National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for bone marrow cells

  1. Mandible versus Long Bone Marrow Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaichanasakul, Thawinee

    2012-01-01

    3-3 microCT analysis of gelatin sponge seeded with long boneFigure 3-4 H&E staining of gelatin sponge seeded with longprocess (Djagny et al. 2001). Gelatin- based sponge prepared

  2. Discovery of novel anti-inflammatory proteins inspired by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell secretions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milwid, Jack Miles

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may soon become the first FDA-approved stem cell therapy for autoimmune and inflammatory disease. Our lab originally hypothesized that much of the therapeutic activity of MSCs may ...

  3. Self-assembling peptide hydrogels modulate in vitro chondrogenesis of bovine bone marrow stromal cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopesky, Paul Wayne

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis that self-assembling peptide hydrogel scaffolds provide cues that enhance the chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). BMSCs were encapsulated within two ...

  4. Bone Marrow Stem Cell Derived Paracrine Factors for Regenerative Medicine: Current Perspectives and Therapeutic Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burdon, Tom J.; Paul, Arghya; Noiseux, Nicolas; Prakash, Satya; Shum-Tim, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    During the past several years, there has been intense research in the field of bone marrow-derived stem cell (BMSC) therapy to facilitate its translation into clinical setting. Although a lot has been accomplished, plenty of challenges lie ahead...

  5. Cellular and molecular immunotherapeutics derived from the bone marrow stroma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parekkadan, Biju

    2008-01-01

    The bone marrow contains a multipotent stromal cell, commonly referred to as a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). There has been recent interest in the clinical use of MSCs for cell-based therapy because: (1) bone marrow aspiration ...

  6. Intra-arterial Autologous Bone Marrow Cell Transplantation in a Patient with Upper-extremity Critical Limb Ischemia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madaric, Juraj; Klepanec, Andrej; Mistrik, Martin; Altaner, Cestmir; Vulev, Ivan

    2013-04-15

    Induction of therapeutic angiogenesis by autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation has been identified as a potential new option in patients with advanced lower-limb ischemia. There is little evidence of the benefit of intra-arterial cell application in upper-limb critical ischemia. We describe a patient with upper-extremity critical limb ischemia with digital gangrene resulting from hypothenar hammer syndrome successfully treated by intra-arterial autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation.

  7. Noninvasive and quantitative evaluation of bone marrow infiltration and bone marrow microcirculation in patients with monoclonal plasma cell disease by means of diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gertz, Michael

    .0001) and D (p study clearly shows that bone marrow infiltrationRajiv Shah Dr. med. Noninvasive and quantitative evaluation of bone marrow infiltration and bone diseases. The response to treatment is evaluated mostly on the basis of hematologic parameters. This study

  8. Enhancement of bone marrow allografts from nude mice into mismatched recipients by T cells void of graft-versus-host activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapidot, T.; Lubin, I.; Terenzi, A.; Faktorowich, Y.; Erlich, P.; Reisner, Y. (Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel))

    1990-06-01

    Transplantation of 8 x 10(6) C57BL/6-Nu+/Nu+ (nude) bone marrow cells into C3H/HeJ recipients after conditioning with 8 Gy of total body irradiation has resulted in a markedly higher rate of graft rejection or graft failure compared to that found in recipients of normal C57BL/6 or C57BL/6-Bg+/Bg+ (beige) T-cell-depleted bone marrow. Mixing experiments using different numbers of nude bone marrow cells with or without mature thymocytes (unagglutinated by peanut agglutinin) revealed that engraftment of allogeneic T-cell-depleted bone marrow is T-cell dependent. To ensure engraftment, a large inoculum of nude bone marrow must be supplemented with a trace number of donor T cells, whereas a small bone marrow dose from nude donors requires a much larger number of T cells for engraftment. Marked enhancement of donor type chimerism was also found when F1 thymocytes were added to nude bone marrow cells, indicating that the enhancement of bone marrow engraftment by T cells is not only mediated by alloreactivity against residual host cells but may rather be generated by growth factors, the release of which may require specific interactions between T cells and stem cells or between T cells and bone marrow stroma cells.

  9. Chip-Based Comparison of the Osteogenesis of Human Bone Marrow- and Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells under Mechanical Stimulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Hyug

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are considered as an attractive stem cell source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We compared human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and hASCs ...

  10. Comparative study of the chondrogenic potential of human bone marrow stromal cells, neonatal chondrocytes and adult chondrocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saha, Sushmita; Kirkham, Jennifer; NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leeds, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds LS74SA ; Wood, David; Curran, Stephen; Yang, Xuebin; NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, University of Leeds, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds LS74SA

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} This study has characterised three different cell types under conditions similar to those used for autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) for applications in cartilage repair/regeneration. {yields} Compared for the first time the chondrogenic potential of neonatal chondrocytes with human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) and adult chondrocytes. {yields} Demonstrated that adult chondrocytes hold greatest potential for use in ACI based on their higher proliferation rates, lower alkaline phosphatise activity and enhanced expression of chondrogenic genes. {yields} Demonstrated the need for chondroinduction as a necessary pre-requisite to efficient chondrogenesis in vitro and, by extrapolation, for cell based therapy (e.g. ACI or cartilage tissue engineering). -- Abstract: Cartilage tissue engineering is still a major clinical challenge with optimisation of a suitable source of cells for cartilage repair/regeneration not yet fully addressed. The aims of this study were to compare and contrast the differences in chondrogenic behaviour between human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs), human neonatal and adult chondrocytes to further our understanding of chondroinduction relative to cell maturity and to identify factors that promote chondrogenesis and maintain functional homoeostasis. Cells were cultured in monolayer in either chondrogenic or basal medium, recapitulating procedures used in existing clinical procedures for cell-based therapies. Cell doubling time, morphology and alkaline phosphatase specific activity (ALPSA) were determined at different time points. Expression of chondrogenic markers (SOX9, ACAN and COL2A1) was compared via real time polymerase chain reaction. Amongst the three cell types studied, HBMSCs had the highest ALPSA in basal culture and lowest ALPSA in chondrogenic media. Neonatal chondrocytes were the most proliferative and adult chondrocytes had the lowest ALPSA in basal media. Gene expression analysis revealed a difference in the temporal expression of chondrogenic markers which were up regulated in chondrogenic medium compared to levels in basal medium. Of the three cell types studied, adult chondrocytes offer a more promising cell source for cartilage tissue engineering. This comparative study revealed differences between the microenvironment of all three cell types and provides useful information to inform cell-based therapies for cartilage regeneration.

  11. A Novel Inverse Finite Element Analysis to Assess Bone Fracture Healing in Mice Receiving Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miga, Michael I.

    A Novel Inverse Finite Element Analysis to Assess Bone Fracture Healing in Mice Receiving Bone generation, and an iterative optimization (using finite element analysis) of the fracture callus material approach includes acquisition of microCT image volumes, biomechanical testing, finite element mesh

  12. Effects of matrix metalloproteinase-1 on the myogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Zhenyang [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province (China)] [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province (China); Leng, Yan [Department of Rehabilitation, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province (China)] [Department of Rehabilitation, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province (China); Zhou, Chen; Ma, Zhenyu; Zhong, Zhigang [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province (China)] [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province (China); Shi, Xing-Ming [Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States)] [Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States); Zhang, Weixi, E-mail: weixizhang@qq.com [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province (China)] [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 58, Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, Guangdong Province (China)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MMP-1 is a member of the zinc-dependent endopeptidase family. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MMP-1 has no cytotoxic effects on BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MMP-1 can promote the myogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MyoD and desmin were chosen as myogenic markers in this study. -- Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) is a member of the family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are capable of degrading extracellular matrix (ECM) and certain non-matrix proteins. It has been shown that MMP-1 can enhance muscle regeneration by improving the differentiation and migration of myoblasts. However, it is still not known whether MMP-1 can promote the myogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). To address this question, we isolated BMSCs from C57BL/6J mice and investigated the effects of MMP-1 on their proliferation and myogenic differentiation. Our results showed that MMP-1 treatment, which had no cytotoxic effects on BMSCs, increased the mRNA and protein levels of MyoD and desmin in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that MMP-1 promoted myogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro. These results suggest that BMSCs may have a therapeutic potential for treating muscular disorders.

  13. Onset of heterogeneity in culture-expanded bone marrow stromal cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitfield, Matthew J.

    Inconsistencies among in vitro and in vivo experiments using adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) confound development of therapeutic, regenerative medicine applications, and in vitro expansion is typically required to ...

  14. Potential role of 20S proteasome in maintaining stem cell integrity of human bone marrow stromal cells in prolonged culture expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Li; Song, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Wei-Guo; Liu, Xue-Qin; Zhu, Qian; Cheng, Xiao-Long; Yang, Gui-Jiao; Li, Ang; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng; Monash Immunology and Stem Cell Laboratories, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne 3800

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prolonged culture expansion retards proliferation and induces senescence of hBMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduced 20S proteasomal activity and expression potentially contribute to cell aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132-mediated 20S proteasomal inhibition induces senescence-like phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 18{alpha}-GA stimulates proteasomal activity and restores replicative senescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 18{alpha}-GA retains differentiation without affecting stem cell characterizations. -- Abstract: Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) could be used in clinics as precursors of multiple cell lineages following proper induction. Such application is impeded by their characteristically short lifespan, together with the increasing loss of proliferation capability and progressive reduction of differentiation potential after the prolonged culture expansion. In the current study, we addressed the possible role of 20S proteasomes in this process. Consistent with prior reports, long-term in vitro expansion of hBMSCs decreased cell proliferation and increased replicative senescence, accompanied by reduced activity and expression of the catalytic subunits PSMB5 and PSMB1, and the 20S proteasome overall. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 produced a senescence-like phenotype in early passages, whereas treating late-passage cells with 18{alpha}-glycyrrhetinic acid (18{alpha}-GA), an agonist of 20S proteasomes, delayed the senescence progress, enhancing the proliferation and recovering the capability of differentiation. The data demonstrate that activation of 20S proteasomes assists in counteracting replicative senescence of hBMSCs expanded in vitro.

  15. Enrichment for CFU-C from murine and human bone marrow using soybean agglutinin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reisner, Y.; Kapoor, N.; Hodes, M.Z.; O'Reilly, R.J.; Good, R.A.

    1982-02-01

    Mouse bone marrow and spleen cells agglutinated by soybean agglutinin (SBA) or peanut agglutinin (PNA) were previously shown to be enriched for spleen colony-forming cells (CFU-S) and sufficiently depleted of graft-versus-host reaction producing cells to allow hematologic reconstitution of lethally irradiated allogeneic recipient mice. A similar enrichment for cells capable of forming colonies in soft agar culture (CFU-C) has now been found in the SBA-agglutinated fraction of mouse bone marrow cells, in contrast to the finding that in human bone marrow the majority of the CFU-C are in the fraction not agglutinated by SBA. Cytofluorometric studies with fluorescein-labeled SBA (FITC-SBA) revealed that the majority of both mouse and human bone marrow cells bind the lectin. Experiments mixing the human marrow fractions separated by SBA reveal that true enrichment for CFU-C is achieved in the unagglutinated fraction, as opposed to a possible depletion of a suppressor cell population. Granulocytic, monocytic, and mixed cell colonies were all enriched in the SBA-unagglutinated cell fraction from human bone marrow.

  16. Phenotypic characterization of early events of thymus repopulation in radiation bone marrow chimeras

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharrow, S.O.; Singer, A.; Hammerling, U.; Mathieson, B.J.

    1983-04-01

    The phenotype of murine thymocytes repopulating the thymus of radiation bone marrow chimeras shortly after irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution was analyzed by immunofluorescence and flow microfluorometry. Thymuses in these chimeras, while essentially devoid of lymphoid cells at day 7, were repopulated by days 10 to 12 after irradiation. It was found that this initial repopulation arose from a radioresistant intrathymic precursor that expanded to an almost complete complement of host-type thymocytes. However, these host-derived thymocytes were unusual in that they were relatively deficient in Lyt 1+2- and peanut agglutinin ''dull'' cells as compared with normal thymocytes. Donor bone-marrow-derived cells first appeared in the irradiated chimeric thymuses between days 12 and 15 after irradiation and bone marrow transfer. By day 19, chimeric thymuses contained more than 98% donor cells. This course was identical for three chimeric combinations, each made across different genetic barriers. In contrast to the cells that populate the fetal thymus during normal ontogeny, the first donor bone-marrow-derived cells that can be detected within the irradiated chimeric thymuses already expressed phenotypically normal adult T cell subpopulations in that they contained significant numbers both of Lyt 1+2- and of Lyt 1+2+ thymocytes. Thus, the Lyt phenotype of donor cells that initially repopulate an adult thymus after irradiation is markedly different from the Lyt phenotype of cells that initially populate the fetal thymus. The differences between adult and fetal thymic development that are observed in radiation bone marrow chimeras may be important in our understanding of T cell differentiation in these animals.

  17. Study on proliferative responses to host Ia antigens in allogeneic bone marrow chimera in mice: sequential analysis of the reactivity and characterization of the cells involved in the responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwabuchi, K.; Ogasawara, K.; Ogasawara, M.; Yasumizu, R.; Noguchi, M.; Geng, L.; Fujita, M.; Good, R.A.; Onoe, K.

    1987-01-01

    Irradiation bone marrow chimeras were established by reconstitution of lethally irradiated AKR mice with C57BL/10 marrow cells to permit serial analysis of the developing reactivities of lymphocytes from such chimeras, (B10----AKR), against donor, host, or third party antigens. We found that substantial proliferative responses to Ia antigens of the recipient strain and also to third party antigens were generated by the thymocytes obtained from the irradiation chimeras at an early stage after bone marrow reconstitution. The majority of the responding thymocytes had surfaces lacking demonstrable peanut agglutinin receptors and were donor type Thy-1+, Ly-2-, and L3T4+ in both anti-recipient and anti-third party MLR. In anti-host responses, however, Ly-2+ thymocytes seemed to be at least partially involved. This capacity of thymus cells to mount a response to antigens of the recipient strain declined shortly thereafter, whereas the capacity to mount MLR against third party antigens persisted. The spleen cells of (B10----AKR) chimeras at the same time developed a more durable capability to exhibit anti-host reactivities and a permanent capability of reacting to third party allo-antigens. The stimulator antigens were Ia molecules on the stimulator cells in both anti-recipient and anti-third party MLR. The responding splenocytes were of donor origin and most of them had Thy-1+, Ly-1+2-, and L3T4+ phenotype.

  18. HEMATOPOIESIS Soluble factor cross-talk between human bone marrow-derived hematopoietic and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    HEMATOPOIESIS Soluble factor cross-talk between human bone marrow-derived hematopoietic BM-derived progenitors and the balance between these compartments. Factorial experiments demonstrated45 ) and nonhematopoietic (CD45 ) cells, as well as their derivatives. Kinetic tracking of IL-3

  19. Donor-Derived, Liver-Specific Protein Expression after Bone Marrow Transplantation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    Donor-Derived, Liver-Specific Protein Expression after Bone Marrow Transplantation D. Denison mechanism to deliver a functional gene to a deficient liver. Bone marrow-derived hepatocytes are rare to treat liver disease is unclear. We sought to quantify bone marrow-derived hepatocyte protein expression

  20. CX3CR1 Is Expressed by Prostate Epithelial Cells and Androgens Regulate the Levels of CX3CL1/Fractalkine in the Bone Marrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fatatis, Alessandro

    CX3CR1 Is Expressed by Prostate Epithelial Cells and Androgens Regulate the Levels of CX3CL1 human osteoblasts in vitro. Thus, the interaction of fractalkine with its receptor CX3CR1 could play a crucial role in vivo by directing circulating prostate cancer cells to the bone. We found that although CX

  1. Anti-CD45 radioimmunotherapy using 211At with bone marrow transplantation prolongs survival in a disseminated murine leukemia model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orozco, Johnnie J.; Back, Tom; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Balkin, Ethan R.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.; Frayo, Shani; Hylarides, Mark; Green, Damian J.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.

    2013-05-15

    Anti-CD45 Radioimmunotherapy using an Alpha-Emitting Radionuclide 211At Combined with Bone Marrow Transplantation Prolongs Survival in a Disseminated Murine Leukemia Model ABSTRACT Despite aggressive chemotherapy combined with hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using antibodies (Ab) labeled primarily with beta-emitting radionuclides has been explored to reduce relapse.

  2. Abrogation of hybrid resistance to bone marrow engraftment by graft versus host induced immune deficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakim, F.T.; Shearer, G.M.

    1986-03-01

    Lethally irradiated F/sub 1/ mice, heterozygous at the hematopoietic histocompatibility (Hh) locus at H-2D/sup b/, reject bone marrow grafts from homozygous H-2/sup b/ parents. This hybrid resistance (HR) is reduced by prior injection of H-2/sup b/ parental spleen cells. Since injection of parental spleen cells produces a profound suppression of F/sub 1/ immune functions, the authors investigated whether parental-induced abrogation of HR was due to graft-vs-host induced immune deficiency (GVHID). HR was assessed by quantifying engraftment in irradiated mice using /sup 125/I-IUdR spleen uptake; GVHID by measuring generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) from unirradiated mice. They observed correlation in time course, spleen dose dependence and T cell dependence between GVHID and loss of HR. The injection of B10 recombinant congenic spleens into (B10 x B10.A) F/sub 1/ mice, prior to grafting with B10 marrow, demonstrated that only those disparities in major histocompatibility antigens which generated GVHID would result in loss of HR. Spleens from (B10 x B10.A(2R))F/sub 1/ mice (Class I disparity only) did not induce GVHID or affect HR, while (B10 x B10.A(5R)F/sub 1/ spleens (Class I and II disparity) abrogated CTL generation and HR completely. GVHID produced by a Class II only disparity, as in (B10 x B10.A(5R))F/sub 1/ spleens injected into (B6/sup bm12 x B10.A(5R))F/sub 1/ mice, was also sufficient to markedly reduce HR to B10 bone marrow. Modulation of hematopoietic graft rejection by GVHID may affect marrow engraftment in man.

  3. L-type calcium channels play a crucial role in the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Li [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)] [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Wang, Yu [Department of Oncology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)] [Department of Oncology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Wang, Huan [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)] [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Kong, Lingmin [Department of Fundamental Medicine, Cell Engineering Research Centre, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)] [Department of Fundamental Medicine, Cell Engineering Research Centre, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Zhang, Liang [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)] [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China); Chen, Xin [Department of General Dentistry, The 174th Hospital of Chinese PLA, Xiamen 361003 (China)] [Department of General Dentistry, The 174th Hospital of Chinese PLA, Xiamen 361003 (China); Ding, Yin, E-mail: dingyin@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)] [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032 (China)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detect the functional Ca{sup 2+} currents and mRNA expression of VDCC{sub L} in rMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blockage of VDCC{sub L} exert antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on rMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibiting VDCC{sub L} can suppress the ability of rMSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}1C of VDCC{sub L} may be a primary functional subunit in VDCC{sub L}-regulating rMSCs. -- Abstract: L-type voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} channels (VDCC{sub L}) play an important role in the maintenance of intracellular calcium homeostasis, and influence multiple cellular processes. They have been confirmed to contribute to the functional activities of osteoblasts. Recently, VDCC{sub L} expression was reported in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but the role of VDCC{sub L} in MSCs is still undetermined. The aim of this study was to determine whether VDCC{sub L} may be regarded as a new regulator in the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat MSC (rMSCs). In this study, we examined functional Ca{sup 2+} currents (I{sub Ca}) and mRNA expression of VDCC{sub L} in rMSCs, and then suppressed VDCC{sub L} using nifedipine (Nif), a VDCC{sub L} blocker, to investigate its role in rMSCs. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs were analyzed by MTT, flow cytometry, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alizarin Red S staining, RT-PCR, and real-time PCR assays. We found that Nif exerts antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on rMSCs. ALP activity and mineralized nodules were significantly decreased after Nif treatment. Moreover, the mRNA levels of the osteogenic markers, osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), were also down-regulated. In addition, we transfected {alpha}1C-siRNA into the cells to further confirm the role of VDCC{sub L} in rMSCs, and a similar effect on osteogenesis was found. These results suggest that VDCC{sub L} plays a crucial role in the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs.

  4. Microfluidic purification and analysis of hematopoietic stem cells from bone Romana Schirhagl,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Microfluidic purification and analysis of hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow Romana to separate them from a whole-marrow sample. A microfluidic device was fabricated using an integrated membrane are restricted by the limited availability of stem cell sources.2,3 We believe that microfluidics can be used

  5. Mandible versus Long Bone Marrow Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaichanasakul, Thawinee

    2012-01-01

    et al. 1989; Lerner 2006; Mavropoulos et al. 2007). However,the proximal tibia (Mavropoulos et al. 2007). In addition,during mastication (Mavropoulos et al. 2004). In fact,

  6. SU-E-J-250: A Methodology for Active Bone Marrow Protection for Cervical Cancer Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Using 18F-FLT PET/CT Image

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, C; Yin, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare a radiation therapy treatment planning that would spare active bone marrow and whole pelvic bone marrow using 18F FLT PET/CT image. Methods: We have developed an IMRT planning methodology to incorporate functional PET imaging using 18F FLT/CT scans. Plans were generated for two cervical cancer patients, where pelvicactive bone marrow region was incorporated as avoidance regions based on the range: SUV>2., another region was whole pelvic bone marrow. Dose objectives were set to reduce the volume of active bone marrow and whole bone marraw. The volumes of received 10 (V10) and 20 (V20) Gy for active bone marrow were evaluated. Results: Active bone marrow regions identified by 18F FLT with an SUV>2 represented an average of 48.0% of the total osseous pelvis for the two cases studied. Improved dose volume histograms for identified bone marrow SUV volumes and decreases in V10(average 18%), and V20(average 14%) were achieved without clinically significant changes to PTV or OAR doses. Conclusion: Incorporation of 18F FLT/CT PET in IMRT planning provides a methodology to reduce radiation dose to active bone marrow without compromising PTV or OAR dose objectives in cervical cancer.

  7. The Influence of Running on Patellar Water Content and Bone Marrow Edema in Females with and without Patellofemoral , H. H. Hu2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    The Influence of Running on Patellar Water Content and Bone Marrow Edema in Females marrow water content changes in individuals with and without PFP. To accomplish this goal, we used the water content of the images measured. Equation 2 was used to estimate the water volume of local BME. Eq

  8. Murine retroviral bone marrow transplantation models for the study of human myeloproliferative disorders.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavrilescu, L Cristina; Van Etten, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    forceps Bone rongeurs Styrofoam dissecting board 21-Gthe animal’s feet to a Styrofoam dissecting board with 21-G

  9. Drilling and Microfracture Lead to Different Bone Structure and Necrosis during Bone-Marrow Stimulation for Cartilage Repair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buschmann, Michael

    Drilling and Microfracture Lead to Different Bone Structure and Necrosis during Bone following microfracture and comparing to drilling in a mature rabbit model of cartilage repair. Microfracture holes were made to a depth of 2 mm and drill holes to either 2 mm or 6 mm under cooled irrigation

  10. Adipose-Derived Perivascular Stem Cells Heal Critical Size Mouse Calvarial Defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Megerdichian, Silva

    2013-01-01

    stromal  cells  derived  from  the  infrapatellar  fat  C.  M.   et  al.  Adipose-­?derived  adult  stromal  cells  Human  bone  marrow-­? derived  mesenchymal  stem  cells  

  11. PPARs in Bone: The Role in Bone Cell Differentiation and Regulation of Energy Metabolism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toledo, University of

    PPARs in Bone: The Role in Bone Cell Differentiation and Regulation of Energy Metabolism Beata of bone homeostasis and energy metabolism. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) represent a family of proteins that control energy turnover in adipose, liver, and muscle tissue. These proteins also

  12. Very late nonfatal consequences of fractionated TBI in children undergoing bone marrow transplant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faraci, Maura; Cohen, Amnon; Lanino, Edoardo; Sacco, Oliviero; Cabria, Manlio; De Marco, Riccardo; Stella, Gilberto; Dallorso, Sandro; Vitale, Vito; Dini, Giorgio

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To describe long-term late consequences in children who received total body irradiation (TBI) for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 10 years earlier. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 42 children treated with TBI between 1985 and 1993, still alive at least 10 years after fractionated TBI (FTBI), was evaluated. Twenty-five patients received FTBI at 330 cGy/day for 3 days (total dose 990 cGy), whereas 17 children were administered fractions of 200 cGy twice daily for 3 days (total dose 1200 cGy). Twenty-seven patients received autologous and 16 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Median age at TBI was 6.3 years, and 18.4 years at most recent follow-up. Results: Cataract was diagnosed in 78% of patients after a median of 5.7 years. Hypothyroidism was detected in 12%, whereas thyroid nodules were observed in 60% of our population after a median interval of 10.2 years. Patients treated with 990 cGy developed thyroid nodules more frequently than those treated with 1200 cGy (p = 0.0002). Thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed in 14% of the total population. Females who received FTBI after menarche more frequently developed temporary ovarian dysfunction than those treated before menarche, but cases of persistent ovarian dysfunction did not differ between the two groups. Indirect signs of germinal testicular dysfunction were detected in 87% of males. Restrictive pulmonary disease was observed in 74% of patients. Osteochondroma was found in 29% of patients after a median interval of 9.2 years. This latter complication appeared more frequently in patients irradiated before the age of 3 years (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study shows that late effects that are likely permanent, although not fatal, are frequent in survivors 10 years after TBI. However, some of the side effects observed shortly after TBI either disappeared or remained unchanged without signs of evolution. Monitoring is recommended to pursue secondary prevention strategies and counseling on family planning.

  13. Transgenic mice that express the human multidrug-resistance gene in bone marrow enable a rapid identification of agents that reverse drug resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickisch, G.H.; Merlino, G.T.; Galski, H.; Gottesman, M.M.; Pastan, I. )

    1991-01-15

    The development of preclinical models for the rapid testing of agents that circumvent multidrug resistance in cancer is a high priority of research on drug resistance. A common form of multidrug resistance in human cancer results from expression of the MDR1 gene, which encodes a M{sub r} 170,000 glycoprotein that functions as a plasma membrane energy-dependent multidrug efflux pump. The authors have engineered transgenic mice that express this multidrug transporter in their bone marrow and demonstrated that these animals are resistant to leukopenia by a panel of anticancer drugs including anthracyclines, vinca alkaloids, etoposide, taxol, and actinomycin D. Differential leukocyte counts indicate that both neutrophils and lympohcytes are pretected. Drugs such as cisplatin, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil, which are not handled by the multidrug transporter, produce bone marrow suppression in both normal and transgenic mice. The resistance conferred by the MDR1 gene can be circumvented in a dose-dependent manner by simultaneous administration of agents previously shown to be inhibitors of the multidrug transporter in vitro, including verapamil isomers, quinidine, and quinine. They conclude that MDR1-transgenic mice provide a rapid and reliable system to determine the bioactivity of agents that reverse multidrug resistance in animals.

  14. Fetal liver hepatic progenitors are supportive stromal cells for hematopoietic stem cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, Song

    Previously we showed that the ~2% of fetal liver cells reactive with an anti-CD3? monoclonal antibody support ex vivo expansion of both fetal liver and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); these cells express two ...

  15. STEM CELLS A CLOSER DIFFERENT KINDS OF STEM CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brutlag, Doug

    STEM CELLS ­ A CLOSER LOOK John Sun Bio 118Q #12;DIFFERENT KINDS OF STEM CELLS Embryonic Stem Cells Adult Stem Cells From Bone Marrow: Mesenchymal stem cells Haematopoietic stem cells Endothelial stem cells Induced Pluripotent Cells Mammary, Testicular, Neural, Dental, Umbilical cord, etc

  16. Notch signalling pathway in murine embryonic stem cell derived haematopoiesis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Caoxin

    2013-07-06

    Haematopoiesis is the process to produce haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), haematopoietic progenitors (HPCs) and terminally differentiated cell types. In the adult, HSCs resided in bone marrow while in the embryo, ...

  17. PDGFBB promotes PDGFR{alpha}-positive cell migration into artificial bone in vivo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Shigeyuki; Center for Human Metabolomic Systems Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Iwasaki, Ryotaro; Kawana, Hiromasa; Miyauchi, Yoshiteru; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582; Department of Integrated Bone Metabolism and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Hoshi, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Hiroya; Mori, Tomoaki; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Kanagawa, Hiroya; Katsuyama, Eri; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Hao, Wu; and others

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined effects of PDGFBB in PDGFR{alpha} positive cell migration in artificial bones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB was not expressed in osteoblastic cells but was expressed in peripheral blood cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB promoted PDGFR{alpha} positive cell migration into artificial bones but not osteoblast proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB did not inhibit osteoblastogenesis. -- Abstract: Bone defects caused by traumatic bone loss or tumor dissection are now treated with auto- or allo-bone graft, and also occasionally by artificial bone transplantation, particularly in the case of large bone defects. However, artificial bones often exhibit poor affinity to host bones followed by bony union failure. Thus therapies combining artificial bones with growth factors have been sought. Here we report that platelet derived growth factor bb (PDGFBB) promotes a significant increase in migration of PDGF receptor {alpha} (PDGFR{alpha})-positive mesenchymal stem cells/pre-osteoblastic cells into artificial bone in vivo. Growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF{beta}) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) reportedly inhibit osteoblast differentiation; however, PDGFBB did not exhibit such inhibitory effects and in fact stimulated osteoblast differentiation in vitro, suggesting that combining artificial bones with PDGFBB treatment could promote host cell migration into artificial bones without inhibiting osteoblastogenesis.

  18. Mineralization of Decalcified Bone Occurs Under Cell Culture Conditions and Requires Bovine Serum But Not Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Paul A.

    on the remineralization of demineralized bone in cell culture medium containing fetal bovine serum. Demineralized newborn to demineralization. Materials and Methods Materials Forty-day-old male rats (Sprague­Dawley-derived) were pur- chased

  19. Brief reports: Lysosomal cross-correction by hematopoietic stem cell-derived macrophages via tunneling nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    by Hematopoietic Stem Cell-Derived Macrophages Via Tunnelingwith primary macro- phages derived from Ctns 2/2 mice stablytransfer from bone-marrow-derived stromal cells to pulmonary

  20. Molecular mechanisms mediating retinal reactive gliosis following bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) transplantation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tassoni, Alessia; Gutteridge, Alex; Barber, Amanda C.; Osborne, Andrew; Martin, Keith R.

    2015-01-01

    suspension by 7 minute incubation in 0.1% trypsin (Sigma-Aldrich, Corp. UK) at 37°C. DNase 0.01% (D5025-15 ku, Sigma-Aldrich, Corp. UK) was added to the sample followed by centrifugation at 600g for 5 minutes. The pellet was re-suspended in Mg2+/Ca2+ free...

