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1

Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

Dietz, Russell N. (Shoreham, NY); Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Perfluorocarbon vapor tagging of blasting cap detonators  

SciTech Connect

A plug for a blasting cap is made of an elastomer in which is dissolved a perfluorocarbon. The perfluorocarbon is released as a vapor into the ambient over a long period of time to serve as a detectable taggant.

Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

1981-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

3

Petroleum characterization by perfluorocarbon tracers  

SciTech Connect

Perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs), a class of six compounds, were used to help characterize the Shallow Oil Zone (SOZ) reservoir at the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC) at Elk Hills. The SOZ reservoir is undergoing a pilot gas injection program to assess the technical feasibility and economic viability of injecting gas into the SOZ for improved oil recovery. PFTs were utilized in the pilot gas injection to qualitatively assess the extent of the pilot gas injection so as to determine the degree of gas containment within the SOZ reservoir.

Senum, G.I.; Fajer, R.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Harris, B.R. Jr. (USDOE Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, Tupman, CA (United States)); DeRose, W.E. (Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)); Ottaviani, W.L. (Chevron U.S.A., Inc., Bakersfield, CA (United States))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Perfluorocarbon tracer method for air-infiltration measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of measuring air infiltration rates suitable for use in rooms of homes and buildings comprises the steps of emitting perfluorocarbons in the room to be measured, sampling the air containing the emitted perfluorocarbons over a period of time, and analyzing the samples at a laboratory or other facility.

Dietz, R.N.

1982-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

5

Perfluorocarbons in the global atmosphere: tetrafluoromethane, hexafluoroethane, and octafluoropropane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present atmospheric baseline growth rates from the 1970s to the present for the long-lived, strongly infrared-absorbing perfluorocarbons (PFCs) tetrafluoromethane (CF4), hexafluoroethane (C2F6), and octafluoropropane ...

Muhle, J.

6

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

Turick, C.E.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

7

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Bons Ventos Geradora de Energia S A | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bons Ventos Geradora de Energia S A Bons Ventos Geradora de Energia S A Jump to: navigation, search Name Bons Ventos Geradora de Energia S.A. Place Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil Sector Wind energy Product Brazilian-based wind project developer, subsidiary of Grupo Servtec. Coordinates -3.718404°, -38.542924° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":-3.718404,"lon":-38.542924,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

9

Bon Homme County, South Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bon Homme County, South Dakota: Energy Resources Bon Homme County, South Dakota: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 42.9814835°, -97.87216° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.9814835,"lon":-97.87216,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

10

Bon Bibliography : An Annotated List of Recent Publications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Bel-gtam Nyan-pai Bskul-ma. Bgres-poi Bel-gtam, issue 1 (2001), pp. 73-74. Poetry. Bon Bibliography 65 CHOS-NGAG Stod Mnga-ris-kyi Dgon-sdei Lo-rgyus Dag-gsal Mthong-bai Me-long, Bod-ljongs Mi-dmangs Dpe-skrun-khang (Lhasa 1999). This book... -bai Bca-yig Pad-dkar Chun Pheng. Contained in: Bca-yig Phyogs-bsgrigs [Bod Sa-gnas-kyi Lo-rgyus Dpe-tshogs Bca-yig Phyogs-bsgrigs], Bod-ljongs Mi-dmangs Dpe-skrun- khang (Lhasa 2001), pp. 504-507. Issued in 1926, this is a charter for the Bon...

Martin, Dan

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Yankton El Assn, Inc Yankton El Assn, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Place South Dakota Utility Id 1898 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location MRO Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Coincidental Peak Billing Industrial Demand & Energy Billing 75-350 kva Commercial Farm Single-Phase Residential Interruptible Commercial Irrigation Single-Phase Uncontrolled Industrial Irrigation, Off Season Industrial Irrigation, Single-Phase Controlled Industrial Irrigation, Single-Phase Controlled Pivot Energy Only Commercial

12

Dispersion of Perfluorocarbon Tracers within the Salt Lake Valley during VTMX 2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Six perfluorocarbon tracer experiments were conducted in Salt Lake City, Utah, during October 2000 as part of the Vertical Transport and Mixing (VTMX) field campaign. Four tracers were released at different sites to obtain information on ...

Jerome D. Fast; K. Jerry Allwine; Russell N. Dietz; Kirk L. Clawson; Joel C. Torcolini

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Microsoft PowerPoint - UTSRWorkshop-Oct2010-Bons.pptx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DESIGNING TURBINE ENDWALLS DESIGNING TURBINE ENDWALLS DESIGNING TURBINE ENDWALLS DESIGNING TURBINE ENDWALLS FOR DEPOSITION RESISTANCE WITH 1400C COMBUSTOR EXIT TEMPERATURES AND SYNGAS WATER VAPOR LEVELS Ch i S ith B tt B k P h th Sh k Chris Smith, Brett Barker, Prashanth Shankaran Josh Webb, Brian Casaday Dr. Ali Ameri, Dr. Jeffrey Bons "THE" OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY Robert Laycock, Dr. Thomas Fletcher "THE" BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY "THE" BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY (3-year grant awarded Oct 2009) 1 MOTIVATION/NEED * Operational Issues -Fuel flexibility (range of feedstock heat release) y ( g ) -Diluent use (e.g. steam) -Filtration requirements * Technical Challenges - Higher firing temperature I d h t t f ( t dil t) - Increased heat transfer (steam diluent) - Potential for increased levels of airborne contaminants

14

QUANTIFICATION OF FUGITIVE REACTIVE ALKENE EMISSIONS FROM PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS WITH PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS.  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies demonstrate the impact of fugitive emissions of reactive alkenes on the atmospheric chemistry of the Houston Texas metropolitan area (1). Petrochemical plants located in and around the Houston area emit atmospheric alkenes, such as ethene, propene and 1,3-butadiene. The magnitude of emissions is a major uncertainty in assessing their effects. Even though the petrochemical industry reports that fugitive emissions of alkenes have been reduced to less than 0.1% of daily production, recent measurement data, obtained during the TexAQS 2000 experiment indicates that emissions are perhaps a factor of ten larger than estimated values. Industry figures for fugitive emissions are based on adding up estimated emission factors for every component in the plant to give a total estimated emission from the entire facility. The dramatic difference between estimated and measured rates indicates either that calculating emission fluxes by summing estimates for individual components is seriously flawed, possibly due to individual components leaking well beyond their estimated tolerances, that not all sources of emissions for a facility are being considered in emissions estimates, or that there are known sources of emissions that are not being reported. This experiment was designed to confirm estimates of reactive alkene emissions derived from analysis of the TexAQS 2000 data by releasing perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) at a known flux from a petrochemical plant and sampling both the perfluorocarbon tracer and reactive alkenes downwind using the Piper-Aztec research aircraft operated by Baylor University. PFTs have been extensively used to determine leaks in pipelines, air infiltration in buildings, and to characterize the transport and dispersion of air parcels in the atmosphere. Over 20 years of development by the Tracer Technology Center (TTC) has produced a range of analysis instruments, field samplers and PFT release equipment that have been successfully deployed in a large variety of experiments. PFTs are inert, nontoxic, noncombustible and nonreactive. Up to seven unique PFTs can be simultaneously released, sampled and analyzed and the technology is well suited for determining emission fluxes from large petrochemical facilities. The PFT experiment described here was designed to quantitate alkene emissions from a single petrochemical facility, but such experiments could be applied to other industrial sources or groups of sources in the Houston area.

SENUM,G.I.; DIETZ,R.N.

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

15

Feasibility of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) in atmospheric source-receptor experiments  

SciTech Connect

A brief description of the perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) system, which includes the tracers and the release equipment, the air samplers and the analyzers, is presented along with details on the research needs to provide a viable system for MATEX-scenario experiments. The present family of 2 viable PFTs needs to be increased to 5 to 6. Given the present precision of the analysis system, a one year long tracer experiment consisting of 4 hour releases every 60 hours from 5 different sites would require nearly 150 metric tons of PFTs at a cost of $15,000,000. Shortcomings in the programmable sampler include the pump, the sampling sequence control flexibility, data storage and retrieval, and the lack of remote communication capability; sampler adsorbent studies are also needed. The analytical system, including the catalyst processing bed, the chromatography column resolution, and the linearity of the detector, is in need of significant improvement. A higher resolution analysis system could significantly reduce analysis time but, more importantly, reduce tracer requirements more than 10-fold, for a cost savings potential of more than $13,000,000. A model is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of tracer material balances. Assessment of earlier long-range tracer experiments indicates the need for possibly 400 ground sampling sites requiring $8 to $14 million worth of samplers for a one-year tracer experiment. As many as six aircraft would be needed to conduct airborne model validation and material balance studies for each tracer plume.

Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

USE OF PERFLUOROCARBON TRACER (PFT) TECHNOLOGY FOR SUBSURFACE BARRIER INTEGRITY VERIFICATION AT THE WALDO TEST SITE.  

SciTech Connect

Testing of perfluorocarbon gas tracers (PFT) on a subsurface barrier with known flaws was conducted at the Waldo Test Site operated by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc (SEA). The tests involved the use of five unique PFTs with a different tracer injected along the interior of each wall of the barrier. A fifth tracer was injected exterior to the barrier to examine the validity of diffusion controlled transport of the PFTs. The PFTs were injected for three days at a nominal flow rate of 15 cm{sup 3}/min and concentrations in the range of a few hundred ppm. Approximately 65 liters of air laced with tracer was injected for each tracer. The tracers were able to accurately detect the presence of the engineered flaws. Two flaws were detected on the north and east walls, and one flaw was detected on the south and west walls. In addition, one non-engineered flaw at the seam between the north and east walls was also detected. The use of multiple tracers provided independent confirmation of the flaws and permitted a distinction between tracers arriving at a monitoring port after being released from a nearby flaw and non-engineered flaws. The PFTs detected the smallest flaw, 0.5 inches in diameter. Visual inspection of the data showed excellent agreement with the known flaw locations and the relative size of the flaws was accurately estimated. Simultaneous with the PFT tests, SEA conducted tests with another gas tracer sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}).

SULLIVAN,T.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Locating of leaks in water-cooled generator stator bars using perfluorocarbon tracers  

SciTech Connect

Water cooled stator bars in power plant generators often fail during the maintenance cycle due to water leakage. After the hydrogen pressure in the generator shell has been released water can leak through cracks in the copper and through the insulation. Leaking bars, but not the leaks themselves, are detected with so-called ``hi-pot`` (high potential) tests where direct electrical current is applied to the stator bar windings. A study initiated by ConEd and Brookhaven`s Tracer Technology Center to explore the cause of these leakage problems to determine if the failures originate in the manufacturing process or are created in service by phase related torque stresses. To this purpose bars that had failed the hi-pot test were investigated first with the insulation in place and then stripped to the bare copper. The bars were pressurized with gases containing perfluorocarbon tracers and the magnitude and location of the leaks was detected by using tracers technology principles and instruments such as the ``double source`` method and the Dual Trap Analyzer. In the second part of the project the windings within a generator were tested in-situ for leaks during an outage using tracer principles. Recommendations are given suggesting the shut down of stator bar cooling water before hydrogen bleeding during outages and a revision of the current vent flow rate. The new standard should establish a reasonable leak rate for the stator bar windings proper and exclude leakage of pump seals and connections. Testing during the maintenance cycle in generators should include routine tracer leak detection following the hi-pot test.

Loss, W.M.; Dietz, R.N.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Locating of leaks in water-cooled generator stator bars using perfluorocarbon tracers  

SciTech Connect

Water cooled stator bars in power plant generators often fail during the maintenance cycle due to water leakage. After the hydrogen pressure in the generator shell has been released water can leak through cracks in the copper and through the insulation. Leaking bars, but not the leaks themselves, are detected with so-called hi-pot'' (high potential) tests where direct electrical current is applied to the stator bar windings. A study initiated by ConEd and Brookhaven's Tracer Technology Center to explore the cause of these leakage problems to determine if the failures originate in the manufacturing process or are created in service by phase related torque stresses. To this purpose bars that had failed the hi-pot test were investigated first with the insulation in place and then stripped to the bare copper. The bars were pressurized with gases containing perfluorocarbon tracers and the magnitude and location of the leaks was detected by using tracers technology principles and instruments such as the double source'' method and the Dual Trap Analyzer. In the second part of the project the windings within a generator were tested in-situ for leaks during an outage using tracer principles. Recommendations are given suggesting the shut down of stator bar cooling water before hydrogen bleeding during outages and a revision of the current vent flow rate. The new standard should establish a reasonable leak rate for the stator bar windings proper and exclude leakage of pump seals and connections. Testing during the maintenance cycle in generators should include routine tracer leak detection following the hi-pot test.

Loss, W.M.; Dietz, R.N.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

A propos d'un premier inventaire des monasteres bon po du Tibet et de l'Himalaya. Notes de lecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bon po au Gansu (p. 504 et 506) et 10 au Qinghai (p.497-500, de faon plus dtaille). Revue dEtudes Tibtaines44 Bon po, la grande statue de Buddha du Bingling si (Gansu) est celle degShen rab mi bo. Il cite galement des relevs chinois des annes... 'dition de 1982 (Lanzhou,Kan su'u mi rigs dpe skrun khang), le numro de ligne est celui o apparat lenom du monastre ; sa dfinition ou localisation sommaire telle qu'elle peut tredduite des brves mentions du texte ou du contexte ; ventuellement...

Chayet, Anne

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

CHARACTERIZATION OF LEAK PATHWAYS IN THE BELOW GRADE DUCTS OF THE BROOKHAVEN GRAPHITE RESEARCH REACTOR USING PERFLUOROCARBON TRACERS.  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this program was the characterization of the soils beneath the main air ducts connecting the exhaust plenums with the Fan House. The air plenums experienced water intrusion during BGRR operations and after shutdown. The water intrusions were attributed to rainwater leaks into degraded parts of the system and to internal cooling water system leaks. As part of the overall characterization efforts, a state-of-the-art gaseous perfluorocarbon tracer technology was utilized to characterize leak pathways from the ducts. This in turn suggests what soil regions under or adjacent to the ductwork should be emphasized in the characterization process. Knowledge of where gaseous tracers leak from the ducts yields a conservative picture of where water transport, out of or into, the ducts might have occurred.

HEISER,J.; SULLIVAN,T.; KALB,P.; MILIAN,L.; WILKE,R.; NEWSON,C.; LILIMPAKIS,M.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Using CO2 Lidar for Standoff Detection of a Perfluorocarbon Tracer in Air  

SciTech Connect

The Tag, Track and Location System Program (TTL) is investigating the use of PFTs as tracers for tagging and tracking items of interest or fallen soldiers. In order for the tagging and tracking to be valuable there must be a location system that can detect the PFTs. This report details the development of an infrared lidar platform for standoff detection of PFTs released into the air from a tagged object or person. Furthering work performed using a table top lidar system in an indoor environment; a mobile mini lidar platform was assembled using an existing Raman lidar platform, a grating tunable CO{sub 2} IR laser, Judson HgCdTe detector and miscellaneous folding optics and electronics. The lidar achieved {approx}200 ppb-m sensitivity in laboratory and indoor testing and was then successfully demonstrated at an outdoor test. The lidar system was able to detect PFTs released into a vehicle from a distance of 100 meters. In its final, fully optimized configuration the lidar was capable of repeatedly detecting PFTs in the air released from tagged vehicles. Responses were immediate and clear. This report details the results of a proof-of-concept demonstration for standoff detection of a perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) using infrared lidar. The project is part of the Tag, Track and Location System Program and was performed under a contract with Tracer Detection Technology Corp. with funding from the Office of Naval Research. A lidar capable of detecting PFT releases at distance was assembled by modifying an existing Raman lidar platform by incorporating a grating tunable CO{sub 2} IR laser, Judson HgCdTe detector and miscellaneous folding optics and electronics. The lidar achieved {approx}200 ppb-m sensitivity in laboratory and indoor testing and was successfully demonstrated at an outdoor test. The demonstration test (scripted by the sponsor) consisted of three parked cars, two of which were tagged with the PFT. The cars were located 70 (closest) to 100 meters (farthest) from the lidar (the lidar beam path was limited by site constraints and was {approx}100 meters). When one door of each of the cars was opened (sequentially), the lidar was clearly able to determine which vehicles had been tagged and which one was not. The lidar is probably capable of greater than 0.5 kilometer standoff distances based on the extreme amount of signal return achieved (so much that the system had to be de-tuned). The BNL lidar system, while optimized to the extent possible with available parts and budget, was not as sensitive as it could be. Steps to improve the lidar are detailed in this report and include using a better laser system (for more stable power output), dual wavelengths (to improve the sensitivity and allow common mode noise reduction and to allow the use of the lidar in a scanning configuration), heterodyning (for range resolved PFT detection) and an off-axis optical configuration (for improved near field sensitivity).

