F, V{sub 3}, and {rho}). This model is verified by comparing obtained sensitivities for methanol, acetaldehyde, acetamide, methyl formate, and acetic acid with a full analysis of the molecular Hamiltonian. Of the molecules considered, methanol is by far the most suitable candidate for laboratory and cosmological tests searching for a possible variation of {mu}.

Jansen, Paul; Ubachs, Wim; Bethlem, Hendrick L. [Institute for Lasers, Life and Biophotonics, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kleiner, Isabelle [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), CNRS UMR 7583 et Universites Paris 7 et Paris Est, 61 avenue du General de Gaulle, FR-94010 Creteil Cedex (France); Xu, Li-Hong [Department of Physics and Centre for Laser, Atomic, and Molecular Sciences, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada E2L 4L5 (Canada)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

Plant response to Na/sup +/, K/sup +/ and K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratios under saline conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research was undertaken to more clearly determine plant response to saline-sodic waters. In the first experiment, the response of wheat and sorghum to different K/sup +//Na/sup +/ ratios at different osmotic potentials was investigated. The plants were grown in outdoor solution culture tanks containing polyethylene glycol and/or NaCl as osmoticum with 1/2 strength Hoagland as the base nutrient solution. The mass of the root system for both wheat and sorghum was determined primarily by the osmotic potential. However, root elongation was controlled primarily by the Na/sup +/ concentration. Sorghum root elongation rates decreased with increasing Na/sup +/ while those for wheat increased. Sodium was not translocated out of the sorghum root system until a critical Na/sup +/ root saturation level of .6 moles/kg was obtained. The second experiment was designed to investigate the water, nutrient and growth responses of the second crop of wheat in a wheat-sorghum-wheat rotation to zonal saline-sodic conditions.

Devitt, D.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Calcite growth rates as a function of aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio, saturation index and strontium concentration  

SciTech Connect

Using in situ atomic force microscopy, the growth rates of the obtuse and acute step orientations on the calcite surface were measured at two saturation indices as a function of the aqueous calcium-to-carbonate ratio and aqueous strontium concentration. The amount of strontium required to inhibit growth was found to correlate with the aqueous calcium concentration, but did not correlate with carbonate. This suggests that strontium inhibits attachment of calcium ions to the reactive sites on the calcite surface. Strontium/calcium cation exchange selectivity coefficients for those sites, Kex, of 1.09 0.09 and 1.44 0.19 are estimated for the obtuse and acute step orientations, respectively. The implication of this finding is that to avoid poisoning calcite growth, the concentration of calcium should be higher than the quotient of the strontium concentration and Kex, regardless of saturation state. Additionally, analytical models of nucleation and propagation of steps are expanded from previous work to capture growth rates of these steps at multiple saturation indices and the effect of strontium. This work will have broader implications for naturally occurring or engineered calcite growth, such as to sequester subsurface strontium contamination.

Bracco, Jacquelyn N [ORNL; Grantham, Ms. Meg [Georgia Institute of Technology; Stack, Andrew G [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

The Effect of Birthrate Granularity on the Release- to- Birth Ratio for the AGR-1 In-core Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The AGR-1 Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) tristructural-isotropic-particle fuel experiment underwent 13 irradiation intervals from December 2006 until November 2009 within the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor in support of the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant program. During this multi-year experiment, release-to-birth rate ratios were computed at the end of each operating interval to provide information about fuel performance. Fission products released during irradiation were tracked daily by the Fission Product Monitoring System using 8-hour measurements. Birth rates calculated by MCNP with ORIGEN for as-run conditions were computed at the end of each irradiation interval. Each time step in MCNP provided neutron flux, reaction rates and AGR-1 compact composition, which were used to determine birth rates using ORIGEN. The initial birth-rate data, consisting of four values for each irradiation interval at the beginning, end, and two intermediate times, were interpolated to obtain values for each 8-hour activity. The problem with this method is that any daily changes in heat rates or perturbations, such as shim control movement or core/lobe power fluctuations, would not be reflected in the interpolated data and a true picture of the system would not be presented. At the conclusion of the AGR-1 experiment, great efforts were put forth to compute daily birthrates, which were reprocessed with the 8-hour release activity. The results of this study are presented in this paper.

Dawn Scates; John Walter

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Section 44  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heat flux comparison between the Central Heat flux comparison between the Central Facility's EBBR station with SiB2 tuned to represent the conditions in the immediate vicinity of that EBBR station. Comparison of EBBR and SiB2 Model Sensible and Latent Heat Flux Values W. J. Shaw, J. C. Doran, J. M. Hubbe and J. C. Liljegren Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction A fundamental requirement for a general circulation model (GCM) is the specification of the lower boundary condition, including heat transfer by turbulence. Because of the variety of surface types within a GCM grid cell, it is not obvious how to obtain an accurate measure of the flux through the lower boundary from flux measurements that can be made at only a few locations. We used the Simple Biosphere model (SiB2

409

Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996{+-}0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2{+-}1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of {sup 134}Cs/ {sup 137}Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A. [Dept. of Materials, Physics and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Univ., Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya-shi, 464-8603 (Japan)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

The use of post detonation analysis of stable isotope ratios to determine the type and production process of the explosive involved  

SciTech Connect

The detonation of a series of explosives was performed in a controlled manner to collect the resulting, solid residue or {open_quotes}soot.{close_quotes} This residue was examined to determine the ratios of the stable carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotopes. The goal of the experiment was to determine if these ratios could be used to indicate, from the post detonation residues, the type and origin of the detonated explosive. The ratios of the stated stable isotopes in the undetonated explosive were also determined. Despite some reservations in the quality of the data resulting from contamination by nonexplosive components, certain trends can be discerned. (1) Carbon isotopes allow aromatic explosives to be distinguished from nonaromatic explosives. This trend seems to carry through the detonation so that the distinction might be made after the fact. (2) The amination process for TATB can be detected through the hydrogen and, to some extent, the nitrogen isotope ratios. Unfortunately, the data are not sufficiently good to determine if this differential carries through the detonation. (3) The relative magnitude and sign of the nitrogen isotope ratio seems to carry through the detonation: some exchange with atmospheric nitrogen is probable. Even though this set of experiments must also be viewed as preliminary, there is a definite indication that certain qualitative characteristics of explosives can be detected after the detonation. This {open_quotes}signature{close_quotes} could have application to both intelligence and counter terrorism.