  1. The effects of physiological age on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buckspan, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Sigma, catalog# FBS25) were added to the water and the tubeTechnology, catalog# 9803) was diluted with distilled waterSigma, catalog# A5533) was added to 10 mL of distilled water

  2. Affinity Flow Fractionation for label-free cell sorting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bose, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Capture and isolation of flowing cells from body fluids such as peripheral blood, bone marrow or pleural effusion has enormous implications in diagnosis, disease monitoring, and drug testing. However, in many situations ...

  3. Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Regulators of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gazit, Roi

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain blood homeostasis and are the functional units of bone marrow transplantation. To improve the molecular understanding of HSCs and their proximal progenitors, we performed transcriptome ...

  4. Targeting bone-microenvironment-tumour cell interactions : IGF-1 receptor kinase inhibitors. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logan, John Gordon

    2012-11-30

    Bone metastases are a frequent clinical complication associated with cancer. The aim of this PhD thesis was to set up a model system for the study of tumour cellbone cell interactions in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo and ...

  5. Microfluidic device for bone cell mechanobiology study The use of microfluidics provides many advantages for in vitro biological experiments over typical macro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milgram, Paul

    Microfluidic device for bone cell mechanobiology study The use of microfluidics provides many microfluidics to investigate real-time interactions of different bone cells while undergoing physiologically

  6. Use of the parabiotic model in studies of cutaneous wound healing to define the participation of circulating cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Guodong

    Previous experimental studies to assess the contribution of blood-borne circulating (BBC) cells to cutaneous wound healing have relied on discontinuous pulsing of labeled BBC elements or bone marrow transplant protocols. ...

  7. Engineered [beta]TCP-binding HER-family protein fusions and their use for improving osteoprogenitor- mediated bone regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivera Abreu, Jaime J. (Jaime Jose)

    2015-01-01

    Autologous bone marrow grafting has been shown to aid in the healing of bone defects since the 1950s. Transplantation of freshly-aspirated autologous bone marrow, together with a scaffold, is a promising clinical alternative ...

  8. Proteomic Study of Oral Cancer Stem-Like Cells and Bone Marrow Cell Treatment for Sjögren's Syndrome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misuno, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    the salivary gland function in NOD mice. Using quantitativedamaged salivary glands of NOD mice. REFERENCES Steiniger,of the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model for Sjögren

  9. Effect of arthroscopic cartilage defect repair with bone marrow derived cells on the lubricant properties of synovial fluid :

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissom, Murray J.

    2011-01-01

    of loading time and lubricant on the friction of articulararticular cartilage boundary lubricant. J Orthop Res, 2001.viscous, elastic and lubricant properties. J Phys, 1953.

  10. A Non-Contact Suspension Culture Approach to the Culture of Osteogenic Cells Derived from a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    ARTICLE A Non-Contact Suspension Culture Approach to the Culture of Osteogenic Cells Derived from a CD49elow Subpopulation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Dolores Baksh,1,2 Peter W. Zandstra,1 markers that can be used to identify BM-derived MSCs as mesenchymal stem cells, as described by Dominici

  11. Molecular substrate design for the selective adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of marrow connective tissue progenitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Au, Ada

    2005-01-01

    A multi-faceted approach was applied to the molecular design of substrates for the selective adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) from human bone marrow aspirates. The basic ...

  12. Prion Protein is Expressed on Long-term Repopulating Hematopoietic Stem Cells and is Necessary for their Self-renewal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lodish, Harvey F.

    We show that the prion protein (PrP) is expressed on the surface of bone marrow cell populations enriched in long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells. Affinity purification of the PrP-positive and PrP-negative ...

  13. Effects of cyclic stretch on proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells and their differentiation to smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghazanfari, Samane; National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran ; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2009-10-23

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types such as vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In this study, we investigated influence of cyclic stretch on proliferation of hMSCs for different loading conditions, alignment of actin filaments, and consequent differentiation to SMCs. Isolated cells from bone marrow were exposed to cyclic stretch utilizing a customized device. Cell proliferation was examined by MTT assay, alignment of actin fibers by a designed image processing code, and cell differentiation by fluorescence staining. Results indicated promoted proliferation of hMSCs by cyclic strain, enhanced by elevated strain amplitude and number of cycles. Such loading regulated smooth muscle {alpha}-actin, and reoriented actin fibers. Cyclic stretch led to differentiation of hMSCs to SMCs without addition of growth factor. It was concluded that applying appropriate loading treatment on hMSCs could enhance proliferation capability, and produce functional SMCs for engineered tissues.

  14. Reconstitution activity of hypoxic cultured human cord blood CD34-positive cells in NOG mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shima, Haruko; Takubo, Keiyo; Iwasaki, Hiroko; Yoshihara, Hiroki; Gomei, Yumiko; Hosokawa, Kentaro; Arai, Fumio; Takahashi, Takao; Suda, Toshio

    2009-01-16

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in hypoxic areas of the bone marrow. However, the role of hypoxia in the maintenance of HSCs has not been fully characterized. We performed xenotransplantation of human cord blood cells cultured in hypoxic or normoxic conditions into adult NOD/SCID/IL-2R{gamma}{sup null} (NOG) mice. Hypoxic culture (1% O{sub 2}) for 6 days efficiently supported the maintenance of HSCs, although cell proliferation was suppressed compared to the normoxic culture. In contrast, hypoxia did not affect in vitro colony-forming ability. Upregulation of a cell cycle inhibitor, p21, was observed in hypoxic culture. Immunohistochemical analysis of recipient bone marrow revealed that engrafted CD34{sup +}CD38{sup -} cord blood HSCs were hypoxic. Taken together, these results demonstrate the significance of hypoxia in the maintenance of quiescent human cord blood HSCs.

  15. In vitro and in vivo growth factor delivery to chondrocytes and bone-marrow-derived stromal cells in cartilage and in self-assembling peptide scaffolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Rachel E. (Rachel Elizabeth)

    2010-01-01

    The inability of articular cartilage to repair itself after acute injury has been implicated in the development of osteoarthritis. The objective of this work was to develop methods for delivering growth factors to cartilage ...

  16. The Use of Extracorporeal Shock Wave-Stimulated Periosteal Cells for Orthotopic Bone Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearney, Cathal J.

    The cambium cells of the periosteum, which are known osteoprogenitor cells, have limited suitability for clinical applications of tissue engineering in their native state due to their low cell number (2–5 cells thick). ...

  17. The Src homology 2 protein Shb promotes cell cycle progression in murine hematopoietic stem cells by regulation of focal adhesion kinase activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustafsson, Karin; Heffner, Garrett; Wenzel, Pamela L.; Curran, Matthew; Grawé, Jan; McKinney-Freeman, Shannon L.; Daley, George Q.; Welsh, Michael

    2013-07-15

    The widely expressed adaptor protein Shb has previously been reported to contribute to T cell function due to its association with the T cell receptor and furthermore, several of Shb's known interaction partners are established regulators of blood cell development and function. In addition, Shb deficient embryonic stem cells displayed reduced blood cell colony formation upon differentiation in vitro. The aim of the current study was therefore to explore hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function in the Shb knockout mouse. Shb deficient bone marrow contained reduced relative numbers of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) that exhibited lower proliferation rates. Despite this, Shb knockout LT-HSCs responded promptly by entering the cell cycle in response to genotoxic stress by 5-fluorouracil treatment. In competitive LT-HSC transplantations, Shb null cells initially engrafted as well as the wild-type cells but provided less myeloid expansion over time. Moreover, Shb knockout bone marrow cells exhibited elevated basal activities of focal adhesion kinase/Rac1/p21-activated kinase signaling and reduced responsiveness to Stem Cell Factor stimulation. Consequently, treatment with a focal adhesion kinase inhibitor increased Shb knockout LT-HSC proliferation. The altered signaling characteristics thus provide a plausible mechanistic explanation for the changes in LT-HSC proliferation since these signaling intermediates have all been shown to participate in LT-HSC cell cycle control. In summary, the loss of Shb dependent signaling in bone marrow cells, resulting in elevated focal adhesion kinase activity and reduced proliferative responses in LT-HSCs under steady state hematopoiesis, confers a disadvantage to the maintenance of LT-HSCs over time. -- Highlights: • Shb is an adaptor protein operating downstream of tyrosine kinase receptors. • Shb deficiency reduces hematopoietic stem cell proliferation. • The proliferative effect of Shb occurs via increased focal adhesion kinase activity. • Shb is critical for the long-term maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cell pool.

  18. Bone regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem cells on a micro-structured titanium processed by wire-type electric discharge machining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    A new strategy with bone tissue engineering by mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on titanium implant has been dawn attention. The surface scaffold properties of titanium surface play an important role in bone regenerative potential of cells. The surface topography and chemistry are postulated to be two major factors increasing the scaffold properties of titanium implants. This study aimed to evaluate the osteogenic gene expression of mesenchymal stem cells on titanium processed by wire-type electric discharge machining. Some amount of roughness and distinctive irregular features were observed on titanium processed by wire-type electric discharge machining. The thickness of suboxide layer was concomitantly grown during the processing. Since the thickness of oxide film and micro-topography allowed an improvement of mRNA expression of cells, titanium processed by wire-type electric discharge machining is a promising candidate for mesenchymal stem cell based functional restoration of implants.

  19. Self-assembling peptide hydrogels promote in vitro chondrogenesis of bone marrow-derived stromal cells : effects of peptide sequence, cell donor age, and method of growth factor delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopesky, Paul Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The inability of articular cartilage to heal after damage or disease has motivated investigation of novel cartilage tissue engineering technologies. The objective of this thesis was to advance the use of self-assembling ...

  20. Compositional and in Vitro Evaluation of Nonwoven Type I Collagen/Poly-dl-lactic Acid Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Xiangchen; Yang, Xuebin; Tronci, Giuseppe; Wood, David J

    2015-01-01

    Poly-dl-lactic acid (PDLLA) was blended with type I collagen to attempt to overcome the instantaneous gelation of electrospun collagen scaffolds in biological environments. Scaffolds based on blends of type I collagen and PDLLA were investigated for material stability in cell culture conditions (37 {\\deg}C; 5% CO2) in which post-electrospinning glutaraldehyde crosslinking was also applied. The resulting wet-stable webs were cultured with bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSC) for five weeks. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and biochemical assays were used to characterise the scaffolds and the consequent cell-scaffold constructs. To investigate any electrospinning-induced denaturation of collagen, identical PDLLA/collagen and PDLLA/gelatine blends were electrospun and their potential to promote osteogenic differentiation investigated. PDLLA/collagen blends with w/w ratios of 40/60, 60/40 and 80/20 resulted in satisfactory...

  1. Overexpression of Rac1 in leukemia patients and its role in leukemia cell migration and growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jiying; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wei, Hui; Xing, Haiyan; Liu, Hang; Wang, Yanzhong; Tang, Kejing; Peng, Leiwen; Tian, Zheng; Wang, Jianxiang

    2009-09-04

    Rac1 belongs to the Rho family that act as critical mediators of signaling pathways controlling cell migration and proliferation and contributes to the interactions of hematopoietic stem cells with their microenvironment. Alteration of Rac1 might result in unbalanced interactions and ultimately lead to leukemogenesis. In this study, we analyze the expression of Rac1 protein in leukemia patients and determine its role in the abnormal behaviours of leukemic cells. Rac1 protein is overexpressed in primary acute myeloid leukemia cells as compared to normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of Rac1 in leukemia cell lines induced inhibition of cell migration, proliferation, and colony formation. Additionally, blocking Rac1 activity by an inhibitor of Rac1-GTPase, NSC23766, suppressed cell migration and growth. We conclude that overexpression of Rac1 contributes to the accelerated migration and high proliferation potential of leukemia cells, which could be implicated in leukemia development and progression.

  2. Fibroblast growth factor 2 inhibits up-regulation of bone morphogenic proteins and their receptors during osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biver, Emmanuel, E-mail: ebiver@yahoo.fr [Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, University Lille North of France, Quai Masset, Bassin Napoleon, BP120, 62327 Boulogne sur Mer (France) [Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, University Lille North of France, Quai Masset, Bassin Napoleon, BP120, 62327 Boulogne sur Mer (France); Department of Rheumatology, Lille University Hospital, Roger Salengro Hospital, 59037 Lille cedex (France); Service of Bone Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine Specialties, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Soubrier, Anne-Sophie [Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, University Lille North of France, Quai Masset, Bassin Napoleon, BP120, 62327 Boulogne sur Mer (France) [Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, University Lille North of France, Quai Masset, Bassin Napoleon, BP120, 62327 Boulogne sur Mer (France); Department of Rheumatology, Lille University Hospital, Roger Salengro Hospital, 59037 Lille cedex (France); Thouverey, Cyril [Service of Bone Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine Specialties, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)] [Service of Bone Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine Specialties, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Cortet, Bernard [Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, University Lille North of France, Quai Masset, Bassin Napoleon, BP120, 62327 Boulogne sur Mer (France) [Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, University Lille North of France, Quai Masset, Bassin Napoleon, BP120, 62327 Boulogne sur Mer (France); Department of Rheumatology, Lille University Hospital, Roger Salengro Hospital, 59037 Lille cedex (France); Broux, Odile [Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, University Lille North of France, Quai Masset, Bassin Napoleon, BP120, 62327 Boulogne sur Mer (France)] [Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, University Lille North of France, Quai Masset, Bassin Napoleon, BP120, 62327 Boulogne sur Mer (France); Caverzasio, Joseph [Service of Bone Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine Specialties, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland)] [Service of Bone Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine Specialties, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Hardouin, Pierre [Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, University Lille North of France, Quai Masset, Bassin Napoleon, BP120, 62327 Boulogne sur Mer (France)] [Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, University Lille North of France, Quai Masset, Bassin Napoleon, BP120, 62327 Boulogne sur Mer (France)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF modulates BMPs pathway in HMSCs by down-regulating BMP/BMPR expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This effect is mediated by ERK and JNK MAPKs pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crosstalk between FGF and BMPs must be taken into account in skeletal bioengineering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It must also be considered in the use of recombinant BMPs in orthopedic and spine surgeries. -- Abstract: Understanding the interactions between growth factors and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) signaling remains a crucial issue to optimize the use of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) and BMPs in therapeutic perspectives and bone tissue engineering. BMPs are potent inducers of osteoblastic differentiation. They exert their actions via BMP receptors (BMPR), including BMPR1A, BMPR1B and BMPR2. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is expressed by cells of the osteoblastic lineage, increases their proliferation and is secreted during the healing process of fractures or in surgery bone sites. We hypothesized that FGF2 might influence HMSC osteoblastic differentiation by modulating expressions of BMPs and their receptors. BMP2, BMP4, BMPR1A and mainly BMPR1B expressions were up-regulated during this differentiation. FGF2 inhibited HMSCs osteoblastic differentiation and the up-regulation of BMPs and BMPR. This effect was prevented by inhibiting the ERK or JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases which are known to be activated by FGF2. These data provide a mechanism explaining the inhibitory effect of FGF2 on osteoblastic differentiation of HMSCs. These crosstalks between growth and osteogenic factors should be considered in the use of recombinant BMPs in therapeutic purpose of fracture repair or skeletal bioengineering.

  3. Tethering of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) to Beta Tricalcium Phosphate (?TCP) via Fusion to a High Affinity, Multimeric ?TCP-Binding Peptide: Effects on Human Multipotent Stromal Cells/Connective Tissue Progenitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Luis M.

    Transplantation of freshly-aspirated autologous bone marrow, together with a scaffold, is a promising clinical alternative to harvest and transplantation of autologous bone for treatment of large defects. However, survival ...

  4. Elevated extracellular calcium increases expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene via a calcium channel and ERK pathway in human dental pulp cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tada, Hiroyuki [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Nemoto, Eiji, E-mail: e-nemoto@umin.ac.jp [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kanaya, Sousuke; Hamaji, Nozomu; Sato, Hisae; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

    2010-04-16

    Dental pulp cells, which have been shown to share phenotypical features with osteoblasts, are capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and generating a dentin-like mineral structure. Elevated extracellular Ca{sup 2+}Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} has been implicated in osteogenesis by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts; however, the role of Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} signaling in odontogenesis remains unclear. We found that elevated Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} increases bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 gene expression in human dental pulp cells. The increase was modulated not only at a transcriptional level but also at a post-transcriptional level, because treatment with Ca{sup 2+} increased the stability of BMP-2 mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription. A similar increase in BMP-2 mRNA level was observed in other human mesenchymal cells from oral tissue; periodontal ligament cells and gingival fibroblasts. However, the latter cells exhibited considerably lower expression of BMP-2 mRNA compared with dental pulp cells and periodontal ligament cells. The BMP-2 increase was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, PD98059, and partially inhibited by the L-type Ca{sup 2+} channels inhibitor, nifedipine. However, pretreatment with nifedipine had no effect on ERK1/2 phosphorylation triggered by Ca{sup 2+}, suggesting that the Ca{sup 2+} influx from Ca{sup 2+} channels may operate independently of ERK signaling. Dental pulp cells do not express the transcript of Ca{sup 2+}-sensing receptors (CaSR) and only respond slightly to other cations such as Sr{sup 2+} and spermine, suggesting that dental pulp cells respond to Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} to increase BMP-2 mRNA expression in a manner different from CaSR and rather specific for Ca{sub o}{sup 2+} among cations.

  5. Nanoscale Surface Topography to Guide Bone Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanoscale Surface Topography to Guide Bone Growth P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Jirun Sun (American T S Designed and fabricated devices with nanoscale surface topography. Controlled cell alignment by varying

  6. Molecular detection of B-cell neoplasms by specific DNA methylation biomarkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Blast % in bone marrow Karyotype DLC-1 M/7 Complex Pos M/2Complex Pos F/10Complex Pos F/13 Complex Pos M/6 47, XY, +21 Pos F/22 t(9;

  7. Long-lived IgE- and IgG-secreting cells in rodents manifesting persistent antibody responses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, P.G.; Sedgwick, J.D.; O'Leary, C.; Krska, K.; Leivers, S.

    1984-12-01

    BALB/c mice and BN rats manifesting persistent IgE and IgG responses were examined up to 1 year after immunization. A significant proportion of the ongoing antibody response in these animals survived lethal X-irradiation employing dosages sufficient to deplete B memory cells. The persistent IgE responses in both species were refractory to exogenous isotype-specific suppressor cells taken from tolerant syngeneic animals, which were shown to abrogate primary IgE responses in parallel tests. Employing a novel ELISA-based assay for plaque forming cells, long-lived radioresistant IgE- and IgG-secreting cells were identified in differing ratios in lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow of both species. These long-lived cells were shown to arise following maximum antigenic challenge with antigen plus adjuvant, and after repeated low-grade stimulation by antigen alone, including passive inhalation of dilute antigen aerosols.

  8. Multipotent human stromal cells improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction in mice without long-term engraftment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iso, Yoshitaka [Center for Gene Therapy, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, 208 South Park Drive, Colchester, VT 05446 (United States); Spees, Jeffrey L. [Center for Gene Therapy, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, 208 South Park Drive, Colchester, VT 05446 (United States); E-mail: Jeffrey.Spees@uvm.edu; Serrano, Claudia [Section of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Bakondi, Benjamin [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, 208 South Park Drive, Colchester, VT 05446 (United States); Pochampally, Radhika [Center for Gene Therapy, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Song, Yao-Hua [Section of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Sobel, Burton E. [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, 208 South Park Drive, Colchester, VT 05446 (United States); Delafontaine, Patrick [Section of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Prockop, Darwin J. [Center for Gene Therapy, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)]. E-mail: dprocko@tulane.edu

    2007-03-16

    The aim of this study was to determine whether intravenously administered multipotent stromal cells from human bone marrow (hMSCs) can improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI) without long-term engraftment and therefore whether transitory paracrine effects or secreted factors are responsible for the benefit conferred. hMSCs were injected systemically into immunodeficient mice with acute MI. Cardiac function and fibrosis after MI in the hMSC-treated group were significantly improved compared with controls. However, despite the cardiac improvement, there was no evident hMSC engraftment in the heart 3 weeks after MI. Microarray assays and ELISAs demonstrated that multiple protective factors were expressed and secreted from the hMSCs in culture. Factors secreted by hMSCs prevented cell death of cultured cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells under conditions that mimicked tissue ischemia. The favorable effects of hMSCs appear to reflect the impact of secreted factors rather than engraftment, differentiation, or cell fusion.

  9. Osteocytes and Bone Diseases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Yinshi

    2015-05-06

    For many centuries, the osteoblast is considered to be responsible for bone formation. It is also believed that an imbalance of osteoblasts (weak) and osteoclasts (strong) is the main cause for bone diseases such as ...

  10. Non-invasive shock wave stimulated periosteum for bone tissue engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearney, Cathal (Cathal John)

    2011-01-01

    The cambium cells of the periosteum, which are known osteoprogenitor cells, have limited suitability for clinical applications of bone tissue engineering due to their low cell number (2-5 cells thick). Extracorporeal shock ...

  11. Bone Canonical WNT/B-Catenin Signaling in Models of Reduced Microgravity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macias, Brandon 1979-

    2012-10-25

    translates into molecular osteogenic signals in bone cells is unknown. Radiation exposure is another potent inducer of bone loss, namely observed on Earth in the clinical setting following radiotherapy procedures. It is expected that long duration space...

  12. Effects of microstructure and water on the electrical potentials in bone induced by ultrasound irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuneda, H.; Matsukawa, S.; Takayanagi, S.; Matsukawa, M.; Mizuno, K.; Yanagitani, T.

    2015-02-16

    The healing mechanism of bone fractures by low intensity pulse ultrasound is yet to be fully understood. There have been many discussions regarding how the high frequency dynamic stress can stimulate numerous cell types through various pathways. As one possible initial process of this mechanism, we focus on the piezoelectricity of bone and demonstrate that bone can generate electrical potentials by ultrasound irradiation in the MHz range. We have fabricated ultrasonic bone transducers using bovine cortical bone as the piezoelectric device. The ultrasonically induced electrical potentials in the transducers change as a function of time during immersed ultrasonic pulse measurements and become stable when the bone is fully wet. In addition, the magnitude of the induced electrical potentials changes owing to the microstructure in the cortical bone. The potentials of transducers with haversian structure bone are higher than those of plexiform structure bone, which informs about the effects of bone microstructure on the piezoelectricity.

  13. Bone scintigraphy in evaluating the viability of composite bone grafts revascularized by microvascular anastomoses, conventional autogenous bone grafts, and free non-revascularized periosteal grafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, A.; Weiland, A.J.; Ostrup, L.T.

    1982-07-01

    Researchers studied the value of bone scintigraphy in the assessment of anastomotic patency and bone-cell viability in free bone grafts revascularized by microvascular anastomoses in twenty-seven dogs. The dogs were divided into three different groups, and scintigraphy was carried out using technetium-labeled methylene diphosphonate in composite bone grafts revascularized by microvascular anastomoses, conventional autogenous bone grafts, and periosteal grafts placed in different recipient beds. The viability of the grafts were evaluated by histological examination and fluorescence microscopy after triple labeling with oxytetracycline on the first postoperative day, alizarin complexone on the fourth postoperative day, and DCAF on the eleventh postoperative day. A positive scintiscan within the first week following surgery indicated patent microvascular anastomoses, and histological study and fluorescence microscopy confirmed that bone throughout the graft was viable. A positive scintiscan one week after surgery or later does not necessarily indicate microvascular patency or bone-cell survival, because new bone formed by creeping substitution on the surface of a dead bone graft can result in this finding.

  14. SPECT Imaging for in vivo tracking of NIS containing stem cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Zhenghong

    2013-04-02

    The proposed study contains two groups of imaging experiments: 1) human mesenchymal stem cells supporting in vivo survival of unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cells; 2) gene transduction and selection of mutant MGMT genes on human hematopoietic stem cells conferring resistance to BC+BCNU. There is increasing evidence that adult human tissues harbor stem and progenitor cells that can be used for therapeutic purposes. We had focused on the Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) found in human bone marrow and investigated these cells in the context of autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to a) facilitate rapid hematopoietic engraftment in cancer patients receiving high dose chemotherapy and b) to modulate the graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We have demonstrated that culture-expanded autologous and allogeneic MSCs can be safely infused into humans and the preliminary results showed that MSCs facilitate hematopoietic engraftment and reduce GVHD. On the other hand, studies of gene transfer with drug resistant selection suggest major perturbations to the process of hematopoietic reconstitution and the confounding issue of organ toxicity and recovery that takes place in the host. We have found that limiting numbers of hematopoietic stem cells transduced with MGMT repopulate the bone marrow of primary and secondary recipient mice. We are also particularly interested in the dynamics of engraftment and selection in regions of bones, liver, spleen and lung, where we have previously seen marked evidence of engraftment. All the measurements have required animal sacrifice and single point determinations of engraftment in individual and cohorts of mice. Heretofore it has not been possible to study the dynamics of engraftment and enrichment. In the upcoming application, we propose to develop an imaging method to track intravenously infused stem cells in vivo at preset time points to understand their homing and proliferation. Specifically, we propose to use Na+/I- symporter (NIS) gene as a reporter gene (imagene) for non-invasive imaging of infused stem cells� distribution and persistence in vivo on small animal models. NIS is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein that mediates active iodide (I-) uptake into normal thyroid follicular cells and other cells. The advantages of using NIS for non-invasive and repeated scintigraphic imaging in this application are: a) NIS is not a foreign gene and thus eliminate the immunoresponse problem; b) radiotracer or substrate for NIS is simply radioiodide (I-125, I- 123, I-124, and I-124) or [Tc-99m]-pertechnetate, no radiosynthesis is needed. It has been shown that NIS gene transfer can induce radioactive iodide uptake in a variety of cells and that xenografts expressing exogenous NIS could be imaged by non-invasive scintigraphic imaging. The specific aims are: 1.Determine the feasibility, stability and physiological effects of human NIS gene expression on human HSCs and MSCs in vitro. 2.Determine the engraftment of human HSC and MSC co-infused in NOD-SCID mice. 3.Transduce both a drug resistance gene and an imagene into bone marrow stem cells, and follow the dynamics of engraftment after selection in real time.

  15. Protocadherin-7 induces bone metastasis of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ai-Min; Tian, Ai-Xian; Zhang, Rui-Xue; Ge, Jie; Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin ; Sun, Xuan; Cao, Xu-Chen; Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •PCDH7 is overexpression in high bone metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. •PCDH7 is up-regulation in bone metastatic breast cancer tissues. •Suppression of PCDH7 inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. •PCDH7 induces breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo. -- Abstract: Breast cancer had a propensity to metastasize to bone, resulting in serious skeletal complications associated with poor outcome. Previous study showed that Protocadherin-7 (PCDH7) play an important role in brain metastatic breast cancer, however, the role of PCDH7 in bone metastatic breast cancer has never been explored. In the present study, we found that PCDH7 expression was up-regulation in bone metastatic breast cancer tissues by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry assays. Furthermore, suppression of PCDH7 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro by MTT, scratch, and transwell assays. Most importantly, overexpression of PCDH7 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and formation of bone metastasis in vivo. These data provide an important insight into the role of PCDH7 in bone metastasis of breast cancer.

  16. Defense Health Program Department of Defense Bone Marrow Failure Research Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charette, André

    Program Funding Opportunities for Fiscal Year 2014 Applications to the Fiscal government's single-entry #12;portal, Grants.gov. For more information about the BMFRP

  17. Dysregulated Toll-like receptor expression and signaling in bone marrow-derived macrophages at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toledo, University of

    . Expression of TLR3 and TLR5 was significantly higher in newly diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice when-regulation of its own receptor in NOR and pre-diabetic NOD, but TLR3 was already highly expressed in diabetic NOD down-regulation of TLR4 in pre-diabetic NOD, NOR and BALB/c, while levels of TLR4 remained consistently

  18. Biodegradable synthetic bone composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides for a biodegradable synthetic bone composition comprising a biodegradable hydrogel polymer scaffold comprising a plurality of hydrolytically unstable linkages, and an inorganic component; such as a biodegradable poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (pHEMA/HA) hydrogel composite possessing mineral content approximately that of human bone.

  19. Composites structures for bone tissue reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neto, W.; Santos, João; Avérous, L.; Schlatter, G.; Bretas, Rosario

    2015-05-22

    The search for new biomaterials in the bone reconstitution field is growing continuously as humane life expectation and bone fractures increase. For this purpose, composite materials with biodegradable polymers and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been used. A composite material formed by a film, nanofibers and HA has been made. Both, the films and the non-woven mats of nanofibers were formed by nanocomposites made of butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and HA. The techniques used to produce the films and nanofibers were spin coating and electrospinning, respectively. The composite production and morphology were evaluated. The composite showed an adequate morphology and fibers size to be used as scaffold for cell growth.

  20. IBMS BoneKEy. 2009 April;6(4):132-149 http://www.bonekey-ibms.org/cgi/content/full/ibmske;6/4/132

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IBMS BoneKEy. 2009 April;6(4):132-149 http://www.bonekey-ibms.org/cgi/content/full/ibmske;6 and osteoporosis, yet uniquely ­ without targeting the resident fat or bone cell. IBMS BoneKEy. 2009 April;6 with diabetes are afflicted with type 2 disease (5-7). Visceral adiposity and #12;IBMS BoneKEy. 2009 April;6

  1. Somatic cell genotoxicity at the glycophorin A locus in humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, R.H.; Grant, S.G.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1990-12-28

    We have developed an assay for detecting variant erythrocytes that occur as a result of in vivo allele loss at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus on chromosome 4 in humans. This gene codes for an erythroid- specific cell surface glycoprotein, and with our assay we are able to detect rare variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of one of the two GPA alleles. Two distinctly different variant cell types are detected with this assay. One variant cell type (called N{O}) is hemizygous. Our assay also detects homozygous variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of the GPA(M) allele and express the GPA(N) allele at twice the heterozygous level. The results of this assay are an enumeration of the frequency of N{O} and NN variant cell types for each individual analyzed. These variant cell frequencies provide a measure of the amount of somatic cell genotoxicity that has occurred at the GPA locus. Such genotoxicity could be the result of (1) reactions of toxic chemicals to which the individual has been exposed, or (2) high energy radiation effects on erythroid precursor cells, or (3) errors in DNA replication or repair in these cells of the bone marrow. Thus, the GPA-based variant cell frequency can serve as a biodosimeter that indicates the amount of genotoxic exposure each individual has received. Because two very different kinds of variant cells are enumerated, different kinds of genotoxicity should be distinguishable. Results of the GPA somatic genotoxicity assay may also provide valuable information for cancer-risk estimation on each individual. 16 refs.

