National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for borehole calibration models

  1. Calibration of a Neutron Hydroprobe for Moisture Measurements in Small-Diameter Steel-Cased Boreholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2009-08-01

    Computation of soil moisture content from thermalized neutron counts for the T-Farm Interim cover requires a calibration relationship but none exists for 2-in tubes. A number of calibration options are available for the neutron probe, including vendor calibration, field calibration, but none of these methods were deemed appropriate for the configuration of interest. The objective of this work was to develop a calibration relation for converting neutron counts measured in 2-in access tubes to soil water content. The calibration method chosen for this study was a computational approach using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). Model calibration was performed using field measurements in the Hanford calibration models with 6-in access tubes, in air and in the probe shield. The bet-fit model relating known water content to measured neutron counts was an exponential model that was essentially equivalent to that currently being used for 6-in steel cased wells. The MCNP simulations successfully predicted the neutron count rate for the neutron shield and the three calibration models for which data were collected in the field. However, predictions for air were about 65% lower than the measured counts . This discrepancy can be attributed to uncertainties in the configuration used for the air measurements. MCNP-simulated counts for the physical models were essentially equal to the measured counts with values. Accurate prediction of the response in 6-in casings in the three calibration models was motivation to predict the response in 2-in access tubes. Simulations were performed for six of the seven calibration models as well as 4 virtual models with the entire set covering a moisture range of 0 to 40%. Predicted counts for the calibration models with 2-in access tubes were 40 to 50% higher than in the 6-inch tubes. Predicted counts for water were about 60% higher in the 2-in tube than in the 6-in tube. The discrepancy between the 2-in and 6-in tube can be attributed to the smaller air gap between the probe and the 2-in access tube. The best-fit model relating volumetric water content to count ratio (CR) is of the form e^A x CR^B with A=0.3596 ± 0.0216 and B=0.4629 ± 0.0629 and r^2= 0.9998. It is recommended that the calibration function based on the count ratio, rather than raw counts, be used to avoid the effects of electronic noise in the probe that may arise due to the conditions at the time of measurement. These results suggest that the MCNP code can be used to extend calibrations for the neutron probe to different conditions including access tube size as well as composition without the need to construct additional physical models.

  2. Next Generation Calibration Models with Dimensional Modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Decision Tree Based Control Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation Diesel Engines An Accelerated Aging Method for Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems...

  3. Increased Efficiency with Model Based Calibration | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Calibration Increased Efficiency with Model Based Calibration Meeting future TIER 4 emission limits requires the integration of many new technology elements. deer09diewald.pdf...

  4. Parameter Assignments for Spectral Gamma-Ray Borehole Calibration Models

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuilding energy codes havePUBLICof EnergyParagon Sales: Order(April

  5. RayKirchhoff multicomponent borehole seismic modelling in 3D heterogeneous, anisotropic media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    of symmetry. This algorithm can be applied to vertical seismic profile (VSP) geometries and works well when; Anisotropy; Dipping reflectors; Converted waves 1. Introduction Using vertical seismic profiles (VSPsRay­Kirchhoff multicomponent borehole seismic modelling in 3D heterogeneous, anisotropic media $ A

  6. Calibration of stormwater management model using flood extent data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Kunyeun; Kim, Youngjoo; Kim, Byunhyun; Famiglietti, James S; Sanders, Brett F

    2014-01-01

    publishing Calibration of stormwater management model usingin urbanised areas. the stormwater management model (SWMM)Issue WM1 Calibration of stormwater management model using ?

  7. Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation Diesel Engines Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation Diesel Engines 2005 Diesel Engine...

  8. A Prototype Performance Assessment Model for Generic Deep Borehole Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste - 12132

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Joon H.; Arnold, Bill W.; Swift, Peter N.; Hadgu, Teklu; Freeze, Geoff; Wang, Yifeng

    2012-07-01

    A deep borehole repository is one of the four geologic disposal system options currently under study by the U.S. DOE to support the development of a long-term strategy for geologic disposal of commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The immediate goal of the generic deep borehole repository study is to develop the necessary modeling tools to evaluate and improve the understanding of the repository system response and processes relevant to long-term disposal of UNF and HLW in a deep borehole. A prototype performance assessment model for a generic deep borehole repository has been developed using the approach for a mined geological repository. The preliminary results from the simplified deep borehole generic repository performance assessment indicate that soluble, non-sorbing (or weakly sorbing) fission product radionuclides, such as I-129, Se-79 and Cl-36, are the likely major dose contributors, and that the annual radiation doses to hypothetical future humans associated with those releases may be extremely small. While much work needs to be done to validate the model assumptions and parameters, these preliminary results highlight the importance of a robust seal design in assuring long-term isolation, and suggest that deep boreholes may be a viable alternative to mined repositories for disposal of both HLW and UNF. (authors)

  9. CALIBRATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE PERFORMANCE MODELS USING MONITORED SYSTEM DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIBRATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULE PERFORMANCE MODELS USING MONITORED SYSTEM DATA Clifford W Facilities Inc, Tokyo, Japan, hakuta22@ntt-f.co.jp ABSTRACT: Calibration of a photovoltaic module performance and validate methods to calibrate the Sandia Photovoltaic Array Performance Model and the California Energy

  10. Automatic Calibration of Freeway Models with Model-Based Fault Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dervisoglu, Gunes

    2012-01-01

    3 Automatic Freeway Model Calibration Procedure 3.1 FreewayR. Horowitz, and P. Varaiya. Automatic calibration of theAutomatic Calibration of Freeway Models with Model-Based

  11. Development of a Dynamic DOE Calibration Model | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    model was developed. The model can be applied for calibration and control system optimization. p-22anderson.pdf More Documents & Publications Reducing the Particulate Emission...

  12. A Calibrated Computer Model for the Thermal Simulation of Courtyard Microclimates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagneid, A.; Haberl, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a calibrated stand-alone courtyard microclimate model. This model is considered to be the fIrst calibrated computer program for the simulation of courtyard microclimates. In order to accomplish this a calibrated simplif...

  13. Cloud-Based Model Calibration Using OpenStudio: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, E.; Lisell, L.; Goldwasser, D.; Macumber, D.; Dean, J.; Metzger, I.; Parker, A.; Long, N.; Ball, B.; Schott, M.; Weaver, E.; Brackney, L.

    2014-03-01

    OpenStudio is a free, open source Software Development Kit (SDK) and application suite for performing building energy modeling and analysis. The OpenStudio Parametric Analysis Tool has been extended to allow cloud-based simulation of multiple OpenStudio models parametrically related to a baseline model. This paper describes the new cloud-based simulation functionality and presents a model cali-bration case study. Calibration is initiated by entering actual monthly utility bill data into the baseline model. Multiple parameters are then varied over multiple iterations to reduce the difference between actual energy consumption and model simulation results, as calculated and visualized by billing period and by fuel type. Simulations are per-formed in parallel using the Amazon Elastic Cloud service. This paper highlights model parameterizations (measures) used for calibration, but the same multi-nodal computing architecture is available for other purposes, for example, recommending combinations of retrofit energy saving measures using the calibrated model as the new baseline.

  14. Bayesian Calibration of the Community Land Model using Surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Sargsyan, K.; Swiler, Laura P.

    2015-01-01

    We present results from the Bayesian calibration of hydrological parameters of the Community Land Model (CLM), which is often used in climate simulations and Earth system models. A statistical inverse problem is formulated for three hydrological parameters, conditioned on observations of latent heat surface fluxes over 48 months. Our calibration method uses polynomial and Gaussian process surrogates of the CLM, and solves the parameter estimation problem using a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler. Posterior probability densities for the parameters are developed for two sites with different soil and vegetation covers. Our method also allows us to examine the structural error in CLM under two error models. We find that accurate surrogate models can be created for CLM in most cases. The posterior distributions lead to better prediction than the default parameter values in CLM. Climatologically averaging the observations does not modify the parameters’ distributions significantly. The structural error model reveals a correlation time-scale which can potentially be used to identify physical processes that could be contributing to it. While the calibrated CLM has a higher predictive skill, the calibration is under-dispersive.

  15. Bayesian calibration of the Community Land Model using surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Swiler, Laura Painton

    2014-02-01

    We present results from the Bayesian calibration of hydrological parameters of the Community Land Model (CLM), which is often used in climate simulations and Earth system models. A statistical inverse problem is formulated for three hydrological parameters, conditional on observations of latent heat surface fluxes over 48 months. Our calibration method uses polynomial and Gaussian process surrogates of the CLM, and solves the parameter estimation problem using a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler. Posterior probability densities for the parameters are developed for two sites with different soil and vegetation covers. Our method also allows us to examine the structural error in CLM under two error models. We find that surrogate models can be created for CLM in most cases. The posterior distributions are more predictive than the default parameter values in CLM. Climatologically averaging the observations does not modify the parameters' distributions significantly. The structural error model reveals a correlation time-scale which can be used to identify the physical process that could be contributing to it. While the calibrated CLM has a higher predictive skill, the calibration is under-dispersive.

  16. Using Utility Information to Calibrate Customer Demand Management Behavior Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using Utility Information to Calibrate Customer Demand Management Behavior Models Murat Fahrio ­ Madison Report PSerc 99­06 June 10, 1999 Abstract In times of stress customers can help a utility by means be optimized if the utility can estimate the outage or substitution costs of its customers. This report

  17. Probabilistic Calibration of a Discrete Particle Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yanbei

    2011-10-21

    A discrete element model (DEM) capable of reproducing the mechanistic behavior of a triaxial compressive test performed on a Vosges sandstone specimen is presented considering similar experimental testing conditions and ...

  18. Residential Vertical Geothermal Heat Pump System Models: Calibration to Data:

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, Jeff W.; McDowell, T. P.; Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick; Pahud, D.; Hellstrom, G.

    1997-06-01

    A detailed component-based simulation model of a geothermal heat pump system has been calibrated to monitored data taken from a family housing unit located at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The simulation model represents the housing unit, geothermal heat pump, ground heat exchanger, thermostat, blower, and ground-loop pump. Each of these component models was 'tuned' to better match the measured data from the site. These tuned models were then interconnect to form the system model. The system model was then exercised in order to demonatrate its capabilities.

  19. Residential vertical geothermal heat pump system models: Calibration to data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, J.W.; McDowell, T.P.; Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.; Pahud, D.; Hellstroem, G.A.J.

    1997-12-31

    A detailed component-based simulation model of a geothermal heat pump system has been calibrated to monitored data taken from a family housing unit located at Fort Polk, Louisiana. The simulation model represents the housing unit, geothermal heat pump, ground heat exchanger, thermostat, blower, and ground-loop pump. Each of these component models was tuned to better match the measured data from the site. These tuned models were then interconnected to form the system model. The system model was then exercised in order to demonstrate its capabilities.

  20. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rust, Colleen F.; Barnett, D. BRENT; Bowles, Nathan A.; Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    A core hole (C4998) and three boreholes (C4993, C4996, and C4997) were drilled to acquire stratigraphic and downhole seismic data to model potential seismic impacts and to refine design specifications and seismic criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4993 was completed through the Saddle Mountains Basalt, the upper portion of the Wanapum Basalt, and associated sedimentary interbeds, to provide a continuous record of the rock penetrated by all four holes and to provide access to the subsurface for geophysical measure¬ment. Presented and compiled in this report are field-generated records for the deep mud rotary borehole C4993 at the WTP site. Material for C4993 includes borehole logs, lithologic summary, and record of rock chip samples collected during drilling through the months of August through early October. The borehole summary report also includes documentation of the mud rotary drilling, borehole logging, and sample collection.

  1. Design of Experiments, Model Calibration and Data Assimilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Brian J.

    2014-07-30

    This presentation provides an overview of emulation, calibration and experiment design for computer experiments. Emulation refers to building a statistical surrogate from a carefully selected and limited set of model runs to predict unsampled outputs. The standard kriging approach to emulation of complex computer models is presented. Calibration refers to the process of probabilistically constraining uncertain physics/engineering model inputs to be consistent with observed experimental data. An initial probability distribution for these parameters is updated using the experimental information. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms are often used to sample the calibrated parameter distribution. Several MCMC algorithms commonly employed in practice are presented, along with a popular diagnostic for evaluating chain behavior. Space-filling approaches to experiment design for selecting model runs to build effective emulators are discussed, including Latin Hypercube Design and extensions based on orthogonal array skeleton designs and imposed symmetry requirements. Optimization criteria that further enforce space-filling, possibly in projections of the input space, are mentioned. Designs to screen for important input variations are summarized and used for variable selection in a nuclear fuels performance application. This is followed by illustration of sequential experiment design strategies for optimization, global prediction, and rare event inference.

  2. Using Parallel MCMC Sampling to Calibrate a Computer Model of a Geothermal Reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Colin

    Using Parallel MCMC Sampling to Calibrate a Computer Model of a Geothermal Reservoir by T. Cui, C. 686 ISSN 1178-360 #12;Using Parallel MCMC Sampling to Calibrate a Computer Model of a Geothermal of a geothermal field to achieve model `calibration' from measured well-test data. We explore three scenarios

  3. Analytical Modeling of Wave Generation by the Borehole Orbital Vibrator Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakagawa, Seiji; Daley, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    Analytical modeling of wave generation by the Boreholeand the mechanism of wave generation and the characteristicswave energy, and guided-wave generation. These models are

  4. Model- and calibration-independent test of cosmic acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2009-01-27

    We present a calibration-independent test of the accelerated expansion of the universe using supernova type Ia data. The test is also model-independent in the sense that no assumptions about the content of the universe or about the parameterization of the deceleration parameter are made and that it does not assume any dynamical equations of motion. Yet, the test assumes the universe and the distribution of supernovae to be statistically homogeneous and isotropic. A significant reduction of systematic effects, as compared to our previous, calibration-dependent test, is achieved. Accelerated expansion is detected at significant level (4.3 sigma in the 2007 Gold sample, 7.2 sigma in the 2008 Union sample) if the universe is spatially flat. This result depends, however, crucially on supernovae with a redshift smaller than 0.1, for which the assumption of statistical isotropy and homogeneity is less well established.

  5. Adapting and calibration of existing wake models to meet the conditions inside offshore wind farms. Page 1 Adapting and calibration of existing wake models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adapting and calibration of existing wake models to meet the conditions inside offshore wind farms@emd.dk #12;Adapting and calibration of existing wake models to meet the conditions inside offshore wind farms inside offshore wind farms" has as purpose to improve the existing PARK models for calculating the wake

  6. Fracture compliance estimation using borehole tube waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakku, Sudhish Kumar

    We tested two models, one for tube-wave generation and the other for tube-wave attenuation at a fracture intersecting a borehole that can be used to estimate fracture compliance, fracture aperture, and lateral extent. In ...

  7. Calibrating the Abaqus Crushable Foam Material Model using UNM Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schembri, Philip E.; Lewis, Matthew W.

    2014-02-27

    Triaxial test data from the University of New Mexico and uniaxial test data from W-14 is used to calibrate the Abaqus crushable foam material model to represent the syntactic foam comprised of APO-BMI matrix and carbon microballoons used in the W76. The material model is an elasto-plasticity model in which the yield strength depends on pressure. Both the elastic properties and the yield stress are estimated by fitting a line to the elastic region of each test response. The model parameters are fit to the data (in a non-rigorous way) to provide both a conservative and not-conservative material model. The model is verified to perform as intended by comparing the values of pressure and shear stress at yield, as well as the shear and volumetric stress-strain response, to the test data.

  8. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  9. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (1739 Grandview #2, Idaho Falls, ID 83402)

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  10. Calibrating Building Energy Models Using Supercomputer Trained Machine Learning Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanyal, Jibonananda [ORNL] [ORNL; New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL] [ORNL; Edwards, Richard [ORNL] [ORNL; Parker, Lynne Edwards [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Building Energy Modeling (BEM) is an approach to model the energy usage in buildings for design and retrofit purposes. EnergyPlus is the flagship Department of Energy software that performs BEM for different types of buildings. The input to EnergyPlus can often extend in the order of a few thousand parameters which have to be calibrated manually by an expert for realistic energy modeling. This makes it challenging and expensive thereby making building energy modeling unfeasible for smaller projects. In this paper, we describe the Autotune research which employs machine learning algorithms to generate agents for the different kinds of standard reference buildings in the U.S. building stock. The parametric space and the variety of building locations and types make this a challenging computational problem necessitating the use of supercomputers. Millions of EnergyPlus simulations are run on supercomputers which are subsequently used to train machine learning algorithms to generate agents. These agents, once created, can then run in a fraction of the time thereby allowing cost-effective calibration of building models.

  11. An Improved Procedure for Developing Calibrated Hourly Simulation Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Saada, T. E.; Haberl, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    . REFERENCES Abbas, M. 1993. Development of graphical indices for building energy data, M.S. Thesis, Energy Systems Rpt No. ESL-TH-93/12-02, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. ASHRAE. 1991. ASHRAE handbook: 1991 HVAC applications volume. American... Support Office, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Bou-Saada, T.E. 1994a. An improved procedure for developing a calibrated hourly simulation model of an electrically heated and cooled commercial building, M.S. Thesis, Energy Systems Rpt No. ESL- TH...

  12. Sensitivity analysis of conceptual model calibration to initialisation bias. Application to karst spring discharge models.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sensitivity analysis of conceptual model calibration to initialisation bias. Application to karst models. The propagation of uncertainty in the initial conditions is shown to depend on both model associated with long-term memory reservoir and fast discharge models, they may generate a substantial

  13. A New Perspective for the Calibration of Computational Predictor Models.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crespo, Luis Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a framework for calibrating computational models using data from sev- eral and possibly dissimilar validation experiments. The offset between model predictions and observations, which might be caused by measurement noise, model-form uncertainty, and numerical error, drives the process by which uncertainty in the models parameters is characterized. The resulting description of uncertainty along with the computational model constitute a predictor model. Two types of predictor models are studied: Interval Predictor Models (IPMs) and Random Predictor Models (RPMs). IPMs use sets to characterize uncer- tainty, whereas RPMs use random vectors. The propagation of a set through a model makes the response an interval valued function of the state, whereas the propagation of a random vector yields a random process. Optimization-based strategies for calculating both types of predictor models are proposed. Whereas the formulations used to calculate IPMs target solutions leading to the interval value function of minimal spread containing all observations, those for RPMs seek to maximize the models' ability to reproduce the distribution of obser- vations. Regarding RPMs, we choose a structure for the random vector (i.e., the assignment of probability to points in the parameter space) solely dependent on the prediction error. As such, the probabilistic description of uncertainty is not a subjective assignment of belief, nor is it expected to asymptotically converge to a fixed value, but instead it is a description of the model's ability to reproduce the experimental data. This framework enables evaluating the spread and distribution of the predicted response of target applications depending on the same parameters beyond the validation domain (i.e., roll-up and extrapolation).

  14. A Workflow for Parameter Calibration and and Model Validation in SST: Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Wilke, Jeremiah J; Sargsyan, Khachik

    2014-12-01

    This brief report explains the method used for parameter calibration and model validation in SST/Macro and the set of tools and workflow developed for this purpose.

  15. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Generator Dynamic Model Validation and Parameter Calibration Using Phasor Measurements at the Point of Connection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Du, Pengwei; Kosterev, Dmitry; Yang, Steve

    2013-05-01

    Disturbance data recorded by phasor measurement units (PMU) offers opportunities to improve the integrity of dynamic models. However, manually tuning parameters through play-back events demands significant efforts and engineering experiences. In this paper, a calibration method using the extended Kalman filter (EKF) technique is proposed. The formulation of EKF with parameter calibration is discussed. Case studies are presented to demonstrate its validity. The proposed calibration method is cost-effective, complementary to traditional equipment testing for improving dynamic model quality.

  17. Improved Multivariate Calibration Models for Corn Stover Feedstock and Dilute-Acid Pretreated Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfrum, E. J.; Sluiter, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied rapid calibration models to predict the composition of a variety of biomass feedstocks by correlating near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data to compositional data produced using traditional wet chemical analysis techniques. The rapid calibration models are developed using multivariate statistical analysis of the spectroscopic and wet chemical data. This work discusses the latest versions of the NIR calibration models for corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover. Measures of the calibration precision and uncertainty are presented. No statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen between NIR calibration models built using different mathematical pretreatments. Finally, two common algorithms for building NIR calibration models are compared; no statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen for the major constituents glucan, xylan, and lignin, but the algorithms did produce different predictions for total extractives. A single calibration model combining the corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover samples gave less satisfactory predictions than the separate models.

  18. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  19. Calibration of Stochastic Convenience Yield Models For Crude Oil Using the Kalman Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Calibration of Stochastic Convenience Yield Models For Crude Oil Using the Kalman Filter A physical bales of oil rather than future contracts. Should their be a sudden shock-situation wherein the de

  20. Formal Calibration Methodology for CFD Model Development to Support the Operation of Energy Efficient Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajdukiewicz, M.; Keane, M.; O'Flynn, B.; O'Grady, W.

    2010-01-01

    . The work focuses on developing systematically calibrated CFD models for controlled environments that include clean rooms, health environments, pharmaceutical storage rooms and information and communication technology locations, utilizing wireless sensor...

  1. Behavioral modeling and digital calibration of pipeline analog to digital converters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilhan, Erkan

    2001-01-01

    This research focuses on digital calibration of pipeline analog to digital converters (ADCs) and also modeling of error sources and design parameters of pipeline ADCs. Modern applications such as communications systems require high resolution ADCs...

  2. A Systematic Methodology to Underpin the CC® Process Using Calibrated BES Models 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, G.; Keane, M.; Raftery, P.; Coakley, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical framework for utilizing whole building and reduced order calibrated BES models to underpin a systematic Continuous Commissioning® (CC®) process for building environmental optimisation and effective energy...

  3. Multivariate Calibration Models for Sorghum Composition using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfrum, E.; Payne, C.; Stefaniak, T.; Rooney, W.; Dighe, N.; Bean, B.; Dahlberg, J.

    2013-03-01

    NREL developed calibration models based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistics to predict compositional properties relevant to cellulosic biofuels production for a variety of sorghum cultivars. A robust calibration population was developed in an iterative fashion. The quality of models developed using the same sample geometry on two different types of NIR spectrometers and two different sample geometries on the same spectrometer did not vary greatly.

  4. Model Calibration and Optics Correction Using Orbit Response Matrix in the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, V.A.; Prebys, E.; /Fermilab; Petrenko, A.V.; /Novosibirsk, IYF; Kopp, S.E.; McAteer, M.J.; /Texas U.

    2012-05-01

    We have calibrated the lattice model and measured the beta and dispersion functions in Fermilab's fast-ramping Booster synchrotron using the Linear Optics from Closed Orbit (LOCO) method. We used the calibrated model to implement ramped coupling, dispersion, and beta-beating corrections throughout the acceleration cycle, reducing horizontal beta beating from its initial magnitude of {approx}30% to {approx}10%, and essentially eliminating vertical beta-beating and transverse coupling.

  5. Validation and Calibration of Nuclear Thermal Hydraulics Multiscale Multiphysics Models - Subcooled Flow Boiling Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anh Bui; Nam Dinh; Brian Williams

    2013-09-01

    In addition to validation data plan, development of advanced techniques for calibration and validation of complex multiscale, multiphysics nuclear reactor simulation codes are a main objective of the CASL VUQ plan. Advanced modeling of LWR systems normally involves a range of physico-chemical models describing multiple interacting phenomena, such as thermal hydraulics, reactor physics, coolant chemistry, etc., which occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. To a large extent, the accuracy of (and uncertainty in) overall model predictions is determined by the correctness of various sub-models, which are not conservation-laws based, but empirically derived from measurement data. Such sub-models normally require extensive calibration before the models can be applied to analysis of real reactor problems. This work demonstrates a case study of calibration of a common model of subcooled flow boiling, which is an important multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon in LWR thermal hydraulics. The calibration process is based on a new strategy of model-data integration, in which, all sub-models are simultaneously analyzed and calibrated using multiple sets of data of different types. Specifically, both data on large-scale distributions of void fraction and fluid temperature and data on small-scale physics of wall evaporation were simultaneously used in this work’s calibration. In a departure from traditional (or common-sense) practice of tuning/calibrating complex models, a modern calibration technique based on statistical modeling and Bayesian inference was employed, which allowed simultaneous calibration of multiple sub-models (and related parameters) using different datasets. Quality of data (relevancy, scalability, and uncertainty) could be taken into consideration in the calibration process. This work presents a step forward in the development and realization of the “CIPS Validation Data Plan” at the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs to enable quantitative assessment of the CASL modeling of Crud-Induced Power Shift (CIPS) phenomenon, in particular, and the CASL advanced predictive capabilities, in general. This report is prepared for the Department of Energy’s Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs program’s VUQ Focus Area.

  6. Building Energy Model Calibration using EnergyPlus, Machine Learning, and SupercomputingAutotune

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Lynne E.

    Building Energy Model Calibration using EnergyPlus, Machine Learning, and Supercomputing barriers to DOE's Building Technology Program (BTP) goals and the adoption of building energy modeling that accurately reflects reality. Typically, a building modeler uses the software tool they have most experience

  7. Appendix DATA Attachment A: WIPP Borehole Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A: WIPP Borehole Update United States Department of Energy Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Carlsbad Field Office Carlsbad, New Mexico Appendix DATA-2014 Attachment A: WIPP Borehole...

  8. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, J.; Polly, B.; Collis, J.

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define 'explicit' input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  9. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    and Ben Polly, Joseph Robertson; Polly, Ben; Collis, Jon

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define "explicit" input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  10. Stochastic Modeling of Overtime Occupancy and Its Application in Building Energy Simulation and Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Kaiyu; Yan , Da; Hong , Tianzhen; Guo, Siyue

    2014-02-28

    Overtime is a common phenomenon around the world. Overtime drives both internal heat gains from occupants, lighting and plug-loads, and HVAC operation during overtime periods. Overtime leads to longer occupancy hours and extended operation of building services systems beyond normal working hours, thus overtime impacts total building energy use. Current literature lacks methods to model overtime occupancy because overtime is stochastic in nature and varies by individual occupants and by time. To address this gap in the literature, this study aims to develop a new stochastic model based on the statistical analysis of measured overtime occupancy data from an office building. A binomial distribution is used to represent the total number of occupants working overtime, while an exponential distribution is used to represent the duration of overtime periods. The overtime model is used to generate overtime occupancy schedules as an input to the energy model of a second office building. The measured and simulated cooling energy use during the overtime period is compared in order to validate the overtime model. A hybrid approach to energy model calibration is proposed and tested, which combines ASHRAE Guideline 14 for the calibration of the energy model during normal working hours, and a proposed KS test for the calibration of the energy model during overtime. The developed stochastic overtime model and the hybrid calibration approach can be used in building energy simulations to improve the accuracy of results, and better understand the characteristics of overtime in office buildings.

  11. Reduced-order modeling and simulated annealing optimization for efficient residential building utility bill calibration q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    accuracy. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 16 May 2014 Received in revised form 17 February. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate an automated regression the calibration procedure. Substituting actual BEopt/DOE-2.2 model simulations with the statistical models reduces

  12. New Database of Geneva Stellar Evolution Models with Empirically Calibrated Spectral Libraries: Bridging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaerer, Daniel

    New Database of Geneva Stellar Evolution Models with Empirically Calibrated Spectral Libraries introduce a new database which ``translates'' the complete set of Geneva stellar evolution models to various, Switzerland Abstract. We have constructed an extended database of stellar evolu­ tion tracks and isochrones

  13. Bayesian calibration of a k -turbulence model for predictive jet-in-crossflow simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Jaideep

    Bayesian calibration of a k - turbulence model for predictive jet-in-crossflow simulations Jaideep skill in jet-in-crossflow simulations. The method is based on the hypotheses that (1) informative features of jet-in-crossflow interactions and (2) one can construct surrogates of RANS models

  14. Long Gamma-Ray Bursts Calibrated by Pade Method and Constraints on Cosmological Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jing Liu; Hao Wei

    2014-10-15

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are among the most powerful sources in the universe. In the recent years, GRBs have been proposed as a complementary probe to type Ia supernovae (SNIa). However, as is well known, there is a circularity problem in the use of GRBs to study cosmology. In this work, based on the Pad\\'e approximant, we propose a new cosmology-independent method to calibrate GRBs. We consider a sample consisting 138 long GRBs and obtain 79 calibrated long GRBs at high redshift $z>1.4$ (named Mayflower sample) which can be used to constrain cosmological models without the circularity problem. Then, we consider the constraints on several cosmological models with these 79 calibrated GRBs and other observational data. We show that GRBs are competent to be a complementary probe to the other well-established cosmological observations.

  15. Statistical validation of engineering and scientific models : bounds, calibration, and extrapolation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Hills, Richard Guy (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM)

    2005-04-01

    Numerical models of complex phenomena often contain approximations due to our inability to fully model the underlying physics, the excessive computational resources required to fully resolve the physics, the need to calibrate constitutive models, or in some cases, our ability to only bound behavior. Here we illustrate the relationship between approximation, calibration, extrapolation, and model validation through a series of examples that use the linear transient convective/dispersion equation to represent the nonlinear behavior of Burgers equation. While the use of these models represents a simplification relative to the types of systems we normally address in engineering and science, the present examples do support the tutorial nature of this document without obscuring the basic issues presented with unnecessarily complex models.

  16. Abstract--A measurement calibration method is described in this paper. The proposed method identifies calibration models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in state estima- tion. Measurement calibration at the substation is a labor intensive and costly process that is described in [2]-[3] is executed at individual substations by taking advantage of the redundancy provided

  17. Columbia River Salmon Passage Model Theory and Calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    for their support and suggestions in the development of this model. David Askren - Bonneville Power Administration James Geiselman - Bonneville Power Administration Albert E. Giorgi - Bioanalysts, Inc. Dale Johnson - Bureau of Land Management Funding Model development was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration

  18. CALIBRATION OF STOCHASTIC CONVENIENCE YIELD MODELS FOR CRUDE OIL USING THE KALMAN FILTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    CALIBRATION OF STOCHASTIC CONVENIENCE YIELD MODELS FOR CRUDE OIL USING THE KALMAN FILTER MASTER of including stochastic dynamics for the two state variables in futures contracts on the commodity, light crude oil. First of all we consider throughout the report deterministic interest rates. This makes

  19. Calibration and validation of a non-point source pollution model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunwald, Sabine

    Calibration and validation of a non-point source pollution model S. Grunwalda,* , L.D. Nortonb drainage behavior and sediment yield to develop management strategies for agricultural waters. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution

  20. ADAPTIVE CALIBRATION AND CONTROL OF CASCADE PROCESSES WITH UNKNOWN MEASUREMENT MODEL AND ACTUATOR DYNAMICS AND ITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    ADAPTIVE CALIBRATION AND CONTROL OF CASCADE PROCESSES WITH UNKNOWN MEASUREMENT MODEL AND ACTUATOR the material being processed goes through a sequence of processing units. The output of an upstream processing unit is fed into the input of the unit downstream. In many cases, the variables of interests are only

  1. Plasma wave measurements with STEREO S/WAVES: Calibration, potential model, and preliminary results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Plasma wave measurements with STEREO S/WAVES: Calibration, potential model, and preliminary results] The S/WAVES experiments on the two STEREO spacecraft measure waves, both in situ plasma waves and remotely generated waves such as Type II and Type III solar bursts. A part of the experiment is aimed

  2. Author's personal copy Calibration procedures for a computational model of ductile fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, John W.

    Author's personal copy Calibration procedures for a computational model of ductile fracture Z. Xue fracture Computational fracture Shear fracture Damage parameters a b s t r a c t A recent extension of the cup-cone fracture mode in the neck of a round tensile bar. Ductility of a notched round bar provides

  3. Off-line calibration of Dynamic Traffic Assignment models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balakrishna, Ramachandran, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    Advances in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have resulted in the deployment of surveillance systems that automatically collect and store extensive network-wide traffic data. Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) models ...

  4. Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Geological Data Evaluation Alternativ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Geological Data Evaluation Alternative Waste Forms and Borehole Seals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deep Borehole Disposal Research:...

  5. Calibration under uncertainty for finite element models of masonry monuments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atamturktur, Sezer,; Hemez, Francois,; Unal, Cetin

    2010-02-01

    Historical unreinforced masonry buildings often include features such as load bearing unreinforced masonry vaults and their supporting framework of piers, fill, buttresses, and walls. The masonry vaults of such buildings are among the most vulnerable structural components and certainly among the most challenging to analyze. The versatility of finite element (FE) analyses in incorporating various constitutive laws, as well as practically all geometric configurations, has resulted in the widespread use of the FE method for the analysis of complex unreinforced masonry structures over the last three decades. However, an FE model is only as accurate as its input parameters, and there are two fundamental challenges while defining FE model input parameters: (1) material properties and (2) support conditions. The difficulties in defining these two aspects of the FE model arise from the lack of knowledge in the common engineering understanding of masonry behavior. As a result, engineers are unable to define these FE model input parameters with certainty, and, inevitably, uncertainties are introduced to the FE model.

  6. Material model calibration through indentation test and stochastic inverse analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buljak, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Indentation test is used with growing popularity for the characterization of various materials on different scales. Developed methods are combining the test with computer simulation and inverse analyses to assess material parameters entering into constitutive models. The outputs of such procedures are expressed as evaluation of sought parameters in deterministic sense, while for engineering practice it is desirable to assess also the uncertainty which affects the final estimates resulting from various sources of errors within the identification procedure. In this paper an experimental-numerical method is presented centered on inverse analysis build upon data collected from the indentation test in the form of force-penetration relationship (so-called indentation curve). Recursive simulations are made computationally economical by an a priori model reduction procedure. Resulting inverse problem is solved in a stochastic context using Monte Carlo simulations and non-sequential Extended Kalman filter. Obtained re...

  7. Parametric Sensitivity and Calibration for Kain-Fritsch Convective Parameterization Scheme in the WRF Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Huiping; Qian, Yun; Lin, Guang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yang, Ben; Fu, Q.

    2014-03-25

    Convective parameterizations used in weather and climate models all display sensitivity to model resolution and variable skill in different climatic regimes. Although parameters in convective schemes can be calibrated using observations to reduce model errors, it is not clear if the optimal parameters calibrated based on regional data can robustly improve model skill across different model resolutions and climatic regimes. In this study, this issue is investigated using a regional modeling framework based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. To quantify the response and sensitivity of model performance to model parameters, we identified five key input parameters and specified their ranges in the Kain-Fritsch (KF) convection scheme in WRF and calibrated them across different spatial resolutions, climatic regimes, and radiation schemes using observed precipitation data. Results show that the optimal values for the five input parameters in the KF scheme are close and model sensitivity and error exhibit similar dependence on the input parameters for all experiments conducted in this study despite differences in the precipitation climatology. We found that the model overall performances in simulating precipitation are more sensitive to the coefficients of downdraft (Pd) and entrainment (Pe) mass flux and starting height of downdraft (Ph). However, we found that rainfall biases, which are probably more related to structural errors, still exist over some regions in the simulation even with the optimal parameters, suggesting further studies are needed to identify the sources of uncertainties and reduce the model biases or structural errors associated with missed or misrepresented physical processes and/or potential problems with the modeling framework.

  8. Stellar models with mixing length and T(tau) relations calibrated on 3D convection simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salaris, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    (abridged) The calculation of the thermal stratification in the superadiabatic layers of stellar models with convective envelopes is a long standing problem of stellar astrophysics, and has a major impact on predicted observational properties like radius and effective temperature. The Mixing Length Theory, almost universally used to model the superadiabatic convective layers, contains effectively one free parameter to be calibrated --alpha(ml)-- whose value controls the resulting effective temperature. Here we present the first self-consistent stellar evolution models calculated by employing the atmospheric temperature stratification, Rosseland opacities, and calibrated variable alpha(ml) (dependent on effective temperature and surface gravity) from a large suite of three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations of stellar convective envelopes and atmospheres for solar stellar composition (Trampedach et al. 2013). From our calculations (with the same composition of the radiation hydrodynamics simulatio...

  9. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Marvinney, Robert

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  10. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  11. Stochastic Modeling of Overtime Occupancy and Its Application in Building Energy Simulation and Calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Kaiyu

    2014-01-01

    Calibrated building energy simulation and its application inparameters in energy simulation of office buildings. EnergyApplication in Building Energy Simulation and Calibration

  12. Cosmological model-independent Gamma-ray bursts calibration and its cosmological constraint to dark energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Lixin, E-mail: lxxu@dlut.edu.cn [Institute of Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)

    2012-04-01

    As so far, the redshift of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can extend to z ? 8 which makes it as a complementary probe of dark energy to supernova Ia (SN Ia). However, the calibration of GRBs is still a big challenge when they are used to constrain cosmological models. Though, the absolute magnitude of GRBs is still unknown, the slopes of GRBs correlations can be used as a useful constraint to dark energy in a completely cosmological model independent way. In this paper, we follow Wang's model-independent distance measurement method and calculate their values by using 109 GRBs events via the so-called Amati relation. Then, we use the obtained model-independent distances to constrain ?CDM model as an example.

  13. Use of model calibration to achieve high accuracy in analysis of computer networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frogner, Bjorn; Guarro, Sergio; Scharf, Guy

    2004-05-11

    A system and method are provided for creating a network performance prediction model, and calibrating the prediction model, through application of network load statistical analyses. The method includes characterizing the measured load on the network, which may include background load data obtained over time, and may further include directed load data representative of a transaction-level event. Probabilistic representations of load data are derived to characterize the statistical persistence of the network performance variability and to determine delays throughout the network. The probabilistic representations are applied to the network performance prediction model to adapt the model for accurate prediction of network performance. Certain embodiments of the method and system may be used for analysis of the performance of a distributed application characterized as data packet streams.

  14. Automatic Calibration of a Building Energy Simulation Model Using a Global Optimization Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, S. U.; Claridge, D.

    2002-01-01

    , Proceedings of the ACEEE 1988 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 10, 14-26. Balcomb, J.D., Burch, J.D., Subbarao, K., 1993. Short-term energy monitoring of residences, ASHRAE Transactions, 99 (2): 935-944. Balcomb, J.D., Burch, J.D...-259. Sorooshian, S., Gupta, V.K., 1983. Automatic calibration of conceptual rainfall-runoff models - the question of parameter observability and uniqueness, Water Resources Res., 19 (1): 260- 268. Subbarao, K., Burch, J., Hancock, C.E., Lekov, A., Balcomb, J.D...