McGuire, R.R.; Velsko, C.A.; Lee, C.G.; Raber, E.

1993-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

411

Nuclear modification factor of nonphotonic electrons in heavy-ion collisions, and the heavy-flavor baryon-to-meson ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nuclear modification factor R(AA) of nonphotonic electrons in Au + Au collisions at root(S)NN = 200 GeV is studied by considering the decays of heavy-flavor hadrons produced in a quark coalescence model. Although an enhanced Lambda(c)/D(0) ratio is predicted by the coalescence model, it is peaked at small transverse momenta (similar to 2 GeV) due to the large difference between heavy and light quark masses. As a result, the enhanced Lambda(c)/D(0) ratio, which is expected to suppress the electron R(AA) as the branching ratio of Lambda(c) decay into electrons is smaller than that of D(0), does not lead to additional suppression of the electron R(AA) at large transverse momenta (>= 5 GeV), where the suppression is mainly due to heavy quark energy loss in produced quark-gluon plasma. Also, the enhanced Lambda(b)/(B) over bar (0) ratio predicted by the coalescence model has even smaller effect on the nonphotonic electron R(AA) as bottom baryons and mesons have similar branching ratios for semileptonic decays into electrons.

Oh, Yongseok; Ko, Che Ming.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Soybean Variety Evaluation Tests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Extension Center, Warsaw James Bowen, Producer, Beauregard Farms, Culpeper County Bobby Clark, County Agent

Liskiewicz, Maciej

413

Neutrino interactions with e/sup +/. mu. /sup -/ and multiple K/sup 0/'s. [Branching ratio  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A scan for directly produced positrons in 5,000 neutrino interactions in the neon (21 percent) hydrogen filled bubble chamber at Fermilab has yielded 15 events, 9 of which have ..mu../sup -/'s identified in the external muon identifier. On correcting for detection efficiency one obtains sigma(e/sup +/..mu../sup -/)/sigma(..mu../sup -/) approximately 1 x 10/sup -2/ for E/sub e/sup +// > .8 GeV and E/sub ..nu../ > 5 GeV. The kaon multiplicity is unexpectedly high. Eleven of the events have one or more Vees and three have two or more. Among the 11 events are two clear ..lambda..'s and two ambiguous K/sup 0//..lambda... There are four events with identifiable charged kaons. A 16th e/sup +/ event (9) is a definite ..nu../sub e/. From this information one concludes that the kaon multiplicity is 2 +- .6 K/sup 0/'s and 2 +- 1 K/sup + -/'s per interaction. From the observation

/

= 6.6, one concludes that the e/sup +/'s are probably not uniquely from heavy lepton decay. From a variety of analyses involving the e/sup +/ and/or K/sup 0/'s one learns that the mass of the hadron (C) that produces the e/sup +/'s is greater than 1.6 GeV. By determining the fraction of normal charged current (CC) events that have K/sup 0//sub s/ ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/ one is able to compare this fraction with the fraction of CC events that have e/sup +/..mu../sup -/ (K/sup 0//sub s/ ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/) to establish a conservative lower limit to the semileptonic branching ratio, C ..-->.. (e/sup +/ and ..mu../sup +/) ..nu../C ..-->.. all > 0.33 (1 +- .42), provided that the same number of K/sup 0//sub s/ exists in thenonleptonic decays as in the semileptonic ones, and that the phase space for ..mu../sup +/ and e/sup +/ are nearly equal. There is no compelling evidence for an energy threshold and there is a hint of some neutral current events among the e/sup +/ events.

Stevenson, M.L.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Neutron to proton ratios of quasiprojectile and midrapidity emission in the {sup 58}Ni+{sup 58}Ni reaction at 52 MeV/nucleon  

SciTech Connect

By combining data from a charged particle {sup 58}Ni+{sup 58}Ni experiment at 52 MeV/nucleon with an {sup 36}Ar+{sup 58}Ni experiment at 50 MeV/nucleon for which free neutrons have been detected, an increase in the neutron to proton ratio of the whole nuclear material at midrapidity has been experimentally observed in the reaction {sup 58}Ni+{sup 58}Ni at 52 MeV/nucleon. The neutron-to-proton ratio of the quasi-projectile emission is analyzed for the same reactions and is seen to decrease below the ratio of the initial system. Those observations suggest that an asymmetric exchange of neutrons and protons between the quasiprojectile and the midrapidity region exists.

