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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

2

Bon-The Primitive Religion of Tibet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and in certain parts still extant". Jaschke3 holds the view that Bon is the nameQf the early religion of Tibet, concerning which but very imperfect acqounts are existing; so much is certain that sorcery was the principl~feature of it. 1. Encyclopaedia ot... Religion and ethics. 333. 2. P.879. 3. A Tibetan-English Dictlonary-P. 372, 1 When Buddhism became the religion of State. the former was considered heretical and condemnable and Lha-cos and bon-cos, or shorter cos and bon, were placed in opposition...

Banerjee, Anukul Chandra

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Perfluorocarbon tracer method for air-infiltration measurements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of measuring air infiltration rates suitable for use in rooms of homes and buildings comprises the steps of emitting perfluorocarbons in the room to be measured, sampling the air containing the emitted perfluorocarbons over a period of time, and analyzing the samples at a laboratory or other facility.

Dietz, R.N.

1982-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

4

Trends and inferred emissions of atmospheric high molecular weight perfluorocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric observations and atmospheric observation-based global emission estimates are presented for the five high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C 4 F 1 0 ), dodecafluoropentane (C5 F1 2 ), ...

Ivy, Diane Jean

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Perfluorocarbons in the global atmosphere: tetrafluoromethane, hexafluoroethane, and octafluoropropane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present atmospheric baseline growth rates from the 1970s to the present for the long-lived, strongly infrared-absorbing perfluorocarbons (PFCs) tetrafluoromethane (CF4), hexafluoroethane (C2F6), and octafluoropropane ...

Muhle, J.

6

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

Turick, C.E.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

8

Facebook i tuits en bon valenci: una iniciativa nascuda al si de la UA Alacant, 6 de juny de 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Facebook i tuits en bon valencià: una iniciativa nascuda al si de la UA Alacant, 6 de juny de 2012 universitària de la Universitat d'Alacant en Facebook i Twitter. En Bon Valencià ens proporciona cada dia, directament en el nostre compte de Twitter o Facebook, xicotetes dosis de correcció lingüística, en el format

Escolano, Francisco

9

QUANTIFICATION OF FUGITIVE REACTIVE ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent studies demonstrate the impact of fugitive emissions of reactive alkenes on the atmospheric chemistry of the Houston Texas metropolitan area (1). Petrochemical plants located in and around the Houston area emit atmospheric alkenes, such as ethene, propene and 1,3-butadiene. The magnitude of emissions is a major uncertainty in assessing their effects. Even though the petrochemical industry reports that fugitive emissions of alkenes have been reduced to less than 0.1% of daily production, recent measurement data, obtained during the TexAQS 2000 experiment indicates that emissions are perhaps a factor of ten larger than estimated values. Industry figures for fugitive emissions are based on adding up estimated emission factors for every component in the plant to give a total estimated emission from the entire facility. The dramatic difference between estimated and measured rates indicates either that calculating emission fluxes by summing estimates for individual components is seriously flawed, possibly due to individual components leaking well beyond their estimated tolerances, that not all sources of emissions for a facility are being considered in emissions estimates, or that there are known sources of emissions that are not being reported. This experiment was designed to confirm estimates of reactive alkene emissions derived from analysis of the TexAQS 2000 data by releasing perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) at a known flux from a petrochemical plant and sampling both the perfluorocarbon tracer and reactive alkenes downwind using the Piper-Aztec research aircraft operated by Baylor University. PFTs have been extensively used to determine leaks in pipelines, air infiltration in buildings, and to characterize the transport and dispersion of air parcels in the atmosphere. Over 20 years of development by the Tracer Technology Center (TTC) has produced a range of analysis instruments, field samplers and PFT release equipment that have been successfully deployed in a large variety of experiments. PFTs are inert, nontoxic, noncombustible and nonreactive. Up to seven unique PFTs can be simultaneously released, sampled and analyzed and the technology is well suited for determining emission fluxes from large petrochemical facilities. The PFT experiment described here was designed to quantitate alkene emissions from a single petrochemical facility, but such experiments could be applied to other industrial sources or groups of sources in the Houston area.

SENUM,G.I.; DIETZ,R.N.

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

10

A Really Good Hammer: Quantification of Mass Transfer Using Perfluorocarbon Tracers (475th Brookhaven Lecture)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brookhaven Lab’s perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology can be viewed as a hammer looking for nails. But, according to Tom Watson, leader of the Lab’s Tracer Technology Group in the Environmental Research and Technology Division (ERTD), “It’s a really good hammer!” The colorless, odorless and safe gases have a number of research uses, from modeling how airborne contaminants might move through urban canyons to help first responders plan their response to potential terrorist attacks and accidents to locating leaks in underground gas pipes. Their extremely low background level — detectable at one part per quadrillion — allows their transport to be easily tracked. Lab researchers used PFTs during the 2005 Urban Dispersion Program field studies in New York City, gathering data to help improve models of how a gas or chemical release might move around Manhattan’s tall buildings and canyons. Closer to home, scientists also used PFTs to make ventilation measurements in Bldg. 400 on the Lab site to provide data to test air flow models used in determining the effects of passive and active air exchange on the levels of indoor and outdoor air pollution, and to determine the effects of an accidental or intentional release of hazardous substances in or around buildings.

Watson, Tom [BNL Environmental Sciences, Tracer Technology Group

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

Measurement of HVAC system performance and local ventilation using passive perfluorocarbon tracer technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In April of 1993, two (2) perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) ventilation/indoor air quality assessment tests were performed in the Gleeson Hall building of the SUNY Farmingdale campus. The building was being modified, in part, as a result of significant occupant complaints of perceived poor air quality. The four story building had a basement first floor with air supplied normally by an HVAC system labelled as AC1. During this study, AC1 was inoperational and the basement interior rooms (walls) were primarily gone; the other three floors were still being used for classes. It is possible that a sense of poor air quality may have been perceived by first-floor occupants because they were working in the basement, but this issue could not be addressed. The second floor had two (2) lecture halls--Rm 202 (handled by AC4) and Rm 204 (handled by AC5); the balance of the second floor interior rooms and corridors was split between two other air handling systems, AC2 for the west side of the building and AC3 for the east side. The remaining 3rd and 4th floors were also split about evenly between AC2 and AC3. The perimeter rooms, equipped with wall units having their own outside air (OA) source plus centralized return air (RA) bypasses, were not included in this testing which was restricted to the basement floor (1st floor) and the four operating air handling systems, AC2 to AC5, during Test 1 and only AC2 to AC5 during Test 2. Two types of tests were performed using the full suite of 5 PFT types available. The first test was designed to measure the infiltration, exfiltration, and air exchange between the 5 AC zones above and the second test used the 5th tracer, which had been in the basement, as a distributed source throughout the four other zones to act as a surrogate pollutant source. This report provides final conclusions of both tests and suggestions regarding its usefulness in similar building ventilation and indoor air quality assessments.

Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

USING PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS FOR VERIFICATION OF CAP AND COVER SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) office has committed itself to an accelerated cleanup of its national facilities. The goal is to have much of the DOE legacy waste sites remediated by 2006. This includes closure of several sites (e.g., Rocky Flats and Fernald). With the increased focus on accelerated cleanup, there has been considerable concern about long-term stewardship issues in general, and verification and long-term monitoring (LTM) of caps and covers, in particular. Cap and cover systems (covers) are vital remedial options that will be extensively used in meeting these 2006 cleanup goals. Every buried waste site within the DOE complex will require some form of cover system. These covers are expected to last from 100 to 1000 years or more. The stakeholders can be expected to focus on system durability and sustained performance. DOE EM has set up a national committee of experts to develop a long-term capping (LTC) guidance document. Covers are subject to subsidence, erosion, desiccation, animal intrusion, plant root infiltration, etc., all of which will affect the overall performance of the cover. Very little is available in terms of long-term monitoring other than downstream groundwater or surface water monitoring. By its very nature, this can only indicate that failure of the cover system has already occurred and contaminants have been transported away from the site. This is unacceptable. Methods that indicate early cover failure (prior to contaminant release) or predict approaching cover failure are needed. The LTC committee has identified predictive monitoring technologies as a high priority need for DOE, both for new covers as well as existing covers. The same committee identified a Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technology as one approach that may be capable of meeting the requirements for LTM. The Environmental Research and Technology Division (ERTD) at BNL developed a novel methodology for verifying and monitoring subsurface barriers (1,2). The technology uses perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) to determine flaws (e.g., holes or cracks) and high permeability areas in subsurface barriers. Gaseous tracers are injected on one side of the barrier and searched for on the opposite side of the barrier. The sampling grid, concentration, and time of arrival of the tracer(s) on the opposite side are used to determine the size and location of flaws and relative permeability of the barrier. In addition, there are multiple tracers available, which allows different tracers to be injected in different quadrants of the barrier. This yields additional information on transport phenomena of the barrier.

HEISER,J.; SULLIVAN,T.

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Prayer to Ta pi hri tsa - A short exposition of the Base, the Path and the Fruit in Bon Dzogchen teachings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prayer to Ta pi hri tsa A short exposition of the Base, the Path and the Fruit in Bon Dzogchen teachings* By Ratka Jurkovic Introduction zogchen (rDzogs pa chen po or in short rDzogs chen), the Great Perfection represents... of the Dzogchen teachings represented through the discussion of Base, Fruit and Path. The six verse form is typical of the kind usually found in the earliest Dzogchen Nyingma text, “The Cuckoo of the Intellect” (Rig pa’i khu byug), a copy of which was among...

Jurkovic, Ratka

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY PERFLUOROCARBON TRACER TECHNOLOGY: A PROVEN AND COST EFFECTIVE METHOD TO VERIFY INTEGRITY AND MONITOR LONG TERM PERFORMANCE OF WALLS, FLOORS, CAPS, AND COVER SYSTEMS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently, containment system failures are detected by monitoring wells downstream of the waste site. Clearly this approach is inefficient, as the contaminants will have migrated from the disposal area before they are detected. Methods that indicate early cover failure (prior to contaminant release) or predict impending cover failure are needed. The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Perfluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) technology can measure performance changes and integrity losses as the cover ages. This allows early detection of cover failure or pending failure so that repair or replacement can be made before contaminants leave the disposal cell. The PFT technology has been successfully applied to four subsurface barrier problems, one leak detection problem from underground ducts, and one surface cover problem. Testing has demonstrated that the PFTs are capable of accurately detecting and locating leaks down to fractions of an inch. The PFT technology has several advantages over competing approaches. The ability to simultaneously use multiple PFTs separates it from other gas tracer technologies. Using multiple tracers provides independent confirmation of flaw location, helps to clearly define transport pathways, and can be used for confirmatory testing (e.g., repeat the test using a new tracer). The PFT tests provide a direct measure of flaws in a barrier, whereas other measurements (pressure, moisture content, temperature, subsidence) provide indirect measures that need interpretation. The focus of the six PFT demonstrations has been on engineering aspects of the technology with the intent of finding if a flaw existed in the barrier. Work remains to be done on the scientific basis for this technology. This includes determining PFT diffusion rates through various materials (soils and barrier) as a function of moisture content, determining the effects of barometric pumping on PFT flow for cover systems, and determining wind effects on side slopes of cover systems and their impact on PFT performance. It also includes application of models to assist in the design of the monitoring system and the interpretation of the data. The set of demonstrations was performed on small sites (< 1/4 acre). Future work also needs to consider scaling issues to develop and design optimal techniques for delivery and monitoring of the PFTs.