Heiser,J.H.; Smith, S.; Sedlacek, A.

2008-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

22

Use of SiBN and SiBON films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from borazine as interconnection dielectrics  

SciTech Connect

Thin films of silicon boron nitride (SiBN) of typical composition Si{sub 0.09}B{sub 0.39}N{sub 0.51} and silicon boron oxynitride (SiBON) of typical composition Si{sub 0.16}B{sub 0.29}O{sub 0.41}N{sub 0.14} were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and the properties of these films were evaluated with respect to their suitability as interconnection dielectrics in microelectronic fabrication. Films were deposited on 125 mm silicon substrates in a parallel-plate reactor at a substrate temperature of 400 C and a plasma power of 0.5 W/cm{sup 2}. Boron nitride, for comparison of electrical properties, was deposited from borazine (B{sub 3}N{sub 3}H{sub 6}); silicon boron nitride was deposited from borazine, disilane (Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}); silicon boron oxynitride was deposited from borazine, disilane, ammonia, and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). Metal-insulator-metal capacitors were fabricated and electrical measurements indicated that all three films had excellent dielectric properties with dielectric constants of 4.1, 4.7, and 3.9 for BN, SiBN, and SiBON, respectively. Tests of conformality indicated that deposition into trenches with an aspect ratio of 4:1 gave conformality greater than 70%. Silicon boron oxynitride was shown to be an excellent barrier to the diffusion of copper. A planar, single level metal-insulator structure was constructed using a SiBN/SiBON insulator with copper metallization.

Kane, W.F.; Cohen, S.A.; Hummel, J.P.; Luther, B. [IBM Research Div., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). T.J. Watson Research Center; Beach, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Suppressant:Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Acid Gas Production in Inhibited Diffusion Flames.. ... Evaluation of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for ... to an External Energy Source.. ...

2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

24

Demonstration of the BNL Continuous Dual Trap Analyzer to Detect Perfluorocarbon Tracers for the Tag, Track and Location Program  

SciTech Connect

The Tag, Track and Location System (TTL) Program is investigating methods of tracking an asset using perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT). The success of any TTL method requires sound detection/location instrumentation. Tracer Detection Technologies Corp (TDT), through a contract with the Office of Naval Research (ONR), is investigating different detection systems. The detections systems generally fall into two categories; proximity detectors and standoff detectors. Proximity detectors, as the name implies, need to be in close proximity (e.g., meter to 10's of meters) to the PFT source. Standoff detection searches for the PFT from a greater distance away from the source (e.g., 100's of meters to kilometers). Gas Chromatographs (GC) are generally considered a proximity detection systems, but in the case of PFTs should be considered for both proximity and standoff detection with the caveat that in standoff use the GC needs to be somewhere in the PFT plume, i.e., generally downwind of the source. With a properly sized PFT source, the right GC can afford fairly large standoff (distance from the source) distances; 100's of meters to kilometers downwind. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has such a GC system and offered to demonstrate the CDTA for TTL as a no cost addition to the TDTTTL project, of which BNL was a participant. BNL is a leading authority on the sampling, collection, release and detection of PFTs. In addition, the BNL team has extensive background in atmospheric dispersion, the application of PFTs to such studies and the development of applications utilizing PFTs such as building infiltration measurements, control room integrity determination, leak location and environmental investigations. This experience and expertise is essential in developing any PFT application were dispersion, dilution and overcoming environmental conditions and interferences are integral to success. BNL has developed sophisticated gas chromatography methods and instruments that allow detection of up to seven PFTs at part per quadrillion levels (1015) with sample times as short as 60 seconds. The Continuous Dual-Trap Analyzer (CDTA) was developed for leak hunting applications and can continuously sample the air for PFTs without interruption. Sample time can be as short as 60 seconds. The CDTA has been extensively used in the commercial sector to detect PFTs that have been introduced to leaking buried dielectric fluid-filled cables or leaking subsurface gas lines. The PFTs travel through the cable or pipe until they reach the leak site. PFTs then escape into the surrounding soil and permeate/diffuse to the surface where they can be detected with the CDTA. Typically a cable is tagged with ppm levels of PFTs resulting in ppt to ppq concentrations in the air at the leak site. The CDTA is proven to be rugged, reliable and has a proven track record of successful leak location. The application of the CDTA to PFT detection for TTL is identical to application for leak detection. The CDTA operator has a general idea, with a few miles of roadway, where the leak is located, but no specific knowledge of the location (it can be any where along the road). The CDTA is mounted in a Chevy Astro Van and is dispatched to the field. In the field the van is driven at nominally 15 mph along the road. The CDTA continuously samples the air outside the van (via a 1/4-inch plastic sample tube stuck out a side window) until a positive detection occurs. The van then covers the road section where the detection occurred at a slightly slower pace to pin-point the area where the leak is and to direct soil probe samples. The soil probe samples take soil gas samples every 10 yards or so and the samples are analyzed on the CDTA. The leak can be located to within a few feet in 95% of the cases. To date the CDTA has been successful in every leak hunt performed by BNL. One interesting case was a leak hunt that resulted in repeated negative detections. The confidence in the CDTA forced the utility to recheck its 'plumbing' which lead to the discovery that a valve was turned that sho

Heiser,J.H.; Adams, J.; Dietz, R..; Milian, L.; Watson, T.

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

25

PROCESS FOR PURIFYING CRUDE PERFLUOROCARBONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for refining organic perfluoro compounds. In the manufacture of perfluorinated compounds by the fluorination of hydrocarbons, the product frequently is contaminated ny incompletely fluorimated hydrogen containing impurities. These impurities can be removed by contacting the products in a fluid conditions with an active adsorbents such as silica gel or alumina gel. The patent claims are restricted to this refining of crude perfluorinated lubricating oil.

Holeton, R.E.

1959-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

26

SUBMISSION BY FINLAND ON BEHALF OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY AND ITS MEMBER STATES OF INFORMATION ON AVAILABLE AND POTENTIAL WAYS AND MEANS OF LIMITING HFC, PFC AND SF 6 EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6) are used in a wide variety of applications ranging from aerosol cans to industrial refrigeration and electrical systems which may contain thousands of kilograms of these substances. The paper at hand describes the uses and emission sources of these gases

unknown authors

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

EIA - Voluntary Reporting of the Greenhouse Gases 2004 - 6. HFCs ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The reductions were accomplished, respectively, by replacing SF 6 with helium in test procedures ...

28

Bon MOT: Innovative Atom Trap Catches Highly Magnetic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of a cloud of erbium atoms trapped and cooled and a ... all the while extracting energy and cooling them ... only a single laser and can cool erbium atoms ...

2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

29

Name that compound: The numbers game for CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs, and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

chemical formula, given the number: first add 90 to the abc number, to obtain a 3-digit def number, where: d is the number of carbon atoms; e is the number of hydrogen atoms; f...

30

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5. High-GWP gases 5. High-GWP gases 5.1. Total emissions Greenhouse gases with high global warming potential (high-GWP gases) are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which together represented 3 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The estimates for emissions of HFCs not related to industrial processes or electric transmission are derived from the EPA Vintaging Model. Emissions from manufacturing and utilities are derived by the EPA from a mix of public and proprietary data, including from the EPA's voluntary emission reduction partnership programs. For this year's EIA inventory, 2008 values for HFC-23 from HCFC-22

31

Studies of Perfluorocarbon Formation on Anodes in Cryolite Melts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cryoscopic Data for Hall-Hroult Bath Containing Magnesium Fluoride, Calcium Fluoride, Potassium Cryolite, and Sodium Chloride Current Distribution and...

32

Word Pro - S12  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Note 1. Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Green- Note 1. Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Green- house Gases. Greenhouse gases are those gases-such as water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus preventing long-wave radiant energy from leaving Earth's atmosphere. The net effect is a trapping of absorbed radiation and a tendency to warm the planet's surface. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions account for about 98 percent of U.S. CO 2 emissions. The vast majority of CO 2 emissions come from fossil fuel combustion, with smaller amounts from the nonfuel use of fossil fuels, as well as from electricity generation using geothermal energy and non-

33

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

membranes membranes B-370 Post-Combustion membranes u.s. DePartment of energy aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture r&D Program: teChnology uPDate, may 2013 eleCtroChemiCal membrane for Carbon DioxiDe CaPture & Power generation primary project goals FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is developing an electrochemical membrane (ECM)-based Combined Electric Power and Carbon Dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture that also provides additional electrical power generation. The project includes bench-scale testing of an 11.7 m 2 -area ECM (molten carbonate fuel cell) system for CO 2 capture, purification, and compression. technical goals * Perform contaminant effect testing to establish maximum permissible concentrations of

34

Exorcising the Illusion of Bon Shamans: A Critical Genealogy of Shamanism in Tibetan Religions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shamans 11 Tibet while posing as a Buddhist pilgrim.10 Equipped with survey tools anda sextant, with a compass secretly stashed inside his prayer wheel, Dasvisited Tibet twice and managed to reach Lhasa undetected in 1882. Thedisguise worked for a while... state,when it could be labeled as shamanism.Another early pioneer in the study of Tibetan religion, who followed inthe footsteps of Sarat Chandra Das, was a Japanese Buddhist pilgrim andscholar named Ekai Kawaguchi. Like so many other Buddhist...

Bjerken, Zeff

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

URRAQUE, BON AMOUR ET AUTRES PETITS NOMS CHARMANTS (observations littraires et historiques aux strophes 910 949  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ponçoña, o algund adamar,/ mucho la sopo de su seso sacar ». Il n'empêche : il s'agit bien de sorcellerie

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

36

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

solvents solvents B-6 Pre-Combustion solvents u.s. DePartment of energy aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture r&D Program: teChnology uPDate, may 2013 Co 2 CaPture from igCC gas streams using aC-abC ProCess primary project goals SRI International is developing, for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)-based power plants, a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture technology based on the use of a high-ca- pacity and low-cost aqueous ammoniated solution containing ammonium carbonate (AC), which reacts with CO 2 to form ammonium bicarbonate (ABC).

37

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

solvents solvents B-198 Post-Combustion solvents u.s. DePartment of energy aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture r&D Program: teChnology uPDate, may 2013 DeveloPment anD Demonstration of Waste heat integration With solvent ProCess for more effiCient Co 2 removal from Coal-fireD flue gas primary project goals Southern Company Services is developing viable heat integration methods for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) produced from pulverized coal (PC) combustion. The project will quantify energy-efficiency improvements to the CO 2 capture process by utilizing a waste heat recovery technology, High-Efficiency System (HES). technical goals * Reduction of the amount of extraction steam required for sensible heat load in the

38

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sorbents sorbents B-302 Post-Combustion sorbents u.s. DePartment of energy aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture r&D Program: teChnology uPDate, may 2013 benCh-sCale DeveloPment anD testing of raPiD Pressure swing absorPtion for Carbon DioxiDe CaPture primary project goals WR Grace and the University of South Carolina are developing a rapid pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process to evaluate concept cost and performance benefits by testing a bench-scale system using a low-cost, structured adsorbent with low-pressure drop, high mass-transfer rates, high capacity, and high availability that will enable large feed through- puts. technical goals * Develop an attrition-resistant and low-pressure drop structured adsorbent based on a

39

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sorbents sorbents B-14 Pre-Combustion sorbents u.s. DePartment of energy aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture r&D Program: teChnology uPDate, may 2013 aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture teChnology for low-rank Coal integrateD gasifiCation CombineD CyCle (igCC) systems primary project goals TDA will investigate the technical and economic advantages of using an integrated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sorbent and water-gas shift (WGS) catalyst system in an integrated gasifi- cation combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, fueled with low-rank coal, and designed to capture more than 90% of the CO 2 emissions. technical goals * TDA will evaluate the physical mix of the sorbent and catalyst pellets within the same

40

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AdvAnced compression AdvAnced compression B-540 AdvAnced compression U.s. depArtment of energy AdvAnced cArbon dioxide cAptUre r&d progrAm: technology UpdAte, mAy 2013 novel concepts for the compression of lArge volUmes of co 2 primary project goals Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is developing novel compression technology concepts to reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) compression power requirements by 10% compared to conventional compressor designs. The basic concept is a semi-isothermal compression pro- cess where the CO 2 is continually cooled using an internal cooling jacket rather than using conventional interstage cooling. The project has completed thermodynamic (Phase I) and prototype testing (Phase II). A full-scale demonstration of a multi-stage, internally cooled

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

teChnology uPDate, may 2013 eleCtroChemiCal membrane for Carbon DioxiDe CaPture & Power generation primary project goals FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is developing an...

42

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the development of an advanced chemical looping combustion (CLC) system for coal-fired power generation that removes greater than 90 percent of the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) with a...

43

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

using commercial zeolite pellets. Although it could be retrofitted to a coal-fired power plant today, the columns would be exceedingly large and thus capital-intensive. A rapid...

44

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plus models of oxy-combustion coal power plants to simulate the effects of different thermal integration options on power plant efficiency and net power output. technical...

45

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

B-54 Pre-Combustion membranes u.s. DePartment of energy aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture r&D Program: teChnology uPDate, may 2013 aDvanCeD hyDrogen transPort membranes for Coal...

46

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DioxiDe CaPture teChnology sheets national energy teChnology laboratory aDvanCeD aCiD gas seParation teChnology for the utilization of low-rank Coals primary project goals Air...

47

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

stream consists of K 2 CO 3 salts and biodegradable enzyme, which could be used as compost or boiler fuel. B-214 Post-Combustion solvents u.s. DePartment of energy aDvanCeD...

48

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

solvents B-6 Pre-Combustion solvents u.s. DePartment of energy aDvanCeD Carbon DioxiDe CaPture r&D Program: teChnology uPDate, may 2013 Co 2 CaPture from igCC gas streams using...

49

Laboratory testing and modeling to evaluate perfluorocarbon compounds as tracers in geothermal systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermal stability and adsorption characteristics of three perfluorinated hydrocarbon compounds were evaluated under geothermal conditions to determine the potential to use these compounds as conservative or thermally-degrading tracers in Engineered (or Enhanced) Geothermal Systems (EGS). The three compounds tested were perfluorodimethyl-cyclobutane (PDCB), perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH), and perfluorotrimethylcyclohexane (PTCH), which are collectively referred to as perfluorinated tracers, or PFTs. Two sets of duplicate tests were conducted in batch mode in gold-bag reactors, with one pair of reactors charged with a synthetic geothermal brine containing the PFTs and a second pair was charged with the brine-PFT mixture plus a mineral assemblage chosen to be representative of activated fractures in an EGS reservoir. A fifth reactor was charged with deionized water containing the three PFTs. The experiments were conducted at {approx}100 bar, with temperatures ranging from 230 C to 300 C. Semi-analytical and numerical modeling was also conducted to show how the PFTs could be used in conjunction with other tracers to interrogate surface area to volume ratios and temperature profiles in EGS reservoirs. Both single-well and cross-hole tracer tests are simulated to illustrate how different suites of tracers could be used to accomplish these objectives. The single-well tests are especially attractive for EGS applications because they allow the effectiveness of a stimulation to be evaluated without drilling a second well.