Theriault, D.; Vallee, A.; Gingras, L.; Larochelle, Y.; Roy, R.; April, A.; Beaulieu, L.; Grenier, F.; Lemieux, F.; Moisan, J.; St-Pierre, C.; Turbide, S. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire, Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1K 7P4 (Canada); Samri, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et Applications, Universite Ibn Tofail, Kenitra (Morocco); Borderie, B.; Rivet, M. F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bougault, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Lecolley, J.F. [LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ISMRA and Universite, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France)] [and others

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Neutron-to-proton ratios of quasiprojectile and midrapidity emission in the {sup 64}Zn + {sup 64}Zn reaction at 45 MeV/nucleon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurement of both neutrons and charged particles emitted in the reaction {sup 64}Zn + {sup 64}Zn at 45 MeV/nucleon allows comparison of the neutron to proton ratio at midrapidity with that at projectile rapidity. The evolution of N/Z in both rapidity regimes with increasing centrality is examined. For the completely reconstructed midrapidity material one finds that the neutron to proton ratio is above that of the overall {sup 64}Zn + {sup 64}Zn system. In contrast, the reconstructed ratio for the quasiprojectile is below that of the overall system. This difference provides the most complete evidence to date of neutron enrichment of midrapidity nuclear matter at the expense of the quasiprojectile.

Theriault, D.; Gauthier, J.; Grenier, F.; Moisan, F.; St-Pierre, C.; Roy, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire, Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada); Davin, B.; Hudan, S.; Paduszynski, T.; Souza, R. T. de [Department of Chemistry and Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States); Bell, E.; Garey, J.; Iglio, J.; Keksis, A. L.; Parketon, S.; Richers, C.; Shetty, D. V.; Soisson, S. N.; Souliotis, G. A.; Stein, B. C. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)] (and others)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Measurements of volatile organic compounds at a suburban ground site (T1) in Mexico City during the MILAGRO 2006 campaign: Measurement comparison, emission ratios, and source attribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios were measured with two different instruments at the T1 ground site in Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign in March of 2006. A gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) quantified 18 light alkanes, alkenes and acetylene while a proton-transfer-reaction ion-trap mass spectrometer (PIT-MS) quantified 12 VOC species including oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and aromatics. A GC separation system was used in conjunction with the PIT-MS (GC-PIT-MS) to evaluate PIT-MS measurements and to aid in the identification of unknown VOCs. The VOC measurements are also compared to simultaneous canister samples and to two independent proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometers (PTR-MS) deployed on a mobile and an airborne platform during MILAGRO. VOC diurnal cycles demonstrate the large influence of vehicle traffic and liquid propane gas (LPG) emissions during the night and photochemical processing during the afternoon. Emission ratios for VOCs and OVOCs relative to CO are derived from early-morning measurements. Average emission ratios for non-oxygenated species relative to CO are on average a factor of {approx}2 higher than measured for US cities. Emission ratios for OVOCs are estimated and compared to literature values the northeastern US and to tunnel studies in California. Positive matrix factorization analysis (PMF) is used to provide insight into VOC sources and processing. Three PMF factors were distinguished by the analysis including the emissions from vehicles, the use of liquid propane gas and the production of secondary VOCs + long-lived species. Emission ratios to CO calculated from the results of PMF analysis are compared to emission ratios calculated directly from measurements. The total PIT-MS signal is summed to estimate the fraction of identified versus unidentified VOC species.

Bon, D.M.; Springston, S.; M.Ulbrich, I.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, W. C.; Alexander, M. L.; Baker, A.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D.; Fall, R.; Jimenez, J. L., Herndon, S. C.; Huey, L. G.; Knighton, W. B.; Ortega, J.; Vargas, O.

2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

417

Aerosol properties computed from aircraft-based observations during the ACE-Asia campaign: 2. A case study of lidar ratio closure  

SciTech Connect

For a vertical profile with three distinct layers (marine boundary, pollution and dust layers), observed during the ACE-Asia campaign, we carried out a comparison between the modeled lidar ratio vertical profile and that obtained from co-located airborne NASA AATS-14 sunphotometer and shipborne Micro-Pulse Lidar (MPL) measurements. The vertically resolved lidar ratio was calculated from two size distribution vertical profiles – one obtained by inversion of sunphotometer-derived extinction spectra, and one measured in-situ – combined with the same refractive index model based on aerosol chemical composition. The aerosol model implies single scattering albedos of 0.78 – 0.81 and 0.93 – 0.96 at 0.523 ?m (the wavelength of the lidar measurements), in the pollution and dust layers, respectively. The lidar ratios calculated from the two size distribution profiles agree closely in the dust layer; they are however, significantly lower than the lidar ratios derived from combined lidar and sunphotometer measurements. Uncertainties in aerosol size distributions and refractive index only partly explain these differences, suggesting that particle nonsphericity in this layer is an additional explanation. In the pollution layer, the two size distribution profiles yield lidar ratios that agree within the estimated uncertainties. The retrieved size distributions result in a lidar ratio which is in closer agreement with that derived from lidar/sunphotometer measurements in this layer, with still large differences at certain altitudes (the largest relative difference was 46%). We explain these differences by non-uniqueness of the result of the size distribution retrieval, by a lack of information on the mixing state of particles, and the vertical variability of the particle refractive index.

Kuzmanoski, Maja; Box, M. A.; Schmid, Beat; Box, G. P.; Wang, Jian; Russel, P. R.; Bates, D.; Jonsson, Haf; Welton, E. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.

2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

418

Semileptonic Form Factor ratio B_s->D_s/B->D and Its Application to BR(B^0_s->\\mu^+\\mu^-)  

SciTech Connect

We present a (2+1)-flavor lattice QCD calculation of the form factor ratio between the semileptonic decays {bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}l{sup -}{bar {nu}} and {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup +}l{sup -}{bar {nu}}. This ratio is an important theoretical input to the hadronic determination of the B meson fragmentation fraction ratio f{sub s}/f{sub d} which enters in the measurement of BR(B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}). Small lattice spacings and high statistics enable us to simulate the decays with a dynamic final D meson of small momentum and reliably extract the hadronic matrix elements at nonzero recoil. We report our preliminary result for the form factor ratio at the corresponding momentum transfer of the two decays f{sub 0}{sup (s)} (M{sub {pi}}{sup 2})/f{sub 0}{sup (d)} (M{sub K}{sup 2}).

