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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Fitzgerald Wtr Lgt & Bond Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fitzgerald Wtr Lgt & Bond Comm Fitzgerald Wtr Lgt & Bond Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Fitzgerald Wtr Lgt & Bond Comm Place Georgia Utility Id 6380 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC RFC Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Commercial Industrial Industrial Residential City Residential Residential Rural Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1000/kWh Commercial: $0.1140/kWh Industrial: $0.0817/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a"

2

comm022  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 Comm 22.10 3 Comm 22.10 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Unofficial Text (See Printed Volume). Current through date and Register shown on Title Page. Register, March, 2009, No. 639 Chapter Comm 22 ENERGY CONSERVATION Subchapter I - Scope and Application Comm 22.01 Scope. Comm 22.02 Application. Subchapter II - Definitions Comm 22.10 Definitions. Subchapter III - Insulation Materials and Installation Comm 22.20 Basic requirements. Comm 22.21 Protection of insulation. Subchapter IV - Dwelling Thermal Envelope Comm 22.30 General design requirements. Comm 22.31 Prescriptive insulation and fenestration criteria. Comm 22.32 Specific insulation requirements. Comm 22.33 Slab floors. Comm 22.34 Crawl spaces. Comm 22.35 Thermally isolated sunrooms. Comm 22.36 Fenestration. Comm 22.37 Air leakage. Comm 22.38

3

Bonding and gap states at GaAs-oxide interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nature of bonding and possible causes of Fermi level pinning at high mobility-high dielectric constant oxide GaAs:HfO"2 interfaces are discussed. It is argued that these are atoms with defective bonding, rather than states due to the bulk semiconductor ... Keywords: GaAs, bonding, interface

John Robertson; Liang Lin

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

COMM REF  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

4 4 COMM REF _ ADMIN RCD _ TECHNICAL SERVICES DIVISION (TSD) BACKFIT (Documents dated prior to 1 November 1988) FUSRAP COMMUNICATIONS DISTRIBUTION DOEJORO TECHNICAL SERVICES DIVISION (CE-53) BECHTEL NATIONAL., INC. - JOB 14501 RESPONSE TRACKING INFORMAnON I lOWED BY: (ORG) I TARGET DATE I I CLOSING CCN COMPL DATE I CLOSING REF SECONDARY: I I OWED TO: lOWED BY: (ORG) I / I I I TARGET DATE I CLOSING CCN COMPL DATE CLOSING REF _ _~_.::..:~ TO_---i!on~/:....:.$uT'__ COMM DATaO..8//3/il ADDR CODE I I I I CLOSES CCN WBS _~/_=I.!>_.:.../ __ ......!/:....l>.:.._.....¥'__ _ NUMBER ST SUBJECT CODE If~ 0 DOE FILE NO. _ AFFECTED DOCUMENT &0 tA59i< c:eN:f:I: ~~~..:lII...3o...3lo...3~~~:lo..3..~..:lII...3o...3lo...3~~~:lo..3..~.3o..Jl,..JIrt..3I~~~~:lo..3..~.JIo.:CCN _

5

Tuntutuliak Comm Services Assn | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tuntutuliak Comm Services Assn Tuntutuliak Comm Services Assn Jump to: navigation, search Name Tuntutuliak Comm Services Assn Place Alaska Utility Id 19267 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location AK Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png All Other Community Facilities Residential Residential Residential Washeteria Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.7200/kWh Commercial: $0.6820/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Tuntutuliak_Comm_Services_Assn&oldid=411884

6

Lanesboro Public Utility Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lanesboro Public Utility Comm Lanesboro Public Utility Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Lanesboro Public Utility Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 10685 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial- Phase 2 Commercial Commercial- Three Phase Commercial Residential Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1140/kWh Commercial: $0.1090/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Lanesboro_Public_Utility_Comm&oldid=410975

7

Truman Public Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Truman Public Utilities Comm Truman Public Utilities Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Truman Public Utilities Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 19237 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates Residential: $0.1360/kWh Commercial: $0.1410/kWh Industrial: $0.1150/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Truman_Public_Utilities_Comm&oldid=411881"

8

Fairmont Public Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Public Utilities Comm Public Utilities Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Fairmont Public Utilities Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 6151 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png ALL ELECTRIC RATE Industrial COMMERCIAL SERVICE Commercial GENERAL SERVICE Industrial INDUSTRIAL SERVICE Industrial INDUSTRIAL SERVICE - PRIMARY VOLTAGE Industrial RESIDENTIAL HEAT Residential RESIDENTIAL SERVICE Residential RURAL SERVICE Residential