  2. Invest in Your Bones Bone Mineral Calcium and Vitamin D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Invest in Your Bones Bone Mineral Calcium and Vitamin D Leaflet 4 One common misconception is that calcium is only needed for growing children. In reality, both calcium and vitamin D are needed to maintain of calcium from your bones. Vitamin D promotes the absorption of calcium in the gut, which is necessary

  3. Naturally derived myocardial matrix as an injectable scaffold for cardiac repair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singelyn, Jennifer Marie

    2010-01-01

    and others. Cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stemhydrogel helps bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells restoredelivery of platelet-derived growth factor improves

  4. Evolution of B-cell malignancy; Pre-B-cell leukemia resulting from MYC activation in a B-cell neoplasm with a rearranged BCL2 gene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauwerky, C.E.; Haluska, F.G.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M. (Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1988-11-01

    The authors have analyzed the molecular genetics of the breakpoints involved in the t(8;14) and t(14;18) translocations of an acute pre-B-cell leukemia from a patient with a history of follicular lymphoma. In this patient's leukemic cells, the breakpoint of the t(14;18) translocation occurred in the major breakpoint-cluster region of the BCL2 gene and became linked to the J{sub H}4 joining-region gene segment of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus on the 14q+ chromosome as previously observed in follicular lymphoma. An N region and heptamer and nonamer signal sequences indicated that this translocation occurred as a mistake in V{sub H}-D{sub H}-J{sub H} joining (where V{sub H} and D{sub H} are the variable and diversity segments). In the t(8;14) translocation, the breakpoint was located immediately 5' of the first exon of the MYC protooncogene, which was juxtaposed with the C{gamma}2 constant gene segment of the second 14q+ chromosome. The finding of repeated sequences typical of switch regions suggested that this translocation occurred during heavy-chain isotype switching, resulting in progression to pre-B-cell leukemia with both the 5(8;14) and the t(14;18) translocations. The terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-positive phenotype of the patient's leukemic cells further suggests that the pre-B-cell leukemia was derived from a pre-B cell carrying a t(14;18) translocation in the original follicular lymphoma. The polymerase chain reaction method was then used to identify cancer cells in the bone marrow of the patient.

  5. Dysfunction of irradiated thymus for the development of helper T cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amagai, T.; Kina, T.; Hirokawa, K.; Nishikawa, S.; Imanishi, J.; Katsura, Y.

    1987-07-15

    The development of cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells in an intact or irradiated thymus was investigated. C57BL/6 (H-2b, Thy-1.2) mice were whole body-irradiated, or were irradiated with shielding over either the thymus or right leg and tail, and were transferred with 1.5 X 10(7) bone marrow cells from B10.Thy-1.1 mice (H-2b, Thy-1.1). At various days after reconstitution, thymus cells from the recipient mice were harvested and a peanut agglutinin low-binding population was isolated. This population was further treated with anti-Thy-1.2 plus complement to remove host-derived cells and was assayed for the frequency of cytotoxic T cell precursors (CTLp) and for the activity of helper T cells (Th). In the thymus of thymus-shielded and irradiated mice, Th activity reached normal control level by day 25, whereas CTLp frequency remained at a very low level during these days. In the thymus of whole body-irradiated mice, generation of CTLp was highly accelerated while that of Th was retarded, the period required for reconstitution being 25 days and more than 42 days for CTLp and Th, respectively. Preferential development of CTLp was also seen in right leg- and tail-shielded (L-T-shielded) and irradiated recipients. Histological observation indicated that Ia+ nonlymphoid cells were well preserved in the thymus of thymus-shielded and irradiated recipients, whereas in L-T-shielded and irradiated recipients, such cells in the medulla were markedly reduced in number. These results suggest strongly that the generation of Th but not CTLp is dependent on radiosensitive thymic component(s), and that such components may represent Ia+ cells themselves in the medulla or some microenvironment related to Ia+ cells.

  6. Lectin-mediated effects on bone resorption in vitro: a morphological and functional study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popoff, S.N.

    1986-01-01

    Lectins have been used to study the structure and function of a variety of cells and tissues. The authors used 4 different lectins, concanavalin A (con A), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), soybean agglutinin (SBA) and peanut agglutinin (PNA) as in vitro biological probes to study the osteoclast, a multinucleated bone cell that is widely accepted as the primary effector cell responsible for normal bone resorption. They evaluated the effects of each of these lectins on osteoclastic bone resorbing activity and then examined mechanisms that may be responsible for the activation and/or inhibition of osteoclastic activity. Using con A and hemocyanin, a marker molecule used to visualize cell-bound con A via scanning electron microscopy, they demonstrated that osteoclasts have specific con A binding sites on their cell surface. They conducted a series of /sup 45/Ca bone release assays demonstrating that con A has a dose-dependent biphasic effect on bone resorption; stimulation at low concentrations and inhibition at higher concentrations. The findings suggest that the specificity of lectin binding to cell surface receptors may play an important role in the induction of altered cell function. Recently, cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system have been proposed as surrogates of less readily available osteoclasts. They used a macrophage-devitalized bone culture system to evaluate the effects of con A and SBA on the attachment of macrophages to bone and their subsequent functional activity. The results showed that con A, but not SBA, alters the morphology and function of macrophages on a devitalized bone surface. The results support the hypothesis that certain, specific saccharides regulate the interaction between macrophages and bone.

  7. EDITORS' CORNER This Month in The Journal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Noah

    any parent-offspring or full-sibling pairs is needed, and the second list is of the samples to exclude of blood cells that leads to bone marrow failure. Rather than producing enough new blood cells to maintain the body, the bone marrow of FA patients often produces abnormal blood cells, which results

  8. Hepatocyte growth factor regulated tyrosine kinase substrate in the peripheral development and function of B-cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagata, Takayuki [Department of Pharmacy, Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai Iino, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan) [Department of Pharmacy, Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai Iino, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Murata, Kazuko, E-mail: murata-k@iwakimu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacy, Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai Iino, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmacy, Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai Iino, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan); Murata, Ryo [Department of Pharmacy, Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai Iino, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmacy, Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai Iino, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan); Sun, Shu-lan [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Saito, Yutaro; Yamaga, Shuhei [Department of Pharmacy, Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai Iino, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan)] [Department of Pharmacy, Iwaki Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai Iino, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551 (Japan); Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Tamai, Keiichi [Division of Immunology, Miyagi Cancer Research Institute, 47-1 Nodayama, Medeshima-Shiode, Natori 981-1293 (Japan)] [Division of Immunology, Miyagi Cancer Research Institute, 47-1 Nodayama, Medeshima-Shiode, Natori 981-1293 (Japan); Moriya, Kunihiko [Department of Pediatrics, Tohoku University School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Department of Pediatrics, Tohoku University School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kasai, Noriyuki [Institute for Animal Experimentation, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Institute for Animal Experimentation, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Sugamura, Kazuo [Division of Immunology, Miyagi Cancer Research Institute, 47-1 Nodayama, Medeshima-Shiode, Natori 981-1293 (Japan)] [Division of Immunology, Miyagi Cancer Research Institute, 47-1 Nodayama, Medeshima-Shiode, Natori 981-1293 (Japan); Ishii, Naoto [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •ESCRT-0 protein regulates the development of peripheral B-cells. •BCR expression on cell surface should be controlled by the endosomal-sorting system. •Hrs plays important roles in responsiveness to Ag stimulation in B lymphocytes. -- Abstract: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is a vesicular sorting protein that functions as one of the endosomal-sorting proteins required for transport (ESCRT). Hrs, which binds to ubiquitinated proteins through its ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM), contributes to the lysosomal transport and degradation of ubiquitinated membrane proteins. However, little is known about the relationship between B-cell functions and ESCRT proteins in vivo. Here we examined the immunological roles of Hrs in B-cell development and functions using B-cell-specific Hrs-deficient (Hrs{sup flox/flox};mb1{sup cre/+}:Hrs-cKO) mice, which were generated using a cre-LoxP recombination system. Hrs deficiency in B-cells significantly reduced T-cell-dependent antibody production in vivo and impaired the proliferation of B-cells treated in vitro with an anti-IgM monoclonal antibody but not with LPS. Although early development of B-cells in the bone marrow was normal in Hrs-cKO mice, there was a significant decrease in the number of the peripheral transitional B-cells and marginal zone B-cells in the spleen of Hrs-cKO mice. These results indicate that Hrs plays important roles during peripheral development and physiological functions of B lymphocytes.

  9. ZASC1 knockout mice exhibit an early bone marrow-specific defect in murine leukemia virus replication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    similar differences in virus titer when we examined the bonenot associated with low virus titers in samples taken earlyfile 3: Figure S3. Virus titers (infectious centers/10 6

  10. Evidence for a Serum Factor That Initiates the Re-calcification of Demineralized Bone*S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Paul A.

    Evidence for a Serum Factor That Initiates the Re-calcification of Demineralized Bone*S Received to demineralization, and the re-calcified bone is palpably hard. Re-calcified bone mineral is com- parable- induced re-calcification of demineralized bone suggest that the serum calcification factor identified

  11. Bone Mineral Density, Bone Turnover, and Systemic Inflammation in Non-cirrhotics with Chronic Hepatitis C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, JC; Shoback, DM; Zipperstein, J; Lizaola, B; Tseng, S; Terrault, NA

    2015-01-01

    Mun˜oz-Torres M, et al. Bone mineral density, serum insulin-et al. Osteoporosis and bone mineral metabolism disorders in1069-9. 11. George J. Bone mineral density and disorders of

  12. Biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a new consolidating agent for archaeological bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    R.E.M.  2002.  “Bone  Diagenesis:  An  Overview  of  2000.  “Patterns  of  Diagenesis  in  Bone  I:  The  element  Studies  of  Diagenesis  in  Prehistoric  Bone. ”  

  13. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic...

  14. Near-infrared emitting quantum dots for cellular and vascular fluorescent labeling in in vivo multiplexed imaging studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Juwell Wendy

    2011-01-01

    In vivo multimodal, multiplexed microscopy allows real-time observation of hematopoietic cells, their stem and progenitor cells and metastatic cancer cells in their native bone marrow (BM) environment. Multiplexing has ...

  15. Lung cancer-derived Dickkopf1 is associated with bone metastasis and the mechanism involves the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Tianqing; Teng, Jiajun; Jiang, Liyan; Zhong, Hua; Han, Baohui

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •DKK1 level was associated with NSCLC bone metastases. •Lung tumor cells derived DKK1 inhibited osteoblast differentiation. •Lung tumor cells derived DKK1 modulates ?-catenin and RUNX2. -- Abstract: Wnt/?-catenin signaling and Dickkopf1 (DKK1) play important roles in the progression of lung cancer, which preferably metastasizes to skeleton. But the role of them in bone dissemination is poorly understood. This study aims to define the role of DKK1 in lung cancer bone metastases and investigate the underlying mechanism. Our results demonstrated that DKK1 over-expression was a frequent event in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) blood samples, and serous DKK1 level was much higher in bone metastatic NSCLC compared to non-bone metastatic NSCLC. We also found that conditioned medium from DKK1 over-expressing lung cancer cells inhibited the differentiation of osteoblast, determined by alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin secretion, whereas the conditioned medium from DKK1 silencing lung cancer cells exhibited the opposite effects. Mechanistically, DKK1 reduced the level of ?-catenin and RUNX2, as well as inhibiting the nuclear translocation of ?-catenin. Taken together, these results suggested that lung cancer-produced DKK1 may be an important mechanistic link between NSCLC and bone metastases, and targeting DKK1 may be an effective method to treat bone metastase of NSCLC.

  16. Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by Multipotent Stromal Cells/Mesenchymal Stem Cells Upon Exposure to Fas Ligand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigues, Melanie

    Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) can be differentiated into osteoblasts and chondrocytes, making these cells candidates to regenerate cranio-facial injuries and lesions in long bones. A major problem with cell replacement ...

  17. Positive modulator of bone morphogenic protein-2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zamora, Paul O. (Gaithersburg, MD); Pena, Louis A. (Poquott, NY); Lin, Xinhua (Plainview, NY); Takahashi, Kazuyuki (Germantown, MD)

    2009-01-27

    Compounds of the present invention of formula I and formula II are disclosed in the specification and wherein the compounds are modulators of Bone Morphogenic Protein activity. Compounds are synthetic peptides having a non-growth factor heparin binding region, a linker, and sequences that bind specifically to a receptor for Bone Morphogenic Protein. Uses of compounds of the present invention in the treatment of bone lesions, degenerative joint disease and to enhance bone formation are disclosed.

  18. Use of growth factors and adhesive ligands to promote connective tissue progenitor colony formation from fresh marrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcantonio, Nicholas A. (Nicholas Alexander)

    2008-01-01

    The current gold standard for bone graft material is autologous bone, which provides mechanical support, possesses factors that promote bone formation, and contains connective tissue progenitors (CTPs), a heterogeneous ...

  19. Acquisition of repertoires of suppressor T cells under the influence of macrophages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soejima, T.; Nagayama, A.; Sado, T.; Taniguchi, M. )

    1988-01-01

    Acquisition of repertoires and genetic restriction specificities of suppressor T cells (Ts) and their factors were studied by using full allogeneic radiation bone marrow chimera and H-2 congenic pairs, B10.A(3R) and B10.A(5R), which received conventional or cloned macrophages by cell transfer. Suppressor T-cell factor (TsF) from C3H----C57BL/6 or C57BL/6----C3H chimera suppressed only donor but not host-type responses of either C3H or C57BL/6, in an antigen-specific fashion. However, if chimera mice were given conventional or cloned macrophages of the host type, the chimera TsF in turn suppressed both the responses of C3H and C57BL/6 mice but not those of the third party, BALB/c, indicating that macrophages are responsible for the acquisition of host restriction specificity. Similarly, B10.A(5R) mice developed I-Jb restricted Ts or TsF when the B10.A(3R) macrophage cell line was injected at the time of antigen priming. The reverse was also true. B10.A(3R) mice did generate I-Jk restricted Ts when they received the B10.A(5R) macrophage cell line. Thus, the results clearly demonstrated that B10.A(3R) or B10.A(5R) mice potentially possessed their ability to express both I-Jk and I-Jb determinants and that repertoires and genetic restriction specificity of Ts and their TsF were acquired at a macrophage level at the time of antigen-priming.

  20. Bone mineral density and fractures in older men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dam, T.-T.; Harrison, S.; Fink, H. A.; Ramsdell, J.; Barrett-Connor, E.

    2010-01-01

    x ORIGINAL ARTICLE Bone mineral density and fractures inwas associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) at theKeywords Bone loss . Bone mineral density . Elderly .

  1. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  2. Impact of bacteria and bacterial components on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiedler, Tomas; Salamon, Achim; Adam, Stefanie; Herzmann, Nicole; Taubenheim, Jan; Peters, Kirsten

    2013-11-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are present in several tissues, e.g. bone marrow, heart muscle, brain and subcutaneous adipose tissue. In invasive infections MSC get in contact with bacteria and bacterial components. Not much is known about how bacterial pathogens interact with MSC and how contact to bacteria influences MSC viability and differentiation potential. In this study we investigated the impact of three different wound infection relevant bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the cell wall components lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Gram-negative bacteria) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA; Gram-positive bacteria) on viability, proliferation, and osteogenic as well as adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (adMSC). We show that all three tested species were able to attach to and internalize into adMSC. The heat-inactivated Gram-negative E. coli as well as LPS were able to induce proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. Conspicuously, the heat-inactivated Gram-positive species showed the same effects on proliferation and adipogenic differentiation, while its cell wall component LTA exhibited no significant impact on adMSC. Therefore, our data demonstrate that osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of adMSC is influenced in an oppositional fashion by bacterial antigens and that MSC-governed regeneration is not necessarily reduced under infectious conditions. - Highlights: • Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli bind to and internalize into adMSC. • Heat-inactivated cells of these bacterial species trigger proliferation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS induce osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. • Heat-inactivated E. coli and LPS reduce adipogenic differentiation of adMSC. • LTA does not influence adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation of adMSC.

  3. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration Print Natural materials are renowned for their unique combination of outstanding mechanical properties and exquisite microstructure....

  4. Composite bone substitutes prepared by two methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hoe Yun; Lee, Hoe Yun

    2012-01-01

    Composites via Freeze Casting for Bone Tissue Engineering,”A.P. Tomsia, “Freeze casting of hydroxyapatite scaffolds forcamphene- based freeze casting,” Materials Letters 61(11-

  5. cAMP-response-element-binding protein positively regulates breast cancer metastasis and subsequent bone destruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Son, Jieun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Ha-Neui; Ha, Hyunil Lee, Zang Hee

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} CREB is highly expressed in advanced breast cancer cells. {yields} Tumor-related factors such as TGF-{beta} further elevate CREB expression. {yields} CREB upregulation stimulates metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. {yields} CREB signaling is required for breast cancer-induced bone destruction. -- Abstract: cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) signaling has been reported to be associated with cancer development and poor clinical outcome in various types of cancer. However, it remains to be elucidated whether CREB is involved in breast cancer development and osteotropism. Here, we found that metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exhibited higher CREB expression than did non-metastatic MCF-7 cells and that CREB expression was further increased by several soluble factors linked to cancer progression, such as IL-1, IGF-1, and TGF-{beta}. Using wild-type CREB and a dominant-negative form (K-CREB), we found that CREB signaling positively regulated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, K-CREB prevented MDA-MB-231 cell-induced osteolytic lesions in a mouse model of cancer metastasis. Furthermore, CREB signaling in cancer cells regulated the gene expression of PTHrP, MMPs, and OPG, which are closely involved in cancer metastasis and bone destruction. These results indicate that breast cancer cells acquire CREB overexpression during their development and that this CREB upregulation plays an important role in multiple steps of breast cancer bone metastasis.

  6. Histologic Comparison of Regenerate Bone Produced from Dentate Versus Edentulous Transport Discs in Bone Transport Distraction Osteogenesis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevilla Gaitan, Carlos

    2013-12-10

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to quantify the number of blood vessels and nerves and mineral apposition rate (MAR) in native bone and compare it to the regenerate bone produced by bone transport distraction osteogenesis (BTDO...

  7. Mechanical regulation of signaling pathways in bone, William R. Thompson a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , cyclooxygenase 2; LMMS, low magnitude mechanical stimulation; LIV, low intensity vibration; CT, micro compReview Mechanical regulation of signaling pathways in bone, William R. Thompson a, , Clinton T A wide range of cell types depend on mechanically induced signals to enable appropriate physiological re

  8. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking...

  9. Investigation into mechanical properties of bone and its main constituents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evdokimenko, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    Kinetic studies of bone demineralization at different HClKinetic studies of the demineralization and deproteinationJ. McKittrick, “Bone demineralization and deproteination

  10. Elastic anisotropy of bone Biomechanics, BME 315

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakes, Roderic

    17 22 Glong 3.6 5.3 0.58 0.30 Etransv 11.5 15 Gtr 3.3 6.3 0.31 0.11 Etransv 11.5 12 Gtr 3.3 7.0 0 moduli of bone, in Mechanical Properties of Bone, Joint ASME-ASCE Applied Mechanics, Fluids Engineering

  11. Investigation into mechanical properties of bone and its main constituents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evdokimenko, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    treatment of intrabony periodontal defects: 6 year resultsbones, to repair periodontal defects, bone removal from

  12. The roll of integrins in hematopoiesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eshghi, Shawdee

    2007-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) hold great promise for the treatment of disease. The rare frequency at which HSCs occur in the bone marrow under homeostatic conditions is a limiting factor in both their study and clinical ...

  13. Elastic moduli of untreated, demineralized and deproteinized cortical bone: Validation of a theoretical model of bone as an interpenetrating composite material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKittrick, Joanna

    Elastic moduli of untreated, demineralized and deproteinized cortical bone: Validation online 15 November 2011 Keywords: Cortical bone Elastic moduli Multi-scale modeling Demineralization include completely demineralized and deproteinized bones as well as untreated bone samples. Porosity

  14. Composite gelatin delivery system for bone regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hager, Elizabeth A. (Elizabeth Ann)

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, the chemical/mechanical properties and biocompatibility of gelatin were investigated to produce a gelatin scaffold for the release of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) from composite particles. This delivery ...

  15. Microdamage accumulation in bovine trabecular bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Tara L. Arthur (Tara Lee Arthur), 1972-

    2001-01-01

    When bone is loaded beyond its failure point, it develops damage in the form of microcracks. Normally, microcracks are repaired by the remodeling process, limiting the number of in vivo microcracks. However, if the rate ...

  16. Fracture, aging and disease in bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager, J.W.; Balooch, G.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2006-01-01

    and R. O. Ritchie: Effect of aging on the toughness of humanof microstructure in the aging-related deterioration of thestudy of the effect of aging on human cortical bone J.

  17. Mechanical bone strength in the proximal tibia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prommin, Danu

    2000-01-01

    Six bone slices from one canine tibia were tested by compressive load to determine the ultimate strength as a function of distance from the knee. Both the ultimate compressive strength and overall modulus of elasticity of ...

  18. The influence of TRP53 in the dose response of radiation-induced apoptosis, DNA repair and genomic stability in murine haematopoietic cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lemon, Jennifer A.; Taylor, Kristina; Verdecchia, Kyle; Phan, Nghi; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic and DNA damage endpoints are frequently used as surrogate markers of cancer risk, and have been well-studied in the Trp53+/- mouse model. We report the effect of differing Trp53 gene status on the dose response of ionizing radiation exposures (0.01-2 Gy), with the unique perspective of determining if effects of gene status remain at extended time points. Here we report no difference in the dose response for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in bone marrow and genomic instability (MN-RET levels) in peripheral blood, between wild-type (Trp53+/+) and heterozygous (Trp53+/-) mice. The dose response for Trp53+/+ mice showed higher initial levelsmore »of radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis relative to Trp53+/- between 0 and 1 Gy. Although this trend was observed up to 12 hours post-irradiation, both genotypes ultimately reached the same level of apoptosis at 14 hours, suggesting the importance of late-onset p53-independent apoptotic responses in this mouse model. Expected radiation-induced G1 cell cycle delay was observed in Trp53+/+ but not Trp53+/-. Although p53 has an important role in cancer risk, we have shown its influence on radiation dose response can be temporally variable. This research highlights the importance of caution when using haematopoietic endpoints as surrogates to extrapolate radiation-induced cancer risk estimation.« less

  19. 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene induces apoptosis in RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells: Ligand-selective activation of cytochrome P450 1B1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ji Young; Medical Research Science Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 ; Lee, Seung Gee; Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 ; Chung, Jin-Yong; Medical Research Science Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 ; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 ; Park, Ji-Eun; Medical Research Science Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 ; Oh, Seunghoon; Lee, Se Yong; Choi, Hong Jo; Yoo, Young Hyun; and others

    2012-04-15

    7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, exhibits mutagenic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive, and apoptogenic properties in various cell types. To achieve these functions effectively, DMBA is modified to its active form by cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1). Exposure to DMBA causes cytotoxicity-mediated apoptosis in bone marrow B cells and ovarian cells. Although uterine endometrium constitutively expresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, their apoptotic role after exposure to DMBA remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we chose RL95-2 endometrial cancer cells as a model system for studying DMBA-induced cytotoxicity and cell death and hypothesized that exposure to DMBA causes apoptosis in this cell type following CYP1A1 and/or CYP1B1 activation. We showed that DMBA-induced apoptosis in RL95-2 cells is associated with activation of caspases. In addition, mitochondrial changes, including decrease in mitochondrial potential and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol, support the hypothesis that a mitochondrial pathway is involved in DMBA-induced apoptosis. Exposure to DMBA upregulated the expression of AhR, Arnt, CYP1A1, and CYP1B1 significantly; this may be necessary for the conversion of DMBA to DMBA-3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide (DMBA-DE). Although both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 were significantly upregulated by DMBA, only CYP1B1 exhibited activity. Moreover, knockdown of CYP1B1 abolished DMBA-induced apoptosis in RL95-2 cells. Our data show that RL95-2 cells are susceptible to apoptosis by exposure to DMBA and that CYP1B1 plays a pivotal role in DMBA-induced apoptosis in this system. -- Highlights: ? Cytotoxicity-mediated apoptogenic action of DMBA in human endometrial cancer cells. ? Mitochondrial pathway in DMBA-induced apoptosis of RL95-2 endometrial cancer cells. ? Requirement of ligand-selective activation of CYP1B1 in DMBA-induced apoptosis.

  20. High-resolution HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 haplotype frequencies from the French Bone Marrow Donor Registry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    LF, Hauser SL. Multiple sclerosis: genomic rewards. Journalaggregation in multiple sclerosis. Canadian CollaborativeI locus contributes to multiple sclerosis susceptibility

  1. High-resolution HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1 haplotype frequencies from the French Bone Marrow Donor Registry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    polymorphism; real time PCR. HRM Corresponding Author: Mr.using High Resolution Melt (HRM) soft ware (1.7 version).

  2. The effect of three hemostatic agents on early bone healing in an animal model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    B, Sjogren S: Effects of bone wax on rabbit cranial boneRR: The effect of bone wax on the healing of experimentaland healing using bone wax and a soluble polymer material.

  3. BONE LOSS IN RELATION TO HYPOTHALAMIC ATROPHY IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loskutova, Natalia Y.

    2011-05-12

    . The body of presented work extends the literature on a relationship between bone loss and AD. Overall, the presented work provides initial evidence that accelerated bone loss observed in individuals in the early stages of AD may be partially due...

  4. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    28 July 2010 00:00 Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking...

  5. Bone fragments a body can make

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stout, S.D.; Ross, L.M. Jr. )

    1991-05-01

    Data obtained from various analytical techniques applied to a number of small bone fragments recovered from a crime scene were used to provide evidence for the occurrence of a fatality. Microscopic and histomorphometric analyses confirmed that the fragments were from a human skull. X-ray microanalysis of darkened areas on the bone fragments revealed a chemical signature that matched the chemical signature of a shotgun pellet recovered at the scene of the crime. The above findings supported the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fingerprint evidence which, along with other evidence, was used to convict a man for the murder of his wife, even though her body was never recovered.

  6. Three-dimensional terahertz computed tomography of human bones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    spectroscopy cannot rival with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to identify the bone mineral density

  7. Mechanical loading attenuates loss of bone mass and bone strength induced by immobilization and calcium-deficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Cynthia Lynn

    1996-01-01

    Immobilization and calcium-deficiency have been documented to cause a decrease in strength and bone mineral loss, and exercise is known to strengthen bone. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mechanical ...

  8. Preparation of Bone Sam-ples for DNA Extraction: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as hammering frozen bone sealed in plastic freezer bags, have proven unreliable; shards of bone tend to pierce abrasive agent was included with the bone sample (in our case, sterilized glass fragments) to en- sure even-and-bolt as- sembly for reuse with other samples. However, considering the low cost of the nuts and bolts

  9. Signal processing underlying extrinsic control of stem cell fate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Signal processing underlying extrinsic control of stem cell fate Ryan E. Davey and Peter W to control stem cell fate. Keywords stem cells, systems biology, signaling networks, extrinsic control Curr and the discovery that both bone mor- phogenic protein and Wnt signaling also promote self- renewal in mouse ES

  10. Bone Cancer Rates in Dinosaurs Compared with Modern Vertebrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. C. Natarajan; A. L. Melott; B. M. Rothschild; L. D. Martin

    2007-10-16

    Data on the prevalence of bone cancer in dinosaurs is available from past radiological examination of preserved bones. We statistically test this data for consistency with rates extrapolated from information on bone cancer in modern vertebrates, and find that there is no evidence of a different rate. Thus, this test provides no support for a possible role of ionizing radiation in the K-T extinction event.

  11. Physiological Stress, Bone Growth and Development in Imperial Rome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beauchesne, Patrick Denis

    2012-01-01

    present and that diagenesis (chemical exchange between therisk assessment. Diagenesis, or the chemical exchangeto assess the level of diagenesis in a bone without chemical

  12. Investigation into mechanical properties of bone and its main constituents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evdokimenko, Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    mineral to the elastic-plastic properties of bone. J Bonec properties, hardness, viscosity and plastic deformation ofin the plastic region is a function of collagen properties

  13. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and...

  14. Trabecular bone dosimetry using a Monte Carlo code 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuzarte de Mendonca, Anne

    1993-01-01

    thickness 24 7. Example of the path of a volume-seeker in trabecular bone using EGS4. S is the source point 28 8. Absorbed &actions in the bone marmw in case of a uniform deposition in trabecular bone. CS in mm and f are indicated in parenthesis for each... percent per mass) 29 4. Electron absorbed fractions and COV (%) for monoenergetic electron sources uniformly distributed within the trabecular bone of the middle spine (CS&. 99 mm and f=1. 012) 31 5. Electmn absorbed fractions and COV...

  15. Structural Analysis of Human and Bovine Bone for Development of Synthetic Materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jang, Eunhwa

    2012-10-19

    With increasing demands in bone repair and replacement, this research investigates the microstructure, properties and performance of bovine bone, human bone, and synthetic materials. Doing so, experimental approaches were used to exam and compare...

  16. High-speed photography of compressed human trabecular bone correlates whitening to microscopic damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansma, Paul

    ]. Trabecular bone is situated at the end of the long bones and in the spinal column, where it fills all of the inner vertebral space. In the long bones it transfers loads from joint surfaces onto the midshaft

  17. Author's personal copy Initial anisotropy in demineralized bovine cortical bone in compressive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKittrick, Joanna

    Author's personal copy Initial anisotropy in demineralized bovine cortical bone in compressive Cortical bone Cyclic compression Demineralization The mechanical properties of demineralized bovine and transverse directions. The bone was demineralized by 10% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (100% protein

  18. Microcapsule-Induced Toughening of Bone Cement Gina M. Miller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    27 Microcapsule-Induced Toughening of Bone Cement Gina M. Miller Senior in Aerospace Engineering R. White, and TAM Prof. Nancy R. Sottos Acrylic bone cement is the primary material used cement, it may be possible to extend the lifetime of the implant, thus reducing the occurrence

  19. Bone loss during energy restriction: mechanistic role of leptin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baek, Kyunghwa

    2009-05-15

    Mechanical unloading and food restriction (FR) are leading causes of bone loss, which increase the risk of fracture later in life. Leptin, a 16kDa cytokine like hormone principally produced by white adipocytes, may be involved in bone metabolism...

  20. p-FEMs in biomechanics: Bones and Arteries Zohar Yosibash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosibash, Zohar

    p-FEMs in biomechanics: Bones and Arteries Zohar Yosibash Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-FEM) is extended to problems in the field of biomechanics: the mechanical response of bones and arteries-FEMs are extremely important for analysts that aim at validating mathe- matical models of biomechanical structures

  1. Growth factor regulation of proliferation and survival of multipotential stromal cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigues, Melanie

    Multipotential stromal cells (MSCs) have been touted to provide an alternative to conservative procedures of therapy, be it heart transplants, bone reconstruction, kidney grafts, or skin, neuronal and cartilage repair. A ...