  15. Calibration of an EnergyPlus Building Energy Model to Assess the Impact of Demand Response Measures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavigne, K.; Sansregret, S.; Daoud, A.; Leclair, L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Simon Sansregret Ahmed DaoudLouis-Alexandre Leclaire CALIBRATION OF AN ENERGYPLUS BUILDING ENERGY MODEL TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF DEMAND RESPONSE MEASURES ICEBO 2013, Montr?al Groupe ? Technologie2 ICEBO-2013 Contextualization > Hydro..., Static fan pressure, Plug load intensity, etc. > Establish an optimization plan (? ? simulated and measured profiles) ? Parameter selection and their limits ? Calibration period (annual or specific period) ? Objective function and type of algorithm...

  16. ABSTRACT: The ability of a watershed model to mimic specified watershed processes is assessed through the calibration and valida-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaubey, Indrajeet

    model was implemented in the Beaver Reservoir Watershed of Northwest Arkansas. The objectives were to model; (2) conduct sensitivity analysis; and (3) perform calibration and validation at three different of the model is a key factor in reducing uncertainty and increasing user confidence in its predictive abilities

  17. Bayesian calibration of a large-scale geothermal reservoir model by a new adaptive delayed acceptance Metropolis Hastings algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Colin

    Bayesian calibration of a large-scale geothermal reservoir model by a new adaptive delayed of this research is to estimate the parameters of a large-scale numerical model of a geothermal reservoir using that technique. For the 3-D geothermal reservoir model we present here, ADAMH shows a great improvement

  18. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  19. Calibrating the pixel-level Kepler imaging data with a causal data-driven model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Dun; Hogg, David W; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Astronomical observations are affected by several kinds of noise, each with its own causal source; there is photon noise, stochastic source variability, and residuals coming from imperfect calibration of the detector or telescope. The precision of NASA Kepler photometry for exoplanet science---the most precise photometric measurements of stars ever made---appears to be limited by unknown or untracked variations in spacecraft pointing and temperature, and unmodeled stellar variability. Here we present the Causal Pixel Model (CPM) for Kepler data, a data-driven model intended to capture variability but preserve transit signals. The CPM works at the pixel level so that it can capture very fine-grained information about the variation of the spacecraft. The CPM predicts each target pixel value from a large number of pixels of other stars sharing the instrument variabilities while not containing any information on possible transits in the target star. In addition, we use the target star's future and past (auto-regr...

  20. Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Geological Data Evaluation Alternativ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    much of the enhanced geothermal focus on stimulating fracture development (e.g., fracking) at depth is not directly relevant to deep borehole disposal. For deep borehole...

  1. APPLICATION OF BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS AT AN EXPERIMENTAL WASTE STORAGE SITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    letal Ore Deposits, 11 in Geophysics and Geochemistry in the11 Applications of Borehole Geophysics to Water-ResourcesAPPLICATION OF BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS AT AN EXPERIMENTAL WASTE

  2. Borehole geophysics evaluation of the Raft River geothermal reservoir...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Borehole geophysics evaluation of the Raft River geothermal reservoir, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Borehole geophysics...

  3. Deep Borehole Disposal of Spent Fuel. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deep Borehole Disposal of Spent Fuel. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deep Borehole Disposal of Spent Fuel. Abstract not provided. Authors: Brady, Patrick V. Publication...

  4. Deep Borehole Disposal of Nuclear Waste. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deep Borehole Disposal of Nuclear Waste. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deep Borehole Disposal of Nuclear Waste. Abstract not provided. Authors: Arnold, Bill Walter ;...

  5. ICRCCM Phase 2: Verification and calibration of radiation codes in climate models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Wiscombe, W.J.; Murcray, D.; Smith, W.; Strauch, R.

    1992-01-01

    Following the finding by the InterComparison of Radiation Codes used in Climate Models (ICRCCM) of large differences among fluxes predicted by sophisticated radiation models that could not be sorted out because of the lack of a set of accurate atmospheric spectral radiation data measured simultaneously with the important radiative properties of the atmosphere, our team of scientists proposed to remedy the situation by carrying out a comprehensive program of measurement and analysis called SPECTRE (Spectral Radiance Experiment). The data collected during SPECTRE form the test bed for the second phase of ICRCCM, namely verification and calibration of radiation codes used in climate models. This should lead to more accurate radiation models for use in parameterizing climate models, which in turn play a key role in the prediction of trace-gas greenhouse effects. This report summarizes the activities of our group during the project's Third year to meet our stated objectives. The report is divided into three sections entitled: SPECTRE Activities, ICRCCM Activities, and summary information. The section on SPECTRE activities summarizes the field portion of the project during 1991, and the data reduction/analysis performed by the various participants. The section on ICRCCM activities summarizes our initial attempts to select data for distribution to ICRCCM participants and at comparison of observations with calculations as will be done by the ICRCCM participants. The Summary Information section lists data concerning publications, presentations, graduate students supported, and post-doctoral appointments during the project.

  6. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driscoll, Michael; Baglietto, Emilio; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Lester, Richard; Brady, Patrick; Arnold, B. W.

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (? 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  7. Model-independent distance calibration of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts and constrain on the $?$CDM model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hai-Nan Lin; Xin Li; Zhe Change

    2015-07-19

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are luminous enough to be detectable up to redshift $z\\sim 10$. They are often proposed as complementary tools to type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in tracing the Hubble diagram of the Universe. The distance calibrations of GRBs usually make use one or some of the empirical luminosity correlations, such as $\\tau_{\\rm lag}-L$, $V-L$, $E_p-L$, $E_p-E_{\\gamma}$, $\\tau_{\\rm RT}-L$ and $E_p-E_{\\rm iso}$ relations. These calibrating methods are based on the underling assumption that the empirical luminosity correlations are universal over all redshift range. In this paper, we test the possible redshift dependence of six luminosity correlations by dividing GRBs into low-$z$ and high-$z$ classes according to their redshift smaller or larger than 1.4. It is shown that the $E_p-E_{\\gamma}$ relation for low-$z$ GRBs is consistent with that for high-$z$ GRBs within $1\\sigma$ uncertainty. The intrinsic scatter of $V-L$ relation is too larger to make a convincing conclusion. For the rest four correlations, however, low-$z$ GRBs differ from high-$z$ GRBs at more than $3\\sigma$ confidence level. As such, we calibrate GRBs using the $E_p-E_{\\gamma}$ relation in a model-independent way. The constraint of high-$z$ GRBs on the $\\Lambda$CDM model gives $\\Omega_M=0.302\\pm 0.142(1\\sigma)$, well consistent with the Planck 2015 results.

  8. Kimama Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimama drill site was set up to acquire a continuous record of basaltic volcanism along the central volcanic axis and to test the extent of geothermal resources beneath the Snake River aquifer. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  9. Kimberly Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimberly drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama and is located near the margin of the plain. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  10. Simulation Calibration Autotune Calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    Calibration as Search #12;· EnergyPlus is a desktop app · Writes files during a simulation · Use RAMdisk (mm:ss) Data Size EnergyPlus Simulations 16 18:14 5 GB 64 32 18:19 11 GB 128 64 18:34 22 GB 256 128 18 ... #12;· EnergyPlus ­ 2-10 mins for an annual simulation !- ALL OBJECTS IN CLASS Version, 7.0; !- Version

  11. Combining multi-objective optimization and bayesian model averaging to calibrate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Wohling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Most studies in vadose zone hydrology use a single conceptual model for predictive inference and analysis. Focusing on the outcome of a single model is prone to statistical bias and underestimation of uncertainty. In this study, we combine multi-objective optimization and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models. To illustrate our method, we use observed tensiometric pressure head data at three different depths in a layered vadose zone of volcanic origin in New Zealand. A set of seven different soil hydraulic models is calibrated using a multi-objective formulation with three different objective functions that each measure the mismatch between observed and predicted soil water pressure head at one specific depth. The Pareto solution space corresponding to these three objectives is estimated with AMALGAM, and used to generate four different model ensembles. These ensembles are post-processed with BMA and used for predictive analysis and uncertainty estimation. Our most important conclusions for the vadose zone under consideration are: (1) the mean BMA forecast exhibits similar predictive capabilities as the best individual performing soil hydraulic model, (2) the size of the BMA uncertainty ranges increase with increasing depth and dryness in the soil profile, (3) the best performing ensemble corresponds to the compromise (or balanced) solution of the three-objective Pareto surface, and (4) the combined multi-objective optimization and BMA framework proposed in this paper is very useful to generate forecast ensembles of soil hydraulic models.

  12. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engler, B.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Striker, R.P.

    1993-02-23

    A borehole seismic tool is described including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric motor in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  13. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engler, Bruce P. (Sandoval County, NM); Sleefe, Gerard E. (Bernalillo County, NM); Striker, Richard P. (Bernalillo County, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A borehole seismic tool including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric meter in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  14. Borehole Gravity Meter Surveys at the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacQueen, Jeffrey D.; Mann, Ethan

    2007-04-06

    Microg-LaCoste (MGL) was contracted by Pacfic Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to record borehole gravity density data in 3 wells at the HanfordWaste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The survey was designed to provide highly accurate density information for use in seismic modeling. The borehole gravity meter (BHGM) tool has a very large depth of investigation (hundreds of feet) compared to other density tools so it is not influenced by casing or near welbore effects, such as washouts.

  15. MARCS-Model Stellar Atmospheres, and Their Application to the Photometric Calibration of the Spitzer-IRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Decin; P. W. Morris; P. N. Appleton; V. Charmandaris; L. Armus; J. R. Houck

    2004-06-03

    We describe state-of-the-art MARCS-code model atmospheres generated for a group of A dwarf, G dwarf, and late-G to mid-K giant standard stars, selected to photometrically calibrate the Spitzer-IRS, and compare the synthetic spectra to observations of HR 6688, HR 6705, and HR 7891. The general calibration processes and uncertainties are briefly described, and the differences between various templated composite spectra of the standards are addressed. In particular, a contrast between up-to-date model atmospheres and previously published composite and synthetic spectra is illustrated for wavelength ranges around 8um (where the SiO Delta(v) = 1 band occurs for the cooler standards) and lambda greater than 20um, where the use of the Engelke function will lead to increasingly large discrepancies due to the neglect of gravity in cool stars. At this point, radiometric requirements are being met, absolute flux calibration uncertainties (1-sigma) are ~20% in the SH and LH, and ~15% in the SL and LL data, and order-to-order flux uncertainties are ~10% or less. Iteration between the MARCS model atmosphere inputs and the data processing will improve the S/N ratios and calibration accuracies.

  16. A late Quaternary climate reconstruction based on borehole heat flux data, borehole temperature data, and the instrumental record

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Shaopeng

    A late Quaternary climate reconstruction based on borehole heat flux data, borehole temperature,000 year reconstructions that integrate three types of geothermal information: a global database reconstruction based on borehole heat flux data, borehole temperature data, and the instrumental record, Geophys

  17. Using calibrated engineering models to predict energy savings in large-scale geothermal heat pump projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Hughes, P.J.; Thornton, J.W.

    1998-10-01

    Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC) is now receiving greater attention as a means of implementing large-scale energy conservation projects in housing. Opportunities for such projects exist for military housing, federally subsidized low-income housing, and planned communities (condominiums, townhomes, senior centers), to name a few. Accurate prior (to construction) estimates of the energy savings in these projects reduce risk, decrease financing costs, and help avoid post-construction disputes over performance contract baseline adjustments. This paper demonstrates an improved method of estimating energy savings before construction takes place. Using an engineering model calibrated to pre-construction energy-use data collected in the field, this method is able to predict actual energy savings to a high degree of accuracy. This is verified with post-construction energy-use data from a geothermal heat pump ESPC at Fort Polk, Louisiana. This method also allows determination of the relative impact of the various energy conservation measures installed in a comprehensive energy conservation project. As an example, the breakout of savings at Fort Polk for the geothermal heat pumps, desuperheaters, lighting retrofits, and low-flow hot water outlets is provided.

  18. Using Calibrated Engineering Models To Predict Energy Savings In Large-Scale Geothermal Heat Pump Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, John A; Hughes, Patrick; Thornton, Jeff W.

    1998-01-01

    Energy savings performance contracting (ESPC) is now receiving greater attention as a means of implementing large-scale energy conservation projects in housing. Opportunities for such projects exist for military housing, federally subsidized low-income housing, and planned communities (condominiums, townhomes, senior centers), to name a few. Accurate prior (to construction) estimates of the energy savings in these projects reduce risk, decrease financing costs, and help avoid post-construction disputes over performance contract baseline adjustments. This paper demonstrates an improved method of estimating energy savings before construction takes place. Using an engineering model calibrated to pre-construction energy-use data collected in the field, this method is able to predict actual energy savings to a high degree of accuracy. This is verified with post-construction energy-use data from a geothermal heat pump ESPC at Fort Polk, Louisiana. This method also allows determination of the relative impact of the various energy conservation measures installed in a comprehensive energy conservation project. As an example, the breakout of savings at Fort Polk for the geothermal heat pumps, desuperheaters, lighting retrofits, and low-flow hot water outlets is provided.

  19. Some logistical considerations in designing a system of deep boreholes for disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Genetha Anne; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2012-09-01

    Deep boreholes could be a relatively inexpensive, safe, and rapidly deployable strategy for disposing Americas nuclear waste. To study this approach, Sandia invested in a three year LDRD project entitled %E2%80%9CRadionuclide Transport from Deep Boreholes.%E2%80%9D In the first two years, the borehole reference design and backfill analysis were completed and the supporting modeling of borehole temperature and fluid transport profiles were done. In the third year, some of the logistics of implementing a deep borehole waste disposal system were considered. This report describes what was learned in the third year of the study and draws some conclusions about the potential bottlenecks of system implementation.

  20. Thermodynamic model for mineral solubility in aqueous fluids: theory, calibration and application to model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Craig

    show a steady increase in solubility along constant geothermal gradients or water isochores, at a geothermal gradient of 20°C km)1 . For subduction zones, modeled by a geotherm of 7°C km)1 , the required

  1. Detectors for the James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infrared Spectrograph I: Readout Mode, Noise Model, and Calibration Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard J. Rauscher; Ori Fox; Pierre Ferruit

    2007-06-15

    We describe how the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near-Infrared Spectrograph's (NIRSpec's) detectors will be read out, and present a model of how noise scales with the number of multiple non-destructive reads sampling-up-the-ramp. We believe that this noise model, which is validated using real and simulated test data, is applicable to most astronomical near-infrared instruments. We describe some non-ideal behaviors that have been observed in engineering grade NIRSpec detectors, and demonstrate that they are unlikely to affect NIRSpec sensitivity, operations, or calibration. These include a HAWAII-2RG reset anomaly and random telegraph noise (RTN). Using real test data, we show that the reset anomaly is: (1) very nearly noiseless and (2) can be easily calibrated out. Likewise, we show that large-amplitude RTN affects only a small and fixed population of pixels. It can therefore be tracked using standard pixel operability maps.

  2. Development of a geothermal acoustic borehole televiewer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heard, F.E.; Bauman, T.J.

    1983-08-01

    Most geothermal wells are drilled in hard rock formations where fluid flow is through systems of open fractures. Productivity of these wells is usually determined by the extent of intersection of the wellbore with the fracture system. A need exists for fracture mapping methods and tools which can operate in a geothermal environment. In less hostile environments, the acoustic borehole televiewer has been shown to be a useful tool for determining location, orientation, and characterization of fractures as they intersect the borehole and for general wellbore and casing inspection. The development conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to adapt an acoustic borehole televiewer for operation in a geothermal environment is described. The modified instrument has been successfully tested at temperatures as high as 280/sup 0/C and pressures up to 5000 psi, and used successfully to map fractures and casing damage in geothermal wells.

  3. Effects of oil charge on illite dates and stopping quartz cement: calibration of basin models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    Abstract Effects of oil charge on illite dates and stopping quartz cement: calibration of basin Oil can fill pores in reservoir sandstones at any burial depth by long or short distance migration. There has been a debate since 1920 concerning the effect of oil charge. We have made detailed local

  4. Experimental studies of the acoustic wave field near a borehole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Zhenya

    2013-01-01

    A monopole or a dipole source in a fluid borehole generates acoustic waves, part of which propagate along the borehole and the other part enter the formation propagating as P- or S-waves. The refracted waves propagating ...

  5. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burklund, P.W.

    1984-01-20

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole is disclosed. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  6. Exploratory Boreholes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Parr...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploratory Boreholes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Parr & Percival, 1991) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Exploratory...

  7. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased boreholes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-04-11

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the resistivity of a geological formation through borehole casing which may be surrounded by brine saturated cement. A.C. current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. The A.C. voltage difference is measured between two additional vertically disposed electrodes on the interior of the casing which provides a measure of the resistivity of the geological formation. A calibration and nulling procedure is presented which minimizes the influence of variations in the thickness of the casing. The procedure also minimizes the influence of inaccurate placements of the additional vertically disposed electrodes. 3 figs.

  8. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased boreholes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1989-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the resistivity of a geological formation through borehole casing which may be surrounded by brine saturated cement. A.C. current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. The A.C. voltage difference is measured between two additional vertically disposed electrodes on the interior of the casing which provides a measure of the resistivity of the geological formation. A calibration and nulling procedure is presented which minimizes the influence of variations in the thickness of the casing. The procedure also minimizes the influence of inaccurate placements of the additional vertically disposed electrodes.

  9. Effect of soil property uncertainties on permafrost thaw projections: a calibration-constrained analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, D. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA; Atchley, A. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA; Painter, S. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA; Coon, E. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA; Wilson, C. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA; Romanovsky, V. E. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, USA] (ORCID:0000000295152087); Rowland, J. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA

    2015-01-01

    The effect of soil property uncertainties on permafrost thaw projections are studied using a three-phase subsurface thermal hydrology model and calibration-constrained uncertainty analysis. The Null-Space Monte Carlo method is used to identify soil hydrothermal parameter combinations that are consistent with borehole temperature measurements at the study site, the Barrow Environmental Observatory. Each parameter combination is then used in a forward projection of permafrost conditions for the 21st century (from calendar year 2006 to 2100) using atmospheric forcings from the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 greenhouse gas concentration trajectory. A 100-year projection allows for the evaluation of intra-annual uncertainty due to soil properties and the inter-annual variability due to year to year differences in CESM climate forcings. After calibrating to borehole temperature data at this well-characterized site, soil property uncertainties are still significant and result in significant intra-annual uncertainties in projected active layer thickness and annual thaw depth-duration even with a specified future climate. Intra-annual uncertainties in projected soil moisture content and Stefan number are small. A volume and time integrated Stefan number decreases significantly in the future climate, indicating that latent heat of phase change becomes more important than heat conduction in future climates. Out of 10 soil parameters, ALT, annual thaw depth-duration, and Stefan number are highly dependent on mineral soil porosity, while annual mean liquid saturation of the active layer is highly dependent on the mineral soil residual saturation and moderately dependent on peat residual saturation. By comparing the ensemble statistics to the spread of projected permafrost metrics using different climate models, we show that the effect of calibration-constrained uncertainty in soil properties, although significant, is less than that produced by structural climate model uncertainty for this location.

  10. Effect of soil property uncertainties on permafrost thaw projections: A calibration-constrained analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harp, D. R.; Atchley, A. L.; Painter, S. L.; Coon, E. T.; Wilson, C. J.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Rowland, J. C.

    2015-06-29

    The effect of soil property uncertainties on permafrost thaw projections are studied using a three-phase subsurface thermal hydrology model and calibration-constrained uncertainty analysis. The Null-Space Monte Carlo method is used to identify soil hydrothermal parameter combinations that are consistent with borehole temperature measurements at the study site, the Barrow Environmental Observatory. Each parameter combination is then used in a forward projection of permafrost conditions for the 21st century (from calendar year 2006 to 2100) using atmospheric forcings from the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 greenhouse gas concentration trajectory. A 100-year projection allows formore »the evaluation of intra-annual uncertainty due to soil properties and the inter-annual variability due to year to year differences in CESM climate forcings. After calibrating to borehole temperature data at this well-characterized site, soil property uncertainties are still significant and result in significant intra-annual uncertainties in projected active layer thickness and annual thaw depth-duration even with a specified future climate. Intra-annual uncertainties in projected soil moisture content and Stefan number are small. A volume and time integrated Stefan number decreases significantly in the future climate, indicating that latent heat of phase change becomes more important than heat conduction in future climates. Out of 10 soil parameters, ALT, annual thaw depth-duration, and Stefan number are highly dependent on mineral soil porosity, while annual mean liquid saturation of the active layer is highly dependent on the mineral soil residual saturation and moderately dependent on peat residual saturation. By comparing the ensemble statistics to the spread of projected permafrost metrics using different climate models, we show that the effect of calibration-constrained uncertainty in soil properties, although significant, is less than that produced by structural climate model uncertainty for this location.« less

  11. Deepest Ocean Borehole to Plumb Earthquakes, Tsunamis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.

    Deepest Ocean Borehole to Plumb Earthquakes, Tsunamis A grand challenge for Earth Sciences in devastating effects on heavily populated coastal areas from both ground shaking and tsunami. Robert Harris great earthquakes and tsunamis occur. Through Harris, COAS is involved in making fundamental temperature

  12. Modeling Study of Proposed Field Calibration Source Using K-40 Source and High-Z Targets for Sodium Iodide Detector 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Jeremy 1987-

    2012-10-30

    this project, giving me a few ideas to get started, and answering my questions along the way. I hope this calibration source is exactly what you need. Thanks also go to Dr. Sunil Chirayath for answering my many questions on MCNP, and for helping me make sure... interactions, coincidence counting, and MCNP modeling. I want to thank my family for being so unshakably supportive. My life and career paths are completely different than I would have thought six years ago, but you?ve been there for me through it all...

  13. Initial Borehole Accelerometer Array Observations Near the North Portal of the ESF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David von Seggern

    2005-08-17

    This report addresses observed ground motions at the site of the proposed surface facilities associated with the designated repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In 2003 an accelerometer array was installed at three boreholes on the pad of the north portal of the ESF (Exploratory Studies Facility) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, by the Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL). These boreholes, roughly 150 m apart and initially used for extensive geological and geophysical surveys, were ideal locations to measure the subsurface ground motions at the proposed site of surface facilities such as the Waste Handling Building. Such measurements will impact the design of the facilities. Accelerometer emplacement depths of approximately 15 m from the surface and then at the bottom of the boreholes, roughly 100 m, were chosen. Accelerometers were also placed at the surface next to the boreholes, for a total of nine accelerometers, all three-component. Data recording was accomplished with onsite recorders, with the onsite data transmitted to a central computer at a trailer on the pad. All requirements were met to qualify these data as ''Q''. Due to the lack of significant recordings during 2003, several low signal-to-noise (S/N) quality events were chosen for processing. The maximum horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) recorded at the pad was approximately 1 cm/s2 in 2003; the corresponding peak ground velocity (PGV) was approximately 0.01 cm/s. PGA and PGV were obtained at all nine accelerometers for most of these events, and spectra were computed. Ground motion amplitudes varied significantly across the boreholes. Higher ground amplifications were observed at the surface for the two boreholes that penetrated a thick amount ({approx} 30 m) of fill and Quaternary alluvium compared to the one that had less than 2 m of such. Additionally, surface-to-deep recordings showed as much as a factor of five amplification at these two boreholes. Signal correlation with inter-borehole distance agrees with basic scattering theory, and the recorded signals across the wavefront correlate more strongly than those along the propagation path. Transfer functions computed from layered models for each borehole reflect some of the actual signal attributes fairly well, but many more signals need to be recorded and used to provide a good basis of comparison.

  14. Energy calibration via correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The main task of an energy calibration is to find a relation between pulse-height values and the corresponding energies. Doing this for each pulse-height channel individually requires an elaborated input spectrum with an excellent counting statistics and a sophisticated data analysis. This work presents an easy to handle energy calibration process which can operate reliably on calibration measurements with low counting statistics. The method uses a parameter based model for the energy calibration and concludes on the optimal parameters of the model by finding the best correlation between the measured pulse-height spectrum and multiple synthetic pulse-height spectra which are constructed with different sets of calibration parameters. A CdTe-based semiconductor detector and the line emissions of an 241 Am source were used to test the performance of the correlation method in terms of systematic calibration errors for different counting statistics. Up to energies of 60 keV systematic errors were measured to be le...

  15. Multiobjective calibration and sensitivity of a distributed land surface water and energy balance model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houser, Paul R; Gupta, Hoshin V; Shuttleworth, W. James; Famiglietti, James S

    2001-01-01

    distributed land surface water and energy balance model Pauldistributed land surface water and energy balance model (because models of water and energy balance, Ph.D.

  16. Advances in borehole geophysics for hydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Borehole geophysical methods provide vital subsurface information on rock properties, fluid movement, and the condition of engineered borehole structures. Within the first category, salient advances include the continuing improvement of the borehole televiewer, refinement of the electrical conductivity dipmeter for fracture characterization, and the development of a gigahertz-frequency electromagnetic propagation tool for water saturation measurements. The exploration of the rock mass between boreholes remains a challenging problem with high potential; promising methods are now incorporating high-density spatial sampling and sophisticated data processing. Flow-rate measurement methods appear adequate for all but low-flow situations. At low rates the tagging method seems the most attractive. The current exploitation of neutron-activation techniques for tagging means that the wellbore fluid itself is tagged, thereby eliminating the mixing of an alien fluid into the wellbore. Another method uses the acoustic noise generated by flow through constrictions and in and behind casing to detect and locate flaws in the production system. With the advent of field-recorded digital data, the interpretation of logs from sedimentary sequences is now reaching a sophisticated level with the aid of computer processing and the application of statistical methods. Lagging behind are interpretive schemes for the low-porosity, fracture-controlled igneous and metamorphic rocks encountered in the geothermal reservoirs and in potential waste-storage sites. Progress is being made on the general problem of fracture detection by use of electrical and acoustical techniques, but the reliable definition of permeability continues to be an elusive goal.

  17. Calibration and Validation of a Spar-Type Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Model using the FAST Dynamic Simulation Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browning, J. R.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.; Goupee, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    In 2007, the FAST wind turbine simulation tool, developed and maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was expanded to include capabilities that are suitable for modeling floating offshore wind turbines. In an effort to validate FAST and other offshore wind energy modeling tools, DOE funded the DeepCwind project that tested three prototype floating wind turbines at 1/50th scale in a wave basin, including a semisubmersible, a tension-leg platform, and a spar buoy. This paper describes the use of the results of the spar wave basin tests to calibrate and validate the FAST offshore floating simulation tool, and presents some initial results of simulated dynamic responses of the spar to several combinations of wind and sea states.

  18. Multi-array borehole resistivity and induced polarization method with mathematical inversion of redundant data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, S.H.

    1989-10-17

    Multiple arrays of electric or magnetic transmitters and receivers are used in a borehole geophysical procedure to obtain a multiplicity of redundant data suitable for processing into a resistivity or induced polarization model of a subsurface region of the earth. 30 figs.

  19. Limitations of Using Uniform Heat Flux Assumptions in Sizing Vertical Borehole Heat Exchanger Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of ground heat exchangers (GHE) used with ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems. These models can account approach with a parametric study. Keywords - Ground Source Heat Pumps; Borehole Heat Exchangers; Finite Line Source Theory; g-functions 1. Introduction Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are a widely

  20. Characterization plan for the immobilized low-activity waste borehole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The DOE will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Complex (ILAWDC) is part of the disposal complex. This report is a plan to drill the first characterization borehole and collect data at the ILAWDC. This plan updates and revises the deep borehole portion of the characterization plan for the ILAWDC by Reidel and others (1995). It describes data collection activities for determining the physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and the saturated zone at and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed ILAWDC. These properties then will be used to develop a conceptual geohydrologic model of the ILAWDC site in support of the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment.

  1. Canister, Sealing Method And Composition For Sealing A Borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL)

    2005-06-28

    Method and composition for sealing a borehole. A chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant for sealing, stabilizing, or plugging boreholes is prepared by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form slurry. The slurry is introduced into the borehole where the seal, stabilization or plug is desired, and then allowed to set up to form the high strength, minimally porous sealant, which binds strongly to itself and to underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  2. Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Geological Data Evaluation Alternativ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research: Geological Data Evaluation Alternative Waste Forms and Borehole Seals Arnold, Bill W.; Brady, Patrick; Sutton, Mark; Travis, Karl; MacKinnon, Robert; Gibb, Fergus;...

  3. Role of borehole geophysics in defining the physical characteristics...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Role of borehole geophysics in defining the physical characteristics of the Raft River geothermal reservoir, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  4. Research Development and Demonstration Roadmap for Deep Borehole...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development and Demonstration Roadmap for Deep Borehole Disposal. Arnold, Bill W.; MacKinnon, Robert J.; Brady, Patrick V. Abstract Not Provided Sandia National Laboratories USDOE...

  5. Temperature Measurements in Boreholes: An Overview of Engineering...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperature Measurements in Boreholes: An Overview of Engineering and Scientific Applications Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  6. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  7. Research Development and Demonstration Roadmap for Deep Borehole...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Development and Demonstration Roadmap for Deep Borehole Disposal. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Research Development and Demonstration Roadmap for Deep...

  8. Borehole-Wall Imaging with Acoustic and Optical Televiewers for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Symposium on Borehole Geophysics for Minerals, Geotechnical, and Groundwater Applications; Houston, Texas; 20001001 Published NA, 2000 DOI Not Provided Check...

  9. Short Note Microseismic monitoring of borehole fluid injections: Data ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-02-28

    mal or hydrocarbon reservoir operations has grown consider- ably over the last several years. The observation of microseis- micity occurring during borehole ...

  10. Properties of cell death models calibrated and compared using Bayesian approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eydgahi, Hoda

    Using models to simulate and analyze biological networks requires principled approaches to parameter estimation and model discrimination. We use Bayesian and Monte Carlo methods to recover the full probability distributions ...

  11. Determination of Retrofit Savings Using a Calibrated Building Energy Simulation Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, S. N.; Hunn, B. D.; Hood, D. B.

    1994-01-01

    for whole-building electric, cooling, and heating energy use, and were compared with savings calculated using a regression model developed under the LoanSTAR program. Finally, to validate the model, postretrofit DOE-2 results were compared with measured...

  12. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shervais, John

    2012-11-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  13. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shervais, John

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  14. Appendix DATA Attachment A: WIPP Borehole Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D SFederal Facility Agreement and Consent04A: WIPP Borehole

  15. Multiobjective calibration and sensitivity of a distributed land surface water and energy balance model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houser, Paul R; Gupta, Hoshin V; Shuttleworth, W. James; Famiglietti, James S

    2001-01-01

    identification and energy balance models on a tallgrassdata for surface energy balance evaluation of a semiaridWatershed. We are energy balance components over a semiarid

  16. The Model 5000-16C 1000 WATT FEL Lamp Standard pro-vides absolute calibration of spectral irradiance from 250 nm to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Model 5000-16C 1000 WATT FEL Lamp Standard pro- vides absolute calibration of spectral irradiance from 250 nm to 2.5 microns.This Tungsten-Halogen Lamp Standard bears the ANSI designation of FEL might be discernible at the crossover point of the two referenced NIST Scales. 5000 FEL 1000Watt Lamp

  17. A solute transport model calibration procedure as applied to a tritium plume in the Savannah River Plant F-Area, South Carolina 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, David Arthur

    1988-01-01

    on extracting values of hydrogeologic parameters which are physically meaningful. Results of modeling with fitted, non-physical parameters are usually of little value and often misleading. The calibration procedure which is associated with the multidimensional.... Monitoring Wells. Source Loading. Geology. Surface Hydrology and Physiography. Physical Hydrogeology Tritium Dispersion and Distribution. . 4 . . . . . . 8 . . . . . 1 1 . . 12 . . . 15 . . . 20 31 . . . 34 . . . . . 37 . . . . . . 37...

  18. Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SP Reidel

    2000-08-10

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment.

  19. RESEARCH PAPER Compaction bands induced by borehole drilling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einat, Aharonov

    gas, geothermal steam, or for enabling geophysical observations, can reach depths of several results have supported theoretical findings that in vertical boreholes breakouts are aligned prevails [8, 12]. To date, numerous vertical boreholes (in particular R. Katsman (&) Á E. Aharonov Faculty

  20. Modelling high resolution Echelle spectrographs for calibrations: Hanle Echelle spectrograph, a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chanumolu, Anantha; Thirupathi, Sivarani

    2015-01-01

    We present a modelling scheme that predicts the centroids of spectral line features for a high resolution Echelle spectrograph to a high accuracy. Towards this, a computing scheme is used, whereby any astronomical spectrograph can be modelled and controlled without recourse to a ray tracing program. The computations are based on paraxial ray trace and exact corrections added for certain surface types and Buchdahl aberration coefficients for complex modules. The resultant chain of paraxial ray traces and corrections for all relevant components is used to calculate the location of any spectral line on the detector under all normal operating conditions with a high degree of certainty. This will allow a semi-autonomous control using simple in-house, programming modules. The scheme is simple enough to be implemented even in a spreadsheet or in any scripting language. Such a model along with an optimization routine can represent the real time behaviour of the instrument. We present here a case study for Hanle Echel...

  1. Calibration and Validation of a FAST Floating Wind Turbine Model of the DeepCwind Scaled Tension-Leg Platform: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Goupee, A.

    2012-05-01

    With the intent of improving simulation tools, a 1/50th-scale floating wind turbine atop a TLP was designed based on Froude scaling by the University of Maine under the DeepCwind Consortium. This platform was extensively tested in a wave basin at MARIN to provide data to calibrate and validate a full-scale simulation model. The data gathered include measurements from static load tests and free-decay tests, as well as a suite of tests with wind and wave forcing. A full-scale FAST model of the turbine-TLP system was created for comparison to the results of the tests. Analysis was conducted to validate FAST for modeling the dynamics of this floating system through comparison of FAST simulation results to wave tank measurements. First, a full-scale FAST model of the as-tested scaled configuration of the system was constructed, and this model was then calibrated through comparison to the static load, free-decay, regular wave only, and wind-only tests. Next, the calibrated FAST model was compared to the combined wind and wave tests to validate the coupled hydrodynamic and aerodynamic predictive performance. Limitations of both FAST and the data gathered from the tests are discussed.

  2. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Donald N. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  3. Building and Calibration of a FAST Model of the SWAY Prototype Floating Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koh, J. H.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Driscoll, F.; Ng, E. Y. K.

    2013-09-01

    Present efforts to verify and validate aero-hydro-servo-elastic numerical simulation tools that predict the dynamic response of a floating offshore wind turbine are primarily limited to code-to-code comparisons or code-to-data comparisons using data from wind-wave basin tests. In partnership with SWAY AS, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) installed scientific wind, wave, and motion measurement equipment on the 1/6.5th-scale prototype SWAY floating wind system to collect data to validate a FAST model of the SWAY design in an open-water condition. Nanyang Technological University (NTU), through a collaboration with NREL, assisted in this validation.

  4. Working Group Reports Calibration of Radiation Codes Used in Climate Models:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricNCubictheThepresented in1: Model or Working Group97

  5. Development of a hydraulic borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes a 5 year, $10 million Sandia/Industry project to develop an advanced borehole seismic source for use in oil and gas exploration and production. The development Team included Sandia, Chevron, Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, Raytheon, Pelton, and GRI. The seismic source that was developed is a vertically oriented, axial point force, swept frequency, clamped, reaction-mass vibrator design. It was based on an early Chevron prototype, but the new tool incorporates a number of improvements which make it far superior to the original prototype. The system consists of surface control electronics, a special heavy duty fiber optic wireline and draw works, a cablehead, hydraulic motor/pump module, electronics module, clamp, and axial vibrator module. The tool has a peak output of 7,000 lbs force and a useful frequency range of 5 to 800 Hz. It can operate in fluid filled wells with 5.5-inch or larger casing to depths of 20,000 ft and operating temperatures of 170 C. The tool includes fiber optic telemetry, force and phase control, provisions to add seismic receiver arrays below the source for single well imaging, and provisions for adding other vibrator modules to the tool in the future. The project yielded four important deliverables: a complete advanced borehole seismic source system with all associated field equipment; field demonstration surveys funded by industry showing the utility of the system; industrial sources for all of the hardware; and a new service company set up by their industrial partner to provide commercial surveys.

  6. Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

  7. Accepted for publication in Energy and Buildings. 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.03.056 Improvement of Borehole Thermal Energy Storage Design Based on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .03.056 1 Improvement of Borehole Thermal Energy Storage Design Based on Experimental and Modelling Results Thermal Energy Storage appears to be an attractive solution for solar thermal energy storage. The SOLARGEOTHERM research project aimed to evaluate the energetic potential of borehole thermal energy storage

  8. Borehole SASW testing to evaluate log(G{sub max}) - log({sigma}{prime}) relationships in situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinski, M.E.; Stokoe, K.H. II; Young, Y.L.; Roesset, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    A new method is being developed for the in-situ measurement of shear wave velocity, V{sub s}, in the soil surrounding a borehole. The method involves the measurement of axially propagating surface waves inside an uncased borehole using the Spectral-Analysis-of-Surface-Waves (SASW) approach. Testing if performed with instrumentation housed inside an inflatable tool. Inflation pressures applied by the tool are used to vary radial stresses in the soil surrounding the borehole. Surface wave velocities over a range of frequencies are measured at each inflation pressure. These measurements are then theoretically modeled so that the variation in V{sub s} (an hence small-strain shear module, G{sub max}) with distance behind the borehole wall is determined at each pressure. The results of field tests with the borehole SASW tool at two sites composed of unsaturated clayey soil are presented. These results are compared with independent field seismic measurements and with laboratory tests on intact specimens using the torsional resonant column to assess the validity of the new field method.

  9. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  10. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1989-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes including resistivities, polarization phenomena and dielectric constants. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. At least three voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of differential current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. These measurements facilitate calculation of the resistivities of the adjacent geological formations as well as an indication of whether cement is present. Measurements of the differential voltage response to transient currents provide a measurement of the polarization phenomena in formation as well as the capacitance of the casing in contact with the formation which is useful for determining whether oil and gas are present. Lithological characteristics of the formation such as the presence or absence of clay can also be determined. A calibration procedure is provided for minimizing errors induced by variations in the casing. The device also may be placed within the pipe attached to a drill bit while drilling open holes.