9

Mohawk Municipal Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Municipal Comm Municipal Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Mohawk Municipal Comm Place New York Utility Id 12759 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location NPCC Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Industrial Rate Industrial Large Commercial Commercial Public Street Lighting Lighting Security Lighting 150 w lamp Lighting Security Lighting 175 w lamp Lighting Security Lighting 250 w lamp Lighting Security Lighting 400 w lamp Lighting Single-Phase Residential Residential Small Commercial Business Commercial Average Rates Residential: $0.0366/kWh

10

Williamstown Utility Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Williamstown Utility Comm Williamstown Utility Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Williamstown Utility Comm Place Kentucky Utility Id 20731 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png 100 Watt High Pressure Sodium Area Light Lighting 150 Watt High Pressure Sodium Floodlight Lighting 175 Watt Mercury Vapor Area Light Lighting 250 Watt High Pressure Sodium Area Light Lighting 250 Watt High Pressure Sodium Floodlight Lighting 400 Watt High Pressure Sodium Area Light Lighting

11

Crisp County Power Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Crisp County Power Comm Crisp County Power Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Crisp County Power Comm Place Georgia Utility Id 4538 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Agriculture Process Service Commercial Farm Service Commercial Fuel Cost Recovery Schedule- Primary Distribution Commercial Fuel Cost Recovery Schedule- Secondary Distribution Commercial Fuel Cost Recovery Schedule- Transmission Commercial

12

Hibbing Public Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hibbing Public Utilities Comm Hibbing Public Utilities Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Hibbing Public Utilities Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 8543 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC FRCC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png -POWER SERVICE Commercial Commercial Security Lighting Rate - 100 Watt H.P.S Lighting Commercial Security Lighting Rate - 250 Watt H.P.S Lighting General Service - Single Phase Commercial General Service - Three Phase Commercial

13

Greenwood Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Comm Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Greenwood Utilities Comm Place Mississippi Utility Id 7651 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial All Electric - Single Phase Commercial Commercial All Electric - Three Phase Commercial Cotton Gin Power Commercial General Lighting and Power - Single Phase Commercial General Lighting and Power - Three Phase Commercial Large General Service Commercial

14

Adrian Public Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Public Utilities Comm Public Utilities Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Adrian Public Utilities Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 150 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Large Commercial - LC Commercial Residential - RL Residential Residential Electric Heat Residential Security Lights - SL Commercial Small Commercial - SC Single-Phase Commercial Small Commercial - SC Three-Phase Commercial Average Rates Residential: $0.0955/kWh Commercial: $0.0980/kWh Industrial: $0.1120/kWh References

15

Hawley Public Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hawley Public Utilities Comm Hawley Public Utilities Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Hawley Public Utilities Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 8307 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png 3 PHASE COMMERCIAL ELECTRIC Commercial COMMERCIAL ELECTRIC Commercial ELECTRIC VARIANCE Commercial GENERATOR RATE Commercial GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP - RESIDENTIAL Residential LARGE COMMERCIAL ELECTRIC Commercial MINNKOTA WIND SURCHARGE - COMMERCIAL Commercial MINNKOTA WIND SURCHARGE - RESIDENTIAL Residential

16

Barbourville Utility Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Barbourville Utility Comm Barbourville Utility Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Barbourville Utility Comm Place Kentucky Utility Id 1201 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Electric Rate Commercial Large Power Electric Commercial Residential Electric Service Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.0778/kWh Commercial: $0.0757/kWh Industrial: $0.0626/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from

17

Shakopee Public Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Shakopee Public Utilities Comm Shakopee Public Utilities Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Shakopee Public Utilities Comm Place Minnesota Website www.ci.shakopee.mn.us/ind Utility Id 16971 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial service rate Commercial Large general service rate Industrial Large industrial service rate Industrial Residential service rate Residential Residential service rate - senior citizens Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1080/kWh Commercial: $0.0946/kWh Industrial: $0.0805/kWh

18

Springfield Public Utils Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Springfield Public Utils Comm Springfield Public Utils Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 17836 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Commercial Power Commercial Residential Residential Residential with Electric Heating Residential Street Lighting Lighting Average Rates Residential: $0.1180/kWh Commercial: $0.0998/kWh Industrial: $0.0979/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Springfield_Public_Utils_Comm&oldid=411601

19

Hutchinson Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hutchinson Utilities Comm Hutchinson Utilities Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Hutchinson Utilities Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 9130 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png LARGE GENERAL ELECTRIC SERVICE Industrial LARGE GENERAL ELECTRIC SERVICE - PRIMARY VOLTAGE (CUSTOMER OWNED) Industrial