Reimus, Paul W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

50

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS Oxygen PrOductiOn  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen PrOductiOn Oxygen PrOductiOn B-500 Oxygen PrOductiOn u.S. dePartment Of energy advanced carbOn diOxide caPture r&d PrOgram: technOlOgy uPdate, may 2013 itm Oxygen technOlOgy fOr integratiOn in igcc and Other advanced POwer generatiOn SyStemS primary project goals Air Products and Chemicals set out to design and develop an ion transport membrane (ITM) based on ceramics that selectively transport oxygen (O 2 ) ions when operated at high temperature. This high-temperature process may be integrated with advanced power genera- tion processes that require O 2 as a feedstock, such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and other clean energy and industrial applications. technical goals * Design, construct, and operate a 0.1-ton/day (TPD) technology development unit

51

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS R&D CollaboRations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R&D CollaboRations R&D CollaboRations B-556 R&D CollaboRations U.s. DepaRtment of eneRgy aDvanCeD CaRbon DioxiDe CaptURe R&D pRogRam: teChnology UpDate, may 2013 paRtneRship foR Co 2 CaptURe primary project goals The University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) is conducting pilot-scale testing to demonstrate and evaluate a range of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture technologies to develop key technical and economic information that can be used to examine the feasibility of capture technologies as a function of fuel type and system configuration. technical goals * Integrate a high-efficiency flexible capture system with existing pilot-scale combustion

52

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS Oxy-COmbustiOn  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-COmbustiOn Oxy-COmbustiOn B-424 Oxy-COmbustiOn u.s. Department Of energy aDvanCeD CarbOn DiOxiDe Capture r&D prOgram: teChnOlOgy upDate, may 2013 Oxygen transpOrt membranes fOr inDustrial appliCatiOns primary project goals Praxair is optimizing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) performance, materials, and process configurations leading to subsequent development-scale testing of OTM technology for synthesis gas (syngas) production applications, providing valuable experience needed to develop commercial OTM technology in industrial applications and future utility-scale

53

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS Oxygen PrOductiOn  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen PrOductiOn B-500 Oxygen PrOductiOn u.S. dePartment Of energy advanced carbOn diOxide caPture r&d PrOgram: technOlOgy uPdate, may 2013 itm Oxygen technOlOgy fOr integratiOn...

54

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS Oxy-COmbustiOn  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* For new construction, this technology can use a smaller boiler, which provides the same thermal output as larger, existing power plant boilers. r&d challenges Design, build, and...

55

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS R&D CollaboRation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R&D CollaboRations B-556 R&D CollaboRations U.s. DepaRtment of eneRgy aDvanCeD CaRbon DioxiDe CaptURe R&D pRogRam: teChnology UpDate, may 2013 paRtneRship foR Co 2 CaptURe primary...

56

NETL: LabNotes - November 2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accounting (MVA) Research Underway to Assure that CO2 Injected Underground Stays There NETL Researcher adding Perfluorocarbon tracers to the carbon dioxide Perfluorocarbon tracers...

57

Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Climate Change 2001: Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis Get Javascript Other reports in this collection 4. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases Contents Executive Summary 4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Sources of Greenhouse Gases 4.1.2 Atmospheric Chemistry and Feedbacks 4.1.3 Trace Gas Budgets and Trends 4.1.4 Atmospheric Lifetimes and Time-Scales 4.2 Trace Gases: Current Observations, Trends and Budgets 4.2.1 Non-CO2 Kyoto Gases 4.2.1.1 Methane (CH4) 4.2.1.2 Nitrous oxide (N2O) 4.2.1.3 Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) 4.2.1.4 Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) 4.2.2 Montreal Protocol Gases and Stratospheric Ozone (O3) 4.2.3 Reactive Gases 4.2.3.1 Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2) 4.2.3.2 Volatile organic compounds (VOC) 4.2.3.3 Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

58

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Interview du Recteur C. Conti : "Le projet du ministre Marcourt va dans le bon sens pour l'enseignement suprieur" (P7)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LINGUISTIQUE Faculté des arts 5-278 Répertoire 2012 Linguistique Les séquences de cours pour les linguistique ­ 120 crédits (4 ans) Total 1re année 2e année 3e année 4e année Total 120 crédits (40 cours) 30 60 crédits (20 cours) LIN1710 Introduction à la linguistique I : Des mots aux énoncés LIN1720

Glineur, François

60

Steam Generator Management Program: PWR Steam Generator Tube Wear - Alloy 690/Foreign Objects, Alloy 600/Carbon Steel, Alloy 690/Car bon Steel Support  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wear at tube support plates and wear resulting from foreign objects (FOs) can damage tubes in replacement steam generators. To date, however, limited data have been available on wear rates for Alloy 690 tubing. Under the Steam Generator Management Program, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has sponsored a series of experiments to determine the wear coefficients between combinations of Alloy 690 steam generator tube material and relevant support and FO materials. This report describes the test ...

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Carbon Capital: The Political Ecology of Carbon Forestry and Development in Chiapas, Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fuel switching; LFG = landfill gas; CMM = coal mine methane;HFCs) and landfill methane gas (LFG) (which do not transform

Osborne, Tracey Muttoo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Effect of temperature and iron-oxide nano-particle inclusions on the ultrasound vaporization pressure of perfluorocarbon droplets for disease detection and therapy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature and Iron-Oxide Nano-particle inclusions on the22 1.9.1 Why Iron-Oxide NanoTemperature and Iron-Oxide Nano-particle inclusions on the

Amirriazi, Seyed Saleh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

PFC and CO2 Emissions from an Australian Aluminium Smelter ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The accurate measurement of perfluorocarbon and CO2 emissions from aluminium smelters is becoming increasingly important. CSIRO has...

64

For Refrigeration Problems, a Magnetically Attractive Solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... cycles use different physical effects to cool ... The effect can be used in a classic ... commonly use hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), greenhouse gases that ...

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

65

Reference Tools  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reference Tools Current Greenhouse Gas Concentrations Name that compound: The numbers game for CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs, and Halons Conversion Tables and More Glossary Acronyms CDIAC's...

66

Laminar burning speed and flame structure of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a)/air and difluoromethane (HFC-32)/air mixtures.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Of recent importance is the laminar burning speed of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) used in the refrigerant industry. Since the adoption of the Montreal Protocol in 1989 (more)

Bennett, Casey Paul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Contribution aux nombrables de la tradition Bon po : l'Appendive de bsTan 'dzin Rin chen rgyal mtshan a la Sphere de Cristal des Dieux et des Demons de Shar rdza rin po che  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lettre Ha) ; 2. lessence fminine manifeste sous la forme du a shad etlocalise lextrmit infrieure du canal central ; et 3. le thig le indestructi-ble (mi shig pai thig le) localise dans le cur et exprime en fonction duneEssence vide (ngo bo... familiarisation avec les principes de lapratique, lors de la fusion des essences conscutive au Brasier et lEcoulement (bar dzag)44, il entre alors dans des expriences contemplativesde Dlice (bde ba), de Clart (gsal ba) et de Non-discursivit (mi rtog pa...

Achard, Jean-Luc

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Human activities have caused a rapid increase in GHG concentrations. This rising level contributes to global climate change, which contributes to environmental and public health problems.

Not Available

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Ventilation Control of Volatile Organic Compounds in New U  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methods were used for VOC concentration measurements, and passive perfluorocarbon tracer gas emitters with active sampling were used to determine the overall air exchange rate...

70

Low Cost Video Emissions Monitoring Technique for Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Aluminum smelting plants emit gaseous and particulate fluoride, sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon oxides (CO and CO2), perfluorocarbons CF4 and...

71

A Study of Low Voltage PFC Emissions at Dubal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions are the result of a phenomenon ... PFC and CO2 Emissions from an Australian Aluminium Smelter Using...

72

Award-Winning DOE Technology Scores Success in Carbon Storage...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

uses perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) - non-toxic, chemically inert clear colorless liquids - to provide a verifiable way to measure CO2 movement as well as provide leak...

73

Review of air flow measurement techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chamber, passive sampling, passive solar house, measurementhouse, we planed the distribution of fresh air, passivepassive perfluorocarbon tracer technique for determining air infiltration rates into houses

McWilliams, Jennifer

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

to 150 GPa, consistent with the modulus values of large SWNT bundles (22). Al-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Thiophene and ferrocene were dissolved in the car- bon source (liquid n-hexane), sprayed into the hydro- gen

Devoret, Michel H.

75

The Book of Bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bon Appetite Recipe for Ambrosia Theology of Meat Wineme from myself. Recipe For Ambrosia Shucking the tomatoes

Emilio, Gregory Allyn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Revue dEtudes Tibtaines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

according to Bon History of Bon Followers of Bon maintain that their teachings were first taught as the everlasting Bon (g.yung drung bon) by the great teacher gShen rab Mi bo che in the legendary land called Olmo Lungring (Ol mo lung ring) in Tazik... and were later brought to the country of Zhang-zhung in Western and Northern Tibet.8 gShen rab Mi bo che, the ruler of Tazik, is considered by Bonpos to have been a fully enlightened Buddha; his name means the great human being who is the supreme Shen...

Achard, Jean-Luc

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Study on the Interaction Coefficients in PR Equation with VdW ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The values of ki for HFCs and HCs, including Propane, Isobutane, n-butane, HFC32, HFC125, HFC134a, HFC143a, HFC152a and HFC227ea ...

2006-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

78

An Analysis of Government Policy Impacts in the Ethanol and Sugar Markets.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ABSTRACT This study determines the impact of U.S. government policies on U.S. ethanol market and its consequences for the U.S. corn, sugar, and HFCS markets. (more)

Marzoughi_Ardakani, Hassan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Tracer Verification of Trajectory Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perfluorocarbon tracer data collected during the Cross Appalachian Tracer Experiment (CAPTEX '83) are used to determine the accuracy of three trajectory models: an isentropic, an isobaric, and a dimensional sigma model. The root-mean-square ...

Philip L. Haagenson; Ying-Hwa Kuo; Marina Syumanich; Nelson L. Seaman

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Numerical Simulations of Airflows and Tracer Transport in the Southwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Project MOHAVE (Measurement of Haze and Visual Effects) produced a unique set of tracer data over the southwestern United States. During the summer of 1992, a perfluorocarbon tracer gas was released from the Mohave Power Project (MPP), a large ...

Tetsuji Yamada

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

The Dispersion of Atmospheric Tracers in Nocturnal Drainage Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the results of a series of perfluorocarbon tracer experiments that were carried out in the Brush Creek Valley in western Colorado under the auspices of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. The results ...

Paul H. Gudiksen; Donald L. Shearer

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Simulation of Tracer Concentration Data in the Brush Creek Drainage Flow Using an Integrated Puff Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the 1984 ASCOT field study in Brush Creek Valley, two perfluorocarbon tracers were released into the nocturnal drainage flow at two different heights. The resulting surface concentrations were sampled at 90 sites, and vertical ...

K. Shankar Rao; Richard M. Eckman; Rayford P. Hosker Jr.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Primary aluminum production : climate policy, emissions and costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate policy regarding perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may have a significant influence on investment decisions in the production of primary aluminum. This work demonstrates an integrated analysis of the effectiveness and likely ...

Harnisch, Jochen.; Sue Wing, Ian.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.

84

A Continuous Fast-Response Dual-Tracer Analyzer for Halogenated Atmospheric Tracer Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparatus for the simultaneous measurement of two tracers, sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and a perfluorocarbon compound, is introduced. The new instrument is a modification of a commercially available fast-response, continuous analyzer for single ...

James P. Rydock; Brian K. Lamb

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

degj0196 19..34  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are contributing to global climate change has led to a search for economical and environmentally sound ways to reduce car- bon dioxide...

86

d'ordre : D 05 -10 presentee devant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tcl/Tk. Je te souhaite bon courage pour ta th`ese et suis convaincu que tout se passera pour le mieux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

Intermediate Species Profiles in LowPressure Premixed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... kinetics are relatively sparse in comparison to the analogous hydro- carbon reactions ... the H/C/O chemistry for one-carbon and two-car- bon species ...

2013-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

88

Control of electroosmotic flow in laser-ablated and chemically ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Chemical modification of hydro- lyzed and ablated PETG channels to produce ... carbon tape and coated with approximately 10 nm car- bon before ...

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

89

Towards large eddy simulations of flame extinction and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... products of incomplete combustion (carbon monoxide, unburnt hydro- carbons, hydrogen ... to play a role in the net emission of car- bon monoxide ...

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

90

Impact of U.S. Nuclear Generation on Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

electric power industry that EIA projects continued reliance on them for at least two decades. ... energy-related car bon emissions will be about 550 million

91

Demographic Pathways of Intergenerational Effects: Fertility, Mortality, Marriage and Women's Schooling in Indonesia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

education distribution of the mothers generation; and (b)on the educational distribution of the next generation. Someeducation distribution of the next generation by increasing

Maralani, Vida J.; Mare, Robert D.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the greenhouse gas and atmospheric aerosol assumptions underlying climate analysis need to be related for the greenhouse gas and urban gas emissions. The GTAP5 dataset aggregates all the different types of petroleum for greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6) and urban gas emissions (SO2, NOx, CO, black carbon

93

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge sector is believed to be responsible for 28.4% of our greenhouse gas emissions (see figure), including 33% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCs

94

Multi-gas assessment of the Kyoto protocol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement aimed at limiting emissions of several greenhouse gases (GHGs; specifically: CO2, CH4, N2O, PFCs, HFCs, and SF6), and allows credit for approved sinks for CO2. It does not ...

Reilly, John M.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Harnisch, Jochen.; Fitzmaurice, Jean.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Kicklighter, David W.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P.; Wang, Chien.

95

Computational Geosciences 1 (1997) 271288 271 Pulsing of multiple nutrients as a strategy to achieve large  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocar- bon and Other Organic Compounds, Vol. 3 (pp 3­18). Battelle Press, Columbus sources of MTBE in groundwater in the United-States, 1993­1994. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30: 1721

Clement, Prabhakar

96

Modelica-based Modeling and Simulation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

humidity, dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, species concentration, such as water vapor, and trace substances, such as car- bon dioxide. 3.3.7 Package Fluid.Sources...

97

G  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

B me p rogrammers 2012 INTERNATIONAL O PEN G OVERNMENT D ATA C ONFERENCE Structure o f C API S ystem * Tablet---based D ata E ntry A pplicaBon - Users: I nterviewers - Main F...

98

Amoeba-Based Fuzzy Computing for Uncertain Knowledge Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(e.g., car- bon nanotube transistors), molecular (e.g., or- ganic), DNA, optical, micro-Aciego, J.L. Verdegay (eds): Proceedings of IPMU'08, pp. 792­797 Torremolinos (M´alaga), June 22­27, 2008

Munakata, Toshinori

99

INFORMS Journal on Computing Articles in Advance, pp. 118  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

car- bon emissions and reduced dependence on unreliable supplies. This process requires significant such as bat- teries and pumped hydro. The dynamics of our system are driven by exoge- nous factors (wind

Powell, Warren B.

100

Chemical characterization of the ambient organic aerosol soluble in water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the water-soluble organic car- bon (WSOC) components of ambient aerosol particles into hydrophilic and Weber [2006]. In the XAD-8 method, the WSOC components that penetrate the column are hydro- philic

Weber, Rodney

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Isotopic study of the formation of the azide radical (N3) Corey S. Jamieson, Ralf I. Kaiser *  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's moons) to find that the radiation-induced decay of water can produce hydro- gen peroxide [1]. This technique works well for water, car- bon dioxide, and other molecules that are in reach of spacecraft

Kaiser, Ralf I.

102

The reaction of benzene with a ground state carbon atom, C,,3 Holger F. Bettingera)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­hydrogen exchange channel, i.e., a carbon atom is incorporated into the molecule and a hydro- gen atom is ejected. With ethylene, the incoming triplet car- bon atom is known to attack the electrons to form triplet

Kaiser, Ralf I.

103

Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 187188 (2001) 539568  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reinforcement in composites or filters. The presence of water in graphitic and activated car- bons can severely different from that of non-associating simple fluids, such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or hydro- carbons [3

104

High magnification image of gut fluid and spiro-chetes, several of which are H2-consumers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with domicile destruction, they play important roles in the turnover of plant material into car- bon dioxide of the hydro- gen gas is converted into methane, a potent green- house gas with zero nutri- tional value

105

Hallmark of Perfect Graphene Elizabeth J. Duplock,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

themselves [5]. A parallel concern is the chemical reactivity of car- bon nanostructures and structure gap state associated with hydro- gen adsorbed on graphene is found to be very sensitive

106

Ab Initio Study of C4H3 Potential Energy Surface and Reaction of Ground-State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

car- bon in its C(3 Pj) electronic ground state with unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules are of major own. Diacetylene (butadiyne) is the simplest hydro- carbon with conjugated triple bonds and its elec

Kaiser, Ralf I.