Du, Daping; /Iowa U. /Fermilab /Illinois U., Urbana; DeTar, Carleton; /Utah U.; Kronfeld, Andreas; /Fermilab; Laiho, Jack; /Strathclyde U. /Glasgow U.; Meurice, Yannick; /Iowa U.; Qiu, Si-wei; /Utah U.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Deepening Treatment of the Low C/N Ratio Biogas Slurry at Mountainous Region Livestock Farming by Using Modified Two-Stage A/O System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The intensive and fast development of livestock farming with ecological pattern of raising¨Cbiogas¨Cirrigating is widely applied in China. After anaerobic fermentation the agricultural wastes can provides clean energy. However, there is problem by lacking ... Keywords: livestock farming, biogas slurry, low C/N ratio, deepening treatment

Wei-wei Yu; Zhi Zhang; Sheng-lan Bi; Shu-yang Li; Chao Liu

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow and Pollutant Transport in Street Canyons of Different Building-Height-to-Street-Width Ratios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study employs a large-eddy simulation technique to investigate the flow, turbulence structure, and pollutant transport in street canyons of building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 at a Reynolds number of 12 000 ...

Chun-Ho Liu; Mary C. Barth; Dennis Y. C. Leung

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Optimal Decision Making and the Value of Information in a Time-Dependent Version of the Cost-Loss Ratio Situation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A time-dependent version of the cost-loss ratio situation is described and the optimal use and economic value of meteorological information are investigated in this decision-making problem. The time-dependent situation is motivated by a decision ...

Allan H. Murphy; Qian Ye

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

The Effect of Oxygen to Methane Ratio on the Methane-wet Air Autothermal Reforming and Carbon Deposition in the Micro-chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Considering the problems of catalyst carbon deposition and reforming endothermic reaction in micro-reforming chamber, coupled methane catalyst partial oxidation and steam methane reforming can make the micro-reforming system auto-supply heat and inhibit ... Keywords: micro-chamber, autothermal reforming, carbon deposition, oxygen to methane ratio

Ran Jingyu; Tu Weifeng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

The Use of Fuel Chemistry and Property Variations to Evaluate the Robustness of Variable Compression Ratio as a Control Method for Gasoline HCCI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On a gasoline engine platform, homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) holds the promise of improved fuel economy and greatly reduced engine-out NOx emissions, without an increase in particulate matter emissions. In this investigation, a variable compression ratio (CR) engine equipped with a throttle and intake air heating was used to test the robustness of these control parameters to accommodate a series of fuels blended from reference gasoline, straight run refinery naptha, and ethanol. Higher compression ratios allowed for operation with higher octane fuels, but operation could not be achieved with the reference gasoline, even at the highest compression ratio. Compression ratio and intake heat could be used separately or together to modulate combustion. A lambda of 2 provided optimum fuel efficiency, even though some throttling was necessary to achieve this condition. Ethanol did not appear to assist combustion, although only two ethanol-containing fuels were evaluated. The increased pumping work from throttling was minimal compared to the efficiency increases that were the result of lower unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Low temperature heat release was present for all the fuels, but could be suppressed with a higher intake air temperature. Results will be used to design future fuels and combustion studies with this research platform.

Szybist, James P [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

~2.3 to 1.8 billion years ago display rela-tively large ratios compared to either older or  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(1947). 2. O. J. Rouxel et al., Science 307, 1088 (2005). 3. K. Rankama, Isotope Geology (Pergamon the marine iron isotope ratio at the beginning of stage 3a. Subsequent sulfidic (8, 9) or oxygenated (10 as an insoluble component of the sediment, thus retaining the isotopic compo- sition of the Fe inputs to the ocean

Brody, Carlos

425

Applications of High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry to Measurements of Average Oxygen to Carbon Ratios in Secondary Organic Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The applicability of high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS) to measurements of the average oxygen to carbon ratio (O/C) in organic aerosols was investigated. Solutions with known average O/C containing up to 10 standard compounds representative of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) were analyzed and corresponding electrospray ionization efficiencies were quantified. The assumption of equal ionization efficiency commonly used in estimating O/C ratios of organic aerosols was found to be reasonably accurate. We found that the accuracy of the measured O/C ratios increases by averaging the values obtained from both (+) and (-) modes. A correlation was found between the ratio of the ionization efficiencies in the positive and negative ESI modes with the octanol-water partition constant, and more importantly, with the compound's O/C. To demonstrate the utility of this correlation for estimating average O/C values of unknown mixtures, we analyzed the ESI (+) and ESI (-) data for SOA produced by oxidation of limonene and isoprene and compared to online O/C measurements using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). This work demonstrates that the accuracy of the HR ESI-MS methods is comparable to that of the AMS, with the added benefit of molecular identification of the aerosol constituents.