20

Juneau Utility Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Comm Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Juneau Utility Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 9936 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Cp-1 Small Power Service between 50kW and 200kW Demand Primary Metering and Transformer Ownership Discount with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service between 50kW and 200kW Demand Primary Metering and Transformer Ownership Discount Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service between 50kW and 200kW Demand Primary Metering

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Corbin City Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Corbin City Utilities Comm Corbin City Utilities Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Corbin City Utilities Comm Place Kentucky Utility Id 4341 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png LGS-1 Large General Service Industrial LGS-2 Large General Srvice V2 Industrial RS-1 Residential Service Residential SGS-1 Small General Service Commercial SLS-1 Security Lighting Service-100 Watt Open Bottom Lighting SLS-1 Security Lighting Service-250 Watt Cobra Lighting SLS-1 Security Lighting Service-250 Watt Directional Flood Lighting

22

Easton Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Utilities Comm Utilities Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Easton Utilities Comm Place Maryland Utility Id 5625 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes RTO PJM Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png LARGE GENERAL SERVICE Commercial LARGE GENERAL SERVICE(Primary Metering) Commercial PRIMARY GENERAL SERVICE Commercial RESIDENTIAL RATE Residential SMALL GENERAL SERVICE Commercial SMALL GENERAL SERVICE(Primary Metering) Commercial

23

Reedsburg Utility Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reedsburg Utility Comm Reedsburg Utility Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Reedsburg Utility Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 15804 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Cp-1 Small Power Service Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service Primary Metering Discount with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service Primary Metering and Transformer Ownership Discount Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service Primary Metering and Transformer Ownership

24

Fort Valley Utility Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Utility Comm Utility Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Fort Valley Utility Comm Place Georgia Utility Id 6617 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Buying Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png COMMERCIAL: #20 Commercial INDUSTRIAL LARGE POWER: #26/28 Industrial INSTITUTIONAL: #14 Commercial Industrial Small Power Industrial RESIDENTIAL: #10 Residential SMALL COMMERCIAL: #22 Commercial Average Rates Residential: $0.0787/kWh Commercial: $0.1030/kWh Industrial: $0.0772/kWh References

25

Aitkin Public Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Aitkin Public Utilities Comm Aitkin Public Utilities Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Aitkin Public Utilities Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 174 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Commercial Industrial Industrial Residential (Peak 08:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.) Residential Residential (Peak 12:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.) Residential Residential (Peak 5:00 p.m. - 9:00 p.m.) Residential Residential Dual Fuel Residential Security Lights 150 Watt Lighting Security Lights 250 Watt Lighting

26

Bagley Public Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bagley Public Utilities Comm Bagley Public Utilities Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Bagley Public Utilities Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 1101 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Electric Commercial Commercial Electric Demand Commercial Commercial Electric Demand Three Phase Commercial Commercial Electric Three Phase Commercial Electric Heat Non Ripple New Residential Electric Heat Non Ripple Old Residential Electric Heat Ripple Plan 1 Residential Electric Heat Ripple Plan 2 Residential

27

Greenville Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Utilities Comm Utilities Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Greenville Utilities Comm Place North Carolina Utility Id 7639 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes ISO Other Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png County, Municipal, or Housing Authority Outdoor Lighting- 175W Mercury Vapor Lighting County, Municipal, or Housing Authority Outdoor Lighting- 250W Mercury Vapor Lighting County, Municipal, or Housing Authority Outdoor Lighting- 250W Sodium Vapor

28

Proctor Public Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Proctor Public Utilities Comm Proctor Public Utilities Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Proctor Public Utilities Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 15460 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Electric- Demand Metering Commercial Commercial Electric- Single Phase Commercial Commercial Electric- Three Phase Commercial Residential Electric Residential Residential- Duel Fuel Residential Residential- ETS Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.0866/kWh Commercial: $0.0849/kWh Industrial: $0.0825/kWh

29

Algoma Utility Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Algoma Utility Comm Algoma Utility Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Algoma Utility Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 307 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Controlled Interdepartmental Service Commercial Customer Owner Generation Systems (Greater than 20kW) Industrial General Service - Optional Time-of-Day Single Phase less than 100kW 7am-7pm Industrial General Service - Optional Time-of-Day Single Phase less than 100kW 9am-9pm Industrial General Service - Optional Time-of-Day Single Phase less than 100kW 8am-8pm