  11. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1991-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes including resistivities, polarization phenomena and dielectric constants. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. At least three voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the differential current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. These measurements facilitate calculation of the resistivities of the adjacent geological formations as well as an indication of whether cement is present. Measurements of the differential voltage response to transient currents provide a measurement of the polarization phenomena in formation as well as the capacitance of the casing in contact with the formation which is useful for determining whether oil and gas present. Lithological characteristics of the formation such as the pressence or absence of clay can also be determined. A calibration procedure is provided for minimizing errors induced by variations in the casing. The device also may be placed within the pipe attached to a drill bit while drilling open holes.

  12. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-11-21

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes including resistivities, polarization phenomena and dielectric constants. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. At least three voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of differential current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. These measurements facilitate calculation of the resistivities of the adjacent geological formations as well as an indication of whether cement is present. Measurements of the differential voltage response to transient currents provide a measurement of the polarization phenomena in formation as well as the capacitance of the casing in contact with the formation which is useful for determining whether oil and gas are present. Lithological characteristics of the formation such as the presence or absence of clay can also be determined. A calibration procedure is provided for minimizing errors induced by variations in the casing. The device also may be placed within the pipe attached to a drill bit while drilling open holes. 48 figs.

  13. Methods and apparatus for measurement of electronic properties of geological formations through borehole casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1991-08-27

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes including resistivities, polarization phenomena and dielectric constants. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. At least three voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the differential current conducted into the formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. These measurements facilitate calculation of the resistivities of the adjacent geological formations as well as an indication of whether cement is present. Measurements of the differential voltage response to transient currents provide a measurement of the polarization phenomena in formation as well as the capacitance of the casing in contact with the formation which is useful for determining whether oil and gas are present. Lithological characteristics of the formation such as the presence or absence of clay can also be determined. A calibration procedure is provided for minimizing errors induced by variations in the casing. The device also may be placed within the pipe attached to a drill bit while drilling open holes. 48 figures.

  14. Canister design for deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoag, Christopher Ian

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to design a canister for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level waste in deep borehole repositories using currently available and proven oil, gas, and geothermal drilling ...

  15. Minor actinide waste disposal in deep geological boreholes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sizer, Calvin Gregory

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate a waste canister design suitable for the disposal of vitrified minor actinide waste in deep geological boreholes using conventional oil/gas/geothermal drilling technology. ...

  16. Method and apparatus for suppressing waves in a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-10-04

    Methods and apparatus for suppression of wave energy within a fluid-filled borehole using a low pressure acoustic barrier. In one embodiment, a flexible diaphragm type device is configured as an open bottomed tubular structure for disposition in a borehole to be filled with a gas to create a barrier to wave energy, including tube waves. In another embodiment, an expandable umbrella type device is used to define a chamber in which a gas is disposed. In yet another embodiment, a reverse acting bladder type device is suspended in the borehole. Due to its reverse acting properties, the bladder expands when internal pressure is reduced, and the reverse acting bladder device extends across the borehole to provide a low pressure wave energy barrier.

  17. Fracture characterization from seismic measurements in a borehole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakku, Sudhish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Fracture characterization is important for optimal recovery of hydrocarbons. In this thesis, we develop techniques to characterize natural and hydraulic fractures using seismic measurements in a borehole. We first develop ...

  18. Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL)

    2003-05-13

    Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole. The canister includes a container with slurry inside the container, one or more slurry exits at one end of the container, a pump at the other end of the container, and a piston inside that pushes the slurry though the slurry exit(s), out of the container, and into a borehole. An inflatable packer outside the container provides stabilization in the borehole. A borehole sealing material is made by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form a slurry which then sets to form a high strength, minimally porous material which binds well to itself, underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  19. A drop-in-concept for deep borehole canister emplacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bates, Ethan Allen

    2011-01-01

    Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep boreholes drilled into crystalline bedrock (i.e., "granite") is an interesting repository alternative of long standing. Work at MIT over the past two decades, and more recently ...

  20. Methods for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-02-20

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  1. Underground Thermal Energy Storage (UTES) Via Borehole and Aquifer...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Conductivity Test (LTCT) or Distributed Thermal Response Test (DTRT) * Marines Corps Logistics Base, Albany GA (MCLB) * 110 m u-bend borehole heat exchanger * A 72 hours LTCT was...

  2. Bayesian Calibration in Dakota | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    models, and particular implementations in Dakota. The talk will also present current research directions the Dakota team is pursuing for Bayesian calibration methods, including...

  3. CALIBRATION Galileo Scale Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the inner solar system, needed for gravity assist early in its flight to gain enough energy to reach Jupiter of the spacecraft, from the Sun's heat. A second low-gain antenna was mounted on an RTG boom for telecommunications to their targets. The solution is a dual-spin spacecraft: while one part spins, the other part (called the de

  4. Breakthroughs in Seismic and Borehole Characterization of Basalt Sequestration Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, E. C.; Hardage, Bob A.; McGrail, B. Peter; Davis, Klarissa N.

    2011-04-01

    Mafic continental flood basalts form a globally important, but under-characterized CO2 sequestration target. The Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) in the northwestern U.S. is up to 5 km thick and covers over 168,000 km2. In India, flood basalts are 3 km thick and cover greater than 500,000 km2. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that the CRBG and other basalts react with formation water and super critical (sc) CO2 to precipitate carbonates, thus adding a potential mineral trapping mechanism to the standard trapping mechanisms of most other types of CO2 sequestration reservoirs. Brecciated tops of individual basalt flows in the CRBG form regional aquifers that locally have greater than 30% porosity and three Darcies of permeability. Porous flow tops are potential sites for sequestration of gigatons of scCO2 in areas where the basalts contain unpotable water and are at depths greater than 800 m. In this paper we report on the U.S. DOE Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership surface seismic and borehole geophysical characterization that supports a field test of capacity, integrity, and geochemical reactivity of CRBG reservoirs in eastern Washington, U.S.A. Traditional surface seismic methods have had little success in imaging basalt features in on-shore areas where the basalt is thinly covered by sediment. Processing of the experimental 6.5 km, 5 line 3C seismic swath included constructing an elastic wavefield model, identifying and separating seismic wave modes, and processing the swath as a single 2D line. Important findings include: (1) a wide variety of shear wave energy modes swamp the P-wave seismic records; (2) except at very short geophone offsets, ground roll overprints P-wave signal; and (3) because of extreme velocity contrasts, P-wave events are refracted at incidence angles greater than 7-15 degrees. Subsequent removal of S-wave and other noise during processing resulted in tremendous improvement in image quality. The application of wireline logging to onshore basalts is underexploited. Full waveform sonic logs and resistivity-based image logs acquired in the 1250 m basalt pilot borehole provide powerful tools for evaluating geomechanics and lithofacies. The azimuth of the fast shear wave is parallel to SH and records the changes through time in basalt flow and tectonic stress tensors. Combined with image log data, azimuthal S-wave data provide a borehole technique for assessing basalt emplacement and cooling history that is related to the development of reservoirs and seals, as well as the orientation of tectonic stresses and fracture systems that could affect CO2 transport or containment. Reservoir and seal properties are controlled by basalt lithofacies, and rescaled P- and S- wave slowness curves, integrated with image logs, provide a tool for improved recognition of subsurface lithofacies.

  5. Three-component borehole wall-locking seismic detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX)

    1994-01-01

    A seismic detector for boreholes is described that has an accelerometer sensor block for sensing vibrations in geologic formations of the earth. The density of the seismic detector is approximately matched to the density of the formations in which the detector is utilized. A simple compass is used to orient the seismic detector. A large surface area shoe having a radius approximately equal to the radius of the borehole in which the seismic detector is located may be pushed against the side of the borehole by actuating cylinders contained in the seismic detector. Hydraulic drive of the cylinders is provided external to the detector. By using the large surface area wall-locking shoe, force holding the seismic detector in place is distributed over a larger area of the borehole wall thereby eliminating concentrated stresses. Borehole wall-locking forces up to ten times the weight of the seismic detector can be applied thereby ensuring maximum detection frequency response up to 2,000 hertz using accelerometer sensors in a triaxial array within the seismic detector.

  6. InGaAs tunnel diodes for the calibration of semi-classical and quantum mechanical band-to-band tunneling models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smets, Quentin; Verreck, Devin; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Groeseneken, Guido; Heyns, Marc M. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); KULeuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verhulst, Anne S.; Rooyackers, Rita; Merckling, Clément; Simoen, Eddy; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Voon Y. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Van De Put, Maarten; Sorée, Bart [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Universiteit Antwerpen, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-05-14

    Promising predictions are made for III-V tunnel-field-effect transistor (FET), but there is still uncertainty on the parameters used in the band-to-band tunneling models. Therefore, two simulators are calibrated in this paper; the first one uses a semi-classical tunneling model based on Kane's formalism, and the second one is a quantum mechanical simulator implemented with an envelope function formalism. The calibration is done for In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As using several p+/intrinsic/n+ diodes with different intrinsic region thicknesses. The dopant profile is determined by SIMS and capacitance-voltage measurements. Error bars are used based on statistical and systematic uncertainties in the measurement techniques. The obtained parameters are in close agreement with theoretically predicted values and validate the semi-classical and quantum mechanical models. Finally, the models are applied to predict the input characteristics of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As n- and p-lineTFET, with the n-lineTFET showing competitive performance compared to MOSFET.

  7. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  8. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196 and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; LeGore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2004-09-01

    This report contains geologic, geochemical, and physical characterization data collected on sediment recovered from boreholes C4104 and C4105 in the T Tank Farm, and 299-W-11-39 installed northeast of the T Tank Farm. The measurements on sediments from borehole C4104 are compared to a nearby borehole 299-W10-196 placed through the plume from the 1973 T-106 tank leak. This report also presents the data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the T Tank Farm. Sediment samples were characterized for: moisture content, gamma-emission radionuclides, one-to-one water extracts (which provide soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, radionuclide and anion data), total carbon and inorganic carbon content, and 8 M nitric acid extracts (which provide a measure of the total leachable sediment content of contaminants). Overall, our analyses showed that common ion exchange is a key mechanism that influences the distribution of contaminants within that portion of the vadose zone affected by tank liquor. We observed slight elevated pH values in samples from borehole C4104. The sediments from the three boreholes, C4104, C4105, and 299-W10-196 do show that sodium-, nitrate-, and sulfate-dominated fluids are present below tank T-106 and have formed a salt plume. The fluids are more dilute than tank fluids observed below tanks at the SX and BX Tank Farms and slightly less than those from the most saline porewater found in contaminated TX tank farm sediments. The boreholes could not penetrate below the gravel-rich strata of the Ringold Formation Wooded Island member (Rwi) (refusal was met at about 130 ft bgs); therefore, we could not identify the maximum vertical penetration of the tank related plumes. The moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, and technetium-99 profiles versus depth in the three contaminated boreholes around T-106 do not clearly identify the leading edge of the plume. However, the profiles do collectively suggest that bulk of tank-related fluids (center of mass) still resides in Ringold Formation Taylor Flats member fine-grained sediments. Most of the chemical data, especially the nitrate and technetium-99 distributions with depth, support a flow conceptual model that suggests vertical percolation through the Hanford formation H2 unit near T-106 and then a strong horizontal spreading within the CCUu unit followed by more slow vertical percolation, perhaps via diffusion, into the deeper strata. Slow flushing by enhanced recharge and rapid snow melt events (Feb. 1979) appear to lead to more horizontal movement of the tank fluids downgradient towards C4105. The inventories as a function of depth of potential contaminants of concern, nitrate, technetium, uranium, and chromium, are provided. In-situ Kd values were calculated from water and acid extract measurements. For conservative modeling purposes we recommend using Kd values of 0 mL/g for nitrate, Co-60, and technetium-99, a value of 0.1 mL/g for uranium near borehole C4104 and 10 mL/g for U near borehole C4105, and 1 mL/g for chromium to represent the entire vadose zone profile from the bottoms of the tanks to the water table. A technetium-99 groundwater plume exists northeast and east of T WMA. The highest technetium-99 concentration in fiscal year 2003 was 9,200 pCi/L in well 299-W11-39. The most probable source for the technetium-99 is the T waste management area. Groundwater from wells in the west (upgradient) and north of WMA T appear to be highly influenced by wastes disposed to the cribs and trenches on the west side of the WMA. Groundwater from wells at the northeast corner and the east side of the WMA appears to be evolving towards tank waste that has leaked from T-101 or T-106.

  9. Elements of a continuous-wave borehole radar. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caffey, T.W.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geophysical Technology Dept.

    1997-08-01

    The theory is developed for the antenna array for a proposed continuous-wave, ground-penetrating radar for use in a borehole, and field measurements are presented. Accomplishments include the underground measurement of the transmitting beam in the azimuth plane, active azimuth-steering of the transmitting beam, and the development of a range-to-target algorithm. The excellent performance of the antenna array supports the concept of a continuous-wave borehole radar. A field-prototype should be developed for use in both geothermal zones and for the exploration and recovery of oil and gas.

  10. Cross borehole induced polarization to detect subsurface NAPL at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, Michael B. (Michael Brian), 1980-

    2003-01-01

    Spectral induced polarization measurements were acquired in six cross-borehole panels within four boreholes at the Savannah River Site. The investigation was performed to delineate the presence of dense non-aqueous phase ...

  11. An approach for predicting stress-induced anisotropy around a borehole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Xinding

    Formation elastic properties near a borehole may be altered from their original state due to the stress concentration around the borehole. This could result in a biased estimation of formation properties but could provide ...

  12. Method and system for advancement of a borehole using a high power laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moxley, Joel F.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2014-09-09

    There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. There is further provided with in the systems a means for delivering high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates, a laser bottom hole assembly, and fluid directing techniques and assemblies for removing the displaced material from the borehole.

  13. Methods for enhancing the efficiency of creating a borehole using high power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-06-24

    Methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena to enhance the formation of Boreholes. Methods for the laser operations to reduce the critical path for forming a borehole in the earth. These methods can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  14. Pressure perturbations from geologic carbon sequestration: Area-of-review boundaries and borehole leakage driving forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicot, J.-P.

    2010-01-01

    geothermal gradient is 30°C/km; vertical lines represent possible water density profiles in a borehole:

  15. Stochastic estimation of aquifer geometry using seismic refraction data with borehole depth constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, J.

    2011-01-01

    vertical global gradient of seismic velocity, which can be derived from the average of all the borehole velocity profiles,

  16. Methods and apparatus for removal and control of material in laser drilling of a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-01-28

    The removal of material from the path of a high power laser beam during down hole laser operations including drilling of a borehole and removal of displaced laser effected borehole material from the borehole during laser operations. In particular, paths, dynamics and parameters of fluid flows for use in conjunction with a laser bottom hole assembly.

  17. Microfabricated Field Calibration Assembly

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2013-03-19

    Reliable determination of the presence and/or quantity of a particular analyte in the field can be greatly enhanced if the analytical instrument is equipped with a time-of-use calibration standard. While proper calibration is necessary for reliability and accuracy, it can be challenging and cumbersome to provide such calibration in the field using conventional methods found in analytical laboratories....

  18. Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-07-15

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

  19. Deep Borehole Disposal Remediation Costs for Off-Normal Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finger, John T.; Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-08-17

    This memo describes rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for a set of off-normal (accident) scenarios, as defined for two waste package emplacement method options for deep borehole disposal: drill-string and wireline. It summarizes the different scenarios and the assumptions made for each, with respect to fishing, decontamination, remediation, etc.

  20. artesian borehole, Singhida (central Tanzania) Hydrology, weather and groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Paul

    artesian borehole, Singhida (central Tanzania) Hydrology, weather and groundwater NERC EQUIP;protected spring in Kampala (Uganda) · groundwater supplies 50% of world's drinking water Kundzewicz and Döll (2009) #12;maize plantation irrigated by a groundwater-fed pivot, Katwe (Zambia) · and 42

  1. Constraints on Interpretation of Ecological Niche Models by Limited Environmental Ranges on Calibration Areas: Software Script Appendix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Hannah L.; Campbell, Lindsay P.; Dornak, Laura Lynnette; Saupe, Erin E.; Barve, Narayani; Soberó n, Jorge; Ingenloff, Kathryn; Lira-Noriega, André s; Hensz, Christopher; Myers, Corinne E.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2012-09-21

    A common application of correlational models of ecological niches of species is to transfer model rules onto other sets of conditions to evaluate distributional potential under those conditions. As with any model fitting ...

  2. An Attempt to Calibrate and Validate a Simple Ductile Failure Model Against Axial-Torsion Experiments on Al 6061-T651.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reedlunn, Benjamin; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2015-01-01

    This report details a work in progress. We have attempted to calibrate and validate a Von Mises plasticity model with the Johnson-Cook failure criterion ( Johnson & Cook , 1985 ) against a set of experiments on various specimens of Al 6061-T651. As will be shown, the effort was not successful, despite considerable attention to detail. When the model was com- pared against axial-torsion experiments on tubes, it over predicted failure by 3 x in tension, and never predicted failure in torsion, even when the tube was twisted by 4 x further than the experiment. While this result is unfortunate, it is not surprising. Ductile failure is not well understood. In future work, we will explore whether more sophisticated material mod- els of plasticity and failure will improve the predictions. Selecting the appropriate advanced material model and interpreting the results of said model are not trivial exercises, so it is worthwhile to fully investigate the behavior of a simple plasticity model before moving on to an anisotropic yield surface or a similarly complicated model.

  3. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  4. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  5. ICRCCM Phase 2: Verification and calibration of radiation codes in climate models. Technical report, 1 November 1991--1 December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Wiscombe, W.J.; Murcray, D.; Smith, W.; Strauch, R.

    1992-12-31

    Following the finding by the InterComparison of Radiation Codes used in Climate Models (ICRCCM) of large differences among fluxes predicted by sophisticated radiation models that could not be sorted out because of the lack of a set of accurate atmospheric spectral radiation data measured simultaneously with the important radiative properties of the atmosphere, our team of scientists proposed to remedy the situation by carrying out a comprehensive program of measurement and analysis called SPECTRE (Spectral Radiance Experiment). The data collected during SPECTRE form the test bed for the second phase of ICRCCM, namely verification and calibration of radiation codes used in climate models. This should lead to more accurate radiation models for use in parameterizing climate models, which in turn play a key role in the prediction of trace-gas greenhouse effects. This report summarizes the activities of our group during the project`s Third year to meet our stated objectives. The report is divided into three sections entitled: SPECTRE Activities, ICRCCM Activities, and summary information. The section on SPECTRE activities summarizes the field portion of the project during 1991, and the data reduction/analysis performed by the various participants. The section on ICRCCM activities summarizes our initial attempts to select data for distribution to ICRCCM participants and at comparison of observations with calculations as will be done by the ICRCCM participants. The Summary Information section lists data concerning publications, presentations, graduate students supported, and post-doctoral appointments during the project.

  6. WACR Calibration Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mead, D

    2010-03-23

    Calibration report for the W-Band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar performed for the ARM Climate Research Facility by ProSensing Inc.

  7. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method of emplacing the array in a long, horizontal borehole. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  8. Deep Borehole Disposal Research: Demonstration Site Selection Guidelines,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8, 20153Daniel Boff AboutofPlumbingUtilities,Fuel CellBorehole

  9. 200-DV-1OU Sediment and Pore Water Analysis and Report for Samples at Borehole C8096

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    This is an analytical data report for sediment samples received at 200-DV-1 OU. On August 30, 2011 sediment samples were received from 200-DV-1 OU Borehole C8096 for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 331 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  10. The Palomar Testbed Interferometer Calibrator Catalog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. T. van Belle; G. van Belle; M. J. Creech-Eakman; J. Coyne; A. F. Boden; R. L. Akeson; D. R. Ciardi; K. M. Rykoski; R. R. Thompson; B. F. Lane; for The PTI Collaboration

    2007-11-27

    The Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) archive of observations between 1998 and 2005 is examined for objects appropriate for calibration of optical long-baseline interferometer observations - stars that are predictably point-like and single. Approximately 1,400 nights of data on 1,800 objects were examined for this investigation. We compare those observations to an intensively studied object that is a suitable calibrator, HD217014, and statistically compare each candidate calibrator to that object by computing both a Mahalanobis distance and a Principal Component Analysis. Our hypothesis is that the frequency distribution of visibility data associated with calibrator stars differs from non-calibrator stars such as binary stars. Spectroscopic binaries resolved by PTI, objects known to be unsuitable for calibrator use, are similarly tested to establish detection limits of this approach. From this investigation, we find more than 350 observed stars suitable for use as calibrators (with an additional $\\approx 140$ being rejected), corresponding to $\\gtrsim 95%$ sky coverage for PTI. This approach is noteworthy in that it rigorously establishes calibration sources through a traceable, empirical methodology, leveraging the predictions of spectral energy distribution modeling but also verifying it with the rich body of PTI's on-sky observations.

  11. ICRCCM phase II: Verification and calibration of radiation codes in climate models. Final report, 1 May 1990--30 April 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Wiscombe, W.J.; Murcray, D.; Smith, W.; Strauch, R.

    1993-12-31

    Following the finding by the InterComparison of Radiation Codes used in Climate Models (ICRCCM) of large differences among fluxes predicted by sophisticated radiation models that could not be sorted out because of the lack of a set of accurate atmospheric spectral radiation data measured simultaneously with the important radiative properties of the atmosphere, the team of scientists proposed to remedy the situation by carrying out a comprehensive program of measurement and analysis called SPECTRE (Spectral Radiance Experiment). SPECTRE was to establish an absolute standard against which to compare models, and aimed to remove the hidden variables (unknown humidities, aerosols, etc.) which radiation modelers had invoked to excuse disagreements with observation. The data collected during SPECTRE were to form the test bed for the second phase of ICRCCM, namely verification and calibration of radiation codes used in climate models. This should lead to more accurate radiation models for use in parameterizing climate models, which in turn play a key role in the prediction of trace-gas greenhouse effects. This report summarizes the activities during the project`s Third year to meet stated objectives. The report is divided into three sections entitled: (1) SPECTRE Activities, (2) ICRCCM Activities, and (3) Summary Information. The section on SPECTRE activities summarizes the field portion of the project during 1991, and the data reduction/analysis performed by the various participants. The section on ICRCCM activities summarizes their initial attempts to select data for distribution to ICRCCM participants and at comparison of observations with calculations as will be done by the ICRCCM participants. The Summary Information section lists data concerning publications, presentations, graduate students supported, and post-doctoral appointments during the project.

  12. Calibration method for spectroscopic systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandison, David R. (Edgewood, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets.

  13. Calibration method for spectroscopic systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandison, D.R.

    1998-11-17

    Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets. 3 figs.

  14. Application of an automatic approach to calibrate the NEMURO nutrientphytoplanktonzooplankton food web model in the Oyashio region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­phytoplankton­zooplankton food web model in the Oyashio region Shin-ichi Ito a, , Naoki Yoshie b , Takeshi Okunishi c , Tsuneo without ontogenetic vertical migration of the large zooplankton functional group. Determining or averaged state variables were used, in whether state variables were model functional groups or were

  15. Sandia WIPP calibration traceability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuhen, M.D.; Dean, T.A.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed to establish calibration traceability for the instrumentation used by Sandia National Laboratories at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) during testing from 1980-1985. Identifying the calibration traceability is an important part of establishing a pedigree for the data and is part of the qualification of existing data. In general, the requirement states that the calibration of Measuring and Test equipment must have a valid relationship to nationally recognized standards or the basis for the calibration must be documented. Sandia recognized that just establishing calibration traceability would not necessarily mean that all QA requirements were met during the certification of test instrumentation. To address this concern, the assessment was expanded to include various activities.

  16. Method and apparatus for coupling seismic sensors to a borehole wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-03-15

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  17. Analysis and calibration of social factors in a consumer acceptance and adoption model for diffusion of diesel vehicle in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Qi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    While large scale diffusion of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) is widely anticipated, the mechanisms that determine their success or failure are ill understood. Analysis of an AFV transition model developed at MIT has ...

  18. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed.

  19. Model-independent distance calibration of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts and constrain on the $\\Lambda$CDM model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hai-Nan; Change, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are luminous enough to be detectable up to redshift $z\\sim 10$. They are often proposed as complementary tools to type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in tracing the Hubble diagram of the Universe. The distance calibrations of GRBs usually make use one or some of the empirical luminosity correlations, such as $\\tau_{\\rm lag}-L$, $V-L$, $E_p-L$, $E_p-E_{\\gamma}$, $\\tau_{\\rm RT}-L$ and $E_p-E_{\\rm iso}$ relations. These calibrating methods are based on the underling assumption that the empirical luminosity correlations are universal over all redshift range. In this paper, we test the possible redshift dependence of six luminosity correlations by dividing GRBs into low-$z$ and high-$z$ classes according to their redshift smaller or larger than 1.4. It is shown that the $E_p-E_{\\gamma}$ relation for low-$z$ GRBs is consistent with that for high-$z$ GRBs within $1\\sigma$ uncertainty. The intrinsic scatter of $V-L$ relation is too larger to make a convincing conclusion. For the rest four correlations...

  20. A Local Ensemble Prediction System for Fog and Low Clouds: Construction, Bayesian Model Averaging Calibration, and Validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Local Ensemble Prediction System for Fog and Low Clouds: Construction, Bayesian Model Averaging. Meteorologists face the challenge of supplying airport authorities with accurate forecasts of fog and cloud during their life cycle. To obtain accurate forecasts of fog and low clouds, the Code de Brouillard à l

  1. Calibrating page sized Gafchromic EBT3 films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crijns, W.; Maes, F.; Heide, U. A. van der; Van den Heuvel, F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department ESAT/PSI-Medical Image Computing, Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose is the development of a novel calibration method for dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT3 films. The method should be applicable for pretreatment verification of volumetric modulated arc, and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Because the exposed area on film can be large for such treatments, lateral scan errors must be taken into account. The correction for the lateral scan effect is obtained from the calibration data itself. Methods: In this work, the film measurements were modeled using their relative scan values (Transmittance, T). Inside the transmittance domain a linear combination and a parabolic lateral scan correction described the observed transmittance values. The linear combination model, combined a monomer transmittance state (T{sub 0}) and a polymer transmittance state (T{sub {infinity}}) of the film. The dose domain was associated with the observed effects in the transmittance domain through a rational calibration function. On the calibration film only simple static fields were applied and page sized films were used for calibration and measurements (treatment verification). Four different calibration setups were considered and compared with respect to dose estimation accuracy. The first (I) used a calibration table from 32 regions of interest (ROIs) spread on 4 calibration films, the second (II) used 16 ROIs spread on 2 calibration films, the third (III), and fourth (IV) used 8 ROIs spread on a single calibration film. The calibration tables of the setups I, II, and IV contained eight dose levels delivered to different positions on the films, while for setup III only four dose levels were applied. Validation was performed by irradiating film strips with known doses at two different time points over the course of a week. Accuracy of the dose response and the lateral effect correction was estimated using the dose difference and the root mean squared error (RMSE), respectively. Results: A calibration based on two films was the optimal balance between cost effectiveness and dosimetric accuracy. The validation resulted in dose errors of 1%-2% for the two different time points, with a maximal absolute dose error around 0.05 Gy. The lateral correction reduced the RMSE values on the sides of the film to the RMSE values at the center of the film. Conclusions: EBT3 Gafchromic films were calibrated for large field dosimetry with a limited number of page sized films and simple static calibration fields. The transmittance was modeled as a linear combination of two transmittance states, and associated with dose using a rational calibration function. Additionally, the lateral scan effect was resolved in the calibration function itself. This allows the use of page sized films. Only two calibration films were required to estimate both the dose and the lateral response. The calibration films were used over the course of a week, with residual dose errors Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 2% or Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.05 Gy.

  2. Combined Borehole Seismic and Electromagnetic Inversion For High-Resolution Petrophysical Assessment Of Hydocarbon Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlos Torres-Verdin; G. Michael Hoversten; Ki Ha Lee; Gregory Newman; Kurt Nihei

    2008-12-31

    This report summarizes the work performed between January 2005 and December 2007, under DOE research contract DE-FC26-04NT15507. The project is was performed by the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering of The University of Texas at Austin and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Office (NETL) and the Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO). During the three-year project, we developed new methods to combine borehole sonic and electromagnetic (EM) measurements for the improved assessment of elastic and petrophysical properties of rock formations penetrated by a well. Sonic measurements consisted of full waveform acoustic amplitudes acquired with monopole and dipole sources, whereas EM measurements consisted of frequency-domain voltages acquired with multi-coil induction systems. The combination of sonic and EM measurements permitted the joint estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties in the presence of mud-filtrate invasion. It was conclusively shown that the combined interpretation of sonic and EM measurements reduced non-uniqueness in the estimation of elastic and petrophysical properties and improved the spatial resolution of the estimations compared to estimations yielded separately from the two types of measurements. Moreover, this approach enabled the assessment of dynamic petrophysical properties such as permeability, as it incorporated the physics of mud-filtrate invasion in the interpretation of the measurements. The first part of the project considered the development of fast and reliable numerical algorithms to simulate borehole sonic waveforms in 2D, 3D, and radial 1D media. Such algorithms were subsequently used in the quantitative estimation of elastic properties jointly from borehole sonic and EM measurements. In the second part of the project we developed a new algorithm to estimate water saturation, porosity, and dry-rock elastic moduli jointly from borehole sonic and EM measurements. This algorithm assumed radial 1D variations of fluid saturation due to mud-filtrate invasion. Subsequently, we adapted the estimation method to interpret borehole field measurements acquired in both a shaly-sand sedimentary sequence and a tight-gas sandstone formation. In the two cases, we simulated the process of mud-filtrate invasion and concomitantly honored sonic and EM measurements. We produced reliable estimates of permeability and dry-rock moduli that were successfully validated with rock-core measurements. Finally, we introduced a new stochastic inversion procedure to estimate elastic, electrical, and petrophysical properties of layered media jointly from waveform sonic and frequency-domain EM measurements. The procedure was based on Bayesian statistical inversion and delivered estimates of uncertainty under various forms of a-priori information about the unknown properties. Tests on realistic synthetic models confirmed the reliability of this procedure to estimate elastic and petrophysical properties jointly from sonic and EM measurements. Several extended abstracts and conference presentations stemmed from this project, including 2 SEG extended abstracts, 1 SPE extended abstract, and 2 SPWLA extended abstracts. Some of these extended abstracts have been submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals.

  3. Notes on setting up Geothermal Properties Measurement Model Copy the files setup.exe, setup.lst, and gpm.cab to a temporary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Notes on setting up Geothermal Properties Measurement Model Copy the files setup.exe, setup-tube diameter, borehole diameter, borehole depth and deep earth temperature. The easiest way to do

  4. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for orienting the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) do not have the same orientation, the data will be essentially worthless. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  5. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  6. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-08-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  7. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-06-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  8. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multichannel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  9. Integrated calibration sphere and calibration step fixture for improved coordinate measurement machine calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clifford, Harry J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-03-22

    A method and apparatus for mounting a calibration sphere to a calibration fixture for Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) calibration and qualification is described, decreasing the time required for such qualification, thus allowing the CMM to be used more productively. A number of embodiments are disclosed that allow for new and retrofit manufacture to perform as integrated calibration sphere and calibration fixture devices. This invention renders unnecessary the removal of a calibration sphere prior to CMM measurement of calibration features on calibration fixtures, thereby greatly reducing the time spent qualifying a CMM.

  10. Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX); Parra, Jorge O. (Helotes, TX)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method of high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile (VSP) measurements is shown. By encapsulating the seismic detector and heaters in a meltable substance (such as wax), the seismic detector can be removably secured in a borehole in a manner capable of measuring high resolution signals in the 100 to 1000 hertz range and higher. The meltable substance is selected to match the overall density of the detector package with the underground formation, yet still have relatively low melting point and rigid enough to transmit vibrations to accelerometers in the seismic detector. To minimize voids in the meltable substance upon solidification, the meltable substance is selected for minimum shrinkage, yet still having the other desirable characteristics. Heaters are arranged in the meltable substance in such a manner to allow the lowermost portion of the meltable substance to cool and solidify first. Solidification continues upwards from bottom-to-top until the top of the meltable substance is solidified and the seismic detector is ready for use. To remove, the heaters melt the meltable substance and the detector package is pulled from the borehole.

  11. Solar UV radiation exposure of seamen - Measurements, calibration and model calculations of erythemal irradiance along ship routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feister, Uwe; Meyer, Gabriele; Kirst, Ulrich

    2013-05-10

    Seamen working on vessels that go along tropical and subtropical routes are at risk to receive high doses of solar erythemal radiation. Due to small solar zenith angles and low ozone values, UV index and erythemal dose are much higher than at mid-and high latitudes. UV index values at tropical and subtropical Oceans can exceed UVI = 20, which is more than double of typical mid-latitude UV index values. Daily erythemal dose can exceed the 30-fold of typical midlatitude winter values. Measurements of erythemal exposure of different body parts on seamen have been performed along 4 routes of merchant vessels. The data base has been extended by two years of continuous solar irradiance measurements taken on the mast top of RV METEOR. Radiative transfer model calculations for clear sky along the ship routes have been performed that use satellite-based input for ozone and aerosols to provide maximum erythemal irradiance and dose. The whole data base is intended to be used to derive individual erythemal exposure of seamen during work-time.

  12. Down the borehole but outside the box: innovative approaches to wireline log data interpretation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodin, Thomas

    Down the borehole but outside the box: innovative approaches to wireline log data interpretation or more different properties, with depth down a borehole. They are routinely correlated with, and, such as oil and gas, wireline log interpretation is highly developed. In other industries, such as geothermal

  13. Climate from borehole data: Energy fluxes and temperatures since Hugo Beltrami

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beltrami, Hugo

    Climate from borehole data: Energy fluxes and temperatures since 1500 Hugo Beltrami Environmental Geophysics: Inverse theory. Citation: Beltrami, H., Climate from borehole data: Energy fluxes- nium from a large set of multiproxy data. In addition, geothermal data have been analyzed in order

  14. Instruments and Methods New technique for access-borehole drilling in shelf glaciers using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, David

    the glacier into the sea water beneath. The new drilling technique does not require drilling fluid; (2) fluid borehole drilling, i.e. borehole completely or partially filled with non-freezing liquid; and (3) semi-fluid drilling, which is a combination of dry and fluid drilling techniques. Fluid drilling

  15. Long-Term Monitoring Using Deep Seafloor Boreholes Penetrating the Seismogenic Zone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsunogai, Urumu

    Long-Term Monitoring Using Deep Seafloor Boreholes Penetrating the Seismogenic Zone Masanao, because it has, until now, been impossible to penetrate to such depths below the sea floor. The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), scheduled to begin in ,**-, plans to drill boreholes beneath the ocean

  16. Device and method for imaging of non-linear and linear properties of formations surrounding a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Paul A; Tencate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Guyer, Robert; Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method and an apparatus is disclosed for investigating material surrounding the borehole. The method includes generating within a borehole an intermittent low frequency vibration that propagates as a tube wave longitudinally to the borehole and induces a nonlinear response in one or more features in the material that are substantially perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the borehole; generating within the borehole a sequence of high frequency pulses directed such that they travel longitudinally to the borehole within the surrounding material; and receiving, at one or more receivers positionable in the borehole, a signal that includes components from the low frequency vibration and the sequence of high frequency pulses during intermittent generation of the low frequency vibration, to investigate the material surrounding the borehole.

  17. Nash equilibrium in a game of calibration Omar Glonti, Peter Harremoes, Zaza Khechinashvili

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Topsøe, Flemming

    , a problem of calibration in a simple model of stock price development is treated. A quantitative method

  18. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  19. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2015-01-29

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  20. Method of assaying uranium with prompt fission and thermal neutron borehole logging adjusted by borehole physical characteristics. [Patient application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnard, R.W.; Jensen, D.H.

    1980-11-05

    Uranium formations are assayed by prompt fission neutron logging techniques. The uranium in the formation is proportional to the ratio of epithermal counts to thermal or epithermal dieaway. Various calibration factors enhance the accuracy of the measurement.

  1. Two Approaches to Calibration in Metrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campanelli, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Inferring mathematical relationships with quantified uncertainty from measurement data is common to computational science and metrology. Sufficient knowledge of measurement process noise enables Bayesian inference. Otherwise, an alternative approach is required, here termed compartmentalized inference, because collection of uncertain data and model inference occur independently. Bayesian parameterized model inference is compared to a Bayesian-compatible compartmentalized approach for ISO-GUM compliant calibration problems in renewable energy metrology. In either approach, model evidence can help reduce model discrepancy.

  2. Calibrating transport lines using LOCO techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yves Roblin

    2011-09-01

    With the 12GeV upgrade underway at CEBAF, there is a need to re-characterize the beamlines after the modifications made to it to accommodate running at higher energies. We present a linear perturbation approach to calibrating the optics model of transport lines. This method is adapted from the LOCO method in use for storage rings. We consider the effect of quadrupole errors, dipole construction errors as well as beam position monitors and correctors calibrations. The ideal model is expanded to first order in Taylor series of the quadrupole errors. A set of difference orbits obtained by exciting the correctors along the beamline is taken, yielding the measured response matrix. An iterative procedure is invoked and the quadrupole errors as well as beam position monitors and corrector calibration factors are obtained. Here we present details of the method and results of first measurements at CEBAF in early 2011.

  3. Uncertainty and calibration analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutts, D.A.

    1991-03-01

    All measurements contain some deviation from the true value which is being measured. In the common vernacular this deviation between the true value and the measured value is called an inaccuracy, an error, or a mistake. Since all measurements contain errors, it is necessary to accept that there is a limit to how accurate a measurement can be. The undertainty interval combined with the confidence level, is one measure of the accuracy for a measurement or value. Without a statement of uncertainty (or a similar parameter) it is not possible to evaluate if the accuracy of the measurement, or data, is appropriate. The preparation of technical reports, calibration evaluations, and design calculations should consider the accuracy of measurements and data being used. There are many methods to accomplish this. This report provides a consistent method for the handling of measurement tolerances, calibration evaluations and uncertainty calculations. The SRS Quality Assurance (QA) Program requires that the uncertainty of technical data and instrument calibrations be acknowledged and estimated. The QA Program makes some specific technical requirements related to the subject but does not provide a philosophy or method on how uncertainty should be estimated. This report was prepared to provide a technical basis to support the calculation of uncertainties and the calibration of measurement and test equipment for any activity within the Experimental Thermal-Hydraulics (ETH) Group. The methods proposed in this report provide a graded approach for estimating the uncertainty of measurements, data, and calibrations. The method is based on the national consensus standard, ANSI/ASME PTC 19.1.