107

Biogeosciences, 5, 171201, 2008 www.biogeosciences.net/5/171/2008/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research, GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str., 21502 Geesthacht, Germany 7Center for Hydro the surface concentration of particulate organic car- bon, POC, from optical measurements of spectral remote

Beaumont, Christopher

108

Pamela L. Dickrell Department of Mechanical and Aerospace  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

surface bonds of carbon atoms and reduce the friction coefficient; when the hydro- gen is removed envi- ronments 1­3,5,6 . In contrast, hydrogen-free diamondlike car- bon films show their lowest

Sawyer, Wallace

109

Regression-based estimates of the rate of accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean: A fresh look  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

those from repeated hydro- graphic surveys, such as might be provided by appropriately instrumented, as oceanic car- bon's natural spatial and temporal variability is larger than the expected anthropogenic

110

Comment on "Arsenic Mobility and Groundwater Extraction in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solids accompanying the influx of fresh, labile car- bon-laden recharge water. They further con- cluded and hydro- gen isotope compositions of shallow groundwaters between 1979 and 1999. This indicates

Basu, Asish R.

111

The Guy at the Controls: Labor Quality and Power Plant Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Controls: Labor Quality and Power Plant Efficiency July 2007Controls: Labor Quality and Power Plant E ciency James B.on the fuel e ciency of power plants. Although electricity

Bushnell, Jim B; Wolfram, Catherine D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Discussion Paper Industrial Organization of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Fassett (2010) noted that production from coal bed methane reservoirs in the San Juan Basin reached about the site consist of two coal beds, each separated by a shale parting. This observation indicates that the coal reservoirs consist of six separate coal beds rather than three. Perfluorocarbon tracer monitoring

113

www.defra.gov.uk SMALL BUSINESS USER GUIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is caused by the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. What are greenhouse gas emissions? The key greenhouse gas emissions are carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons gas emissions? Human activities release greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere ­ using

114

Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XVI; Alternative Designs for Future Adult PIT-Tag Detection Studies, 2000 Technical Report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam (BON), and other CRB dams, this overview describes in general terms what can and cannot be estimated under seven different scenarios of adult PIT-tag detection capabilities in the CRB. Moreover, this overview attempted to identify minimal adult PIT-tag detection configurations required by the ten threatened Columbia River Basin (CRB) chinook and steelhead ESUs. A minimal adult PIT-tag detection configuration will require the installation of adult PIT-tag detection facilities at Bonneville Dam and another dam above BON. Thus, the Snake River spring/summer and fall chinook salmon, and the Snake River steelhead will require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities to guarantee estimates of ''ocean survival'' and at least of one independent, in-river returning adult survival (e.g., adult PIT-tag detection facilities at BON and LGR dams and at any other intermediary dam such as IHR). The Upper Columbia River spring chinook salmon and steelhead will also require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and two other dams on the BON-WEL reach. The current CRB dam system configuration and BPA's and COE's commitment to install adult PIT-tag detectors only in major CRB projects will not allow the estimation of an ''ocean survival'' and of any in-river adult survival for the Lower Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead. The Middle Columbia River steelhead ESU will require a minimum of two dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and another upstream dam on the BON-McN reach. Finally, in spite of their importance in terms of releases, PIT-tag survival studies for the Upper Willamette chinook and Upper Willamette steelhead ESUs cannot be perform with the current CRB dam system configuration and PIT-tag detection capabilities.

Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

2000-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

115

New concepts for refrigerant leak detection and mixture measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the discovery that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) destroy the ozone layer, the need to reduce the release of these refrigerants into the environment has become critical. A total ban of ozone-depleting CFCs is expected within a few years, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and fluorocarbons (FCs) and their mixtures are expected to be used during a transition period. Several HFC and FC refrigerants are currently being considered as CFC substitutes. The electronic refrigerant leak detectors currently being considered as CFC substitutes. The electronic refrigerant leak detectors currently on the market were developed to detect CFCs and are not as sensitive to HFCs. Although incremental improvement can be made to these devices to detect HFCs, they often lead to increased false signals. Also, there is no simple device available to measure the composition of a refrigerant mixture. The authors present two new concepts to aid in the development of two portable instruments that can be used for HFC leak detection and for quantitative measurement of refrigerant mixture compositions. The development of simple, easy-to-use portable leak detectors and refrigerant mixture meters is essential to the wide use of alternative refrigerants in industry.

Chen, F.C.; Allman, S.L.; Chen, C.H.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

116

Donald Frederick, LLNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Donald Donald Frederick, LLNL - Presented at Supercomputing '11 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P. O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551! Case Study: Beyond Homogeneous Decomposition with Qbox Scaling Long-Range Forces on Massively Parallel Systems LLNL---PRES---508651 Case S tudy: O utline * Problem D escripBon * ComputaBonal A pproach * Changes f or S caling LLNL---PRES---508651 Computer s imulaBons o f m aterials Computer s imulaBons a re w idely used t o p redict t he p roperBes o f new m aterials o r u nderstand t he properBes o f e xisBng o nes LLNL---PRES---508651 SimulaBon o f M aterials f rom F irst--- Principles First---principles m ethods: Calculate p roperBes o f a g iven m aterial d irectly f rom fundamental p hysics e quaBons. * No e mpirical p arameters Can m ake p redic-ons a bout c

117

Final_Tech_Session_Schedule_and_Location.xls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Monitoring Geologically Sequestered Monitoring Geologically Sequestered CO 2 during the Frio Brine Pilot Test using Perfluorocarbon Tracers 1 McCallum, S.D., 1 Riestenberg, D.E., 1 Cole, D.R., 2 Freifeld, B.M., 2 Trautz, R.C., 3 Hovorka, S.D., and 1 Phelps*, T.J. 1 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1505 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831- 6036 USA 2 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720- 90R1116, USA 3 Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas at Austin, University Station, Box X, Austin, Texas 78713-8924, USA *Corresponding author and presenter (phelpstj@ornl.gov) Abstract A suite of gaseous perfluorocarbon (PFT) conservative tracers were successfully employed to monitor migration of the CO 2 plume during the Frio Brine Pilot Test. The conservative tracers enabled

118

Microsoft PowerPoint - Proceedings Cover Sheets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Geological CO Geological CO 2 Sequestration using Perfluorocarbon Gas Tracers and Isotopes Phelps, T.J., McCallum, S.D., Cole, D.R., Kharaka, Y.K., and Hovorka, S.D. ABSTRACT The Frio Brine Field Test, Phase I, demonstrated the relatively straight forward method of CO 2 injection and its rapid transport to the monitoring well. Our field monitoring methodologies, especially measurements of conservative perfluorocarbon gas tracers (PFTs), pH, alkalinity, gas compositions and stable isotopes proved to be sensitive for tracking the injected CO 2 . Multiple PFT tracer suites were introduced via an injection well at three separate times during the Frio Test. The use of PFT suites provided data for identification of multiple breakthroughs at a monitoring well 30 meters up-dip. Travel times for each

119

PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique April 2, 2012 - 3:11pm Addthis The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. What does this mean for me? You can save 5%-30% on your energy bill by making upgrades following a home energy assessment. A professional energy auditor may use the PFT air infiltration measurement technique to find out where your home has air leaks, though a blower door test is more commonly used.

120

Revue dEtudes Tibtaines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, 1992), p. v. Exorcising the Illusion of Bon Shamans 11 Tibet while posing as a Buddhist pilgrim.10 Equipped with survey tools and a sextant, with a compass secretly stashed inside his prayer wheel, Das visited Tibet twice and managed to reach Lhasa... or revealed Bon in its raw state, when it could be labeled as shamanism. Another early pioneer in the study of Tibetan religion, who followed in the footsteps of Sarat Chandra Das, was a Japanese Buddhist pilgrim and scholar named Ekai Kawaguchi. Like so many...

Achard, Jean-Luc

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 17 Number 4 : Full issue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the country. Dr. Hoffmann 1 writes 'that followers of Bon religion are still using the blood of cocks to conjure peace', According to Chos-kyi-ni-ma, a famous Tibetan scholar. there are three stages in the history of Bon religion. The first stage, i. e... East Tibet popularly known as Tsong Khapa, Je Rinpoche, Lobsang dakpa (Sumatikirti), he was the founder of yellow- hat sect (Gelukpa). He reformed the monasteries and prohi bited the monks to marry or to drink wine. He also founded three big...

Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

1981-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

122

Le Corps d'Arc-en-ciel ('ja' lus) de Shardza Rinpoche illustrant la perfection de la Voie rDzogs chen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

celui-ci in Bon chos kyi rnam par dbye ba mdor bsdus, p. 89-112. 28 sPrul sku Blo ldan snying po (1360-1385), Mi shig rdo rje (qui est, supposment, lincarnation immdiate de sPrul sku Blo ldan), Sangs rgyas gling pa (1705-1735), et Kun grol grags... . Rappelons cependant que, comme toutes choses, lenseignement du Buddha est considr comme un phno- mne impermanent (bon mi rtag pa) et donc vou la destruction. La prsence ou prnnit de lenseignement est lun des lments clefs entrant dans les...

Achard, Jean-Luc

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

"By 2020, fuel cells will be intimately integrated in buildings, part of a flexible portfolio of options for meeting energy needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

deposition use either a plug flow reactor or a solid catalyst in a fixed or fluidized bed reactor and carbon monoxide over a silica supported cobalt­molybdenum catalyst (CoMoCAT reactor). Purification of the car- bon reaction Á Cobalt­molybdenum catalyst Á Iron pentacarbonyl catalyst Á Profitability analysis Á Purification

124

adVancing frontiers in energy and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Carbon emissions threaten environmental quality worldwide. Growing cities wonder where they'll acquire, nuclear energy, improvements to the electricity infrastruc- ture, and energy efficiency and renewable from today's energy economy to renewable, nuclear, and near-zero-emission hydrocar- bon energy systems

125

Appendix B:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CApture teChnology SheetS Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS nAtionAl energy teChnology lABorAtory pre-ComBuStion SolventS B-6 SRI International - CO 2 Capture...

126

108 Jurenka and Subchev Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 43:108115 (2000)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

identified including a series of tetramethylalkanes with chain lengths of 30, 32, and 34 car- bons, and alcohols. Several families of moths utilize hydro- carbons or epoxides of hydrocarbons as the sex pheromone all insects have at least some hydro- carbon on their surface. For those moths that uti- lize

Jurenka, Russell A.

127

EXTRASOLAR PLANETS Awhiffofmethane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

correspond to respective car- bon/hydrogen ratios of 3, 7 and ~30­40 times the C/H ratio in the Sun/H ratio (as well as the ratio of other heavy elements to hydro- gen) to provide a crucial probe of how

128

Author's personal copy Reaction dynamics of the phenyl radical with 1,2-butadiene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

C1 atom of the 1,2-butadiene reactant. The initial reaction intermediate decomposed via atomic hydro such as circumstellar envelopes of car- bon stars like IRC + 10 216 and planetary nebulae. Unfortunately, despite a systematic study of the reactions of phenyl radicals with unsaturated hydro- carbons classified as olefines

Kaiser, Ralf I.

129

Modern Observations of Interstellar Dust in Galaxies B. T. Draine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- phous silicates · 3.4 µm: C-H stretch in hydro- carbons · 0.2175 µm: "2200 °A bump". Probably electronic transition in sp2 -bonded car- bon (e.g., graphite or PAH) · > 4

Draine, Bruce T.

130

R E W E DE PHYSIQUE APPLIQUEE Colloque C4, Supplbment au n04, Tome 24, Avril 1989  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXCITATIONS IN SILICA AEROGELS R. MAYNARD, R. CALEMCZUK*, A.M. DE GOER*, B. SALCE*, J. BON*, E. BONJOUR* and A son ont bte mesur&s entre 0.1 K e t 10 K sur des aerogels de s i l i c e de f a i b l e densite ( p density s i l i c a aerogels ( p

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

Characterization of single wall carbon nanotubes by nonane preadsorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­25 A° range; however nanotubes with $10­16 A° diameters make the main fraction. Nano- tubes are bundled measurement. A filler rod was utilized to decrease the dead volume of the adsorption tube and to enhance be very helpful for determining a fraction of opened tubes for car- bon nanotube materials with tube

Liu, Jie

132

Pressure-driven confinement of hydrogen molecules between graphene sheets in the regime of van der Waals repulsion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Storage of hydrogen in carbon materials,1,2 with its poten- tial application in hydrogen in the interactions between H2 and hosts in solid lattices,2,3 although mechanism for hydrogen storage in car- bon a serious challenge for trap- ping hydrogen, which is governed by the free energy change G H T S E p V T S

Gong, Xingao

133

Division of Economics and Business Working Paper Series  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;1 Introduction Thermal electricity from fossil sources generates CO2 emissions as a by-product, and car- bonDivision of Economics and Business Working Paper Series Carbon content of electricity futures of electricity futures in Phase II of the EU ETS Author(s): Harrison Fell Division of Economics and Business

134

VOL 314 24 NOVEMBER 2006 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org1256 A visitor to Earth during most of the planet's his-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of car- bon and nitrogen. But in many cases, he said, scientists still don't know which populations electricity. The 26 October seminar "Microbes, Minerals and the Environment" honored the late Philip Abelson electrons. They can harvest electricity from aquatic environments and may prove useful as power sources

Lovley, Derek

135

Mann LED Elevator Ligh ng: ECI Savings Table Cost (billed)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cost (billed) Annual Savings $ Equivalent # Homes Electric 63 12 51 81% 1,300 200 1,000 2 tons/per year car bon equivalent annually. Benefits: The new lamps are much cooler, lower energy usage, and will last up to 5 years versus the old lamps that re quired changing many mes per year

Lipson, Michal

136

Electromagnetic at Scripps Institution of Oceanography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dipole, 100-1000 amps 25-100 m CSEM Transmitter Oil, Gas (resistive) Seawater (very conductive) Air-receiver offset, km In-lineelectricfield,V/m/(Am) oil, gas no oil, gas 1000 m, 0.3 m 1000 m, 1 m 100 m, 100 m E of offshore hydrocar- bon exploration. Consortium support since 1996 has funded several marine EM graduate

Constable, Steve

137

The Mad Sea Phenomenon in the Strait of Sicily  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea level observations at Cape Bon, Tunisia, and Mazara del Vallo, Sicily, show that large, coherent oscillations exist across the Strait of Sicily with significant energy bands centered at periods of 35.3, 41.6, 50.6, 75.8, and 134.5 min, whose ...

Julio Candela; Salvatore Mazzola; Chrif Sammari; Richard Limeburner; Carlos J. Lozano; Bernardo Patti; Angelo Bonanno

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Gunnar I. Senum | BNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gunnar I. Senum Gunnar I. Senum Chemist Education State University of New York at Stony Brook, Ph.D., Chemistry Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, B.S., Chemistry Professional Affiliations American Chemical Society American Physical Society American Association for the Advancement of Science Areas of Interest Application and modeling of chromatographic systems for the development of techniques for the detection and quantification of trace components with the consequent application to geophysical trace gases, indoor pollution and various industrial applications Development of chemicalcompounds as atmospheric, hydrological or aerosol tracers Experience Presently responsible for the development and applications of new techniques using perfluorocarbon tracers in the Tracer Technology Center,

139

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources and Links -  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Federal/State Programs Federal/State Programs DOE Aluminum Industry of the Future Collaborative R&D partnerships between DOE Industrial Technologies Program and industry to maximize technology investments. EPA Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership The Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership (VAIP) is an innovative pollution prevention program developed jointly by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the primary aluminum industry. Participating companies (Partners) work with EPA to improve aluminum production efficiency while reducing perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions, potent greenhouse gases that may remain in the atmosphere for thousands of years. See all Federal/State Programs DOE State Activities For information on activities, financial assistance, and solicitations

140

FINAL REPORT: EDDY-COVARIANCE FLUX TOWER AND TRACER TECHNOLOGY SUPPORT FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA PROPOSAL: FROM TOWER TO PIXEL: INTEGRATION OF PATCH-SIZE NEE USING EXPERIMENTAL MODELING FOOTPRINT ANALYSIS.  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory has been funded since October of 2000 to provide assistance to the University of Georgia in conducting footprint analyses of individual towers based on meteorology and trace gas measurements. Brookhaven researchers conducted air flow measurements using perfluorocarbon tracers and meteorological instrumentation for three experimental campaigns at an AmeriFlux research site maintained by Dr. Monique Leclerc near Gainesville, FL. In addition, BNL provided assistance with remote data collection and distribution from remote field sites operated by Dr. John Hom of the US Forest Service in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey and at FACE research sites in North Carolina and Wisconsin.