30

Orlando Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Orlando Utilities Comm Orlando Utilities Comm (Redirected from OUC) Jump to: navigation, search Name Orlando Utilities Comm Place Florida Utility Id 14610 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location FRCC NERC FRCC Yes NERC SERC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Buying Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Firm General Service Demand Primary Service Standby Service Industrial

31

Henderson City Utility Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Henderson City Utility Comm Henderson City Utility Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Henderson City Utility Comm Place Kentucky Utility Id 8449 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location serc NERC RFC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Demand Rate Schedule Schedule D Industrial General Service Rate Schedule Schedule GS-Single Phase- Commercial Commercial General Service Rate Schedule Schedule GS-Single Phase- Industrial Industrial General Service Rate Schedule Schedule GS-Three Phase- Commercial

32

New Prague Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Comm Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name New Prague Utilities Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 13480 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC RFC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial - Single Phase Commercial Commercial - Three Phase Commercial Industrial Industrial Interruptible Commercial Large Industrial Industrial Residential service rates Residential Security Lights - Rental Lighting Small Industrial Industrial

33

Preston Public Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Comm Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Preston Public Utilities Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 15348 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png All Electric Residential Area of Security Lighting- (175W Mercury) Lighting Area of Security Lighting- (400W Lucalox) Lighting Area of Security Lighting- (400W Mercury) Lighting Commercial All Electric- Rate 27 Commercial Commercial All Electric- Rate 28 Commercial

34

Princeton Public Utils Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Princeton Public Utils Comm Princeton Public Utils Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 15387 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MAPP NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png 100W High Pressure Sodium Lighting 1500W Quartz Commercial 250W High Pressure Sodium Lighting 250W Spot Commercial 400W High Pressure Sodium Lighting Large General Service Commercial Large General Service- Time of Use Commercial Large Power Service Industrial Large Power Service- Time of Use Industrial Residential Service Residential

35

Wyandotte Municipal Serv Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wyandotte Municipal Serv Comm Wyandotte Municipal Serv Comm Place Michigan Utility Id 21048 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png HEATING STEAM RATE Residential HOT WATER DISTRICT HEATING RATE Commercial LARGE GENERAL SERVICE RATE Commercial Commercial LARGE GENERAL SERVICE RATE Commercial (Time-Differentiated Meter) Commercial LARGE GENERAL SERVICE RATE Industrial (Time-Differentiated Meter)

36

Florence Utility Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Florence Utility Comm Florence Utility Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Florence Utility Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 6424 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Cp-1 Small Power Service between 50kW and 200kW Demand with Parallel Generation (20 kW or less) Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service between 50kW and 200kW Demand Industrial Cp-1 TOD Small Power Optional Time-of-Day Service between 50kW and 200kW Demand 7am-9pm with Parallel Generation(20 kW or less) Industrial

37

Orlando Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Jump to: navigation, search Name Orlando Utilities Comm Place Florida Utility Id 14610 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location FRCC NERC FRCC Yes NERC SERC Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Buying Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Firm General Service Demand Primary Service Standby Service Industrial Firm General Service Demand Standby Service Industrial

38

Wisconsin Rapids W W & L Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rapids W W & L Comm Rapids W W & L Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Wisconsin Rapids W W & L Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 20862 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Athletic Field Lighting Service Lighting General Service Three Phase Commercial General Service Single Phase Commercial General Service TOU Single Phase (8am to 8pm) Commercial General Service TOU Single Phase(7am to 7pm) Commercial General Service TOU Single Phase(9 am to 9pm) Commercial

39

Public Serv Comm of Yazoo City | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Serv Comm of Yazoo City Serv Comm of Yazoo City Jump to: navigation, search Name Public Serv Comm of Yazoo City Place Mississippi Utility Id 21095 Utility Location Yes Ownership P NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Electric - City Commercial Electric - PSC Commercial Electric - Schools Commercial Electric Commercial - Large Commercial Electric Commercial - Seasonal Commercial Electric Commercial - Small Commercial

40

Moose Lake Water & Light Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lake Water & Light Comm Lake Water & Light Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Moose Lake Water & Light Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 12897 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png 2-250HPS-FRO Lighting 250 HPS ELEOLY Lighting 3-250 HPS Lighting 4-250 HPS Lighting 400 HPS Rent Lighting BEST OIL CO Commercial BIKE TRAIL Commercial CIP Commercial Commercial Demand Commercial Commercial Electricity Commercial Demand 1 Phase Industrial