Bateman, Adam P.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

426

Hypoxic Prostate/Muscle PO{sub 2} Ratio Predicts for Outcome in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To correlate tumor oxygenation status with long-term biochemical outcome after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Custom-made Eppendorf PO{sub 2} microelectrodes were used to obtain PO{sub 2} measurements from the prostate (P), focused on positive biopsy locations, and normal muscle tissue (M), as a control. A total of 11,516 measurements were obtained in 57 men with localized prostate cancer immediately before prostate brachytherapy was given. The Eppendorf histograms provided the median PO{sub 2}, mean PO{sub 2}, and % <5 mm Hg or <10 mm Hg. Biochemical failure (BF) was defined using both the former American Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) (three consecutive raises) and the current Phoenix (prostate-specific antigen nadir + 2 ng/mL) definitions. A Cox proportional hazards regression model evaluated the influence of hypoxia using the P/M mean PO{sub 2} ratio on BF. Results: With a median follow-up time of 8 years, 12 men had ASTRO BF and 8 had Phoenix BF. On multivariate analysis, P/M PO{sub 2} ratio <0.10 emerged as the only significant predictor of ASTRO BF (p = 0.043). Hormonal therapy (p = 0.015) and P/M PO{sub 2} ratio <0.10 (p = 0.046) emerged as the only independent predictors of the Phoenix BF. Kaplan-Meier freedom from BF for P/M ratio <0.10 vs. {>=}0.10 at 8 years for ASTRO BF was 46% vs. 78% (p = 0.03) and for the Phoenix BF was 66% vs. 83% (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Hypoxia in prostate cancer (low mean P/M PO{sub 2} ratio) significantly predicts for poor long-term biochemical outcome, suggesting that novel hypoxic strategies should be investigated.

Turaka, Aruna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K., E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra L. [School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Greenberg, Richard E. [Department of Surgery, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

THE {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C RATIO ON TITAN FROM CASSINI INMS MEASUREMENTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EVOLUTION OF METHANE  

SciTech Connect

We have re-evaluated the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios in the upper atmosphere of Titan based on new calibration sensitivities and an improved model for the NH{sub 3} background in the {sup 13}CH{sub 4} mass channel. The INMS measurements extrapolated to the surface give a {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C in CH{sub 4} of 88.5 {+-} 1.4. We compare the results to a revised ratio of 91.1 {+-} 1.4 provided by the Huygens Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer and 86.5 {+-} 7.9 provided by the Cassini Infrared Spectrometer and determine implications of the revised ratios for the evolution of methane in Titan's atmosphere. Because the measured {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C is within the probable range of primordial values, we can only determine an upper boundary for the length of time since methane began outgassing from the interior, assuming that outgassing of methane (e.g., cryovolcanic activity) has been continuous ever since. We find that three factors play a crucial role in this timescale: (1) the escape rate of methane, (2) the difference between the current and initial ratios and the rate of methane, and (3) production or resupply due to cryovolcanic activity. We estimate an upper limit for the outgassing timescale of 470 Myr. This duration can be extended to 940 Myr if production rates are large enough to counteract the fractionation due to escape and photochemistry. There is no lower limit to the timescale because the current ratios are within the range of possible primordial values.

Mandt, Kathleen E.; Waite, J. Hunter; Teolis, Benjamin; Magee, Brian A.; Bell, Jared [Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Westlake, Joseph H. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD (United States); Nixon, Conor A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Mousis, Olivier [Institut UTINAM, Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS/INSU, UMR 6213, Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers de Besancon (France); Lunine, Jonathan I. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

428

Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska.  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) activity concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 {+-} 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 {+-} 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004).

Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

2005-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

429

Stable carbon isotope ratio of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment: validation of isolation and stable carbon isotope analysis methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, toxic contaminants that are released to the environment from various petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. In an effort to more clearly identify and trace sources of PAHs in the environment, purification and compound specific isotope analysis methods were developed to accurately measure the stable carbon isotope ratio of individual PAHs. Development of the method included improving accuracy and precision of the isotopic measurement by producing highly pure extracts using various chromatographic techniques. The method was refined by improving compound separations using purification techniques and high resolution chromatographic columns. The purification method consists of alumina/silica gel column chromatography, gel permeation chromatography and thin layer chromatography. The mean recovery of PAHs after the purification procedure was approximately 80 %. Sample purities after purification were verified by GC/FID and full scan mass spectrometry. To better resolve peaks and provide more accurate stable carbon isotope measurements, various gas chromatographic conditions were evaluated. The precision of the method ranged between 0.08 and 0.43 . The analytical protocols were evaluated to confirm compositional and stable isotopic integrity during purification and stable isotopic analysis. To confirm the utility of the purification and isotope analysis methods, various environmental samples from marine, land and lacustrine environments were analyzed. The isolates were analyzed for the composition and the stable carbon isotope ratios of PAHs. The stable carbon isotope ratio was measured by GC/IRMS and the results, along with quantitative compound compositions, were used to characterize and identify the contaminant sources. The sources of the PAHs in the study areas were differentiated by PAH molecular ratios and confirmed by stable carbon isotope ratios. This study confirms that compound specific isotope analysis of pollutants by GC/IRMS can be used to identify PAH sources in environmental samples. The study also confirms that the purification and stable carbon isotope analysis methods that were developed can be used to accurately measure the stable carbon isotope ratios of PAHs in environmental samples for the purpose of source identification. GC/IRMS measurement of stable isotopic compositions can be an effective fingerprinting method when used in conjunction with traditional molecular composition methods.

Kim, Moon Koo

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Discovery of Fundamental Mass Ratio Relationships of Whole-Rock Chondritic Major Elements: Implications on Ordinary Chondrite Formation and on Planet Mercury's Composition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The high occurrence on Earth of ordinary chondrite meteorites and the making of models based upon arbitrary assumptions has led to some confusion about the origin of ordinary chondrites. Major element fractionation among chondrites has been discussed for decades as ratios relative to Si or Mg. Expressing ratios relative to Fe leads to a new relationship admitting the possibility that ordinary chondrite meteorites are derived from two components: one is a relatively undifferentiated, primitive component, oxidized like the CI or C1 chondrites; the other is a somewhat differentiated, planetary component, with oxidation state like the reduced enstatite chondrites. Such a picture would seem to explain for the ordinary chondrites, their major element compositions, their intermediate states of oxidation, and their ubiquitous defiencies of refractory siderophile elements. I suggest that the planetary component of ordinary chondrite formation consists of planet Mercury's missing complement of elements, presumably separated from protoplanetary Mercury during its formation.