LEWIN,K.F.; NAGY, J.; WATSON, T.B.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

New fluorocarbon elastomers for seals for geothermal and other aggressive environments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal brines at 600 F which contain metallic salts, H{sub 2}S, and hydrocarbons quickly degrade conventional hydrocarbon elastomers, and hydrolyse crosslinks. Carbon-carbon and carbon-fluorine bonds are expected to be superior, but no such elastomer is now commercially available. We have prepared crosslinked, perfluorocarbon elastomers by radiation crosslinking VDFHFP and TFEP (alternating) copolymers in film and sheet form, and then converting C-H bonds to C-F bonds with elemental Fluorine gas. EPLM elastomers became brittle on fluorination. The best products exceeded 100 days survival at 300 C in simulated geothermal brine. Tensile, elongation, solvent swelling, and TCA methods were used to study the products.

Dumitru, Earl T.; Lagow, R.J.; Kukacka L.E.

1982-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

142

Method for inducing hypothermia  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

Becker, Lance B. (Chicago, IL); Hoek, Terry Vanden (Chicago, IL); Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL)

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Method for inducing hypothermia  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems for phase-change particulate slurry cooling equipment and methods to induce hypothermia in a patient through internal and external cooling are provided. Subcutaneous, intravascular, intraperitoneal, gastrointestinal, and lung methods of cooling are carried out using saline ice slurries or other phase-change slurries compatible with human tissue. Perfluorocarbon slurries or other slurry types compatible with human tissue are used for pulmonary cooling. And traditional external cooling methods are improved by utilizing phase-change slurry materials in cooling caps and torso blankets.

Becker, Lance B. (Chicago, IL); Hoek, Terry Vanden (Chicago, IL); Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL)

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

144

Mkha' 'gro dbang mo'i rnam that, the biography of the gter ston ma bde chen chos kyi dbang mo (1868-1927?)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, for example, A 'dzom 'Brug pa 'Gro 'dul dPa' bo rDo rje (1842-1924), a famous rdzogs chen master and treasure revealer (see Namkhai 1986, p. 153), who bestowed upon her a long life empowerment when she was 26 (1893); see dBang mo'i rnam thar, p. 824, passim... , Kvrne and Nagano eds., 2003, p. 323), gCod, A khrid (see Kvrne and Rikey, 1996), Phur pa (see Bon Kanjur, op.cit., pp. 295-297), rDzogs chen Yang rtse Klong chen (Sherab Wangyal, TBMC, New Delhi, 1973), Khro bo rGyud drug gSang ba bSen thub (see Bon...

Rossi, Donatella

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Turbine Surface Degradation with Service and Its Effects on Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Jeffrey Bons Jeffrey Bons Co-PIs: Iowa State University - Drs. Tom Shih and ZJ Wang University of Cincinnati - Drs. Tafi Hamed and Widen Tabakoff Air Force Research Lab - Dr. Richard Rivir SCIES Project 02- 01- SR104 DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT DE-FC26-02NT41431 Tom J. George, Program Manager, DOE/NETL Richard Wenglarz, Manager of Research, SCIES Project Awarded (06/01/02, 36 Month Duration) $563,712 Total Contract Value Turbine Surface Degradation with Service and Its Effects on Performance Brigham Young University JPB/BYU/29Oct2003 BYU-UTSR-Oct03, 29 Oct 2003, JPB The Gas Turbine Community NEEDS adequate tools to estimate the associated loss in engine performance with service time. ROUGH! ARE TURBINES Surface Degradation - Increases Heat Transfer - Reduces Efficiency GAS TURBINE NEED

146

Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal February 16, 2012 - 4:48pm Addthis The ICES team from Alliant Techsystems and ACENT Laboratories (L to R): Fred Gregory, Andy Robertson, Tony Castrogiovanni, Florin Girlea, Vincenzo Verrelli, Bon Calayag, Vladimir Balepin, Kirk Featherstone. | Courtesy of the ICES team. The ICES team from Alliant Techsystems and ACENT Laboratories (L to R): Fred Gregory, Andy Robertson, Tony Castrogiovanni, Florin Girlea, Vincenzo Verrelli, Bon Calayag, Vladimir Balepin, Kirk Featherstone. | Courtesy of the ICES team. April Saylor April Saylor Former Digital Outreach Strategist, Office of Public Affairs Over the past 20 years, nearly three-fourths of human-caused emissions came

147

Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal Carbon Capture Innovation: Making an IMPACCT on Coal February 16, 2012 - 4:48pm Addthis The ICES team from Alliant Techsystems and ACENT Laboratories (L to R): Fred Gregory, Andy Robertson, Tony Castrogiovanni, Florin Girlea, Vincenzo Verrelli, Bon Calayag, Vladimir Balepin, Kirk Featherstone. | Courtesy of the ICES team. The ICES team from Alliant Techsystems and ACENT Laboratories (L to R): Fred Gregory, Andy Robertson, Tony Castrogiovanni, Florin Girlea, Vincenzo Verrelli, Bon Calayag, Vladimir Balepin, Kirk Featherstone. | Courtesy of the ICES team. April Saylor April Saylor Former Digital Outreach Strategist, Office of Public Affairs Over the past 20 years, nearly three-fourths of human-caused emissions came

148

Turbine Surface Degradation with Service and Its Effects on Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Peer Review Workshop III Peer Review Workshop III 18-20 October 2005 Jeffrey Bons BYU Z.J. Wang (3-D) Tom Shih (2-D) Iowa State University IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY Aerospace Engineering Turbine Surface Degradation with Service and Its Effects on Performance - 2-D/3-D CFD Simulations of Rough Surfaces- * Perform detailed CFD simulations to generate understanding of flow and heat transfer phenomena over rough surfaces. * Use understanding generated to develop engineering models to predict heat transfer and friction on rough surfaces. Objectives IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY Aerospace Engineering Accomplishments * Performed 2-D and 3-D CFD simulations. * Generated a preliminary engineering model. 3-D CFD: Z.J. Wang * 1/6 -1/3 of the span (from Jeffrey Bons' experiment) selected for the computational domain; * 2 mm, 1 mm and 0.5 mm resolutions for coarse, medium and

149

Clio & Crimen n 7 (2010), pp. 52/84  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

un miembro más lazrado; pero, quanto en esso, fue pobre muy menguado: ¡non se sopo guardar del lazo del pecado! Omnes de raíz mala asmaron malvestat: por matar al bon rëy fizieron hermandat. Sopo de encubierta que en cabo de cosa a mal non se revierta, sopo por otras partes Alexandre la çierta: ¡parçir non

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

150

Asian Age  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

suggested that geo-engineering could be used to remove carbon dioxide from the atmos- phere. A range of potential geo- engineering options avail- able for reducing carbon dioxide from atmosphere include artificial trees, algae-coated buildings... change group, Dr Tim Fox, said. Recommending use of algae to reduce carbon diox- ide, the institute said that algae naturally absorb car- bon dioxide through photo- synthesis. Strips of algae can be fitted to the outside of buildings and then peri...

Anon.

2009-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

151

The ALE/GAGE/AGAGE Network (DB1001)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » ALE/GAGE/AGAGE Network Atmospheric Trace Gases » ALE/GAGE/AGAGE Network The ALE / GAGE / AGAGE Network (DB1001) DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.db1001 Links to Additional Sources Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) home page How halocarbons (CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs, and halons) are named CDIAC data base including some of the same compounds, and a tabulation of their uses and atmospheric lifetimes Investigators R.G. Prinn, R.F. Weiss, P.J. Fraser, P.G. Simmonds, S. O'Doherty, P. Salameh, L. Porter, P. Krummel, R.H.J. Wang, B. Miller, C. Harth, B. Greally, F.A. Van Woy, L.P. Steele, J. Müehle, G. Sturrock, F.N. Alyea, J. Huang, and D.E. Hartley Description In the ALE/GAGE/AGAGE global network program, continuous high frequency gas chromatographic measurements of four biogenic/anthropogenic gases (methane,

152

Sandeman-012113 - Argonne National Laboratories, Materials Sicence Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sandeman-012113 Sandeman-012113 JOINT PSE/MSD SEMINAR SPEAKER: Karl G. Sandeman Department of Physics TITLE: "(Tri)critical Phase Transitions in Magnetocaloric Materials " DATE: Monday, January 21, 2013 TIME: 3:00 p.m. PLACE: Building 223 / S-105 HOST: Seungbum Hong ABSTRACT: Much of today's research in so-called functional materials is driven by the quest for technologies that use energy more efficiently and reduce our impact on the environment. Such pressures drive a renewed investigation of some of the most fundamental properties of condensed matter. Solid-state phase transitions are one good example. In order to find an energy efficient solution to the problem of reducing our use of HFCs in a variety of cooling applications, a new field has been defined.

153

Kyoto Protocol | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kyoto Protocol Kyoto Protocol Jump to: navigation, search http://www.wired.com/thisdayintech/tag/climate-change/ Kyoto protocol negotiation The Kyoto Protocol, negotiated in 1997 and into force in 2005, is a binding agreement in which industrialized nations will seek emission-reducing strategies for the future years to come. "The Kyoto Protocol is a legally binding agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% compared to the year 1990 (but note that, compared to the emissions levels that would be expected by 2010 without the Protocol, this target represents a 29% cut). The goal is to lower overall emissions from six greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, HFCs, and PFCs - calculated as an average over

154

Carbon Sequestration 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Efforts Field Efforts Sequestering CO 2 in Geologic Formations SPE 2003 Eastern Section Meeting of AAPG September 6 - 10, 2003 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Scott M. Klara - National Energy Technology Laboratory What's All The Fuss About? CO 2 Concentrations On The Rise (~280 ppm to 370 ppm over last 100 years) Temperature Change from Present ( o C) CO 2 Concentration (ppmv) 200 150 50 350 300 250 200 100 0 ∆T atm (Vostok) CO 2 (Vostok) 2 0 -2 -4 Time Before Present (kyr) CO 2 & CH 4 - The Primary GHG Contributors Methane 9% Nitrous Oxide 5% HFCs, PFCs, SF 6 2% CO 2 from Energy 81% Other CO 2 3% "EIA Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S.: 2000" United States Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Equivalent Global Warming Basis) All Fossil Fuels & Energy Sectors Contribute CO 2 Emissions Industry 32% Industry 32% Commercial

155

Microsoft PowerPoint - Sequestration Briefing - October-07.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration R&D Overview Carbon Sequestration R&D Overview Office of Fossil Energy Carbon Sequestration Briefing October 2007 Sean Plasynski, PhD Sequestration Technology Manager Office of Fossil Energy R&D Focus is on Coal & Electricity Oil 43% Oil 43% Coal 36% Coal 36% Natural Gas 21% Electricity 39% Electricity 39% Other 30% Other 30% Transportation 32% Transportation 32% United States CO2 Emissions 36% Emissions From Coal 39% Emissions From Electricity Office of Fossil Energy R&D Focus is on CO 2 Methane 9% Nitrous Oxide 5% HFCs, PFCs, SF 6 2% CO 2 from Energy 81% Other CO 2 3% "EIA Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S.: 2000" United States Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Equivalent Global Warming Basis) Office of Fossil Energy Annual CO 2 Emissions Extremely Large 6,300,000,000 Carbon Dioxide (CO

156

Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Process Research Project |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Emerging Technologies » Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Process Research Project Super Building Insulation by CO2 Foaming Process Research Project The Department of Energy is currently researching the development of building superinsulation through a carbon dioxide (CO2) foaming process. Project Description This project seeks to develop building super insulation through a carbon dioxide foaming process that does not use hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and which produces insulation with a high R-value. Project Partners Research is being undertaken between the Department of Energy and The Industrial Science & Technology Network. Project Goals The goal of this project is to develop advanced insulation without HFC, and to achieve a competitive processing cost for CO2 foaming technology.

157

Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species Atmospheric Measurements of Climate-Relevant Species CDIAC's data collection includes measurements of the following climate-relevant chemical species. A summary of recent greenhouse gas concentrations is also available. To determine how compounds are named, see the CDIAC "Name that compound" page. Butane (C4H10) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Isotopes Carbon Monoxide (CO) Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Chlorofluorocarbons Chloroform (CHCl3) Deuterium (2H) Ethane (C2H6) Ethyl Nitrate (C2H5ONO2) Ethyne (C2H2) Fluoroform (CHF3) Halogenated Compounds (modern records) Halons (fluorocarbons) Hydrogen (H2) Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) i-Propyl Nitrate (C3H7ONO2) Methane (CH4) Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) Methyl Chloride (CH3Cl) Methyl Chloroform (CH3CCl3)

158

From fire to ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Absorption chillers are heat-operate refrigeration without harmful environmental emissions (CFCs, HCFCS, and HFCS). The machine uses either steam or a gas-fired burner as the energy source and utilizes endothermic evaporation to provide refrigeration to an external process fluid, usually chilled water. In the United States, absorption chillers are used in regions where the cost of electricity is high relative to natural gas. Absorption chillers are also used in applications where steam is readily available or in areas where seasonal load peaks cause utilities to subsidize gas cooling. This paper will describe the history of absorption, the basic absorption refrigeration cycle and some advanced high efficiency cycles. Practical applications of absorption refrigeration to commercial end uses will also be discussed.

Adcock, P.W.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Demonstration of High Efficiency Elastocaloric Cooling with Large Delta- T Using NiTi Wires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vapor compression (VC) is by far the most dominant technology for meeting all cooling and refrigeration needs around the world. It is a mature technology with the efficiency of modern compressors approaching the theoretical limit, but its envi-ronmental footprint remains a global problem. VC refrigerants such as hydrochlo-roflurocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a significant source of green house gas (GHG) emissions, and their global warming potential (GWP) is as high as 1000 times that of CO2. It is expected that building space cooling and re-frigeration alone will amount to {approx} 5% of primary energy consumption and {approx}5% of all CO2 emission in U.S. in 2030 . As such, there is an urgent need to develop an al-ternative high-efficiency cooling technology that is affordable and environmentally friendly. Among the proposed candidates, magnetocaloric cooling (MC) is currently received a lot of attention because of its high efficiency. However, MC is inherently expensive because of the requirement of large magnetic field and rare earth materi-als. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new type of solid-state cooling mechanism based on the latent heat of reversible martensitic transformation. We call it elasto-caloric cooling (EC) after the superelastic transformation of austenite it utilizes. The solid-state refrigerant of EC is cost-effective, and it completely eliminates the use of any refrigerants including HCFCs/HFCs. We show that the COP (coefficient of per-formance) of a jugular EC with optimized materials can be as high as > 10 with measured {Delta}T of 17 C.