HEISER, J.; SULLIVAN, T.

2002-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

15

Atmospheric and soil-gas monitoring for surface leakage at the San Juan Basin CO{sub 2} pilot test site at Pump Canyon New Mexico, using perfluorocarbon tracers, CO{sub 2} soil-gas flux and soil-gas hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Near-surface monitoring and subsurface characterization activities were undertaken in collaboration with the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on their San Juan Basin coal-bed methane pilot test site near Navajo City, New Mexico. Nearly 18,407 short tons (1.670 × 107 kg) of CO{sub 2} were injected into 3 seams of the Fruitland coal between July 2008 and April 2009. Between September 18 and October 30, 2008, two additions of approximately 20 L each of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers were mixed with the CO{sub 2} at the injection wellhead. PFC tracers in soil-gas and in the atmosphere were monitored over a period of 2 years using a rectangular array of permanent installations. Additional monitors were placed near existing well bores and at other locations of potential leakage identified during the pre-injection site survey. Monitoring was conducted using sorbent containing tubes to collect any released PFC tracer from soil-gas or the atmosphere. Near-surface monitoring activities also included CO{sub 2} surface flux and carbon isotopes, soil-gas hydrocarbon levels, and electrical conductivity in the soil. The value of the PFC tracers was demonstrated when a significant leakage event was detected near an offset production well. Subsurface characterization activities, including 3D seismic interpretation and attribute analysis, were conducted to evaluate reservoir integrity and the potential that leakage of injected CO{sub 2} might occur. Leakage from the injection reservoir was not detected. PFC tracers made breakthroughs at 2 of 3 offset wells which were not otherwise directly observable in produced gases containing 20–30% CO{sub 2}. These results have aided reservoir geophysical and simulation investigations to track the underground movement of CO{sub 2}. 3D seismic analysis provided a possible interpretation for the order of appearance of tracers at production wells.

Wells, Arthur W.; Diehl, J. Rodney; Strazisar, Brian R.; Wilson, Thomas; H Stanko, Dennis C.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Case Study No. 2: Bon Appétit Management Company  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compa- ny’s and diners’ carbon footprint. Working with inde-diners can assess the carbon footprint of each item they put

Thistlethwaite, Rebecca; Brown, Martha

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuo Feng Bio JumpVenturesCoral CapitalBoilers Jump to:Yankton

18

Bon Homme County, South Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: Energy ResourcesJersey:formBlueBombay Beach, California: Energy Resources

19

Bons Ventos Geradora de Energia S A | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORT Americium/CuriumSunways JV Jump to:BhorukaBonfiglioli Tansmital

20

Trends and Inferred Emissions of Atmospheric High Molecular Weight Perfluorocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 36 Northern Hemisphere and 468F18. Based on our observations, the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these high12, 0.27 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. Newly measured infrared absorption

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Les Bons Ingredients pour un Haut Niveau de Performance des Installations Climatiques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DE POST-RECEPTION DES SERVICES ADAPTES AUX BESOINS, CONTRACTUELS DES SERVICES ADAPTES AUX BESOINS, CONTRACTUELS 1 an RECEPTION RECEPTION ICEBO ? C ommiss 7 Le dossier technique Le dossier technique usage, maintenance, exploitation, usage, maintenance..., exploitation, selon le contratselon le contrat DOSSIER DOEFichesNotices d?usageMAP Ajustements des r?glages, fonctions DIUO de la GTB, nettoyages sanitaires? P.V.COPREC RECEPTION DOSSIER DOEFichesNotices d?usageMAPAjustements des r?glages, DIUO Fonctions de...

Rougnon, J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Approximations. -Il est bon d'indiquer quelles approximations nous avons fuites : toutes d'ailleurs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'est-à-dire du même ordre de grandeur que (HHo)2, par rapport à d2udt etd2vdt et par conséquent négli- geables

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

The black grouper (Mycteroperca bon-aci) is one of the 20 most commonly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

harvested from the Campeche Bank (the continental shelf surround- ing the northern coast of the Yucatan of the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche Bank), including the shallow waters of National Marine Park Alacranes Reef and population structure characteris- tics for Campeche Bank black grouper were consistent

24

Laboratory testing and modeling to evaluate perfluorocarbon compounds as tracers in geothermal systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal stability and adsorption characteristics of three perfluorinated hydrocarbon compounds were evaluated under geothermal conditions to determine the potential to use these compounds as conservative or thermally-degrading tracers in Engineered (or Enhanced) Geothermal Systems (EGS). The three compounds tested were perfluorodimethyl-cyclobutane (PDCB), perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH), and perfluorotrimethylcyclohexane (PTCH), which are collectively referred to as perfluorinated tracers, or PFTs. Two sets of duplicate tests were conducted in batch mode in gold-bag reactors, with one pair of reactors charged with a synthetic geothermal brine containing the PFTs and a second pair was charged with the brine-PFT mixture plus a mineral assemblage chosen to be representative of activated fractures in an EGS reservoir. A fifth reactor was charged with deionized water containing the three PFTs. The experiments were conducted at {approx}100 bar, with temperatures ranging from 230 C to 300 C. Semi-analytical and numerical modeling was also conducted to show how the PFTs could be used in conjunction with other tracers to interrogate surface area to volume ratios and temperature profiles in EGS reservoirs. Both single-well and cross-hole tracer tests are simulated to illustrate how different suites of tracers could be used to accomplish these objectives. The single-well tests are especially attractive for EGS applications because they allow the effectiveness of a stimulation to be evaluated without drilling a second well.

Reimus, Paul W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

25

Personal Visualization and Personal Visual Dandan Huang, Melanie Tory, Bon Adriel Aseniero, Lyn Bartram, Scott Bateman, Sheelagh Carpendale,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

data relevant to their personal lives, interests, and needs. Index Terms--Taxonomy, personal context such as water, electricity use) are easily available to us. These data are relevant to our personal lives) involves the design of interactive visual data representations for use in a personal context, and Personal

Tory, Melanie

26

Berlin, le 25 janvier 2007 Evaluation et politiques: Y a-t-il de bons indicateurs pour la recherche?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(derived from the works of Amartya Sen). Then I try to apply these conceptions towards research evaluation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

27

Combining boron isotopes and carbamazepine to trace sewage in salinized groundwater: a case study in Cap Bon, Tunisia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

treatment and so recognized as a pertinent tracer of wastewater contamination. The system equilibrium of Research in Rural Engineering of Water and Forestry), rue Hédi Karray, B.P.10- 2080 Ariana, Tunisia based on a managed aquifer recharge with treated wastewater. Water quality monitoring was implemented

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

28

Feasibility of a Perfluorocarbon tracer based network to support Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of Sequestered CO2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and Accounting of Sequestered CO2 Thomas B. Watson* and Terrence Sullivan Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton% of total sequestered CO2 over the lifetime of the reservoir. This is 0.001% per year for a 1000 year lifetime of a storage reservoir. Effective detection of CO2 leaks at the surface may require incorporation

Johnson, Peter D.

29

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Motion plan n in g for m ulti-robot assem bly M . BON ER T, L. H. SHU and B. BEN H ABIB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-type optim ization problem s. H owever, in these augm ented TSPs (TSP+) , both the `sales- person' (a robot, Euclidean, Ch ebysh ev, prize collectin g an d tim e-depen - den t TSP variation s ( Dubowsky an d Blubaugh

Shu, Lily H.

31

US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) 1,200 Steelhead Kelt passage at BON Passage behavior to inform decision on BON powerhouse priority

32

Millenium Science Complex New clean room: 10,000 sq. ft. class 100/1000  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ring outgassing · All high temperature O-rings made of fluorocarbon or perfluorocarbon materials have this issue

33

Contribution aux nombrables de la tradition Bon po : l'Appendive de bsTan 'dzin Rin chen rgyal mtshan a la Sphere de Cristal des Dieux et des Demons de Shar rdza rin po che  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gsum rnam par 'byed palha gnyen shel sgong zhes bya ba). Inclus en ouverture du volume 14 [Pha] de lacollection, ce texte expose les principes fondamentaux, théoriques et prati-ques, qui animent les deux Phases (rim gnyis) de la pratique tantrique supé... strictementconforme à ce qu'elle devrait être. Selon bsTan 'dzin Rin chen rgyal mtshanles préliminaires formant ce que l’on désigne comme l’entraînement destrois portes (sngon ‘gro sgo gsum sbyang ba)48 comprennent les éléments sui-vants : — pour le corps (lus), il...

Achard, Jean-Luc

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Human activities have caused a rapid increase in GHG concentrations. This rising level contributes to global climate change, which contributes to environmental and public health problems.

Not Available

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkenes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department Summary: ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS Gunnar I. Senum and Russell N... of...

36

BNL-73106-2004-IR Research by BNL investigators was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS Gunnar I. Senum and Russell N (1). Petrochemical plants located in and around the Houston area emit atmospheric alkenes by releasing perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) at a known flux from a petrochemical plant and sampling both

37

Reliability of Heat Pumps Containing R410-A Refrigerant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on alternate refrigerants. One major manufacturer announced a formation of black smudge on internal surfaces of field trial units using HFCs. Several causes were suggested but none were published. Reports of capillary tube plugging were wide spread. Polyol...

McJimsey, B. A.; Cawley, D.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

A Comparison of Fault Detection Methods For a Transcritical Refrigeration System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Climate Change, eleven of the twelve years between 1995 and 2006 ranked with the highest temperatures since direct measurement has been available [3]. The use of hydroflourocarbons (HFCs) as refrigerants contributes to climate change. Global warming...

Janecke, Alex Karl

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

39

Wind Power and the Clean Development Mechanism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biogas Cement HFCs Geothermal EE Households Solar N2O Fugitive Tidal EE Service Transport Energy distrib 200 300 400 500 600 700 Lara Landfill (10 MW) Korat Biogas (3 MW) Rukmani Rice Husk (10 MW) Palestina

40

The State of the CDM & its Contribution to SD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distribution of CDM projects 2012 CER Total in the CDM Pipeline kCERs Population per cap. Latin America 609 23 category Renewables 61% Demand-side EE 5% Supply-side EE 11% Fuel sw itch 3% HFCs, PFCs & N2O reduction 2% Supply-side EE 10% CH4 reduction & Cement & Coal mine/bed 20% Renewables 28% HFCs, PFCs & N2O reduction

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

HaloTag protein-mediated specific labeling of living cells with quantum dots Min-kyung So, Hequan Yao 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tag protein (HTP) [25]. The na- tive HTP is a monomeric protein (MW $ 33 KDa) that cleaves car- bon halogen

Rao, Jianghong

42

Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C[subscript 4]F[subscript 10], C[subscript 5]F[subscript 12], C[subscript 6]F[subscript 14], C[subscript 7]F[subscript 16] and C[subscript 8]F[subscript 18  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C[subscript 4]F[subscript 10]), dodecafluoropentane (C[subscript ...

Ivy, Diane J.

43

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of perfluorocarbons: Comparison. (1995) and combined with atmospheric lifetimes from the literature to determine global warming

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

44

Primary aluminum production : climate policy, emissions and costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climate policy regarding perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may have a significant influence on investment decisions in the production of primary aluminum. This work demonstrates an integrated analysis of the effectiveness and likely ...

Harnisch, Jochen.; Sue Wing, Ian.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.