  4. Numerical Modeling of the Nucleation Conditions of Petal-Centerline...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Numerical Modeling of the Nucleation Conditions of Petal-Centerline Fractures below a Borehole Floor, A Sensitivity Study and Application to the Coso Geothermal Field Jump to:...

  5. Catalog of borehole lithologic logs from the 600 Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fecht, K R; Lillie, J T

    1982-03-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) geoscientists are studying the Hanford Site subsurface environment to assure safe management operations, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. As part of this effort, geoscientists have collected geotechnical data from about 3000 boreholes drilled on the Hanford Site since the early 1900s. These boreholes have been used for subsurface geologic, hydrologic, and engineering investigation, water supply, ground-water monitoring, and natural gas production. This report is a catalog of all obtainable (about 800) lithologic logs from boreholes in a portion of the Hanford Site known as the 600 Area.

  6. Internet-Based Calibration of a Multifunction Calibrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUNTING BACA,LISA A.; DUDA JR.,LEONARD E.; WALKER,RUSSELL M.; OLDHAM,NILE; PARKER,MARK

    2000-12-19

    A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multijunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as web-accessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.

  7. Internet-based calibration of a multifunction calibrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUNTING BACA,LISA A.; DUDA JR.,LEONARD E.; WALKER,RUSSELL M.; OLDHAM,NILE; PARKER,MARK

    2000-04-17

    A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multifunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as web-accessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.

  8. Calibrating Speed-Density Functions for ff SMesoscopic Traffic Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    -line) · DynaMIT: Mesoscopic model to be calibrated - Disaggregate (microscopic) demand - Aggregate (macroscopic (2002), Balakrishna et al. (2007) · On-line - Adjustments in response to real-time data · Doan et al-level supply calibration with counts D d R f- Demand same as Ref #12;Case Study II: Lower Westchester County

  9. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  10. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Larson, Ronald A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodrich, Lorenzo D. (Shelley, ID); Hall, Harold J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stoddard, Billy D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Davis, Sean G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Conrad, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  11. Crop physiology calibration in the CLM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilionis, I.; Drewniak, B. A.; Constantinescu, E. M.

    2015-04-15

    Farming is using more of the land surface, as population increases and agriculture is increasingly applied for non-nutritional purposes such as biofuel production. This agricultural expansion exerts an increasing impact on the terrestrial carbon cycle. In order to understand the impact of such processes, the Community Land Model (CLM) has been augmented with a CLM-Crop extension that simulates the development of three crop types: maize, soybean, and spring wheat. The CLM-Crop model is a complex system that relies on a suite of parametric inputs that govern plant growth under a given atmospheric forcing and available resources. CLM-Crop development used measurements of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from AmeriFlux sites to choose parameter values that optimize crop productivity in the model. In this paper, we calibrate these parameters for one crop type, soybean, in order to provide a faithful projection in terms of both plant development and net carbon exchange. Calibration is performed in a Bayesian framework by developing a scalable and adaptive scheme based on sequential Monte Carlo (SMC). The model showed significant improvement of crop productivity with the new calibrated parameters. We demonstrate that the calibrated parameters are applicable across alternative years and different sites.

  12. Crop physiology calibration in the CLM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilionis, I. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.; Drewniak, B. A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Science Div.; Constantinescu, E. M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.

    2015-01-01

    Farming is using more of the land surface, as population increases and agriculture is increasingly applied for non-nutritional purposes such as biofuel production. This agricultural expansion exerts an increasing impact on the terrestrial carbon cycle. In order to understand the impact of such processes, the Community Land Model (CLM) has been augmented with a CLM-Crop extension that simulates the development of three crop types: maize, soybean, and spring wheat. The CLM-Crop model is a complex system that relies on a suite of parametric inputs that govern plant growth under a given atmospheric forcing and available resources. CLM-Crop development used measurements of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from AmeriFlux sites to choose parameter values that optimize crop productivity in the model. In this paper, we calibrate these parameters for one crop type, soybean, in order to provide a faithful projection in terms of both plant development and net carbon exchange. Calibration is performed in a Bayesian framework by developing a scalable and adaptive scheme based on sequential Monte Carlo (SMC). The model showed significant improvement of crop productivity with the new calibrated parameters. We demonstrate that the calibrated parameters are applicable across alternative years and different sites.

  13. Crop physiology calibration in the CLM

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bilionis, I.; Drewniak, B. A.; Constantinescu, E. M.

    2015-04-15

    Farming is using more of the land surface, as population increases and agriculture is increasingly applied for non-nutritional purposes such as biofuel production. This agricultural expansion exerts an increasing impact on the terrestrial carbon cycle. In order to understand the impact of such processes, the Community Land Model (CLM) has been augmented with a CLM-Crop extension that simulates the development of three crop types: maize, soybean, and spring wheat. The CLM-Crop model is a complex system that relies on a suite of parametric inputs that govern plant growth under a given atmospheric forcing and available resources. CLM-Crop development used measurementsmore »of gross primary productivity (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from AmeriFlux sites to choose parameter values that optimize crop productivity in the model. In this paper, we calibrate these parameters for one crop type, soybean, in order to provide a faithful projection in terms of both plant development and net carbon exchange. Calibration is performed in a Bayesian framework by developing a scalable and adaptive scheme based on sequential Monte Carlo (SMC). The model showed significant improvement of crop productivity with the new calibrated parameters. We demonstrate that the calibrated parameters are applicable across alternative years and different sites.« less

  14. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Hy D. (Albuquerque, NM); Claudet, Andre A. (Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Andrew D. (Waltham, MA)

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  15. New developments in high resolution borehole seismology and their applications to reservoir development and management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1997-08-01

    Single-well seismology, Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP`s) and Crosswell seismology are three new seismic techniques that we jointly refer to as borehole seismology. Borehole seismic techniques are of great interest because they can obtain much higher resolution images of oil and gas reservoirs than what is obtainable with currently used seismic techniques. The quality of oil and gas reservoir management decisions depend on the knowledge of both the large and the fine scale features in the reservoirs. Borehole seismology is capable of mapping reservoirs with an order of magnitude improvement in resolution compared with currently used technology. In borehole seismology we use a high frequency seismic source in an oil or gas well and record the signal in the same well, in other wells, or on the surface of the earth.

  16. Feasibility of very deep borehole disposal of US nuclear defense wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Frances Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the feasibility of emplacing DOE-owned defense nuclear waste from weapons production into a permanent borehole repository drilled ~4 km into granite basement rock. Two canister options were analyzed ...

  17. Towards an effective automated interpretation method for modern hydrocarbon borehole geophysical images 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Angeleena

    2012-06-25

    Borehole imaging is one of the fastest and most precise methods for collecting subsurface data that provides high resolution information on layering, texture and dips, permitting a core-like description of the subsurface. ...

  18. Regional Examples of Geological Settings for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Boreholes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapiie, B.

    This report develops and exercises broad-area site selection criteria for deep boreholes suitable for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and/or its separated constituents. Three candidates are examined: a regional site in the ...

  19. 3-D Inversion Of Borehole-To-Surface Electrical Data Using A...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3-D Inversion Of Borehole-To-Surface Electrical Data Using A Back-Propagation Neural Network Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: 3-D...

  20. Optimization of deep boreholes for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bates, Ethan Allen

    2015-01-01

    This work advances the concept of deep borehole disposal (DBD), where spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is isolated at depths of several km in basement rock. Improvements to the engineered components of the DBD concept (e.g., plug, ...

  1. Novel finite-element approach applied to borehole quadrupole dispersion analysis in stress-sensitive formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Ole

    Near a borehole, stress concentration effects may cause a complex spatial variation of elastic anisotropy. Stress-induced sonic anisotropy results when moduli and velocities are stress dependent and the state of stress is ...

  2. An evaluation of the feasibility of disposal of nuclear waste in very deep boreholes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Victoria Katherine, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    Deep boreholes, 3 to 5 km into igneous rock, such as granite, are evaluated for next- generation repository use in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high level waste. The primary focus is on the stability and ...

  3. Methods and apparatus for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-05-23

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  4. Calibration of the IMB Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Bionta, R.M.; Bratton, C.B.; Casper, D.; Claus, R.; Cortez, B.; Dye, S.T.; Errede, S.; Foster, G.W.; Gajewski, W.; Ganezer, K.; Goldhaber, M.; Haines, T.J.; Halverson, P.G.; Hazen, E.; Jones, T.W.; Kielczewska, D.; Kropp, W.R.; Learned, J.G.; Losecco, J.M.; Matsuno, S.; /UC, Irvine /Michigan U. /Brookhaven /Boston U. /Hawaii U. /University Coll. London /Warsaw U. /Cleveland State U. /Notre Dame U. /Louisiana State U. /Maryland U. /AT-T Bell Labs, Holmdel /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab /LLNL, Livermore /New Mexico U. /SLAC /Adelaide U. /CERN /Cal State, Dominguez Hills

    2012-04-03

    The IMB detector (named after its founding institutions: University of California, Irvine, the University of Michigan and Brookhaven National Laboratory) collected data on a wide range of phenomena for over eight years. It was the first and the largest of the ring imaging water Cherenkov detectors. The detector consisted of 8000 metric tons of ultra-pure water instrumented with 2048 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs were placed on the roof, floor, and walls of the detector in a lattice of approximately 1 m spacing. It made measurements of contained events that ranged in energy from 15 MeV up to 1.5 GeV. This paper describes the calibration of the IMB detector. This procedure was accurate and stable over a wide range of physical variables. It was used with little change throughout the entire eight-year lifetime of the experiment. The IMB calibration is a model for future large-scale detectors that employ the water Cherenkov technique.

  5. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-10-24

    Improved ground-imaging capabilities have enormous potential to increase energy, environmental, and economic benefits by improving exploration accuracy and reducing energy consumption during the mining cycle. Seismic tomography has been used successfully to monitor and evaluate geologic conditions ahead of a mining face. A primary limitation to existing seismic tomography, however, is the placement of sensors. The goal of this project is to develop an array of 24 seismic sensors capable of being mounted in either a vertical or horizontal borehole. Development of this technology reduces energy usage in excavation, transportation, ventilation, and processing phases of the mining operation because less waste is mined and the mining cycle suffers fewer interruptions. This new technology benefits all types of mines, including metal/nonmetal, coal, and quarrying. The primary research tasks focused on sensor placement method, sensor housing and clamping design, and cabling and connector selection. An initial design is described in the report. Following assembly, a prototype was tested in the laboratory as well as at a surface stone quarry. Data analysis and tool performance were used for subsequent design modifications. A final design is described, of which several components are available for patent application. Industry partners have shown clear support for this research and demonstrated an interest in commercialization following project completion.

  6. Basalt features observed in outcrops, cores, borehole video imagery and geophysical logs, and basalt hydrogeologic study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennecke, W.M.

    1996-10-01

    A study was undertaken to examine permeable zones identified in boreholes open to the underlying basalt and to describe the vertical cross flows present in the boreholes. To understand the permeable zones in the boreholes detailed descriptions and measurements of three outcrops in the Snake River Plain, three cores at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the INEL, and over fifty borehole TV logs from the INEL were carried out. Based on the observations made on the three outcrops an idealized basalt lava flow model was generated that used a set of nomenclature that would be standard for the basalt lava flows studied. An upper vesicular zone, a sometimes absent columnar zone, central zone, and lower vesicular zone make up the basalt lava flow model. The overall distinction between the different zones are based on the vesicle shape size, vesicularity, and fractures present. The results of the studies also indicated that the basalt lava flows at the INEL are distal to medial facies pahoehoe lava flows with close fitting contacts. The most permeable zones identified in these basalts are fractured vesiculated portions of the top of the lava flow, the columnar areas, and basalt-flow contacts in order of importance. This was determined from impeller flowmeter logging at the INEL. Having this information a detailed stratigraphy of individual basalt lava flows and the corresponding permeable units were generated. From this it was concluded that groundwater flow at the ICPP prefers to travel along thin basalt lava flows or flow-units. Flow direction and velocity of intrawell flows detected by flowmeter is controlled by a nearby pumping well.

  7. Device and method for imaging of non-linear and linear properties of formations surrounding a borehole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Paul A; Tencate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Guyer, Robert; Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-11-05

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method and an apparatus is disclosed for investigating material surrounding the borehole. The method includes generating a first low frequency acoustic wave within the borehole, wherein the first low frequency acoustic wave induces a linear and a nonlinear response in one or more features in the material that are substantially perpendicular to a radius of the borehole; directing a first sequence of high frequency pulses in a direction perpendicularly with respect to the longitudinal axis of the borehole into the material contemporaneously with the first acoustic wave; and receiving one or more second high frequency pulses at one or more receivers positionable in the borehole produced by an interaction between the first sequence of high frequency pulses and the one or more features undergoing linear and nonlinear elastic distortion due to the first low frequency acoustic wave to investigate the material surrounding the borehole.

  8. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196, and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.8, 4.28, and 4.52. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in September 2004. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) T-TX-TY. This report is the second of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from boreholes C4104 and C4105 in the T Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-11-39 installed northeast of the T Tank Farm. Finally, the measurements on sediments from borehole C4104 are compared with a nearby borehole drilled in 1993, 299- W10-196, through the tank T-106 leak plume.

  9. Application Of A Spherical-Radial Heat Transfer Model To Calculate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Transfer Model To Calculate Geothermal Gradients From Measurements In Deep Boreholes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  10. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall, the results of the reference design development and the cost analysis support the technical feasibility of the deep borehole disposal concept for high-level radioactive waste.

  11. Calibrated Probabilistic Mesoscale Weather Field Forecasting: The Geostatistical Output Perturbation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    Calibrated Probabilistic Mesoscale Weather Field Forecasting: The Geostatistical Output. This is typically not feasible for mesoscale weather prediction carried out locally by organizations without by simulating realizations of the geostatistical model. The method is applied to 48-hour mesoscale forecasts

  12. Hydrothermally altered and fractured granite as an HDR reservoir in the EPS-1 borehole, Alsace,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genter, A.; Traineau, H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the European Hot Dry Rocks Project, a second exploration borehole, EPS-1, has been cored to a depth of 2227 m at Soultz-sous-Forets (France). The target was a granite beginning at 1417 m depth, overlain by post-Paleozoic sedimentary cover. Structural analysis and petrographic examination of the 800-m porphyritic granite core, have shown that this rock has undergone several periods of hydrothermal alteration and fracturing. More than 3000 natural structures were recorded, whose distribution pattern shows clusters where low-density fracture zones (less than 1 per meter) alternate with zones of high fracture density (more than 20 per meter). Vein alteration, ascribed to paleohydrothermal systems, developed within the hydrothermally altered and highly fractured zones, transforming primary biotite and plagioclase into clay minerals. One of these zones at 2.2 km depth produced a hot-water outflow during coring, indicating the existence of a hydrothermal reservoir. Its permeability is provided by the fracture network and by secondary porosity of the granitic matrix resulting from vein alteration. This dual porosity in the HDR granite reservoir must be taken into account in the design of the heat exchanger, both for modeling the water-rock interactions and for hydraulic testing.

  13. Renal Artery Embolization Combined With Radiofrequency Ablation in a Porcine Kidney Model: Effect of Small and Narrowly Calibrated Microparticles as Embolization Material on Coagulation Diameter, Volume, and Shape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sommer, C. M., E-mail: christof.sommer@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Kortes, N. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Zelzer, S. [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Medical and Biological Informatics (Germany); Arnegger, F. U. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General, Abdominal and Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Stampfl, U.; Bellemann, N. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Gehrig, T.; Nickel, F.; Kenngott, H. G. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General, Abdominal and Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Mogler, C.; Longerich, T. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of General Pathology (Germany); Meinzer, H. P. [German Cancer Research Center, Division of Medical and Biological Informatics (Germany); Richter, G. M. [Klinikum Stuttgart, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Kauczor, H. U.; Radeleff, B. A. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of renal artery embolization with small and narrowly calibrated microparticles on the coagulation diameter, volume, and shape of radiofrequency ablations (RFAs) in porcine kidneys. Forty-eight RFAs were performed in 24 kidneys of 12 pigs. In 6 animals, bilateral renal artery embolization was performed with small and narrowly calibrated microparticles. Upper and lower kidney poles were ablated with identical system parameters. Applying three-dimensional segmentation software, RFAs were segmented on registered 2 mm-thin macroscopic slices. Length, depth, width, volume{sub s}egmented, and volume{sub c}alculated were determined to describe the size of the RFAs. To evaluate the shape of the RFAs, depth-to-width ratio (perfect symmetry-to-lesion length was indicated by a ratio of 1), sphericity ratio (perfect sphere was indicated by a sphericity ratio of 1), eccentricity (perfect sphere was indicated by an eccentricity of 0), and circularity (perfect circle was indicated by a circularity of 1) were determined. Embolized compared with nonembolized RFAs showed significantly greater depth (23.4 {+-} 3.6 vs. 17.2 {+-} 1.8 mm; p < 0.001) and width (20.1 {+-} 2.9 vs. 12.6 {+-} 3.7 mm; p < 0.001); significantly larger volume{sub s}egmented (8.6 {+-} 3.2 vs. 3.0 {+-} 0.7 ml; p < 0.001) and volume{sub c}alculated (8.4 {+-} 3.0 ml vs. 3.3 {+-} 1.1 ml; p < 0.001); significantly lower depth-to-width (1.17 {+-} 0.10 vs. 1.48 {+-} 0.44; p < 0.05), sphericity (1.55 {+-} 0.44 vs. 1.96 {+-} 0.43; p < 0.01), and eccentricity (0.84 {+-} 0.61 vs. 1.73 {+-} 0.91; p < 0.01) ratios; and significantly greater circularity (0.62 {+-} 0.14 vs. 0.45 {+-} 0.16; p < 0.01). Renal artery embolization with small and narrowly calibrated microparticles affected the coagulation diameter, volume, and shape of RFAs in porcine kidneys. Embolized RFAs were significantly larger and more spherical compared with nonembolized RFAs.

  14. High-temperature batteries for geothermal and oil/gas borehole applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.

    2000-05-25

    A literature survey and technical evaluation was carried out of past and present battery technologies with the goal of identifying appropriate candidates for use in geothermal borehole and, to a lesser extent, oil/gas boreholes. The various constraints that are posed by such an environment are discussed. The promise as well as the limitations of various candidate technologies are presented. Data for limited testing of a number of candidate systems are presented and the areas for additional future work are detailed. The use of low-temperature molten salts shows the most promise for such applications and includes those that are liquid at room temperature. The greatest challenges are to develop an appropriate electrochemical couple that is kinetically stable with the most promising electrolytes--both organic as well as inorganic--over the wide operating window that spans both borehole environments.

  15. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency and the second frequency; and transmitting the collimated beam through a diverging acoustic lens to compensate for a refractive effect caused by the curvature of the borehole.

  16. Extending Sensor Calibration Intervals in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Shumaker, Brent; Hashemian, Hash

    2012-11-15

    Currently in the USA, sensor recalibration is required at every refueling outage, and it has emerged as a critical path item for shortening outage duration. International application of calibration monitoring, such as at the Sizewell B plant in UK, has shown that sensors may operate for eight years, or longer, within calibration tolerances. Online monitoring can be employed to identify those sensors which require calibration, allowing for calibration of only those sensors which need it. The US NRC accepted the general concept of online monitoring for sensor calibration monitoring in 2000, but no plants have been granted the necessary license amendment to apply it. This project addresses key issues in advanced recalibration methodologies and provides the science base to enable adoption of best practices for applying online monitoring, resulting in a public domain standardized methodology for sensor calibration interval extension. Research to develop this methodology will focus on three key areas: (1) quantification of uncertainty in modeling techniques used for calibration monitoring, with a particular focus on non-redundant sensor models; (2) accurate determination of acceptance criteria and quantification of the effect of acceptance criteria variability on system performance; and (3) the use of virtual sensor estimates to replace identified faulty sensors to extend operation to the next convenient maintenance opportunity.

  17. Disposition of excess weapon plutonium in deep boreholes - site selection handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiken, G.; Woldegabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H.; Rowley, J.

    1996-09-01

    One of the options for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology needed to begin designing this means of disposition already exists, and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous United States. There are even more potential sites for this option within Russia. The successful design of a borehole system must address two criteria: (1) how to dispose of 50 metric tons of weapons plutonium while making it inaccessible for unauthorized retrieval, and (2) how to prevent contamination of the accessible biosphere, defined here as the Earth`s surface and usable groundwaters.

  18. System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2012-10-16

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  19. Borehole deviation surveys are necessary for hydraulic fracture monitoring Leo Eisner, Schlumberger Cambridge Research, Petr Bulant, Charles University in Prague, Jol H. Le Calvez*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Borehole deviation surveys are necessary for hydraulic fracture monitoring Leo Eisner, Schlumberger Not performing accurate borehole deviation surveys for hydraulic fracture monitoring (HFM) and neglecting fracture parameters. Introduction Recently a large number of hydraulic fracture treatments have been

  20. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2014-09-01

    Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

  1. Thermal emission measurement and calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Susannah (Susannah R.)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis details a measurement setup and experimental procedures for emittance measurements using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. We calibrate the FTIR measurement system using measurements of a blackbody ...

  2. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bevan, John E. (Spokane, WA); King, Grant W. (Spokane, WA)

    1998-01-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  3. REFRACTION MICROTREMOR AND OPTIMIZATION METHODS AS ALTERNATIVES TO BOREHOLES FOR SITE STRENGTH AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -averaged shear velocity for foundation design; and estimating the seismic spectrum input for earthquake earthquake-hazard assessment and efficient foundation design. The only standard procedure for determining shear velocity, crosshole seismic (ASTM D4428), is not much used as it requires two boreholes with high

  4. Surface temperature trends in Russia over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biasutti, Michela

    Surface temperature trends in Russia over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole in Russia and nearby areas to reconstruct the ground surface temperature history (GSTH) over the past five centuries. The data are drawn principally from three regions: the Urals, southwest Siberia, and northeast

  5. Annual Logging Symposium, June 3-6, 2007 RAPID SIMULATION OF BOREHOLE NUCLEAR MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    with other well logs. The particular case of logging while drilling (LWD) logs in high-angle wells of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts (SPWLA) and the submitting authors. This paper was prepared for presentation techniques as well as for their quantitative integration with other borehole measurements

  6. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bevan, J.E.; King, G.W.

    1998-12-08

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole. 8 figs.

  7. Apparatus and method for field calibration of nuclear surface density gauges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regimand, A.; Gilbert, A.B.

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear gauge density measurements are routinely used for compliance verification with specifications for road and construction projects. The density of construction materials is an important indicator of structural performance and quality. Due to speed of measurement, flexibility and accuracy, nuclear gauge density measurement methods are becoming the preferred standard around the world. Requirements dictate that gauges be verified or calibrated once every 12 to 18 months. Presently, there are no field portable devices available for verification of the gauge calibration. Also, the density references used for calibration of gauges, are large and not designed for field portability. Therefore, to meet the present standards, users are required to ship gauges back to a service facility for calibration. This paper presents results obtained by a newly developed device for field verification and calibration of nuclear density gauges from three different manufacturers. The calibrations obtained by this device are compared to the factory calibration methods and accuracies are reported for each gauge model.

  8. Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS) Updated User’s Guide for Web-based Data Access and Export

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-09-24

    The Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS) is a prototype web-based graphical user interface (GUI) for viewing and downloading borehole geologic data. The HBGIS is being developed as part of the Remediation Decision Support function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project, managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc., Richland, Washington. Recent efforts have focused on improving the functionality of the HBGIS website in order to allow more efficient access and exportation of available data in HBGIS. Users will benefit from enhancements such as a dynamic browsing, user-driven forms, and multi-select options for selecting borehole geologic data for export. The need for translating borehole geologic data into electronic form within the HBGIS continues to increase, and efforts to populate the database continue at an increasing rate. These new web-based tools should help the end user quickly visualize what data are available in HBGIS, select from among these data, and download the borehole geologic data into a consistent and reproducible tabular form. This revised user’s guide supersedes the previous user’s guide (PNNL-15362) for viewing and downloading data from HBGIS. It contains an updated data dictionary for tables and fields containing borehole geologic data as well as instructions for viewing and downloading borehole geologic data.

  9. BOREHOLE PRECONDITIONING OF GEOTHERMAL WELLS FOR ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to precondition a well to optimize fracturing and production during Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) reservoir development. A finite element model was developed for the fully...

  10. Calibration of Predicted Hourly Zone-Level Supply Air Flows with Measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mihai, A.; Zmeureanu, R.

    2013-01-01

    The calibrated building energy models can be used for the verification and improvement of building operation. This paper proposes a bottom-up approach for the assisted calibration of a building energy model developed with eQuest program, and using...

  11. Calibrated Probabilistic Forecasting at the Stateline Wind Energy Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Calibrated Probabilistic Forecasting at the Stateline Wind Energy Center: The Regime at wind energy sites are becoming paramount. Regime-switching space-time (RST) models merge meteorological forecast regimes at the wind energy site and fits a conditional predictive model for each regime

  12. Uranium in Hanford Site 300 Area: Extraction Data on Borehole Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Lindberg, Michael J.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Kutynakov, I. V.; Wang, Zheming; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2012-11-26

    In this study, sediments collected from boreholes drilled in 2010 and 2011 as part of a remedial investigation/feasibility study were characterized. The wells, located within or around two process ponds and one process trench waste site, were characterized in terms of total uranium concentration, mobile fraction of uranium, particle size, and moisture content along the borehole depth. In general, the gravel-dominated sediments of the vadose zone Hanford formation in all investigated boreholes had low moisture contents. Based on total uranium content, a total of 48 vadose zone and periodically rewetted zone sediment samples were selected for more detailed characterization, including measuring the concentration of uranium extracted with 8 M nitric acid, and leached using bicarbonate mixed solutions to determine the liable uranium (U(VI)) contents. In addition, water extraction was conducted on 17 selected sediments. Results from the sediment acid and bicarbonate extractions indicated the total concentrations of anthropogenic labile uranium in the sediments varied among the investigated boreholes. The peak uranium concentration (114.84 µg/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions was found in borehole 399 1-55, which was drilled directly in the southwest corner of the North Process Pond. Lower uranium concentrations (~0.3–2.5 µg/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions were found in boreholes 399-1-57, 399-1-58, and 399-1-59, which were drilled either near the Columbia River or inland and upgradient of any waste process ponds or trenches. A general trend of “total” uranium concentrations was observed that increased as the particle size decreased when relating the sediment particle size and acid extractable uranium concentrations in two selected sediment samples. The labile uranium bicarbonate leaching kinetic experiments on three selected sediments indicated a two-step leaching rate: an initial rapid release, followed by a slow continual release of uranium from the sediment. Based on the uranium leaching kinetic results, quasi equilibrium can be assumed after 1000-h batch reaction time in this study.

  13. Self-calibrating multiplexer circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wahl, Chris P. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    1997-01-01

    A time domain multiplexer system with automatic determination of acceptable multiplexer output limits, error determination, or correction is comprised of a time domain multiplexer, a computer, a constant current source capable of at least three distinct current levels, and two series resistances employed for calibration and testing. A two point linear calibration curve defining acceptable multiplexer voltage limits may be defined by the computer by determining the voltage output of the multiplexer to very accurately known input signals developed from predetermined current levels across the series resistances. Drift in the multiplexer may be detected by the computer when the output voltage limits, expected during normal operation, are exceeded, or the relationship defined by the calibration curve is invalidated.

  14. Hydrologic calibration of paired watersheds using a MOSUM approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Muwamba, A.; Chescheir, G. M.; Appelboom, T.; Tollner, E. W.; Nettles, J. E.; Youssef, M. A.; Birgand, F.; Skaggs, R. W.

    2015-01-09

    Paired watershed studies have historically been used to quantify hydrologic effects of land use and management practices by concurrently monitoring two neighboring watersheds (a control and a treatment) during the calibration (pre-treatment) and post-treatment periods. This study characterizes seasonal water table and flow response to rainfall during the calibration period and tests a change detection technique of moving sums of recursive residuals (MOSUM) to select calibration periods for each control-treatment watershed pair when the regression coefficients for daily water table elevation (WTE) were most stable to reduce regression model uncertainty. The control and treatment watersheds included 1–3 year intensively managedmore »loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) with natural understory, same age loblolly pine intercropped with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), 14–15 year thinned loblolly pine with natural understory (control), and switchgrass only. Although monitoring during the calibration period spanned 2009 to 2012, silvicultural operational practices that occurred during this period such as harvesting of existing stand and site preparation for pine and switchgrass establishment may have acted as external factors, potentially shifting hydrologic calibration relationships between control and treatment watersheds. Results indicated that MOSUM was able to detect significant changes in regression parameters for WTE due to silvicultural operations. This approach also minimized uncertainty of calibration relationships which could otherwise mask marginal treatment effects. All calibration relationships developed using this MOSUM method were quantifiable, strong, and consistent with Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) greater than 0.97 for WTE and NSE greater than 0.92 for daily flow, indicating its applicability for choosing calibration periods of paired watershed studies.« less

  15. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-2, 2A, 2B, and 3: Data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, P.J.; Martin, R.J.; Noel, J.S. [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    An integral part of the licensing procedure for the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, involves characterization of the in situ rheology for the design and construction of the facility and the emplacement of canisters containing radioactive waste. The data used to model the thermal and mechanical behavior of the repository and surrounding lithologies include dry and saturated bulk densities, average grain density, porosity, compressional and shear wave velocities, elastic moduli, and compressional and tensional fracture strengths. In this study, a suite of experiments was performed on cores recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-2, 2A, 2B, and 3 drilled in support of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. The holes penetrated the Timber Mountain tuff and two thermal/mechanical units of the Paintbrush tuff. The thermal/mechanical stratigraphy was defined by Ortiz to group rock horizons of similar properties for the purpose of simplifying modeling efforts. The relationship between the geologic stratigraphy and the thermal/mechanical stratigraphy for each borehole is presented. The tuff samples in this study have a wide range of welding characteristics (usually reflected in sample porosity), and a smaller range of mineralogy and petrology characteristics. Generally, the samples are silicic, ash-fall tuffs that exhibit large variability in their elastic and strength properties.

  16. Water borne transport of high level nuclear waste in very deep borehole disposal of high level nuclear waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabeche, Dion Tunick

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine the feasibility of the very deep borehole experiment and to determine if it is a reasonable method of storing high level nuclear waste for an extended period of time. The objective ...

  17. Borehole temperatures and a baseline for 20th-century global warming estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.N.; Chapman, D.S.

    1997-03-14

    Lack of a 19th-century baseline temperature against which 20th-century warming can be referenced constitutes a deficiency in understanding recent climate change. Combination of borehole temperature profiles, which contain a memory of surface temperature changes in previous centuries, with the meteorologicl archive of surface air temperatures can provide a 19th-century baseline temperature tied to the current observational record. A test case in Utah, where boreholes are interspersed with meteorological stations belonging to the Historical Climatological network, Yields a noise reduction in estimates of 20th-century warming and a baseline temperature that is 0.6{degrees} {+-} 0.1{degrees}C below the 1951 to 1970 mean temperature for the region. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Portable apparatus and method for assisting in the removal and emplacement of pipe strings in boreholes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Brian R.

    2005-03-22

    A portable pipe installation/removal support apparatus for assisting in the installation/removal of a series of connectable pipe strings from a ground-level borehole. The support apparatus has a base, an upright extending from the base, and, in an exemplary embodiment, a pair of catch arms extending from the upright to define a catch platform. The pair of catch arms serves to hold an upper connector end of a pipe string at an operator-convenient standing elevation by releasably catching an underside of a pipe coupler connecting two pipe strings of the series of connectable pipe strings. This enables an operator to stand upright while coupling/uncoupling the series of connectable pipe strings during the installation/removal thereof from the ground-level borehole. Additionally, a process for installing and a process for removing a series of connectable pipe strings is disclosed utilizing such a support apparatus.

  19. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Chirstopher

    2013-10-15

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency range and the second frequency, and wherein the non-linear medium has a velocity of sound between 100 m/s and 800 m/s.

  20. Using field observations to inform thermal hydrology models of permafrost dynamics with ATS (v0.83)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atchley, A. L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA; Painter, S. L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA; Harp, D. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA; Coon, E. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA; Wilson, C. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA; Liljedahl, A. K. [Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks, USA; Romanovsky, V. E. [Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks, USA] (ORCID:0000000295152087)

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is profoundly transforming the carbon-rich Arctic tundra landscape, potentially moving it from a carbon sink to a carbon source by increasing the thickness of soil that thaws on a seasonal basis. However, the modeling capability and precise parameterizations of the physical characteristics needed to estimate projected active layer thickness (ALT) are limited in Earth System Models (ESMs). In particular, discrepancies in spatial scale between field measurements and Earth System Models challenge validation and parameterization of hydrothermal models. A recently developed surface/subsurface model for permafrost thermal hydrology, the Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), is used in combination with field measurements to calibrate and identify fine scale controls of ALT in ice wedge polygon tundra in Barrow, Alaska. An iterative model refinement procedure that cycles between borehole temperature and snow cover measurements and simulations functions to evaluate and parameterize different model processes necessary to simulate freeze/thaw processes and ALT formation. After model refinement and calibration, reasonable matches between simulated and measured soil temperatures are obtained, with the largest errors occurring during early summer above ice wedges (e.g. troughs). The results suggest that properly constructed and calibrated one-dimensional thermal hydrology models have the potential to provide reasonable representation of the subsurface thermal response and can be used to infer model input parameters and process representations. The models for soil thermal conductivity and snow distribution were found to be the most sensitive process representations. However, information on lateral flow and snowpack evolution might be needed to constrain model representations of surface hydrology and snow depth.

  1. Using field observations to inform thermal hydrology models of permafrost dynamics with ATS (v0.83)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Atchley, A. L.; Painter, S. L.; Harp, D. R.; Coon, E. T.; Wilson, C. J.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2015-04-14

    Climate change is profoundly transforming the carbon-rich Arctic tundra landscape, potentially moving it from a carbon sink to a carbon source by increasing the thickness of soil that thaws on a seasonal basis. However, the modeling capability and precise parameterizations of the physical characteristics needed to estimate projected active layer thickness (ALT) are limited in Earth System Models (ESMs). In particular, discrepancies in spatial scale between field measurements and Earth System Models challenge validation and parameterization of hydrothermal models. A recently developed surface/subsurface model for permafrost thermal hydrology, the Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), is used in combination with field measurementsmore »to calibrate and identify fine scale controls of ALT in ice wedge polygon tundra in Barrow, Alaska. An iterative model refinement procedure that cycles between borehole temperature and snow cover measurements and simulations functions to evaluate and parameterize different model processes necessary to simulate freeze/thaw processes and ALT formation. After model refinement and calibration, reasonable matches between simulated and measured soil temperatures are obtained, with the largest errors occurring during early summer above ice wedges (e.g. troughs). The results suggest that properly constructed and calibrated one-dimensional thermal hydrology models have the potential to provide reasonable representation of the subsurface thermal response and can be used to infer model input parameters and process representations. The models for soil thermal conductivity and snow distribution were found to be the most sensitive process representations. However, information on lateral flow and snowpack evolution might be needed to constrain model representations of surface hydrology and snow depth.« less

  2. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the C Tank Farm: Borehole C4297 and RCRA Borehole 299-E27-22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Parker, Kent E.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.7 and 4.25. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in September 2006. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at the Hanford Site. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) C. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physiochemical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole C4297, installed adjacent to tank C-105, and from borehole 299-E27-22, installed directly north of the C Tank Farm. This report also presents the interpretation of data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone below the C Tank Farm. The information presented in this report supports the WMA A-AX, C, and U field investigation report in preparation by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.

  3. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the TX Tank Farm: Boreholes C3830, C3831, C3832 and RCRA Borehole 299-W10-27

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.8, 4.28,4.43, and 4.59. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in April 2004. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) T-TX-TY. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from boreholes C3830, C3831, and C3832 in the TX Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-10-27 installed northeast of the TY Tank Farm.

  4. A Robust MEMS Based Multi-Component Sensor for 3D Borehole Seismic Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulsson Geophysical Services

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop, prototype and test a robust multi-component sensor that combines both Fiber Optic and MEMS technology for use in a borehole seismic array. The use such FOMEMS based sensors allows a dramatic increase in the number of sensors that can be deployed simultaneously in a borehole seismic array. Therefore, denser sampling of the seismic wave field can be afforded, which in turn allows us to efficiently and adequately sample P-wave as well as S-wave for high-resolution imaging purposes. Design, packaging and integration of the multi-component sensors and deployment system will target maximum operating temperature of 350-400 F and a maximum pressure of 15000-25000 psi, thus allowing operation under conditions encountered in deep gas reservoirs. This project aimed at using existing pieces of deployment technology as well as MEMS and fiber-optic technology. A sensor design and analysis study has been carried out and a laboratory prototype of an interrogator for a robust borehole seismic array system has been assembled and validated.

  5. The U-tube: A new paradigm in borehole fluid sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freifeld, B. M.

    2009-10-01

    Fluid samples from deep boreholes can provide insights into subsurface physical, chemical, and biological conditions. Recovery of intact, minimally altered aliquots of subsurface fluids is required for analysis of aqueous chemistry, isotopic composition, and dissolved gases, and for microbial community characterization. Unfortunately, for many reasons, collecting geofluids poses a number of challenges, from formation contamination by drilling to maintaining integrity during recovery from depths. Not only are there substantial engineering issues in retrieval of a representative sample, but there is often the practical reality that fluid sampling is just one of many activities planned for deep boreholes. The U-tube geochemical sampling system presents a new paradigm for deep borehole fluid sampling. Because the system is small, its ability to integrate with other measurement systems and technologies opens up numerous possibilities for multifunctional integrated wellbore completions. To date, the U-tube has been successfully deployed at four different field sites, each with a different deployment modality, at depths from 260 m to 2 km. While the U-tube has proven to be highly versatile, these installations have resulted in data that provide additional insights for improving future U-tube deployments.