J. Marvin Herndon

2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

431

Preliminary results from E665 on cross-section ratios at low x sub bj using H sub 2 , D sub 2 and Xe targets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fermilab experiment 665 has taken deep-inelastic muon scattering data at a beam energy of 490 GeV/c, on H{sub 2}, D{sub 2} and Xe targets. Two triggers have been used: a large scattering-angle trigger (LAT), sensitive to a minimum scattering angle of 3 mrad, and a small scattering-angle trigger which can accept a scattering angle down to 0.5 mrad. The neutron to proton ratio is reported for x{sub bj} above 0.002, and it shows consistency with 1 as x{sub bj} goes to 0. The Xe to D{sub 3} cross-section ratio is reported for x{sub bj} above 0.001 and it shows evidence of shadowing. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Aied, S. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Determination of the {sup 22}Ne{sub nucl}/{sup 4}He{sub rad} ratio in natural uranium-rich fluorite by mass spectrometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A determination by noble gas mass spectrometry of {sup 22}Ne production through the combined reactions {sup 19}F({alpha},n){sup 22}Na({beta}{sup +}){sup 22}Ne and {sup 19}F({alpha},p){sup 22}Ne on natural calcium fluoride is made for the first time. Six samples of U-rich fluorite from a fluorspar deposit in Mexico were used to determine the {sup 22}Ne{sub nucl}/{sup 4}He{sub rad} ratio generated by the spontaneous decay of U during the last 32 Ma. The obtained ratio (1.33 {+-} 0.11) x10{sup -5} (95% confidence), is compared to other experimental data on natural uranium oxides and theoretical values.

Sole, Jesus; Pi, Teresa [Instituto de Geologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

Influence of V/III growth flux ratio on trap states in m-plane GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and deep level optical spectroscopy (DLOS) were utilized to investigate the behavior of deep states in m-plane, n-type GaN grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-MBE) as a function of systematically varied V/III growth flux ratios. Levels were detected at E{sub C} - 0.14 eV, E{sub C} - 0.21 eV, E{sub C} - 0.26 eV, E{sub C} - 0.62 eV, E{sub C} - 0.67 eV, E{sub C} - 2.65 eV, and E{sub C} - 3.31 eV, with the concentrations of several traps exhibiting systematic dependencies on V/III ratio. The DLTS spectra are dominated by traps at E{sub C} - 0.14 eV and E{sub C} - 0.67 eV, whose concentrations decreased monotonically with increasing V/III ratio and decreasing oxygen impurity concentration, and by a trap at E{sub C} - 0.21 eV that revealed no dependence of its concentration on growth conditions, suggestive of different physical origins. Higher concentrations of deeper trap states detected by DLOS with activation energies of E{sub C} - 2.65 eV and E{sub C} - 3.31 eV in each sample did not display measureable sensitivity to the intentionally varied V/III ratio, necessitating further study on reducing these deep traps through growth optimization for maximizing material quality of NH{sub 3}-MBE grown m-plane GaN.

Zhang, Z.; Arehart, A. R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Hurni, C. A.; Speck, J. S. [Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Ringel, S. A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Institute for Materials Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

434

QUANTIFYING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD FROM LARGE-SCALE CLOUD TO COLLAPSING CORE: SELF-SIMILARITY, MASS-TO-FLUX RATIO, AND STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

Dust polarization observational results are analyzed for the high-mass star formation region W51 from the largest parent cloud ({approx}2 pc, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) to the large-scale envelope ({approx}0.5 pc, BIMA array) down to the collapsing core e2 ({approx}60 mpc, Submillimeter Array). Magnetic field and dust emission gradient orientations reveal a correlation which becomes increasingly more tight with higher resolution. The previously developed polarization-intensity-gradient method is applied in order to quantify the magnetic field significance. This technique provides a way to estimate the local magnetic field force compared to gravity without the need of any mass or field strength measurements, solely making use of measured angles which reflect the geometrical imprint of the various forces. All three data sets clearly show regions with distinct features in the field-to-gravity force ratio. Azimuthally averaged radial profiles of this force ratio reveal a transition from a field dominance at larger distances to a gravity dominance closer to the emission peaks. Normalizing these profiles to a characteristic core scale points toward self-similarity. Furthermore, the polarization-intensity-gradient method is linked to the mass-to-flux ratio, providing a new approach to estimate the latter one without mass and field strength inputs. A transition from a magnetically supercritical to a subcritical state as a function of distance from the emission peak is found for the e2 core. Finally, based on the measured radius-dependent field-to-gravity force ratio we derive a modified star formation efficiency with a diluted gravity force. Compared to a standard (free-fall) efficiency, the observed field is capable of reducing the efficiency down to 10% or less.

Koch, Patrick M.; Ho, Paul T. P. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tang, Ya-Wen, E-mail: pmkoch@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Observatoire Aquitain des Sciences de l'Univers, Universite de Bordeaux, 2 rue de l'Observatoire, BP 89, F-33271 Floirac Cedex (France)

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Correlation of the Na/K ratio in geothermal well waters with the thermodynamic properties of low albite and potash feldspar  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Na/K ratio in geothermal well waters provides a better estimate of the relative stability of low albite and potash feldspar than do predictions from calorimetry and high temperature phase equilibria. The calculated saturation indices from field data for low albite, potash feldspar suggest that [Delta]G[sub f,298][sup o] for the latter should be revised to [minus]3748.6[plus minus]3.7 kJ.mol[sup [minus]1].