Cui, Jun; Wu, Yiming; Muehlbauer, Jan; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Fackler, Sean; Wuttig, Manfred; Takeuchi, Ichiro

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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161

Home Energy Audits | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

April 4, 2012 April 4, 2012 This Month on Energy Savers: March 2012 We also covered some driving tips to help save money at the pump, ideas for new parents, and unveiled how you can connect with energy savings tips on the go. April 2, 2012 Energy 101: Home Energy Checkup (Text Version) The text version for the Home Energy Checkup 101 video. April 2, 2012 Blower door test during a home energy audit. Credit: Holtkamp Heating & A/C, Inc. Blower Door Tests Professional energy auditors use blower door tests to help determine a home's airtightness. April 2, 2012 The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to measure changes over time when determining a building's air-infiltration rate. PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique

162

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources and Links -  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Resources & Links Resources & Links Technical Information Publications Case Studies Publications Some of the following publications are available for download as Adobe PDF documents. Download Acrobat Reader Factors Affecting Emissions from Commercial Aluminum Reduction Cells (PDF 316 KB) The U.S. EPA and the Aluminum Association sponsored measurements of two perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases: tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoroethane. The measurements at six primary aluminum production facilities provided data on emissions of these compounds during normal aluminum smelting operations. Technology and Economics of Reducing PFC Emissions from Aluminium Production (PDF 139 KB) The paper, presented in 2002 at the Third International Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG-3), provides an overview of global efforts

163

BNL | Tracer Technology Group | BNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tracer Technology Group Tracer Technology Group Tracer Technology Image The Tracer Technology Group (TTG) developed the use of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) as tools for studying long range atmospheric transport and dispersion in the early 1980s.We are world leaders in the use of PFTs for solving diverse research and engineering problems in the atmospheric sciences, the energy production and utility industries, and building characterization. The unique capabilities of the TTG are derived from our analytical expertise, infrastructure, and experience. We have developed PFT analytical methods that have detection limits at the femtogram level. We can measure global background levels of PFTS at the parts per quadrillion levels. Our scientists and technical staff have extensive experience in

164

Project Title  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Monitoring Geological CO Monitoring Geological CO 2 Sequestration using Perfluorocarbon and Stable Isotope Tracers Project Number FEAA-045 Tommy J. Phelps and David R. Cole* Oak Ridge National Laboratory Phone: 865-574-7290 email: phelpstj@ornl.gov (*The Ohio State University) U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Developing the Technologies and Building the Infrastructure for CO 2 Storage August 22, 2013 2 Project Overview: Goals and Objectives Goal: Develop methods to interrogate subsurface for improved CO 2 sequestration, field test characterization and MVA, demonstrate CO 2 remains in zone, and tech transfer. Objectives: 1. Assessment of injections in field. PFT gas tracers are analyzed by GC-ECD to

165

NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 NETL Accomplishments 2 Advancing energy options to fuel our economy, strengthen our security, and improve our environment. Our Mission 3 2010 NETL Accomplishments 86 66 54 52 28 8 6 4 CONTENTS NETL Mission Message from the Director NETL Powers the Future of Energy Advanced Power Systems 10 Gasification 14 Fuel Cells 16 SECA Reaches 2010 Program Goal 18 Turbines 22 Turbine Program Develops Prototypes for Reducing Emissions 24 Materials Clean Energy 30 Carbon Capture 34 Carbon Storage 36 Perfluorocarbon Tracers Go with the Flow 38 Carbon Sequestration Partnerships 44 Demand-Side Efficiency 48 Air, Water, Land A Century of Science Reliable Supply 56 Energy Infrastructure 60 Methane Hydrates 62 Natural Gas and Oil Production

166

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Letters of Intent/Agreements Letters of Intent/Agreements The U.S. semiconductor industry, represented by the members of the Environmental Protection Agency's PFC Reduction/Climate Partnership for the Semiconductor Industry, has committed to reduce absolute perfluorocompound (PFC) emissions by 10% below the 1995 baseline level by the year 2010. Perfluorocompounds include the most potent and long-lived greenhouse gases such as perfluorocarbons (e.g., CF4, C2F6, C3F8), trifluoromethane (CHF3), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) voluntary semiconductor industry partnership was developed collaboratively with the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA). EPA, SIA, and the Partner companies (listed below) are working to reduce industry greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EPA's

167

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Letters of Intent/Agreements Letters of Intent/Agreements Aluminum Association Logo The Aluminum Association and its members participating in the Voluntary Aluminum Industry Partnership (VAIP), representing 98% of primary aluminum production in the United States, have committed under the Climate VISION program to a direct carbon intensity reduction of emissions of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and of emissions of CO2 from the consumption of the carbon anode from the primary aluminum reduction process. The Climate VISION target is a 53% total carbon equivalent reduction from these sources by 2010 from 1990 levels. The industry has been working to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for over a decade and this new commitment equates to an additional direct carbon-intensity reduction of 65% since 2000. As a

168

Evaluation of the 2008 Predictions of Run-Timing and Survival of Wild Migrant Yearling Chinook and Steelhead on the Columbia and Snake Rivers.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Columbia Basin Research uses the COMPASS model on a daily basis during the outmigration of Snake River Chinook and steelhead smolts to predict downstream passage and survival. Fish arrival predictions and observations from program RealTime along with predicted and observed environmental conditions are used to make in-season predictions of arrival and survival to various dams in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. For 2008, calibrations of travel and survival parameters for two stocks of fish-Snake River yearling PIT-tagged wild chinook salmon (chin1pit) and Snake River PIT-tagged steelhead (lgrStlhd)-were used to model travel and survival of steelhead and chinook stocks from Lower Granite Dam (LWG) or McNary Dam (MCN) to Bonneville Dam (BON). This report summarizes the success of the COMPASS/RealTime process to model these migrations as they occur. We compared model results on timing and survival to data from two sources: stock specific counts at dams and end-of-season control survival estimates (Jim Faulkner, NOAA, pers. comm. Dec. 16, 2008). The difference between the predicted and observed day of median passage and the Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) between predicted and observed arrival cumulative distributions are measures of timing accuracy. MAD is essentially the average percentage error over the season. The difference between the predicted and observed survivals is a measure of survival accuracy. Model results and timing data were in good agreement from LWG to John Day Dam (JDA). Predictions of median passage days for the chin1pit and lgrStlhd stocks were 0 and 2 days (respectively) later than observed. MAD for chin1pit and lgrStlhd stocks at JDA were 2.3% and 5.9% (respectively). Between JDA and BON modeling and timing data were not as well matched. At BON, median passage predictions were 6 and 10 days later than observed and MAD values were 7.8% and 16.0% respectively. Model results and survival data were in good agreement from LWG to MCN. COMPASS predicted survivals of 0.77 and 0.69 for chin1pit and lgrStlhd, while the data control's survivals were 0.79 and 0.68. The differences are 0.02 and 0.01 (respectively), nearly identical. However, from MCN to BON, COMPASS predicted survivals of 0.74 and 0.69 while the data controls survivals were 0.47 and 0.53 respectively. Differences of 0.27 and 0.16. In summary: Travel and survival of chin1pit and lgrStlhd stocks were well modeled in the upper reaches. Fish in the lower reaches down through BON suffered unmodeled mortality, and/or passed BON undetected. A drop in bypass fraction and unmodeled mortality during the run could produce such patterns by shifting the observed median passage day to appear artificially early.

Beer, W. Nicholas; Iltis, Susannah; Anderson, James J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

170

Tamang jatibare sangkshipta sabda citra Traite sur l'origine de la caste tamang  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

de vie dans le monde, le Tamba dit shar lho nub byang phyogs mchams ri gro ba rigs drug mi chags cim En direction de lEst, du Sud, de lOuest, du Nord Six sortes dtres vivants ont t crs ( mngal skyes: tous les animaux ns de la... ;may#7;na, le Singe qui incarnait la force, Hanum#7;n, serait arriv chez Avalokite vara, sur la colline du Potala. Avalokite vara envoya le singe mditer dans lHimalaya. Pour la thologie du Bon, Avalokite vara est incarn dans Gen rab mi...

Lama, Thubten

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Buildings Energy Data Book: 7.1 National Legislation  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

5 5 Phase Out Schedule of Halocarbons in the U.S. (1) Gas % By % By Chlorofluorocarbons 75% 1994 75% 1994 (CFCs) 100% 1996 (4) 100% 1996 Bromofluorocarbons 100% 1994 (4) 100% 1994 (Halons) Hydrochlorofluorocarbons 35.0% 2004 35% 2003 (HCFCs) 75.0% 2010 75% 2010 90.0% 2015 90% 2015 99.5% 2020 99.5% 2020 100% 2030 (4) 100% 2030 Hydrofluorocarbons N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. (HFCs) Note(s): Source(s): 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC consumption 1996 N.A. N.A. 1) The phase out of halocarbons is consistent with Title VI of the Clean Air Act and is in accordance with the Montreal Protocol and Amendments. 2) The amount of gas produced and consumed in this year is established and defined as the base level. To meet basic domestic needs, levels of production are allowed to exceed the base level by up to 10%. 3) After this year, levels of production are no longer

172

Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Global warming and end-use efficiency implications of replacing CFCs  

SciTech Connect

The direct contribution of CFCs to calculated global warming has been recognized for some time. As a result of the international agreement to phase out CFCs due to stratospheric ozone and the ensuing search for suitable alternatives, there has recently been increased attention on the DIRECT global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, to date there has been little focus on the INDIRECT global warming effect arising from end-use efficiency changes and associated CO{sub 2} emissions. A study being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) addresses this combined or total global warming impact of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related applications. This paper reviews selected results for air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heat pump applications. The analysis indicates that the CFC user industries have made substantial progress in approaching near-equal energy efficiency with the HCFC/HFC alternative refrigerants. The findings also bring into question the relative importance of the DIRECT (chemical-related) effect in many applications. Replacing CFCs is an important step in reducing the total global warming impact, and at present the HCFC and HFCS appear to offer the best efficiency and lowest total impact of options available in the relatively short time period required for the transition away from CFCs.

Fairchild, P.D.; Fischer, S.K.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

Global warming implications of non-fluorocarbon technologies as CFC replacements  

SciTech Connect

Many technologies could be developed for use in place of conventional compression systems for refrigeration and air conditioning. Comparisons of the global warming impacts using TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) can be used to identify alternatives that have the potential for lower environmental impacts than electric-driven vapor compression systems using HCFCs and HFCs. Some options, such as secondary heat transfer loops in commercial refrigeration systems to reduce refrigerant charge and emission rates, could be useful in reducing the losses of refrigerants to the atmosphere. Use of ammonia instead of a fluorocarbon in a system with a secondary loop offers only a small potential for decreasing TEWI, and this may not warrant the increased complexity and risks of using ammonia in a retail sales environment. A few technologies, such as adsorption heat pumps, have efficiency levels that show reduced TEWI levels compared to conventional and state of the art compression systems, and further development could lead to an even more favorable comparison. Health and safety risks of the alternative technologies and the materials they employ must also be considered.

Fischer, S.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

175

DOE/ORNL heat pump design model, overview and application to R-22 alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This computer program is a public-domain system design tool for application to air-to-air heat pumps. The main aspects of the program are reviewed with emphasis on the newest features of the current fifth-generation version (Mark V) and an upcoming more fully HFC-capable release (Mark VI). Current model predictions are compared to test data for a leading HFC alternative to HCFC-22 in heat pumps. Examples are shown of some user interfaces that have been recently developed for the program. To demonstrate the design capabilities of the model for R-22 alternatives, a refrigerant-side optimization was conducted to find the best balance of heat transfer versus pressure drop for HCFC R-22, HFCs R-134a and R-410A, and the natural refrigerant propane. COP was maximized while refrigerant charge and tube size were minimized. Independent design parameters were fraction of total area in the outdoor coil, tube diameter and number of circuits for each heat exchanger, and condenser subcooling. Heat exchanger design tradeoffs are discussed for a heat pump relative to air conditioners and heating-only units. A design optimized for heating-only operation is presented.

Rice, C.K.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Academic Advisory Board Activities and Perspectives  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advisory Board Advisory Board Activities and Perspectives Karen A. Thole, Chair Academic Advisory Board Virginia Tech, Mechanical Engineering Department Peer Review Workshop October 20, 2005 * Review of the Academic Advisory Board * Activities since 2004 Peer Review Workshop * Open discussion Discussion Topics Chair: Karen Thole, Virginia Tech Co-Chair: Tim Lieuwen, Georgia Tech Secretary: Vince McDonell, U of California-Irvine Education: Yongho Sohn, U of Central Florida Combustion: Dom Santavicca, Penn State Materials: Eric Jordan, U of Connecticut Aero / Ht Transfer: Jeffrey Bons, Brigham Young Diagnostics: Scott Sanders, U. of Wisconsin Academic Advisory Board (AAB) Contact any of us with your concerns/issues!!! Goals for the AAB * Provide guidance to the UTSR Program

177

Data:6793dbb6-203f-4fec-b734-2aebaee98017 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dbb6-203f-4fec-b734-2aebaee98017 dbb6-203f-4fec-b734-2aebaee98017 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Small Commercial Single-Phase Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

178

Data:68947f56-5be5-474a-9246-2dca88e83a7d | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

-5be5-474a-9246-2dca88e83a7d -5be5-474a-9246-2dca88e83a7d No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Demand & Energy Billing 75-350 kva Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

179

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Title Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Kirchstetter, Thomas W., and Tracy L. Thatcher Journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Volume 12 Pagination 6067-6072 Abstract A spectroscopic analysis of 115 wintertime partic- ulate matter samples collected in rural California shows that wood smoke absorbs solar radiation with a strong spectral se- lectivity. This is consistent with prior work that has demon- strated that organic carbon (OC), in addition to black car- bon (BC), appreciably absorbs solar radiation in the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. We apportion light absorp-

180

DOE/EIS-0397: Lyle Falls Fish Passage Project Final Environmental Impact Statement (November 2008)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lyle Falls Fish Passage Project Lyle Falls Fish Passage Project Final Environmental Impact Statement DOE/EIS-0397 November 2008 B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N BON N E V I L L E POW E R AD M I N I S T R A T I O N DOE/BP-3957 November 2008 Lyle Falls Fish Passage Facility Lyle Falls Fish Passage Project Final Environmental Impact Statement Bonneville Power Administration Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife U.S.D.A. Forest Service November 2008 Lyle Falls Fish Passage Facility Lyle Falls Fish Passage Project Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) DOE/EIS-0397

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181

Data:D4b211c5-938e-45ab-a5b8-edc53ed137e1 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c5-938e-45ab-a5b8-edc53ed137e1 c5-938e-45ab-a5b8-edc53ed137e1 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Irrigation, Three-Phase Controlled Sector: Industrial Description: Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

182

Data:350aa617-2f1b-4069-907e-0c40fe10a1e3 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

17-2f1b-4069-907e-0c40fe10a1e3 17-2f1b-4069-907e-0c40fe10a1e3 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Irrigation, Single-Phase Controlled Pivot Energy Only Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous

183

Data:3a32114d-1809-4573-8a7c-a2a0230d041c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

d-1809-4573-8a7c-a2a0230d041c d-1809-4573-8a7c-a2a0230d041c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Irrigation, Single-Phase Controlled Sector: Industrial Description: Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

184

untitled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

UNIVERSIT UNIVERSIT Y OF CALIFORNIA Lawrence Radiation Laboratory Berkeley, California Contract No. W -740S-eng -48 UCRL-9966 I THE PATH OF CARBON IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS Melvin Calvin Nobel Prize Lecture December 11, 1961 ) Nobel Prize Lecture December 11, 1961 UCRL-9966 THE PATH OF Ck'1BON IN PHOI'CBYHTHESIS Melvin Calvin Department of Chemistry and Lawrence Radiation Laboratory University of California, Berkeley 4, California ll'JTRODUCTION It is almost sixty years since Emil Fischer was describing on 8 platform such as this one some of the work Which led to the basic know- ledge of the structure of glucose and its relatives. l Today we "ill be concerned ,.itha description of the experiments "lhich have led to a know- ledge of the principal reactions by which those carbohydrate structures are created by photos~rnthetic organisms from carbon dioxide and water,

185

Data:37c6cd1a-15f1-407a-ac2c-4d3136741f29 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a-15f1-407a-ac2c-4d3136741f29 a-15f1-407a-ac2c-4d3136741f29 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Rural Residential Single-Phase Sector: Residential Description: Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

186

degj0196 19..34  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

critical critical role of monitoring, verification, and accounting for geologic carbon dioxide storage projects Sean I. Plasynski, John T. Litynski, Howard G. McIlvried, Derek M. Vikara, and Rameshwar D. Srivastava A B S T R A C T A growing concern that increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are contributing to global climate change has led to a search for economical and environmentally sound ways to reduce car- bon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. One promising approach is CO 2 cap- ture and permanent storage in deep geologic formations, such as depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unminable coal seams, and deep brine-containing (saline) formations. However, successful implemen- tation of geologic storage projects will require robust monitoring, veri- fication, and accounting (MVA) tools. This article deals with all aspects of MVA activities associated with such geologic CO 2 storage

187

Microsoft Word - 2006FactSR120.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deposition of Alternative (Syngas) Fuels on Turbine Blades with Film Cooling Deposition of Alternative (Syngas) Fuels on Turbine Blades with Film Cooling FACT SHEET I. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS Drs. Jeffrey Bons and Thomas Fletcher, Brigham Young University, 435 CTB, PO Box 24201, Provo, Utah 84602 (801) 422-8036 jbons@byu.edu Tom George, National Energy Technology Laboratory, P O Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Rd, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 (304) 285-4825 tgeorg@netl.doe.gov Richard Wenglarz, South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies, 386-2 College Ave., Clemson, SC 29634 (864) 656-2267 rwnglrz@clemson.edu II. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Objectives This effort will address three critical technical issues associated with syngas use in gas turbines: (1) The effects of syngas deposition, erosion, and corrosion at elevated temperatures