  6. Quantification of Wellbore Leakage Risk Using Non-destructive Borehole Logging Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duguid, Andrew; Butsch, Robert; Cary, J.; Celia, Michael; Chugunov, Nikita; Gasda, Sarah; Hovorka, Susan; Ramakrishnan, T. S.; Stamp, Vicki; Thingelstad, Rebecca; Wang, James

    2014-08-29

    Well integrity is important at all potential CCS locations and may play a crucial role establishing leakage risk in areas where there is a high density of existing wells that could be impacted by the storage operations including depleted petroleum fields where EOR or CCS will occur. To address a need for risk quantification methods that can be directly applied to individual wells using borehole logging tools a study was conducted using data from five wells in Wyoming. The objectives of the study were: Objective 1: Develop methods to establish the baseline flow parameters (porosity and permeability or mobility) from individual measurements of the material properties and defects in a well. Objective 2: Develop a correlation between field flow-property data and cement logs that can be used to establish the flow-properties of well materials and well features using cement mapping tools. Objective 3: Establish a method that uses the flow-property model (Objective 2) to analyze the statistical uncertainties associated with individual well leakage that can provide basis for uncertainty in risk calculations. The project objectives were met through the logging of five wells in Carbon and Natrona County Wyoming to collect data that was used to estimate individual and average well flow properties and model the results using ultrasonic data collected during the logging. Three of the five wells provided data on point and average flow properties for well annuli. Data from the other two wells were used to create models of cement permeability and test whether information collected in one well could be used to characterize another well. The results of the in-situ point measurements were confirmed by the lab measurements sidewall cores collected near the same depths Objective 1 was met using the data collected through logging, testing, and sampling. The methods were developed that can establish baseline flow parameters of wells by both point and average test methods. The methods to estimate the flow properties modeling of point pressure tests, modeling of vertical interference tests, and laboratory measurement of cased-hole sidewall cores The wells were in sufficiently good shape to allow the development of the characterization methods while still having enough defects to study differences in results as they relate to well integrity. Samples and tests analyzed from three of five wells studied in showed the cements were largely intact and had not degraded from exposure native brines. Log results taken in conjunction with the core measurements indicate that interfaces and/or problems with cement placement due to eccentering provide preferential flow paths for fluids, which can increase the effective permeability of the barrier several orders of magnitude above the permeability of intact cement. The results of the maps created using logging tools indicating that the cement condition and bond are generally good identify a need for more research to understand how logs can be used to predicteffective well permeabilities such as those measured by the VITs in this study.

  7. Category:Borehole Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,Cammack Village,8199089°,Analytical Modeling Jump to:Biomass Jump

  8. Supplementary details on Bayesian Calibration of Computer Marc C. Kennedy and Anthony O'Hagan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hagan, Tony

    Supplementary details on Bayesian Calibration of Computer Models Marc C. Kennedy and Anthony O in the Bayesian calibration methods of Kennedy and O'Hagan (2000), and we present a further example using data with the concepts and notation of Kennedy and O'Hagan (2000). We begin by deriving the posterior distribution

  9. Calibration of a Parallel Robot Using Multiple Kinematic Closed Ali Nahvi, John M. Hollerbach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollerbach, John M.

    ,he shoulder joint 2 Mechanism Kinematics The kinematic model is shown in Figure 2. A, (i=1,2,3,4) representsCalibration of a Parallel Robot Using Multiple Kinematic Closed Loops Ali Nahvi, John M. Hollerbach be kinematically calibrated using joint an- gle readings alone [l . By placement of the closed dit

  10. Geological Calibration of Spallation Production Rates1 in the CRONUS-Earth Project2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borchers, Brian

    : cosmogenic nuclide, production rate, calibration, beryllium-10,28 aluminum-26, carbon-14, helium-3, chlorineGeological Calibration of Spallation Production Rates1 in the CRONUS-Earth Project2 Brian Borchersa. stone@ess.washington.edu26 Abstract27 Models of the production of cosmogenic nuclides typically

  11. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Stephen K. (Morgantown, WV); Pratt, II, Harold R. (Morgantown, WV)

    1991-01-01

    An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

  12. CALIBRATION Parts Set version 8/10/99 STARDUST SPACECRAFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOLAR PANELS PANEL STIFFENER PANEL STIFFENER WHIPPLE SHIELDWHIPPLE SHIELD SHIELD SPACERS SHIELD SPACERS-classroom use must be obtained from JPL Commercial Programs Office. #12;X X - Z PANEL REM STAR CAMERAS + Z PANEL X X CUT OUT PRINTING CALIBRATION STARDUST SPACECRAFT Scale Model Parts SHEET 2 + Y PANEL - Y PANEL

  13. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High Speed Shaft Tapered Roller Bearing Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, J.; Guo, Y.; McNiff, B.

    2013-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) is a project investigating gearbox reliability primarily through testing and modeling. Previous dynamometer testing focused upon acquiring measurements in the planetary section of the test gearbox. Prior to these tests, the strain gages installed on the planetary bearings were calibrated in a load frame.

  14. Chronological information and uncertainty Radiocarbon dating & calibration -Paula Reimer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengun, Mehmet Haluk

    uncertainty · Estimated ± 1 - 2 (± 8-32 years) · Measured off-line ± 0.2 (± 2) - ok in gas counting systems.17 (lab error multiplier) #12;14C calibration uncertainties Animation: M. Blaauw #12;Constant initial 14C interpol. Too much weight on individual dates? #12;Which age-depth model? 800 cm core 9 14 C dates

  15. Calibration of hydraulic and tracer tests in fractured media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Calibration of hydraulic and tracer tests in fractured media represented by a DFN Model L. D. Donado, X. Sanchez-Vila, E. Ruiz* & F. J. Elorza** * Enviros Spain S.L. ** UPM #12;Fractured Media Water flows through fractures (matrix basically impervious ­ though relevant to transport) Fractures at all

  16. Calibration curves for some standard Gap Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, A.L.; Sommer, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    The relative shock sensitivities of explosive compositions are commonly assessed using a family of experiments that can be described by the generic term ''Gap Test.'' Gap tests include a donor charge, a test sample, and a spacer, or gap, between two explosives charges. The donor charge, gap material, and test dimensions are held constant within each different version of the gap test. The thickness of the gap is then varied to find the value at which 50% of the test samples will detonate. The gap tests measure the ease with a high-order detonation can be established in the test explosive, or the ''detonability,'' of the explosive. Test results are best reported in terms of the gap thickness at the 50% point. It is also useful to define the shock pressure transmitted into the test sample at the detonation threshold. This requires calibrating the gap test in terms of shock pressure in the gap as a function of the gap thickness. It also requires a knowledge of the shock Hugoniot of the sample explosive. We used the 2DE reactive hydrodynamic code with Forest Fire burn rates for the donor explosives to calculate calibration curves for several gap tests. The model calculations give pressure and particle velocity on the centerline of the experimental set-up and provide information about the curvature and pulse width of the shock wave. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Compressional wave character in gassy, near-surface sediments in southern Louisiana determined from variable frequency cross-well, borehole logging, and surface seismic measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, L.D.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fasnacht, T. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Velocity and attenuation data were used to test theoretical equations describing the frequency dependence of compressional wave velocity and attenuation through gas-rich sediments in coastal Louisiana. The cross-well data were augmented with velocities derived from a nearby seismic refraction station using a low-frequency source. Energy at 1 and 3 kHz was successfully transmitted over distances from 3.69 to 30 m; the 5 and 7-kHz data were obtained only at distances up to 20 m. Velocity tomograms were constructed for one borehole pair and covered a depth interval of 10--50 m. Results from the tomographic modeling indicate that gas-induced low velocities are present to depths of greater than 40 m. Analysis of the velocity dispersion suggests that gas-bubble resonance must be greater than 7 kHz, which is above the range of frequencies used in the experiment. Washout of the boreholes at depths above 15 m resulted in a degassed zone containing velocities higher than those indicated in both nearby refraction and reflection surveys. Velocity and attenuation information were obtained for a low-velocity zone centered at a depth of approximately 18 m. Measured attenuations of 1.57, 2.95, and 3.24 dB/m for the 3-, 5-, and 7-kHz signals, respectively, were modeled along with the velocity data using a silt-clay sediment type. Density and porosity data for the model were obtained from the geophysical logs; the bulk and shear moduli were estimated from published relationships. Modeling results indicate that gas bubbles measuring 1 mm in diameter occupy at least 25% to 35% of the pore space.

  18. Calibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from the CloudGEGR-N Goods POCTBT Y-1259techniques for a

  19. Calibration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from the CloudGEGR-N Goods POCTBT Y-1259techniques for

  20. Study of Calibration of Solar Radio Spectrometers and the quiet-Sun Radio Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Chengming; Tan, Baolin; Fu, Qijun; Liu, Yuying; Xu, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a systematic investigation of the influence of weather conditions on the calibration errors by using Gaussian fitness, least chi-square linear fitness and wavelet transform to analyze the calibration coefficients from observations of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometers (at frequency bands of 1.0-2.0 GHz, 2.6-3.8 GHz, and 5.2-7.6 GHz) during 1997-2007. We found that calibration coefficients are influenced by the local air temperature. Considering the temperature correction, the calibration error will reduce by about $10\\%-20\\%$ at 2800 MHz. Based on the above investigation and the calibration corrections, we further study the radio emission of the quiet-Sun by using an appropriate hybrid model of the quiet-Sun atmosphere. The results indicate that the numerical flux of the hybrid model is much closer to the observation flux than that of other ones.

  1. Air-injection testing in vertical boreholes in welded and nonwelded Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCain, G.D.

    1997-12-31

    Air-injection tests, by use of straddle packers, were done in four vertical boreholes (UE-25 UZ-No.16, USW SD-12, USW NRG-6, and USW NRG-7a) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The geologic units tested were the Tiva Canyon Tuff, nonwelded tuffs of the Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, and Calico Hills Formation. Air-injection permeability values of the Tiva Canyon Tuff ranged from 0.3 x 10{sup -12} to 54.0 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}(square meter). Air-injection permeability values of the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff ranged from 0.12 x 10{sup -12} to 3.0 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}. Air-injection permeability values of the Topopah Spring Tuff ranged from 0.02 x 10{sup -12} to 33.0 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}. The air-injection permeability value of the only Calico Hills Formation interval tested was 0.025 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}. The shallow test intervals of the Tiva Canyon Tuff had the highest air-injection permeability values. Variograms of the air-injection permeability values of the Topopah Spring Tuff show a hole effect; an initial increase in the variogram values is followed by a decrease. The hole effect is due to the decrease in permeability with depth identified in several geologic zones. The hole effect indicates some structural control of the permeability distribution, possibly associated with the deposition and cooling of the tuff. Analysis of variance indicates that the air-injection permeability values of borehole NRG-7a of the Topopah Spring Tuff are different from the other boreholes; this indicates areal variation in permeability.

  2. Dependency of EBT2 film calibration curve on postirradiation time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Liyun, E-mail: liyunc@isu.edu.tw; Ding, Hueisch-Jy [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan (China); Ho, Sheng-Yow [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Tainan 73657, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Tainan 73657, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tsair-Fwu [Medical Physics and Informatics Laboratory, Department of Electronics Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 80778, Taiwan (China)] [Medical Physics and Informatics Laboratory, Department of Electronics Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 80778, Taiwan (China); Chen, Pang-Yu, E-mail: pangyuchen@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sinlau Christian Hospital, Tainan 70142, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sinlau Christian Hospital, Tainan 70142, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The Ashland Inc. product EBT2 film model is a widely used quality assurance tool, especially for verification of 2-dimensional dose distributions. In general, the calibration film and the dose measurement film are irradiated, scanned, and calibrated at the same postirradiation time (PIT), 1-2 days after the films are irradiated. However, for a busy clinic or in some special situations, the PIT for the dose measurement film may be different from that of the calibration film. In this case, the measured dose will be incorrect. This paper proposed a film calibration method that includes the effect of PIT. Methods: The dose versus film optical density was fitted to a power function with three parameters. One of these parameters was PIT dependent, while the other two were found to be almost constant with a standard deviation of the mean less than 4%. The PIT-dependent parameter was fitted to another power function of PIT. The EBT2 film model was calibrated using the PDD method with 14 different PITs ranging from 1 h to 2 months. Ten of the fourteen PITs were used for finding the fitting parameters, and the other four were used for testing the model. Results: The verification test shows that the differences between the delivered doses and the film doses calculated with this modeling were mainly within 2% for delivered doses above 60 cGy, and the total uncertainties were generally under 5%. The errors and total uncertainties of film dose calculation were independent of the PIT using the proposed calibration procedure. However, the fitting uncertainty increased with decreasing dose or PIT, but stayed below 1.3% for this study. Conclusions: The EBT2 film dose can be modeled as a function of PIT. For the ease of routine calibration, five PITs were suggested to be used. It is recommended that two PITs be located in the fast developing period (1?6 h), one in 1 ? 2 days, one around a week, and one around a month.

  3. A calibration procedure to improve global rice yield simulations with EPIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Wei; Balkovic, Juraj; van der Velde, M.; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Skalsky, Rastislav; Lin, Erda; Mueller, Nathan; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Crop models are increasingly used to assess impacts of climate change/variability and management practices on productivity and environmental performance of alternative cropping systems. Calibration is an important procedure to improve reliability of model simulations, especially for large area applications. However, global-scale crop model calibration has rarely been exercised due to limited data availability and expensive computing cost. Here we present a simple approach to calibrate Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model for a global implementation of rice. We identify four parameters (potential heat unit – PHU, planting density – PD, harvest index – HI, and biomass energy ratio – BER) and calibrate them regionally to capture the spatial pattern of reported rice yield in 2000. Model performance is assessed by comparing simulated outputs with independent FAO national data. The comparison demonstrates that the global calibration scheme performs satisfactorily in reproducing the spatial pattern of rice yield, particularly in main rice production areas. Spatial agreement increases substantially when more parameters are selected and calibrated, but with varying efficiencies. Among the parameters, PHU and HI exhibit the highest efficiencies in increasing the spatial agreement. Simulations with different calibration strategies generate a pronounced discrepancy of 5–35% in mean yields across latitude bands, and a small to moderate difference in estimated yield variability and yield changing trend for the period of 1981–2000. Present calibration has little effects in improving simulated yield variability and trends at both regional and global levels, suggesting further works are needed to reproduce temporal variability of reported yields. This study highlights the importance of crop modelscalibration, and presents the possibility of a transparent and consistent up scaling approach for global crop simulations given current availability of global databases of weather, soil, crop calendar, fertilizer and irrigation management information, and reported yield.

  4. Method and system for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson Paul A. (Santa Fe, NM); Ten Cate, James A. (Los Alamos, NM); Guyer, Robert (Reno, NV); Le Bas, Pierre-Yves (Los Alamos, NM); Vu, Cung (Houston, TX); Nihei, Kurt (Oakland, CA); Schmitt, Denis P. (Katy, TX); Skelt, Christopher (Houston, TX)

    2012-02-14

    A compact array of transducers is employed as a downhole instrument for acoustic investigation of the surrounding rock formation. The array is operable to generate simultaneously a first acoustic beam signal at a first frequency and a second acoustic beam signal at a second frequency different than the first frequency. These two signals can be oriented through an azimuthal rotation of the array and an inclination rotation using control of the relative phases of the signals from the transmitter elements or electromechanical linkage. Due to the non-linearity of the formation, the first and the second acoustic beam signal mix into the rock formation where they combine into a collimated third signal that propagates in the formation along the same direction than the first and second signals and has a frequency equal to the difference of the first and the second acoustic signals. The third signal is received either within the same borehole, after reflection, or another borehole, after transmission, and analyzed to determine information about rock formation. Recording of the third signal generated along several azimuthal and inclination directions also provides 3D images of the formation, information about 3D distribution of rock formation and fluid properties and an indication of the dynamic acoustic non-linearity of the formation.

  5. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first broad-band acoustic pulse at a first broad-band frequency range having a first central frequency and a first bandwidth spread; generating a second broad-band acoustic pulse at a second broad-band frequency range different than the first frequency range having a second central frequency and a second bandwidth spread, wherein the first acoustic pulse and second acoustic pulse are generated by at least one transducer arranged on a tool located within the borehole; and transmitting the first and the second broad-band acoustic pulses into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated pulse by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic pulses, wherein the collimated pulse has a frequency equal to the difference in frequencies between the first central frequency and the second central frequency and a bandwidth spread equal to the sum of the first bandwidth spread and the second bandwidth spread.

  6. Optical Calibration For Jefferson Lab HKS Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Yuan; L. Tang

    2005-11-04

    In order to accept very forward angle scattering particles, Jefferson Lab HKS experiment uses an on-target zero degree dipole magnet. The usual spectrometer optics calibration procedure has to be modified due to this on-target field. This paper describes a new method to calibrate HKS spectrometer system. The simulation of the calibration procedure shows the required resolution can be achieved from initially inaccurate optical description.

  7. Development of neural network calibration algorithms for multi-port pressure probes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinser Robert Eric

    1996-01-01

    mini-5-hole probe having a diameter of only 0.065" is calibrated and used to measure three dimensional velocity data about a delta wing model to demonstrate PROBENET's real world application....

  8. A Calibration Methodology for Retrofit Projects Using Short-Term Monitoring and Disaggregated Energy Use Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soebarto, V. I.; Degelman, L. O.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an improved methodology to calibrate energy simulation models to better represent the actual energy use breakdowns in existing buildings. The goal of this methodology is to help architects and engineers accurately determine...

  9. System and method to create three-dimensional images of non-linear acoustic properties in a region remote from a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  10. Calibration by Optimization Without Using Derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-03-05

    Mar 5, 2015 ... The Bureau International des Poids et Mesures defines: The .... the functional relations specified by the calibrating function ˜fcal are preserved.

  11. Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    October 2013) Field Calibration Facilities for Environmental Measurement of Radium, Thorium, and Potassium (October 2013) The first edition of this report, released in October...

  12. Calibration Guide Agilent Technologies ESA Spectrum Analyzers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Calibration Guide Agilent Technologies ESA Spectrum Analyzers This manual provides documentation periodically. For the latest information about Agilent ESA Spectrum Analyzers, including firmware upgrades

  13. Using field observations to inform thermal hydrology models of permafrost dynamics with ATS (v0.83)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Atchley, Adam L.; Painter, Scott L.; Harp, Dylan R.; Coon, Ethan T.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Liljedahl, Anna K.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is profoundly transforming the carbon-rich Arctic tundra landscape, potentially moving it from a carbon sink to a carbon source by increasing the thickness of soil that thaws on a seasonal basis. Thus, the modeling capability and precise parameterizations of the physical characteristics needed to estimate projected active layer thickness (ALT) are limited in Earth system models (ESMs). In particular, discrepancies in spatial scale between field measurements and Earth system models challenge validation and parameterization of hydrothermal models. A recently developed surface–subsurface model for permafrost thermal hydrology, the Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), is used in combination with field measurementsmore »to achieve the goals of constructing a process-rich model based on plausible parameters and to identify fine-scale controls of ALT in ice-wedge polygon tundra in Barrow, Alaska. An iterative model refinement procedure that cycles between borehole temperature and snow cover measurements and simulations functions to evaluate and parameterize different model processes necessary to simulate freeze–thaw processes and ALT formation. After model refinement and calibration, reasonable matches between simulated and measured soil temperatures are obtained, with the largest errors occurring during early summer above ice wedges (e.g., troughs). The results suggest that properly constructed and calibrated one-dimensional thermal hydrology models have the potential to provide reasonable representation of the subsurface thermal response and can be used to infer model input parameters and process representations. The models for soil thermal conductivity and snow distribution were found to be the most sensitive process representations. However, information on lateral flow and snowpack evolution might be needed to constrain model representations of surface hydrology and snow depth.« less

  14. Determination of elemental impurities in plastic calibration standards using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, D.; Ayyalasomayajula, K.; Jain, J.; Singh, J.; Yu-Yueh, F.

    2012-01-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (CT) scanning is a rapidly emerging imaging technique employed in nondestructive evaluation of various materials. CT has been used for characterizing rocks and visualizing multiphase flow through rocks for over 25 years. The most common technique for dual-energy CT scanning relies on homogeneous calibration standards to produce the most accurate decoupled data. However, the use of calibration standards with impurities increases the probability of error in the reconstructed data and results in poor rock characterization. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to determine impurity concentration in a set of commercially purchased calibration standards used in dual-energy scanning for material identification with coal samples. Two calibration models were developed by using univariate calibration with the internal ratio method and multiple linear regression. Seven elements (Al, Fe, Mg, Na, Ni, Sr, and Ti) were examined in five different samples containing varying amounts of each ion to compare calibration from univariate data analysis and from multivariate data analysis. The contaminant concentrations were also measured by a commercially available inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy instrument, and the data were used as a reference in developing calibration curves for a modified version of the single linear regression model and the multiple linear regression model.

  15. Calibrations, Monopoles and Fuzzy Funnels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neil R. Constable; Neil D. Lambert

    2002-07-09

    We present new non-Abelian solitonic configurations in the low energy effective theory describing a collection of N parallel D1--branes. These configurations preserve 1/4, 1/8, 1/16 and 1/32 of the spacetime supersymmetry. They are solutions to a set of generalised Nahm's equations which are related to self-duality equations in eight dimensions. Our solutions represent D1--branes which expand into fuzzy funnel configurations ending on collections of intersecting D3--branes. Supersymmetry dictates that such intersecting D3--branes must lie on a calibrated three-surface of spacetime and we argue that the generalised Nahm's equations encode the data for the construction of magnetic monopoles on the relevant three-surfaces.

  16. Confinement Vessel Assay System: Calibration and Certification Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Mark M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gomez, Cipriano [Retired CMR-OPS: OPERATIONS; Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miko, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vigil, Georgiana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-17

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. The Confinement Vessel Assay System (CVAS) was developed to measure the amount of SNM in CVs before and after cleanout. Prior to cleanout, the system will be used to perform a verification measurement of each vessel. After cleanout, the system will be used to perform safeguards-quality assays of {le} 100-g {sup 239}Pu equivalent in a vessel for safeguards termination. The system was calibrated in three different mass regions (low, medium, and high) to cover the entire plutonium mass range that will be assayed. The low mass calibration and medium mass calibration were verified for material positioned in the center of an empty vessel. The systematic uncertainty due to position bias was estimated using an MCNPX model to simulate the response of the system to material localized at various points along the inner surface of the vessel. The background component due to cosmic ray spallation was determined by performing measurements of an empty vessel and comparing to measurements in the same location with no vessel present. The CVAS has been tested and calibrated in preparation for verification and safeguards measurements of CVs before and after cleanout.

  17. Polarized Light Cues Underlie Compass Calibration in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, John B.

    .e., geographic) directional system that provides the primary calibration reference for all of the compasses with respect to a common reference (13). Here, we show that the primary calibration reference is derived from of migration (6, 7, 14­16) but that the reverse is true once birds begin migration; that is, the magnetic

  18. Smooth Calibration, Leaky Forecasts, and Finite Recall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Sergiu

    Smooth Calibration, Leaky Forecasts, and Finite Recall Sergiu Hart October 2015 SERGIU HART c 2015 ­ p. #12;Smooth Calibration, Leaky Forecasts, and Finite Recall Sergiu Hart Center for the Study of Rationality Dept of Mathematics Dept of Economics The Hebrew University of Jerusalem hart@huji.ac.il http://www.ma.huji.ac.il/hart

  19. ROBOT CALIBRATION USING LEAST-SQUARES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flanagan, Randy

    ROBOT CALIBRATION USING LEAST-SQUARES AND P OLAR-DEC OMP O SITION FILTERING Gregory Ioannldes 1-axis robotic manipulators. The method proposed by the authors is based on a least-square estimation of the Yaskawa Motoman Robot was calibrated. The measurements of the Cartesian coordinates of points were

  20. Wavelength calibration of the JWST-MIRI medium resolution spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez-Galarza, J R; Hernan-Caballero, A; Azzollini, R; Glasse, A; Kendrew, S; Brandl, B; Lahuis, F

    2010-01-01

    We present the wavelength and spectral resolution characterisation of the Integral Field Unit (IFU) Medium Resolution Spectrometer for the Mid-InfraRed Instrument (MIRI), to fly onboard the James Webb Space Telescope in 2014. We use data collected using the Verification Model of the instrument and develop an empirical method to calibrate properties such as wavelength range and resolving power in a portion of the spectrometer's full spectral range (5-28 microns). We test our results against optical models to verify the system requirements and combine them with a study of the fringing pattern in the instrument's detector to provide a more accurate calibration. We show that MIRI's IFU spectrometer will be able to produce spectra with a resolving power above R=2800 in the wavelength range 6.46-7.70 microns, and that the unresolved spectral lines are well fitted by a Gaussian profile.

  1. A multi-physics, integrated approach to formation evaluation using borehole geophysical measurements and 3D seismic data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    A multi-physics, integrated approach to formation evaluation using borehole geophysical at Austin Summary This paper describes a methodology for formation evaluation based on the integration and DC resistivity sensors. Finally, 3D seismic data, post-stack and pre-stack, are used to ascertain

  2. Numerical Simulation of 3D EM Borehole Measurements Using an hp-Adaptive Goal-Oriented Finite Element Formulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    of simulation of electromagnetic borehole resistivity measurements for the assessment of rock formation self-adaptive method. The resulting grid enables fast simulations (few seconds per logging position of 3D simulators of resistivity log- ging measurements have been developed within the oil industry

  3. Sensitivity study of borehole-to-surface and crosswell electromagnetic measurements acquired with energized steel casing to water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    with energized steel casing to water displacement in hydrocarbon-bearing layers David Pardo1 , Carlos Torres is energized with a finite-size sole- noid antenna located along the axis of the borehole. Measure- ments more recent work concerning energized steel casing, in which an ar- ray of steel-casing segments

  4. A derivative standard for polarimeter calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulhollan, G.; Clendenin, J.; Saez, P. [and others

    1996-10-01

    A long-standing problem in polarized electron physics is the lack of a traceable standard for calibrating electron spin polarimeters. While several polarimeters are absolutely calibrated to better than 2%, the typical instrument has an inherent accuracy no better than 10%. This variability among polarimeters makes it difficult to compare advances in polarized electron sources between laboratories. The authors have undertaken an effort to establish 100 nm thick molecular beam epitaxy grown GaAs(110) as a material which may be used as a derivative standard for calibrating systems possessing a solid state polarized electron source. The near-bandgap spin polarization of photoelectrons emitted from this material has been characterized for a variety of conditions and several laboratories which possess well calibrated polarimeters have measured the photoelectron polarization of cathodes cut from a common wafer. Despite instrumentation differences, the spread in the measurements is sufficiently small that this material may be used as a derivative calibration standard.

  5. Calibrations of alpha Cen A & B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Morel; J. Provost; Y. Lebreton; F. Thevenin; G. Berthomieu

    2000-10-10

    Detailed evolutionary models of the visual binary alpha Centauri, including pre main-sequence evolution, have been performed using the masses recently determined by Pourbaix et al. (1999). Models have been constructed using the CEFF equation of state, OPAL opacities, NACRE thermonuclear reaction rates and microscopic diffusion. A chi^2-minimization is performed to derive the most reliable set of modeling parameters wp={t_alpha Cen, Yi, [Fe/H]i, alpha A, alpha B}, where t alpha Cen is the age of the system, Yi the initial helium content, [Fe/H]i the initial metallicity and, alpha A and alpha B the convection parameters of the two components. Using the basic Bohm-Vitense (1958) mixing-length theory of convection, we derive wp BV={2710 Myr, 0.284,0.257, 1.53, 1.57}. We obtain a noticeably smaller age than estimated previously, in agreement with Pourbaix et al. (1999), mainly because of the larger masses. If convective core overshoot is considered we get wp ov={3530 Myr, 0.279,0.264,1.64,1.66}. The use of Canuto & Mazitelli (1991, 1992) convection theory leads to the set wp CM={4086 Myr, 0.271, 0.264, 0.964, 0.986}. Using the observational constraints adopted by Guenther & Demarque (2000), and the basic mixing-length theory, we obtain wp GD={5640 Myr, 0.300, 0.296, 1.86, 1.97} and surface lithium depletions close to their observed values. A seismological analysis of our calibrated models has been performed. The determination of large and small spacings between the frequencies of acoustic oscillations from seismic observations would help to discriminate between the models of alpha Cen computed with different masses and to confirm or rules out the new determination of masses.

  6. Novel Chemically-Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Borehole Sealants (Ceramicretes) for Arctic Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirish Patil; Godwin A. Chukwu; Gang Chen; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramic borehole sealant, i.e. Ceramicrete, has many advantages over conventionally used permafrost cement at Alaska North Slope (ANS). However, in normal field practices when Ceramicrete is mixed with water in blenders, it has a chance of being contaminated with leftover Portland cement. In order to identify the effect of Portland cement contamination, recent tests have been conducted at BJ services in Tomball, TX as well as at the University of Alaska Fairbanks with Ceramicrete formulations proposed by the Argonne National Laboratory. The tests conducted at BJ Services with proposed Ceramicrete formulations and Portland cement contamination have shown significant drawbacks which has caused these formulations to be rejected. However, the newly developed Ceramicrete formulation at the University of Alaska Fairbanks has shown positive results with Portland cement contamination as well as without Portland cement contamination for its effective use in oil well cementing operations at ANS.

  7. Methane drainage with horizontal boreholes in advance of longwall mining: an analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabello, D.P.; Felts, L.L.; Hayoz, F.P.

    1981-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center has implemented a comprehensive program to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of coalbed methane as an energy resource. The program is directed toward solution of technical and institutional problems impeding the recovery and use of large quantities of methane contained in the nation's minable and unminable coalbeds. Conducted in direct support of the DOE Methane Recovery from Coalbeds Project, this study analyzes the economic aspects of a horizontal borehole methane recovery system integrated as part of a longwall mine operation. It establishes relationships between methane selling price and annual mine production, methane production rate, and the methane drainage system capital investment. Results are encouraging, indicating that an annual coal production increase of approximately eight percent would offset all associated drainage costs over the range of methane production rates and capital investments considered.

  8. Thermal Fracturing of Geothermal Wells and the Effects of Borehole Orientation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hals, Kjetil M D

    2012-01-01

    An enhanced geothermal system (EGS) expands the potential of geothermal energy by enabling the exploitation of regions that lack conventional hydrothermal resources. The EGS subsurface system is created by engineering enhanced flow paths between injection and production wells. Hydraulic stimulation of existing fracture networks has been successfully achieved for unconventional geothermal resources. More recently proposed concepts increase the use of drilled wellbores in hard rock to connect the injection and production wells. The present work investigates the long-term thermal effects of deviated geothermal wellbores and studies how the cooling of the borehole wall results in thermally induced tensile fractures. The results show that induced fractures are created by a combination of in situ and thermal stresses, and that the extent to which thermally induced tensile wall fractures are created largely depends on how the wellbores are oriented with respect to the pre-existing stresses of the reservoir. If the s...

  9. Method Apparatus And System For Detecting Seismic Waves In A Borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sumstine, Roger L. (St. George, UT)

    2006-03-14

    A method, apparatus and system for detecting seismic waves. A sensing apparatus is deployed within a bore hole and may include a source magnet for inducing a magnetic field within a casing of the borehole. An electrical coil is disposed within the magnetic field to sense a change in the magnetic field due to a displacement of the casing. The electrical coil is configured to remain substantially stationary relative to the well bore and its casing along a specified axis such that displacement of the casing induces a change within the magnetic field which may then be sensed by the electrical coil. Additional electrical coils may be similarly utilized to detect changes in the same or other associated magnetic fields along other specified axes. The additional sensor coils may be oriented substantially orthogonally relative to one another so as to detect seismic waves along multiple orthogonal axes in three dimensional space.

  10. System for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac (Houston, TX); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Pantea, Cristian (Los Alamos, NM); Nihei, Kurt T. (Oakland, CA); Schmitt, Denis P. (Katy, TX); Skelt, Christopher (Houston, TX)

    2012-07-31

    In some aspects of the invention, a device, positioned within a well bore, configured to generate and direct an acoustic beam into a rock formation around a borehole is disclosed. The device comprises a source configured to generate a first signal at a first frequency and a second signal at a second frequency; a transducer configured to receive the generated first and the second signals and produce acoustic waves at the first frequency and the second frequency; and a non-linear material, coupled to the transducer, configured to generate a collimated beam with a frequency equal to the difference between the first frequency and the second frequency by a non-linear mixing process, wherein the non-linear material includes one or more of a mixture of liquids, a solid, a granular material, embedded microspheres, or an emulsion.

  11. System for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher

    2012-09-04

    In some aspects of the invention, a device, positioned within a well bore, configured to generate and direct an acoustic beam into a rock formation around a borehole is disclosed. The device comprises a source configured to generate a first signal at a first frequency and a second signal at a second frequency; a transducer configured to receive the generated first and the second signals and produce acoustic waves at the first frequency and the second frequency; and a non-linear material, coupled to the transducer, configured to generate a collimated beam with a frequency equal to the difference between the first frequency and the second frequency by a non-linear mixing process, wherein the non-linear material includes one or more of a mixture of liquids, a solid, a granular material, embedded microspheres, or an emulsion.

  12. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vu, Cung Khac (Houston, TX); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Pantea, Cristian (Los Alamos, NM); Nihei, Kurt (Oakland, CA); Schmitt, Denis P. (Katy, TX); Skelt, Christopher (Houston, TX)

    2010-11-23

    In some aspects of the invention, a device, positioned within a well bore, configured to generate and direct an acoustic beam into a rock formation around a borehole is disclosed. The device comprises a source configured to generate a first signal at a first frequency and a second signal at a second frequency; a transducer configured to receive the generated first and the second signals and produce acoustic waves at the first frequency and the second frequency; and a non-linear material, coupled to the transducer, configured to generate a collimated beam with a frequency equal to the difference between the first frequency and the second frequency by a non-linear mixing process, wherein the non-linear material includes one or more of a mixture of liquids, a solid, a granular material, embedded microspheres, or an emulsion.

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Waste Remediation Using the Borehole-Miner Extendible-Nozzle Sluicer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Boris, G.F.

    1999-10-07

    A borehole-miner extendible-nozzle sluicing system was designed, constructed, and deployed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to remediate five horizontal underground storage tanks containing sludge and supernate at the ORNL Old Hydrofracture Facility site. The tanks were remediated in fiscal year 1998 to remove {approx}98% of the waste, {approx}3% greater than the target removal of >95% of the waste. The tanks contained up to 18 in. of sludge covered by supernate. The 42,000 gal of low level liquid waste were estimated to contain 30,000 Ci, with 97% of this total located in the sludge. The retrieval was successful. At the completion of the remediation, the State of Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed that the tanks were cleaned to the maximum extent practicable using pumping technology. This deployment was the first radioactive demonstration of the borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting system. The extendible nozzle is based on existing bore hole-miner technology used to fracture and dislodge ore deposits in mines. Typically borehole-miner technology includes both dislodging and retrieval capabilities. Both dislodging, using the extendible-nozzle water-jetting system, and retrieval, using a jet pump located at the base of the mast, are deployed as an integrated system through one borehole or riser. Note that the extendible-nozzle system for Oak Ridge remediation only incorporated the dislodging capability; the retrieval pump was deployed through a separate riser. The borehole-miner development and deployment is part of the Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements project under the direction of the US Department of Energy's EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. This development and deployment was conducted as a partnership between RPD and E and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's US DOE EM040 Old Hydrofracture Facility remediation project team.

  14. Justification Of The Use Of Boreholes For Disposal Of Sealed Radiological Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarling, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Soon there will be only 14 states in two compacts that are able to dispose of Low Level Waste (LLW): the Northwest and Rocky Mountain compact with disposal options in Richland, Washington, and the Atlantic compact with disposal options in Barnwell, South Carolina. How do states not in one of the two compacts dispose of their LLW? The Off-Site Source Recovery Project can take possession and dispose of some of the unwanted transuranic sources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). However, there will be no path forward for states outside of the two compacts for disposal of their non-transuranic LLW. A solution that has been much discussed, debated and researched, but has not been put into wide scale practice, is the borehole disposal concept. It is the author's position that companies that drill and explore for oil have been disposing of sources in borehole-like structures for years. It should be noted that these companies are not purposely disposing of these sources, but the sources are irretrievable and must be abandoned. Additionally, there are Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations that must be followed to seal the well that contains the lost and abandoned source. According to the NRC Event Notification Reports database, there were a minimum of 29 reports of lost and abandoned sources in oil wells between December 1999 and October 2006. The sources were lost at depths between 2,018-18,887 feet, or 600-5,750 meters. The companies that are performing explorations with the aid of sealed radiological sources must follow regulation 10 CFR Part 39. Subsection 15 outlines the procedures that must be followed if sources are determined to be irretrievable and abandoned in place. If the NRC allows and has regulations in place for oil companies, why can't states and/or companies be allowed to dispose of LLW in a similar fashion?

  15. Jet energy calibration at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariel Schwartzman

    2015-09-17

    Jets are one of the most prominent physics signatures of high energy proton proton (p-p) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). They are key physics objects for precision measurements and searches for new phenomena. This review provides an overview of the reconstruction and calibration of jets at the LHC during its first Run. ATLAS and CMS developed different approaches for the reconstruction of jets, but use similar methods for the energy calibration. ATLAS reconstructs jets utilizing input signals from their calorimeters and use charged particle tracks to refine their energy measurement and suppress the effects of multiple p-p interactions (pileup). CMS, instead, combines calorimeter and tracking information to build jets from particle flow objects. Jets are calibrated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and a residual in situ calibration derived from collision data is applied to correct for the differences in jet response between data and Monte Carlo. Large samples of dijet, Z+jets, and photon+jet events at the LHC allowed the calibration of jets with high precision, leading to very small systematic uncertainties. Both ATLAS and CMS achieved a jet energy calibration uncertainty of about 1% in the central detector region and for jets with transverse momentum pT>100 GeV. At low jet pT, the jet energy calibration uncertainty is less than 4%, with dominant contributions from pileup, differences in energy scale between quark and gluon jets, and jet flavor composition.

  16. 3-D Finite Di erence Modeling for Borehole and Reservoir Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasovec, Mary L.