45

Update in Fluoroelastomers : fromPerfluoroelastomers to Fluorosilicones and Fluorophosphazenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the fluoroelastomers, ranging from (per)fluorocarbon elastomers to fluorophosphazenes, and fluorosilicones. 2 to be crosslinked and those are do not 2-1 Fluorocarbon elastomers. Usually, fluorocarbon elastomers are synthesised

Boyer, Edmond

46

Old Oyo Influences on the Transformation of Lucumí Identity in Colonial Cuba  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Bon Maroon Wars in Suriname. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1990.and Musical Transformations in Suriname c. 1775 until afterand Susu Xylophones in Suriname. ” Paper presented at “

Lovejoy, Henry B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

analogas al acido: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Supporting Information Osborn et al. 10.1073pnas.1100682108 SI Methods Dissolved gas samples were- bons....

48

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid catabolic pathway Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

metabolism of nutrients1 Summary: , and cell cultures to investigate the interconnectivity of the pathways of macronutrient and nucleic acid... -labeled car- bon skeletons...

49

E-Print Network 3.0 - argon 1s photoelectron Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

silicon dioxide, and gold Summary: that increasing exposure time resulted in the intensity of the car- bon (1s) signal increasing relative... for 21 hours exhibits a carbon...

50

MEMS Materials and Temperature Sensors for Down Hole Geothermal System Monitoring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 5(4), 1996. [25]bon for microelectromechanical systems and electrochemicalJournal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 22(1), 2013. [98

Wodin-Schwartz, Sarah

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 17 Number 4 : Full issue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONTENTS 1. Bon-The Primitive Religion of Tibet 1 Dr. Anukul Chandra Banerjee ~ 2. Lamaism in Tibet- A Brief Survey 19 t" B. Ghosh 3. Functions and Activities of SRITOBS 23 4. Publications of SRITOBS 1-6 Bon-The Primitive Religion of Tibet Prof... of incantation. The word Chos which ordinarily means religion is used as antithesis to Bon. Bon signifies the kind of Shamanism which was followed by Tibetans before the introduction of Buddhism and in certain parts still extant". Jaschke3 holds the view...

Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

1981-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

52

Concomitant tuning of metal work function and wetting property with mixed self-assembled monolayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the work function can be achieved by the use of mixed SAMs of a fluorocarbon and a hydrocar- bon [13

53

INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES The French APACHE project aims at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

commercially available fuel cell vehicles [1­4]. Several projects of fuel cell aircrafts intend to demonstrate at demonstrating the feasibility of using a Hybrid Fuel Cell System (HFCS) as the power generator for all electric Fuel Cells (PEMFC), their hybridization with Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) batteries and systems' integration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

Atmospheric histories and global emissions of the anthropogenic hydrofluorocarbons HFC-365mfc, HFC-245fa, HFC-227ea, and HFC-236fa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on ground-based atmospheric measurements and emission estimates of the four anthropogenic hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-365mfc (CH[subscript 3]CF[subscript 2]CH[subscript 2]CF[subscript 3], 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane), ...

Rigby, Matthew

55

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;Center% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCsTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

56

PUBLICATIONS, CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS AND REPORTS Refereed Publications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Petroleum Technology, February 2008, Vol. 47, No.2, 52-61. 25. Bon, J., Sarma, H.K., Rodrigues, J.T. and Bon, J.G., "Reservoir Fluid Sampling Revisited - A Practical Perspective", SPE Reservoir Evaluation in SPE News Australasia, October/November 2003, Issue 79. 17. H.K. Sarma, N. Yazawa, R.G. Moore, S

Williams, John M.

57

Fracture Model, Ground Displacements and Tracer Observations: Fruitland Coals, San Juan Basin, New Mexico,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the coal reservoirs consist of six separate coal beds rather than three. Perfluorocarbon tracer monitoring the site consist of two coal beds, each separated by a shale parting. This observation indicates will improve our understanding of Fruitland coal reservoirs; help develop more effective strategies to enhance

Wilson, Thomas H.

58

NOAA ARL Monthly Activity Report January 2005  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. SURFRAD/ISIS 9. DHS Model Evaluation Planning 10. U.S. Climate Reference 11. Community Multiscale Air. Tracer Analysis Facility (TAF) Adaptation for Perfluorocarbon Tracer Analysis 19. Smart Balloon" Method for DCNet added to READY. A routine that inserts DCNet tower observations into the Eta gridded

59

Environment International, Vol. 8, pp. 419-433, 1982 0160-4120/82/070419-15503.00/0 Printed in the USA. All rights reserved. Copyright 1982 Pergamon Press Ltd.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) sources and miniature passive samplers, both about the size of a cigarette, tests of passive adsorption tube samplers performed reproducibly and identically (to within + 2%-3%) in laboratory-story house. Multiple location sampling, as well as sampling in rooms with and without a miniature source

60

Constitution (1987). Haitian French Creole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

jistis tout bon vre. 3. Konstitisyon sa a la, pou peyi d Ayiti kanpe solid, pou li kanpe an fôm, an pami tout nasyon. Pou li pa restavèk okenn lot peyi. Pou li kenbe tou sa ki fè Ayisyen, se Ayisyen tout bon, ni nan sa yo mete konfyans yo ladan, ni... nan jan yo viv, ni nan fason youn sévi ak 1ÓL 4. Konstitisyon sa a la, pou demokrasi pouse bon rasin nan peyi a. Pou tout moun gen dwa suiv lide yo lib. Pou direksyon peyi a pa toujou rete nan men menm moun ak menm gwoup moun tout tan. Pou pèsonn...

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Cover photos: CBL, AL, and HPL small photos: Cheryl Nemazie  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ALITy...................................................................................................2 UMCES CArBON FOOTprINT: STATUS ANd TrENdS Selectively redesign or replace HVAC systems and further insulate facilities Capture and reuse gray water

Boynton, Walter R.

62

portation and Greenhouse Gas (MUNTAG) model is a macroscopic, highly aggregate model that works at the municipal level and solely  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

identifies the following four sectors: buildings; trans- portation and land use; energy supply; and municipal GHG inventory. This work is part of a project to write a guide called Getting to Car- bon Neutral

Illinois at Chicago, University of

63

J.J. Berezan is currently a M.Sc. graduate student  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

similar to this was applied later to agricultural tractor drivers after many complaints about back group (Bon- venzi and Betta, 1994). It has been found that tractor drivers can experience vibration expo

Joseph, Tim Grain

64

7 Cometabolic Bioremediation T. C. Hazen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bioremediation has been used on some of the most recalcitrant contami- nants, e.g., PCE, TCE, MTBE, TNT, dioxane and aromatic hydrocar- bons, MTBE, explosives, dioxane, PCBs, and pesticides. Microorganisms are versatile

Hazen, Terry

65

Purification de l'hexafluorure d'uranium.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??L’hexafluorure d’uranium (UF6), est le seul composé utilisé à l’état gazeux dans les procédés d’enrichissement pour la production du combustible nucléaire. Pour le bon déroulement… (more)

Benzouaa, Rachid

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

N D'ORDRE : 7029 UNIVERSITE DE PARIS XI  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contribué, de près ou de loin, au bon déroulement de ma thèse, et parmi celles-ci : -Erwin Dreyer et maintes fois sauvé mes peupliers d'une mort certaine... Au CEA-Cadarache Merci à Gilles Peltier, pour m

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

Padova, 29 novembre 2010 Arturo Lorenzoni  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy technologies have to give proper answers to 2 main challenges in the long term. We need to find the sustainable soluBons to the energy supply conundrum. Most energy companies have very short Bme horizons due to stock

Schenato, Luca

68

Nutrient Cycling in the Great lakes: A Summarization of Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.faetor, 1I,r..._.t h ..., .... _.r.bon fa.lou (Thoa.. !.!.!!. UfO) . tb......n ··· vblch .n 1t.t,IIl, tapaet

69

fois, ils semblent aussi impliqus dans une tape postrieure l'initiation qui est la promo-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E.A. & Recknagel R.O. (1983) Carbon tetrachloride and bromotrichloromethane toxi- city. Dual role.A., Fernan- dez Y. & Mitjavila S. (1986) Radical activation of car- bon tetrachloride in foetal and maternal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a sealed tube stability study on twenty-one refrigerant-lubricant mixtures selected from the following groupings: HFCs R-32, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-143a, and R-152a with one or more lubricants selected from among three pentaerythritol esters and three polyalkylene glycols. All lubricants were carefully predried to 25 ppm or less moisture content. HCFCs R-22, R-123, R-124, and R-142b, as well as CFC R-11, with one or more lubricants selected from among two mineral oils and one alkylbenzene fluid. Bach test mixture was aged at three temperature levels.

Huttenlocher, D.F.

1992-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

71

Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a sealed tube stability study on twenty-one refrigerant-lubricant mixtures selected from the following groupings: HFCs R-32, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-143a, and R-152a with one or more lubricants selected from among three pentaerythritol esters and three polyalkylene glycols. All lubricants were carefully predried to 25 ppm or less moisture content. HCFCs R-22, R-123, R-124, and R-142b, as well as CFC R-11, with one or more lubricants selected from among two mineral oils and one alkylbenzene fluid. Bach test mixture was aged at three temperature levels.

Huttenlocher, D.F.

1992-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

72

Investigation of Soap Powders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the presence of such a large excess of NajjSO* as is usually present, does not give a sharp end point, but a gradual fading from yellow to pink so that some little practice is necessary before the operator can hit the end point accurately. Practice does... and soap. Bon Ami• Manufactured by Bon Ami Company, New York, I. Y. Wt. 10 ounces Price 10 cents. Analysis. Moisture .......... 0.28# Soap 6.54# Albite 93,18# Total 100.00^ IT. B. Albite is an orthoclase of the following composition: Si0 2 68...

Bragg, G.A.

1913-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

FINAL REPORT: EDDY-COVARIANCE FLUX TOWER AND TRACER TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA PROPOSAL: FROM TOWER TO PIXEL: INTEGRATION OF PATCH-SIZE NEE USING EXPERIMENTAL MODELING FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brookhaven National Laboratory has been funded since October of 2000 to provide assistance to the University of Georgia in conducting footprint analyses of individual towers based on meteorology and trace gas measurements. Brookhaven researchers conducted air flow measurements using perfluorocarbon tracers and meteorological instrumentation for three experimental campaigns at an AmeriFlux research site maintained by Dr. Monique Leclerc near Gainesville, FL. In addition, BNL provided assistance with remote data collection and distribution from remote field sites operated by Dr. John Hom of the US Forest Service in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey and at FACE research sites in North Carolina and Wisconsin.

LEWIN,K.F.; NAGY, J.; WATSON, T.B.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Method for inducing hypothermia  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

Becker, Lance B. (Chicago, IL); Hoek, Terry Vanden (Chicago, IL); Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL)

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

75

Method for inducing hypothermia  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

Becker, Lance B. (Chicago, IL); Hoek, Terry Vanden (Chicago, IL); Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL)

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Method for inducing hypothermia  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

Becker, Lance B.; Hoek, Terry Vanden; Kasza, Kenneth E.