  2. The influence of TRP53 in the dose response of radiation-induced apoptosis, DNA repair and genomic stability in murine haematopoietic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemon, Jennifer A.; Taylor, Kristina; Verdecchia, Kyle; Phan, Nghi; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic and DNA damage endpoints are frequently used as surrogate markers of cancer risk, and have been well-studied in the Trp53+/- mouse model. We report the effect of differing Trp53 gene status on the dose response of ionizing radiation exposures (0.01-2 Gy), with the unique perspective of determining if effects of gene status remain at extended time points. Here we report no difference in the dose response for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in bone marrow and genomic instability (MN-RET levels) in peripheral blood, between wild-type (Trp53+/+) and heterozygous (Trp53+/-) mice. The dose response for Trp53+/+ mice showed higher initial levels of radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis relative to Trp53+/- between 0 and 1 Gy. Although this trend was observed up to 12 hours post-irradiation, both genotypes ultimately reached the same level of apoptosis at 14 hours, suggesting the importance of late-onset p53-independent apoptotic responses in this mouse model. Expected radiation-induced G1 cell cycle delay was observed in Trp53+/+ but not Trp53+/-. Although p53 has an important role in cancer risk, we have shown its influence on radiation dose response can be temporally variable. This research highlights the importance of caution when using haematopoietic endpoints as surrogates to extrapolate radiation-induced cancer risk estimation.

  3. DISCOVERY AND RESEARCH ON JIAHU BONE FLUTES IN WUYANG, CHINA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JUZHONG, Z.; HARBOTTLE, G.; XINGHUA, X.; CHANGSUI, W.

    2000-11-01

    The site of Jiahu is located in Jiahu village, Wuyang County, Henan province, on the Western edge of the broad plain of Huanhuaihai. On its north the site borders the Sha River, in the upper reaches of the Huai River; its latitude is 33{degree} 36 minutes North, longitude 113{degree} 40 minutes East, and it is 67.5 meters above sea level. Between 1983 and 1987, the Henan Cultural Relics and Archaeology Institute carried out six campaigns of excavation here, revealing an area of 2400 square meters. Except for the trial excavation in the spring of 1983, Zhang Juzhong has been in charge of all the excavations. In early May 1986, while excavating tomb 78, Zhang Juzhong and Yang Zhenwei first discovered two funerary bone flutes. They soon found other, similar bone flutes in tombs 73, 94 and 121 respectively. Mr. Zhang's attention was instantly focused on these remarkable finds. In the campaign of autumn 1986, one or two more bone flutes were discovered in each of tombs 233,273, 263 and 270. Finally, in the spring of 1987, again one or two bone flutes were found in each of the tombs 282, 363,341,411,344 and 387. Up to the end of excavation in June 1987, altogether 25 bone flutes had been found, of which 17 were complete or almost complete, 6 broken or fragmentary and 2 were half-finished examples. Among the 17 complete bone flutes, there were 14 having seven holes, one five-hole, one six-hole and one eight-hole bone flute. In particular, the bone flute M282:20 was exquisitely made, and complete. Zhang Juzhong, the discoverer of the bone flutes, researcher Pei Mingxiang, the. ex-director of the division, who came to the digging site to see the progress of the work, and their coworkers were all understandably very excited.

  4. Processing of hydroxylapatite coatings on titanium alloy bone prostheses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nastasi, Michael A. (Espanola, NM); Levine, Timothy E. (Santa Clara, CA); Mayer, James W. (Phoenix, AZ); Pizziconi, Vincent B. (Phoenix, AZ)

    1998-01-01

    Processing of hydroxylapatite sol-gel films on titanium alloy bone prostheses. A method utilizing non-line-of-sight ion beam implantation and/or rapid thermal processing to provide improved bonding of layers of hydroxylapatite to titanium alloy substrates while encouraging bone ingrowth into the hydroxylapatite layers located away from the substrate, is described for the fabrication of prostheses. The first layer of hydroxylapatite is mixed into the substrate by the ions or rapidly thermally annealed, while subsequent layers are heat treated or densified using ion implantation to form layers of decreasing density and larger crystallization, with the outermost layers being suitable for bone ingrowth.

  5. A novel photovoltaic-module assembly system for back contact solar cells using laser soldering technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    lamination foil and solders the interconnectors to the cells using a laser. Our newly developed prototype on the interconnector (e.g. Pin up Module) [8] or an insulation on the cell itself (busbarless emitter warp through) [9]. Other cell designs require a conventional ribbon or must have a special bone shaped interconnector. Thus

  6. Computer modeling approach for microsphere-packed bone scaffold Pallavi Lal, Wei Sun*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Wei

    bone graft [5,6], for structural and human cellular assessment of scaffolds for bone repair [7 modeling approach for constructing a three-dimensional microsphere-packed bone graft structure is presented packing model to determine the number of microspheres packed in a synthesized bone graft. The pore size

  7. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH Volume 24, Number 11, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgoyne, Chris

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH Volume 24, Number 11, 2009 Published online on May 4, 2009; doi: 10.1359/JBMR.090504 Ó 2009 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Femoral Neck Trabecular fracture cases have sufficient trabecular bone for anabolic therapies to build on. J Bone Miner Res 2009;24:1808

  8. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Minerals Form a Continuum Phase in Mature Cancellous Bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Paul A.

    of fully deprotei- nized and demineralized bovine femur cancellous bone samples show that fine trabecular

  9. Cyclophilin A (CypA) is associated with the inflammatory infiltration and alveolar bone destruction in an experimental periodontitis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lihua; Li, Chengzhang; Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079 ; Cai, Cia; Xiang, Junbo; Cao, Zhengguo; Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luo Yu Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430079

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective: CypA is able to regulate inflammatory responses and MMPs production via interaction with its cell surface receptor, EMMPRIN. This study aimed to address the possible association of CypA with pathological inflammation and destruction of periodontal tissues, and whether CypA-EMMPRIN interaction exists in periodontitis. Materials and methods: Experimental periodontitis was induced by ligation according to our previous method. Histological and radiographic examinations were performed. Western blot was used to detect CypA and EMMPRIN expressions in gingival tissues. Immunohistochemistry was applied for CypA, EMMPRIN, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, as well as cell markers of macrophage, lymphocyte and neutrophil. CypA expression, alveolar bone loss, and inflammatory infiltrations were quantified followed by correlation analyses. Results: Western blot revealed that CypA and EMMRPIN expressions were dramatically elevated in inflamed gingival tissues (ligature group) as compared to healthy gingival tissues (control group). The enhanced CypA and EMMPRIN expressions were highly consistent in cell localization on seriate sections. They were permanently co-localized in infiltrating macrophages and lymphocytes, as well as osteoclasts and osteoblasts in interradicular bone, but rarely expressed by infiltrating neutrophils. MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expressions were also sharply increased in inflamed gingiva. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were mainly over-expressed by macrophages, while MMP-1 was over-produced by fibroblasts and infiltrating cells. The number of CypA-positive cells was strongly correlated with the ACJ-AC distance (r = 0.839, p = 0.000), the number of macrophages (r = 0.972, p = 0.000), and the number of lymphocytes (r = 0.951, p = 0.000). Conclusion: CypA is associated with the inflammatory infiltration and alveolar bone destruction of periodontitis. CypA-EMMPRIN interaction may exist in these pathological processes.

  10. An experimental study of diffusional properties of small ions and nonelectrolytes in compact bone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bilge, Huseyin Fertac

    1978-01-01

    structure have been reviewed by Richeile and Onkelinx [43] who discuss the composition, structure and the dynamics of bone mineral. Bauer, et al. [2] have presented the homeostatic function of bone in relation to bone metabolism. They have shown... functions, it has been recog- nized for many years that bone tissue has important physiological func- tions relating to whole body metabolism and that its microscopic struc- ture is equally well adapted to these functions. It is well known that bone...

  11. Compact biomedical pulsed signal generator for bone tissue stimulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-06-08

    An apparatus for stimulating bone tissue for stimulating bone growth or treating osteoporosis by applying directly to the skin of the patient an alternating current electrical signal comprising wave forms known to simulate the piezoelectric constituents in bone. The apparatus may, by moving a switch, stimulate bone growth or treat osteoporosis, as desired. Based on low-power CMOS technology and enclosed in a moisture-resistant case shaped to fit comfortably, two astable multivibrators produce the desired waveforms. The amplitude, pulse width and pulse frequency, and the subpulse width and subpulse frequency of the waveforms are adjustable. The apparatus, preferably powered by a standard 9-volt battery, includes signal amplitude sensors and warning signals indicate an output is being produced and the battery needs to be replaced.

  12. Compact biomedical pulsed signal generator for bone tissue stimulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for stimulating bone tissue for stimulating bone growth or treating osteoporosis by applying directly to the skin of the patient an alternating current electrical signal comprising wave forms known to simulate the piezoelectric constituents in bone. The apparatus may, by moving a switch, stimulate bone growth or treat osteoporosis, as desired. Based on low-power CMOS technology and enclosed in a moisture-resistant case shaped to fit comfortably, two astable multivibrators produce the desired waveforms. The amplitude, pulse width and pulse frequency, and the subpulse width and subpulse frequency of the waveforms are adjustable. The apparatus, preferably powered by a standard 9-volt battery, includes signal amplitude sensors and warning signals indicate an output is being produced and the battery needs to be replaced.

  13. Modular ‘Click-in-Emulsion’ Bone-Targeted Nanogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Daniel A.

    A new class of nanogel demonstrates modular biodistribution and affinity for bone. Nanogels, ~70 nm in diameter and synthesized via an astoichiometric click-chemistry in-emulsion method, controllably display residual, free ...

  14. On the mechanistic origins of toughness in bone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Launey, Maximilien E.; Buehler, Markus J.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2009-10-07

    One of the most intriguing protein materials found in Nature is bone, a material composed out of assemblies of tropocollagen molecules and tiny hydroxyapatite mineral crystals, forming an extremely tough, yet lightweight, adaptive and multi-functional material. Bone has evolved to provide structural support to organisms, and therefore, its mechanical properties are of great physiological relevance. In this article, we review the structure and properties of bone, focusing on mechanical deformation and fracture behavior from the perspective of the multi-dimensional hierarchical nature of its structure. In fact, bone derives its resistance to fracture with a multitude of deformation and toughening mechanisms at many of these size-scales, ranging from the nanoscale structure of its protein molecules to its macroscopic physiological scale.

  15. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Source Beamline 8.3.2 to investigate changes in crack path and toughening mechanisms in human cortical bone with increased exposure to radiation, finding that exposure to high...

  16. Research Finds Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Bone Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the ALS has also found that vitamin D deficiency plays a significant role in the bone-aging process. Low levels of vitamin D, the "sunshine vitamin," have been previously linked...

  17. The bones of the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.; Beaumont, Christopher N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Alves, João [University of Vienna, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Benjamin, Robert A. [University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, Whitewater, WI 53190 (United States); Borkin, Michelle A. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burkert, Andreas [University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Dame, Thomas M. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jackson, James [Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Kauffmann, Jens [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Robitaille, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Smith, Rowan J. [Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universiät Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-12-10

    The very long and thin infrared dark cloud 'Nessie' is even longer than had been previously claimed, and an analysis of its Galactic location suggests that it lies directly in the Milky Way's mid-plane, tracing out a highly elongated bone-like feature within the prominent Scutum-Centaurus spiral arm. Re-analysis of mid-infrared imagery from the Spitzer Space Telescope shows that this infrared dark cloud (IRDC) is at least two and possibly as many as five times longer than had originally been claimed by Nessie's discoverers; its aspect ratio is therefore at least 300:1 and possibly as large as 800:1. A careful accounting for both the Sun's offset from the Galactic plane (?25 pc) and the Galactic center's offset from the (l{sup II} , b{sup II} ) = (0, 0) position shows that the latitude of the true Galactic mid-plane at the 3.1 kpc distance to the Scutum-Centaurus Arm is not b = 0, but instead closer to b = –0.4, which is the latitude of Nessie to within a few parsecs. An analysis of the radial velocities of low-density (CO) and high-density (NH{sub 3}) gas associated with the Nessie dust feature suggests that Nessie runs along the Scutum-Centaurus Arm in position-position-velocity space, which means it likely forms a dense 'spine' of the arm in real space as well. The Scutum-Centaurus Arm is the closest major spiral arm to the Sun toward the inner Galaxy, and, at the longitude of Nessie, it is almost perpendicular to our line of sight, making Nessie the easiest feature to see as a shadow elongated along the Galactic plane from our location. Future high-resolution dust mapping and molecular line observations of the harder-to-find Galactic 'bones' should allow us to exploit the Sun's position above the plane to gain a (very foreshortened) view 'from above' the Milky Way's structure.

  18. Ibuprofen Administered Pre- or Post- Simulated Resistance Exercise Training Does Not Diminsh Gains in Bone Formation or Bone Mass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, David

    2012-02-14

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to suppress bone formation when administered before, but not if administered after, an acute bout of mechanical load in rats. The NSAID ibuprofen inhibits ...

  19. www.yalecancercenter.org Immunotherapies for Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    , and so I started to make T cells from the blood of bone marrow donors and we started to infuse them after infusion would start to proliferate, or divide. So if you put in 1 million cells, you might end up

  20. Immunology Letters 52 (1996) 145-152 EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes protect against human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieberman, Judy

    1996-01-01

    to restore immune surveillance by infusion of immunocompetent lymphocytes in the management of post in a small number of T cell-depleted allo- geneic bone marrow transplant recipients after infusion was complicated by pulmonary com- promise and GVHD [2]. Due to the heterogeneous mixture of cells infused

  1. IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number: 679 (2015) | doi:10.1038/bonekey.2015.46

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    2015-01-01

    IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number `Defining the Bone Metastasis Niche'. CABS ORAL COMMUNICATIONS The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS

  2. Common variants in the region around Osterix are associated with bone mineral density and growth in childhood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peltonen, Leena

    Peak bone mass achieved in adolescence is a determinant of bone mass in later life. In order to identify genetic variants affecting bone mineral density (BMD), we performed a genome-wide association study of BMD and related ...

  3. Automated simulation of areal bone mineral density assessment in the distal radius from high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burghardt, A. J.; Kazakia, G. J.; Link, T. M.; Majumdar, S.

    2009-01-01

    of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Miner Res 16:1108–1119 3.of Osteoporotic Fractures. J Bone Miner Res 18:1947–1954 4.and calcaneus. J Bone Miner Res 14:1167–1174 7. Muller R,

  4. On the effect of x-ray irradiation on the deformation and fracture behavior of human cortical bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Holly D.

    2010-01-01

    effects  of  gamma  irradiation  on  allograft  biology S.   Effects  of  gamma? irradiation  on  the  human bone  after  gamma  irradiation.   J.   Bone  Joint  Surg. ?

  5. Modelling and simulation of acrylic bone cement injection and curing within the framework of vertebroplasty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landgraf, Ralf; Kolmeder, Sebastian; Lion, Alexander; Lebsack, Helena; Kober, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    The minimal invasive procedure of vertebroplasty is a surgical technique to treat compression fractures of vertebral bodies. During the treatment liquid bone cement gets injected into the affected vertebral body and therein cures to a solid. In order to investigate the treatment and the impact of injected bone cement on the vertebra, an integrated modelling and simulation framework has been developed. The framework includes (i) the generation of computer models based on microCT images of human cancellous bone, (ii) CFD simulations of bone cement injection into the trabecular structure of a vertebral body as well as (iii) non-linear FEM simulations of the bone cement curing. Thereby, microstructural models of trabecular bone structures are employed. Furthermore, a detailed description of the material behaviour of acrylic bone cements is provided. More precisely, a non-linear fluid flow model is chosen for the representation of the bone cement behaviour during injection and a non-linear viscoelastic material mo...

  6. Compressive behavior of trabecular bone in the proximal tibia using a cellular solid model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prommin, Danu

    2005-11-01

    In this study, trabecular architecture is considered as a cellular solid structure, including both intact and damaged bone models. ??Intact?? bone models were constructed based on ideal versions of 25, 60 and 80-year-old ...

  7. Bone Tissue Engineering Using Colloidal Gels and Native Extracellular Matrix Biomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, Stephen Connor

    2015-05-31

    scaffolding technology for the regeneration of bone tissue in non-load bearing critical-sized defects. This represents the first attempt to form colloids exclusively from biomaterials found in the microenvironment of healing bone fractures including hyaluronic...

  8. Apatite-polymer composites for the controlled delivery of bone morphogenetic proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yong, Tseh-Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Current treatment of bone defects due to trauma, cancer, or degenerative spine diseases involves the implantation of a bone graft. Autografts, which are harvested from the patient's own body, are associated with problems ...

  9. Analysis and design of an adjustable bone plate for mandibular fracture fixation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervantes, Thomas Michael

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the design, analysis and testing of a bone plate for mandibular fracture fixation. Conventional bone plates are commonly used to set fractures of the mandible in a surgical setting. If proper alignment ...

  10. Impact of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Bone Adaptations to Simulated Resistance Training 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camp, Kaleigh Ann

    2013-04-30

    Young and ovariectomized animals eating diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exhibit enhanced bone formation and decrease bone loss, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 PUFA found in fish ...

  11. Correlation of mechanical viscoelastic properties to microstructure of equine cortical bone tissue 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, Andrew Kerr

    1995-01-01

    were taken from equine third metacarpal bones and machined into rectangular slabs approximately 46 mm long, 10 mm wide, and 2 mm thick. After initial testing to determine the linear viscoelastic region of equine compact bone, the specimens were tested...

  12. High-speed photography of the development of microdamage in trabecular bone during compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansma, Paul

    is situated at the end of the long bones and in the spinal column, where it fills all of the inner vertebral, osteoarthritic, and osteoporotic human vertebral trabecular bone compressed at high strain rates. Apparent

  13. High-Speed Photography of Human Trabecular Bone during Compression Philipp J. Thurner1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansma, Paul

    column, where it fills all of the inner vertebral space. In the long bones it transfers loads from joint study, we investigated healthy, osteoarthritic, and osteoporotic human vertebral trabecular bone

  14. Detection of bone disease in dogs by radioisotope scanning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Earl Louis

    1971-01-01

    in dogs for the diagnosis and progression of bone disease was studied. Twc isotopes of strontium, Sr and 85 87m Sr, were studied. The Sr was purchased 85 commercially and the Sr was produced at the 87m Texas A8cM University Nuclear Science Center... by the irradiation oi' Sr(N05)2. Criteria for bone scanning in dogs using Sr 85 and Sr were determined. Pour normal young dogs 87m were injected with Sr and four with Sr. Doses 85 87m of 100 p&i of Sr and 1 mCi of Sr were found . to 85 87m produoe satisfactory...

  15. Measurement of bone mineral content in caged and active cats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tveter, Diane Ellen

    1988-01-01

    errors but these can be reduced by using two different x-ray energies. Dual energy CT operates on a basis similar to dual photon absorptiometry (explained below). The difference in attenuation between tissue and bone is greater for a lower energy... to act as a soft tissue equivalent (35). Effects of fat and soft tissue are decreased when dual energy CT is used (33). Data from each of the two different photon energies are combined and result in images of soft tissue and bone mineral regions. Beam...

  16. Is decreased bone mineral density associated with development of scoliosis? A bipedal osteopenic rat model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dede, Ozgur; Akel, Ibrahim; Demirkiran, Gokhan; Yalcin, Nadir; Marcucio, Ralph; Acaroglu, Emre

    2011-01-01

    more time standing erect. Dual energy X-ray absorbtiometry (acid; DEXA: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; BMD: Bone

  17. Antler Stiffness in Moose (Alces alces): Correlated Evolution of Bone Function and Material Properties?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blob, Richard W.

    , Clemson, South Carolina 29634 ABSTRACT The material properties of bone can vary considerably among in bone material properties might be correlated with differing functional demands at any of these scales- tudes like the Yukon has the potential to compromise bone material properties. However, moose have

  18. Flexible Statistical Models for Growth Fragments: a Study of Bone Mineral Acquisition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastie, Trevor

    Flexible Statistical Models for Growth Fragments: a Study of Bone Mineral Acquisition Trevor J describe some statistical modeling of longitudinal data from a pediatric study of bone mineral acquisition- surements of bone mineral density are available for each subject, taken roughly one year apart, and between

  19. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH Volume 24, Number 2, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH Volume 24, Number 2, 2009 Published online on October 13, 2008; doi: 10.1359/JBMR.81005 Ó 2009 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research Prolonged Treatments With Antiresorptive Agents and PTH Have Different Effects on Bone Strength and the Degree of Mineralization in Old

  20. Fracture resistance of human cortical bone across multiple length-scales at physiological strain rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Fracture resistance of human cortical bone across multiple length-scales at physiological strain Accepted 22 March 2014 Available online 13 April 2014 Keywords: Bone Strain rate Fracture toughness Plasticity X-ray diffraction a b s t r a c t While most fracture-mechanics investigations on bone have been

  1. Anisotropy in the compressive mechanical properties of bovine cortical bone and the mineral and protein constituents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKittrick, Joanna

    Cortical bone Compression Demineralization Deproteinization a b s t r a c t The mechanical properties of fully demineralized, fully deproteinized and untreated cortical bovine femur bone were investigated. Demineralization and deproteinization of the bone demonstrated that contiguous, stand-alone structures result

  2. Spectral Analysis and Connectivity of Porous Microstructures in Bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    that quantifies brine connectivity and its thermal evolution can also help assess the impact of osteoporosis on trabecular structure. Central to our approach is the spectral measure of a composite material, which contains, in dense cortical bone the pores can be sparse and disconnected, yet exhibit increasing volume fraction

  3. Refinement of the $n-?$ and $p-?$ fish-bone potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Smith; R. Woodhouse; Z. Papp

    2012-09-04

    The fishbone potential of composite particles simulates the Pauli effect by nonlocal terms. We determine the $n-\\alpha$ and $p-\\alpha$ fish-bone potential by simultaneously fitting to the experimental phase shifts. We found that with a double Gaussian parametrization of the local potential can describe the $n-\\alpha$ and $p-\\alpha$ phase shifts for all partial waves.

  4. GEORGIA TECHEMORYPKU SEED GRANT PROGRAM Nanostructure at Bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    nanofibers to mimic the collagen fiber structure of bone matrix. #12;· Electrospinning is a simple and natural polymers. Electrospinning #12;PMMA PEO #12;Alginate fiber SEM image of the alginate in THF/DMF solvent Fabricate the fibrous scaffolds by electrospinning Calcine the samples to remove

  5. Scaffolds for bone repair using computer aided design and manufacture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vadillo, Philippe Tadeusz

    2009-01-01

    of the extruder, the diameter of the pores can be precisely controlled to an accuracy of 10?m, in the manufactured scaffolds the pore size ranges from 100 to 300?m as that is what is found in trabecular bone. Natural and synthetic polymers were plotted which...

  6. Prediction and Informative Risk Factor Selection of Bone Diseases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buffalo, State University of New York

    --Electronic health records (EHRs); risk factor analysis; integrated feature extraction; risk factor selection1 Prediction and Informative Risk Factor Selection of Bone Diseases Hui Li, Xiaoyi Li, Murali and the overwhelming amount of electronic health records (EHRs) shared by healthcare institutions and practitioners, we

  7. Methods for testing the strength of cancellous bone and tested method effects on cortical bone in the ovariectomized rat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruhmann, Sean Phillip

    1998-01-01

    In this study, two mechanical testing procedures were developed to test the strength of cancellous bone from the proximal tibia of the rat, the "punch method" and the "whole slice method". These were used to quantify the effect of ovariectomy on rat...

  8. Studies with Colloids Containing Radioisotopes of Yttrium, Zirconium, Columbium and Lanthaum: 2. The Controlled Selective Localization of Radioisotopes of Yttrium, Zirconium, Columbium in the Bone Marrow, Liver and Spleen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, E.L.

    2010-01-01

    IU.DIOISOTOPES OF YTTRIUM, ZIRCONIUM, COLUMBIUM, AND LANTHt\\of Radioisotopes of Yttrium, Zirconium, and Columbium in thewith a colloid of. zirconium-oxide suspended in sodium

  9. Bone quality measurements Osteoporos Int. 2011 Aug;22(8):2225-40. New laboratory tools in the assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and affect ~30 % of women after the menopause and ~10 % of men. Dual Energy bone densitometry (DXA) has and computer techniques are now available. Table 1: main abbreviations used in the present review DXA Dual Energy bone densitometry BMD bone mineral density BSU bone structure unit microCT microcomputed

  10. Characterization of the effects of x-ray irradiation on the hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of human cortical bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Holly

    2012-01-01

    severe  loss  in  the  plastic  properties  of  bone  with  the  plastic,  rather  than  elastic,  properties  of  

  11. The degree of bone mineralization is maintained with single intravenous bisphosphonates in aged estrogen-deficient rats and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    The degree of bone mineralization is maintained with single intravenous bisphosphonates in aged greater than can be explained by an increase in bone mineral density. In this study, 18-month Fischer 344 to measure lumbar vertebral bone microarchitecture, the degree of bone mineralization (DBM

  12. BONE CHARACTERIZATION ASME_Fatemi_chap13.indd 251 3/18/2008 5:01:36 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    quality. Assessment of mechanical properties of human bone in vivo by mechanical vibration analysis for the in vivo determination of bone mechanical characteristics. The potential of vibration analysis applied), to infer progressive me- chanical damage in human bone, in vitro. Standard measures of bone mechanical

  13. Poly(e-caprolactone) scaffolds of highly controlled porosity and interconnectivity derived from co-continuous polymer blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buschmann, Michael

    -continuous polymer blends: model bead and cell infiltration behavior Nima Ghavidel Mehr · Xian Li · Marianne B distributions with fully interconnected pores. This study focuses on the development of novel poly scaffold infiltration by 10-lm diameter poly- styrene beads intended to mimic trypsinized human bone marrow

  14. Mechanical signal influence on mesenchymal stem cell fate is enhanced by incorporation of refractory periods into the loading regimen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical signal influence on mesenchymal stem cell fate is enhanced by incorporation Adipogenesis Obesity Osteoblastogenesis b-catenin a b s t r a c t Mechanical signals of both low and high mesenchymal stem cell pools from which fat and bone precursors emerge. To identify an idealized mechanical

  15. Macrophage-Derived Complement Component C4 Can Restore Humoral Immunity in C4-Deficient Mice1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knipe, David M.

    Macrophage-Derived Complement Component C4 Can Restore Humoral Immunity in C4-Deficient Mice1-dependent Ags. To test the role of bone marrow-derived C4 in humoral immunity, we reconstituted deficient animals with wild-type bone marrow or an enriched fraction of bone marrow-derived macrophages. C4 chimeras

  16. Enhancement of Growth Performance and Bone Mineralization in Market Broilers through Dietary Enzymes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coppedge, Jacob Ryan

    2012-02-14

    phosphorus (aP) in the control diets resulted in improved bird performance and bone ash data. The presence of dietary phytase in phosphorus deficient diets resulted in improvements in growth parameters and bone mineralization. Regression analysis... and processing parameters. In Experiments 3 and 4, a battery trial and a floor trial were conducted to determine the effects of phytase and NSPase enzyme co-administration on growth and bone ash in low phosphorus diets. Increasing the level of available...

  17. Long-term effects of lead poisoning on bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donázar, José A.

    ´n en Recursos Cinege´ticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain Bone

  18. Cell Stem Cell Stem Cell States, Fates,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Carsten

    Cell Stem Cell Review Stem Cell States, Fates, and the Rules of Attraction Tariq Enver,1 Martin Pera,2 Carsten Peterson,3,4 and Peter W. Andrews5,* 1The Molecular Haematology Unit, The Weatherall and their relationship to commitment to differ- entiate and lineage selection can be elucidated in terms of a landscape

  19. Volumetric femoral BMD, bone geometry, and serum sclerostin levels differ between type 2 diabetic postmenopausal women with and without fragility fractures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    in women and men. J Bone Miner Res 26:373–379 46. Durosierwith diabetes. J Bone Miner Res 27:301–308 8. Patsch JM,fragility fractures. J Bone Miner Res 28: 9. Patsch JM, Li

  20. Dickkopf-1 in Craniofacial Bone and Tooth Development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodgers, Anika Sarah

    2014-08-20

    stream_source_info RODGERS-DISSERTATION-2014.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 175992 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name RODGERS-DISSERTATION-2014.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... DICKKOPF-1 IN CRANIOFACIAL BONE AND TOOTH DEVELOPMENT A Dissertation by ANIKA SARAH RODGERS Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR...

  1. Hydroxyapatite-binding peptides for bone growth and inhibition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R. (Berkeley, CA); Song, Jie (Shrewsbury, MA); Lee, Seung-Wuk (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2011-09-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptides are selected using combinatorial phage library display. Pseudo-repetitive consensus amino acid sequences possessing periodic hydroxyl side chains in every two or three amino acid sequences are obtained. These sequences resemble the (Gly-Pro-Hyp).sub.x repeat of human type I collagen, a major component of extracellular matrices of natural bone. A consistent presence of basic amino acid residues is also observed. The peptides are synthesized by the solid-phase synthetic method and then used for template-driven HA-mineralization. Microscopy reveal that the peptides template the growth of polycrystalline HA crystals .about.40 nm in size.

  2. Effects of dietary silicon on bone characteristics of poultry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plyler, James Edward

    1977-01-01

    with day-old cockerels, eight-week-old turkey poults, and spent hens, to determine the effects of feeding dietary silicon in the form of sodium meta-silicate on bone character- istics. Growth effects were also determined for the cockerels and poults.... In experiments one and, rt:wo, 832 day-old Single Comb White Leghorn cockerel were fed corn-soy chick starter diets at two calcium levels, 0. 42% and 1. 00%. 'Each level was supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200 p. p. m. silicon, in the form of sodium meta...

  3. Zhejiang Bone New Material Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (UtilityMichigan) JumpZhuyuan ElectricTumuxiHydropower DevelopmentBone New

  4. IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number: 675 (2015) | doi:10.1038/bonekey.2015.42

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    2015-01-01

    IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number declared no competing interests. ORAL POSTERS ­ PRE-CLINICAL The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS

  5. IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number: 685 (2015) | doi:10.1038/bonekey.2015.53

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    2015-01-01

    IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number of ECTS and IBMS Rotterdam, The Netherlands 25­28 April 2015 POSTMENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS, DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS

  6. A Novel Method for the Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Cancellous Bone in the Rat Distal Femur 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucas, Matthew W.

    2010-01-14

    The mechanical properties of the cancellous bone in the laboratory rat animal model are of great interest to the research community for the evaluation of treatments for osteoporosis. Cancellous bone responds rapidly and ...