    2004-01-01

    ERL's in-house nite difference code (Krasovec et al., 2003) has undergone several upgrades in the past year. Most notably, a stretched grid can now be used to greatly reduce the amount of RAM memory needed by certain types ...

  17. FMI Borehole Geology, Geomechanics and 3D Reservoir Modeling | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdisto Electric Coop,Erosion FlumeEventFAOFBASSESSMENTInformation FMI

  18. Apparatus and methods for determining gas saturation and porosity of a formation penetrated by a gas filled or liquid filled borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Robert D. (477 W. Scenic Dr., Grand Junction, CO 81503)

    2001-03-27

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for determining gas saturation, liquid saturation, porosity and density of earth formations penetrated by a well borehole. Determinations are made from measures of fast neutron and inelastic scatter gamma radiation induced by a pulsed, fast neutron source. The system preferably uses two detectors axially spaced from the neutron source. One detector is preferably a scintillation detector responsive to gamma radiation, and a second detector is preferably an organic scintillator responsive to both neutron and gamma radiation. The system can be operated in cased boreholes which are filled with either gas or liquid. Techniques for correcting all measurements for borehole conditions are disclosed.

  19. Xray CCD Calibration for the AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer M. Bautz, S. Kissel, G. Prigozhin, S. Jones, T. Isobe,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1%; detection efficiency knowledge error of order 1%) are reviewed. The primary standards chosen as a primary radiometric standard for the detection efficiency calibration. We review the basic models (CCD), calibration, AXAF, ACIS 1 INTRODUCTION The Advanced X­ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF

  20. Digiquartz pressure transducer calibration test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bentzen, F.L.

    1980-12-01

    The safeguarding of strategic nuclear material in chemical fuel reprocessing plants requires the accurate determination of liquid level, which is translated to pressure through bubbler probes. To measure the pressure with sufficient accuracy requires transducers better than standard process units. The Paroscientific Inc. Digiquartz transducer meets the requirement when calibrated. Calibration was accomplished with an automatic data acquisition system using a Hewlett Packard 9825A computer and associated precision laboratory equipment and a Ruska DDR 6000 pressure calibrator. Data were taken from 0 to 15 psid over the range of 15 to 60/sup 0/C for 14 pressure transducers.

  1. Paper II: Calibration of the Swift ultraviolet/optical telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breeveld, A A; Hoversten, E A; Koch, S; Landsman, W; Marshall, F E; Page, M J; Poole, T S; Roming, P; Smith, P J; Still, M; Yershov, V; Blustin, A J; Brown, P J; Gronwall, C; Holland, S T; Kuin, N P M; McGowan, K; Rosen, S; Boyd, P; Broos, P; Carter, M; Chester, M M; Hancock, B; Huckle, H; Immler, S; Ivanushkina, M; Kennedy, T; Mason, K O; Morgan, A N; Oates, S; de Pasquale, M; Schady, P; Siegel, M; Berk, D Vanden

    2010-01-01

    The Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) is one of three instruments onboard the Swift observatory. The photometric calibration has been published, and this paper follows up with details on other aspects of the calibration including a measurement of the point spread function with an assessment of the orbital variation and the effect on photometry. A correction for large scale variations in sensitivity over the field of view is described, as well as a model of the coincidence loss which is used to assess the coincidence correction in extended regions. We have provided a correction for the detector distortion and measured the resulting internal astrometric accuracy of the UVOT, also giving the absolute accuracy with respect to the International Celestial Reference System. We have compiled statistics on the background count rates, and discuss the sources of the background, including instrumental scattered light. In each case we describe any impact on UVOT measurements, whether any correction is applied in the st...

  2. Applying Calibration to Improve Uncertainty Assessment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fondren, Mark Edward

    2013-08-02

    and its components, mainly calibration, are used for evaluating reliability. The system is general in the types of estimates and forecasts that it can monitor, including production, reserves, time, costs, and even quarterly earnings. Forecasts may...

  3. Ultraviolet laser calibration of drift chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Grant (Grant Andrew)

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a focused ultraviolet laser as a track calibration source in drift chambers, and specifically in a small time projection chamber (TPC). Drift chambers such as TPCs reconstruct the trajectories of ...

  4. Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, K.

    2012-06-01

    Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.

  5. Calibration facility for environment dosimetry instruments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bercea, Sorin; Celarel, Aurelia; Cenusa, Constantin [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 30 Reactorului St, Magurele, Jud Ilfov, P.O.B. MG-6, RO-077125 (Romania)

    2013-12-16

    In the last ten years, the nuclear activities, as well as the major nuclear events (see Fukushima accident) had an increasing impact on the environment, merely by contamination with radioactive materials. The most conferment way to quickly identify the presence of some radioactive elements in the environment, is to measure the dose-equivalent rate H. In this situation, information concerning the values of H due only to the natural radiation background must exist. Usually, the values of H due to the natural radiation background, are very low (?10{sup ?9} - 10{sup ?8} Sv/h). A correct measurement of H in this range involve a performing calibration of the measuring instruments in the measuring range corresponding to the natural radiation background lead to important problems due to the presence of the natural background itself the best way to overlap this difficulty is to set up the calibration stand in an area with very low natural radiation background. In Romania, we identified an area with such special conditions at 200 m dept, in a salt mine. This paper deals with the necessary requirements for such a calibration facility, as well as with the calibration stand itself. The paper includes also, a description of the calibration stand (and images) as well as the radiological and metrological parameters. This calibration facilities for environment dosimetry is one of the few laboratories in this field in Europe.

  6. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole C3103 Located in the 216-B-7A Crib Near the B Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

    2002-12-01

    This report summarizes data collected from samples in borehole C3103. Borehole C3103 was completed to further characterize the nature and extent of vadose zone contaminants supplied by intentional liquid discharges into the crib 216-B7A/7B between 1954 and 1967. These cribs received dilute waste streams from the bismuth phosphate fuel reprocessing program in the 1950's and decontamination waste in the 1960's. Elevated concentrations of several constituents were primarily measured at different depth intervals. The primary radionuclides present in this borehole are cesium-137 and uranium near the top of the borehole. Chemical characteristics attributed to wastewater-soil interaction at different locations within this zone are elevated pH, sodium, fluoride, carbonate nitrate, and sulphate

  7. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-4 and -5: Data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S.; Martin, R.J. [New England Research, Inc., White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Experimental results are presented for bulk and mechanical properties measurements on specimens of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from boreholes UE25 NRG-4 and -5, at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Measurements have been performed on three thermal/mechanical units, PTn, TSwl, and TSw2. On each specimen the following bulk properties have been reported: dry bulk density, saturated bulk density, average grain density, and porosity. Unconfined compression to failure, confined compression to failure, and indirect tensile strength tests were performed on selected specimens recovered from the boreholes. In addition, compressional and shear wave velocities were measured on specimens designated for unconfined compression and confined compression experiments. Measurements were conducted at room temperature on nominally water-saturated specimens. The nominal rate for the fracture experiments was 10{sup -5}s{sup -1}.

  8. MINOS Calibration and NA49 Hadronic Production Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morse, Robert James

    2003-08-01

    An overview of the current status of the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is presented. MINOS is a long-baseline experiment with two detectors situated in North America. The near detector is based at the emission point of the NuMI beam at Fermilab, Chicago, the far detector is 735 km downstream in a disused iron mine in Soudan, Minnesota. A third detector, the calibration detector, is used to cross-calibrate these detectors by sampling different particle beams at CERN. A detailed description of the design and construction of the light-injection calibration system is included. Also presented are experimental investigations into proton-carbon collisions at 158 GeV/c carried out with the NA49 experiment at CERN. The NA49 experiment is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) based experiment situated at CERN's North Area. It is a well established experiment with well known characteristics. The data gained from this investigation are to be used to parameterize various hadronic production processes in accelerator and atmospheric neutrino production. These hadronic production parameters will be used to improve the neutrino generation models used in calculating the neutrino oscillation parameters in MINOS.

  9. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples.

  10. Relationship between acoustic body waves and in situ stresses around a borehole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rousseau, A

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows that there are three types of shape of acoustic body waves propagating inside competent and homogeneous formations penetrated by a borehole : simple, double, and resonant. This fact is connected to the modifications undergone by the area located around a well after drilling in relation to in situ state of stress. There are overstressed and understressed vertical cylindrical zones with "bubble-shaped" cross-sections, in which acoustic body waves are supposed to reflect. The horizontal size and the shape of the stress modified areas depend on the values of (K1+K2)/2 - with K1=SH/Sv (the overburden pressure) and K2=Sh/Sv -, that is to say on the in situ horizontal stress and the anisotropy of this stress. The calculation of the velocities of the P and S double waves allows us to evaluate the radial thicknesses of these stress modified areas. As their values are different according to whether they result from P or S waves, we propose an explanation based on their wavelengths. The comparisons with...

  11. Bulk and mechanical properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from borehole USW NRG-7/7A: Data report. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.J.; Boyd, P.J.; Noel, J.S. [New England Research, Inc. White River Junction, VT (United States); Price, R.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    An integral part of the licensing procedure for the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, involves prediction of the in situ rheology for the design and construction of the facility and the emplacement of canisters containing radioactive waste. The data used to model the thermal and mechanical behavior of the repository and surrounding lithologies include dry and saturated bulk densities, average grain density, porosity, compressional and shear wave velocities, elastic moduli, and compressional and tensional fracture strengths. In this study, a suite of experiments was performed on cores recovered from the USW NRG-717A borehole drilled in support of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. USW NRG-7/7A was drilled to a depth of 1,513.4 feet through five thermal/mechanical units of Paintbrush tuff and terminating in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico IEUS. The thermal/mechanical stratigraphy was defined by Orfiz et al. to group rock horizons of similar properties for the purpose of simplifying modeling efforts. The relationship between the geologic stratigraphy and the thermal/mechanical stratigraphy is presented. The tuff samples in this study have a wide range of welding characteristics, and a smaller range of mineralogy and petrology characteristics. Generally, the samples are silicic, ash-fall tuffs that exhibit large variability in their elastic and strength properties.

  12. Calibration-free optical chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGrandpre, Michael D.

    2006-04-11

    An apparatus and method for taking absorbance-based chemical measurements are described. In a specific embodiment, an indicator-based pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) sensor displays sensor-to-sensor reproducibility and measurement stability. These qualities are achieved by: 1) renewing the sensing solution, 2) allowing the sensing solution to reach equilibrium with the analyte, and 3) calculating the response from a ratio of the indicator solution absorbances which are determined relative to a blank solution. Careful solution preparation, wavelength calibration, and stray light rejection also contribute to this calibration-free system. Three pCO2 sensors were calibrated and each had response curves which were essentially identical within the uncertainty of the calibration. Long-term laboratory and field studies showed the response had no drift over extended periods (months). The theoretical response, determined from thermodynamic characterization of the indicator solution, also predicted the observed calibration-free performance.

  13. Calibration Monitoring for Sensor Calibration Interval Extension: Gaps in the Current Science Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Hashemian, Hash; Shumaker, Brent; Cummins, Dara

    2012-10-09

    Currently in the United States, periodic sensor recalibration is required for all safety-related sensors, typically occurring at every refueling outage, and it has emerged as a critical path item for shortening outage duration in some plants. International application of calibration monitoring has shown that sensors may operate for longer periods within calibration tolerances. This issue is expected to also be important as the United States looks to the next generation of reactor designs (such as small modular reactors and advanced concepts), given the anticipated longer refueling cycles, proposed advanced sensors, and digital instrumentation and control systems. Online monitoring (OLM) can be employed to identify those sensors that require calibration, allowing for calibration of only those sensors that need it. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) accepted the general concept of OLM for sensor calibration monitoring in 2000, but no U.S. plants have been granted the necessary license amendment to apply it. This paper summarizes a recent state-of-the-art assessment of online calibration monitoring in the nuclear power industry, including sensors, calibration practice, and OLM algorithms. This assessment identifies key research needs and gaps that prohibit integration of the NRC-approved online calibration monitoring system in the U.S. nuclear industry. Several technical needs were identified, including an understanding of the impacts of sensor degradation on measurements for both conventional and emerging sensors; the quantification of uncertainty in online calibration assessment; determination of calibration acceptance criteria and quantification of the effect of acceptance criteria variability on system performance; and assessment of the feasibility of using virtual sensor estimates to replace identified faulty sensors in order to extend operation to the next convenient maintenance opportunity.

  14. A Review of Sensor Calibration Monitoring for Calibration Interval Extension in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Hashemian, Hash; Shumaker, Brent; Cummins, Dara

    2012-08-31

    Currently in the United States, periodic sensor recalibration is required for all safety-related sensors, typically occurring at every refueling outage, and it has emerged as a critical path item for shortening outage duration in some plants. Online monitoring can be employed to identify those sensors that require calibration, allowing for calibration of only those sensors that need it. International application of calibration monitoring, such as at the Sizewell B plant in United Kingdom, has shown that sensors may operate for eight years, or longer, within calibration tolerances. This issue is expected to also be important as the United States looks to the next generation of reactor designs (such as small modular reactors and advanced concepts), given the anticipated longer refueling cycles, proposed advanced sensors, and digital instrumentation and control systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) accepted the general concept of online monitoring for sensor calibration monitoring in 2000, but no U.S. plants have been granted the necessary license amendment to apply it. This report presents a state-of-the-art assessment of online calibration monitoring in the nuclear power industry, including sensors, calibration practice, and online monitoring algorithms. This assessment identifies key research needs and gaps that prohibit integration of the NRC-approved online calibration monitoring system in the U.S. nuclear industry. Several needs are identified, including the quantification of uncertainty in online calibration assessment; accurate determination of calibration acceptance criteria and quantification of the effect of acceptance criteria variability on system performance; and assessment of the feasibility of using virtual sensor estimates to replace identified faulty sensors in order to extend operation to the next convenient maintenance opportunity. Understanding the degradation of sensors and the impact of this degradation on signals is key to developing technical basis to support acceptance criteria and set point decisions, particularly for advanced sensors which do not yet have a cumulative history of operating performance.

  15. The Fourth VLBA Calibrator Survey - VCS4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Petrov; Y. Y. Kovalev; E. Fomalont; D. Gordon

    2005-10-24

    This paper presents the fourth extension to the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) Calibrator Survey, containing 258 new sources not previously observed with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). This survey, based on three 24 hour VLBA observing sessions, fills remaining areas on the sky above declination -40 degrees where the calibrator density is less than one source within a 4 degree radius disk at any given direction. The share of these area was reduced from 4.6% to 1.9%. Source positions were derived from astrometric analysis of group delays determined at 2.3 and 8.6 GHz frequency bands using the Calc/Solve software package. The VCS4 catalogue of source positions, plots of correlated flux density versus projected baseline length, contour plots and fits files of naturally weighted CLEAN images, as well as calibrated visibility function files are available on the Web at http://gemini.gsfc.nasa.gov/vcs4 .

  16. Planck 2015 results. VIII. High Frequency Instrument data processing: Calibration and maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam, R; Aghanim, N; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bertincourt, B; Bielewicz, P; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leahy, J P; Lellouch, E; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Moreno, R; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Mottet, S; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Sauvé, A; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the processing applied to the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) cleaned, time-ordered information to produce photometrically calibrated maps in temperature and (for the first time) in polarization. The data from the 2.5 year full mission include almost five independent full-sky surveys. HFI observes the sky over a broad range of frequencies, from 100 to 857 GHz. To get the best accuracy on the calibration over such a large range, two different photometric calibration schemes have been used. The 545 and 857 GHz data are calibrated using models of planetary atmospheric emission. The lower frequencies (from 100 to 353 GHz) are calibrated using the time-variable cosmological microwave background dipole which we call the orbital dipole. This source of calibration only depends on the satellite velocity with respect to the solar system and permits an independent measurement of the amplitude of the CMB solar dipole (3364.5 +/- 0.8 \\mu K) which is 1\\sigma\\ higher than the WMAP measurement wit...

  17. Demonstration of emulator-based Bayesian calibration of safety analysis codes: Theory and formulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yurko, Joseph P.; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Youngblood, Robert

    2015-05-28

    System codes for simulation of safety performance of nuclear plants may contain parameters whose values are not known very accurately. New information from tests or operating experience is incorporated into safety codes by a process known as calibration, which reduces uncertainty in the output of the code and thereby improves its support for decision-making. The work reported here implements several improvements on classic calibration techniques afforded by modern analysis techniques. The key innovation has come from development of code surrogate model (or code emulator) construction and prediction algorithms. Use of a fast emulator makes the calibration processes used here withmore »Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling feasible. This study uses Gaussian Process (GP) based emulators, which have been used previously to emulate computer codes in the nuclear field. The present work describes the formulation of an emulator that incorporates GPs into a factor analysis-type or pattern recognition-type model. This “function factorization” Gaussian Process (FFGP) model allows overcoming limitations present in standard GP emulators, thereby improving both accuracy and speed of the emulator-based calibration process. Calibration of a friction-factor example using a Method of Manufactured Solution is performed to illustrate key properties of the FFGP based process.« less

  18. Calibration of the MACHO Photometry Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Alcock; R. A. Allsman; D. R. Alves; T. S. Axelrod; A. C. Becker; D. P. Bennett; K. H. Cook; A. J. Drake; K. C. Freeman; K. Griest; M. J. Lehner; S. L. Marshall; D. Minniti; B. A. Peterson; M. R. Pratt; C. A. Nelson; P. J. Quinn; C. W. Stubbs; W. Sutherland; A. B. Tomaney; D. L. Welch

    1999-09-14

    The MACHO Project is a microlensing survey that monitors the brightnesses of 60 million stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Small Magellanic Cloud, and Galactic bulge. Our database presently contains about 80 billion photometric measurements, a significant fraction of all astronomical photometry. We describe the calibration of MACHO two-color photometry and transformation to the standard Kron-Cousins V and R system. Calibrated MACHO photometry may be properly compared with all other observations on the Kron-Cousins standard system, enhancing the astrophysical value of these data. For 9 million stars in the LMC bar, independent photometric measurements of 20,000 stars with V photometry with published photometric sequences and new Hubble Space Telescope observations shows agreement. The current calibration zero-point uncertainty for the remainder of the MACHO photometry database is estimated to be +- 0.10 mag in V or R and +-0.04 mag in (V-R). We describe the first application of calibrated MACHO photometry data: the construction of a color-magnitude diagram used to calculate our experimental sensitivity to detect microlensing in the LMC.

  19. Jet energy calibration at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartzman, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Jets are one of the most prominent physics signatures of high energy proton proton (p-p) collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). They are key physics objects for precision measurements and searches for new phenomena. This review provides an overview of the reconstruction and calibration of jets at the LHC during its first Run. ATLAS and CMS developed different approaches for the reconstruction of jets, but use similar methods for the energy calibration. ATLAS reconstructs jets utilizing input signals from their calorimeters and use charged particle tracks to refine their energy measurement and suppress the effects of multiple p-p interactions (pileup). CMS, instead, combines calorimeter and tracking information to build jets from particle flow objects. Jets are calibrated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and a residual in situ calibration derived from collision data is applied to correct for the differences in jet response between data and Monte Carlo. Large samples of dijet, Z+jets, and photon+jet e...

  20. Calibration of the Milagro Cosmic Ray Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    1999-01-01

    The Milagro detector is an air shower array which uses the water Cherenkov technique and is capable of continuously monitoring the sky at energies near 1 TeV. The detector consists of 20000 metric tons of pure water instrumented with 723 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs are arranged in a two-layer structure on a lattice of 3 m spacing covering 5000 $m^2$ area. The direction of the shower is determined from the relative timing of the PMT signals, necessitating a common time reference and amplitude slewing corrections to improve the time resolution. The calibration system to provide these consists of a pulsed laser driving 30 diffusing light sources deployed in the pond to allow cross-calibration of the PMTs. The system is capable of calibrating times and the pulse-heights from the PMTs using the time-over-threshold technique. The absolute energy scale is provided using single muons passing through the detector. The description of the calibration system of the Milagro detector and its prototype Milagrito...

  1. Calibration of the Milagro Cosmic Ray Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Atkins; W. Benbow; D. Berley; M. -L. Chen; D. G. Coyne; R. S. Delay; B. L. Dingus; D. E. Dorfan; R. W. Ellsworth; D. Evans; A. Falcone; L. Fleysher; R. Fleysher; G. Gisler; J. A. Goodman; T. J. Haines; C. M. Hoffman; S. Hugenberger; L. A. Kelley; I. Leonor; J. Macri; M. McConnell; J. F. McCullough; J. E. McEnery; R. S. Miller; A. I. Mincer; M. F. Morales; P. Nemethy; J. M. Ryan; M. Schneider; B. Shen; A. Shoup; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; G. W. Sullivan; T. N. Thompson; O. T. Tumer; K. Wang; M. O. Wascko; S. Westerhoff; D. A. Williams; T. Yang; G. B. Yodh

    1999-06-25

    The Milagro detector is an air shower array which uses the water Cherenkov technique and is capable of continuously monitoring the sky at energies near 1 TeV. The detector consists of 20000 metric tons of pure water instrumented with 723 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). The PMTs are arranged in a two-layer structure on a lattice of 3 m spacing covering 5000 $m^2$ area. The direction of the shower is determined from the relative timing of the PMT signals, necessitating a common time reference and amplitude slewing corrections to improve the time resolution. The calibration system to provide these consists of a pulsed laser driving 30 diffusing light sources deployed in the pond to allow cross-calibration of the PMTs. The system is capable of calibrating times and the pulse-heights from the PMTs using the time-over-threshold technique. The absolute energy scale is provided using single muons passing through the detector. The description of the calibration system of the Milagro detector and its prototype Milagrito will be presented.

  2. Planck 2015 results. V. LFI calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaglia, P; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Fergusson, J; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Lesgourgues, J; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; McGehee, P; Meinhold, P R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Peel, M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Romelli, E; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Seiffert, M D; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vassallo, T; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Watson, R; Wehus, I K; Wilkinson, A; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a description of the pipeline used to calibrate the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) timelines into thermodynamic temperatures for the Planck 2015 data release, covering 4 years of uninterrupted operations. As in the 2013 data release, our calibrator is provided by the spin-synchronous modulation of the CMB dipole, exploiting both the orbital and solar components. Our 2015 LFI analysis provides an independent Solar dipole estimate in excellent agreement with that of HFI and within $1\\sigma$ (0.3 % in amplitude) of the WMAP value. This 0.3 % shift in the peak-to-peak dipole temperature from WMAP and a global overhaul of the iterative calibration code increases the overall level of the LFI maps by 0.45 % (30 GHz), 0.64 % (44 GHz), and 0.82 % (70 GHz) in temperature with respect to the 2013 Planck data release, thus reducing the discrepancy with the power spectrum measured by WMAP. We estimate that the LFI calibration uncertainty is at the level of 0.20 % for the 70 GHz map, 0.26 % for the 44 GHz...

  3. Beam calibration of radio telescopes with drones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Chihway; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam; Glauser, Adrian; Casura, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-frequency far-field beam map for the 5m dish telescope at the Bleien Observatory measured using a commercially available drone. We describe the hexacopter drone used in this experiment, the design of the flight pattern, and the data analysis scheme. This is the first application of this calibration method to a single dish radio telescope in the far-field. The high signal-to-noise data allows us to characterise the beam pattern with high accuracy out to at least the 4th side-lobe. The resulting 2D beam pattern is compared with that derived from a more traditional calibration approach using an astronomical calibration source. We discuss the advantages of this method compared to other beam calibration methods. Our results show that this drone-based technique is very promising for ongoing and future radio experiments, where the knowledge of the beam pattern is key to obtaining high-accuracy cosmological and astronomical measurements.

  4. Groundwater Flow and Thermal Modeling to Support a Preferred Conceptual Model for the Large Hydraulic Gradient North of Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGraw, D.; Oberlander, P.

    2007-12-18

    The purpose of this study is to report on the results of a preliminary modeling framework to investigate the causes of the large hydraulic gradient north of Yucca Mountain. This study builds on the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (referenced herein as the Site-scale model (Zyvoloski, 2004a), which is a three-dimensional saturated zone model of the Yucca Mountain area. Groundwater flow was simulated under natural conditions. The model framework and grid design describe the geologic layering and the calibration parameters describe the hydrogeology. The Site-scale model is calibrated to hydraulic heads, fluid temperature, and groundwater flowpaths. One area of interest in the Site-scale model represents the large hydraulic gradient north of Yucca Mountain. Nearby water levels suggest over 200 meters of hydraulic head difference in less than 1,000 meters horizontal distance. Given the geologic conceptual models defined by various hydrogeologic reports (Faunt, 2000, 2001; Zyvoloski, 2004b), no definitive explanation has been found for the cause of the large hydraulic gradient. Luckey et al. (1996) presents several possible explanations for the large hydraulic gradient as provided below: The gradient is simply the result of flow through the upper volcanic confining unit, which is nearly 300 meters thick near the large gradient. The gradient represents a semi-perched system in which flow in the upper and lower aquifers is predominantly horizontal, whereas flow in the upper confining unit would be predominantly vertical. The gradient represents a drain down a buried fault from the volcanic aquifers to the lower Carbonate Aquifer. The gradient represents a spillway in which a fault marks the effective northern limit of the lower volcanic aquifer. The large gradient results from the presence at depth of the Eleana Formation, a part of the Paleozoic upper confining unit, which overlies the lower Carbonate Aquifer in much of the Death Valley region. The Eleana Formation is absent at borehole UE-25 p#1 at Yucca Mountain, which penetrated the lower Carbonate Aquifer directly beneath the lower volcanic confining unit. The Site-scale model uses an area of very low permeability, referenced as the east-west barrier, to simulate the large hydraulic gradient. The Site-scale model is further refined in this study to provide a base-case model for exploring the geologic causes of the large hydraulic gradient.

  5. Downstream hydraulic geometry relations: 2. Calibration and testing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Vijay P.; Yang, Chih Ted; Deng, Zhi-Qiang

    2003-12-04

    Using 456 data sets under bank-full conditions obtained from various sources, the geometric relations, derived in part 1 [ Singh et al., 2003 ], are calibrated and verified using the split sampling approach. The calibration of parameters shows...

  6. Definition of energy-calibrated spectra for national reachback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunz, Christopher L.; Hertz, Kristin L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate energy calibration is critical for the timeliness and accuracy of analysis results of spectra submitted to National Reachback, particularly for the detection of threat items. Many spectra submitted for analysis include either a calibration spectrum using 137Cs or no calibration spectrum at all. The single line provided by 137Cs is insufficient to adequately calibrate nonlinear spectra. A calibration source that provides several lines that are well-spaced, from the low energy cutoff to the full energy range of the detector, is needed for a satisfactory energy calibration. This paper defines the requirements of an energy calibration for the purposes of National Reachback, outlines a method to validate whether a given spectrum meets that definition, discusses general source considerations, and provides a specific operating procedure for calibrating the GR-135.

  7. A Bayesian Approach to Calibrating High-Throughput Virtual Screening Results and Application to Organic Photovoltaic Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach for calibrating quantum-chemical properties determined as part of a high-throughput virtual screen to experimental analogs is presented. Information on the molecular graph is extracted through the use of extended connectivity fingerprints, and exploited using a Gaussian process to calibrate both electronic properties such as frontier orbital energies, and optical gaps and device properties such as short circuit current density, open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency. The Bayesian nature of this process affords a value for uncertainty in addition to each calibrated value. This allows the researcher to gain intuition about the model as well as the ability to respect its bounds.

  8. Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z

    2013-12-31

    The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer.

  9. NIST Measurement Services: Natural Gas Flow Calibration Service (NGFCS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NIST Measurement Services: Natural Gas Flow Calibration Service (NGFCS) NIST Special Publication of Standards and Technology #12;i Table of Contents for the Natural Gas Flowmeter Calibration Service (NGFCS;1 Abstract This document describes NIST's high pressure natural gas flow calibration service (NGFCS). Flow

  10. Pacific Enewetak Atoll Crater Exploration (PEACE) Program, Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Part 4. Analysis of borehole gravity surveys and other geologic and bathymetric studies in vicinity of Oak and Koa craters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry, T.W.; Wardlaw, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Pacific Enewetak Atoll Crater Exploration (PEACE) Program was established to resolve a number of questions for the Department of Defense (DOD) about the geologic and material-properties parameters of two craters (KOA and OAK), formed by near-surface bursts of high-yield thermonuclear devices on the northern margin of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, in 1958. The multidisciplinary studies conducted by the USGS in collaboration with other organizations during 1984 through 1987 were part of a much larger research initiative by the DNA to better understand the dynamic properties of strategic-scale nuclear bursts and the relevance of the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) craters to issues of strategic basing and targeting of nuclear weapons. Major topics include: Borehole gravity; Palentologic evidence for mixing; Electron paramagnetic resonance studies; Bathymetric studies of OAK crater; Constraints on densification and piping for OAK; and Additional studies of geologic crater models.

  11. Calibrations of a tritium extraction facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bretscher, M.M.; Oliver, B.M.; Farrar, H. IV

    1983-01-01

    A tritium extraction facility has been built for the purpose of measuring the absolute tritium concentration in neutron-irradiated lithium metal samples. Two independent calibration procedures have been used to determine what fraction, if any, of tritium is lost during the extraction process. The first procedure compares independently measured /sup 4/He and /sup 3/H concentrations from the /sup 6/Li(n,..cap alpha..)T reaction. The second procedure compared measured /sup 6/Li(n,..cap alpha..)T//sup 197/Au (n,..gamma..)/sup 198/Au thermal neutron reaction rate ratios with those obtained from Monte Carlo calculations using well-known cross sections. Both calibration methods show that within experimental errors (approx. 1.5%) no tritium is lost during the extraction process.

  12. Calibration method for video and radiation imagers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Mark F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fabris, Lorenzo (Knoxville, TN); Gee, Timothy F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goddard, Jr., James S. (Knoxville, TN); Karnowski, Thomas P. (Knoxville, TN); Ziock, Klaus-peter (Clinton, TN)

    2011-07-05

    The relationship between the high energy radiation imager pixel (HERIP) coordinate and real-world x-coordinate is determined by a least square fit between the HERIP x-coordinate and the measured real-world x-coordinates of calibration markers that emit high energy radiation imager and reflect visible light. Upon calibration, a high energy radiation imager pixel position may be determined based on a real-world coordinate of a moving vehicle. Further, a scale parameter for said high energy radiation imager may be determined based on the real-world coordinate. The scale parameter depends on the y-coordinate of the moving vehicle as provided by a visible light camera. The high energy radiation imager may be employed to detect radiation from moving vehicles in multiple lanes, which correspondingly have different distances to the high energy radiation imager.

  13. Calibrated Probabilistic Forecasting at the Stateline Wind Energy Center: The Regime-Switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genton, Marc G.

    Calibrated Probabilistic Forecasting at the Stateline Wind Energy Center: The Regime at a wind energy site and fits a conditional predictive model for each regime. Geographically dispersed was applied to 2-hour-ahead forecasts of hourly average wind speed near the Stateline wind energy center

  14. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Slant Borehole SX-108 in the S-SX Waste Management Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Wagnon, Kenneth B.; Williams, Bruce A.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 4.17. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is the fourth in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from a slant borehole installed beneath tank SX-108 (or simply SX-108 slant borehole).

  15. Calibration of a SCARA robot manipulator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brock, Timothy Boland

    1989-01-01

    ? the ? shelf equipment. One exception to this is the laser interferometer experiment which was primarily used as a verification tool. Micro computer based software was used for data analysis and parameter identification. Results of the calibration... between the calculated manipulator X ? positions and the actual manipulator X ? positions. Results of this verification test indicate that the parameters found using the stretched wire experiment could be used to predict the correct joint angles for any...

  16. RUNNING HEAD: THE FOSSIL CALIBRATION DATABASE Title: The Fossil Calibration Database, A New Resource for Divergence Dating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benton, Michael

    1 RUNNING HEAD: THE FOSSIL CALIBRATION DATABASE Title: The Fossil Calibration Database, A New Street NW, Washington, DC, 20059, USA; 19 Centre of Evolutionary and Ecological Studies, Marine Evolution continually lest they become obsolete. Here, we announce the Fossil Calibration Database (http

  17. The Fifth VLBA Calibrator Survey: VCS5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Y. Kovalev; L. Petrov; E. B. Fomalont; D. Gordon

    2006-11-21

    This paper presents the fifth part of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) Calibrator Survey (VCS), containing 569 sources not observed previously with very long baseline interferometry in geodetic or absolute astrometry programs. This campaign has two goals: (i) to observe additional sources which, together with previous survey results, form a complete sample, (ii) to find new strong sources suitable as phase calibrators. This VCS extension was based on three 24-hour VLBA observing sessions in 2005. It detected almost all extragalactic flat-spectrum sources with correlated flux density greater than 200 mJy at 8.6 GHz above declination -30 degrees which were not observed previously. Source positions with milliarcsecond accuracy were derived from astrometric analysis of ionosphere-free combinations of group delays determined from the 2.3 GHz and 8.6 GHz frequency bands. The VCS5 catalog of source positions, plots of correlated flux density versus projected baseline length, contour plots and FITS files of naturally weighted CLEAN images, as well as calibrated visibility function files are available on the Web at http://vlbi.gsfc.nasa.gov/vcs5

  18. The Sixth VLBA Calibrator Survey: VCS6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Petrov; Y. Y. Kovalev; E. B. Fomalont; D. Gordon

    2008-07-21

    This paper presents the sixth part to the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) Calibrator Survey. It contains the positions and maps of 264 sources of which 169 were not previously observed with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). This survey, based on two 24 hour VLBA observing sessions, was focused on 1) improving positions of 95 sources from previous VLBA Calibrator surveys that were observed either with very large a priori position errors or were observed not long enough to get reliable positions and 2) observing remaining new flat-spectrum sources with predicted correlated flux density in the range 100-200 mJy that were not observed in previous surveys. Source positions were derived from astrometric analysis of group delays determined at the 2.3 and 8.6 GHz frequency bands using the Calc/Solve software package. The VCS6 catalogue of source positions, plots of correlated flux density versus projected baseline length, contour plots and fits files of naturally weighted CLEAN images, as well as calibrated visibility function files are available on the Web at http://vlbi.gsfc.nasa.gov/vcs6

  19. hp-Adaptive Multiphysics Finite Element Simulation of LWD Borehole Sonic Waveforms Pawel J. Matuszyk, University of Texas at Austin, on leave from AGH University of Science and Technology,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    hp-Adaptive Multiphysics Finite Element Simulation of LWD Borehole Sonic Waveforms Pawel J-physics, finite-element method to simulate LWD borehole acoustic waveforms in the presence of the tool. The method truncation of the spatial domain. Examples of appli- cation are shown for the simulation of LWD sonic

  20. A likelihood method to cross-calibrate air-shower detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. P. Dembinski; B. Kégl; I. C. Mari?; M. Roth; D. Veberi?

    2015-03-31

    We present a detailed statistical treatment of the energy calibration of hybrid air-shower detectors, which combine a surface detector array and a fluorescence detector, to obtain an unbiased estimate of the calibration curve. The special features of calibration data from air showers prevent unbiased results, if a standard least-squares fit is applied to the problem. We develop a general maximum-likelihood approach, based on the detailed statistical model, to solve the problem. Our approach was developed for the Pierre Auger Observatory, but the applied principles are general and can be transferred to other air-shower experiments, even to the cross-calibration of other observables. Since our general likelihood function is expensive to compute, we derive two approximations with significantly smaller computational cost. In the recent years both have been used to calibrate data of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We demonstrate that these approximations introduce negligible bias when they are applied to simulated toy experiments, which mimic realistic experimental conditions.

  1. Calibration of a Thomson scattering diagnostic for fluctuation measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, H. D.; Borchardt, M. T.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Falkowski, A. F.; Holly, D. J.; O'Connell, R.; Reusch, J. A.

    2008-10-15

    Detailed calibrations of the Madison Symmetric Torus polychromator Thomson scattering system have been made suitable for electron temperature fluctuation measurements. All calibrations have taken place focusing on accuracy, ease of use and repeatability, and in situ measurements wherever possible. Novel calibration processes have been made possible with an insertable integrating sphere (ISIS), using an avalanche photodiode (APD) as a reference detector and optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Discussed are a novel in situ spatial calibration with the use of the ISIS, the use of an APD as a reference detector to streamline the APD calibration process, a standard dc spectral calibration, and in situ pulsed spectral calibration made possible with a combination of an OPO as a light source, the ISIS, and an APD used as a reference detector. In addition a relative quantum efficiency curve for the APDs is obtained to aid in uncertainty analysis.

  2. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjorn N. P. Paulsson

    2006-09-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to perform high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology has been hampered by the lack of acquisition technology necessary to record large volumes of high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data. This project took aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array has removed the technical acquisition barrier for recording the data volumes necessary to do high resolution 3D VSP and 3D cross-well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that promise to take the gas industry to the next level in their quest for higher resolution images of deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the oil or gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of detailed compartmentalization of oil and gas reservoirs. In this project, we developed a 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array that allows for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. This new array has significantly increased the efficiency of recording large data volumes at sufficiently dense spatial sampling to resolve reservoir complexities. The receiver pods have been fabricated and tested to withstand high temperature (200 C/400 F) and high pressure (25,000 psi), so that they can operate in wells up to 7,620 meters (25,000 feet) deep. The receiver array is deployed on standard production or drill tubing. In combination with 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources, the 400 level receiver array can be used to obtain 3D 9C data. These 9C borehole seismic data provide both compressional wave and shear wave information that can be used for quantitative prediction of rock and pore fluid types. The 400-level borehole receiver array has been deployed successfully in a number of oil and gas wells during the course of this project, and each survey has resulted in marked improvements in imaging of geologic features that are critical for oil or gas production but were previously considered to be below the limits of seismic resolution. This added level of reservoir detail has resulted in improved well placement in the oil and gas fields that have been drilled using the Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} images. In the future, the 400-level downhole seismic receiver array is expected to continue to improve reservoir characterization and drilling success in deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs.

  3. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Tucci

    2001-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the saturated-zone, site-scale flow and transport model (CRWMS M&O 2000) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for model calibration. The previous analysis was presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01, Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (USGS 2001). This analysis is designed to use updated water-level data as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain. The objectives of this revision are to develop computer files containing (1) water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002), (2) a table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS0109083 12332.003), and (3) a potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternate concept from that presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01 for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and data from borehole USW WT-24. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow and transport model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for ground-water management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model, as well as provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral ground-water flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment.