2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

77

Black carbon refractive index and morphology: a Laboratory study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- bon: What is representa- tive? Fuel % share Grassland 21.2 Diesel 16.7 Tropical forest 12.4 Wood 7 carbon (see Table). We intend to include some bulk samples of bio- mass burning. Due to the wide range on mimic Diesel soot that can be produced under controlled conditions. 5 Experiential number density

Oxford, University of

78

Solar Phys (2010) 261: 353359 DOI 10.1007/s11207-009-9497-4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Phys (2010) 261: 353­359 DOI 10.1007/s11207-009-9497-4 Critical Comment on the Article by R strong but erroneous statements were made by R. Rek in an article pub- lished in this volume of Solar data and its relation to solar activity. Several strong claims were made by R09: i) radiocar- bon 14 C

Usoskin, Ilya G.

79

820 Gessner Rd. -Ste. 920 Houston, TX 77024 www.energytribune.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Orinoco AMERICA: BURNING FOOD AS AUTO FUEL Argentina's Looming Energy Crunch Argentina's Looming Energy on our global strengths and the changing dynamics of the global energy and food markets." As ADM, one ­ increased soil erosion, huge car- bon dioxide emissions, biodiversity loss, and desert- ification

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

80

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C8, supplement a u n012, Tome 48, decembre 1987  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES OF SILICA AEROGELS J. BON, E. BONJOUR, R. CALEMCZUK and B. SALCE CEN de Grenoble, DRFG and acoustic attenuation of s i l i c a aerogel have been measured by the resonant bar method. Measurements range. The experimental investigation of l o w density s i l i c a aerogels (p

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

through the digestive tract of patients with a malabsorption syndrome. In addition, our  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

digestibility car- bon from dietary CHO. Effect of algal fibre supplementation (Eucheuma cottonii) on intestinal of their nutritional properties, this work inves- tigated the possible effects of algal polysac- charides sequence of test meals (800 g of maize starch + casein) sup- plemented either with 40 g of algal fibres

Boyer, Edmond

82

ELSEVIER Computational Materials Science 2 (1994) 468-474 Modifying the buckyball  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of C60- inspired carbon fullerenes. At present, the most intensively investigated systems are multi 1994) Abstract Structural and electronic properties of carbon clusters, in particular the C60 triggered a world-wide interest in this novel form of car- bon. The resulting research effort first concen

83

Universit Paris-Est cole Doctorale Ville et Environnement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, qui m'a mise sur les chemins de la recherche en m'aidant à mener cette thèse, du montage du dossier quand la pendaison de crémaillère ?), Anthony (une jolie complicité, de très bons moments), Arnaud (un

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

84

Structure and Density of Mo and Acid Sites in Mo-Exchanged H-ZSM5 Catalysts for Nonoxidative Methane Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of natural gas to higher hydrocar- bons and aromatics remains an important industrial challenge Methane Conversion Richard W. Borry III, Young Ho Kim, Anne Huffsmith, Jeffrey A. Reimer, and Enrique and gas phase transport, exchange at acid sites, and react to form H2O. The amount of H2O evolved during

Iglesia, Enrique

85

Mechanical engineering Department Seminar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

properties of NPs and those of nanocar- bon, but also additional novel properties due to the electronic interaction between the NP and the nanocarbon. Such hybrid nanostructures are promising for various technological applications, such as sensors, photovoltaic cells, lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel

86

Atomic and molecular adsorption on RhMn alloy surface: A first principles study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and hydrogen from reforming of natural gas and coal to hydro- carbon Fishcher-Tropsch synthesis and oxygenates- bon and partial oxidation of methane.15 The importance of Rh catalysts on catalytic reactions molecules in terms of the energetics and site preferences on Rh catalysts as well as the effects of Mn added

Li, Weixue

87

Direction gnrale des technologies de l'information et de la communication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(ITIL), qui lui permettra de revoir tout son processus de gestion des incidents et des requêtes et de sa première phase, l'implantation du référentiel ITIL touche surtout les processus nécessaires au bon

Charette, André

88

Towards the use of Qualitative Reasoning for supporting Information Technology Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ITIL1 , which offers documents to be used in the implementation of a framework for IT Service Management (van Bon 2005). ITIL includes two important titles, service delivery and service support. Service for Artificial Intelli- gence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved. 1 http://www.itil.org.uk/ and incident

Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

89

Grid 2020: Toward a Policy of Renewable & Distributed Resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the equivalent of EU's 20/20/20 Plan #12;3 Source: DoE EERE 2012 US State Net Metering Policy Policy is Spurring DG AdopBon 43 states with net metering tariffs + 17 states Smart Grid with Web 2.0 Enables Customer Partnerships Consumer-Prosumer Evolu

90

Nitrogen Addition Increases Carbon Storage in Soils, But Not in Trees, in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitrogen (N) species and car- bon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere globally. Received 18 August 2012Nitrogen Addition Increases Carbon Storage in Soils, But Not in Trees, in an Eastern U.S. Deciduous regions receive elevated rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition from air pollution. To evalu- ate

Templer, Pamela

91

VOLUME 93 NUMBER 23 5 JUNE 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and were designed to track pollutant gases such as sulfur dioxide, ozone, nitric acid, and nitrogen dioxide, rainfall, and the concentration of car- bon dioxide [New et al., 1999; Tans et al., 1996 regional networks together to measure the fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sen- sible heat

92

KINETICS, CATALYSIS, AND REACTION ENGINEERING Nonthermal Plasma Reactions of Dilute Nitrogen Oxide Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the conversion of nitrogen oxides,1,2,4-10 sulfur dioxide,11 and volatile organic car- bons.12 Despite itsKINETICS, CATALYSIS, AND REACTION ENGINEERING Nonthermal Plasma Reactions of Dilute Nitrogen Oxide Mixtures: NOx in Nitrogen Gui-Bing Zhao, Xudong Hu, Man-Chung Yeung, Ovid A. Plumb,§ and Maciej Radosz

Yeung, Man-Chung

93

February 18, 2009 The A Priori  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

about some agent's knowledge, we might say something like `that's a priori for him.' [Kripke, 1980 careless about distinguishing a priority from analyticity and necessity. (Roughly: something is a priori of some fairly specific sort, might be required for that. [BonJour, 2005, p.99] ­ The positive condition

Fitelson, Branden

94

COLE DOCTORALE SCIENCE INGNIERIE ET ENVIRONNEMENT prsente pour l'obtention du diplome de  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM). But the swelling of the coal matrix induced by the preferential dual-porosity models for a coal bed reservoir saturated by a pure fluid. The re to reduce the impact of such emissions on the environment. Moreover, injecting car- bon dioxide in coal bed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

Murchison presolar carbon grains of different density fractions: A Raman spectroscopic perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for inorganic sp2 -bonded carbon. Based on their D/G intensity ratios, those grains were grouped.1), "glassy carbon" (D/G > 1.1), and "unusual sp2 -bonded graphitic car- bon" (with extremely intense 2ndMurchison presolar carbon grains of different density fractions: A Raman spectroscopic perspective

96

UNIVERSITY OF OREGON SOLAR MONITORING LABORATORY The University of Oregon (UO) Solar Moni-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i UNIVERSITY OF OREGON SOLAR MONITORING LABORATORY The University of Oregon (UO) Solar Moni- toring Laboratory has been measuring incident solar radiation since 1975. Current support for this work comes from the Regional Solar Radiation Monitoring Project (RSRMP), a utility consortium project including the Bon

Oregon, University of

97

Gary G. Lash $ Department of Geosciences, State University of New YorkCollege at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a hydrocar- bon source rock that carries regional vertical joints indicating a horizontal least principal;INTRODUCTION Horizontal microcracks in fine-grained, low-permeability source rocks serve as primary hydrocarbon nature of the rock; and (3) the tight, strongly oriented planar clay-grain fabric produced by gravita

Engelder, Terry

98

LA DELEGATION DU SERVICE PUBLIC DE GESTION DES DECHETS SOLIDES EN AFRIQUE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LA DELEGATION DU SERVICE PUBLIC DE GESTION DES DECHETS SOLIDES EN AFRIQUE : A LA RECHERCHE D Economiques et de Gestion Tel. (237) 77 37 23 07 ; Courriel: sotamenou@yahoo.fr Dans bon nombre de pays'interroger sur la performance sociale d'un tel arrangement institutionnel. Dans le cas spécifique du service

Boyer, Edmond

99

Tamang jatibare sangkshipta sabda citra Traite sur l'origine de la caste tamang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

voie du Bauddha tantra . Chez les autres, on continue encore de vénérer les divinités lignagères par l’intermédiaire du Bon ou du célébrant dh#7;mi du lignage. La vénération du roi Gyalpo Pehar en tant que divinité lignagère kuldev#7;ta est aussi une...

Lama, Thubten

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

RALLYE MATHMATIQUE D'AUVERGNE 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

résoudre. Bon courage à tous ! Françoise Barachet, IA-IPR en mathématiques Jean-Alain Roddier, IA-IPR en posées, l'argumentation, la présentation. Conception et Rédaction : IREM, APMEP, IUFM, IA­IPR de

Sart, Remi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Route-Specific Passage and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at The Dalles and Bonneville Dams, 2012 - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was mainly focused on evaluating the route-specific passage and migration success of steelhead kelts passing downstream through The Dalles Dam (TDA) and Bonneville Dam (BON) at Columbia River (CR) river kilometers 309 and 234 respectively. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) personnel collected, tagged and released out-migrating steelhead kelts in the tributaries of the Deschutes River, 15 Mile Creek and Hood River between April 14 and June 4, 2012. A PIT tag was injected into each kelt’s dorsal sinus whereas a Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic micro-transmitter was attached to an external FLoy T-bar tag and inserted into the dorsal back musculature using a Floy tagging gun. JSATS cabled arrays were deployed at TDA and BON and autonomous node arrays were deployed near Celilo, Oregon (CR325); the BON forebay (CR236); the BON tailrace (CR233); near Knapp, Washington (CR156); and near Kalama, Washington (CR113) to monitor the kelts movement while passing through the dams and above mentioned river cross-sections.

Rayamajhi, Bishes; Ploskey, Gene R.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derek M.; Kim, Jin A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

102

Role of PeptidePeptide Interactions in Stabilizing Peptide-Wrapped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: A Molecular Dynamics Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and energy conservation devices.2 Unfortunately, car- bon nanotubes are extremely hydrophobic which leadsRole of Peptide­Peptide Interactions in Stabilizing Peptide-Wrapped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes at biopolymers@wiley. com INTRODUCTION S ingle-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are hollow cylinders formed

Nielsen, Steven O.

103

Chirality dependence of the density-of-states singularities in carbon nanotubes S. Reich and C. Thomsen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approach and yields the energy splitting for an arbitary chiral angle in metallic nanotubes. SemiconductingChirality dependence of the density-of-states singularities in carbon nanotubes S. Reich and C-of-states singularities in single-walled car- bon nanotubes. Our approximation goes beyond the lowest-order, isotropic

Nabben, Reinhard

104

May 18, 2009 WDFW Comments: Northwest Power and Conservation Council High Level Indicators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Biological Indicators): The biological indictors proposed by the Council for fish include important to BON. The adult fish abundance in the Councils program could be compared to subbasin or salmon and lamprey if available. Fish Passage Center 2. Abundance of adult fish in the Council's program. Number

105

Modelling the interannual variability of net ecosystem CO2 exchange at a subarctic sedge fen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1991; Oechel & Billings 1992; Rouse et al. 1997). Resulting changes to energy, water and carbon dioxide car- bon acquisition during wet years but may act to reduce wetland carbon storage in years indicate that carbon acquisition is greatest during wet and warm conditions. This suggests therefore

Minnesota, University of

106

R E W E DE PHYSIQUE APPLIQUEE Colloque C4, Supplbment au n04, Tome 24, Avril 1989  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXCITATIONS IN SILICA AEROGELS R. MAYNARD, R. CALEMCZUK*, A.M. DE GOER*, B. SALCE*, J. BON*, E. BONJOUR* and A son ont bte mesur&s entre 0.1 K e t 10 K sur des aerogels de s i l i c e de f a i b l e densite ( p density s i l i c a aerogels ( p

Boyer, Edmond

107

doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(00)01302-9 Release of bound aromatic hydrocarbons from late Archean and Mesoproterozoic kerogens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Saturated hydrocar- bons were not detected. The molecular and carbon isotopic compositions of pyrene in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates might be explained by hydrothermal redistribution of the bitumen. The kerogen and bitumen composition is therefore consistent with models suggesting a hydrothermal

Brocks, Jochen J.