Apps, J.A.; Chang, G.M.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Centrality dependence of the $N(?)/N(?)$ ratios and $?$ $v_{2}$ - a test of thermalization in Au+Au collisions at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the centrality dependence of the $N(\\Omega)/N(\\phi)$ ratios and $\\phi$ $v_{2}$ measured in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The results are compared to measurements of other identified particles and recombination model expectations in order to gain insight into the partonic collectivity and possible thermalization of the produced medium.

Sarah-Louise Blyth

2007-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

437

Accurate determination of Curium and Californium isotopic ratios by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) in 248Cm samples for transmutation studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The French Atomic Energy Commission has carried out several experiments including the mini-INCA (INcineration of Actinides) project for the study of minor-actinide transmutation processes in high intensity thermal neutron fluxes, in view of proposing solutions to reduce the radiotoxicity of long-lived nuclear wastes. In this context, a Cm sample enriched in {sup 248}Cm ({approx}97 %) was irradiated in thermal neutron flux at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL). This work describes a quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-QMS) analytical procedure for precise and accurate isotopic composition determination of Cm before sample irradiation and of Cm and Cf after sample irradiation. The factors that affect the accuracy and reproducibility of isotopic ratio measurements by ICP-QMS, such as peak centre correction, detector dead time, mass bias, abundance sensitivity and hydrides formation, instrumental background, and memory blank were carefully evaluated and corrected. Uncertainties of the isotopic ratios, taking into account internal precision of isotope ratio measurements, peak tailing, and hydrides formations ranged from 0.3% to 1.3%. This uncertainties range is quite acceptable for the nuclear data to be used in transmutation studies.

Gourgiotis, A.; Isnard, H.; Aubert, M.; Dupont, E.; AlMahamid, I.; Cassette, P.; Panebianco, S.; Letourneau, A.; Chartier, F.; Tian, G.; Rao, L.; Lukens, W.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Remote Sensing D/H Ratios in Methane Ice: Temperature-Dependent Absorption Coefficients of CH3D in Methane Ice and in Nitrogen Ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existence of strong absorption bands of singly deuterated methane (CH3D) at wavelengths where normal methane (CH4) absorbs comparatively weakly could enable remote measurement of D/H ratios in methane ice on outer solar system bodies. We performed laboratory transmission spectroscopy experiments, recording spectra at wavelengths from 1 to 6 \\mum to study CH3D bands at 2.47, 2.87, and 4.56 \\mum, wavelengths where ordinary methane absorption is weak. We report temperature-dependent absorption coefficients of these bands when the CH3D is diluted in CH4 ice and also when it is dissolved in N2 ice, and describe how these absorption coefficients can be combined with data from the literature to simulate arbitrary D/H ratio absorption coefficients for CH4 ice and for CH4 in N2 ice. We anticipate these results motivating new telescopic observations to measure D/H ratios in CH4 ice on Triton, Pluto, Eris, and Makemake.

Grundy, W M; Bovyn, M J; Tegler, S C; Cornelison, D M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Copyrolysis of Seyitomer-lignite and safflower seed: influence of the blending ratio and pyrolysis temperature on product yields and oil characterization  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolytic behaviors of biomass/coal mixtures were investigated under a heating rate of 7{sup o}C min{sup -1}, over a range of pyrolysis temperatures between 400 and 700{sup o}C, and the blending ratio of coal in mixtures was varied between 0 and 100 wt %. The results indicated that considerable synergistic effects were observed during the copyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor leading to an increase in the oil yield at lower than coal blending ratios of 33%. At the lower blending coal ratio conditions, the oil yields are higher than the expected ones, calculated as the sum of oil fractions produced by pyrolysis of each separated component. The maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 39.5% was obtained with 5% of lignite mixed with safflower seed. The obtained oils are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. These findings can potentially help to understand and predict the behavior of coal/biomass blends in practical liquefaction systems. 33 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Ozlem Onay; Evren Bayram; O. Mete Kockar [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Porsuk Vocational School

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Effects of the Ti/Al atomic ratio on the properties of gradient (Ti,Al)N films synthesized by ion beam assisted deposition  

SciTech Connect

Gradient (Ti,Al)N films were prepared on high speed steel (HSS) and Si (111) wafers by using two Ar{sup +} beams to sputter a titanium target and an aluminum target separately, and a third N{sup +} beam to simultaneously bombard the growing film to assist deposition. The effects of the Ti/Al atomic ratio in the films on properties such as hardness, stress, and adhesion strength were investigated systematically. The results indicated that both the hardness and the adhesion of gradient (Ti,Al)N films to steel substrates exhibited {open_quotes}peak{close_quotes} type changes with an increase of the Ti/Al atomic ratio, and a maximum hardness of 3780thinspkgfthinspmm{sup {minus}2} was reached at a Ti/Al ratio of 5.35. The compressive stress of gradient (Ti,Al)N films increased with increasing Al content in the films. It was found that extreme hardness, high adhesion strength and low stress gradient (Ti,Al)N films can be synthesized on low temperature HSS steel by using the ion beam assisted deposition process.