  4. Two Analyte Calibration From The Transient Response Of Potentiometric Sensors Employed With The SIA Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cartas, Raul; Mimendia, Aitor; Valle, Manel del; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-23

    Calibration models for multi-analyte electronic tongues have been commonly built using a set of sensors, at least one per analyte under study. Complex signals recorded with these systems are formed by the sensors' responses to the analytes of interest plus interferents, from which a multivariate response model is then developed. This work describes a data treatment method for the simultaneous quantification of two species in solution employing the signal from a single sensor. The approach used here takes advantage of the complex information recorded with one electrode's transient after insertion of sample for building the calibration models for both analytes. The departure information from the electrode was firstly processed by discrete wavelet for transforming the signals to extract useful information and reduce its length, and then by artificial neural networks for fitting a model. Two different potentiometric sensors were used as study case for simultaneously corroborating the effectiveness of the approach.

  5. The Modular Borehole Monitoring Program. A research program to optimize well-based monitoring for geologic carbon sequestration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Freifeld, Barry; Daley, Tom; Cook, Paul; Trautz, Robert; Dodds, Kevin

    2014-12-31

    Understanding the impacts caused by injection of large volumes of CO2 in the deep subsurface necessitates a comprehensive monitoring strategy. While surface-based and other remote geophysical methods can provide information on the general morphology of a CO2 plume, verification of the geochemical conditions and validation of the remote sensing data requires measurements from boreholes that penetrate the storage formation. Unfortunately, the high cost of drilling deep wellbores and deploying instrumentation systems constrains the number of dedicated monitoring borings as well as limits the technologies that can be incorporated in a borehole completion. The objective of the Modular Borehole Monitoring (MBM)more »Program was to develop a robust suite of well-based tools optimized for subsurface monitoring of CO2 that could meet the needs of a comprehensive well-based monitoring program. It should have enough flexibility to be easily reconfigured for various reservoir geometries and geologies. The MBM Program sought to provide storage operators with a turn-key fully engineered design that incorporated key technologies, function over the decades long time-span necessary for post-closure reservoir monitoring, and meet industry acceptable risk profiles for deep-well installations. While still within the conceptual design phase of the MBM program, the SECARB Anthropogenic Test in Citronelle, Alabama, USA was identified as a deployment site for our engineered monitoring systems. The initial step in designing the Citronelle MBM system was to down-select from the various monitoring tools available to include technologies that we considered essential to any program. Monitoring methods selected included U-tube geochemical sampling, discrete quartz pressure and temperature gauges, an integrated fibre-optic bundle consisting of distributed temperature and heat-pulse sensing, and a sparse string of conventional 3C-geophones. While not originally planned within the initial MBM work scope, the fibre-optic cable was able to also be used for the emergent technology of distributed acoustic sensing. The MBM monitoring string was installed in March, 2012. To date, the Citronelle MBM instruments continue to operate reliably. Results and lessons learned from the Citronelle MBM deployment are addressed along with examples of data being collected.« less

  6. The Modular Borehole Monitoring Program. A research program to optimize well-based monitoring for geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freifeld, Barry; Daley, Tom; Cook, Paul; Trautz, Robert; Dodds, Kevin

    2014-12-31

    Understanding the impacts caused by injection of large volumes of CO2 in the deep subsurface necessitates a comprehensive monitoring strategy. While surface-based and other remote geophysical methods can provide information on the general morphology of a CO2 plume, verification of the geochemical conditions and validation of the remote sensing data requires measurements from boreholes that penetrate the storage formation. Unfortunately, the high cost of drilling deep wellbores and deploying instrumentation systems constrains the number of dedicated monitoring borings as well as limits the technologies that can be incorporated in a borehole completion. The objective of the Modular Borehole Monitoring (MBM) Program was to develop a robust suite of well-based tools optimized for subsurface monitoring of CO2 that could meet the needs of a comprehensive well-based monitoring program. It should have enough flexibility to be easily reconfigured for various reservoir geometries and geologies. The MBM Program sought to provide storage operators with a turn-key fully engineered design that incorporated key technologies, function over the decades long time-span necessary for post-closure reservoir monitoring, and meet industry acceptable risk profiles for deep-well installations. While still within the conceptual design phase of the MBM program, the SECARB Anthropogenic Test in Citronelle, Alabama, USA was identified as a deployment site for our engineered monitoring systems. The initial step in designing the Citronelle MBM system was to down-select from the various monitoring tools available to include technologies that we considered essential to any program. Monitoring methods selected included U-tube geochemical sampling, discrete quartz pressure and temperature gauges, an integrated fibre-optic bundle consisting of distributed temperature and heat-pulse sensing, and a sparse string of conventional 3C-geophones. While not originally planned within the initial MBM work scope, the fibre-optic cable was able to also be used for the emergent technology of distributed acoustic sensing. The MBM monitoring string was installed in March, 2012. To date, the Citronelle MBM instruments continue to operate reliably. Results and lessons learned from the Citronelle MBM deployment are addressed along with examples of data being collected.

  7. Mike Batzle holds the Baker Hughes Distinguished Chair of Petrophysics and Borehole Geophysics, at the Colorado School of Mines, where he has been a member of the geophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mike Batzle holds the Baker Hughes Distinguished Chair of Petrophysics and Borehole Geophysics, at the Colorado School of Mines, where he has been a member of the geophysics department for the past 17 years from the University of California, Riverside, and a PhD in geophysics from MIT. His main interests have

  8. Fourier series expansion in a non-orthogonal system of coordinates for the simulation of 3D-DC borehole resistivity measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    -logging measurements, the planning and drilling of a single well may cost several millions of dollars, borehole logging measurements are widely used by the oil-industry for hydrocarbon reservoir as to invert well-log measurements. Most numerical methods used by the oil-industry are based on 1D and 2D

  9. Geophysical Prospecting, 2007, 55, 891899 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2478.2007.00654.x Importance of borehole deviation surveys for monitoring of hydraulic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    of borehole deviation surveys for monitoring of hydraulic fracturing treatments Petr Bulant1 , Leo Eisner2 accepted April 2007 ABSTRACT During seismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing treatment, it is very common to ig- nore the deviations of the monitoring or treatment wells from their assumed positions

  10. THE ABSOLUTE CALIBRATION OF THE EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER ON HINODE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Landi, Enrico

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the absolute calibration of the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode by comparing EIS full-disk mosaics with irradiance observations from the EUV Variability Experiment on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We also use extended observations of the quiet corona above the limb combined with a simple differential emission measure model to establish new effective area curves that incorporate information from the most recent atomic physics calculations. We find that changes to the EIS instrument sensitivity are a complex function of both time and wavelength. We find that the sensitivity is decaying exponentially with time and that the decay constants vary with wavelength. The EIS short wavelength channel shows significantly longer decay times than the long wavelength channel.

  11. PV Cell and Module Calibrations at NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emery, Keith

    2012-10-22

    NREL has equipment to measure any conceivable cell or module technology. The lack of standards for low concentration modules complicates matters. Spectrally adjustable simulators are critical for more than three junctions. NREL's 10-channel fiber optic simulator has shown that the light can be set for each junction within 1% of what it would be under the reference spectrum for up to a five-junction cell. Uncertainty in module simulators dominated by spatial nonuniformity for calibration labs. Manufacturers can mitigate this error by using matched reference modules instead of cells.

  12. ARM - Evaluation Product - Calibrated KAZR Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? WeDatastreamstps DocumentationAtlanticENA Contacts ENA RelatedProductsCalibrated KAZR Data ARM Data

  13. Creep properties of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from borehole USW NRG-7/7A: Data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R.J.; Noel, J.S.; Boyd, P.J.

    1997-09-01

    Experimental results are presented for seven creep experiments on welded specimens of the Paintbrush tuff recovered from borehole USW NRG-7/7A at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The measurements were performed at differential stresses of 40, 70, 100, and 130 MPa. The confining pressure and temperature for each of the experiments was 10 MPa and 225 {degrees}C respectively. All of the specimens were tested drained, in a room dry condition. All of the experiments were terminated prior to failure. The duration of the experiments range from 2.6 x 10{sup 6} seconds to 5.9 x 10{sup 6} seconds. Creep strain is observed for those specimens tested at a stress difference. The strain rate is not constant. A primary creep stage is observed. Secondary creep does not exhibit a constant strain rate, but decreases with increasing time.

  14. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flower, William L. (Livermore, CA); Renzi, Ronald F. (Tracy, CA)

    1998-07-07

    The instant invention discloses method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, and sampling probes, in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream.

  15. Method and apparatus for calibrating a particle emissions monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flower, W.L.; Renzi, R.F.

    1998-07-07

    The invention discloses a method and apparatus for calibrating particulate emissions monitors, in particular, sampling probes, and in general, without removing the instrument from the system being monitored. A source of one or more specific metals in aerosol (either solid or liquid) or vapor form is housed in the instrument. The calibration operation is initiated by moving a focusing lens, used to focus a light beam onto an analysis location and collect the output light response, from an operating position to a calibration position such that the focal point of the focusing lens is now within a calibration stream issuing from a calibration source. The output light response from the calibration stream can be compared to that derived from an analysis location in the operating position to more accurately monitor emissions within the emissions flow stream. 6 figs.

  16. Photometric Calibration of the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, T S; Page, M J; Landsman, W; Holland, S T; Roming, P; Kuin, N P M; Brown, P J; Gronwall, C; Hunsberger, S; Koch, S; Mason, K O; Schady, P; Berk, D Vanden; Blustin, A J; Boyd, P; Broos, P; Carter, M; Chester, M M; Cucchiara, A; Hancock, B; Huckle, H; Immler, S; Ivanushkina, M; Kennedy, T; Marshall, F; Morgan, A; Pandey, S; de Pasquale, M; Smith, P J; Still, M

    2007-01-01

    We present the photometric calibration of the Swift UltraViolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) which includes: optimum photometric and background apertures, effective area curves, colour transformations, conversion factors for count rates to flux, and the photometric zero points (which are accurate to better than 4 per cent) for each of the seven UVOT broadband filters. The calibration was performed with observations of standard stars and standard star fields that represent a wide range of spectral star types. The calibration results include the position dependent uniformity, and instrument response over the 1600-8000A operational range. Because the UVOT is a photon counting instrument, we also discuss the effect of coincidence loss on the calibration results. We provide practical guidelines for using the calibration in UVOT data analysis. The results presented here supersede previous calibration results.

  17. Photometric Calibration of the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. S. Poole; A. A. Breeveld; M. J. Page; W. Landsman; S. T. Holland; P. Roming; N. P. M. Kuin; P. J. Brown; C. Gronwall; S. Hunsberger; S. Koch; K. O. Mason; P. Schady; D. Vanden Berk; A. J. Blustin; P. Boyd; P. Broos; M. Carter; M. M. Chester; A. Cucchiara; B. Hancock; H. Huckle; S. Immler; M. Ivanushkina; T. Kennedy; F. Marshall; A. Morgan; S. Pandey; M. de Pasquale; P. J. Smith; M. Still

    2007-11-09

    We present the photometric calibration of the Swift UltraViolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) which includes: optimum photometric and background apertures, effective area curves, colour transformations, conversion factors for count rates to flux, and the photometric zero points (which are accurate to better than 4 per cent) for each of the seven UVOT broadband filters. The calibration was performed with observations of standard stars and standard star fields that represent a wide range of spectral star types. The calibration results include the position dependent uniformity, and instrument response over the 1600-8000A operational range. Because the UVOT is a photon counting instrument, we also discuss the effect of coincidence loss on the calibration results. We provide practical guidelines for using the calibration in UVOT data analysis. The results presented here supersede previous calibration results.

  18. Method for in-situ calibration of electrophoretic analysis systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Changsheng (State College, PA); Zhao, Hequan (State College, PA)

    2005-05-08

    An electrophoretic system having a plurality of separation lanes is provided with an automatic calibration feature in which each lane is separately calibrated. For each lane, the calibration coefficients map a spectrum of received channel intensities onto values reflective of the relative likelihood of each of a plurality of dyes being present. Individual peaks, reflective of the influence of a single dye, are isolated from among the various sets of detected light intensity spectra, and these can be used to both detect the number of dye components present, and also to establish exemplary vectors for the calibration coefficients which may then be clustered and further processed to arrive at a calibration matrix for the system. The system of the present invention thus permits one to use different dye sets to tag DNA nucleotides in samples which migrate in separate lanes, and also allows for in-situ calibration with new, previously unused dye sets.

  19. Calibrating Accelerometers Using an Electromagnetic Launcher

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erik Timpson

    2012-05-13

    A Pulse Forming Network (PFN), Helical Electromagnetic Launcher (HEML), Command Module (CM), and Calibration Table (CT) were built and evaluated for the combined ability to calibrate an accelerometer. The PFN has a maximum stored energy of 19.25 kJ bank and is fired by a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), with appropriate safety precautions. The HEML is constructed out of G-10 fiberglass and is designed to accelerate 600 grams to 10 meters per second. The CM is microcontroller based running Arduino Software. The CM has a keypad input and 7 segment outputs of the bank voltage and desired voltage. After entering a desired bank voltage, the CM controls the charge of the PFN. When the two voltages are equal it allows the fire button to send a pulse to the SCR to fire the PFN and in turn, the HEML. The HEML projectile's tip hits a target that is held by the CT. The CT consists of a table to hold the PFN and HEML, a vacuum chuck, air bearing, velocity meter and catch pot. The Target is held with the vacuum chuck awaiting impact. After impact, the air bearing allows the target to fall freely for the velocity meter to get an accurate reading. A known acceleration is determined from the known change in velocity of the target. Thus, if an accelerometer was attached to the target, the measured value can be compared to the known value.

  20. Spectral calibration in the mid-infrared: Challenges and solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan, G. C. [Cornell University, Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Herter, T. L.; Houck, J. R. [Cornell University, Astronomy Department, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Burgdorf, M., E-mail: sloan@isc.astro.cornell.edu [HE Space Operations, Flughafenallee 24, D-28199 Bremen (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    We present spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope of 33 K giants and 20 A dwarfs to assess their suitability as spectrophotometric standard stars. The K giants confirm previous findings that the strength of the SiO absorption band at 8 ?m increases for both later optical spectral classes and redder (B–V){sub 0} colors, but with considerable scatter. For K giants, the synthetic spectra underpredict the strengths of the molecular bands from SiO and OH. For these reasons, the assumed true spectra for K giants should be based on the assumption that molecular band strengths in the infrared can be predicted accurately from neither optical spectral class or color nor synthetric spectra. The OH bands in K giants grow stronger with cooler stellar temperatures, and they are stronger than predicted by synthetic spectra. As a group, A dwarfs are better behaved and more predictable than the K giants, but they are more likely to show red excesses from debris disks. No suitable A dwarfs were located in parts of the sky continuously observable from Spitzer, and with previous means of estimating the true spectra of K giants ruled out, it was necessary to use models of A dwarfs to calibrate spectra of K giants from observed spectral ratios of the two groups and then use the calibrated K giants as standards for the full database of infrared spectra from Spitzer. We also describe a lingering artifact that affects the spectra of faint blue sources at 24 ?m.

  1. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Rehfeldt

    2004-10-08

    This report is an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]) (referred to as the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow model or site-scale SZ flow model in this report) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for calibration of groundwater flow models. This report also contains an expanded discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. The analysis of the potentiometric data presented in Revision 00 of this report (USGS 2001 [DIRS 154625]) provides the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target heads, and hydraulic gradients for the calibration of the SZ site-scale flow model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Revision 01 of this report (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) used updated water-level data for selected wells through the year 2000 as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain based on an alternative interpretation of perched water conditions. That revision developed computer files containing: Water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002); A table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS010908312332.003); and A potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternative concept from that presented by USGS (2001 [DIRS 154625]) for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data presented in USGS (2004 [DIRS 168473]) include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) Phases I and II and data from Borehole USW WT-24. This document is based on Revision 01 (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) and expands the discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. This uncertainty assessment includes an analysis of the impact of more recent water-level data and the impact of adding data from the EWDP Phases III and IV wells. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for groundwater management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model and provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral groundwater flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment (TSPA).

  2. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooraghi, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) maintains a fleet of monitoring stations to aid in the improved scientific understanding of the basic physics related to radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere, particularly the interactions among clouds and aerosols. ARM obtains continuous measurements and conducts field campaigns to provide data products that aid in the improvement and further development of climate models. All of the measurement campaigns include a suite of solar measurements. The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory supports ARM's full suite of stations in a number of ways, including troubleshooting issues that arise as part of the data-quality reviews; managing engineering changes to the standard setup; and providing calibration services and assistance to the full fleet of solar-related instruments, including pyranometers, pyrgeometers, pyrheliometers, as well as the temperature/relative humidity probes, multimeters, and data acquisition systems that are used in the calibrations performed at the Southern Great Plains Radiometer Calibration Facility. This paper discusses all aspects related to the support provided to the calibration of the instruments in the solar monitoring fleet.

  3. Tissue-equivalent torso phantom for calibration of transuranic-nuclide counting facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, A.L.; Dean, P.N.; Fisher, J.C.; Sundbeck, C.W.

    1986-01-16

    Several tissue-equivalent human-torso phantoms have been constructed for the calibration of counting systems used for in-vivo measurement of transuranic radionuclides. The phantoms contain a simulated human rib cage (in some cases, real bone) and removable model organs, and they include tissue-equivalent chest plates that can be placed over the torso to simulate people with a wide range of statures. The organs included are the lungs, liver, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Polyurethane with varying concentrations of added calcium was used to simulate the linear photon-attenuation properties of various human tissues, including lean muscle, adipose-muscle mixtures, cartilage, and bone. Foamed polyurethane was used to simulate lung tissue. Organs have been loaded with highly pure /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, and other radionuclides of interest. The validity of the phantom as a calibration standard has been checked in separate intercomparison studies using human subjects whose lungs contained a plutonium simulant. The resulting phantom calibration factors generally compared to within +-20% of the average calibration factors obtained for the human subjects.

  4. NRAO's VLBA data calibration pipeline Lorant O. Sjouwerman, Amy J. Mioduszewski, Eric W. Greisen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sjouwerman, Loránt

    NRAO's VLBA data calibration pipeline Lorant O. Sjouwerman, Amy J. Mioduszewski, Eric W. Greisen VLBA data calibration pipeline is a 'runfile' which executes in AIPS using the VLBAUTIL procedures. The VLBA data calibration pipeline applies basic calibrations to the data and, to evaluate the calibration

  5. COS Calibration Requirements & Procedures Date: March 17, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS Calibration Requirements & Procedures Date: March 17, 2002 Document Number: COS-01 Wilkinson, COS Instrument Scientist Date Reviewed By: Dennis Ebbets 2-15-01 Dr. Dennis Ebbets, COS Calibration Scientist, BASD Date Reviewed By: Jon A. Morse 2-1-01 Dr. Jon Morse, COS Project Scientist Date

  6. COS Calibration Requirements & Procedures Date: May 20, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS Calibration Requirements & Procedures Date: May 20, 2002 Document Number: COS-01-0003 Revision, COS Instrument Scientist Date Reviewed By: Dennis Ebbets 2-15-01 Dr. Dennis Ebbets, COS Calibration Scientist, BASD Date Reviewed By: Jon A. Morse 2-1-01 Dr. Jon Morse, COS Project Scientist Date Approved By

  7. COS Prelaunch Calibration Data Date: March 13, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS Prelaunch Calibration Data Date: March 13, 2008 Document Number: COS-01-0008 Revision: Revision A Contract No.: NAS5-98043 CDRL No.: AV-04 Prepared By: Dr. Erik Wilkinson 5/14/04 Dr. E. Wilkinson, COS Project Scientist, CU Date Reviewed By: Dr. Dennis Ebbets 5/14/04 Dr. D. Ebbets, COS Calibration Scientist

  8. Brookhaven National Laboratory meteorological services instrument calibration plan and procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiser .

    2013-02-16

    This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.

  9. Eddy Currents and Magnetic Calibrations in LDX using a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eddy Currents and Magnetic Calibrations in LDX using a "Copper Plasma" D.P. Boyle, PPPL M.E. Mauel Calibrate magnetic diagnostics positions and gains Find eddy current decay times Copper Plasma Operation electronically Would be better to measure positions and total gains magnetically #12;Goal: Eddy Currents Magnetic

  10. VICARIOUS CALIBRATION OF GLOBAL PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENT MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    VICARIOUS CALIBRATION OF GLOBAL PRECIPITATION MEASUREMENT MICROWAVE RADIOMETERS1 Darren Mc of the TMI, WindSat, SSM/I F13 and SSM/I F14 microwave radiometers using data from the GPM Inter Terms-- Microwave radiometry, Calibration 1. INTRODUCTION The primary goal of NASA's Global

  11. CU-LASP Test Facilities ! and Instrument Calibration Capabilities"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    ­ Computer-controlled monochromator for wavelength selection ­ Deuterium lamp is primary light source ­ 2°C #12;Calibration and Test Equipment 3 (CTE 3) · Characterization of detectors and detector modules;Total Solar Irradiance Radiometer Facility (TRF) · Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) instrument calibrations

  12. Fast Switching Phase Calibration: Effectiveness at Mauna Kea and Chajnantor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    Fast Switching Phase Calibration: Effectiveness at Mauna Kea and Chajnantor M.A. Holdaway, Simon J We present estimates of how well fast switching phase calibration would perform at the Chajnantor, Chile, and Mauna Kea VLBA sites. Fast switching at Chajnantor would achieve better than 30 ffi r. m. s

  13. Absolute Calibration of a Large-diameter Light Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brack, J T; Dorofeev, A; Gookin, B; Harton, J L; Petrov, Y; Rovero, A C

    2013-01-01

    A method of absolute calibration for large aperture optical systems is presented, using the example of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors. A 2.5 m diameter light source illuminated by an ultra--violet light emitting diode is calibrated with an overall uncertainty of 2.1 % at a wavelength of 365 nm.

  14. Automatic calibration of LDA measurement volume size Mark Saffman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffman, Mark

    Automatic calibration of LDA measurement volume size Mark Saffman The problem of particle number the instrument measurement cross section are given. An automatic calibration method for determining unknown are difficult and have rarely been reported inthe liter- ature. A new method of automatically determining

  15. In Situ Jet Energy Calibration In Atlas Based On

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hupkes, Hermen Jan

    In Situ Jet Energy Calibration In Atlas Based On Z+Jet Events By Hermen Jan Hupkes 252 Ge; IN SITU JET ENERGY CALIBRATION IN ATLAS BASED ON Z+JET EVENTS Hermen Jan Hupkes Mathematisch Instituut #12; #12; Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 The Atlas Detector 7 3 Jet Measurements in Atlas 11 3

  16. In Situ Jet Energy Calibration In Atlas Based On

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hupkes, Hermen Jan

    In Situ Jet Energy Calibration In Atlas Based On Z+Jet Events By Hermen Jan Hupkes 252 Ge SITU JET ENERGY CALIBRATION IN ATLAS BASED ON Z+JET EVENTS Hermen Jan Hupkes Mathematisch Instituut #12;#12;Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 The Atlas Detector 7 3 Jet Measurements in Atlas 11 3

  17. Calibration methodology for proportional counters applied to yield measurements of a neutron burst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel E-mail: atarisal@gmail.com; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo; Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4, Santiago; Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica 220, Santiago ; Mayer, Roberto E.

    2014-01-15

    This paper introduces a methodology for the yield measurement of a neutron burst using neutron proportional counters. This methodology is to be applied when single neutron events cannot be resolved in time by nuclear standard electronics, or when a continuous current cannot be measured at the output of the counter. The methodology is based on the calibration of the counter in pulse mode, and the use of a statistical model to estimate the number of detected events from the accumulated charge resulting from the detection of the burst of neutrons. The model is developed and presented in full detail. For the measurement of fast neutron yields generated from plasma focus experiments using a moderated proportional counter, the implementation of the methodology is herein discussed. An experimental verification of the accuracy of the methodology is presented. An improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the accuracy of the detection system is obtained by using this methodology with respect to previous calibration methods.

  18. A general procedure for thermomechanical calibration of nano/micro-mechanical resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, B.D., E-mail: bhauer@ualberta.ca; Doolin, C.; Beach, K.S.D., E-mail: kbeach@ualberta.ca; Davis, J.P., E-mail: jdavis@ualberta.ca

    2013-12-15

    We describe a general procedure to calibrate the detection of a nano/micro-mechanical resonator’s displacement as it undergoes thermal Brownian motion. A brief introduction to the equations of motion for such a resonator is presented, followed by a detailed derivation of the corresponding power spectral density (PSD) function, which is identical in all situations aside from a system-dependent effective mass value. The effective masses for a number of different resonator geometries are determined using both finite element method (FEM) modeling and analytical calculations. -- Highlights: •Model micro- and nanomechanical resonators displaced by their own thermal motion. •Review the theoretical framework for describing thermomechanical systems. •Present a recipe for measurement calibration on devices of arbitrary shape. •Point out and correct inconsistencies in the existing literature. •Provide an authoritative guide and reference for practitioners in this area.

  19. Interpretation of Flow Logs from Nevada Test Site Boreholes to Estimate Hydraulic conductivity Using Numerical Simulations Constrained by Single-Well Aquifer Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-02-12

    Hydraulic conductivities of volcanic and carbonate lithologic units at the Nevada Test Site were estimated from flow logs and aquifer-test data. Borehole flow and drawdown were integrated and interpreted using a radial, axisymmetric flow model, AnalyzeHOLE. This integrated approach is used because complex well completions and heterogeneous aquifers and confining units produce vertical flow in the annular space and aquifers adjacent to the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE simulates vertical flow, in addition to horizontal flow, which accounts for converging flow toward screen ends and diverging flow toward transmissive intervals. Simulated aquifers and confining units uniformly are subdivided by depth into intervals in which the hydraulic conductivity is estimated with the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) software. Between 50 and 150 hydraulic-conductivity parameters were estimated by minimizing weighted differences between simulated and measured flow and drawdown. Transmissivity estimates from single-well or multiple-well aquifer tests were used to constrain estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity within each lithology had a minimum variance because estimates were constrained with Tikhonov regularization. AnalyzeHOLE simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates for lithologic units across screened and cased intervals are as much as 100 times less than those estimated using proportional flow-log analyses applied across screened intervals only. Smaller estimates of hydraulic conductivity for individual lithologic units are simulated because sections of the unit behind cased intervals of the wellbore are not assumed to be impermeable, and therefore, can contribute flow to the wellbore. Simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates vary by more than three orders of magnitude across a lithologic unit, indicating a high degree of heterogeneity in volcanic and carbonate-rock units. The higher water transmitting potential of carbonate-rock units relative to volcanic-rock units is exemplified by the large difference in their estimated maximum hydraulic conductivity; 4,000 and 400 feet per day, respectively. Simulated minimum estimates of hydraulic conductivity are inexact and represent the lower detection limit of the method. Minimum thicknesses of lithologic intervals also were defined for comparing AnalyzeHOLE results to hydraulic properties in regional ground-water flow models.

  20. Estimation of fracture compliance from tubewaves generated at a fracture intersecting a borehole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakku, Sudhish Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Understanding fracture compliance is important for characterizing fracture networks and for inferring fluid flow in the subsurface. In an attempt to estimate fracture compliance in the field, we developed a new model to ...

  1. Larger foraminifer biostratigraphy of PEACE boreholes, Enewetak Atoll, Western Pacific Ocean. Geologic and geophysical investigations of Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, T.G.; Margerum, R.

    1991-01-01

    Larger foraminiferal assemblages, including Lepidocyclina orientalis, Miogypsina thecideaeformis, Miogypsinoides dehaartii, etc., and a smaller foraminifer, Austrotrillina striata, are used to correlate upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata in the Pacific Atoll Exploration Program (PEACE) boreholes at Enewetak Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, western Pacific Ocean, with the Te and Tf zones of the previously established Tertiary Far East Letter Zonation. Correlation using these two benthic groups is critical because calcareous nannofossils and planktic foraminifers are absent in the lower Miocene strata. Biostratigraphic data from these boreholes delineate a thick (greater than 700 feet) sequence of upper Oligocene and lower Miocene strata corresponding to lower and upper Te zone. These strata document a major period of carbonate accumulation at Enewetak during the Late Oligocene and early Miocene (26 to 18 million years ago).

  2. Electromagnetic coupling into two standard calibration shields on the Sandia cable tester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Chen, Kenneth C.; Hudson, Howard Gerald; Morris, M. E.; Stronach, S. L.; Johnson, W. A.; Derr, W.

    2014-02-01

    This report presents analytic transmission line models for calculating the shielding effectiveness of two common calibration standard cables. The two cables have different canonical aperture types, which produce the same low frequency coupling but different responses at resonance. The dominant damping mechanism is produced by the current probe loads at the ends of the cables, which are characterized through adaptor measurements. The model predictions for the cables are compared with experimental measurements and good agreement between the results is demonstrated. This setup constitutes a nice repeatable geometry that nevertheless exhibits some of the challenges involved in modeling non-radio frequency geometries.

  3. Stellar yields and chemical evolution - The solar neighborhood as a calibrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Thomas; Laura Greggio; Ralf Bender

    1999-12-20

    Uncertainties in stellar nucleosynthesis and their impact on models of chemical evolution are discussed. Comparing the Type II supernova nucleosynthesis prescriptions from Woosley & Weaver (1995) and Thielemann, Nomoto, & Hashimoto (1996), it turns out that the latter predict higher Mg/Fe ratios that are more favorable in reproducing the observed abundance features of the Milky Way. Provided that chemical evolution models are calibrated on the solar neighborhood, they offer a powerful tool to constrain structure formation. In particular, galaxy formation models that yield star formation histories significantly longer than 1 Gyr fail to reproduce the super-solar Mg/Fe ratios observed in elliptical galaxies.

  4. Report for Batch Leach Analyses on Sediments at 100-HR-3 Operable Unit, Boreholes C7620, C7621, C7622, C7623, C7626, C7627, C7628, C7629, C7630, and C7866. Revision 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2012-04-25

    This is a revision to a previously released report. This revision contains additional analytical results for the sample with HEIS number B2H4X7. Between November 4, 2010 and October 26, 2011 sediment samples were received from 100-HR-3 Operable Unit for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 331 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL. Samples were received with a chain of custody (COC) and were analyzed according to the sample identification numbers supplied by the client. All Samples were refrigerated upon receipt until prepared for analysis. All samples were received with custody seals intact unless noted in the Case Narrative. Holding time is defined as the time from sample preparation to the time of analyses. The prescribed holding times were met for all analytes unless noted in the Case Narrative. All reported analytical results meet the requirements of the CAW or client specified SOW unless noted in the case narrative. Due to the requirements of the statement of work and sampling events in the field, the 28 day and the 48 hr requirements cannot be met. The statement of work requires samples to be selected at the completion of the borehole. It is not always possible to complete a borehole and have the samples shipped to the laboratory within the hold time requirements. Duplicate RPD for Uranium 238 (38.9%) was above the acceptance limit (35) in 1E05003-DUP1 for ICPMS-Tc-U-WE The sample result is less than 10 times the detection limits. Duplicate recoveries are not applicable to this analyte. Duplicate RPD for Silver 107 (68.2%) was above the acceptance limit (35) in 2C06004-DUP1 for ICPMS-RCRA-AE The sample result is less than 10 times the detection limits. Duplicate recoveries are not applicable to this analyte. Matrix Spike Recovery for Chromium, Hexavalent (48.8%) was outside acceptance limits (75-125) in 1E23001-MS1 for Hexavalent Chromium/Soil. Potential Matrix interference. Sample results associated with this batch are below the EQL. There should be no impact to the data as reported. Matrix Spike Recovery for Chromium, Hexavalent (50.2%) was outside acceptance limits (75-125) in 2B22010-MS1 for Hexavalent Chromium/Soil. Potential Matrix interference. Sample results associated with this batch are below the EQL. There should be no impact to the data as reported.

  5. Topographic stress and rock fracture: a two-dimensional numerical model for arbitrary topography and preliminary comparison with borehole observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perron, J. Taylor

    Theoretical calculations indicate that elastic stresses induced by surface topography may be large enough in some landscapes to fracture rocks, which in turn could influence slope stability, erosion rates, and bedrock ...

  6. A SCR Model Calibration Approach with Spatially Resolved Measurements...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Issue: 1 Research Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) Sponsoring Org: EE...

  7. Calibrating Building Energy Models Using Supercomputer Trained Machine Learning Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    % of all natural gas produced in the United States thereby contributing 40% of the carbon dioxide emmissions in the United States [17]. The Department of Energy's (DOE) Building Technologies Office (BTO) has

  8. Feedstock Quality Factor Calibration and Data Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard D. Boardman; Tyler L. Westover; Garold L. Gresham

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the feedstock assembly operation is to deliver uniform, quality-assured feedstock materials that will enhance downstream system performance by avoiding problems in the conversion equipment. In order to achieve this goal, there is a need for rapid screening tools and methodologies for assessing the thermochemical quality characteristics of biomass feedstock through the assembly process. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been identified as potential technique that could allow rapid elemental analyses of the inorganic content of biomass feedstocks; and consequently, would complement the carbohydrate data provided by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). These constituents, including Si, K, Ca, Na, S, P, Cl, Mg, Fe and Al, create a number of downstream problems in thermochemical processes. In particular, they reduce the energy content of the feedstock, influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion within systems, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams.

  9. Bayesian Calibration of the Community Land Model using Surrogates...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    probability densities for the parameters are developed for two sites with different soil and vegetation covers. Our method also allows us to examine the structural error in CLM...

  10. Geomechanical Reservoir Model Calibration and Uncertainty Assessment from Microseismic Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tarrahi, Mohammadali

    2015-05-04

    Hydraulic stimulation of low permeability rocks in unconventional reservoirs has been observed to trigger microearthquakes (MEQs). Triggering of the MEQ events has been linked to the pore pressure, temperature, and in-situ ...

  11. Calibrating hourly rainfall-runoff models with daily forcings...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    C; Journal ID: ISSN 1364-8152 Publisher: Elsevier Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), Power Systems Engineering Research and...

  12. Calibrating hourly rainfall-runoff models with daily forcings for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby a contractorEnergy, science, and7451 CleanPLASMAS,CO N-

  13. Bayesian Calibration of the Community Land Model using Surrogates (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing Bacteria (Technical Report) | SciTechReport) | SciTech Connect(Conference)

  14. Hierarchical calibration of computer models (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article) |different|(Journal Article) |

  15. Hierarchical calibration of computer models (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article) |different|(Journal Article) |Hierarchical

  16. Logging Calibration Models for Fission Neutron Sondes (September 1981) |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED1,400 Jobs | Department ofEnergy

  17. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 41-09-39 in the S-SX Waste Management Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Wilson, Teresa C.; Wagnon, Kenneth B.; Williams, Bruce A.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Table 5.15. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole 41-09-39 installed adjacent to tank SX-109.

  18. MESERAN Calibration for Low Level Organic Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benkovich, M.G.

    2004-04-08

    Precision cleaning studies done at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T), the Kansas City Plant (KCP), and at other locations within the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons complex over the last 30 years have depended upon results from MESERAN Evaporative Rate Analysis for detecting low levels of organic contamination. The characterization of the surface being analyzed is carried out by depositing a Carbon-14 tagged radiochemical onto the test surface and monitoring the rate at which the radiochemical disappears from the surface with a Geiger-Mueller counter. In the past, the total number of counts over a 2-minute span have been used to judge whether a surface is contaminated or not and semi-quantitatively to what extent. This technique is very sensitive but has not enjoyed the broad acceptance of a purely quantitative analysis. The work on this project developed calibrations of various organic contaminants typically encountered in KCP operations. In addition, a new analysis method was developed to enhance the ability of MESERAN Analyzers to detect organic contamination and yield quantitative data in the microgram and nanogram levels.

  19. Polarization imaging apparatus with auto-calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zou, Yingyin Kevin; Zhao, Hongzhi; Chen, Qiushui

    2013-08-20

    A polarization imaging apparatus measures the Stokes image of a sample. The apparatus consists of an optical lens set, a first variable phase retarder (VPR) with its optical axis aligned 22.5.degree., a second variable phase retarder with its optical axis aligned 45.degree., a linear polarizer, a imaging sensor for sensing the intensity images of the sample, a controller and a computer. Two variable phase retarders were controlled independently by a computer through a controller unit which generates a sequential of voltages to control the phase retardations of the first and second variable phase retarders. A auto-calibration procedure was incorporated into the polarization imaging apparatus to correct the misalignment of first and second VPRs, as well as the half-wave voltage of the VPRs. A set of four intensity images, I.sub.0, I.sub.1, I.sub.2 and I.sub.3 of the sample were captured by imaging sensor when the phase retardations of VPRs were set at (0,0), (.pi.,0), (.pi.,.pi.) and (.pi./2,.pi.), respectively. Then four Stokes components of a Stokes image, S.sub.0, S.sub.1, S.sub.2 and S.sub.3 were calculated using the four intensity images.

  20. SSC and G-2 calorimeter and optical calibration. Progress report, September 15, 1992--September 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winn, D.R.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses: Task A: G-2 Photomultiplier & Calibration Systems (BNL E821) and Task B: Optical Calorimeter R&D & Calibration for High Rates & Colliders.

  1. Depth dependence of permeability in the Oregon cascades inferred from hydrogeologic, thermal, seismic, and magmatic modeling constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saar, M.O.; Magna, M.

    2004-01-01

    les for the three geothermal boreholes that fall within thein panel b. The geothermal borehole location is indicated by

  2. Improvements in the Blackbody Calibration of Pyrgeometers (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Forgan, B.

    2008-03-01

    Pyrgeometers are used to measure the atmospheric longwave irradiance throughout the ARM program sites. Previous calibrations of pyrgeometers using ARM/Eppley/NREL blackbody were consistent, but introduced a difference in the historical clear sky measured irradiance. This difference was believed to be in the order of 12 W/m2. In this poster we show the improvements to the blackbody and calibration methodology by comparing our results to the results of a group of pyrgeometers that were recently calibrated against the World Infrared Standard Group, in the World Radiation Center, Davos/Switzerland.