108

One-hundred-million-atom electronic structure calculations on the K computer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is to combine new ideas among the three fields for a breakthrough. The possibility of sharing the mathematical;Concept : Combining new ideas for a breakthrough Code : Sharing mathematical solvers as middlewares Figure. tion 4 describes an application study on a nano-domain analysis of nano-composite car- bon solids

Hoshi, Takeo

109

Thin film solar cells using impure polycrystalline silicon M. Rodot (1), M. Barbe (1), J. E. Bouree (1), V. Perraki (*) (1), G. Revel (2),R. Kishore (2) (**), J. L. Pastol (2), R. Mertens (3), M. Caymax (3) and M. Eyckmans  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

687 Thin film solar cells using impure polycrystalline silicon M. Rodot (1), M. Barbe (1), J. E avec les autres aptes à l'utilisation de Si-UMG bon marché. Abstract. 2014 Epitaxial solar cells have and electron diffusion length adequate to produce good solar cells. 10.3 % efficiency cells have been obtained

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 2009, 1:1, 106146 http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/pol.1.1.106  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- bon emissions rate or, equivalently, the carbon emissions per unit of output, allows fuel producers to achieve a given carbon emissions rate by exibly altering their production of fuels.2 Senators John Mc (e.g., energy versus miles), and how emissions rates are measured (e.g., upstream versus downstream

Rothman, Daniel

111

Composition at the interface between multicomponent nonequilibrium fluid phases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These secondary recovery mechanisms are particularly important in fractured hydrocar- bon reservoirs.4 An accurate, gas has been in- jected into oil reservoirs to maintain the pressure and thus, improve oil recovery.3 is already developed. Moreover, CO2-injection is a hot candidate for improved oil recovery projects. Thus, CO

Firoozabadi, Abbas

112

Impact of a major ice storm on an old-growth hardwood forest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

forestière, produc- tivité forestière. [Traduit par la Rédaction] Hooper et al. 75 Introduction Ice storms litter produced by ice storms is a substantial, yet little studied, pool of energy, car- bonImpact of a major ice storm on an old-growth hardwood forest Michael C. Hooper, Ken Arii

Lechowicz, Martin J.

113

cDNA Cloning and Characterization of a High Affinity Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in a Cetacean, the Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related PHAHs cause toxicity via activation of the aryl hydrocar- bon receptor demonstrated specific, high-affinity [3 H]TCDD binding. Satura- tion binding analysis was used to compare-expressed AHRs from a dioxin-sensitive mouse strain (Ahb­1 allele) and humans. The beluga AHR bound [3 H

Hahn, Mark E.

114

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Induces Premature Activation of the KLF2 Regulon during  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Induces Premature Activation of the KLF2 Regulon during, Wisconsin 53706 The environmental pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) causes,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)2 is the most toxic congener of a family of halogenated aromatic hydrocar- bons

Bradfield, Christopher A.

115

A HYDROGEN ECONOMY MATTVINCENTILLUSTRATION;JOERAEDLEGettyImages(photograph)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

consumption and car- bon dioxide emissions. To make deeper cuts, the transportation sector needs to switch power sources for transportation is perhaps the tricki- est piece of the energy puzzle. The dif- ficulty and governments support mass transit and smart-growth strategies that lessen the public's reliance on cars

Kammen, Daniel M.

116

Journees des Jeunes Chercheurs 11`eme edition, 8-9 Avril 1999, Lausanne 145 ROMERO: UN P `ELERINAGE ROBOTIQUE `A SANTA FE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

disposition une popu- lation de vrais robots. Afin, de rendre r´ealit´e ce r^eve, notre travail poursuit deux buts: (1) construire un robot bon march´e, modulaire et extensible et (2) utiliser une population de ces robots pour faire des exp´eriences dans le domaine de la robotique ´evolutive. Ce papier pr

Teuscher, Christof

117

LABORATOIRE D'ECONOMIE DE LA PRODUCTION ET DE L'INTEGRATION INTERNATIONALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

du réseau payent pour y accéder, et qui correspond à la rémunération dont dispose le gestionnaire du, the increasing contribution of decentralized electricity generation, the aging of electrical infrastructures, vers le réseau de transport, puis vers le réseau de distribution, dernier maillon indispensable au bon

Boyer, Edmond

118

vol 49 ( 2011) pages 4710 4718 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2011.06.075  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

continuous nickel (Ni) nanorods inside the hollow cavity of car bon nanofibers (CNFs), thus forming troubles for CNT separation in the following steps. On the other hand, metal particles/nano rods it challenging to synthesize continuous metal nanorods/nano wires in vertically aligned CNTs

Boyer, Edmond

119

Equilibria of EV Charging Benny Lutati1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in order to avoid overloading the smart grid [2, 3]. EVs are expected to be parked a large fraction of grid-integrated vehicles, which can also discharge energy back to the grid, is a natural application part of the transition plan to a low car- bon economy. New designs, such as plug-in hybrid vehicles

Yeoh, William

120

Rfrigration domestique : enqute sur les pratiques des consommateurs et recommandations en matire d'hygine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy consumption and water available for microbial circulation and growth. Thus, an important interrogées. Cette condensation suggère une mauvaise fermeture de la porte avec pour conséquence une plus recommandation importante est donc de vérifier que le joint de porte est en bon état et que la porte ferme bien

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

3 Carbide Precipitation Carbides are largely responsible for the commercial failure of many of the early  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1. Transition carbides, such as and the various orthorhombic forms listed in Table 3.1, only form because Precipitation 64 Table 3.1 Carbides in bainite or in tempered bainite. Fe, M/C is the ratio of metal to car- bon3 Carbide Precipitation Carbides are largely responsible for the commercial failure of many

Cambridge, University of

122

Haitian Creole-English English-Haitian Creole Medical Dictionary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; orifice, aperture bô * corner of mouth - anba upside down » chire, ~ manje sores at comer of mouth - dlo salivation * fann harelip, cleft lip; cleft palate - Il anmè, ~ II pa bon, ~ II pa gou to have no appetite ~ Il fè dio to make one's mouth...

Freeman, Bryant C.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Increasing access to the carbon market ENERGY, CLIMATE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

themselves, the science of climate change continually improves, and governments continue to move towards cli- mate change, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is implementing a new climate change thematic focus within URC, the Energy and Car- bon Finance Program helps developing countries pursue

124

Ready to eat breakfast cereals from food-grade sorghums  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two food-grade sorghum hybrids, ATx63 I *Tx436 (non waxy), and B.BON 34, (waxy), were micronized and evaluated for their potential use in ready to eat breakfast cereals (RTE-BC). Whole and decorticated grains were exposed to infra-red burners...

Cruz y Celis Ehlinger, Laura Penelope

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Applied Catalysis A: General 226 (2002) 183192 NO reduction by urea under lean conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Jiraporn Leeratc, Somchai Osuwanc a Chemical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 226 (2002) 183­192 undesired by-products [13,14]. Also, it was found that sol­gel prepared alumina to future air quality standards and low to moderate efficiency of hydrocar- bon reductants. In contrast

Gulari, Erdogan

126

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS 2014 Cover: Acknowledgement Bethan Perkins, Assimila Limited and EUMETSAT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND ENERGY BALANCE OF FORESTS 25 NEW MEASUREMENTS OF TROPICAL FOREST BIOMASS AND STRUCTURE 26 CARBON EXPORT PARAMETER RETRIEVAL 21 CONSTRAINING ECOSYSTEM CAR- BON DYNAMICS IN A DATA-LIMITED WORLD: INTEGRATING ECOLOGI ADAPTIVE LOCALIZATION FOR ENSEMBLE DATA ASSIMILATION 39 ESTIMATING CORRELATED OBSERVATION ERROR STATISTICS

127

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of analytes [1]. As an alternative for hydrocar- bon columns, fluorocarbon columns have been developed for the separation of both fluorinated- and non-fluorinated compounds [2­9]. For example, fluorocarbon columns have been used successfully in fluorous mixture synthesis [10­14]. In comparison, the use of fluorocarbon

Wang, Weizhen

128

Simulation of Nitrogen Emissions in a Premixed Hydrogen Flame Stabilized on a Low Swirl Burner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of fuels such as pure hydrogen and hydrogen-seeded hydrocarbon mixtures. However, many hydrogen-rich fuels in the context of a laboratory-scale low swirl burner fueled with a lean hydrogen-air mixture at atmospheric of burning lean hydrogen or hydrogen-enriched lean hydrocar- bon fuels (e.g., [2­5]). For these fuels

Bell, John B.

129

Eos, Vol. 86, No. 42, 18 October 2005 to shed light on poorly understood piercement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-term changes in oxygen,car- bon dioxide (CO2 ),and several other measur- able parameters since the last global and Predictability (CLIVAR)/CO2 Repeat Hydrog- raphy component of the Global Earth Observ- ing System of Systems, freshwater,and CO2 .The CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography program builds upon earlier programs (e.g.,the World

Talley, Lynne D.

130

Langasite SAW Device with Gas-Sensitive Layer Peng Zheng1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,3 , Irving Oppenheim1,4 1 National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 2 Physics Department, PA, USA Vanessa Malone4 , Tejasvi Ashok2 , James Miller1,2 , Limin Cao5 1 National Energy Technology in support of ongoing research on sensors for car- bon capture systems at the National Energy Technology

Greve, David.W.

131

TREKiSM Issue 37  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

•••• This is gold. Kirk is perfect, Spock Is bon san d p 0 s tag (~, 0 f course. GET WELL W1Sr-I[S to Lilld(] C. Brown, who's now back clt work folJowj'lg surgcl'y, fucing a...

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

The Ecological Society of America wwwwww..ffrroonnttiieerrssiinneeccoollooggyy..oorrgg Societal concern over global warming and its link to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dioxide (CO2) emission-reduction strategies currently under consideration rely on terrestrial car- bon (C of CO2 to the atmosphere. These plans involve two general strategies: (1) direct reduction of fossil-fuel-based CO2 emissions through enhanced energy conservation and efficiency and development of alternative

Minnesota, University of

133

Synopsis of residential refrigerator/freezer alternative refrigerants evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental testing on residential refrigerator/freezers (R/Fs) is summarized in this paper. R/F testing focused on two areas: alternative refrigerants and equipment configurations. The refrigerants evaluated consisted of single components, azeotropes, and zeotropes derived from hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrocarbons (HCs). These refrigerants were evaluated in conventional and unconventional R/F designs. Major and minor design modifications were studied. Minor modifications consisted of various capillary tube lengths, door insulations, and compressors, while major modifications included two-evaporator and two-cycle R/F systems. Results obtained from testing the two-cycle system will be discussed in a later paper. This paper presents the experimental results of alternative technologies evaluated as replacements for ozone depleting chemicals.