188

Deposition of Alternative (Syngas) Fuels on Turbine Blades with Film Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ACERC ACERC Dr. Jeffrey Bons and Dr. Thomas Fletcher BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY SCIES Project 05-01-SR-120 with support from General Electric, Siemens-Westinghouse, Solar Turbines, Praxair UTSR Peer Workshop III, Clemson University, SC Oct. 18-20, 2005 Deposition of Alternative ( Deposition of Alternative ( Syngas Syngas ) Fuels on ) Fuels on Turbine Blades with Film Cooling Turbine Blades with Film Cooling Alternate fuels (e.g. coal, petcoke, and biomass) are being cons Alternate fuels (e.g. coal, petcoke, and biomass) are being cons idered to idered to produce produce syngas syngas fuels to replace natural gas in power turbines fuels to replace natural gas in power turbines Despite gas cleanup, small levels of airborne particulate (e.g. Despite gas cleanup, small levels of airborne particulate (e.g. 0.1 0.1 ppmw

189

Data:E18d89b7-56cd-42d4-91fa-8327da7d25ba | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

b7-56cd-42d4-91fa-8327da7d25ba b7-56cd-42d4-91fa-8327da7d25ba No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Farm Single-Phase Sector: Residential Description: Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous

190

AOScomments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alternate Operations Study Alternate Operations Study 2013 Meeting Comments A F N Aces Flandreau Municipal Electric Northwest Iowa Power Cooperative Argus Media H O B Heartland Consumers Power District Otter Tail Power Company Basin Electric Cooperative Otter Tail Power Company 2 Basin Electric Cooperative 2 I Bon Homme Yankton Electric Assoc Irrigation & Electrical Districts Association S Sanborn Electric C L Sioux Valley Energy Central Iowa Power Cooperative L & O Power Cooperative South Dakota Municipal League Central Power Electric Cooperative Lake Region Electric South Dakota Municipal League 2 City of Beresford Lyon Rural Electric Cooperative South Eastern Electric Coop City of Cavalier Lyon-Lincoln Elect Coop City of Henning T City of Laurel M Town of Pickstown City of Melrose Marshall Municipal

191

Microsoft PowerPoint - UTSR-2010-Pennst-UNDOSU-comb.ppt [Compatibility Mode]  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshop - Aerodynamics/Heat Transfer Breakout Workshop - Aerodynamics/Heat Transfer Breakout Oct 20 2010 Oct. 20,2010 Forrest Ames, UND Jeffrey Bons, OSU Motivation ot at o Turbine design considerations: Ash Deposition on F-100 Vane Leading Edge - Higher T T4 - LE Clogging Potential C b g (Ref: Kim et al., 1993) - Combustors: - High turbulence levels - Non-uniformities - Non uniformities - Film cooling - Larger leading edge diam. g g g - Better TBC coatings Ash Deposition on Better tools for turbine vane LE heat l d li i d 2 p CFM56-5B Vane Leading Edge (Ref: Smith et al., 2010) load, cooling requirements, and potential for deposition??? Critical Unanswered Questions Critical Unanswered Questions  What is the effect of increased LE radius on d iti ? deposition?  What is the effect of increased inlet turbulence on

192

Data:945188fc-2394-46e9-b4e0-471f63d3fed5 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

fc-2394-46e9-b4e0-471f63d3fed5 fc-2394-46e9-b4e0-471f63d3fed5 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Irrigation Single-Phase Uncontrolled Sector: Industrial Description: Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

193

Data:A1033a3d-3ede-44fd-b543-8d8c7d856c76 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a3d-3ede-44fd-b543-8d8c7d856c76 a3d-3ede-44fd-b543-8d8c7d856c76 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Coincidental Peak Billing Sector: Industrial Description: Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous

194

Data:44fb2115-d097-4078-b11e-cde48f1f7da9 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

fb2115-d097-4078-b11e-cde48f1f7da9 fb2115-d097-4078-b11e-cde48f1f7da9 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large Load 350-1500kva Sector: Industrial Description: Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous

195

Data:D9dbd362-cb4e-4007-91f7-9fd58ec6182c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dbd362-cb4e-4007-91f7-9fd58ec6182c dbd362-cb4e-4007-91f7-9fd58ec6182c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Town Residential Single-Phase Sector: Residential Description: Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

196

Greenhouse warming potential of candidate gaseous diffusion plant coolants  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary estimate has been made of the greenhouse warming potential (GWP) of coolants under consideration as substitutes for CFC-114 in the gaseous diffusion plants. Coolants are not at present regulated on the basis of GWP, but may well be in the future. Use of c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8} or n-C{sub 4}F{sub 10} is estimated to have three to four times the greenhouse impact of an equivalent use of CFC-114. Neither of the substitutes, of course, would cause any ozone depletion. HCFC-124 (a probable commercial substitute for CFC-114, but not presently under serious consideration due to its relatively high UF{sub 6} reactivity) would have much less greenhouse and ozone depletion impact than CFC-114. The GWP estimates derive from a simple model that approximately reproduces literature values for similar compounds. The major uncertainty in these estimates lies in the atmospheric lifetime, especially of the perfluorocarbon compounds, for which little reliable information exists. In addition to GWP estimates for coolants, the overall greenhouse impact of the gaseous diffusion plants is calculated, including indirect power-related CO{sub 2} emissions. This result is used to compare greenhouse impacts of nuclear- and coal-produced electricity. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Trowbridge, L.D.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Brookhaven air infiltration measurement system (BNL/AIMS) description and application  

SciTech Connect

A unique capability to measure part-per-quadrillion concentrations of a family of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) is presented. Together with our unique PFT source and passive sampler, measurement of average air exchange and infiltration rate can be determined for periods as short as 12 hours. A more expensive programmable sampler can provide information on a frequency of as little as once per minute for each of its 23 sampling tubes. The principal of AIMS is based on the applicable steady-state assumption that the average concentration (e.g., in pL/L) of a tracer vapor in a chamber (i.e., a building or room) is equal to the emission rate of the tracer source (e.g., in pL/min) divided by the air leakage or infiltration rate (e.g., in L/min). Knowing the source rate and measuring the average concentration then provides a means to calculate the air leakage rate. Extending this technique to a multichamber concept, in which a different type of PFT source is deployed in each chamber of a building, allows the calculation of not only the infiltration rates in each chamber but also the air exchange rates between chambers as well. Since both the PFT source and the passive sampler, a miniature Capillary Adsorption Tube Sampler (CATS), are about the size of a cigarette, inexpensive, and reusable, the BNL/AIMS is a very cost-effective means (if not the only means) for determining these air exchange rates.

Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W.; Cote, E.A.; Wieser, R.F.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

THE MADISON SQUARE GARDEN DISPERSION STUDY (MSG05) METEOROLOGICAL DATA DESCRIPTION.  

SciTech Connect

MSG05 was a study of atmospheric transport and dispersion in the deep urban canyons of Midtown New York City, in the area of Madison Square Garden. This downtown area is considered to be a prime target for terrorist activities, and has one of the largest commuter populations in the world. Little is known about air flow and hazardous gas dispersion in such scenarios, since previous urban field experiments have focused on small to medium sized cities with much smaller street canyons. On March 10 and 14, 2005, a series of Perfluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) tracers were released and tracked with about 30 sampling stations at radial distances of about 0.2 and 0.4 km, with vertical profiles near a 250 m tall building (One Penn Plaza). Meteorological stations collected wind data in the MSG vicinity, at street level and rooftop level. MSG05 is expected to provide useful information on rapid vertical dispersion will assist in planning for more extensive studies. This data release is being made available to a restricted group of key scientists who have worked on the project. Part of the QA program involves feedback from scientists and modelers who are working on this study. This document describes the meteorological component of the project. The file organization and metadata are detailed so that a researcher can work with the data sets.

REYNOLDS, R.M.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Midwestern efforts to address climate change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Six Midwestern governors and a Canadian premier signed the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord in November 2007. The governors agreed to begin the process of developing a market-based cap-and-trade program that would reduce GHG emissions (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro-fluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride) to meet reduction targets. Member jurisdictions include Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Manitoba, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Observer jurisdictions - those who are participating in the program design, but will decide later whether to be full members-include Indiana, Ohio, Ontario, and South Dakota. To date, the advisory group has proposed target ranges for GHG emissions reductions of 15-25% below 2005 levels by 2020 and 60-80% by 2050. The following sectors are currently being considered for the cap-and-trade program: electricity generation and imports (power plants); industrial combustion sources (factories and other industrial facilities); and industrial process sources (to the extent credible measurement and monitoring protocols exist or can be developed prior to inclusion).

Daniel Stenberg [Midwestern Governors Association (United States)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

A database of PFT ventilation measurements  

SciTech Connect

About five years ago, a method for measuring the ventilation flows of a building was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This method is based on the use of a family of compounds known as perfluorocarbon tracers or PFTs. Since 1982, BNL has measured ventilation in more than 4000 homes, comprising about 100 separate research projects throughout the world. This measurement set is unique in that it is the only set of ventilation measurements that acknowledge and measure the multizone characteristics of residences. Other large measurement sets assume that a home can be treated as a single well-mixed zone. This report describes the creation of a database of approximately half of the PFT ventilation measurements made by BNL over the last five years. The PFT database is currently available for use on any IBM PC or Apple Macintosh based personal computer system. In addition to its utility in modeling indoor pollutant dispersion, this database may also be useful to those people studying energy conservation, thermal comfort and heating system design in residential buildings. 2 refs.

D' Ottavio, T.W.; Goodrich, R.W.; Spandau, D.J.; Dietz, R.N.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Taggants, method for forming a taggant, and a method for detecting an object  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A taggant comprising at least one perfluorocarbon compound surrounded by a polyphosphazene compound. The polyphosphazene compound has the chemical structure: ##STR00001## wherein G.sub.1 and G.sub.2 are pendant groups having different polarities, m is an integer greater than or equal to 100, and each of A and B is independently selected from hydrogen, an alkyl, an alkene, an alkoxide, a polyether, a polythioether, a siloxane, and --X(CH.sub.2).sub.nY.sup.1(CH.sub.2)p.sub.1Y.sup.2(CH.sub.2)p.sub.2 . . . Y.sup.i(CH.sub.2)p.sub.iCH.sub.3, where n ranges from 1 to 6, X and Y are independently selected from oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium, and p.sub.1 through p.sub.i range from 1 to 6. Cyclic polyphosphazene compounds lacking the A and B groups are also disclosed, as are methods of forming the taggant and of detecting an object.

Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

203

Urban Dispersion Program MSG05 Field Study: Summary of Tracer and Meteorological Measurements  

SciTech Connect

The Urban Dispersion Program is a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, to better understand the flow and dispersion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of New York City. The first tracer and meteorological field study was a limited study conducted during March 2005 near the Madison Square Garden in midtown Manhattan. Six safe, inert, gaseous perfluorocarbon tracers were released simultaneously at five street-level locations during two experimental days. In addition to collecting tracer data, meteorological data were also collected. Brookhaven National Laboratory conducted the bulk of the tracer and meteorological field efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Stevens Institute of Technology assisting by measuring the vertical profile of winds. The Environmental Protection Agency worked with Brookhaven National Laboratory in accomplishing the personal exposure component of the study. This report presents some results from this analysis. In general, different release locations showed vastly different plume footprints for tracer materials, and the situation was made very complex with upwind and/or crosswind transport of tracer near street-level for the different release locations. Overall wind speeds and directions upwind and over the city were generally constant throughout each of the two experimental periods.

Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

2006-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

204

Air Exchange Rates in New Energy-Efficient Manufactured Housing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the 1989-1990 heating season, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, for the Bonneville Power Administration, measured the ventilation characteristics of 139 newly constructed energy-efficient manufactured homes and a control sample of 35 newer manufactured homes. A standard door fan pressurization technique was used to estimate shell leakiness, and a passive perfluorocarbon tracer technique was used to estimate overall air exchange rates. A measurement of the designated whole-house exhaust system flow rate was taken as well as an occupant and structure survey. The energy-efficient manufactured homes have very low air exchange rates, significantly lower than either existing manufactured homes or site-built homes. The standard deviation of the effective leakage area for this sample of homes is small (25% to 30% of the mean), indicating that the leakiness of manufactured housing stock can be confidently characterized by the mean value. There is some indication of increased ventilation due to the energy-efficient whole-house ventilation specification, but not directly related to the operation of the wholehouse system. The mechanical systems as installed and operated do not provide the intended ventilation; consequently indoor air quality could possibly be adversely impacted and moisture/condensation in the living space is a potential problem.

Hadley, D. L.; Bailey, S. A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

TEWI Analysis: Its Utility, Its Shortcomings, and Its Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The past decade has been a challenging time for the refrigeration and air conditioning industry worldwide. Provisions of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments require the phaseout of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) compounds that have been used extensively as insulating foam blowing agents and refrigerants in refrigeration systems, heat pumps, and air conditioners. In response, hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) compounds were proposed, developed, and are starting to be used as the primary alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs. However, in 1997 under the Kyoto Protocol, industrialized nations have agreed to roll back emissions of HCFCs, carbon dioxide (CO*), and four other greenhouse gases which threaten to cause excessive global warming. The US. Department of Energy and the Alternative Fluorocarbon Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS) jointly sponsored research projects to identify the major applications of CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs and to examine the impacts of these compounds and the energy use of applications employing these compounds on global warming. The five major uses of fluorocarbons based on sales were automobile air conditioning, supermarket refrigeration, unitary heat pumps and air conditioning, chillers for cooling large office buildings, and household refrigeration. Almost all of the refrigerants used in these applications are global warming gases, and if the refrigerant leaks out of the system during operation, is lost during maintenance or is not recovered when the system is scraped, it contributes to global warming. But, it is also true that the energy consumed by refrigeration and air conditioning systems, in the form of electricity or the direct combustion of fossil fuel, results in the release of CO*, the primary cause of atmospheric global warming.

Baxter, V.D.; Fischer, S.K.; Sand, J.R.

1999-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

206

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 2001.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global Warming and Methane--Global warming, an increase in Earth's near-surface temperature, is believed to result from the buildup of what scientists refer to as ''greenhouse gases.'' These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluoro-carbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Greenhouse gases can absorb outgoing infrared (heat) radiation and re-emit it back to Earth, warming the surface. Thus, these gases act like the glass of a greenhouse enclosure, trapping infrared radiation inside and warming the space. One of the more important greenhouse gases is the naturally occurring hydrocarbon methane. Methane, a primary component of natural gas, is the second most important contributor to the greenhouse effect (after carbon dioxide). Natural sources of methane include wetlands, fossil sources, termites, oceans, fresh-waters, and non-wetland soils. Methane is also produced by human-related (or anthropogenic) activities such as fossil fuel production, coal mining, rice cultivation, biomass burning, water treatment facilities, waste management operations and landfills, and domesticated livestock operations (Figure 1). These anthropogenic activities account for approximately 70% of the methane emissions to the atmosphere. Methane is removed naturally from the atmosphere in three ways. These methods, commonly referred to as sinks, are oxidation by chemical reaction with tropospheric hydroxyl ion, oxidation within the stratosphere, and microbial uptake by soils. In spite of their important role in removing excess methane from the atmosphere, the sinks cannot keep up with global methane production. Methane concentrations in the atmosphere have increased by 145% since 1800. Increases in atmospheric methane roughly parallel world population growth, pointing to anthropogenic sources as the cause (Figure 2). Increases in the methane concentration reduce Earth's natural cooling efficiency by trapping more of the outgoing terrestrial infrared radiation, increasing the near-surface temperature.

Holdridge, D. J.