  3. Calibration of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Jahoda; C. B. Markwardt; Y. Radeva; A. Rots; M. J. Stark; J. H. Swank; T. E. Strohmayer; W. Zhang

    2006-01-03

    We present the calibration and background model for the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) aboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The energy calibration is systematics limited below 10 keV with deviations from a power-law fit to the Crab nebula plus pulsar less than 1%. Unmodelled variations in the instrument background amount to less than 2% of the observed background below 10 keV and less than 1% between 10 and 20 keV. Individual photon arrival times are accurate to 4.4 micro-seconds at all times during the mission and to 2.5 micro-seconds after 29 April 1997. The peak pointing direction of the five collimators is known to a precision of a few arc-seconds

  4. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie

    2002-10-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines. The Teal South data set has provided a surprising set of results, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. Additional results were found using the public-domain Waha and Woresham-Bayer data set, and some tests of technologies were made using 2D seismic lines from Michigan and the western Pacific ocean.

  5. Calibration of a Hopkinson Bar with a Transfer Standard

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bateman, Vesta I.; Leisher, William B.; Brown, Fred A.; Davie, Neil T.

    1993-01-01

    A program requirement for field test temperatures that are beyond the test accelerometer operational limits of ?30°?F and +150°?F required the calibration of accelerometers at high shock levels and at the temperature extremes of ?50°?F and +160°?F. The purposes of these calibrations were to insure that the accelerometers operated at the field test temperatures and to provide an accelerometer sensitivity at each test temperature. Because there is no National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable calibration capability at shock levels of 5,000–15,000 g for the temperature extremes of ?50°?F and +160°?F, a method for calibrating and certifying the Hopkinson barmore »with a transfer standard was developed. Time domain and frequency domain results are given that characterize the Hopkinson bar. The National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable accuracy for the standard accelerometer in shock is ±5%. The Hopkinson bar has been certified with an uncertainty of 6%.« less

  6. Calibration Analysis Software for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The calibration of the ATLAS Pixel detector at LHC fulfils two main purposes: to tune the front-end configuration parameters for establishing the best operational settings and to measure the tuning performance through a subset of scans. An analysis framework has been set up in order to take actions on the detector given the outcome of a calibration scan (e.g. to create a mask for disabling noisy pixels). The software framework to control all aspects of the Pixel detector scans and analyses is called Calibration Console. The introduction of a new layer, equipped with new Front End-I4 Chips, required an update the Console architecture. It now handles scans and scans analyses applied together to chips with different characteristics. An overview of the newly developed Calibration Analysis Software will be presented, together with some preliminary result.

  7. MICROWAVE RADIOMETER INTER-CALIBRATION: ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruf, Christopher

    MICROWAVE RADIOMETER INTER-CALIBRATION: ALGORITHM DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION by Rachael Ann 1.2.2 Microwave Remote Sensing............................................................................... 8 1.2.4 Spaceborne Microwave Radiometers: Roadmap to TRMM and GPM ...... 10 1.2.5 The Tropical

  8. Automatic calibration of modulated fractional-N frequency synthesizers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahill, Dan

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this research has been the development of a low power, radio frequency transmitter architecture. Specifically, a technique for in service automatic calibration of a modulated phase locked loop (PLL) frequency ...

  9. Method and apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pokrywka, Robert J. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    2005-01-18

    A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of: powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.

  10. Advanced DOE-2 Calibration Procedures: A Technical Reference Manual 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Saada, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Center. Appendix A contains the data processing routines. Appendix B contains the final calibrated input file. Appendix C contains processing and column merging routines. Appendix D contains the SAS graphical routines. Appendix E contains a solar...

  11. Gas characterization system operation, maintenance, and calibration plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tate, D.D.

    1996-03-04

    This document details the responsibilities and requirements for operation, maintenance, and calibration of the Gas Characterization Systems (GCS) analytical instrumentation. It further, defines the division of responsibility between the Characterization Monitoring Development organization and Tank Farms Operations.

  12. Calibration of accelerometers on the 5000 g centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebarchik, F.N.

    1992-05-01

    This memorandum is a synopsis of the description and operation of the equipment used and the events occurring during the calibration of an accelerometer on the 5000 g centrifuge.

  13. Calibration of accelerometers on the 1000 g centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebarchik, F.N.

    1991-04-01

    This memorandum is a synopsis of the description and operation of the equipment used, and the events occurring during the calibration of an accelerometer on the 1000 G centrifuge. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Laser calibration system for the CERES Time Projection Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dariusz Miskowiec; Peter Braun-Munzinger

    2008-02-15

    A Nd:YAG laser was used to simulate charged particle tracks at known positions in the CERES Time Projection Chamber at the CERN SPS. The system was primarily developed to study the response of the readout electronics and to calibrate the electron drift velocity. Further applications were the determination of the gating grid transparency, the chamber position calibration, and long-term monitoring of drift properties of the gas in the detector.

  15. Be production-rate calibration for the Arctic NICOLA S E. YOUNG,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briner, Jason P.

    A 10 Be production-rate calibration for the Arctic NICOLA´ S E. YOUNG,1,2 * JOERG M. SCHAEFER,1 2013; Accepted 18 April 2013 ABSTRACT: We present a Baffin Bay 10 Be production-rate calibration published 10 Be calibration datasets to develop an Arctic 10 Be production rate. Our calibration comprises

  16. High temperature blackbody BB2000/40 for calibration of radiation thermometers and thermocouple

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogarev, S. A.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Samoylov, M. L.; Puzanov, A. V. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), Moscow (Russian Federation)] [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-11

    The cavity-type high temperature blackbody (HTBB) models of BB3200/3500 series are the most spread among metrological institutes worldwide as sources for radiometry and radiation thermometry, due to their ultra high working temperatures, high emissivity and stability. The materials of radiating cavities are graphite, pyrolytic graphite (PG) and their combination. The paper describes BB2000/40 blackbody with graphite-tube cavity that was developed for calibration of radiation thermometers at SCEI (Singapore). The peculiarity of BB2000/40 is a possibility to use it, besides calibration of pyrometers, as an instrument for thermocouples calibration. Operating within the temperature range from 900 °C to 2000 °C, the blackbody has a wide cavity opening of 40 mm. Emissivity of the cavity, with PG heater rings replaced partly by graphite elements, was estimated as 0.998 ± 0.0015 in the spectral range from 350 nm to 2000 nm. The uniformity along the cavity axis, accounting for 10 °C, was measured using a B-type thermocouple at 1500 °C. The BB2000/40, if necessary, can be easily modified, by replacing the graphite radiator with a set of PG rings, to be able to reach temperatures as high as 3200 °C. The HTBB utilizes an optical feedback system which allows temperature stabilization within 0.1 °C. This rear-view feedback allows the whole HTBB aperture to be used for measurements.

  17. Assessing the Predictive Capability of the LIFEIV Nuclear Fuel Performance Code using Sequential Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, Christopher J.; Williams, Brian J.; Unal, Cetin

    2012-07-05

    This report considers the problem of calibrating a numerical model to data from an experimental campaign (or series of experimental tests). The issue is that when an experimental campaign is proposed, only the input parameters associated with each experiment are known (i.e. outputs are not known because the experiments have yet to be conducted). Faced with such a situation, it would be beneficial from the standpoint of resource management to carefully consider the sequence in which the experiments are conducted. In this way, the resources available for experimental tests may be allocated in a way that best 'informs' the calibration of the numerical model. To address this concern, the authors propose decomposing the input design space of the experimental campaign into its principal components. Subsequently, the utility (to be explained) of each experimental test to the principal components of the input design space is used to formulate the sequence in which the experimental tests will be used for model calibration purposes. The results reported herein build on those presented and discussed in [1,2] wherein Verification & Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VU) capabilities were applied to the nuclear fuel performance code LIFEIV. In addition to the raw results from the sequential calibration studies derived from the above, a description of the data within the context of the Predictive Maturity Index (PMI) will also be provided. The PMI [3,4] is a metric initiated and developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to quantitatively describe the ability of a numerical model to make predictions in the absence of experimental data, where it is noted that 'predictions in the absence of experimental data' is not synonymous with extrapolation. This simply reflects the fact that resources do not exist such that each and every execution of the numerical model can be compared against experimental data. If such resources existed, the justification for numerical models would be reduced considerably. The authors note that the PMI is primarily intended to provide a high-level, quantitative description of year-to-year (or version-to-version) improvements in numerical models, where these descriptions can be used as a means of justifying funding requests to support further model development research. It is in this context that the present report should be considered: the availability of data from experimental tests should be viewed as a time-dependent variable, where experiments are added to the calibration suite as resources become available. For the present report, the experimental data is of course already available (permitting demonstration of the proposed methodology). Furthermore, the authors are not proposing this methodology as the answer to the question of how to allocate resources for experimental tests, and readers are directed to [5] and the references contained in Section 1 of [5] for additional information on the subject. However, the strength of this methodology is that it offers a means by which to select the sequence of experiments in a pre-arranged experimental campaign (a situation for which the methods discussed in [5] are less appropriate). The report is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the methodology employed to formulate the sequences of experiments for the calibrations performed for this study. Section 3 then presents the results associated with two sequences; supplementary results are provided in the Appendix. The report then concludes in Section 4 with a brief summary.

  18. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2002-09-29

    The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines. The Teal South data set has provided a surprising set of results, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. Additional results were found using the public-domain Waha and Woresham-Bayer data set, and some tests of technologies were made using 2D seismic lines from Michigan and the western Pacific ocean.

  19. The DICE calibration project: design, characterization, and first results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regnault, N; Schahmanèche, K; Guillou, L Le; Antilogus, P; Astier, P; Barrelet, E; Betoule, M; Bongard, S; Cuillandre, J -C; Juramy, C; Pain, R; Rocci, P -F; Tisserand, P; Villa, F

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design, operation, and first results of a photometric calibration project, called DICE (Direct Illumination Calibration Experiment), aiming at achieving precise instrumental calibration of optical telescopes. The heart of DICE is an illumination device composed of 24 narrow-spectrum, high-intensity, light-emitting diodes (LED) chosen to cover the ultraviolet-to-near-infrared spectral range. It implements a point-like source placed at a finite distance from the telescope entrance pupil, yielding a flat field illumination that covers the entire field of view of the imager. The purpose of this system is to perform a lightweight routine monitoring of the imager passbands with a precision better than 5 per-mil on the relative passband normalisations and about 3{\\AA} on the filter cutoff positions. The light source is calibrated on a spectrophotometric bench. As our fundamental metrology standard, we use a photodiode calibrated at NIST. The radiant intensity of each beam is mapped, and spectra are m...

  20. Design, manufacture, and calibration of infrared radiometric blackbody sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrd, D.A.; Michaud, F.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    A Radiometric Calibration Station (RCS) is being assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) which will allow for calibration of sensors with detector arrays having spectral capability from about 0.4-15 {mu}m. The configuration of the LANL RCS. Two blackbody sources have been designed to cover the spectral range from about 3-15 {mu}m, operating at temperatures ranging from about 180-350 K within a vacuum environment. The sources are designed to present a uniform spectral radiance over a large area to the sensor unit under test. The thermal uniformity requirement of the blackbody cavities has been one of the key factors of the design, requiring less than 50 mK variation over the entire blackbody surface to attain effective emissivity values of about 0.999. Once the two units are built and verified to the level of about 100 mK at LANL, they will be sent to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where at least a factor of two improvement will be calibrated into the blackbody control system. The physical size of these assemblies will require modifications of the existing NIST Low Background Infrared (LBIR) Facility. LANL has constructed a bolt-on addition to the LBIR facility that will allow calibration of our large aperture sources. Methodology for attaining the two blackbody sources at calibrated levels of performance equivalent to present state of the art will be explained in the following.

  1. Identification of kinematic parameters using several models with experimental verification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rho, Jae Jeung

    1988-01-01

    For Model 2 50 51 55 55 4. 5 The Set Of Calibrated Parameters For Model 3 4. 6 The Set Of Calibrated Orientation Parameters For Model 4 4. 7 The Set Of Calibrated Translation Parameters For Model 4 56 5l 4. 8 The Calibration Result For Model 1 4... be described as (2 7) This process is continued until the rotation of each joint has been included. Then the final configuration of a robot end-effector jAi) may be expressed as 17 (-+~( = (Trl(?l(Ts](T4l(T;I(Tsl(-~. ( and the total transformation matrix...

  2. Learning from history: Adaptive calibration of 'tilting spine' fiber positioners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach for determining the calibration parameters of independently-actuated optical fibers in multi-object astronomical fiber positioning systems. This work comes from the development of a new type of piezoelectric motor intended to enhance the 'tilting spine' fiber positioning technology originally created by the Australian Astronomical Observatory. Testing has shown that the motor's performance can vary depending on the fiber's location within its accessible field, meaning that an individual fiber is difficult calibrate with a one-time routine. Better performance has resulted from constantly updating calibration parameters based on the observed movements of the fiber during normal closed-loop positioning. Over time, location-specific historical data is amassed that can be used to better predict the results of a future fiber movement. This is similar to a technique previously proposed by the Australian Astronomical Observatory, but with the addition of location-specific learning....

  3. Universal calculation formula and calibration method in Fourier transform profilometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen Yongfu; Li Sikun; Cheng Haobo; Su Xianyu; Zhang Qican

    2010-12-01

    We propose a universal calculation formula of Fourier transform profilometry and give a strict theoretical analysis about the phase-height mapping relation. As the request on the experimental setup of the universal calculation formula is unconfined, the projector and the camera can be located arbitrarily to get better fringe information, which makes the operation flexible. The phase-height calibration method under the universal condition is proposed, which can avoid measuring the system parameters directly. It makes the system easy to manipulate and improves the measurement velocity. A computer simulation and experiment are conducted to verify its validity. The calculation formula and calibration method have been applied to measure an object of 22.00 mm maximal height. The relative error of the measurement result is only 0.59%. The experimental results prove that the three-dimensional shape of tested objects can be reconstructed exactly by using the calculation formula and calibration method, and the system has better universality.

  4. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.; Allen, L.C.; Marshall, C.; Murphy, R.C.; Marshall, T.

    1998-05-26

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby. 44 figs.

  5. System for characterizing semiconductor materials and photovoltaic devices through calibration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO); Allen, Larry C. (Arvada, CO); Marshall, Craig (Littleton, CO); Murphy, Robert C. (Golden, CO); Marshall, Todd (Littleton, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring characteristics of a piece of material, typically semiconductor materials including photovoltaic devices. The characteristics may include dislocation defect density, grain boundaries, reflectance, external LBIC, internal LBIC, and minority carrier diffusion length. The apparatus includes a light source, an integrating sphere, and a detector communicating with a computer. The measurement or calculation of the characteristics is calibrated to provide accurate, absolute values. The calibration is performed by substituting a standard sample for the piece of material, the sample having a known quantity of one or more of the relevant characteristics. The quantity measured by the system of the relevant characteristic is compared to the known quantity and a calibration constant is created thereby.

  6. Calorimetric calibration of pyroelectric gamma-radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strakovskaya, R.Y.; Sras', A.G.

    1985-07-01

    A method has been devised for calibrating a pyroelectric dosimeter, which is based on comparing the readings obtained with it in a gamma-ray beam with the readings of an integral calorimeter under stationary conditions, with the latter previously calibrated from Joule heat. The calorimeter used was in the form of a closed shell, whose overall thermo-emf was independent of the spatial distribution of the heat sources in it, the value being proportional to the integral heat flux through the shell. Measurements were made not only with a quasiisotropic radiation field but also in directed fields. The overall error in calibrating the pyroelectric detectors by this method was less than or equal to plus or minus 10%.

  7. Interval estimation in calibration problems: an alternate approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quaino, Oscar Rodolfo

    1983-01-01

    measurement of the dependent varia- ble. This interval will depend upon the dependent variable and also on the outcome of the calibration experiment. For each unknown a state- ment is made in the sense that it belongs to the interval. Then he searches... is computed as 2 n , 1(yi ? y) Ss n ? 2 and will also be denoted by NSE. (2. 2) In the calibration problem, the classical estimator of x* given an obsezvation y* is y* ? b 0 x* bl Under the normality assumption x" is the NLE of x* (Graybill 1976...

  8. Calibrating and training of neutron based NSA techniques with less SNM standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geist, William H; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Bracken, David S; Freeman, Corey R; Newell, Matthew R

    2010-01-01

    Accessing special nuclear material (SNM) standards for the calibration of and training on nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments has become increasingly difficult in light of enhanced safeguards and security regulations. Limited or nonexistent access to SNM has affected neutron based NDA techniques more than gamma ray techniques because the effects of multiplication require a range of masses to accurately measure the detector response. Neutron based NDA techniques can also be greatly affected by the matrix and impurity characteristics of the item. The safeguards community has been developing techniques for calibrating instrumentation and training personnel with dwindling numbers of SNM standards. Monte Carlo methods have become increasingly important for design and calibration of instrumentation. Monte Carlo techniques have the ability to accurately predict the detector response for passive techniques. The Monte Carlo results are usually benchmarked to neutron source measurements such as californium. For active techniques, the modeling becomes more difficult because of the interaction of the interrogation source with the detector and nuclear material; and the results cannot be simply benchmarked with neutron sources. A Monte Carlo calculated calibration curve for a training course in Indonesia of material test reactor (MTR) fuel elements assayed with an active well coincidence counter (AWCC) will be presented as an example. Performing training activities with reduced amounts of nuclear material makes it difficult to demonstrate how the multiplication and matrix properties of the item affects the detector response and limits the knowledge that can be obtained with hands-on training. A neutron pulse simulator (NPS) has been developed that can produce a pulse stream representative of a real pulse stream output from a detector measuring SNM. The NPS has been used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for detector testing and training applications at the Agency due to the lack of appropriate SNM standards. This paper will address the effect of reduced access to SNM for calibration and training of neutron NDA applications along with the advantages and disadvantages of some solutions that do not use standards, such as the Monte Carlo techniques and the NPS.

  9. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Borehole 299-E33-46 Near B 110 in the B BX-BY Waste Management Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Gee, Glendon W.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lanigan, David C.; mccain, r. G.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Orr, Robert D.; Legore, Virginia L.; Clayton, Ray E.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Kutynakov, I. V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Royack, Lisa J.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-ectractable sodium data from Table 4.17. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in December 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the B-BX-BY Waste Management Area. This report is the third in a series of three reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from a borehole installed approximately 4.5 m (15 ft) northeast of tank B- 110 (borehole 299-E33-46).

  10. Calibrations of alpha Cen A & B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morel, P; Lebreton, Y; Thévenin, F; Berthomieu, G

    2000-01-01

    Detailed evolutionary models of the visual binary alpha Centauri, including pre main-sequence evolution, have been performed using the masses recently determined by Pourbaix et al. (1999). Models have been constructed using the CEFF equation of state, OPAL opacities, NACRE thermonuclear reaction rates and microscopic diffusion. A chi^2-minimization is performed to derive the most reliable set of modeling parameters wp={t_alpha Cen, Yi, [Fe/H]i, alpha A, alpha B}, where t alpha Cen is the age of the system, Yi the initial helium content, [Fe/H]i the initial metallicity and, alpha A and alpha B the convection parameters of the two components. Using the basic Bohm-Vitense (1958) mixing-length theory of convection, we derive wp BV={2710 Myr, 0.284,0.257, 1.53, 1.57}. We obtain a noticeably smaller age than estimated previously, in agreement with Pourbaix et al. (1999), mainly because of the larger masses. If convective core overshoot is considered we get wp ov={3530 Myr, 0.279,0.264,1.64,1.66}. The use of Canuto ...

  11. Detonation shock dynamics calibration for pBX 9502 with temperature, density, and material lot variations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Larry G; Aslam, Tariq D

    2010-01-01

    We present a methodology for scaling the detonation shock dynamics D{sub n}[{kappa}] calibration function to accommodate variations in the HE starting material. We apply our model to the insensitive TATB-based explosive PBX 9502, for which we have enough front curvature rate stick data to characterize three material attributes: initial temperature T{sub 0}, nominal density {rho}{sub 0}, and manufacturing lot (representing different microstructures). A useful feature of the model is that it returns an absolute estimate for the reaction zone thickness, {delta}. Lacking demonstrated material metrics(s), we express microstructural variation indirectly, in terms of its effect on {delta}. This results in a D{sub n}[{kappa}] function that depends on T{sub 0}, {rho}{sub 0}, and {delta}. After examining the separate effects of each parameter on D{sub n}[{kappa}], we compute an arc geometry as a validation problem. We compare the calculation to a PBX 9502 arc experiment that was pressed from one of the calibrated HE lots. The agreement between the model and experiment is excellent. We compute worst, nominal, and best-performing material parameter combinations to show how much difference accrues throughout the arc.

  12. M. van Ginkel, L.J. van Vliet, P.W. Verbeek, M.A. Kraaijveld, E.P. Reding and H.J. Lammers, Robust Curve Detection using a Radon Transform in Orientation Space Applied to Fracture Detection in Borehole Images, in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    Curve Detection using a Radon Transform in Orientation Space Applied to Fracture Detection in Borehole Detection using a Radon Transform in Orientation Space Applied to Fracture Detection in Borehole Images M information, thus reducing the amount of false detections. The method is applied to fracture detection

  13. Estimating a model discrepancy term for the Community Land Model using latent heat and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Jaideep

    system models; coupled to an atmosphere & ocean model · Can be used in global (gridded) mode or locally calibration = O(104) #12;What is CLM? · A model for biogeochemical & hydrological processes · Used in Earth

  14. Comparison of Chiller Models for Use in Model-Based Fault Detection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sreedhara, P.; Haves, P.

    2001-01-01

    Selecting the model is an important and essential step in model based fault detection and diagnosis (FDD). Factors that are considered in evaluating a model include accuracy, training data requirements, calibration effort, generality...

  15. 4-D seismic technologies: intersurvey calibration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Jeffrey Paul

    1998-01-01

    schematic). Each streamer measured 3000 m with 6000 m maximum offset, resulting in 48 fold 51 95 8 96 97 (300 tt) QJ C 0 Mlles 0 Kilometers 100 Study ares Green Canyon Figure 1 - Location map of the Green Canyon Block 52/53 Field. coverage...-lapse interpretation. Figure 8a is a "layer cake" geologic model taken from the Ross and Altan work. The following parameters; a 688 x 512 grid with 10 x 10m cells and a pseudo-spectral full-elastic, wave-equation algorithm were used to create a synthetic shot...

  16. Inverse Modeling of Hydrologic Parameters Using Surface Flux...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    estimated include surface and subsurface runoff generation parameters and vadose zone soil water parameters. We find that using model parameters calibrated by the least-square...

  17. COS G130M FUV Grating Calibration And Qualification Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS G130M FUV Grating Calibration And Qualification Plan Date: October 11, 1999 Document Number: COS-01-0002 Revision: Initial Release Contract No.: NAS5-98043 CDRL No. AV-02 Prepared By: S. Osterman, COS Optical Scientist, CU/CASA Date Reviewed By: E. Wilkinson, COS Instrument Scientist, CU/CASA Date

  18. COS G160M FUV Grating Calibration and Qualification Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS G160M FUV Grating Calibration and Qualification Plan Date: January 4, 2001 Document Number: COS-01-0005 Revision: Initial Release Contract No.: NAS5-98043 CDRL No. Prepared By: S. Osterman, COS Optical Scientist, CU/CASA Date Reviewed By: E. Wilkinson, COS Instrument Scientist, CU/CASA Date Approved

  19. COS G140L FUV Grating Calibration and Qualification Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS G140L FUV Grating Calibration and Qualification Plan Date: January 4, 2001 Document Number: COS-01-0004 Revision: Initial Release Contract No.: NAS5-98043 CDRL No. Prepared By: S. Osterman, COS Optical Scientist, CU/CASA Date Reviewed By: E. Wilkinson, COS Instrument Scientist, CU/CASA Date Approved

  20. Ultra Bright LED Light Injection Calibration System for MINOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Anderson; A. Anjomshoaa; P. Dervan; J. A. Lauber; J. Thomas

    1998-10-26

    We describe here a proposal for a light injection calibration system for the MINOS detectors based on ultra bright blue LEDs as the light source. We have shown that these LEDs are bright enough to span over two orders of magnitude in light intensity, commensurate with that expected in a single scintillator strip in the MINOS neutrino detectors.

  1. Calibrated Continuous-Time Sigma-Delta Modulators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Cho-Ying

    2010-07-14

    and SNR simulations vs. the number of iterations of the calibration scheme for PVT variations on the modulator .......................................................................................... 94 xiii? ? ? ? Page Fig. 4...-time ?? ADC with immunity to the process, voltage, temperature (PVT) variations by using capacitor ratios to determine the system coefficients, one of the critical issues of a continuous-time ?? ADC is its high sensitivity to the variations due...

  2. Neutron calibration sources in the Daya Bay experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, J.; Carr, R.; Dwyer, D. A.; Gu, W. Q.; Li, G. S.; McKeown, R. D.; Qian, X.; Tsang, R. H. M.; Wu, F. F.; Zhang, C.

    2015-07-09

    We describe the design and construction of the low rate neutron calibration sources used in the Daya Bay Reactor Anti-neutrino Experiment. Such sources are free of correlated gamma-neutron emission, which is essential in minimizing induced background in the anti-neutrino detector. Thus, the design characteristics have been validated in the Daya Bay anti-neutrino detector.

  3. Sensor Localization and Camera Calibration using Low Power Cameras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savvides, Andreas

    Sensor Localization and Camera Calibration using Low Power Cameras Dimitrios Lymberopoulos, Andrew low-power imagers offer an information rich sensing modality that can detect fea- tures from a scene with a COTS camera module, similar to the one used in cellphones. To experiment with camera related sensor

  4. Micro-pixel accuracy centroid displacement estimation and detector calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masci, Frank

    Shao, Renaud Goullioud, and Bijan Nemati Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology of the inter-pixel variations of pixel response functions can be conveniently expressed in terms of powers of spatial wave numbers using their Taylor series expansions. Calibrating up to the third order terms

  5. AN H-BAND SPECTROSCOPIC METALLICITY CALIBRATION FOR M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad F.; Deshpande, Rohit; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Bochanski, John J., E-mail: rct151@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We present an empirical near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method for estimating M dwarf metallicities, based on features in the H band, as well as an implementation of a similar published method in the K band. We obtained R {approx} 2000 NIR spectra of a sample of M dwarfs using the NASA IRTF-SpeX spectrograph, including 22 M dwarf metallicity calibration targets that have FGK companions with known metallicities. The H-band and K-band calibrations provide equivalent fits to the metallicities of these binaries, with an accuracy of {+-}0.12 dex. We derive the first empirically calibrated spectroscopic metallicity estimate for the giant planet-hosting M dwarf GJ 317, confirming its supersolar metallicity. Combining this result with observations of eight other M dwarf planet hosts, we find that M dwarfs with giant planets are preferentially metal-rich compared to those that host less massive planets. Our H-band calibration relies on strongly metallicity-dependent features in the H band, which will be useful in compositional studies using mid- to high-resolution NIR M dwarf spectra, such as those produced by multiplexed surveys like SDSS-III APOGEE. These results will also be immediately useful for ongoing spectroscopic surveys of M dwarfs.

  6. Pressure Calibration by the Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Mineral Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Pressure Calibration by the Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Mineral Oil H. Child, Kenyon College effect is seen in the infrared absorption spectrum of mineral oil. The frequency of two peaks increases as pressure is applied to the mineral oil. At a pressure of about 1 kbar (100 MPa), both peaks are distinct

  7. The HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory: Design, Calibration, and Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-GarcIa, R; Marinelli, A; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sanchez, F E; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

    2013-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma Ray Observatory (HAWC) is under construction 4100 meters above sea level at Sierra Negra, Mexico. We describe the design and cabling of the detector, the characterization of the photomultipliers, and the timing calibration system. We also outline a next-generation detector based on the water Cherenkov technique.

  8. Revised absolute amplitude calibration of the LOPES experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Link, K; Apel, W D; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Bähren, L; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Biermann, P L; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Falcke, H; Fuchs, B; Gemmeke, H; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hiller, R; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Huber, D; Isar, P G; Kampert, K-H; Kang, D; Krömer, O; Kuijpers, J; ?uczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Melissas, M; Morello, C; Oehlschläger, J; Palmieri, N; Pierog, T; Rautenberg, J; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Rühle, C; Saftoiu, A; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schoo, S; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J; Zensus, J A

    2015-01-01

    One of the main aims of the LOPES experiment was the evaluation of the absolute amplitude of the radio signal of air showers. This is of special interest since the radio technique offers the possibility for an independent and highly precise determination of the energy scale of cosmic rays on the basis of signal predictions from Monte Carlo simulations. For the calibration of the amplitude measured by LOPES we used an external source. Previous comparisons of LOPES measurements and simulations of the radio signal amplitude predicted by CoREAS revealed a discrepancy of the order of a factor of two. A re-measurement of the reference calibration source, now performed for the free field, was recently performed by the manufacturer. The updated calibration values lead to a lowering of the reconstructed electric field measured by LOPES by a factor of $2.6 \\pm 0.2$ and therefore to a significantly better agreement with CoREAS simulations. We discuss the updated calibration and its impact on the LOPES analysis results.

  9. Revised absolute amplitude calibration of the LOPES experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Link; T. Huege; W. D. Apel; J. C. Arteaga-Velázquez; L. Bähren; K. Bekk; M. Bertaina; P. L. Biermann; J. Blümer; H. Bozdog; I. M. Brancus; E. Cantoni; A. Chiavassa; K. Daumiller; V. de Souza; F. Di Pierro; P. Doll; R. Engel; H. Falcke; B. Fuchs; H. Gemmeke; C. Grupen; A. Haungs; D. Heck; R. Hiller; J. R. Hörandel; A. Horneffer; D. Huber; P. G. Isar; K-H. Kampert; D. Kang; O. Krömer; J. Kuijpers; P. ?uczak; M. Ludwig; H. J. Mathes; M. Melissas; C. Morello; J. Oehlschläger; N. Palmieri; T. Pierog; J. Rautenberg; H. Rebel; M. Roth; C. Rühle; A. Saftoiu; H. Schieler; A. Schmidt; S. Schoo; F. G. Schröder; O. Sima; G. Toma; G. C. Trinchero; A. Weindl; J. Wochele; J. Zabierowski; J. A. Zensus

    2015-08-14

    One of the main aims of the LOPES experiment was the evaluation of the absolute amplitude of the radio signal of air showers. This is of special interest since the radio technique offers the possibility for an independent and highly precise determination of the energy scale of cosmic rays on the basis of signal predictions from Monte Carlo simulations. For the calibration of the amplitude measured by LOPES we used an external source. Previous comparisons of LOPES measurements and simulations of the radio signal amplitude predicted by CoREAS revealed a discrepancy of the order of a factor of two. A re-measurement of the reference calibration source, now performed for the free field, was recently performed by the manufacturer. The updated calibration values lead to a lowering of the reconstructed electric field measured by LOPES by a factor of $2.6 \\pm 0.2$ and therefore to a significantly better agreement with CoREAS simulations. We discuss the updated calibration and its impact on the LOPES analysis results.

  10. TDR calibration for the alternative landfill cover demonstration (ALCD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, J.; Dwyer, S.F.; Swanson, J.N.

    1997-09-01

    The Alternative Landfill Cover Demonstration is a large scale field test that compares the performance of various landfill cover designs in dry environments. An important component of the comparison is the change in the moisture content of the soils throughout the different cover test plots. Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) is the primary method for the measurement of the volumetric moisture content. Each of the covers is composed of layers of varying types and densities of soils. The probes are therefore calibrated to calculate the volumetric moisture content in each of the different soils in order to gain the optimum performance of the TDR system. The demonstration plots are constructed in two phases; a different probe is used in each phase. The probe that is used in Phase 1 is calibrated for the following soils: compacted native soil, uncompacted native soil, compacted native soil mixed with 6% sodium bentonite by weight, and sand. The probe that is used in Phase 2 is calibrated for the following soils: compacted native soil, uncompacted native soil, and sand. In addition, the probes are calibrated for the varying cable lengths of the TDR probes. The resulting empirically derived equations allow for the calculation of in-situ volumetric moisture content of all of the varying soils throughout the cover test plots in the demonstration.

  11. ARTICULATORY SPACE CALIBRATION IN 3D ELECTRO-MAGNETIC ARTICULOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Michael T.

    articulatory space. A bite plate record for a target subject is used to define the maxillary occlusal collected using NDI Wave Speech Research System for one pilot subject, and calibration results of articulatory kinematics and relationship to acoustics. Index Terms-- Electro-Magnetic Articulography

  12. A Calibration Bound for the M-Theory Fivebrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Baerwald; N. D. Lambert; P. C. West

    1999-08-13

    We construct a covariant bound on the energy-momentum of the M-fivebrane which is saturated by all supersymmetric configurations. This leads to a generalised notion of a calibrated geometry for M-fivebranes when the worldvolume gauge field is non-zero. The generalisation relevant for Dp-branes is also given.

  13. CMR Shuffler System: Passive Mode Calibration and Certification Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frame, Katherine C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gomez, Cipriano D. [Retired CMR-OPS: OPERATIONS; Salazar, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mayo, Douglas R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vigil, Georgiana M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crooks, William J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stange, Sy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. As debris is removed from the vessels, material will be placed in waste drums. Far-field gamma ray assay will be used to determine when a drum is nearing a {sup 239}Pu equivalent mass of less than 200 g. The drum will then be assayed using a waste drum shuffler operated in passive mode using a neutron coincidence counting method for accountability. This report focuses on the testing and calibration of the CMR waste drum shuffler in passive mode operation. Initial testing was performed to confirm previously accepted measurement parameters. The system was then calibrated using a set of weapons grade Pu (WGPu, {sup 239}Pu > 93%) oxide standards placed inside a 55 gallon drum. The calibration data ranges from Pu mass of 0.5 g to 188.9 g. The CMR waste drum shuffler has been tested and calibrated in passive mode in preparation for safeguards accountability measurements of waste drums containing material removed from CVs for the CVD project.

  14. Joint inversion of marine seismic AVA and CSEM data using statistical rock-physics models and Markov random fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jinsong

    . Ideally, we can connect them through reservoir parameters (e.g., porosity and water saturation among seismic and electric attributes and reservoir parameters from distant borehole logs. In this study, we developed a Bayesian model to jointly invert seismic AVA and CSEM data for reservoir parameters

  15. A Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum Calibration Complexity James Davis, Xing Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    A Laser Range Scanner Designed for Minimum Calibration Complexity James Davis, Xing Chen Computer Graphics Lab, Stanford University {jedavis, xcchen}@graphics.stanford.edu Abstract Laser range scanners reduce the costs associated with calibration. 1 Introduction Laser triangulation scanners

  16. Algorithmic and implementation aspects of on-line calibration of Dynamic Traffic Assignment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Enyang

    2010-01-01

    This thesis compares alternative and proposes new candidate algorithms for the online calibration of Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA). The thesis presents two formulations to on-line calibration: 1) The classical statespace ...

  17. Simulation of borehole acoustic measurements in axisymmetric media with hp-adaptive finite ele-Christian Michler, Leszek Demkowicz, and Carlos Torres-Verdin, University of Texas at Austin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    component of the non-invasive, in-situ assessment of rock-formation properties in borehole geophysical ap and for the improvement of acoustic logging techniques used by oil- and oil- service companies to detect and quantify prohibitively expensive. More- over, finite-difference methods cannot handle cases of large contrasts of elastic

  18. Hydrofracture diagnosis in open-hole and steel-cased wells using borehole resistivity measurements David Pardo, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU and IKERBASQUE and Carlos Torres-Verdin, The Uni-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    Hydrofracture diagnosis in open-hole and steel-cased wells using borehole resistivity measurements are suitable for hydrofracture characterization in steel-cased wells. INTRODUCTION In 1949, the Halliburton Oil is used only dur- ing the stimulation phase of the fracture; occasionally, an ul- terior assessment may

  19. A Calibrated Maxey-Eakin Curve for the Fenner Basin of the Eastern Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M.L.; Rose, T.P.

    2000-05-15

    Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of southern California and Cadiz Inc. investigated the feasibility of storing Colorado River water in groundwater aquifers of the eastern Mojave Desert as a future drought mitigation strategy. This culminated in the public release of the Cadiz Groundwater Storage and Dry-Year Supply program Draft EIR, which included pilot percolation studies, groundwater modeling, and precipitation/runoff analysis in the Fenner groundwater basin, which overlies the proposed storage site. The project proposes to store and withdrawal Colorado River water over a 50-year period, but will not exceed the natural replenishment rates of the groundwater basin. Several independent analyses were conducted to estimate the rates of natural groundwater replenishment to the Fenner Groundwater Basin, which was included in the Draft EIR. The US Geologic Survey, Water Resources Division (WRD) officially submitted comments during public review and concluded that the natural groundwater replenishment rates calculated for the Draft EIR were too high. In the WRD review, they provided a much lower recharge calculation based on a Maxey-Eakin estimation approach. This approach estimates annual precipitation over an entire basin as a function of elevation, followed by calibration against annual recharge rates. Recharge rates are estimated on the basis that some fraction of annual precipitation will recharge, and that fraction will increase with increasing elevation. This results in a hypothetical curve relating annual groundwater recharge to annual precipitation. Field validation of recharge rates is critical in order to establish credibility to any estimate. This is due to the fact that the Maxey-Eakin model is empirical. An empirical model is derived from practical experience rather than basic theory. Therefore, a validated Maxey-Eakin model in one groundwater basin does not translate to a different one. In the WRD's Maxey-Eakin model, they used a curve calibrated against three locations in western Nevada and applied it to the Fenner Basin. It is of particular importance to note that all three of the WRD's location are west of longitude 116{sup o}W, where annual precipitation is significantly lower. Therefore, The WRD's Maxey-Eakin curve was calibrated to a drier climate, and its application to the Fenner Basin lacks credibility.

  20. SOIL TEST CALIBRATION WORK IN SOUTHERN USA Leticia S. Sonon and Hailin Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOIL TEST CALIBRATION WORK IN SOUTHERN USA Leticia S. Sonon and Hailin Zhang Introduction Sound soil test calibration is essential for successful fertilization program and crop production. It is essential that the results of soil tests be calibrated against crop responses from applications of the plant