Baskin, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

134

Demonstration of High Efficiency Elastocaloric Cooling with Large Delta- T Using NiTi Wires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vapor compression (VC) is by far the most dominant technology for meeting all cooling and refrigeration needs around the world. It is a mature technology with the efficiency of modern compressors approaching the theoretical limit, but its envi-ronmental footprint remains a global problem. VC refrigerants such as hydrochlo-roflurocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a significant source of green house gas (GHG) emissions, and their global warming potential (GWP) is as high as 1000 times that of CO2. It is expected that building space cooling and re-frigeration alone will amount to {approx} 5% of primary energy consumption and {approx}5% of all CO2 emission in U.S. in 2030 . As such, there is an urgent need to develop an al-ternative high-efficiency cooling technology that is affordable and environmentally friendly. Among the proposed candidates, magnetocaloric cooling (MC) is currently received a lot of attention because of its high efficiency. However, MC is inherently expensive because of the requirement of large magnetic field and rare earth materi-als. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new type of solid-state cooling mechanism based on the latent heat of reversible martensitic transformation. We call it elasto-caloric cooling (EC) after the superelastic transformation of austenite it utilizes. The solid-state refrigerant of EC is cost-effective, and it completely eliminates the use of any refrigerants including HCFCs/HFCs. We show that the COP (coefficient of per-formance) of a jugular EC with optimized materials can be as high as > 10 with measured {Delta}T of 17 C.

Cui, Jun; Wu, Yiming; Muehlbauer, Jan; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Fackler, Sean; Wuttig, Manfred; Takeuchi, Ichiro

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

VULNERABILITE ET DROIT DE LA CONSOMMATION (Colloque sur la vulnrabilit et le droit, organis par l'Universit P. Mends-France,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

moyen, au regard notamment du Code de la consommation, ne peut plus être considéré comme l'homme actif, instruit, diligent, avisé qu'était le bon père de famille, dans le Code Napoléon, mais comme un être plus'est pas parce qu'il est systématiquement lésé, mais parce qu'il est susceptible de l'être pour la simple

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

137

UBO RC March 2014-007 photocopieurs 1/8 March de fournitures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

couleur mixtes, d'un logiciel de gestion de parc d'impression et d'un logiciel de soumission de travaux consultation utilisée : Appel d'offres ouvert - articles 33, 57, 58 et 59 du Code des Marchés Publics. Marché à bons de commande - Article 77 du Code des Marchés Publics Date et heure limite de remise des offres

Brest, Université de

138

Service Promotion -Diffusion Raphale LOMBARD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Service Promotion - Diffusion Raphaële LOMBARD Editions L'Harmattan - 5 Rue de l'Ecole Polytechnique ­ 75005 Paris Tél 01.40.46.79.23 ­ mail : raphaele.lombard@harmattan.fr La mondialisation avance à complémentaires BON DE COMMANDE A retourner à L'HARMATTAN, 7 rue de l'�cole Polytechnique 75005 Paris Veuillez me

Pellier, Damien

139

Z .Diamond and Related Materials 10 2001 364 369 Experimental data vs. 3-D model calculations of HFCVD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rH and3 4 2 C H rH process gas mixtures and to examine in detail the process of C lC inter-conversion between C and C hydrocar-2 1 bon species in the gas phase. Another important con- Zsideration in the gas phase. It has been2 2 2 2 1 shown that cooler regions distant from the filament need

Bristol, University of

140

Universite de Toulon Th`ese de doctorat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'oeuvre dans la g´en´eration des vaguelettes par le vent, sans m^eme parler de ph´enom`enes comme les vagues sc`etres `a prendre en compte. La compr´ehension des interactions entre les ondes ´electromagn´etiques et la d'antennes radar [4]. Un bon exemple d'interaction complexe en incidence rasante ayant des cons

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Astronomie, écologie et poésie par Hubert Reeves  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Hubert ReevesL'astrophysicien donne une conférence puis s'entretient avec l'écrivain François Bon autour de :"Astronomie, écologie et poésie"Pour plus d'informations : http://outreach.web.cern.ch/outreach/FR/evenements/conferences.htmlNombre de places limité. Réservation obligatoire à la Réception du CERN : +41 22 767 76 76  Soirée diffusée en direct sur le Web : http://webcast.cern.ch/      

None

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

142

Drilling Off-Shore (Mademoiselle From Armentiers) Pedrolina "Paige" Delaparrucca and the Greater Westerly Grannies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drilling Off-Shore (Mademoiselle From Armentiers) Pedrolina "Paige" Delaparrucca and the Greater- George ofU Old Drill- Litt- heat lost had need had get E his no more his more belch, ba- Bush, A, Rea Car- Ba- Litt- U Old Drill- B 7 5 bon rack le S Ron- ing more oil, D o we his no more his in ma who we

Nightingale, Peter

143

The catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia over tetraamminecopper (II) complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

primary goal has been to develop catalysts that will promote selective reduction of nitric oxide to nitrogen with various reducing agents. The use of metals and mixed metal oxide catalysts with reducing agents such as hydrogen, car- bon monoxide... the energy of the v* orbital of NO in relationship to tne energies 11, 12 of the d orbitals of the metal. ' Although nitric oxide is thermo- dynamically unstable, with respect to decomposition to nitrogen and The citations of the following cages follow...

Oates, Margaret Deron

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Influence de l'quilibre en acides amins de trois protines infuses dans l'intestin grle, sur la production laitire de la vache  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Gilles, 35590L'Hermitage, France. Summary. The affect of postruminal infusion of urea, gelatin, isolated soy increased with the amount of essential amino acids infused. Chez des vaches laitières d'un bon niveau de production, la sécrétion des protéines du lait est accrue par l'infusion post-ruminale de caséinates (Clark

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

145

Supplementary information Figure S1: Left: Comparison of PM2.5 levels measured with one of the optical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Palau Reial L3 87 24 21 6 Bon Pastor L9 145 98 46 28 Sagrera L9 180 53 59 19 Mean Mean in trains PM10 PM10 std PM2.5 std 5min 1.20 0.22 0.43 0.10 Fontana L3 0.49 0.10 0.15 0.05 Palau Reial L3 0.30 0.08 0

Meskhidze, Nicholas

146

Universite Joseph Fourier Universite de Montreal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

est un des canaux les plus importants pour la recherche de ce boson, car il b´en´eficie de la bonne r´ee avec un boson Z ou W. Elle a une faible section efficace mais b´en´eficie d'un bon rapport signal sur muon) associ´e `a de l'´energie man- quante. Cette analyse se focalise sur la reconstruction des ´ev

Boyer, Edmond

147

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C4, supplment au n 4, Tome 40, avril 1979, page C4-131 Optical reflectivity measurements on thorium metal samples  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reflectivity measurements on thorium metal samples C. Alvani and J. Naegele Commission of the European échantillons de thorium dont la surface a été préparée par polissage mécanique et électrolytique ou qui ont été bons résultats. Abstract. -- Thorium samples, the surfaces of which were mechanically polished

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

Private development of artificial reefs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

when compared with terestrial ecosystems. Recent studies at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution emphasized that the oceans are far from an unlimited resource. The net pro- duction of the open ocean is about 50 grams of fixed car- bon per square... enhanced already existing fisheries. The continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico is an expanse of shallow ocean bottom, and is the area inhabited by the majority of the commercially valuable reef fishes. Much of the shelf area, however, is r...

Burns, Arthur Allen

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Revised estimates of electron absorbed fractions and radionuclide S-values in trabecular bone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER vnt tX INTRODUCTION . Need for Trabecular Bone Dosimetry Trabecular Bon- Stntcture Cells at Risk . 1 3 5 II THE MIRD SCHEMA Absorbed Dose . Equation Parameters and Full Equations . . 9 11 III... most at risk, while for lower energy P- particles the osteogenic tissue and epithelial layer will be more at risk (ICRP 1968). CHAPTER H THE MIRD SCHEMA Absorbed Dose Radiopharmaceuticals in medicine are being used in imaging, therapy...

Parry, Robert Alan

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Vers une adoption de la France ? Hugh Clout1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sur la nécessité d'acquérir une connaissance des langues étrangères, de Cole Harris sur l sont vraiment intéressants. Au contraire, il y a un petit article de la plume de William Mead, publié en 1963 et intitulé « The adoption of other lands », qui me semble plein de bon sens. Mead était, et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

UNIVERSITE PARIS-SUD XI INSTITUT DE PHYSIQUE NUCLEAIRE D'ORSAY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

réactions de production de dileptons en collision proton-proton avec HADES Soutenue publiquement le 28 mars les membres de la collaboration HADES avec qui j'ai échangé de bons moments. Je remercie les membres-00297939,version1-16Jul2008 #12;Table des matières 1 Motivations physiques de l'expérience HADES 7 1.1 La

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

Measurement of large strains in ropes using plastic optical fibers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the direct measurement of large strains in ropes in situ using a plastic optical fiber, for example, perfluorocarbon or polymethyl methacrylate and Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer or other light time-of-flight measurement instrumentation. Protective sheaths and guides are incorporated to protect the plastic optical fiber. In one embodiment, a small rope is braided around the plastic optical fiber to impose lateral compressive forces to restrain the plastic optical fiber from slipping and thus experience the same strain as the rope. Methods are described for making reflective interfaces along the length of the plastic optical fiber and to provide the capability to measure strain within discrete segments of the rope. Interpretation of the data allows one to calculate the accumulated strain at any point in time and to determine if the rope has experienced local damage.

Williams, Jerry Gene; Smith, David Barton; Muhs, Jeffrey David

2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

153

RECONSTRUCTION POST-CONFLIT VIOLENCE ET POLITIQUE EN COTE D'IVOIRE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RECONSTRUCTION « POST-CONFLIT » VIOLENCE ET POLITIQUE EN COTE D'IVOIRE Richard Banégas* Marquée par plus 10 années de crise politico-militaire, la Côte d'Ivoire semble aujourd'hui renaître de ses cendres redéploiement de l'administration dans les régions du nord jusqu'alors sous contrôle des insurgés va bon train

Boyer, Edmond

154

Ann bay lodyans 7 / se Bryant Freeman ("Tonton Liben") ki pare ti liv sa a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

("Tonton Liben") ki pare ti liv sa a. AYITI SE PEP AYISYEN PM 7854 .H39 A56 Enstiti Etid Ayisyen - Inivesite Kannzas Bon Nouvel Fondasyon Alfa Lwes 1997 MALIS AP VANN, WA AP PRAN Yon jou yon neg t ap fe yon ti vizit lakay Malis. Pandan li t ap... I ak nan lespri I, ti lanp sa a ap pemet li we sot isit rive nan Ginen, menm anndan yon kay ki femen ak mi." Neg la mande: "Eske ou te seye sa deja?" Malis reponn: "O non, monche! Eske ou kwe m ta ka rete konsa jis pou m ka fe jouda, fouye lavi...

Freeman, Bryant C.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Measurement of routinely encountered neutron field doses using portable survey instruments and a Bonner multisphere system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

against two 10 Ci PuBe neutron sources. Measurements were m de at a research reactor facility and a cyclotron facility using a Victoreen 4BBA portable survey instrument, a Ludlum Mode1 15 portable survey instrument and a Bonner multisphere system. Data... Detector Response as a Function of Neutron Energy Page Figure 2. Plot of BON25G Spectral Output Figure 3, Flux-to-Dose Rate Conversion Factors for Neutrons . . . . 8 Figure 4. Data Measurement Locations at NSC 13 Figure 5. Data Measurement Locations...