2001-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

208

The Climate Change Action Plan: Technical supplement  

SciTech Connect

This Technical Annex documents the assumptions and parameters used in developing the supporting analysis for the Climate Change Action Plan (the Plan) issued by President Clinton on October 19, 1993. The Annex is intended to meet the needs of independent energy and environmental analysts who wish to better understand the Plan, its analytical underpinnings, and the events that need to transpire for the emissions reductions called for in the Plan to be realized. The Plan documented in this Annex reflects the outcome of a wide-ranging effort by Government agencies and interested members of the public to develop and implement actions that can reduce net greenhouse gas emissions in the year 2000 to their aggregate 1990 level. Based on agency and public input, the Climate Change Mitigation Group, chaired by the White House Office on Environmental Policy, developed the Plan`s content. Many of the actions called for in the Plan are now underway, while others are in advanced planning pending congressional action on the fiscal year 1995 budget. The analysis supporting the Plan represents the results of an interagency effort. The US Department of Energy (DOE) was responsible for the integrated analysis of energy-related options, based on the analysis of individual energy-related options by DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the US Department of Transportation (DOT). EPA led in providing analysis for actions related to methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) led the analysis of carbon sequestration actions and cooperated with EPA in the analysis of actions to reduce nitrous oxide emissions.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Innovative techniques for the description of reservoir heterogeneity using tracers. Final report, October 1992--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three year research project on the use of tracers for reservoir characterization. The objective of this research was to develop advanced, innovative techniques for the description of reservoir characteristics using both single-well backflow and interwell tracer tests. (1) The authors implemented and validated tracer modeling features in a compositional simulator (UTCOMP). (2) They developed and applied a new single well tracer test for estimating reservoir heterogeneity. (3) They developed and applied a new single well tracer test for estimating reservoir wettability in-situ. (4) They developed a new, simple and efficient method to analyze two well tracer tests based upon type curve matching and illustrated its use with actual field tracer data. (5) They developed a new method for deriving an integrated reservoir description based upon combinatorial optimization schemes. (6) They developed a new, interwell tracer test for reservoir heterogeneity called vertical tracer profiling (VTP) and demonstrated its advantages over conventional interwell tracer testing. (7) They developed a simple and easy analytical method to estimate swept pore volume from interwell tracer data and showed both the theoretical basis for this method and its practical utility. (8) They made numerous enhancements to our compositional reservoir simulator such as including the full permeability tensor, adding faster solvers, improving its speed and robustness and making it easier to use (better I/0) for tracer simulation problems. (9) They applied the enhanced version of UTCOMP to the analysis of interwell tracer data using perfluorocarbons at Elks Hill Naval Petroleum Reserve. All of these accomplishments taken together have significantly improved the state of reservoir tracer technology and have demonstrated that it is a far more powerful and useful tool for quantitative reservoir characterization than previously realized or practiced by the industry.

Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Delshad, M.; Ferreira, L.; Gupta, A.; Maroongroge, V.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Shane Canon, David Skinner and Jay Srinivasan! NUG2013  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Canon, David Skinner and Canon, David Skinner and Jay Srinivasan! NUG2013 NERSC and HTC --- 1 --- February 1 2, 2 013 Science Strategies @ NERSC Science at Scale P etascale t o E xascale Science through Volume Thousands t o M illions o f S imula6ons Science in Data Petabytes t o Exabytes 2 3 Materials (Genome) Project * Need to gather slides 4 5 Common T hemes * Throughput O riented / E mbarrassingly p arallel * Rapidly I ncreasing d emand f or c omputaBon (outpacing M oore's L aw) * OIen D ata I ntensive * Scaling f rom d esktop o r m id---range s ystems t o HPC c lass s ystems Approaches * Throughput Q ueues * Private/User A llocaFon - Task F armer ( NERSC D eveloped o r C ray P rovided) - MyHadoop - MySGE * Shared - CCM/Torque * Hybrid? - High---Throughput Q ueue S ystems 6 Throughput Queues * Serial Q ueue o n C

211

Data:F56db83d-b034-41af-a4da-a91d395f7fdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

db83d-b034-41af-a4da-a91d395f7fdf db83d-b034-41af-a4da-a91d395f7fdf No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Interruptible Sector: Commercial Description: * Coincident demand is $ 17.80. Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous

212

2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

G - COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS SYSTEM OPERATIONS G - COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS SYSTEM OPERATIONS Rev. 0, July 9, 2001 G.1 NORMAL STARTUP To conduct normal startup, proceed as follows: 1. Open the supply from Southwest Gas (V-101) and activate AOV-102. a. Open one filter (V-105/V-108 or V-109/V-112), with the other filter line closed and filter drains closed. b. Verify that the SWG supply pressure is 30 psi (PI 104 and PI 118). c. Verify that the blowdown filter is set to drain. 2. Open the by-pass supply to Gemini V-119 and V-18. 3. Gemini discharge valve configuration: a. Open V-19, -20, -20A. b. Valve into operation one set of coalescening filters: Open V-21 and V-22 and Close V-23 and V-24 Or Close V-21 and V-22 and Open V-23 and V-24. 4. Open V-25 at fill and dispenser cabinet 1. 5. Optional the booster blower or Hy-Bon compressor:

213

Data:7b859fcd-47b5-4102-ab05-3fe1364c5be5 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

fcd-47b5-4102-ab05-3fe1364c5be5 fcd-47b5-4102-ab05-3fe1364c5be5 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large Farm, Single-Phase Sector: Residential Description: * Applicable to large farm and rural residential 37.5 to 100kva. Additional transformer fee 37.5 kva $2.75/month. Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage

214

SWERA borrador051110  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

informe nacional informe nacional GEF MEM DGE Preparado por: Ing. Norbert Bons Borrador 14-11-05 SWERA borrador 14-11-2005 1 2 MEM DGE - Fundación Solar Contenido Prefacio 5 Resumen ejecutivo 6 Introducción 7 Datos socioeconómicos 7 Geografía y clima de Guatemala 7 Las energías renovables en Guatemala 9 La situación energética del país 13 Balance de energía de Guatemala 13 Marco institucional del sub-sector eléctrico 14 Ministerio de Energía y Minas 14 Comisión Nacional de Energía 15 Administrador del Mercado Mayorista 15 Autoridad designada para los créditos de carbono 16 Marco regulatorio del sub-sector eléctrico 16 Ley general de electricidad 17 Ley de incentivos para el desarrollo de proyectos de energía renovable 17 Sistema eléctrico 17 Generación 17 Transporte 18 Distribución 19 Mercado eléctrico

215

Data:776691a8-8f15-4a1d-8750-9fc4b3d9132c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

91a8-8f15-4a1d-8750-9fc4b3d9132c 91a8-8f15-4a1d-8750-9fc4b3d9132c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Irrigation, Off Season Sector: Industrial Description: Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> << Previous

216

Data:02c3db94-dc82-47c7-8f9d-d4c57e9fc8ae | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4-dc82-47c7-8f9d-d4c57e9fc8ae 4-dc82-47c7-8f9d-d4c57e9fc8ae No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Large Load Voluntary Load Control Sector: Industrial Description: Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

217

Acoustic Telemetry Studies of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Survival at the Lower Columbia Projects in 2006  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct three studies using acoustic telemetry to estimate detection probabilities and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon at three hydropower projects on the lower Columbia River. The primary goals were to estimate detection and survival probabilities based on sampling with JSATS equipment, assess the feasibility of using JSATS for survival studies, and estimate sample sizes needed to obtain a desired level of precision in future studies. The 2006 JSATS arrays usually performed as well or better than radio telemetry arrays in the JDA and TDA tailwaters, and underperformed radio arrays in the BON tailwater, particularly in spring. Most of the probabilities of detection on at least one of all arrays in a tailwater exceeded 80% for each method, which was sufficient to provide confidence in survival estimates. The probability of detection on one of three arrays includes survival and detection probabilities because fish may die or pass all three arrays undetected but alive.

Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; McComas, Roy L.

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Data:43b429eb-2d1c-4b3f-91e7-f5a71dda9dae | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9eb-2d1c-4b3f-91e7-f5a71dda9dae 9eb-2d1c-4b3f-91e7-f5a71dda9dae No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Effective date: 2012/05/01 End date if known: Rate name: Small Commercial, Single-Phase Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: Rate binder # 4(Illinios State University) Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous 1 2 3 Next >>

219

Modeling of CBM production, CO{sub 2} injection, and tracer movement at a field CO{sub 2} sequestration site  

SciTech Connect

Sequestration of carbon dioxide in unmineable coal seams is a potential technology mainly because of the potential for simultaneous enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM). Several pilot tests have been performed around the globe leading to mixed results. Numerous modeling efforts have been carried out successfully to model methane production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Sensitivity analyses and history matching along with several optimization tools were used to estimate reservoir properties and to investigate reservoir performance. Geological and geophysical techniques have also been used to characterize field sequestration sites and to inspect reservoir heterogeneity. The fate and movement of injected CO{sub 2} can be determined by using several monitoring techniques. Monitoring of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers is one of these monitoring technologies. As a part of this monitoring technique, a small fraction of a traceable fluid is added to the injection wellhead along with the CO{sub 2} stream at different times to monitor the timing and location of the breakthrough in nearby monitoring wells or offset production wells. A reservoir modeling study was performed to simulate a pilot sequestration site located in the San Juan coal basin of northern New Mexico. Several unknown reservoir properties at the field site were estimated by modeling the coal seam as a dual porosity formation and by history matching the methane production and CO{sub 2} injection. In addition to reservoir modeling of methane production and CO{sub 2} injection, tracer injection was modeled. Tracers serve as a surrogate for determining potential leakage of CO{sub 2}. The tracer was modeled as a non-reactive gas and was injected into the reservoir as a mixture along with CO{sub 2}. Geologic and geometric details of the field site, numerical modeling details of methane production, CO{sub 2} injection, and tracer injection are presented in this paper. Moreover, the numerical predictions of the tracer arrival times were compared with the measured field data. Results show that tracer modeling is useful in investigating movement of injected CO{sub 2} into the coal seam at the field site. Also, such new modeling techniques can be utilized to determine potential leakage pathways, and to investigate reservoir anisotropy and heterogeneity.

Siriwardane, Hema J.; Bowes, Benjamin D.; Bromhal, Grant S.; Gondle, Raj K.; Wells, Arthur W.; Strazisar, Brian R.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

MULTI - TRACER CONTROL ROOM AIR INLEAKAGE PROTOCOL AND SIMULATED PRIMARY AND EXTENDED MULTI - ZONE RESULTS.  

SciTech Connect

The perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology can be applied simultaneously to the wide range in zonal flowrates (from tens of cfms in some Control Rooms to almost 1,000,000 cfm in Turbine Buildings), to achieve the necessary uniform tagging for subsequent determination of the desired air inleakage and outleakage from all zones surrounding a plant's Control Room (CR). New types of PFT sources (Mega sources) were devised and tested to handle the unusually large flowrates in a number of HVAC zones in power stations. A review of the plans of a particular nuclear power plant and subsequent simulations of the tagging and sampling results confirm that the technology can provide the necessary concentration measurement data to allow the important ventilation pathways involving the Control Room and its air flow communications with all adjacent zones to be quantitatively determined with minimal uncertainty. Depending on need, a simple single or 3-zone scheme (involving the Control Room alone or along with the Aux. Bldg. and Turbine Bldg.) or a more complex test involving up to 7 zones simultaneously can be accommodated with the current revisions to the technology; to test all the possible flow pathways, several different combinations of up to 7 zones would need to be run. The potential exists that for an appropriate investment, in about 2 years, it would be possible to completely evaluate an entire power plant in a single extended multizone test with up to 12 to 13 separate HVAC zones. With multiple samplers in the Control Room near each of the contiguous zones, not only will the prevalent inleakage or outleakage zones be documented, but the particular location of the pathway's room of ingress can be identified. The suggested protocol is to perform a 3-zone test involving the Control Room, Aux. Bldg., and Turbine Bldg. to (1) verify CR total inleakage and (2) proportion that inleakage to distinguish that from the other 2 major buildings and any remaining untagged locations. These results would then direct the next subsequent tests. Final results would point to where mitigation steps should be initiated. Protocols for repeat testing as well as long term continual testing are suggested.

DIETZ,R.N.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bons hfcs perfluorocarbons" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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221

Desalination utilizing clathrate hydrates (LDRD final report).  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advances are reported in several aspects of clathrate hydrate desalination fundamentals necessary to develop an economical means to produce municipal quantities of potable water from seawater or brackish feedstock. These aspects include the following, (1) advances in defining the most promising systems design based on new types of hydrate guest molecules, (2) selection of optimal multi-phase reactors and separation arrangements, and, (3) applicability of an inert heat exchange fluid to moderate hydrate growth, control the morphology of the solid hydrate material formed, and facilitate separation of hydrate solids from concentrated brine. The rate of R141b hydrate formation was determined and found to depend only on the degree of supercooling. The rate of R141b hydrate formation in the presence of a heat exchange fluid depended on the degree of supercooling according to the same rate equation as pure R141b with secondary dependence on salinity. Experiments demonstrated that a perfluorocarbon heat exchange fluid assisted separation of R141b hydrates from brine. Preliminary experiments using the guest species, difluoromethane, showed that hydrate formation rates were substantial at temperatures up to at least 12 C and demonstrated partial separation of water from brine. We present a detailed molecular picture of the structure and dynamics of R141b guest molecules within water cages, obtained from ab initio calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, and Raman spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations were used to provide an energetic and molecular orbital description of R141b stability in both large and small cages in a structure II hydrate. Additionally, the hydrate of an isomer, 1,2-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, does not form at ambient conditions because of extensive overlap of electron density between guest and host. Classical molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory trials support the results for the isomer hydrate. Molecular dynamics simulations show that R141b hydrate is stable at temperatures up to 265K, while the isomer hydrate is only stable up to 150K. Despite hydrogen bonding between guest and host, R141b molecules rotated freely within the water cage. The Raman spectrum of R141b in both the pure and hydrate phases was also compared with vibrational analysis from both computational methods. In particular, the frequency of the C-Cl stretch mode (585 cm{sup -1}) undergoes a shift to higher frequency in the hydrate phase. Raman spectra also indicate that this peak undergoes splitting and intensity variation as the temperature is decreased from 4 C to -4 C.

Simmons, Blake Alexander; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Greathouse, Jeffery A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Majzoub, Eric H. (University of Missouri, Columbia, MO)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately reflect year to year changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index changes

Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

PROOF OF CONCEPT TEST OF A UNIQUE GASEOUS PERFLUROCARBON TRACER SYSTEM FOR VERIFICATION AND LONG TERM MONITORING OF CAPS AND COVER SYSTEMS CONDUCTED AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE BENTONITE MAT TEST FACILITY.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Engineered covers have been placed on top of buried/subsurface wastes to minimize water infiltration and therefore, release of hazardous contaminants. In order for the cover to protect the environment it must remain free of holes and breaches throughout its service life. Covers are subject to subsidence, erosion, animal intrusion, plant root infiltration, etc., all of which will affect the overall performance of the cover. The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Program 2006 Accelerated Cleanup Plan is pushing for rapid closure of many of the DOE facilities. This will require a great number of new cover systems. Some of these new covers are expected to maintain their performance for periods of up to 1000 years. Long-term stewardship will require monitoring/verification of cover performance over the course of the designed lifetime. In addition, many existing covers are approaching the end of their design life and will need validation of current performance (if continued use is desired) or replacement (if degraded). The need for a reliable method of verification and long-term monitoring is readily apparent. Currently, failure is detected through monitoring wells downstream of the waste site. This is too late as the contaminants have already left the disposal area. The proposed approach is the use of gaseous Perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) to verify and monitor cover performance. It is believed that PFTs will provide a technology that can verify a cover meets all performance objectives upon installation, be capable of predicting changes in cover performance and failure (defined as contaminants leaving the site) before it happens, and be cost-effective in supporting stewardship needs. The PFTs are injected beneath the cover and air samples taken above (either air samples or soil gas samples) at the top of the cover. The location, concentrations, and time of arrival of the tracer(s) provide a direct measure of cover performance. PFT technology can be used as a non-invasive method (if injection ports are emplaced prior to cover emplacement) on new covers or a minimally invasive method on existing covers. PFT verification will be useful at all buried waste sites using a cover system (e.g., treated or untreated chemical waste landfills) including DOE, commercial, and private sector sites. This paper discusses the initial field trial of the PFT cover monitoring system performed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in FY01. The experiments provided a successful proof-of-principle test of the PFT technology in monitoring caps and covers. An injection and sampling array was installed in the Bentomat test cap at the SRS Caps Test Facility. This system contained 6 feet of sandy soil beneath a 1/2 inch geosynthetic clay liner covered by an HDPE liner which was covered by 2 feet of clayey top soil. PFTs were injected into the sandy soil though a pre-existing system of access pipes below the cap and soil gas samples were taken on top of the cap. Mid-way into the injection period a series of 1 1/2 inch holes were punched into the cap (through the geomembrane) to provide a positive breach in the cap. Data will be presented that shows the initial cap was fairly tight and leak free and that the artificially induced leaks were detectable within two hours of occurrence.

HEISER,J.; SULLIVAN,T.; SERRATO,M.

2002-02-24T23:59:59.000Z