He, X.; Shu, L.; Xie, Z.W. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

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441

A one-group parametric sensitivity analysis for the graphite isotope ratio method and other related techniques using ORIGEN 2.2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several methods have been developed previously for estimating cumulative energy production and plutonium production from graphite-moderated reactors. The Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM) is one well-known technique. This method is based on the measurement of trace isotopes in the reactor’s graphite matrix to determine the change in their isotopic ratios due to burnup. These measurements are then coupled with reactor calculations to determine the total plutonium and energy production of the reactor. To facilitate sensitivity analysis of these methods, a one-group cross section and fission product yield library for the fuel and graphite activation products has been developed for MAGNOX-style reactors. This library is intended for use in the ORIGEN computer code, which calculates the buildup, decay, and processing of radioactive materials. The library was developed using a fuel cell model in Monteburns. This model consisted of a single fuel rod including natural uranium metal fuel, magnesium cladding, carbon dioxide coolant, and Grade A United Kingdom (UK) graphite. Using this library a complete sensitivity analysis can be performed for GIRM and other techniques. The sensitivity analysis conducted in this study assessed various input parameters including 235U and 238U cross section values, aluminum alloy concentration in the fuel, and initial concentrations of trace elements in the graphite moderator. The results of the analysis yield insight into the GIRM method and the isotopic ratios the method uses as well as the level of uncertainty that may be found in the system results.

Chesson, Kristin Elaine

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Effect of jets on $v_4/v_2^2$ ratio and constituent quark scaling in relativistic heavy-ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Monte Carlo HYDJET++ model, that combines parametrized hydrodynamics with jets, is employed to study formation of second v_2 and fourth v_4 components of the anisotropic flow in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), sqrt{s}=200 AGeV and sqrt{s}=2.76 ATeV, respectively. It is shown that the quenched jets contribute to the soft part of the v_2(p_T) and v_4(p_T) spectra. The jets increase the ratio v_4/v_2^2 thus leading to deviations of the ratio from the value of 0.5 predicted by the ideal hydrodynamics. Together with the event-by-event fluctuations, the influence of jets can explain quantitatively the ratio v_4/v_2^2 at p_T energies and qualitatively the rise of its high-p_T tail at LHC. Jets are also responsible for violation of the number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ) scaling at LHC despite the fact that the scaling is fulfilled for the hydro-part of particle spectra.

L. Bravina; B. H. Brusheim Johansson; G. Eyyubova; E. Zabrodin

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

443

Effect of jets on $v_4/v_2^2$ ratio and constituent quark scaling in relativistic heavy-ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Monte Carlo HYDJET++ model, that combines parametrized hydrodynamics with jets, is employed to study formation of second v_2 and fourth v_4 components of the anisotropic flow in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), sqrt{s}=200 AGeV and sqrt{s}=2.76 ATeV, respectively. It is shown that the quenched jets contribute to the soft part of the v_2(p_T) and v_4(p_T) spectra. The jets increase the ratio v_4/v_2^2 thus leading to deviations of the ratio from the value of 0.5 predicted by the ideal hydrodynamics. Together with the event-by-event fluctuations, the influence of jets can explain quantitatively the ratio v_4/v_2^2 at p_T energies and qualitatively the rise of its high-p_T tail at LHC. Jets are also responsible for violation of the number-of-constituent-quark (NCQ) scaling at LHC despite the fact that the scaling is fulfilled for the hydro-part of particle spectra.

Bravina, L; Eyyubova, G; Zabrodin, E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Chloride/magnesium ratio of shallow groundwaters as a regional geothermal indicator in Hawaii. Assessment of geothermal resources in Hawaii: Number 3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Because of the complex geological and hydrological conditions and the virtual lack of thermal springs, regional geothermal investigations in Hawaii require the use of techniques substantially different from those conventionally applied in other geothermal environments. The large number of hydrological wells in the state provides an appreciable source of groundwater chemical data. However, largely because of the island environment, interpretation of much of these data as geothermal indicators becomes ambiguous. Initially, SiO/sub 2/ and temperature of groundwaters were used to identify thermally anomalous zones, but on a regional basis it has been found that these criteria are not always successful. As a further criterion for assessment, the Cl/Mg ratio of the groundwater has been used. On a state-wide basis, this ratio has been successful in further screening the SiO/sub 2/-temperature selected sites, and in defining more specific areas which warrant further investigation. Temperature, SiO/sub 2/ and Cl/Mg values for nearly 400 groundwater samples are included.

Cox, M.E.; Thomas, D.M.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Measurement of the Ratio of Inclusive Cross Sections !(p-p!Z+b-jet) !(p-p!Z+jet) in the Dilepton Final States  

SciTech Connect

The inclusive production of b-jets with a Z boson is an important background to searches for the Higgs boson in associated ZH {yields} llb{bar b} production at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. This thesis describes the most precise measurement to date of the ratio of inclusive cross sections {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} Z + b-jet)/{sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} Z + jet) when a Z boson decays into two electrons or muons. The measurement uses a data sample from p{bar p} collisions at the center of mass energy {radical}s = 1.96 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.2 fb{sup -1} collected by the D0 detector. The measured ratio {sigma}(Z + b-jet)/{sigma}(Z + jet) is 0.0187 {+-} 0.0021(stat) {+-} 0.0015(syst) for jets with transverse momentum p{sub T} > 20 GeV and pseudorapidity |{eta}| {le} 2.5. The measurement is compared with the next-to-leading order theoretical predictions from MCFM and is found to be consistent within uncertainties.

Smith, Kenneth James; /SUNY, Buffalo

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Radioactive Cesium Isotope Ratios as a Tool for determining Dispersal and Re-dispersal Mechanisms Downwind from the Nevada Nuclear Security Site  

SciTech Connect

Fractionation of the two longer lived radioactive cesium isotopes (135 and 137) produced by above ground nuclear tests have been measured and used to clarify the dispersal mechanisms of cesium deposited in the area between the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) and Lake Mead in the southwestern United States. Fractionation of these isotopes is due to the 135 decay chain requiring several days to completely decay to Cs and the 137 decay chain less than one hour. Since the Cs precursors are gases, iodine and xenon, the 135Cs plume was deposited farther downwind than the 137Cs plume. Samples were obtained from the Las Vegas arm of Lake Mead, separated into segments, gamma counted to id