Davis, Donald Reed

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

156

Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

157

Ann bay lodyans 12 / Se Bryant Freeman ("Tonton Liben") ki pare ti liv sa a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

le sa a, li kite fimen. Li pran bwa pip li, li voltije I laba. Koze I regie tout tan. Lamesi Montelis, Ravin Twonpet 4 NEG KABRIT AK NEG SOULYE Yon jou, te gen yon neg ki te gen yon bel kabrit. Li te soti Leste, e le I rive Gonayiv, li we yon... a, Bondye fe yon bon ti melanj: li pran bwode ki gen nan pan, di ki gen nan woch, fines ki gen nan ke zwazo, douse ki gen nan siwo myel, mechanste ki gen nan tig, chale ki gen nan dife, fredi ki gen nan lanej. Bondye kontwole yo, sa pa ase...

Freeman, Bryant C.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Section 76  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBi (2) SrEvaluating the Seasonalsw ' b 0 % b 1 " VIS % bOn

159

Final report on activities and findings under DOE grant “Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases”  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

Prather, Michael J. [UCI

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

160

Global warming implications of non-fluorocarbon technologies as CFC replacements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many technologies could be developed for use in place of conventional compression systems for refrigeration and air conditioning. Comparisons of the global warming impacts using TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) can be used to identify alternatives that have the potential for lower environmental impacts than electric-driven vapor compression systems using HCFCs and HFCs. Some options, such as secondary heat transfer loops in commercial refrigeration systems to reduce refrigerant charge and emission rates, could be useful in reducing the losses of refrigerants to the atmosphere. Use of ammonia instead of a fluorocarbon in a system with a secondary loop offers only a small potential for decreasing TEWI, and this may not warrant the increased complexity and risks of using ammonia in a retail sales environment. A few technologies, such as adsorption heat pumps, have efficiency levels that show reduced TEWI levels compared to conventional and state of the art compression systems, and further development could lead to an even more favorable comparison. Health and safety risks of the alternative technologies and the materials they employ must also be considered.

Fischer, S.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Global warming and end-use efficiency implications of replacing CFCs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct contribution of CFCs to calculated global warming has been recognized for some time. As a result of the international agreement to phase out CFCs due to stratospheric ozone and the ensuing search for suitable alternatives, there has recently been increased attention on the DIRECT global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, to date there has been little focus on the INDIRECT global warming effect arising from end-use efficiency changes and associated CO{sub 2} emissions. A study being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) addresses this combined or total global warming impact of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related applications. This paper reviews selected results for air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heat pump applications. The analysis indicates that the CFC user industries have made substantial progress in approaching near-equal energy efficiency with the HCFC/HFC alternative refrigerants. The findings also bring into question the relative importance of the DIRECT (chemical-related) effect in many applications. Replacing CFCs is an important step in reducing the total global warming impact, and at present the HCFC and HFCS appear to offer the best efficiency and lowest total impact of options available in the relatively short time period required for the transition away from CFCs.

Fairchild, P.D.; Fischer, S.K.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

162

Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

TheU-Tube: A Novel System for Acquiring Borehole Fluid Samplesfrom a Deep Geologic CO2 Sequestration Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel system has been deployed to obtain geochemical samples of water and gas, at in situ pressure, during a geologic CO2 sequestration experiment conducted in the Frio brine aquifer in Liberty County, Texas. Project goals required high-frequency recovery of representative and uncontaminated aliquots of a rapidly changing two-phase (supercritical CO2-brine) fluid from 1.5 km depth. The datasets collected, using both the liquid and gas portions of the downhole samples, provide insights into the coupled hydro-geochemical issues affecting CO2 sequestration in brine-filled formations. While the basic premise underlying the U-Tube sampler is not new, the system is unique because careful consideration was given to the processing of the recovered two-phase fluids. In particular, strain gauges mounted beneath the high-pressure surface sample cylinders measured the ratio of recovered brine to supercritical CO2. A quadrupole mass spectrometer provided real-time gas analysis for perfluorocarbon and noble gas tracers that were injected along with the CO2. The U-Tube successfully acquired frequent samples, facilitating accurate delineation of the arrival of the CO2 plume, and on-site analysis revealed rapid changes in geochemical conditions.

Freifeld, Barry M.; Trautz, Robert C.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Myer, Larry R.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Collins, Daniel J.

2005-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

166

Taggants, method for forming a taggant, and a method for detecting an object  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A taggant comprising at least one perfluorocarbon compound surrounded by a polyphosphazene compound. The polyphosphazene compound has the chemical structure: ##STR00001## wherein G.sub.1 and G.sub.2 are pendant groups having different polarities, m is an integer greater than or equal to 100, and each of A and B is independently selected from hydrogen, an alkyl, an alkene, an alkoxide, a polyether, a polythioether, a siloxane, and --X(CH.sub.2).sub.nY.sup.1(CH.sub.2)p.sub.1Y.sup.2(CH.sub.2)p.sub.2 . . . Y.sup.i(CH.sub.2)p.sub.iCH.sub.3, where n ranges from 1 to 6, X and Y are independently selected from oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium, and p.sub.1 through p.sub.i range from 1 to 6. Cyclic polyphosphazene compounds lacking the A and B groups are also disclosed, as are methods of forming the taggant and of detecting an object.

Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

167

TEWI Analysis: Its Utility, Its Shortcomings, and Its Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The past decade has been a challenging time for the refrigeration and air conditioning industry worldwide. Provisions of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments require the phaseout of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) compounds that have been used extensively as insulating foam blowing agents and refrigerants in refrigeration systems, heat pumps, and air conditioners. In response, hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) compounds were proposed, developed, and are starting to be used as the primary alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs. However, in 1997 under the Kyoto Protocol, industrialized nations have agreed to roll back emissions of HCFCs, carbon dioxide (CO*), and four other greenhouse gases which threaten to cause excessive global warming. The US. Department of Energy and the Alternative Fluorocarbon Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS) jointly sponsored research projects to identify the major applications of CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs and to examine the impacts of these compounds and the energy use of applications employing these compounds on global warming. The five major uses of fluorocarbons based on sales were automobile air conditioning, supermarket refrigeration, unitary heat pumps and air conditioning, chillers for cooling large office buildings, and household refrigeration. Almost all of the refrigerants used in these applications are global warming gases, and if the refrigerant leaks out of the system during operation, is lost during maintenance or is not recovered when the system is scraped, it contributes to global warming. But, it is also true that the energy consumed by refrigeration and air conditioning systems, in the form of electricity or the direct combustion of fossil fuel, results in the release of CO*, the primary cause of atmospheric global warming.

Baxter, V.D.; Fischer, S.K.; Sand, J.R.

1999-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

168

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Regmi Research Series ,Year 3, December 1, 1971  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

!t the tlinrcrorf, l re4tionshipl1 bctl:eon the kine; and Kn-.til-.'olti would rot last long' and th,:t oither the Icing or tIc qtl()cn '1o!}ld dio 5oon. 6 At the 5EUOO tilOO J they spr.:l~d the rwoor that Girvanyuddha Dir Bitty'am Stah would dio of sll... in Octoh::r 1642: t" , -, , Kiq; Rajondra then besan to dance t o tho tune of the Junior Quwn, Rajyalaxmi Dlvi. Previously, Rajyaln;ani O(ni had felt afraid that th£: eyv~ of her. infant 'Bons, Rapandra Bikram and Birendra nikr

Regmi, Mahesh C

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

The Climate Change Action Plan: Technical supplement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Technical Annex documents the assumptions and parameters used in developing the supporting analysis for the Climate Change Action Plan (the Plan) issued by President Clinton on October 19, 1993. The Annex is intended to meet the needs of independent energy and environmental analysts who wish to better understand the Plan, its analytical underpinnings, and the events that need to transpire for the emissions reductions called for in the Plan to be realized. The Plan documented in this Annex reflects the outcome of a wide-ranging effort by Government agencies and interested members of the public to develop and implement actions that can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions in the year 2000 to their aggregate 1990 level. Based on agency and public input, the Climate Change Mitigation Group, chaired by the White House Office on Environmental Policy, developed the Plan`s content. Many of the actions called for in the Plan are now underway, while others are in advanced planning pending congressional action on the fiscal year 1995 budget. The analysis supporting the Plan represents the results of an interagency effort. The US Department of Energy (DOE) was responsible for the integrated analysis of energy-related options, based on the analysis of individual energy-related options by DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Transportation (DOT). EPA led in providing analysis for actions related to methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) led the analysis of carbon sequestration actions and cooperated with EPA in the analysis of actions to reduce nitrous oxide emissions.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Innovative techniques for the description of reservoir heterogeneity using tracers. Second technical annual progress report, October 1991--September 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This second annual report on innovative uses of tracers for reservoir characterization contains four sections each describing a novel use of oilfield tracers. The first section describes and illustrates the use of a new single-well tracer test to estimate wettability. This test consists of the injection of brine containing tracers followed by oil containing tracers, a shut-in period to allow some of the tracers to react, and then production of the tracers. The inclusion of the oil injection slug with tracers is unique to this test, and this is what makes the test work. We adapted our chemical simulator, UTCHEM, to enable us to study this tracer method and made an extensive simulation study to evaluate the effects of wettability based upon characteristic curves for relative permeability and capillary pressure for differing wetting states typical of oil reservoirs. The second section of this report describes a new method for analyzing interwell tracer data based upon a type-curve approach. Theoretical frequency response functions were used to build type curves of ``transfer function`` and ``phase spectrum`` that have dimensionless heterogeneity index as a parameter to characterize a stochastic permeability field. We illustrate this method by analyzing field tracer data. The third section of this report describes a new theory for interpreting interwell tracer data in terms of channeling and dispersive behavior for reservoirs. Once again, a stochastic approach to reservoir description is taken. The fourth section of this report describes our simulation of perfluorocarbon gas tracers. This new tracer technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is being tested at the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California. We report preliminary simulations made of these tracers in one of the oil reservoirs under evaluation with these tracers in this field. Our compostional simulator (UTCOMP) was used for this simulation study.

Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

172

Side-by-side evaluation of a stressed-skin insulated-core panel house and a conventional stud-frame house. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Side-by-side energy testing and monitoring was conducted on two houses in Louisville, KY between January--March 1993. Both houses were identical except that one house was constructed with conventional US 2 by 4 studs and a truss roof while the other house was constructed with stress-skin insulated core panels for the walls and second floor ceiling. Air-tightness testing included fan pressurization by blower door, hour long tracer tests using sulphur hexafluoride, and two-week long time-averaged tests using perfluorocarbon tracers. An average of all the air-tightness test results showed the SSIC panel house to have 22 percent less air infiltration than the frame house. Air-tightness testing resulted in a recommendation that both houses have a fresh air ventilation system installed to provide 0.35 air changes per hour continuously. Thermal insulation quality testing was by infrared imaging. Pressure differential testing resulted in recommendations to use sealed combustion appliances, and to allow for more return air flow from closed rooms. This can be accomplished by separate return ducts or transfer ducts which simply connect closed rooms to the main body with a short duct. The SSIC house UA was lower in both cases. By measurement, co-heating tests showed the SSIC panel house total UA to be 12 percent lower than the frame house. Short-term energy monitoring was also conducted for the two houses. A 17 day period of electric heating and a 14 day period of gas furnace heating was evaluated. Monitoring results showed energy savings for the panel house to be 12 percent during electric heating and 15 percent during gas heating. A comparison of the two monitoring periods showed that the lumped efficiency of the gas furnace and air distribution system for both houses was close to 80 percent. Simple regression models using Typical Meteorological Year weather data gave a preliminary prediction of seasonal energy savings between 14 and 20 percent.