  7. Development/Plasticity/Repair The Bone Morphogenetic Protein Roof Plate Chemorepellent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Samantha

    Development/Plasticity/Repair The Bone Morphogenetic Protein Roof Plate Chemorepellent Regulates, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8 Commissural spinal axons extend away from the roof plate (RP) in response to the dorsal midline and are generated by the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the roof plate (RP) (Liem

  8. Vitamin K2 Regulation of Bone Homeostasis Is Mediated by the Steroid and Xenobiotic Receptor SXR*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumberg, Bruce

    Vitamin K2 Regulation of Bone Homeostasis Is Mediated by the Steroid and Xenobiotic Receptor SXR Institute, The City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010-3000 Vitamin K2 is a critical nutrient required for blood clotting that also plays an important role in bone forma- tion. Vitamin K2

  9. Collaborative Research Opportunities with Henry Ford Health System: Bones, Brains, Blood Pressure, and Beyond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    , and Beyond Professional and Academic Development (PAD) Seminar Series Tuesday, January 10, 2012 ­ 9:00 to 10Collaborative Research Opportunities with Henry Ford Health System: Bones, Brains, Blood Pressure Research at HFHS HFHS Department of Orthopaedic Surgery's Bone and Joint Center HFHS Department of Internal

  10. A comparative study of young and mature bovine cortical bone q Zherrina Manilay a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKittrick, Joanna

    .% proteins (mostly collagen-I, with a small amount of non-collageneous proteins) and 10 wt.% water [1 is present in the areas that need to absorb energy (skull, ribs, vertebra). Cortical bone further consists growing animals and is an indicator of non-human bone [4]. Katz and Yoon [5] showed that plexiform areas

  11. Mechanistic aspects of the fracture toughness of elk antler bone M.E. Launey a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    hydroxyapatite nanoparticles that form a tough, light- weight, adaptive and multi-functional material. Bone-curves a b s t r a c t Bone is an adaptive material that is designed for different functional requirements these functions, it is a dynamic organ that is constantly remodeling and changing shape to adapt to the forces

  12. A Novel 3D Segmentation of Vertebral Bones from Volumetric CT Images Using Graph Cuts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farag, Aly A.

    of the vertebral bones of spine column with a particular focus on the lumbar spine. The primary goalA Novel 3D Segmentation of Vertebral Bones from Volumetric CT Images Using Graph Cuts Melih S to the Vertebral bodies (VBs). In this paper, we present a novel and fast 3D segmentation framework of VBs

  13. 1174 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 53, NO. 6, JUNE 2006 Microwave Drilling of Bones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gefen, Amit

    employs lasers for bone drilling [3], however, this method may be too costly for large-scale use1174 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 53, NO. 6, JUNE 2006 Microwave Drilling*, Member, IEEE Abstract--This paper presents a feasibility study of drilling in fresh wet bone tissue

  14. Fracture, aging, and disease in bone J.W. Ager III

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Fracture, aging, and disease in bone J.W. Ager III Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley-known increase with age in fracture risk of human bone is essential. This also represents a challenge from accompanying the process of aging using appropriate multiscale experimental methods and relating them

  15. Effect of aging on the toughness of human cortical bone: evaluation by R-curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Effect of aging on the toughness of human cortical bone: evaluation by R-curves R.K. Nallaa,b , J online 27 October 2004 Abstract Age-related deterioration of the fracture properties of bone, coupled, and hence, an understanding of how its fracture properties degrade with age is essential. The present study

  16. Mixed-mode fracture of human cortical bone Elizabeth A. Zimmermann a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Mixed-mode fracture of human cortical bone Elizabeth A. Zimmermann a,b , Maximilien E. Launey Available online 1 July 2009 Keywords: Human cortical bone Mixed-mode fracture Fracture toughness Fracture mechanisms a b s t r a c t Although the mode I (tensile opening) fracture toughness has been the focus

  17. 3D Bone Microarchitecture Modeling and Fracture Risk Department of Computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buffalo, State University of New York

    3D Bone Microarchitecture Modeling and Fracture Risk Prediction Hui Li Department of Computer will also rise. It calls for innovative research on understanding of osteoporo- sis and fracture mechanisms-of-the-art probabilistic approach to analyze bone fracture risk factors including demographic attributes and life styles

  18. IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number: 676 (2015) | doi:10.1038/bonekey.2015.43

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    2015-01-01

    IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number and IBMS Rotterdam, The Netherlands 25­28 April 2015 OP1 (P16) HR-pQCT and DXA Changes in Bone Density

  19. Bone-cement interface micromechanical model under cyclic loading J.A. Sanz-Herrera1, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariza Moreno, Pilar

    Bone-cement interface micromechanical model under cyclic loading J.A. Sanz-Herrera1, a , H descubrimientos s/n 41092 Seville (Spain) a jsanz@us.es, b helgaem@gmail.com, c mpariza@us.es Keywords: Bone-cement of the last XX century. Normally, implant is fixed to bone by means of a polymer material known as bone cement

  20. Estimation of the 3D self-similarity parameter of trabecular bone from its 2D projection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of osteoporosis is mainly based on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry which amounts to measuring bone mass

  1. The role of E2f4 in cell cycle exit and bone development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Emily S. (Emily Sun Young)

    2009-01-01

    Members of the E2F family of transcription factors are critical downstream effectors of the pocket protein family and mediate the regulation of genes required for cellular proliferation. The repressive E2Fs act in association ...

  2. The role of cGMP-dependent protein kinases in bone cell growth and survival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marathe, Nisha Madhav

    2011-01-01

    T, Pan W, Zhou H, Xiao Z: Resveratrol enhances proliferationT, Pan W, Zhou H, Xiao Z: Resveratrol enhances proliferation

  3. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by /sup 125/I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 2. Bjorn technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Hausmann, E.

    1982-05-01

    The Bjorn technique is widely used in periodontal studies as a standardized measure of alveolar bone. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using /sup 125/I absorptiometry to measure bone mass. The purpose of this study was to compare /sup 125/I absorptiometry with the Bjorn technique in detecting small sequential losses of alveolary bone. Four periodontal-like defects of incrementally increasing size were produced in alveolar bone in the posterior segment of the maxilla of a human skull. An attempt was made to sequentially reduce the amount of bone in 10% increments until no bone remained, a through and through defect. The bone remaining at each step was measured using /sup 125/I absorptiometry. At each site the /sup 125/I absorptiometry measurements were made at the same location by fixing the photon source to a prefabricated precision-made occlusal splint. This site was just beneath the crest and midway between the borders of two adjacent teeth. Bone loss was also determined by the Bjorn technique. Standardized intraoral films were taken using a custom-fitted acrylic clutch, and bone measurements were made from the root apex to coronal height of the lamina dura. A comparison of the data indicates that: (1) in early bone loss, less than 30%, the Bjorn technique underestimates the amount of loss, and (2) in advanced bone loss, more than 60% the Bjorn technique overestimates it.

  4. Imaging regenerating bone tissue based on neural networks applied to micro-diffraction measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campi, G.; Pezzotti, G. [Institute of Crystallography, CNR, via Salaria Km 29.300, I-00015, Monterotondo Roma (Italy)] [Institute of Crystallography, CNR, via Salaria Km 29.300, I-00015, Monterotondo Roma (Italy); Fratini, M. [Centro Fermi -Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche 'Enrico Fermi', Roma (Italy)] [Centro Fermi -Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche 'Enrico Fermi', Roma (Italy); Ricci, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)] [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Burghammer, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B. P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)] [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B. P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Cancedda, R.; Mastrogiacomo, M. [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, and Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale dell'Università di Genova and AUO San Martino Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132, Genova (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, and Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale dell'Università di Genova and AUO San Martino Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132, Genova (Italy); Bukreeva, I.; Cedola, A. [Institute for Chemical and Physical Process, CNR, c/o Physics Dep. at Sapienza University, P-le A. Moro 5, 00185, Roma (Italy)] [Institute for Chemical and Physical Process, CNR, c/o Physics Dep. at Sapienza University, P-le A. Moro 5, 00185, Roma (Italy)

    2013-12-16

    We monitored bone regeneration in a tissue engineering approach. To visualize and understand the structural evolution, the samples have been measured by X-ray micro-diffraction. We find that bone tissue regeneration proceeds through a multi-step mechanism, each step providing a specific diffraction signal. The large amount of data have been classified according to their structure and associated to the process they came from combining Neural Networks algorithms with least square pattern analysis. In this way, we obtain spatial maps of the different components of the tissues visualizing the complex kinetic at the base of the bone regeneration.

  5. IBMS BoneKEy. 2010 May;7(5):171-181 http://www.bonekey-ibms.org/cgi/content/full/ibmske;7/5/171

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toledo, University of

    IBMS BoneKEy. 2010 May;7(5):171-181 http://www.bonekey-ibms.org/cgi/content/full/ibmske;7/5/171 doi regulation of energy metabolism. IBMS BoneKEy. 2010 May;7(5):171-181. 2010 International Bone & Mineral energy storage and insulin signaling. The dietary abundance of fatty acids increases the #12;IBMS Bone

  6. CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    examined under oil immersion at 800 and 1200 power. Cells were measured at 800 power. Cell classificationCELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF A PORTUGUESE SHARK describe the cell types, differential cell counts, and measurements of both the erythrocytes and leukocytes

  7. Mineral status, bone characterisitics, carcass characteristics, and performance of feedlot lambs implanted with zeranol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niemann, Dawn Renee

    1998-01-01

    Fifty-four Rambouillet (avg wt, 34.6 kg) wether lambs were used to determine the effects of zeranol of p and N excretion, animal performance, carcass characteristics, and bone characteristics. Lambs were blocked by sire, ...

  8. Finite-Element Analysis of Biting Behavior and Bone Stress in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumont, Elizabeth R.

    about the biomechanical behavior of bones and muscles under controlled experimental condi- tions possess several types of complex teeth that occupy different functional regions of the mouth. In keeping

  9. The effect of moderate alcohol intake on bone mineral density of ovariectomized rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shipley, Debra Lynn

    1997-01-01

    groups had access to rat chow and distilled water ad libitim. Ovariectomized animals had increased weight and decreased femur density and bone volume per total volume. They also had decreased total trubecular area, trabecular area and number as well...

  10. Longitudinal ultrasound measurement of the equine third metacarpal bone as a predictor of mechanical testing properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Stephanie Ann

    1999-01-01

    diagnostic technique to identify the onset of bucked shins. The purpose of this study was to determine if the longitudinal speed of sound as measured by Soundscan 2000[] was an appropriate predictor of bone strength characterized by mechanical testing...

  11. Methods and modeling for the reduced platen compression of cancellous bone in the rodent proximal tibia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, William Elliott

    2002-01-01

    This study focused on the reduced platen compression (RPC) test of cancellous bone in the rodent proximal tibia. The objective was to improve methods for this mechanical test, specifically in the areas of specimen location, specimen preparation...

  12. Relations between the ultrasonic elastic moduli of compact bone and tissue microstructure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahern, John Charles

    1994-01-01

    for Haversian compact bone as homogeneous solid. This study observed that mild changes in the microstructure can predict variations in the mechanical properties. All the tested material properties exhibit gradual increases for small positive changes in ash...

  13. Biochemical markers of bone modeling and remodeling in juvenile racehorses at varying mineral intakes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eller, Elena Maria

    2007-09-17

    greater than current NRC recommendations provided a protective effect on the developing skeleton of the young racehorse. Additionally, the biochemical markers used in this study were sensitive enough to track daily changes in bone activity resulting from...

  14. Investigation of bone response to implant materials by electron microscopy and computer simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hao, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    (cont.) implementation of this scintigraphic method for quantitative studies of osteoblast-mediated mineralization in vitro. A 2-D truss finite element model is used to study the remodeling of trabecular bone. Using strain ...

  15. On the multiscale origins of fracture resistance in human bone and its biological degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Barth, Holly D.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2012-03-09

    Akin to other mineralized tissues, human cortical bone can resist deformation and fracture due to the nature of its hierarchical structure, which spans the molecular to macroscopic length-scales. Deformation at the smallest scales, mainly through the composite action of the mineral and collagen, contributes to bone?s strength or intrinsic fracture resistance, while crack-tip shielding mechanisms active on the microstructural scale contribute to the extrinsic fracture resistance once cracking begins. The efficiency with which these structural features can resist fracture at both small and large length-scales becomes severely degraded with such factors as aging, irradiation and disease. Indeed aging and irradiation can cause changes to the cross-link profile at fibrillar length-scales as well as changes at the three orders of magnitude larger scale of the osteonal structures, both of which combine to inhibit the bone's overall resistance to the initiation and growth of cracks.

  16. Analysis of Bone Augmentation With Corticotomy-Facilitated Dental Expansion: A Histologic & Micro-CT Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bare, Britney

    2015-05-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of bone grafting when performed in association with corticotomies. A randomized split-mouth design was utilized in seven adult male beagle dogs. Corticotomies were performed with a piezosurgery...

  17. Method for palliation of pain in human bone cancer using therapeutic tin-117m compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Meinken, George E. (Middle Island, NY); Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Atkins, Harold L. (Setauket, NY)

    1998-12-29

    The invention provides a method for the palliation of bone pain due to cancer by the administration of a unique dosage of a tin-117m (Sn-117m) stannic chelate complex in a pharmaceutically acceptable composition. In addition, the invention provides a method for simultaneous palliation of bone pain and radiotherapy in cancer patients using compositions containing Sn-117m chelates. The invention also provides a method for palliating bone pain in cancer patients using Sn-117m-containing compositions and monitoring patient status by imaging the distribution of the Sn-117m in the patients. Also provided are pharmaceutically acceptable compositions containing Sn-117m chelate complexes for the palliation of bone pain in cancer patients.

  18. Method for palliation of pain in human bone cancer using therapeutic tin-117m compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Mausner, L.F.; Atkins, H.L.

    1998-12-29

    The invention provides a method for the palliation of bone pain due to cancer by the administration of a unique dosage of a tin-117m (Sn-117m) stannic chelate complex in a pharmaceutically acceptable composition. In addition, the invention provides a method for simultaneous palliation of bone pain and radiotherapy in cancer patients using compositions containing Sn-117m chelates. The invention also provides a method for palliating bone pain in cancer patients using Sn-117m-containing compositions and monitoring patient status by imaging the distribution of the Sn-117m in the patients. Also provided are pharmaceutically acceptable compositions containing Sn-117m chelate complexes for the palliation of bone pain in cancer patients. 5 figs.

  19. Metabolic modeling for the deposition of transuranic nuclides on bone surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halter, Donald Anthony

    1997-01-01

    of plutonium throughout the body has still not been developed. It was determined that the majority of these nuclides are deposited on bone surfaces and are removed with a specific biological half-life, [ ],. ICRP Publication 2 addressed the dosimetry...

  20. Inorganic-Organic Shape Memory Polymers and Foams for Bone Defect Repairs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Dawei

    2013-04-16

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop a “self-fitting” shape memory polymer (SMP) scaffold for the repair of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) bone defects. CMF defects may be caused by trauma, tumor removal or congenital abnormalities...

  1. Development of Osteoinductive, High Porosity PolyHIPEs as Injectable Bone Grafts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Jennifer Lindsey

    2014-08-25

    . Methods to modulate polyHIPE pore architecture, compressive properties, and degradation rates were established. Injectable polyHIPEs with pore sizes ranging from 1- 200 ?m, compressive properties comparable to human cancellous bone, and degradation...

  2. The petrous portion of the human temporal bone: potential for forensic individuation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiersema, Jason Matthew

    2009-06-02

    are threefold: (1) To investigate variability in the shape of the petrous portion of the human temporal bone using two-dimensional morphometric analysis; (2) to evaluate the reliability of the resultant method in forensic identification; and (3) to consider...

  3. Classification and volumetric analysis of temporal bone pneumatization using cone beam computed tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terasaki, Mark

    Classification and volumetric analysis of temporal bone pneumatization using cone beam computed Objective. This study performed volumetric analysis and classified different repeated patterns of temporal. Volumetric analysis of the pneumatization was performed using a window thresholding procedure on multiplanar

  4. Factors Affecting the Mechanical Behavior of Bone Subrata Saha, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Robert P.

    Factors Affecting the Mechanical Behavior of Bone by Subrata Saha, Ph.D. Research Professor-mail: subrata.saha@downstate.edu ABSTRACT The load carrying capacity of our skeletal system depends

  5. Calcium balance and bone density in immature horses fed a high protein diet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spooner, Holly Sue

    2006-10-30

    Studies in other species indicate high protein diets increase urinary calcium (Ca) excretion and may lead to negative calcium balance and reduced bone density. As overfeeding of protein is commonplace in the horse ...

  6. Patterns of Practice in Palliative Radiotherapy for Painful Bone Metastases: A Survey in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Naoki; Shikama, Naoto; Wada, Hitoshi; Harada, Hideyuki; Nozaki, Miwako; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Tago, Masao; Oguchi, Masahiko; Uchida, Nobue

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the current patterns of practice in Japan and to investigate factors that may make clinicians reluctant to use single-fraction radiotherapy (SF-RT). Methods and Materials: Members of the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) completed an Internet-based survey and described the radiotherapy dose fractionation they would recommend for four hypothetical cases describing patients with painful bone metastasis (BM). Case 1 described a patient with an uncomplicated painful BM in a non-weight-bearing site from non-small-cell lung cancer. Case 2 investigated whether management for a case of uncomplicated spinal BM would be different from that in Case 1. Case 3 was identical with Case 2 except for the presence of neuropathic pain. Case 4 investigated the prescription for an uncomplicated painful BM secondary to oligometastatic breast cancer. Radiation oncologists who recommended multifraction radiotherapy (MF-RT) for Case 2 were asked to explain why they considered MF-RT superior to SF-RT. Results: A total of 52 radiation oncologists from 50 institutions (36% of JROSG institutions) responded. In all four cases, the most commonly prescribed regimen was 30 Gy in 10 fractions. SF-RT was recommended by 13% of respondents for Case 1, 6% for Case 2, 0% for Case 3, and 2% for Case 4. For Case 4, 29% of respondents prescribed a high-dose MF-RT regimen (e.g., 50 Gy in 25 fractions). The following factors were most often cited as reasons for preferring MF-RT: 'time until first increase in pain' (85%), 'incidence of spinal cord compression' (50%), and 'incidence of pathologic fractures' (29%). Conclusions: Japanese radiation oncologists prefer a schedule of 30 Gy in 10 fractions and are less likely to recommend SF-RT. Most Japanese radiation oncologists regard MF-RT as superior to SF-RT, based primarily on the time until first increase in pain.

  7. Trichodermin induces cell apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress in human chondrosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Chen-Ming; Wang, Shih-Wei; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Tzeng, Wen-Pei; Hsiao, Che-Jen; Liu, Shih-Chia; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-10-15

    Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary bone tumor, and it responds poorly to both chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Nalanthamala psidii was described originally as Myxosporium in 1926. This is the first study to investigate the anti-tumor activity of trichodermin (trichothec-9-en-4-ol, 12,13-epoxy-, acetate), an endophytic fungal metabolite from N. psidii against human chondrosarcoma cells. We demonstrated that trichodermin induced cell apoptosis in human chondrosarcoma cell lines (JJ012 and SW1353 cells) instead of primary chondrocytes. In addition, trichodermin triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress protein levels of IRE1, p-PERK, GRP78, and GRP94, which were characterized by changes in cytosolic calcium levels. Furthermore, trichodermin induced the upregulation of Bax and Bid, the downregulation of Bcl-2, and the dysfunction of mitochondria, which released cytochrome c and activated caspase-3 in human chondrosarcoma. In addition, animal experiments illustrated reduced tumor volume, which led to an increased number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells and an increased level of cleaved PARP protein following trichodermin treatment. Together, this study demonstrates that trichodermin is a novel anti-tumor agent against human chondrosarcoma cells both in vitro and in vivo via mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress. - Highlights: • Trichodermin induces chondrosarcoma apoptosis. • ER stress is involved in trichodermin-induced cell death. • Trichodermin induces chondrosarcoma death in vivo.

  8. Individual-specific multi-scale finite element simulation of cortical bone of human proximal femur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia, E-mail: mgascenzi@mednet.ucla.edu [UCLA/Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rehabilitation Bldg, Room 22-69, 1000 Veteran Avenue, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [UCLA/Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rehabilitation Bldg, Room 22-69, 1000 Veteran Avenue, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kawas, Neal P., E-mail: nealkawas@ucla.edu [UCLA/Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rehabilitation Bldg, Room 22-69, 1000 Veteran Avenue, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lutz, Andre, E-mail: andre.lutz@hotmail.de [Institute of Biomechanics and Numerical Mechanics, Leibniz University Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany)] [Institute of Biomechanics and Numerical Mechanics, Leibniz University Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Kardas, Dieter, E-mail: kardas@ibnm.uni-hannover.de [ContiTech Vibration Control, Jaedekamp 30 None, 30419 Hannover (Germany)] [ContiTech Vibration Control, Jaedekamp 30 None, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Nackenhorst, Udo, E-mail: nackenhorst@ibnm.uni-hannover.de [Institute of Biomechanics and Numerical Mechanics, Leibniz University Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany)] [Institute of Biomechanics and Numerical Mechanics, Leibniz University Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Keyak, Joyce H., E-mail: jhkeyak@uci.edu [Department of Radiological Sciences, Medical Sciences I, Bldg 811, Room B140, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-5000 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We present an innovative method to perform multi-scale finite element analyses of the cortical component of the femur using the individual’s (1) computed tomography scan; and (2) a bone specimen obtained in conjunction with orthopedic surgery. The method enables study of micro-structural characteristics regulating strains and stresses under physiological loading conditions. The analysis of the micro-structural scenarios that cause variation of strain and stress is the first step in understanding the elevated strains and stresses in bone tissue, which are indicative of higher likelihood of micro-crack formation in bone, implicated in consequent remodeling or macroscopic bone fracture. Evidence that micro-structure varies with clinical history and contributes in significant, but poorly understood, ways to bone function, motivates the method’s development, as does need for software tools to investigate relationships between macroscopic loading and micro-structure. Three applications – varying region of interest, bone mineral density, and orientation of collagen type I, illustrate the method. We show, in comparison between physiological loading and simple compression of a patient’s femur, that strains computed at the multi-scale model’s micro-level: (i) differ; and (ii) depend on local collagen-apatite orientation and degree of calcification. Our findings confirm the strain concentration role of osteocyte lacunae, important for mechano-transduction. We hypothesize occurrence of micro-crack formation, leading either to remodeling or macroscopic fracture, when the computed strains exceed the elastic range observed in micro-structural testing.

  9. Strain-guided mineralization in the bone–PDL–cementum complex of a rat periodontium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Herber, Ralf -Peter; Chen, Ling; Djomehri, Sabra; Tam, Caleb; Lee, Ji -Hyun; Brown, Evan; Woolwine III, Wood R.; Curtis, Don; Ryder, Mark; et al

    2015-04-18

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanical strain by mapping physicochemical properties at periodontal ligament (PDL)–bone and PDL–cementum attachment sites and within the tissues per se. Design: Accentuated mechanical strain was induced by applying a unidirectional force of 0.06 N for 14 days on molars in a rat model. The associated changes in functional space between the tooth and bone, mineral forming and resorbing events at the PDL–bone and PDL–cementum attachment sites were identified by using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-XCT), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic histomorphometry, Raman microspectroscopy, and AFM-based nanoindentation technique. Results frommore »these analytical techniques were correlated with histochemical strains specific to low and high molecular weight GAGs, including biglycan, and osteoclast distribution through tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Results: Unique chemical and mechanical qualities including heterogeneous bony fingers with hygroscopic Sharpey's fibers contributing to a higher organic (amide III — 1240 cm?¹) to inorganic (phosphate — 960 cm?¹) ratio, with lower average elastic modulus of 8 GPa versus 12 GPa in unadapted regions were identified. Furthermore, an increased presence of elemental Zn in cement lines and mineralizing fronts of PDL–bone was observed. Adapted regions containing bony fingers exhibited woven bone-like architecture and these regions rich in biglycan (BGN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) also contained high-molecular weight polysaccharides predominantly at the site of polarized bone growth. Conclusions: From a fundamental science perspective the shift in local properties due to strain amplification at the soft–hard tissue attachment sites is governed by semiautonomous cellular events at the PDL–bone and PDL–cementum sites. Over time, these strain-mediated events can alter the physicochemical properties of tissues per se, and consequently the overall biomechanics of the bone–PDL–tooth complex. From a clinical perspective, the shifts in magnitude and duration of forces on the periodontal ligament can prompt a shift in physiologic mineral apposition in cementum and alveolar bone albeit of an adapted quality owing to the rapid mechanical translation of the tooth.« less

  10. Auger electron spectroscopy for the determination of sex and age related Ca/P ratio at different bone sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balatsoukas, Ioannis; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece)

    2010-10-15

    The Ca/P ratio of normal cortical and trabecular rat bone was measured by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Semiquantitative analysis was carried out using ratio techniques to draw conclusions on how age, sex and bone site affect the relative composition of calcium and phosphorus. Results show that Ca/P ratio is not sex dependent; quite the opposite, bone sites exhibit variations in elemental stoichiometry where femoral sections demonstrate higher Ca/P ratio than rear and front tibias. Age-related changes are more distinct for cortical bone in comparison with the trabecular bone. The latter's Ca/P ratio remains unaffected from all the parameters under study. This study confirms that AES is able to successfully quantify bone mineral main elements when certain critical points, related to the experimental conditions, are addressed effectively.

  11. Salient features in locomotor evolutionary adaptations of proboscideans revealed via the differential scaling of limb long bones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kokshenev, Valery B

    2009-01-01

    The standard differential scaling of proportions in limb long bones (length against circumference) is applied to a phylogenetically wide sample of the Proboscidea, Elephantidae and the Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephant (Loxodonta africana). In order to investigate allometric patterns in proboscideans and terrestrial mammals with parasagittal limb kinematics, the computed slopes (slenderness exponents) are compared with published values for mammals and studied within a framework of theoretical models of long bone scaling under gravity and muscle forces. Limb bone allometry in E. maximus and the Elephantidae are congruent with adaptation to bending and/or torsion induced by muscular forces during fast locomotion, as in other mammals, whereas limb bones in L. africana appear adapted for coping with the compressive forces of gravity. Consequently, hindlimb bones are expected to be more compliant than forelimb bones in accordance with in vivo studies on elephant locomotory kinetics and kinematics, and t...

  12. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-16

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm{sup 3}; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6{times}10{sup 4}cm{sup 2}/g of Ni. 6 figs.

  13. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-02-01

    An electrochemical cell is described having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm[sup 3]; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160 C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6[times]10[sup 4] cm[sup 2]/g of Ni. 8 figures.

  14. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Prakash, Jai (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  15. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (6851 Carpenter St., Downers Grove, IL 60516); Vissers, Donald R. (611 Clover Ct., Naperville, IL 60540); Prakash, Jai (2205 Arbor Cir. 8, Downers Grove, IL 60515)

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell having a bimodal positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal, and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at the cell operating temperature. The positive electrode has an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride at least partially present as a charging product, and additives of bromide and/or iodide and sulfur in the positive electrode or the electrolyte. Electrode volumetric capacity is in excess of 400 Ah/cm.sup.3 ; the cell can be 90% recharged in three hours and can operate at temperatures below 160.degree. C. There is also disclosed a method of reducing the operating temperature and improving the overall volumetric capacity of an electrochemical cell and for producing a positive electrode having a BET area greater than 6.times.10.sup.4 cm.sup.2 /g of Ni.

  16. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  17. Electron Microscopy and Analytical X-ray Characterization of Compositional and Nanoscale Structural Changes in Fossil Bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boatman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    of questions surrounding the diagenesis and fossilization ofthe consequences of diagenesis for that particular feature (on the concept of bone diagenesis and how it relates to

  18. A Bone Density Based Finite Element Study of the Efficacy of Maxillary Protraction Protocols With and Without Mini-Implants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Howard

    2015-01-01

    accurate location and material properties of the bone andthe dissimilar material properties and capturing the localfinite elements. The material properties of the craniofacial

  19. Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micro Fuel Cells TM Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power A Fuel Cell System Developer-17, 2002 Phoenix, Arizona #12;Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power Outline (1 Energy Content (Wh) Volume(cm^3) Li-Ion Battery DMFC #12;Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

  20. Cell Stem Cell The Systematic Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Cell Stem Cell Review The Systematic Production of Cells for Cell Therapies Daniel C. Kirouac1 to guide the development of next-generation technologies capable of producing cell-based products in a safe will enhance cell therapy product quality and safety, expediting clinical development. Breakthroughs

  1. Synchrotron imaging reveals bone healing and remodelling strategies in extinct and extant vertebrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anne, Jennifer [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Edwards, Nicholas P. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Wogelius, Roy A. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison R. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sellers, William I. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); van Veelen, Arjen [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Bergmann, Uwe [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sokaras, Dimosthenis [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Alonso-Mori, Roberto [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ignatyev, Konstantin [Diamond Light Source (United Kingdom); Egerton, Victoria M. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Manning, Phillip L. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-23

    Current understanding of bone healing and remodelling strategies in vertebrates has traditionally relied on morphological observations through the histological analysis of thin sections. However, chemical analysis may also be used in such interpretations, as different elements are known to be absorbed and used by bone for different physiological purposes such as growth and healing. These chemical signatures are beyond the detection limit of most laboratory-based analytical techniques (e.g. scanning electron microscopy). However, synchrotron rapid scanning–X-ray fluorescence (SRS–XRF) is an elemental mapping technique that uniquely combines high sensitivity (ppm), excellent sample resolution (20–100 ?m) and the ability to scan large specimens (decimetre scale) approximately 3000 times faster than other mapping techniques. Here, we use SRS–XRF combined with microfocus elemental mapping (2–20 ?m) to determine the distribution and concentration of trace elements within pathological and normal bone of both extant and extinct archosaurs (Cathartes aura and Allosaurus fragilis). Results reveal discrete chemical inventories within different bone tissue types and preservation modes. Chemical inventories also revealed detail of histological features not observable in thin section, including fine structures within the interface between pathological and normal bone as well as woven texture within pathological tissue.

  2. Synchrotron imaging reveals bone healing and remodelling strategies in extinct and extant vertebrates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anne, Jennifer; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Tumarkin-Deratzian, Allison R.; Sellers, William I.; van Veelen, Arjen; Bergmann, Uwe; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Ignatyev, Konstantin; et al

    2014-04-23

    Current understanding of bone healing and remodelling strategies in vertebrates has traditionally relied on morphological observations through the histological analysis of thin sections. However, chemical analysis may also be used in such interpretations, as different elements are known to be absorbed and used by bone for different physiological purposes such as growth and healing. These chemical signatures are beyond the detection limit of most laboratory-based analytical techniques (e.g. scanning electron microscopy). However, synchrotron rapid scanning–X-ray fluorescence (SRS–XRF) is an elemental mapping technique that uniquely combines high sensitivity (ppm), excellent sample resolution (20–100 ?m) and the ability to scan large specimensmore »(decimetre scale) approximately 3000 times faster than other mapping techniques. Here, we use SRS–XRF combined with microfocus elemental mapping (2–20 ?m) to determine the distribution and concentration of trace elements within pathological and normal bone of both extant and extinct archosaurs (Cathartes aura and Allosaurus fragilis). Results reveal discrete chemical inventories within different bone tissue types and preservation modes. Chemical inventories also revealed detail of histological features not observable in thin section, including fine structures within the interface between pathological and normal bone as well as woven texture within pathological tissue.« less

  3. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.; You, H.; Melendres, C.A.

    1992-08-25

    An electrochemical cell has a layer-type or sandwich configuration with a Teflon center section that houses working, reference and counter electrodes and defines a relatively narrow electrolyte cavity. The center section is surrounded on both sides with thin Teflon membranes. The membranes are pressed in place by a pair of Teflon inner frames which are in turn supported by a pair of outer metal frames. The pair of inner and outer frames are provided with corresponding, appropriately shaped slits that are in plane generally transverse to the plane of the working electrode and permit X-ray beams to enter and exit the cell through the Teflon membranes that cover the slits so that the interface between the working electrode and the electrolyte within the cell may be analyzed by transmission geometry. In one embodiment, the center section consists of two parts, one on top of the other. Alternatively, the center section of the electrochemical cell may consist of two intersliding pieces or may be made of a single piece of Teflon sheet material. The electrolyte cavity is shaped so that the electrochemical cell can be rotated 90[degree] in either direction while maintaining the working and counter electrodes submerged in the electrolyte. 5 figs.

  4. IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number: 680 (2015) | doi:10.1038/bonekey.2015.47

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    2015-01-01

    IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number PARALLEL PROGRAMME The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS Rotterdam, The Netherlands 25­28 April 2015 CABS

  5. IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number: 677 (2015) | doi:10.1038/bonekey.2015.44

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    2015-01-01

    IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS Rotterdam, The Netherlands 25­28 April 2015 OC1.1 Wnt16 Promotes

  6. IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number: 684 (2015) | doi:10.1038/bonekey.2015.52

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    2015-01-01

    IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number Meeting of ECTS and IBMS Rotterdam, The Netherlands 25­28 April 2015 CECR 1 Which Came First: Parathyroid

  7. IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number: 674 (2015) | doi:10.1038/bonekey.2015.41

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    2015-01-01

    IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number POSTERS - CABS The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS Rotterdam, The Netherlands 25­28 April 2015 CABS OP1

  8. IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 3, Article number: 673 (2015) | doi:10.1038/bonekey.2015.40

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    2015-01-01

    IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 3, Article number.86 [95% CI=0.78-0.94]) and THR POSTER PRESENTATIONS The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS Rotterdam

  9. IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number: 682 (2015) | doi:10.1038/bonekey.2015.50

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    2015-01-01

    IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number of ECTS and IBMS Rotterdam, The Netherlands 25­28 April 2015 D1.1 Abstract not available D1.2 This House

  10. IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number: 681 (2015) | doi:10.1038/bonekey.2015.49

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    2015-01-01

    IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number reserved 1940-8692/15 www.nature.com/bonekey WORKSHOP ABSTRACTS The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS

  11. IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number: 683 (2015) | doi:10.1038/bonekey.2015.51

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    2015-01-01

    IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number ABSTRACTS The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS Rotterdam, The Netherlands 25­28 April 2015 S1.1 Abstract

  12. IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article number: 678 (2015) | doi:10.1038/bonekey.2015.45

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    2015-01-01

    IBMS BoneKEy | The 4th Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS 1 Citation: IBMS BoneKEy 13, Article numberth Joint Meeting of ECTS and IBMS Rotterdam, The Netherlands 25­28 April 2015 HT1 High Serum Levels

  13. Electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.I.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1994-08-23

    An electrochemical cell is described having an alkali metal negative electrode such as sodium and a positive electrode including Ni or transition metals, separated by a [beta] alumina electrolyte and NaAlCl[sub 4] or other compatible material. Various concentrations of a bromine, iodine and/or sulfur containing additive and pore formers are disclosed, which enhance cell capacity and power. The pore formers may be the ammonium salts of carbonic acid or a weak organic acid or oxamide or methylcellulose. 6 figs.

  14. A novel patient-derived intra-femoral xenograft model of bone metastatic prostate cancer that recapitulates mixed osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    cancer [4,17-19]. Direct injection of prostate can- cer4,20,21]. However, direct injection models into the bone-24]. Page 2 of 13 Direct bone-injection murine xenograft

  15. Development of a three-dimensional in vitro model to study the effect of vitamin D on bone metastatic breast cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Danda

    2011-08-31

    Breast cancer has a high prevalence among women and most patients suffer from metastasis to bone. The mechanisms involved in breast cancer bone metastasis are poorly understood. Three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture systems are becoming a focus...

  16. Hierarchical interconnections in the nano-composite material bone: Fibrillar cross-links resist fracture on several length scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Everett A.

    to its biomedical significance, bone has been used as a model for many artificial bio-ceramic composites [10,11]. In many of these artificial composites, a combina- tion of a soft polymer matrix reinforcedHierarchical interconnections in the nano-composite material bone: Fibrillar cross-links resist

  17. SYMPOSIUM: SEX DIFFERENCES IN MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASE AND SCIENCE b-Ecdysone Augments Peak Bone Mass in Mice of Both Sexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    SYMPOSIUM: SEX DIFFERENCES IN MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASE AND SCIENCE b-Ecdysone Augments Peak Bone Mass in Mice of Both Sexes Weiwei Dai PhD, HongLiang Zhang MD, PhD, Zhendong A. Zhong PhD, Li Jiang MD to investigate sex differences in terms of bone development and structure after bEcd administration. Methods Two

  18. Characterization of the effects of x-ray irradiation on the hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of human cortical bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    each hier- archical structural level contributes to its strength, ductility and toughness-ray exposures up to 630 kGy. Macroscopically, bone strength, ductility and fracture resistance are seen August 2011 Keywords: Human cortical bone Deformation Toughness X-ray diffraction Tomography Collagen a b

  19. Prevention of Postmenopausal Bone Loss by a Low-Magnitude, High-Frequency Mechanical Stimuli: A Clinical Trial Assessing Compliance,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    words: osteoporosis, anabolic, mechanical loading, vibration, low-level, frequency, osteogenic, musclePrevention of Postmenopausal Bone Loss by a Low-Magnitude, High- Frequency Mechanical Stimuli) of a low-level (0.2g, 30 Hz) vibration applied during quiet standing can effectively inhibit bone loss

  20. A Serum Factor that Recalcifies Demineralized Bone Is Conserved in Bony Fish and Sharks but Is Not Found in Invertebrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Paul A.

    A Serum Factor that Recalcifies Demineralized Bone Is Conserved in Bony Fish and Sharks fish -- Cartilagi- nous fish We recently showed that the type I collagen matrix of demineralized bone and phosphate into demineralized rat tibias ceases after several weeks of incubation in suc- cessive volumes

  1. The significance of crack-resistance curves to the mixed-mode fracture toughness of human cortical bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    The significance of crack-resistance curves to the mixed-mode fracture toughness of human cortical cortical bone Mixed-mode fracture Fracture toughness Crack-growth resistance curve a b s t r a c t The majority of fracture mechanics studies on the toughness of bone have been performed under tensile loading

  2. COMBINING CLASSIFIERS FOR BONE FRACTURE DETECTION IN X-RAY IMAGES Vineta Lai Fun Lum, Wee Kheng Leow, Ying Chen,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    COMBINING CLASSIFIERS FOR BONE FRACTURE DETECTION IN X-RAY IMAGES Vineta Lai Fun Lum, Wee Kheng combination methods ap- plied to the detection of bone fractures in x-ray images. Test results show, only about 12% of them contained fractured femurs. For radius images, about 30% of 145 consecu- tive

  3. Methods for identifying cancellous bone specimen location and size for the Reduced Platen Compression Test 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowen, Kyle Ray

    2013-02-22

    the locatron of the RPt: 'lest specimen within the femur. In previous tests, SigmaScan/Image was used to measure thc distance from the distal end of the femur to the drstal extent of the epiphyseal growth plate. The distance was averaged for the entire tesi... Measurement of Bone: A Tutorial. Bone. 14, 595-608, VITA Ky!e Ray Cowen was born tn Amarillo, Texas on February 17, 197'7 to Alvin and Carol Cowen. Kyle is the youngest of two children, the oldest bc!ng his sister Kans who was burr. c:! Decemder?, 1973...

  4. Feeding Bone Meal to Range Cattle on the Coastal Plains of Texas : Preliminary Report. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, H.

    1926-01-01

    .. Chref I FAR L. B. G. v. * *T. **J. M AND RANCH ECONOMICS: P GABBARD b1 S Chief YOUNGBLOO~, M.'s., Ph. D., Farm d . Ranch Economrst. , L. CRAWFORD, M.-S., Research Mark& Specralrst L. CORY, M. S.. Grazing Research Botanil L. GASTON, JR., B...~on with U. S. Department.of Agriculture ***In cooperation with the School of Agriculture. SYNOPSIS X is Bulletin reports results obtained by feeding bone meal and salt mixtures and finely ground rock phosphate mixed with bone meal and salt to cattle...

  5. Photoelectrodialytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, George W. (2328 Ashwood, Norman, OK 73069)

    1983-01-01

    A multicompartment photoelectrodialytic demineralization cell is provided with a buffer compartment interposed between the product compartment and a compartment containing an electrolyte solution. Semipermeable membranes separate the buffer compartment from the product and electrolyte compartments. The buffer compartment is flushed to prevent leakage of the electrolyte compartment from entering the product compartment.

  6. Photoelectrodialytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, G.W.

    1983-09-13

    A multicompartment photoelectrodialytic demineralization cell is provided with a buffer compartment interposed between the product compartment and a compartment containing an electrolyte solution. Semipermeable membranes separate the buffer compartment from the product and electrolyte compartments. The buffer compartment is flushed to prevent leakage of the electrolyte compartment from entering the product compartment. 3 figs.

  7. Biomaterials 23 (2002) 44834492 A novel porous cells scaffold made of polylactidedextran blend by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jian

    2002-01-01

    was developed by blending polylactide (PLA) with natural biodegradable dextran, and a novel sponge-like scaffold of cartilage [7,8], bone [9,10], tendon [11], skin [12,13], liver [14] and heart valve [15]. Cell scaffolds-casting and particle-leaching [19,20], phase-separation [21], emulsion freeze dry- ing [22], gas-foaming [23] and 3D

  8. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    research on organic photovoltaic cells since small molecule10 years prior (4). Photovoltaic cells with an active layerof the associated photovoltaic cells. 2.4 Charge transport

  9. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Reforming for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells," Berichte derVan Dijkum, "The Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Programme in thealkaline, molten carbonate, and solid oxide. (Fuel cells

  10. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  11. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    nanocrystal-polymer solar cells The full potential of hybridto reach the full potential of polymer blend solar cells.solar cells described here offer several potential

  12. APPLICATIONS OF ALGEBRAIC MULTIGRID TO LARGE-SCALE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF WHOLE BONE MICRO-MECHANICS ON THE IBM SP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    APPLICATIONS OF ALGEBRAIC MULTIGRID TO LARGE-SCALE FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF WHOLE BONE MICRO,5 Abstract. Accurate micro-finite element analyses of whole bones require the solution of large sets architectures. Key words. multigrid, trabecular bone, human vertebral body, finite element method, massively

  13. Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  14. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell...

  15. Electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, F.M.

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes an electrochemical cell having a metal anode wherein the metal is selected from zinc and cadmium; a bromine cathode; and an aqueous electrolyte containing a metal bromide, the metal bromide having the same metal as the metal of the anode. The improvement described here comprises: a bromine complexing agent in the aqueous metal bromide electrolyte, the complexing agent consisting solely of a quaternary ammonium salt of an N-organo substituted alpha amino acid, ester, or betaine.

  16. Bone Loss in Diabetes: Use of Antidiabetic Thiazolidinediones and Secondary Osteoporosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toledo, University of

    used TZDs (pioglitazone and rosiglita- zone) by using combinational therapy with approved antiosteoporotic drugs, or by using lower doses of TZDs in combination with other antidiabetic therapy. We also healing in T2DM patients on TZD therapy. Keywords Diabetes . Thiazolidinediones . Bone . Osteoporosis

  17. Effect of cryo-induced microcracks on microindentation of hydrated cortical bone tissue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Qinghua

    tissue was plastic deformation, not brittle fracture. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords 1. Introduction Bone contains approximately 60% ceramic nanoparticles of inorganic carbonated hydroxyapatite, 10% water and about 30% polymer matrix of organic and mineralized collagen fibers by weight [1

  18. Kidney, liver and bone cadmium content in the western sandpiper in relation to migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kidney, liver and bone cadmium content in the western sandpiper in relation to migration C. N. Mc the Pacific Coast, at stopover sites as the birds migrate north to Alaska and south to Panama. This study ingestion of metal bearing sediments.1 These sediment-dwelling organisms in turn are primary food sources

  19. Stability and Three-Dimensional Analysis of Bone Formation in Longitudinally Fluted Miniscrew Implants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, An Van

    2014-04-22

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of longitudinal flutes on mini-screw implant (MSI) bone healing and stability. Using 11 skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits, 33 longitudinally fluted and 33 non-fluted MSIs were...

  20. Patient-Specific FE Analyses of Metatarsal Bones with1 Inhomogeneous Isotropic Material Properties2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosibash, Zohar

    research and clinical practice, especially when associated with the9 correction of Hallux Valgus. Verified to Hallux14 Valgus correction are then drilled in the bones, which are then reloaded until15 fracture on the mechanical response so to optimize the outcome of the Hallux Valgus27 correction.28 This study further

  1. JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH Volume 7, Number 12, 1992

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH Volume 7, Number 12, 1992 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., Publishers behavior and molecular ex- pression before it finally becomes a mineralizing osteocyte. The progression, extracellular maturation, and mineralization -are identified. (3.4) Many molecules functioning as growth fac

  2. Elemental concentrations in bones from an ancient Egyptian mummy and from a recent man

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cholewa, M.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Jones, K.W.; Schidlovsky, G.; Paschoa, A.S.; Miller, S.C.; Pecotte, J.

    1986-06-01

    Differences in elemental concentrations in bones taken from an ancient Egyptian mummy and a contemporary man were investigated by using proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) in combination with Rutherford backscattering (RBS). Remarkable differences were noticed in the Fe/Ca and Pb/Ca relative concentrations, which were consistently higher in the contemporary man. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Project Title: Artificial bone for prosthetic hip joints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul

    formation by the Additive Manufacturing (AM) direct printing process. The artificial bone must and the development of new additive manufacturing techniques for medical devices. The group has active links and structural gradients into the prosthesis. It is envisioned this could involve the use of additively

  4. The basic tenet of skeletochronology is that bone growth is cyclic and has an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States. and amphibians include double (Chin- samy et al., 1995; El Mouden et al., 1997; Guarino et's ridley sea turtles from a comparison of death date and amount of bone growth following the comple- tion-at-age and growth rates can be estimated from dimen- sions of early growth marks. These results validate

  5. Corrigendum Mechanics of limb bone loading during terrestrial locomotion in river cooter turtles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blob, Richard W.

    bending and shear stress and of safety factors in bending were unaffected by this error, but the mean and conclusions of the original paper remain unchanged. REFERENCES Biewener, A. A. and Dial, K. P. (1995). In vivo. concinna Bending Torsion Bone N Yield stress (MPa) Safety factor mean N Yield stress (MPa) Safety factor

  6. Mitigating Disuse Bone Loss: Role of Resistance Exercise and Beta-Adrenergic Signaling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swift, Joshua Michael

    2011-08-08

    . Recent data gathered from crew members on the International Space Station (ISS) illustrates the significant losses of bone mineral density (BMD) and geometry of the femoral neck (15). Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and QCT scans were taken...

  7. A 3D Statistical Shape Model Of The Pelvic Bone For Segmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrzejak, Artur

    patient models from 3D image data. Within the setting of a hybrid system (applicator plus MR tomograph. Left: hybrid system (MRT plus applicator), Right: MRT slice image from the abdomen with pelvic bone. 1 on heating up affected tissue compartments to temperatures above 42 degree Celsius without damaging

  8. Trabecular Bone Structure and Cellular Morphology in the Primate Craniofacial Skeleton 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryor, Leslie Claire

    2015-08-14

    BONE STRUCTURE AND CELLULAR MORPHOLOGY IN THE PRIMATE CRANIOFACIAL SKELETON A Dissertation by LESLIE CLAIRE PRYOR Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... Emet Schneiderman David Strait Head of Department, Paul C. Dechow August 2015 Major Subject: Biomedical Sciences Copyright 2015 Leslie Claire Pryor ii ABSTRACT The primate craniofacial skeleton is complex...

  9. On Smoothing Surfaces in Voxel Based Finite Element Analysis of Trabecular Bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    On Smoothing Surfaces in Voxel Based Finite Element Analysis of Trabecular Bone Peter Arbenz on complicated domains composed of often hundreds of millions of voxel elements. The finite element analysis finite element (FE) analysis. The approach based on the FE analysis leads to linear systems of equations

  10. Sex Differences in Long Bone Fatigue Using a Rat Model Luisa D. Moreno,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waldman, Stephen D.

    response to fatigue, we also determined the creep that occurred during the fatigue test. From the creep progress (Fig. 1). Caler and Carter32 studied cortical bone creep behavior during fatigue testing. When adaptation. From these results, we hypothesized that creep was the underlying mechanism that accounted

  11. The consequence of late-onset alcohol abuse in aged bone: a histomorhometric analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barker, Lisa Setchfield

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effect of late-onset alcohol abuse on aged bone using the rat model. Thirty female Fischer 344 rats were separated by weights into one of four groups: baseline, alcohol-fed, pair-fed, and pellet...

  12. Biomaterials 27 (2006) 20952113 Fracture length scales in human cortical bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Biomaterials 27 (2006) 2095­2113 Fracture length scales in human cortical bone: The necessity of nonlinear fracture models Q.D. Yanga,Ã, Brian N. Coxa , Ravi K. Nallab , R.O. Ritchieb a Rockwell Scientific; accepted 26 September 2005 Available online 4 November 2005 Abstract Recently published data for fracture

  13. SU-E-J-212: Identifying Bones From MRI: A Dictionary Learnign and Sparse Regression Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruan, D; Yang, Y; Cao, M; Hu, P; Low, D [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop an efficient and robust scheme to identify bony anatomy based on MRI-only simulation images. Methods: MRI offers important soft tissue contrast and functional information, yet its lack of correlation to electron-density has placed it as an auxiliary modality to CT in radiotherapy simulation and adaptation. An effective scheme to identify bony anatomy is an important first step towards MR-only simulation/treatment paradigm and would satisfy most practical purposes. We utilize a UTE acquisition sequence to achieve visibility of the bone. By contrast to manual + bulk or registration-to identify bones, we propose a novel learning-based approach for improved robustness to MR artefacts and environmental changes. Specifically, local information is encoded with MR image patch, and the corresponding label is extracted (during training) from simulation CT aligned to the UTE. Within each class (bone vs. nonbone), an overcomplete dictionary is learned so that typical patches within the proper class can be represented as a sparse combination of the dictionary entries. For testing, an acquired UTE-MRI is divided to patches using a sliding scheme, where each patch is sparsely regressed against both bone and nonbone dictionaries, and subsequently claimed to be associated with the class with the smaller residual. Results: The proposed method has been applied to the pilot site of brain imaging and it has showed general good performance, with dice similarity coefficient of greater than 0.9 in a crossvalidation study using 4 datasets. Importantly, it is robust towards consistent foreign objects (e.g., headset) and the artefacts relates to Gibbs and field heterogeneity. Conclusion: A learning perspective has been developed for inferring bone structures based on UTE MRI. The imaging setting is subject to minimal motion effects and the post-processing is efficient. The improved efficiency and robustness enables a first translation to MR-only routine. The scheme generalizes to multiple tissue classes.

  14. Cell Stem Cell Sic Transit Gloria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Ben

    Cell Stem Cell Review Sic Transit Gloria: Farewell to the Epidermal Transit Amplifying Cell? Philip H. Jones,1,* Benjamin D. Simons,2 and Fiona M. Watt3,4 1MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research basement membrane (Figures 1D and 1F). On commitment to terminal differen- tiation, basal keratinocytes

  15. Photoacoustic and ultrasonic probing of bone density in ex-vivo animal tissues The purpose of the proposed research is to develop fundamental physical, instrumental and biological aspects of two novel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yu

    (photoacoustic probe) of bones through skin layers under various degrees of demineralization and porosity (void

  16. (Fuel Cells)(Fuel Cells) William Grove

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yang-Yuan

    Fuel Cell #12; H2 O2 Power CH4 H2 Toyota H2 H2 #12; H2 ~253 #12; 2. 3. : 1. #12; #12;Fuel Cell #12; (Fuel Cells)(Fuel Cells) 1839 William Grove A H2O2 H2O2 2H; Fuel Cell #12;!! PEMFC DMFC SOFC (60~200) (60~100) (600~1000) #12; Proton

  17. Potential commercial application of a bi-layer bone-ligament regeneration scaffold to anterior cruciate ligament replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jessica C. (Jessica Ching-Yi)

    2006-01-01

    A business model was created in order to explore the commercial application of a bi-layer bone-ligament scaffold to the treatment of torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) requiring replacement. The two main keys in producing ...

  18. Regional geologic characterization of the Second Bone Spring Sandstone, Delaware basin, Lea and Eddy Counties, New Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downing, Amanda Beth

    2001-01-01

    The Bone Spring Formation is a series of interbedded siliciclastics and carbonates that were deposited in the Delaware basin during the Leonardian (Early Permian). It consists of the First, Second and Third Carbonate and the First, Second and Third...

  19. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus levels on performance and bone development of large-framed developing boars 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Robert Glen

    1975-01-01

    EFFECT OF DIETARY CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS LEVELS ON PERFORMANCE AND BONE DEVELOPMENT OF LARGE-FRAMED DEVELOPING BOARS A Thesis by ROBERT GLEN ROBINSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AQ4 University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1975 Major Subject. : Animal Science EFFECT OF DIETARY CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS LEVELS ON PERFORMANCE AND BONE DEVELOPMENT OF LARGE-~ DEVELOPING BOARS A Thesis by ROBERT GLEN ROBINSON Approved...

  20. The relationship of the long bones of the thoracic and pelvic limbs as indicators of muscling in the beef carcass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orts, Frank A

    1959-01-01

    and content hys hsirman of Ccmmitt Head of Department, August, 1959 Ths author is grateful for the interest and help of the staff ueabers of the Departasnts of tuinal Husbandry and Genetics, Sinoere gratitude is expressed to Dr. G. T. King, Assistant... Measurements . ~ 35 19, Group 5I Gross Simple Coefficients of Correlation Between Trimmed Bone Lengths and Carouse Measurements ~ . 36 20. Group 6I Gross Simple Coefficients of Correlation Between Trimmed Bone Lengths and Carcass Measurements . . 36 21...

  1. Effect of irradiation on bone remodelling and the structural integrity of the vertebral column. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, K.N.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of therapeutic levels of radiation on the axial properties of the primate vertebral column were studied. Seven male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were irradiated with a single does of 1300 cGy to the specific lumbar vertebrae of L2, L3, and L4. Three additional animals served as controls. Radiographs were taken before the radiation treatment and just prior to sacrifice to determine density changes in the bone. The animal subjects were sacrificed 105 days following the radiation exposure. Biomechanical testing was completed on lumbar levels 2 and 3 to identify changes in strength characteristics following radiation treatment. Histomorphometric analysis of lumbar vertebrae level 4 was completed to identify volume and surface density changes as well as cellular changes. Tetracycline, dicarbomethylaminomethyl fluorescein (DCAF), and xylenol orange were used as bone labeling agents to aid in the histomorphometry and to obtain dynamic parameter changes.

  2. Efficacy of the investigational mTOR kinase inhibitor MLN0128 / INK128 in models of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    and xenograft experiments with human leukemia samples NIH-PAculture experiments, hTERT-immortalized human marrow stromal

  3. Adult Stem Cells & Homeostasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Weidong

    · Tissue models for studying adult stem cells · Experimental assays · Adult stem cell & Cancer · Adult stem in many organs/tissues · Adult stem cells self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis #12;Stem Cell & Progenitor ·long-term self-renewal ·generate all differentiated cells of an organ

  4. Acculturation in the Upper Middle Missouri Valley as Reflected in Modified Bone Assemblages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Timothy

    1986-05-01

    Gliders 207 Piercing Tools (Awls ) • 20 Tubes/Beads 208 Expedient Tools 211 Other Tool Categories 214 Horn Core/Frontal Tools. 21 Fleshing Tools 21 Cancellous Tools 7 Fish Hooks 8 Polished Fragments • • 221 Ochre-Stained Bone 22 Ornaments . • 22... Components 251 Big Hidatsa Original Components 4 Condensed Components 25 Lower Hidatsa 257 Sakakawea 260 Big Hidatsa 3 Other Measures of Change •. •. 266 Metal/Stone Modification 26 Predominant Method of Manufacture.... .. 271 Combined Site Assemblages...

  5. Automatic detection of bone fragments in poultry using multi-energy x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gleason, Shaun S. (Knoxville, TN); Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN); Mullens, James A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-04-09

    At least two linear arrays of x-ray detectors are placed below a conveyor belt in a poultry processing plant. Multiple-energy x-ray sources illuminate the poultry and are detected by the detectors. Laser profilometry is used to measure the poultry thickness as the x-ray data is acquired. The detector readout is processed in real time to detect the presence of small highly attenuating fragments in the poultry, i.e., bone, metal, and cartilage.

  6. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel Cell Seminar and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office: 2013 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition Overview of DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office...

  7. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  8. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    cell. The solar cell’s power conversion efficiency, ? is theEfficiency ..5 Thermal Managements of SolarTemperature on Efficiency Photons incident on a solar cell

  9. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    D. Mills, "Cooling of photovoltaic cells under concentratedelectric performance of a photovoltaic cells by cooling andof Photovoltaic Solar Cell A photovoltaic cell is a

  10. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    basic bilayer CdTe/CdSe solar cells described above. Figurecomplete CdTe/CdSe nanocrystal solar cell (B). gap variationlength for CdSe-P3HT hybrid solar cells. (b) Current-voltage

  11. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    of organic based solar cells and distinguish them from theirNov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recent

  12. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    inorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish themThe organic donor-acceptor solar cell relies on a type II

  13. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    of organic based solar cells and distinguish them from theirinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentNov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional

  14. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional5 All-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction Inoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  15. Cell Stem Cell Induction of Multipotential Hematopoietic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, James J.

    pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent a promising source of patient-specific cells for disease modeling self-renewal and multili- neage potential in vitro and maintained primitive CD34+ CD38Ã? cells., 2013), and others. These lines have the potential to become powerful models to gain insight

  16. Understanding calcification in bone regeneration through a synthetic biomineralization-based approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Ameya

    2012-01-01

    dental implant model surfaces using the RGDSP-peptide sequence: A cell morphology study. Biomaterials

  17. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    will enable optimal solar cell efficiencies in multiple bandlow cost, high efficiency hybrid solar cells. 4.6 Conclusioncosts and improving efficiencies of solar photovoltaic

  18. Ceramic Fuel Cells (SOFC)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Engineering Argonne National Laboratory Thursday, August 11, 2011 Ceramic Fuel Cells (SOFC) Manufacturing Fuel Cell Manhattan Project: * Joe Bonadies - Delphi * Rick...

  19. Mechanosensitivity of human osteosarcoma cells and phospholipase C {beta}2 expression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoberg, M. [Department of Orthopaedics, University of Tuebingen (Germany)]. E-mail: Maik.Hoberg@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Gratz, H.-H. [Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Phillips-University of Marburg (Germany); Noll, M. [Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Phillips-University of Marburg (Germany); Jones, D.B. [Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Phillips-University of Marburg (Germany)

    2005-07-22

    Bone adapts to mechanical load by osteosynthesis, suggesting that osteoblasts might respond to mechanical stimuli. We therefore investigated cell proliferation and phospholipase C (PLC) expression in osteoblasts. One Hertz uniaxial stretching at 4000 {mu}strains significantly increased the proliferation rates of human osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 and primary human osteoblasts. However, U-2/OS, SaOS-2, OST, and MNNG/HOS cells showed no significant changes in proliferation rate. We investigated the expression pattern of different isoforms of PLC in these cell lines. We were able to detect PLC {beta}1, {beta}3, {gamma}1, {gamma}2, and {delta}1 in all cells, but PLC {beta}2 was only detectable in the mechanosensitive cells. We therefore investigated the possible role of PLC {beta}2 in mechanotransduction. Inducible antisense expression for 24 h inhibited the translation of PLC {beta}1 in U-2/OS cells by 35% and PLC {beta}2 in MG-63 by 29%. Fluid shear flow experiments with MG-63 lacking PLC {beta}2 revealed a significantly higher level of cells losing attachment to coverslips and a significantly lower number of cells increasing intracellular free calcium.

  20. Impaired osteoblast differentiation in Annexin A2- and -A5-deficient cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genetos, Damian C.; Wong, Alice; Weber, Thomas J.; Karin, Norman J.; Yellowley, Clare E.

    2014-09-15

    Annexins are a class of calcium-binding proteins with diverse functions in the regulation of lipid rafts inflammation,fibrinolysis, transcriptional programming and ion transport. Within bone, they are well-characterized as components of mineralizing matrix vesicles, although little else is known as to their function during osteogenesis. We generated annexin A2 (AnxA2)- or annexin A5 (AnxA5)-knockdown pre-osteoblasts, and asked whether proliferation or osteogenic differentiation was altered in knockdown cells, compared to vector controls. We report that DNA content, a marker of proliferation, was significantly reduced in both AnxA2 and AnxA5 knockdown cells. Alkaline phosphatase expression and staining activity were also suppressed in AnxA2- or AnxA5-knockdown after 14 days of culture. The pattern of osteogenic gene expression was altered in knockdown cells, with Col1a1 expressed more rapidly in knock-down cells, compared to controls. In contrast, Runx2, Ibsp, and Bglap all revealed decreased expression after 14 days of culture. Using a murine fracture model, we demonstrate that AnxA2 and AnxA5 are rapidly expressed within the fracture callus. These data demonstrate that AnxA2 and AnxA5 can influence bone formation via regulation of osteoprogenitor proliferation and differentiation in addition to their well-studied function in matrix vesicles.