Rudd, A.; Chandra, S.

1994-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

173

Desalination utilizing clathrate hydrates (LDRD final report).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advances are reported in several aspects of clathrate hydrate desalination fundamentals necessary to develop an economical means to produce municipal quantities of potable water from seawater or brackish feedstock. These aspects include the following, (1) advances in defining the most promising systems design based on new types of hydrate guest molecules, (2) selection of optimal multi-phase reactors and separation arrangements, and, (3) applicability of an inert heat exchange fluid to moderate hydrate growth, control the morphology of the solid hydrate material formed, and facilitate separation of hydrate solids from concentrated brine. The rate of R141b hydrate formation was determined and found to depend only on the degree of supercooling. The rate of R141b hydrate formation in the presence of a heat exchange fluid depended on the degree of supercooling according to the same rate equation as pure R141b with secondary dependence on salinity. Experiments demonstrated that a perfluorocarbon heat exchange fluid assisted separation of R141b hydrates from brine. Preliminary experiments using the guest species, difluoromethane, showed that hydrate formation rates were substantial at temperatures up to at least 12 C and demonstrated partial separation of water from brine. We present a detailed molecular picture of the structure and dynamics of R141b guest molecules within water cages, obtained from ab initio calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, and Raman spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations were used to provide an energetic and molecular orbital description of R141b stability in both large and small cages in a structure II hydrate. Additionally, the hydrate of an isomer, 1,2-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, does not form at ambient conditions because of extensive overlap of electron density between guest and host. Classical molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory trials support the results for the isomer hydrate. Molecular dynamics simulations show that R141b hydrate is stable at temperatures up to 265K, while the isomer hydrate is only stable up to 150K. Despite hydrogen bonding between guest and host, R141b molecules rotated freely within the water cage. The Raman spectrum of R141b in both the pure and hydrate phases was also compared with vibrational analysis from both computational methods. In particular, the frequency of the C-Cl stretch mode (585 cm{sup -1}) undergoes a shift to higher frequency in the hydrate phase. Raman spectra also indicate that this peak undergoes splitting and intensity variation as the temperature is decreased from 4 C to -4 C.

Simmons, Blake Alexander; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Greathouse, Jeffery A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Majzoub, Eric H. (University of Missouri, Columbia, MO)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Modeling of CBM production, CO{sub 2} injection, and tracer movement at a field CO{sub 2} sequestration site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sequestration of carbon dioxide in unmineable coal seams is a potential technology mainly because of the potential for simultaneous enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM). Several pilot tests have been performed around the globe leading to mixed results. Numerous modeling efforts have been carried out successfully to model methane production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Sensitivity analyses and history matching along with several optimization tools were used to estimate reservoir properties and to investigate reservoir performance. Geological and geophysical techniques have also been used to characterize field sequestration sites and to inspect reservoir heterogeneity. The fate and movement of injected CO{sub 2} can be determined by using several monitoring techniques. Monitoring of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers is one of these monitoring technologies. As a part of this monitoring technique, a small fraction of a traceable fluid is added to the injection wellhead along with the CO{sub 2} stream at different times to monitor the timing and location of the breakthrough in nearby monitoring wells or offset production wells. A reservoir modeling study was performed to simulate a pilot sequestration site located in the San Juan coal basin of northern New Mexico. Several unknown reservoir properties at the field site were estimated by modeling the coal seam as a dual porosity formation and by history matching the methane production and CO{sub 2} injection. In addition to reservoir modeling of methane production and CO{sub 2} injection, tracer injection was modeled. Tracers serve as a surrogate for determining potential leakage of CO{sub 2}. The tracer was modeled as a non-reactive gas and was injected into the reservoir as a mixture along with CO{sub 2}. Geologic and geometric details of the field site, numerical modeling details of methane production, CO{sub 2} injection, and tracer injection are presented in this paper. Moreover, the numerical predictions of the tracer arrival times were compared with the measured field data. Results show that tracer modeling is useful in investigating movement of injected CO{sub 2} into the coal seam at the field site. Also, such new modeling techniques can be utilized to determine potential leakage pathways, and to investigate reservoir anisotropy and heterogeneity.

Siriwardane, Hema J.; Bowes, Benjamin D.; Bromhal, Grant S.; Gondle, Raj K.; Wells, Arthur W.; Strazisar, Brian R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Acoustic Telemetry Studies of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Survival at the Lower Columbia Projects in 2006  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct three studies using acoustic telemetry to estimate detection probabilities and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon at three hydropower projects on the lower Columbia River. The primary goals were to estimate detection and survival probabilities based on sampling with JSATS equipment, assess the feasibility of using JSATS for survival studies, and estimate sample sizes needed to obtain a desired level of precision in future studies. The 2006 JSATS arrays usually performed as well or better than radio telemetry arrays in the JDA and TDA tailwaters, and underperformed radio arrays in the BON tailwater, particularly in spring. Most of the probabilities of detection on at least one of all arrays in a tailwater exceeded 80% for each method, which was sufficient to provide confidence in survival estimates. The probability of detection on one of three arrays includes survival and detection probabilities because fish may die or pass all three arrays undetected but alive.

Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; McComas, Roy L.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Preliminary consideration of selected chemical and oceanographic factors influential in the formation of the alumino-silicate fraction of some recent sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

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Whitehouse, Ulysses Grant

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately reflect year to year changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index changes

Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

PROOF OF CONCEPT TEST OF A UNIQUE GASEOUS PERFLUROCARBON TRACER SYSTEM FOR VERIFICATION AND LONG TERM MONITORING OF CAPS AND COVER SYSTEMS CONDUCTED AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE BENTONITE MAT TEST FACILITY.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Engineered covers have been placed on top of buried/subsurface wastes to minimize water infiltration and therefore, release of hazardous contaminants. In order for the cover to protect the environment it must remain free of holes and breaches throughout its service life. Covers are subject to subsidence, erosion, animal intrusion, plant root infiltration, etc., all of which will affect the overall performance of the cover. The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Program 2006 Accelerated Cleanup Plan is pushing for rapid closure of many of the DOE facilities. This will require a great number of new cover systems. Some of these new covers are expected to maintain their performance for periods of up to 1000 years. Long-term stewardship will require monitoring/verification of cover performance over the course of the designed lifetime. In addition, many existing covers are approaching the end of their design life and will need validation of current performance (if continued use is desired) or replacement (if degraded). The need for a reliable method of verification and long-term monitoring is readily apparent. Currently, failure is detected through monitoring wells downstream of the waste site. This is too late as the contaminants have already left the disposal area. The proposed approach is the use of gaseous Perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) to verify and monitor cover performance. It is believed that PFTs will provide a technology that can verify a cover meets all performance objectives upon installation, be capable of predicting changes in cover performance and failure (defined as contaminants leaving the site) before it happens, and be cost-effective in supporting stewardship needs. The PFTs are injected beneath the cover and air samples taken above (either air samples or soil gas samples) at the top of the cover. The location, concentrations, and time of arrival of the tracer(s) provide a direct measure of cover performance. PFT technology can be used as a non-invasive method (if injection ports are emplaced prior to cover emplacement) on new covers or a minimally invasive method on existing covers. PFT verification will be useful at all buried waste sites using a cover system (e.g., treated or untreated chemical waste landfills) including DOE, commercial, and private sector sites. This paper discusses the initial field trial of the PFT cover monitoring system performed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in FY01. The experiments provided a successful proof-of-principle test of the PFT technology in monitoring caps and covers. An injection and sampling array was installed in the Bentomat test cap at the SRS Caps Test Facility. This system contained 6 feet of sandy soil beneath a 1/2 inch geosynthetic clay liner covered by an HDPE liner which was covered by 2 feet of clayey top soil. PFTs were injected into the sandy soil though a pre-existing system of access pipes below the cap and soil gas samples were taken on top of the cap. Mid-way into the injection period a series of 1 1/2 inch holes were punched into the cap (through the geomembrane) to provide a positive breach in the cap. Data will be presented that shows the initial cap was fairly tight and leak free and that the artificially induced leaks were detectable within two hours of occurrence.

HEISER,J.; SULLIVAN,T.; SERRATO,M.

2002-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

180

Cooling Strategies for Vane Leading Edges in a Syngas Environment Including Effects of Deposition and Turbulence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy has goals to move land based gas turbine systems to alternate fuels including coal derived synthetic gas and hydrogen. Coal is the most abundant energy resource in the US and in the world and it is economically advantageous to develop power systems which can use coal. Integrated gasification combined cycles are (IGCC) expected to allow the clean use of coal derived fuels while improving the ability to capture and sequester carbon dioxide. These cycles will need to maintain or increase turbine entry temperatures to develop competitive efficiencies. The use of coal derived syngas introduces a range of potential contaminants into the hot section of the gas turbine including sulfur, iron, calcium, and various alkali metals. Depending on the effectiveness of the gas clean up processes, there exists significant likelihood that the remaining materials will become molten in the combustion process and potentially deposit on downstream turbine surfaces. Past evidence suggests that deposition will be a strong function of increasing temperature. Currently, even with the best gas cleanup processes a small level of particulate matter in the syngas is expected. Consequently, particulate deposition is expected to be an important consideration in the design of turbine components. The leading edge region of first stage vanes most often have higher deposition rates than other areas due to strong fluid acceleration and streamline curvature in the vicinity of the surface. This region remains one of the most difficult areas in a turbine nozzle to cool due to high inlet temperatures and only a small pressure ratio for cooling. The leading edge of a vane often has relatively high heat transfer coefficients and is often cooled using showerhead film cooling arrays. The throat of the first stage nozzle is another area where deposition potentially has a strongly adverse effect on turbine performance as this region meters the turbine inlet flow. Based on roughness levels found on in service vanes (Bons, et al., 2001, up to 300 microns) flow blockage in first stage turbine nozzles can easily reach 1 to 2 percent in conventional turbines. Deposition levels in syngas fueled gas turbines are expected to be even more problematic. The likelihood of significant deposition to the leading edge of vanes in a syngas environment indicates the need to examine this effect on the leading edge cooling problem. It is critical to understand the influence of leading edge geometry and turbulence on deposition rates for both internally and showerhead cooled leading edge regions. The expected level of deposition in a vane stagnation region not only significantly changes the heat transfer problem but also suggests that cooling arrays may clog. Addressing the cooling issue suggests a need to better understand stagnation region heat transfer with realistic roughness as well as the other variables affecting transport near the leading edge. Also, the question of whether leading edge regions can be cooled internally with modern cooling approaches should also be raised, thus avoiding the clogging issue. Addressing deposition in the pressure side throat region of the nozzle is another critical issue for this environment. Issues such as examining the protective effect of slot and full coverage discrete-hole film cooling on limiting deposition as well as the influence of roughness and turbulence on effectiveness should be raised. The objective of this present study is to address these technical challenges to help enable the development of high efficiency syngas tolerant gas turbine engines.

Ames, Forrest; Bons, Jeffrey

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z