  1. Novel application of stem cell-derived factors for periodontal regeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inukai, Takeharu; Katagiri, Wataru; Yoshimi, Ryoko; Osugi, Masashi; Kawai, Takamasa; Hibi, Hideharu; Ueda, Minoru

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete a variety of cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytokines were detected in conditioned medium from cultured MSCs (MSC-CM). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC-CM enhanced activation of dog MSCs and periodontal ligament cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC-CM significantly promoted alveolar bone and cementum regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM promote periodontal regeneration. -- Abstract: The effect of conditioned medium from cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) on periodontal regeneration was evaluated. In vitro, MSC-CM stimulated migration and proliferation of dog MSCs (dMSCs) and dog periodontal ligament cells (dPDLCs). Cytokines such as insulin-like growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-{beta}1, and hepatocyte growth factor were detected in MSC-CM. In vivo, one-wall critical-size, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created in the mandible of dogs. Dogs with these defects were divided into three groups that received MSC-CM, PBS, or no implants. Absorbable atelo-collagen sponges (TERUPLUG Registered-Sign ) were used as a scaffold material. Based on radiographic and histological observation 4 weeks after transplantation, the defect sites in the MSC-CM group displayed significantly greater alveolar bone and cementum regeneration than the other groups. These findings suggest that MSC-CM enhanced periodontal regeneration due to multiple cytokines contained in MSC-CM.

  2. Age-related changes in the plasticity and toughness of human cortical bone at multiple length-scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Schaible, Eric; Bale, Hrishikesh; Barth, Holly D.; Tang, Simon Y.; Reichert, Peter; Busse, Bjoern; Alliston, Tamara; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2011-08-10

    The structure of human cortical bone evolves over multiple length-scales from its basic constituents of collagen and hydroxyapatite at the nanoscale to osteonal structures at nearmillimeter dimensions, which all provide the basis for its mechanical properties. To resist fracture, bone’s toughness is derived intrinsically through plasticity (e.g., fibrillar sliding) at structural-scales typically below a micron and extrinsically (i.e., during crack growth) through mechanisms (e.g., crack deflection/bridging) generated at larger structural-scales. Biological factors such as aging lead to a markedly increased fracture risk, which is often associated with an age-related loss in bone mass (bone quantity). However, we find that age-related structural changes can significantly degrade the fracture resistance (bone quality) over multiple lengthscales. Using in situ small-/wide-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction to characterize sub-micron structural changes and synchrotron x-ray computed tomography and in situ fracture-toughness measurements in the scanning electron microscope to characterize effects at micron-scales, we show how these age-related structural changes at differing size-scales degrade both the intrinsic and extrinsic toughness of bone. Specifically, we attribute the loss in toughness to increased non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking which suppresses plasticity at nanoscale dimensions and to an increased osteonal density which limits the potency of crack-bridging mechanisms at micron-scales. The link between these processes is that the increased stiffness of the cross-linked collagen requires energy to be absorbed by “plastic” deformation at higher structural levels, which occurs by the process of microcracking.

  3. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS: The Gas Diffusion Layer Johannah Itescu Princeton University PRISM REU #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information I. What do fuel cells do? Generate electricity through chemical reaction #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information -+ + eHH 442 2 0244 22 He

  4. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL); Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas, the cell enclosures collectively providing an enclosure for the array and effectively avoiding the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components, the fuel cell further including an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  5. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  6. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prieto, A.M.; Santos, A.G.; Csipak, A.R.; Caliri, C.M.; Silva, I.C.; Arbex, M.A.; Silva, F.S.; Marchi, M.R.R.

    2012-12-15

    Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract—3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)—or with casearin X—0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BW—after which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ? We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ? We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ? We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ? We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ? The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.

  7. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    voltage . The cell output power is given by:solar cell. The solar cell’s power conversion efficiency, ?ratio of the solar cell output power to the incident light

  8. Influence of zinc on growth and bone maturation in children with end stage renal disease (ESRD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagan, D.; Fleischmann, L.; Schemmel, R.A.

    1986-03-05

    Children with ESRD, age 5-19 years, were supplemented with zinc acetate (2 mg/kg BW, maximum 40 mg/da/child) to determine if zinc supplements (ZS) would improve growth and bone maturation. Twelve children completed the study. Three of the 12 did not receive ZS. Seven of the 9 ZS children were followed for 1 year pre- and 1 yr during-ZS. Two subjects were followed for shorter periods of time. Heights, weights, and hand wrist radiographs were taken at the beginning of the study, just pre-ZS, and at the end of the study. Blood was analyzed for serum alkaline phosphatase and albumin monthly. Alkaline phosphatase was elevated in 7 of 12 subjects pre-ZS and in 5 of 9 subjects post-ZS. Albumin levels were below normal in 7 subjects pre-ZS and 4 subjects post-ZS. Mean plasma Zn and Cu levels, 97+/-17 and 164+/-42 mcg/dl, pre-ZS, and 102+/-30 and 173+/-46 mcg/dl post-ZS, respectively, were similar. Growth velocity in males (4.1+/-2.2 cm/yr, 3.0+/-2.3 cm/yr) and females (3.9+/-0.7, 3.3+/-2.1 cm/yr) pre- and post-ZS, respectively, were similar. Bone maturation per chronological age improved after ZS in 4 of 6 subjects, 1 matured at the same rate, and one at a slower rate. It appears that ZS of children with ESRD increased the rate of bone maturation but not linear growth.

  9. Long bone growth of Mimbres subadults from the NAN Ranch (LA15049), New Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek, Marianne

    1990-01-01

    of 559 skeletons from three time periods (Late Woodland, Mississippian Acculturated Late Woodland, and Table 2. 2. Indian Knoll maximum long bone length (cm) without epiphysis*. 10 13 14 15 16 17 18 2. 5 ? 3. 5 yr. 3. 5 ? 4. 5 yr. 4. 5 ? 5. 5... yr. 5. 5 ? 6. 5 yr. 6. 5 ? 8 yr. 8 ? 10. 5 yr. 10. 5 ? 11 yr. 11 ? 12 yr. 12 yl ~ 15 yr. + 6 mo. 15 yr. 16 yz' ~ 16. 5 ? 17 yr. 21 yr ~ Age Group Age 1 Birth ? 6 mo. 6 ? 15 mo. 15 ? 24 mo. 4 2 ? 2. 5 yr. Humerus N Mean SD Range 5...

  10. Functional glass slides for in vitro evaluation of interactions between osteosarcoma TE85 cells and mineral-binding ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jie; Chen, Julia; Klapperich, Catherine M.; Eng, Vincent; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2004-07-20

    Primary amine-functionalized glass slides obtained through a multi-step plasma treatment were conjugated with anionic amino acids that are frequently found as mineral binding elements in acidic extracellular matrix components of natural bone. The modified glass surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. Human osteosarcoma TE85 cells were cultured on these functionalized slides and analyses on both protein and gene expression levels were performed to probe the ''biocompatibility'' of the surface ligands. Cell attachment and proliferation on anionic surfaces were either better than or comparable to those of cells cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). The modified glass surfaces promoted the expression of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase activity and ECM proteins such as fibronectin and vitronectin under differentiation culture conditions. Transcript analysis using gene chip microarrays confirmed that culturing TE85 cells on anionic surfaces did not activate apoptotic pathways. Collectively, these results suggest that the potential mineral-binding anionic ligands examined here do not exert significant adverse effects on the expression of important osteogenic markers of TE85 cells. This work paves the way for the incorporation of these ligands into 3-dimensional artificial bone-like scaffolds.

  11. Characterization of the effects of x-ray irradiation on the hierarchical structure and mechanical properties of human cortical bone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, Holly; Zimmermann, Elizabeth; Schaible, Eric; Tang, Simon; Alliston, Tamara; Ritchie, Robert

    2011-08-19

    Bone comprises a complex structure of primarily collagen, hydroxyapatite and water, where each hierarchical structural level contributes to its strength, ductility and toughness. These properties, however, are degraded by irradiation, arising from medical therapy or bone-allograft sterilization. We provide here a mechanistic framework for how irradiation affects the nature and properties of human cortical bone over a range of characteristic (nano to macro) length-scales, following x-­ray exposures up to 630 kGy. Macroscopically, bone strength, ductility and fracture resistance are seen to be progressively degraded with increasing irradiation levels. At the micron-­scale, fracture properties, evaluated using in-situ scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron x-ray computed micro-tomography, provide mechanistic information on how cracks interact with the bone-matrix structure. At sub-micron scales, strength properties are evaluated with in-situ tensile tests in the synchrotron using small-/wide-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction, where strains are simultaneously measured in the macroscopic tissue, collagen fibrils and mineral. Compared to healthy bone, results show that the fibrillar strain is decreased by ~40% following 70 kGy exposures, consistent with significant stiffening and degradation of the collagen. We attribute the irradiation-­induced deterioration in mechanical properties to mechanisms at multiple length-scales, including changes in crack paths at micron-­scales, loss of plasticity from suppressed fibrillar sliding at sub-­micron scales, and the loss and damage of collagen at the nano-­scales, the latter being assessed using Raman and Fourier-Transform-Infrared spectroscopy and a fluorometric assay.

  12. Property CV3 16:06 02/06/2006 1 Variability of the mechanical properties of bone, and its evolutionary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baxter, Paul D.

    properties; evolutionary optima 1. INTRODUCTION The objects of the work described in this paper mechanical properties of bone: Young's modulus, strain at failure, impact energy absorption and so on cannot insights may often be gained by doing so. For instance, except for very highly mineralised bone, bending

  13. Reactive oxygen species on bone mineral density and mechanics in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) knockout mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smietana, Michael J. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States)] [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Arruda, Ellen M. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States) [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2250 GG Brown, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Program in Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, 2250 GG Brown, 2350 Hayward, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Faulkner, John A.; Brooks, Susan V. [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States) [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Larkin, Lisa M., E-mail: llarkin@umich.edu [Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States); Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 2025 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2200 (United States)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered to be a factor in the onset of a number of age-associated conditions, including loss of BMD. {yields} Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) deficient mice have increased ROS, reduced bone mineral density, decreased bending stiffness, and decreased strength compared to WT controls. {yields} Increased ROS caused by the deficiency of Sod1, may be responsible for the changes in BMD and bone mechanics and therefore represent an appropriate model for studying mechanisms of age-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in a number of degenerative conditions including osteoporosis. Mice deficient in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) (Sod1{sup -/-} mice) have elevated oxidative stress and decreased muscle mass and strength compared to wild-type mice (WT) and appear to have an accelerated muscular aging phenotype. Thus, Sod1{sup -/-} mice may be a good model for evaluating the effects of free radical generation on diseases associated with aging. In this experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the structural integrity of bone as measured by bending stiffness (EI; N/mm{sup 2}) and strength (MPa) is diminished in Sod1{sup -/-} compared to WT mice. Femurs were obtained from male and female WT and Sod1{sup -/-} mice at 8 months of age and three-point bending tests were used to determine bending stiffness and strength. Bones were also analyzed for bone mineral density (BMD; mg/cc) using micro-computed tomography. Femurs were approximately equal in length across all groups, and there were no significant differences in BMD or EI with respect to gender in either genotype. Although male and female mice demonstrated similar properties within each genotype, Sod1{sup -/-} mice exhibited lower BMD and EI of femurs from both males and females compared with gender matched WT mice. Strength of femurs was also lower in Sod1{sup -/-} mice compared to WT as well as between genders. These data indicate that increased oxidative stress, due to the deficiency of Sod1 is associated with decreased bone stiffness and strength and Sod1{sup -/-} mice may represent an appropriate model for studying disease processes in aging bone.

  14. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 14012: Fuel Cell System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the cost of automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 14012 More Documents & Publications DOE Fuel Cell...

  15. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Update: 2010 Fuel Cell Seminar...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2010 Fuel Cell Seminar and Exposition on October 19, 2010. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Update More Documents & Publications DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Overview: 2011...

  16. Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Pete Devlin Fuel Cell Technologies Program United States Department of Energy Federal Utility Partnership...

  17. Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems Presented...

  18. Ibandronate promotes osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells by regulating the expression of microRNAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Qiang [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)] [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Zhao, Zhi-Ning [Clinical Laboratory, 451 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Xi'an 710054 (China)] [Clinical Laboratory, 451 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Xi'an 710054 (China); Cheng, Jing-Tao [Department of Special Dentistry, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)] [Department of Special Dentistry, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Zhang, Bin [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)] [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Xu, Jie [Department of Periodontology, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)] [Department of Periodontology, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Huang, Fei; Zhao, Rui-Ni [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)] [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Chen, Yong-Jin, E-mail: cyj1229@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)] [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Ibandronate significantly promote the proliferation of PDLSC cells. {yields} Ibandronate enhanced the expression of ALP, COL-1, OPG, OCN, Runx2. {yields} The expression of a class of miRNAs, e.g., miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly modified in PDLSC cells cultured with ibandronate. {yields} Ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation-related genes via miRNAs in PDLSCs. {yields} Ibandronate can suppress the activity of osteoclast while promoting the proliferation of osteoblast by regulating the expression of microRNAs. -- Abstract: Bisphosphonates (BPs) have a profound effect on bone resorption and are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. They suppress bone resorption by inhibiting the activity of mature osteoclasts and/or the formation of new osteoclasts. Osteoblasts may be an alternative target for BPs. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) exhibit osteoblast-like features and are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts or cementoblasts. This study aimed to determine the effects of ibandronate, a nitrogen-containing BP, on the proliferation and the differentiation of PDLSCs and to identify the microRNAs (miRNAs) that mediate these effects. The PDLSCs were treated with ibandronate, and cell proliferation was measured using the MTT (3-dimethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The expression of genes and miRNAs involved in osteoblastic differentiation was assayed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Ibandronate promoted the proliferation of PDLSCs and enhanced the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen (COL-1), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OCN), and Runx2. The expression of miRNAs, including miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly altered in the PDLSCs cultured with ibandronate. In PDLSCs, ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation-related genes via miRNAs. The exact mechanism underlying the role of ibandronate in osteoblasts has not been completely understood. Ibandronate may suppress the activity of osteoclasts while promoting the proliferation of osteoblasts by regulating the expression of miRNAs.

  19. Photovoltaic Cell Performance Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Photovoltaic (PV), or solar cells use the energy in sunlight to produce electricity. However, the amount of electricity produced depends on the quality of the light available and the performance of the PV cell.

  20. Interfacing devices with cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voldman, Joel

    To detect electrical properties of cells, we have developed a method called iso-dielectric separation (IDS), where cells are placed in a spatially varying electric field and a spatially varying conductivity gradient that ...

  1. Cell-cell and cell-medium interactions in the growth of mouse embryonic stem cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Nikhil, 1979-

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells serve as powerful models for the study of development and disease and hold enormous potential for future therapeutics. Due to the potential for embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to provide a variety of tissues ...

  2. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Experience with the German Hydrogen Fuel Project," HydrogenHydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles UCD-ITS-RR-92-14 September bycost than both. Solar-hydrogen fuel- cell vehicles would be

  3. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    by Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic cells. Inorganic Chemistry,by Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic Cells. Inorganic ChemistryTiO 2 solar cells: transport, recombination and photovoltaic

  4. cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells directly by inducing them to undergo apoptosis helper T cells help activate B cells, macrophages and cytotoxic T cells.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morante, Silvia

    cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells directly by inducing them to undergo apoptosis helper T cells help activate B cells, macrophages and cytotoxic T cells. Both classes of T cells express cell-surface, antibodylike receptors, encoded by genes that are assembled from multiple gene segments during T cell

  5. Electroluminescence in photovoltaic cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petraglia, Antonio; 10.1088/0031-9120/46/5/F01

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose two methods to get electroluminescence images from photovoltaic cells in a school or home lab.

  6. Webinar: Fuel Cell Buses

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Fuel Cell Buses, originally presented on September 12, 2013.

  7. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    California, June (1986). General Electric, Direct Energy Conversion Programs, Feasibility Study ofSPE Fuel Cell Power Plants

  8. Rapidly refuelable fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, Richard W. (Santa Clara, CA)

    1983-01-01

    This invention is directed to a metal-air fuel cell where the consumable metal anode is movably positioned in the cell and an expandable enclosure, or bladder, is used to press the anode into contact with separating spacers between the cell electrodes. The bladder may be depressurized to allow replacement of the anode when consumed.

  9. Polyhedral Voronoi Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ina Voigt; Stephan Weis

    2010-03-22

    Voronoi cells of a discrete set in Euclidean space are known as generalized polyhedra. We identify polyhedral cells of a discrete set through a direction cone. For an arbitrary set we distinguish polyhedral from non-polyhedral cells using inversion at a sphere and a theorem of semi-infinite linear programming.

  10. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirmi, G.P.; Campisi, J.; Peacocke, M.

    1996-02-13

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, {beta}-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in in vitro cell cultures or in vivo. 1 fig.

  11. Biomarkers of cell senescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimri, G.P.; Campisi, J.; Peacocke, M.

    1998-08-18

    The present invention provides a biomarker system for the in vivo and in vitro assessment of cell senescence. In the method of the present invention, {beta}-galactosidase activity is utilized as a means by which cell senescence may be assessed either in vitro cell cultures or in vivo. 1 fig.

  12. Differentiated human stem cells resemble fetal, not adult, ? cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hrvatin, Sinisa

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential to generate any human cell type, and one widely recognized goal is to make pancreatic ? cells. To this end, comparisons between differentiated cell types produced in ...

  13. MicroCT-Based Skeletal Models for Use in Tomographic Voxel Phantoms for Radiological Protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesley Bolch

    2010-03-30

    ABSTRACT The University of Florida (UF) proposes to develop two high-resolution image-based skeletal dosimetry models for direct use by ICRP Committee 2’s Task Group on Dose Calculation in their forthcoming Reference Voxel Male (RVM) and Reference Voxel Female (RVF) whole-body dosimetry phantoms. These two phantoms are CT-based, and thus do not have the image resolution to delineate and perform radiation transport modeling of the individual marrow cavities and bone trabeculae throughout their skeletal structures. Furthermore, new and innovative 3D microimaging techniques will now be required for the skeletal tissues following Committee 2’s revision of the target tissues of relevance for radiogenic bone cancer induction. This target tissue had been defined in ICRP Publication 30 as a 10-?m cell layer on all bone surfaces of trabecular and cortical bone. The revised target tissue is now a 50-?m layer within the marrow cavities of trabecular bone only and is exclusive of the marrow adipocytes. Clearly, this new definition requires the use of 3D microimages of the trabecular architecture not available from past 2D optical studies of the adult skeleton. With our recent acquisition of two relatively young cadavers (males of age 18-years and 40-years), we will develop a series of reference skeletal models that can be directly applied to (1) the new ICRP reference voxel man and female phantoms developed for the ICRP, and (2) pediatric phantoms developed to target the ICRP reference children. Dosimetry data to be developed will include absorbed fractions for internal beta and alpha-particle sources, as well as photon and neutron fluence-to-dose response functions for direct use in external dosimetry studies of the ICRP reference workers and members of the general public

  14. Spectral analysis and connectivity of porous microstructures in bone Kenneth M. Golden , N. Benjamin Murphy, Elena Cherkaev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherkaev, Elena

    also help assess the impact of osteoporosis on trabecular structure. Central to our approach- structures, ranging from a solid network of connected trabeculae containing numerous connected pores, in dense cortical bone the pores can be sparse and disconnected, yet exhibit increasing volume fraction

  15. DESIGN OF FOAM COVERING FOR ROBOTIC ARMS TO ENSURE HUMAN SAFETY Lingqi Zeng and Gary M. Bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bone, Gary

    , and robot and human velocities. The impact experiments are performed with an apparatus simulating the humanDESIGN OF FOAM COVERING FOR ROBOTIC ARMS TO ENSURE HUMAN SAFETY Lingqi Zeng and Gary M. Bone@mcmaster.ca ABSTRACT Unintentional physical human-robot contact is becoming more common as robots operate in closer

  16. Poly(e-caprolactone) Composites Containing Gentamicin-Loaded b-Tricalcium Phosphate/Gelatin Microspheres as Bone Tissue Supports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasýrcý, Vasýf

    Poly(e-caprolactone) Composites Containing Gentamicin-Loaded b-Tricalcium Phosphate/Gelatin-tricalcium phosphate (b-TCP) and gelatin. The purpose is to use this biode- gradable material as a support for bone. The effects of the ratio of the b-TCP/gelatin microspheres on the morphological, mechanical, and degradation

  17. Further evaluation of the efficacy of contamination removal from bone Jodi Lynn Barta a,b,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemp, Brian M.

    Further evaluation of the efficacy of contamination removal from bone surfaces Jodi Lynn Barta a, it simultaneously represents a system that is hypersen- sitive to amplifying contaminant DNA [7­9]. Tempering) and degraded DNA are prone to contamination from exogenous DNA sources that in some cases can out

  18. The effect of alcohol on the bone growth spurt of rats at a time equivalent to adolescent females 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaffin, Catherine Lee

    1997-01-01

    2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the feeding began. I-Estomorphometric analyses were performed using a BioQuant Morphometric system on 5um undecalcified longitudinal sections of the proximal tibia. A decrease in the amount of trabecular bone was found...

  19. Genetic Inactivation of ERK1 and ERK2 in Chondrocytes Promotes Bone Growth and Enlarges the Spinal Canal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genetic Inactivation of ERK1 and ERK2 in Chondrocytes Promotes Bone Growth and Enlarges the Spinal dysplasia. In mouse models of achondroplasia, recent studies have implicated the ERK MAPK pathway, a pathway and ERK MAPK signaling in chondrocytes also causes premature synchondrosis closure in the cranial base

  20. A new technique for imaging Mineralized Fibrils on Bovine Trabecular Bone Fracture Surfaces by Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansma, Paul

    A new technique for imaging Mineralized Fibrils on Bovine Trabecular Bone Fracture Surfaces coated with extrafibrillar mineral particles. The mineral particles are distinctly different in different collagen fibrils. If the observed particles can be verified to be native extrafibrillar mineral, this could

  1. The safety and efficacy of an injectable bone substitute in dental sockets demonstrated in a human clinical trial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in a water-soluble cellulose polymer carrier phase. It was used for filling bone defects after tooth extractions in eleven patients. The first objective of the study was to investigate the safety of the filler of the implanted areas were harvested and analyzed by using micro-computed tomography, non-decalcified histology

  2. Fracture Mechanisms of Bone: A Comparative Study between Antler and Bovine Femur , F.A. Sheppard2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKittrick, Joanna

    Fracture Mechanisms of Bone: A Comparative Study between Antler and Bovine Femur P.Y. Chen1 , F, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411, U.S.A. ABSTRACT In this study, fracture conditions to study the effects of fiber orientation and hydration. Fracture toughness results

  3. Predicting hip fracture type with cortical bone mapping (CBM) in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drummond, Tom

    Predicting hip fracture type with cortical bone mapping (CBM) in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men, for the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study CUED/F-INFENG/TR 695 January 2015 Cambridge University Engineering;1 Abstract Hip fracture risk is known to be related to material properties of the proximal femur, but prospec

  4. Purification of Matrix Gla Protein From a Marine Teleost Fish, Argyrosomus regius: Calcified Cartilage and Not Bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Paul A.

    Purification of Matrix Gla Protein From a Marine Teleost Fish, Argyrosomus regius: Calcified Cartilage and Not Bone as the Primary Site of MGP Accumulation in Fish DC SIMES,1 MK WILLIAMSON,2 JB ORTIZ to accumulate in vertebra of shark, a cartilaginous fish. However, to date, no information is available on sites

  5. a bStomach Lung cell zone Clara cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasnow, Mark A.

    a bStomach Lung Chief-cell zone Stem-cell zone Mucus- cell zone Clara cell Tracheal airway Basal independent studies show that, if push comes to shove, differentiated cells of the stomach and lung can act and the other by Stange et al.2 published in Cell, find that followingdepletionofstemcellsinthestomach or lung

  6. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and /sup 137/Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  7. Webinar: Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting, originally presented on November 13, 2012.

  8. Liquid-Solid Phase Transition Alloy as Reversible and Rapid Molding Bone Cement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Liting; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Bone cement has been demonstrated as an essential restorative material in the orthopedic surgery. However current materials often imply unavoidable drawbacks, such as tissue-cement reaction induced thermal injuries and troublesome revision procedure. Here we proposed an injectable alloy cement to address such problems through its liquid-solid phase transition mechanism. The cement is made of a unique alloy BiInSnZn with a specifically designed low melting point 57.5{\\deg}C. This property enables its rapid molding into various shapes with high plasticity. Some fundamental characteristics including mechanical strength behaviors and phase transition-induced thermal features have been measured to demonstrate the competence of alloy as unconventional cement with favorable merits. Further biocompatible tests showed that this material could be safely employed in vivo. In addition, experiments also found the alloy cement capability as an excellent contrast agent for radiation imaging. Particularly, the proposed alloy...

  9. Periostin and Osterix Expression in Odontogenic and Non-Odontogenic Bone Lesions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trump, Bryan Glen

    2014-04-24

    , despite no calcified material is found in this neoplasm. We also report a novel finding that osterix-positive cells and periostin expression were found in the lamina propria, and osterix-positive cells were also found in squamous epithelium of normal...

  10. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion effiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer.

  11. FUEL CELLS FOR TRANSPORTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Fuel Cells for Transportation Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Transportation............................................................................................. 101 A. R&D of a 50-kW, High-Efficiency, High-Power-Density, CO-Tolerant PEM Fuel Cell Stack SystemFUEL CELLS FOR TRANSPORTATION 2 0 0 1 A N N U A L P R O G R E S S R E P O R T U.S. Department

  12. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.

    1994-08-30

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer. 1 fig.

  13. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  14. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-12-15

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  15. Hydrogen Fuel Cells

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    The fuel cell — an energy conversion device that can efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen — is the key to making it happen.

  16. Micro fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zook, L.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hockaday, R. [Energy Related Devices Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    An ambient temperature, liquid feed, direct methanol fuel cell device is under development. A metal barrier layer was used to block methanol crossover from the anode to the cathode side while still allowing for the transport of protons from the anode to the cathode. A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is an electrochemical engine that converts chemical energy into clean electrical power by the direct oxidation of methanol at the fuel cell anode. This direct use of a liquid fuel eliminates the need for a reformer to convert the fuel to hydrogen before it is fed into the fuel cell.

  17. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  18. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  19. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  20. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Membrane Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers," Journal of PowerAdvanced Alkaline Electrolyzer for Solar Operation,"requirements are for electrolyzer feedwater. T h e high-

  1. Opportunities with Fuel Cells

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The concept for fuel cells was discovered in the nineteenth century. Today, units incorporating this technology are becoming commercially available for cogeneration applications.

  2. Fuel Cell Technologies Budget

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EERE

    2012-03-16

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office receives appropriations from Energy and Water Development. The offices's major activities and budget are outlined in this Web page.

  3. Microcomposite Fuel Cell Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of microcomposite fuel cell membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

  4. CELL CLINICS FOR BLOELECTRONIC INTERFACE WITH SINGLE CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    CELL CLINICS FOR BLOELECTRONIC INTERFACE WITH SINGLE CELLS P. Abshiret, J.-M Lauensteid Y.L i d E for capture and characterization of large numbers of individual cells. Each of these "cell clinics" consists of a cell-sized cavity and a lid that can be opened and closed by hinges constructed from polypyrrole

  5. Nanomechanics and ultrastructural studies of cortical bone : fundamental insights regarding structure-function, mineral-organic force mechanics interactions, and heterogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tai, Kuangshin

    2007-01-01

    Although the mechanics of bone has been studied extensively at the micro- and macro-scale, the nano-scopic level is perhaps the most illuminating as this is the length scale at which the individual constituents interact. ...

  6. Molecular Cell Short Article

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lahav, Galit

    these pathways depends on cell-cycle phase; however the continuous effect of cell cycle on the balance between pathways are functional. The shift from NHEJ to HR is gradual, with the highest proportion of breaks repaired by HR in mid S, where the amount of DNA replication is highest. Higher proportions of HR also

  7. Electrochemical cell stack assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-06-22

    Multiple stacks of tubular electrochemical cells having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films arranged in parallel on stamped conductive interconnect sheets or ferrules. The stack allows one or more electrochemical cell to malfunction without disabling the entire stack. Stack efficiency is enhanced through simplified gas manifolding, gas recycling, reduced operating temperature and improved heat distribution.

  8. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    freezing and about a hundred freeze-thaw cycles, there is no change in fuel cellfuel cell is operating, it generates more than enough heat to prevent water and moisture from freezingfuel cell system, because in the present design the flow fields and manifolds would be damaged by the freezing-

  9. Programmed cell death

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A. Michael (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

  12. Fuel cells and fuel cell catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2006-11-07

    A direct organic fuel cell includes a formic acid fuel solution having between about 10% and about 95% formic acid. The formic acid is oxidized at an anode. The anode may include a Pt/Pd catalyst that promotes the direct oxidation of the formic acid via a direct reaction path that does not include formation of a CO intermediate.

  13. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2015-09-08

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  14. Physics of adherent cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulrich S. Schwarz; Samuel S. Safran

    2013-09-09

    One of the most unique physical features of cell adhesion to external surfaces is the active generation of mechanical force at the cell-material interface. This includes pulling forces generated by contractile polymer bundles and networks, and pushing forces generated by the polymerization of polymer networks. These forces are transmitted to the substrate mainly by focal adhesions, which are large, yet highly dynamic adhesion clusters. Tissue cells use these forces to sense the physical properties of their environment and to communicate with each other. The effect of forces is intricately linked to the material properties of cells and their physical environment. Here a review is given of recent progress in our understanding of the role of forces in cell adhesion from the viewpoint of theoretical soft matter physics and in close relation to the relevant experiments.

  15. Mechanical forces such as cell traction control cell growth, differ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salaita, Khalid

    Mechanical forces such as cell traction control cell growth, differ entiation, motility, which bind integrins (transmembrane receptors that relay mechanical signals from the extracellular the contribution of mechanical forces to cell behaviour and function. Eytan Zlotorynski TECHNIQUE DNA hairpins

  16. Cochlear hair cell regeneration from neonatal mouse supporting cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bramhall, Naomi F

    2012-01-01

    Unlike lower vertebrates, capable of spontaneous hair cell regeneration, mammals experience permanent sensorineural hearing loss following hair cell damage. Although low levels of hair cell regeneration have been demonstrated ...

  17. Single-cell technologies for monitoring interactions between immune cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamanaka, Yvonne J. (Yvonne Joy)

    2014-01-01

    Immune cells participate in dynamic cellular interactions that play a critical role in the defense against pathogens and the destruction of malignant cells. The vast heterogeneity of immune cells motivates the study of ...

  18. A Signal-Inducing Bone Cement for Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Spinal Surgery Based on Hydroxyapatite and Polymethylmethacrylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wichlas, Florian, E-mail: florian.wichlas@charite.de; Seebauer, Christian J.; Schilling, Rene [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany); Rump, Jens [University Charite, Department of Radiology (Germany); Chopra, Sascha S. [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany); Walter, Thula; Teichgraeber, Ulf K. M. [University Charite, Department of Radiology (Germany); Bail, Hermann J. [University Charite, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a signal-inducing bone cement for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided cementoplasty of the spine. This MRI cement would allow precise and controlled injection of cement into pathologic lesions of the bone. We mixed conventional polymethylmethacrylate bone cement (PMMA; 5 ml methylmethacrylate and 12 g polymethylmethacrylate) with hydroxyapatite (HA) bone substitute (2-4 ml) and a gadolinium-based contrast agent (CA; 0-60 {mu}l). The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of different CA doses was measured in an open 1.0-Tesla scanner for fast T1W Turbo-Spin-Echo (TSE) and T1W TSE pulse sequences to determine the highest signal. We simulated MRI-guided cementoplasty in cadaveric spines. Compressive strength of the cements was tested. The highest CNR was (1) 87.3 (SD 2.9) in fast T1W TSE for cements with 4 {mu}l CA/ml HA (4 ml) and (2) 60.8 (SD 2.4) in T1W TSE for cements with 1 {mu}l CA/ml HA (4 ml). MRI-guided cementoplasty in cadaveric spine was feasible. Compressive strength decreased with increasing amounts of HA from 46.7 MPa (2 ml HA) to 28.0 MPa (4 ml HA). An MRI-compatible cement based on PMMA, HA, and CA is feasible and clearly visible on MRI images. MRI-guided spinal cementoplasty using this cement would permit direct visualization of the cement, the pathologic process, and the anatomical surroundings.

  19. Glycosphingolipid synthesis inhibitors prevent osteoclast activation and myeloma bone Ersek et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Life Technologies Ltd (Paisley, UK). Antibody against MAP Kinases: ERK1/2, p38, JNK, phospho-ERK1) from Life Technologies (Paisley, UK) and -tubulin (T6199) from Sigma (Dorset UK). Cells were lysed in 1

  20. Journal of OrthopaedicResearch 15189.196 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Inc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buschmann, Michael

    on pericellular pH, proteoglycan content, ion concentration, osmotic pressure, and fixed charge density could stratified in terms of its biochemical content, water content, ultrastructural architecture, cell mor

  1. Tritium: a model for low level long-term ionizing radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carsten, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    The somatic, cytogenetic and genetic effects of single and chronic tritiated water (HTO) ingestion in mice was investigated. This study serves not only as an evaluation of tritium toxicity (TRITOX) but due to its design involving long-term low concentration ingestion of HTO may serve as a model for low level long-term ionizing radiation exposure in general. Long-term studies involved animals maintained on HTO at concentrations of 0.3 ..mu..Ci/ml, 1.0 ..mu..Ci/ml, 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml or depth dose equivalent chronic external exposures to /sup 137/Cs gamma rays. Maintenance on 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml resulted in no effect on growth, life-time shortening or bone marrow cellularity, but did result in a reduction of bone marrow stem cells, an increase in DLM's in second generation animals maintained on this regimen and cytogenetic effects as indicated by increased sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's) in bone marrow cells, increased chromosome aberrations in the regenerating liver and an increase in micronuclei in red blood cells. Biochemical and microdosimetry studies showed that animals placed on the HTO regimen reached tritium equilibrium in the body water in approximately 17 to 21 days with a more gradual increase in bound tritium. When animals maintained for 180 days on 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml HTO were placed on a tap water regimen, the tritium level in tissue dropped from the equilibrium value of 2.02 ..mu..Ci/ml before withdrawal to 0.001 ..mu..Ci/ml at 28 days. 18 references.

  2. Percentage depth dose distributions in inhomogeneous phantoms with lung and bone equivalent media for small fields of CyberKnife

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Chung Il; Yoon, Sei-Chul; Suh, Tae Suk; Hong, Seung-Woo; Min, Kyung Joo; Lee, Sang Deok; Chung, Su Mi; Jung, Jae-Yong

    2014-01-01

    The percentage depth dose distributions in inhomogeneous phantoms with lung and bone equivalent media are studied. For lung equivalent media a Balsa wood is used, and for a soft bone equivalent media a compound material with epoxy resin, hardener and calcium carbonate is used. Polystyrene slabs put together with these materials are used as an inhomogeneous phantom. Dose measurements are performed with Gafchromic EBT film by using photon beams from 6MV CyberKnife at the Seoul Uridul Hospital. The cone sizes of the photon beams are varied from 5, 10 to 30 mm. As a simulation tool GEANT4 Monte Carlo code v9.4.p02 is used. When the Balsa wood is inserted in the phantom, the dose measured with EBT film is found to be significantly different from the dose without the EBT film in and beyond the Balsa wood region, particularly for small field sizes. On the other hand, when the soft bone equivalent material is inserted in the phantom, discrepancy between the dose measured with EBT film and the dose without EBT film ca...

  3. FDG-PET/CT Imaging Predicts Histopathologic Treatment Responses after Neoadjuvant Therapy in Adult Primary Bone Sarcomas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Benz, Matthias R.; Czernin, Johannes; Tap, William D.; Eckardt, Jeffrey J.; Seeger, Leanne L.; Allen-Auerbach, Martin S.; Dry, Sarah M.; Phelps, Michael E.; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Eilber, Fritz C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether FDG-PET allows an accurate assessment of histopathologic response to neoadjuvant treatment in adult patients with primary bone sarcomas.Methods. Twelve consecutive patients with resectable, primary high grade bone sarcomas were enrolled prospectively. FDG-PET/CT imaging was performed prior to the initiation and after completion of neoadjuvant treatment. Imaging findings were correlated with histopathologic response.Results. Histopathologic responders showed significantly more pronounced decreases in tumor FDG-SUVmax from baseline to late follow up than non-responders (64±19% versus29±30%, resp.;P=.03). Using a 60% decrease in tumor FDG-uptake as a threshold for metabolic response correctly classified 3more »of 4 histopathologic responders and 7 of 8 histopathologic non-responders as metabolic responders and non-responders, respectively (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 88%).Conclusion. These results suggest that changes in FDG-SUVmax at the end of neoadjuvant treatment can identify histopathologic responders and non-responders in adult primary bone sarcoma patients.« less

  4. Nonlinear wave-mixing spectroscopic methods for bioanalytical and biophysical applications with sensitive detection at the single cell level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atherton, Adrian Ashley

    2006-01-01

    polyethylene, metal or bone cement from implants are formed by many factors including biological response of the bone to stress shielding,

  5. tem cells are undifferentiated or "blank slate" cells from which other types of cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S tem cells are undifferentiated or "blank slate" cells from which other types of cells can arise. The defining characteristic of human stem cells is their ability to self-renew (provide an exact copy of themselves) while maintaining the potential to develop into other types of cells, such as blood, brain

  6. MODELING CELL HETEROGENEITY: FROM SINGLE-CELL VARIATIONS TO MIXED CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphael, Ben J.

    MODELING CELL HETEROGENEITY: FROM SINGLE-CELL VARIATIONS TO MIXED CELLS ERIC BATCHELOR Center of Health Bethesda, MD 20894, USA Email: wojtowda@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov Emerging technologies such as single cell gene expression analysis and single cell genome sequencing provide an unprecedented opportunity

  7. Fuel Cell Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Systems Fuel Cell Systems The design of fuel cell systems is complex, and can vary significantly depending upon fuel cell type and application. However, several basic...

  8. Fuel Cells Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office describing hydrogen fuel cell technology. Fuel Cells More Documents & Publications Hydrogen and Fuel Cell...

  9. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar Cell efficiency tables (version 38).Grätzel. A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cell Based on Dyeand E.D. Dunlop. Solar Cell efficiency tables (version 38).

  10. RECHARGEABLE MOLTEN-SALT CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2013-01-01

    KC! /FeS 2 cell lithium-silicon magnesium oxide molten-saltmolten-salt cells Na/Na glass/Na:z.Sn-S cell Na/NazO•xA!Symposium on Molten Salts, Physical Electrochemistry

  11. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 86, pp. 451-in crystalline silicon solar cells," Renewable Energy, vol.

  12. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 93(10): 1728-1723,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92(8) 39. Sima, C.Y. , Warta, W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar Cell efficiency tables (

  13. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured Silicon- Based Solar Cells, 2013. X. C. Tong,heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,in crystalline silicon solar cells," Renewable Energy, vol.

  14. Measuring single-cell density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grover, William H.

    We have used a microfluidic mass sensor to measure the density of single living cells. By weighing each cell in two fluids of different densities, our technique measures the single-cell mass, volume, and density of ...

  15. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    glass contact Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 93(10):cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92(8) 39.potential of these materials for solar energy conversion,

  16. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 86, pp. 451-Nanostructured Silicon- Based Solar Cells, 2013. X. C. Tong,

  17. Power from the Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy E.

    2000-01-01

    Power for Buildings Using Fuel-Cell Cars,” Proceedings ofwell as to drive down fuel-cell system costs through productPower from the Fuel Cell BY TIMOTHY E. LIPMAN A U T O M O B

  18. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    Y. , Warta, W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar Cell efficiency tables (in dye-sensitized solar cells based on Tio2 nanocrystal/R. J. ; Nozik, A. J. Schottky Solar Cells Based on Colloidal

  19. Modeling Stem Cell Induction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gracio, Filipe

    Technology for converting human cells to pluripotent stem cell using induction processes has the potential to revolutionize regenerative medicine. However, the production of these so called iPS cells is still quite inefficient ...

  20. DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    t t 1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Fuel Cell Technologies Program DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview Dr. Sunita Satyapal Program Manager U S D f E Overview U.S....

  1. Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and the environment PT Loma WWTP, Biogas to Fuel Cell Power BioFuels Energy Biogas to BioMethane to 4.5 MW Fuel Cell Power 3 FCE Fuel Cells 2 via directed...

  2. Cell Patterning with Mucin Biopolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crouzier, T.

    The precise spatial control of cell adhesion to surfaces is an endeavor that has enabled discoveries in cell biology and new possibilities in tissue engineering. The generation of cell-repellent surfaces currently requires ...

  3. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    there is a great deal of interest in thin-film solar cells.Thin-film solar cells are made from a variety oflimitation in all thin-film solar cell technologies is that

  4. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    the harvesting potential of our solar cell and suggests thedye sensitized solar cell and the potential they can serveSchottky solar cells has demonstrated the potential of these

  5. Patterns of Practice of Palliative Radiotherapy in Africa, Part 1: Bone and Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Vinay Gaye, Papa Macoumba M.Med.; Wahab, Sherif Abdel; Ndlovu, Ntokozo; Ngoma, Twalib; Vanderpuye, Verna; Sowunmi, Anthonia; Kigula-Mugambe, Joseph; Jeremic, Branislav

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To provide data on the pattern of practice of palliative radiotherapy (RT) on the African continent. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire was distributed to participants in a regional training course of the International Atomic Energy Agency in palliative cancer care and sent by e-mail to other institutions in Africa. Requested information included both infrastructure and human resources available and the pattern of RT practice for metastatic and locally advanced cancers. Results: Of 35 centers contacted, 24 (68%) completed the questionnaire. Although RT is used by most centers for most metastatic cancers, liver and lung metastases are treated with chemotherapy. Of 23 centers, 14 (61%) had a single RT regimen as an institutional policy for treating painful bone metastases, but only 5 centers (23%) of 23 used 8 Gy in 1 fraction. Brain metastases were being treated by RT to the whole brain to 30 Gy in 10 fractions, either exclusively (n = 13, 56%) or in addition to the use of 20 Gy in 5 fractions (n = 3, 14%). Conclusion: Radiotherapy is a major component of treatment of cancer patients in African countries. There is consensus among few centers for treatment schedules for almost all sites regarding time and dose-fractionation characteristics of RT regimens used and/or indications for the use of RT in this setting.

  6. Fuel Cells Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuel CellFuel Fuel CellsCells Fuel

  7. Molecular Cell Hydroxyurea Induces Hydroxyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, James J.

    Molecular Cell Article Hydroxyurea Induces Hydroxyl Radical-Mediated Cell Death in Escherichia coli superoxide production, together with the increased iron uptake, fuels the formation of hydroxyl radicals

  8. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Activities Mr. Pete Devlin U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Market Transformation Manager Stationary Fuel Cell Applications First National Bank of Omaha...

  9. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01

    dynamics in dye sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells using a polymer electrolytedynamics in dye sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells using a polymer electrolyte.

  10. Webinar: Fuel Cells at NASCAR

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Fuel Cells at NASCAR," originally presented on April 17, 2014.

  11. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    requisite, for solar energy conversion based on the donor-stable and low-cost solar energy conversion. Supplementalsolar cells blending organic semiconductors and inorganic semiconductor nanocrystals offer the potential to deliver efficient energy conversion

  12. Introgression & mapping Fiber cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Germplasm Introgression Genomics & mapping Fiber cell initiation Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping and breeding. Research activities commonly include plant breeding, genetics, genomics, cytogenetics, molecular methods. (C, S) · Contribute uniquely to genomics and its relevance to genetic improvement (C,S) · Harness

  13. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  14. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Demonstration ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brothers, Ltd., at their facility in the Port of Honolulu. The pilot hydrogen fuel cell unit will be used in place of a diesel generator currently used to provide power for...

  15. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    to create low-cost solar cells with performance andachieving stable and low-cost solar energy conversion.of large-scale solar power at low costs (1). The most

  16. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  17. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  18. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  19. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  20. Thin film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothwarf, Allen (Philadelphia, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell has as its transparent electrical contact a grid made from a non-noble metal by providing a layer of copper oxide between the transparent electrical contact and the absorber-generator.

  1. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

    1982-09-14

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

  2. Cytoskeleton and Cell Motility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Risler

    2011-05-12

    The present article is an invited contribution to the Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science, Robert A. Meyers Ed., Springer New York (2009). It is a review of the biophysical mechanisms that underly cell motility. It mainly focuses on the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and cell-motility mechanisms. Bacterial motility as well as the composition of the prokaryotic cytoskeleton is only briefly mentioned. The article is organized as follows. In Section III, I first present an overview of the diversity of cellular motility mechanisms, which might at first glance be categorized into two different types of behaviors, namely "swimming" and "crawling". Intracellular transport, mitosis - or cell division - as well as other extensions of cell motility that rely on the same essential machinery are briefly sketched. In Section IV, I introduce the molecular machinery that underlies cell motility - the cytoskeleton - as well as its interactions with the external environment of the cell and its main regulatory pathways. Sections IV D to IV F are more detailed in their biochemical presentations; readers primarily interested in the theoretical modeling of cell motility might want to skip these sections in a first reading. I then describe the motility mechanisms that rely essentially on polymerization-depolymerization dynamics of cytoskeleton filaments in Section V, and the ones that rely essentially on the activity of motor proteins in Section VI. Finally, Section VII is devoted to the description of the integrated approaches that have been developed recently to try to understand the cooperative phenomena that underly self-organization of the cell cytoskeleton as a whole.

  3. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  4. Compliant fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott (Albany, NY); Gudlavalleti, Sauri (Albany, NY)

    2009-12-15

    A fuel cell assembly comprising at least one metallic component, at least one ceramic component and a structure disposed between the metallic component and the ceramic component. The structure is configured to have a lower stiffness compared to at least one of the metallic component and the ceramic component, to accommodate a difference in strain between the metallic component and the ceramic component of the fuel cell assembly.

  5. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harris, Taryl L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  6. CellNet: Network Biology Applied to Stem Cell Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, James J.

    developed CellNet, a network biology platform that more accurately assesses the fidelity of cellular a platform for quantifying how closely engineered cell populations resemble their target cell type to cells resembling myoblasts (Davis et al., 1987), motor neurons (Vierbuchen et al., 2010), car

  7. Fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, Jack (Perth Amboy, NJ); Kaufman, Arthur (West Orange, NJ); Stawsky, Alfred (Teaneck, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell system is comprised of a fuel cell module including sub-stacks of series-connected fuel cells, the sub-stacks being held together in a stacked arrangement with cold plates of a cooling means located between the sub-stacks to function as electrical terminals. The anode and cathode terminals of the sub-stacks are connected in parallel by means of the coolant manifolds which electrically connect selected cold plates. The system may comprise a plurality of the fuel cell modules connected in series. The sub-stacks are designed to provide a voltage output equivalent to the desired voltage demand of a low voltage, high current DC load such as an electrolytic cell to be driven by the fuel cell system. This arrangement in conjunction with switching means can be used to drive a DC electrical load with a total voltage output selected to match that of the load being driven. This arrangement eliminates the need for expensive voltage regulation equipment.

  8. Microbial Cell Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Sullivan, Claretta; Mortensen, Ninell P; Allison, David P

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is finding increasing application in a variety of fields including microbiology. Until the emergence of AFM, techniques for ivnestigating processes in single microbes were limited. From a biologist's perspective, the fact that AFM can be used to generate high-resolution images in buffers or media is its most appealing feature as live-cell imaging can be pursued. Imaging living cells by AFM allows dynamic biological events to be studied, at the nanoscale, in real time. Few areas of biological research have as much to gain as microbiology from the application of AFM. Whereas the scale of microbes places them near the limit of resolution for light microscopy. AFM is well suited for the study of structures on the order of a micron or less. Although electron microscopy techniques have been the standard for high-resolution imaging of microbes, AFM is quickly gaining favor for several reasons. First, fixatives that impair biological activity are not required. Second, AFM is capable of detecting forces in the pN range, and precise control of the force applied to the cantilever can be maintained. This combination facilitates the evaluation of physical characteristics of microbes. Third, rather than yielding the composite, statistical average of cell populations, as is the case with many biochemical assays, the behavior of single cells can be monitored. Despite the potential of AFM in microbiology, there are several limitations that must be considered. For example, the time required to record an image allows for the study of gross events such as cell division or membrane degradation from an antibiotic but precludes the evaluation of biological reactions and events that happen in just fractions of a second. Additionally, the AFM is a topographical tool and is restricted to imaging surfaces. Therefore, it cannot be used to look inside cells as with opticla and transmission electron microscopes. other practical considerations are the limitation on the maximum scan size (roughly 100 x 100 {mu}m) and the restricted movement of the cantilever in the Z (or height) direction. In most commercial AFMs, the Z range is restricted to roughly 10 {mu}m such that the height of cells to be imaged must be seriously considered. Nevertheless, AFM can provide structural-functional information at nanometer resolution and do so in physiologically relevant environments. Further, instrumentation for scanning probe microscopy continues to advance. Systems for high-speed imaging are becoming available, and techniques for looking inside the cells are being demonstrated. The ability to combine AFM with other imaging modalities is likely to have an even greater impact on microbiological studies. AFM studies of intact microbial cells started to appear in the literature in the 1990s. For example, AFM studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae examined buddings cars after cell division and detailed changes related to cell growth processes. Also, the first AFM studies of bacterial biofilms appeared. In the late 1990s, AFM studies of intact fungal spores described clear changes in spore surfaces upon germination, and studies of individual bacterial cells were also described. These early bacterial imaging studies examined changes in bacterial morphology due to antimicrobial peptides exposure and bacterial adhesion properties. The majority of these early studies were carried out on dried samples and took advantage of the resolving power of AFM. The lack of cell mounting procedures presented an impediment for cell imaging studies. Subsequently, several approaches to mounting microbial cells have been developed, and these techniques are described later. Also highlighted are general considerations for microbial imaging and a description of some of the various applications of AFM to microbiology.

  9. Breakthrough Vehicle Development - Fuel Cells

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Document describing research and development program for fuel cell power systems for transportation applications.

  10. National Fuel Cell Research Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    the optimal conditions to operate a molten carbonate fuel cell, can be used to garner fundamental insightNational Fuel Cell Research Center www.nfcrc.uci.edu MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS STEADY STATE MODELING OF MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS FOR SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ANALYSES OVERVIEW Development of steady

  11. Hydrogen & Fuel Cells -Program Overview -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Analysis Fuel Cells Solid oxide fuel cell (kW-scale) R&D led to 75% weight reduction and >80% volume,000 35,000 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012P (SystemsShipped) Fuel Cell Systems Shipped by Application, World Research Market Growth Fuel cell markets continue to grow 48% increase in global MWs shipped 62% increase

  12. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NETL

    2004-11-01

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  13. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    prediction of the efficiency limitation of solar cell givenperfect solar cell absorber. [29] Following this prediction,

  14. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doepke, Matthias; Eisermann, Henning

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  15. Regulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 9 by Redox-Dependent Proteolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Zhenquan; Salmon, Richard M.; Upton, Paul D.; Morrell, Nicholas W.; Li, Wei

    2014-09-18

    of the orphan activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) in endothelial cells. Blood 109, 1953-1961 3. Johnson, D. W., Berg, J. N., Baldwin, M. A., Gallione, C. J., Marondel, I., Yoon, S. J., Stenzel, T. T., Speer, M., Pericak-Vance, M. A., Diamond, A., Guttmacher, A...

  16. OsteoConduct: Wireless Body-Area Communication based on Bone Conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    , Bluetooth has become increasingly available on mobile personal devices, such as cell phones. To reduce with alternative ways to interact with them. In particular, OsteoConduct is free of radiation and requires-worn devices in a hand-free fashion, e.g., to answer a phone call through the Bluetooth headset by a teeth

  17. TJ Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Daniel

    2009-04-17

    This talk will discuss recent developments in III-V multijunction photovoltaic technology which have led to the highest-efficiency solar cells ever demonstrated. The relationship between the materials science of III-V semiconductors and the achievement of record solar cell efficiencies will be emphasized. For instance, epitaxially-grown GAInP has been found to form a spontaneously-ordered GaP/InP (111) superlattice. This ordering affects the band gap of the material, which in turn affects the design of solar cells which incorporate GaInP. For the next generation of ultrahigh-efficiency III-V solar cells, we need a new semiconductor which is lattice-matched to GaAs, has a band gap of 1 eV, and has long minority-carrier diffusion lengths. Out of a number of candidate materials, the recently-discovered alloy GaInNAs appears to have the greatest promise. This material satisfies the first two criteria, but has to date shown very low diffusion lengths, a problem which is our current focus in the development of these next-generation cells.

  18. Predicting hip fracture type with cortical bone mapping (CBM) in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treece, Graham M.; Gee, Andrew H.; Tonkin, Carol; Ewing, Susan K.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Black, Dennis M.; Poole, Kenneth E. S.; Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study

    2015-03-18

    for hazard ratios were conducted in SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). In addition, we examined the ability of models involving different groups of variables to predict ten-year fracture incidence, by performing either binomial (any fracture... CD, Delmas P, et al. Predictive value of BMD for hip and other fractures. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20(7):1185–1194. 3. Kanis JA, Burlet N, Cooper C, Delmas PD, Reginster JY, Borgstrom F, et al. European guidance for the diagnosis and management...

  19. Cell Phone Detection Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Puzycki, David J.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Good, Morris S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2007-10-01

    A team composed of Rick Pratt, Dave Puczyki, Kyle Bunch, Ryan Slaugh, Morris Good, and Doug McMakin teamed together to attempt to exploit cellular telephone features and detect if a person was carrying a cellular telephone into a Limited Area. The cell phone’s electromagnetic properties were measured, analyzed, and tested in over 10 different ways to determine if an exploitable signature exists. The method that appears to have the most potential for success without adding an external tag is to measure the RF spectrum, not in the cell phone band, but between 240 and 400MHz. Figures 1- 7 show the detected signal levels from cell phones from three different manufacturers.

  20. Interband Cascade Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.

    2014-09-24

    In this project, we are performing basic and applied research to systematically investigate our newly proposed interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) cells [1]. These cells follow from the great success of infrared IC lasers [2-3] that pioneered the use of quantum-engineered IC structures. This quantum-engineered approach will enable PV cells to efficiently convert infrared radiation from the sun or other heat source, to electricity. Such cells will have important applications for more efficient use of solar energy, waste-heat recovery, and power beaming in combination with mid-infrared lasers. The objectives of our investigations are to: achieve extensive understanding of the fundamental aspects of the proposed PV structures, develop the necessary knowledge for making such IC PV cells, and demonstrate prototype working PV cells. This research will focus on IC PV structures and their segments for utilizing infrared radiation with wavelengths from 2 to 5 ?m, a range well suited for emission by heat sources (1,000-2,000 K) that are widely available from combustion systems. The long-term goal of this project is to push PV technology to longer wavelengths, allowing for relatively low-temperature thermal sources. Our investigations address material quality, electrical and optical properties, and their interplay for the different regions of an IC PV structure. The tasks involve: design, modeling and optimization of IC PV structures, molecular beam epitaxial growth of PV structures and relevant segments, material characterization, prototype device fabrication and testing. At the end of this program, we expect to generate new cutting-edge knowledge in the design and understanding of quantum-engineered semiconductor structures, and demonstrate the concepts for IC PV devices with high conversion efficiencies.

  1. Fuel cell stack arrangements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Boro, PA); Somers, Edward V. (Murrysville, PA)

    1982-01-01

    Arrangements of stacks of fuel cells and ducts, for fuel cells operating with separate fuel, oxidant and coolant streams. An even number of stacks are arranged generally end-to-end in a loop. Ducts located at the juncture of consecutive stacks of the loop feed oxidant or fuel to or from the two consecutive stacks, each individual duct communicating with two stacks. A coolant fluid flows from outside the loop, into and through cooling channels of the stack, and is discharged into an enclosure duct formed within the loop by the stacks and seals at the junctures at the stacks.

  2. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    1991-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, and (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. The solar cell can be provided as a two-terminal device or a three-terminal device.

  3. Elastic Interactions of Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. S. Schwarz; S. A. Safran

    2002-01-08

    Biological cells in soft materials can be modeled as anisotropic force contraction dipoles. The corresponding elastic interaction potentials are long-ranged ($\\sim 1/r^3$ with distance $r$) and depend sensitively on elastic constants, geometry and cellular orientations. On elastic substrates, the elastic interaction is similar to that of electric quadrupoles in two dimensions and for dense systems leads to aggregation with herringbone order on a cellular scale. Free and clamped surfaces of samples of finite size introduce attractive and repulsive corrections, respectively, which vary on the macroscopic scale. Our theory predicts cell reorientation on stretched elastic substrates.

  4. Separators for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley

    2014-11-11

    Provided are separators for use in an electrochemical cell comprising (a) an inorganic oxide and (b) an organic polymer, wherein the inorganic oxide comprises organic substituents. Preferably, the inorganic oxide comprises an hydrated aluminum oxide of the formula Al.sub.2O.sub.3.xH.sub.2O, wherein x is less than 1.0, and wherein the hydrated aluminum oxide comprises organic substituents, preferably comprising a reaction product of a multifunctional monomer and/or organic carbonate with an aluminum oxide, such as pseudo-boehmite and an aluminum oxide. Also provided are electrochemical cells comprising such separators.

  5. Fuel Cell Technologies Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuel Cell Seminar2015ofFuel Cell

  6. Fuel Cell Technologies Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuel Cell Seminar2015ofFuel CellStates

  7. Fuel Cells at NASCAR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12, 2015ExecutiveFluorescentDanKathy LoftusFuel CellFuel Fuelgreen h yFuel Cells

  8. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vincent, Bill; Gangi, Jennifer; Curtin, Sandra; Delmont, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  9. Pancreatic stellate cells enhance stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamada, Shin [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Masamune, Atsushi, E-mail: amasamune@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Takikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Noriaki; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Morihisa [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Hamada, Hirofumi [Laboratory of Oncology, Department of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji (Japan)] [Laboratory of Oncology, Department of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji (Japan); Kobune, Masayoshi [Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)] [Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Satoh, Kennichi [Division of Cancer Stem Cell, Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute, Natori (Japan)] [Division of Cancer Stem Cell, Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute, Natori (Japan); Shimosegawa, Tooru [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed enhanced spheroid formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28 was increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Recent studies have identified that a portion of cancer cells, called 'cancer stem cells', within the entire cancer tissue harbor highly tumorigenic and chemo-resistant phenotypes, which lead to the recurrence after surgery or re-growth of the tumor. The mechanisms that maintain the 'stemness' of these cells remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that PSCs might enhance the cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells. Indirect co-culture of pancreatic cancer cells with PSCs enhanced the spheroid-forming ability of cancer cells and induced the expression of cancer stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28. In addition, co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. These results suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche.

  10. Cell Reports Molecular Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    Cell Reports Report Molecular Architecture of the Yeast Monopolin Complex Kevin D. Corbett1 report here biochemical characterization of the monopolin complex subunits Mam1 and Hrr25). In these organisms, sister kinetochore co-orientation in meiosis I depends on the Aurora B/Ipl1 kinase, as well

  11. Amorphous semiconductor solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell comprising a back electrical contact, amorphous silicon semiconductor base and junction layers and a top electrical contact includes in its manufacture the step of heat treating the physical junction between the base layer and junction layer to diffuse the dopant species at the physical junction into the base layer.

  12. Solar Cell Simulation

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Students model the flow of energy from the sun as it enters a photovoltaic cell, moves along a wire and powers a load. The game-like atmosphere involves the younger students and helps them understand the continuous nature of the flow of energy. For a related lesson, please see the activity “Solar Powered System” (PDF 430 KB).

  13. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  14. Correlation of cell membrane dynamics and cell motility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veronika, Merlin

    Abstract Background Essential events of cell development and homeostasis are revealed by the associated changes of cell morphology and therefore have been widely used as a key indicator of physiological states and molecular ...

  15. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 06 · Solar Cell Materials & Structures 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6: Solar Cells Solar Cell Technologies · A) Crystalline Silicon · B) Thin Film · C) Group III-IV Cells 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6: Solar

  16. The Role of Leptin and Other Hormones Related to Bone Metabolism and Appetite Regulation as Determinants of Gain in Body Fat and Fat-Free Mass in 8 –11-Year-Old Children

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Petersen, Rikke A.; Sørensen, Louise B.; Ong, Ken K.; Astrup, Arne; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2014-12-22

    to the mineralization or demineralization of bones, like the bone 53 formation marker osteocalcin, and the calcium-mobilizing parathyroid hormone (PTH), have been 54 linked with energy metabolism and body fat deposition (23-26), but more knowledge is needed for 55...

  17. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  18. Cell Polarity: Quantitative Modeling as a Tool in Cell Biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allard, Jun

    REVIEW Cell Polarity: Quantitative Modeling as a Tool in Cell Biology Alex Mogilner,1 * Jun Allard,1 Roy Wollman2 Among a number of innovative approaches that have modernized cell biology, modeling characterized by varying levels of biological detail and mathematical complexity. We argue that a quantitative

  19. Cell Stem Cell Generation of Multipotent Lung and Airway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    Cell Stem Cell Article Generation of Multipotent Lung and Airway Progenitors from Mouse ESCs.01.018 SUMMARY Deriving lung progenitors from patient-specific pluripotent cells is a key step in producing differenti- ated lung epithelium for disease modeling and trans- plantation. By mimicking the signaling

  20. Inhibition of cell-cell binding by lipid assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Jon O. (Rodeo, CA); Bargatze, Robert F. (Bozeman, MT)

    2001-05-22

    This invention relates generally to the field of therapeutic compounds designed to interfere between the binding of ligands and their receptors on cell surface. More specifically, it provides products and methods for inhibiting cell migration and activation using lipid assemblies with surface recognition elements that are specific for the receptors involved in cell migration and activation.