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Colorado River Comm of Nevada | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Comm of Nevada Comm of Nevada Jump to: navigation, search Name Colorado River Comm of Nevada Place Nevada Utility Id 4356 Utility Location Yes Ownership S NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes Activity Transmission Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Buying Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] Energy Information Administration Form 826[2] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates Commercial: $0.0656/kWh The following table contains monthly sales and revenue data for Colorado

42

Waterloo Light & Water Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Waterloo Light & Water Comm Waterloo Light & Water Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Waterloo Light & Water Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 20182 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png General Service Three Phase Commercial General Service Single Phase Commercial General Service TOU Single Phase Commercial General Service TOU Three Phase Commercial Industrial TOU Industrial Large Power TOU Industrial Renewable Energy Rider 1 Commercial Renewable Energy Rider 2 Industrial

43

New Ulm Public Utilities Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ulm Public Utilities Comm Ulm Public Utilities Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name New Ulm Public Utilities Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 13488 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png INDUSTRIAL SERVICE RATE Industrial LARGE COMMERCIAL SERVICE RATE Commercial MUNICIPAL-CITY SERVICE RATE Commercial MUNICIPAL-PUC SERVICE RATE Commercial RESIDENTIAL SERVICE RATE Residential SMALL COMMERCIAL SERVICE RATE Commercial WHOLE HOUSE HEATING RATE Residential

44

Cedarburg Light & Water Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cedarburg Light & Water Comm Cedarburg Light & Water Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Cedarburg Light & Water Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 3208 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png General Service - Regular Rate - Single Phase Commercial General Service - Regular rate - Three Phase Commercial General Service Optional Time-of-Day Rate - Single Phase 7am-7pm Commercial General Service Optional Time-of-Day Rate - Single Phase 8am-8pm Commercial

45

Brodhead Water & Lighting Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brodhead Water & Lighting Comm Brodhead Water & Lighting Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Brodhead Water & Lighting Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 2273 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png General Service - GS-1 - Single Phase Commercial General Service - GS-1 Three Phase Commercial General-OTD 1-Three Phase Commercial General-OTD- Single Phase Commercial Industrial Power Time of day CP-3 above 1,000kW Demand Primary Metering and Transformer Discount Industrial Industrial Power Time of day CP-3 above 1,000kW Demand Industrial

46

Sleepy Eye Public Utility Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Eye Public Utility Comm Eye Public Utility Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Sleepy Eye Public Utility Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 17320 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Electric Heat Residential Industrial Industrial Large General Commercial Residential Residential Security Lighting- 150W Lighting Security Lighting- 175W Lighting Security Lighting- 250W Lighting

47

Newnan Wtr, Sewer & Light Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Newnan Wtr, Sewer & Light Comm Newnan Wtr, Sewer & Light Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Newnan Wtr, Sewer & Light Comm Place Georgia Utility Id 13547 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Power Rates Commercial Large Power Service Industrial Residential Power Rates Residential Security Lighting - 100 Watt (Decorative) Lighting Security Lighting - 1000 Watt (Directional Flood) Lighting Security Lighting - 1000 Watt (Metal Halide Flood) Lighting Security Lighting - 100W (Cobra or Open) Lighting

48

City of Public Works Comm- Fayetteville, North Carolina (Utility Company) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Works Comm- Fayetteville, North Carolina (Utility Company) Works Comm- Fayetteville, North Carolina (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name Public Works Comm-City of Fayetteville Place North Carolina Utility Id 6235 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes ISO Other Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png 108 Medium Power Service Industrial 108 Medium Power Service Primary Discount Industrial 110 Small Power Service Commercial

49

Glencoe Light & Power Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Glencoe Light & Power Comm Glencoe Light & Power Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Glencoe Light & Power Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 7292 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Area/Security Lighting-175 Watt Lighting Area/Security Lighting-400 Watt Lighting Large Industrial Service-Primary Voltage Industrial Large industrial Service-secondary volatge Industrial Residential Service Residential

50

Paragould Light & Water Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Paragould Light & Water Comm Paragould Light & Water Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Paragould Light & Water Comm Place Arkansas Utility Id 14446 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png General Single Phase Commercial General Three Phase Commercial Industrial Industrial Residential Residential Security Lighting 100 W HPS Lighting

51

Spring Valley Pub Utils Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Comm Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Spring Valley Pub Utils Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 17824 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png General Service Commercial Large Commercial (Demand) Commercial Primary Metering Demand Industrial Residential Residential Residential- All Electric Residential Small Commercial (Demand) Commercial Average Rates Residential: $0.1190/kWh Commercial: $0.0964/kWh

52

Grand Rapids Public Util Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rapids Public Util Comm Rapids Public Util Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Grand Rapids Public Util Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 7489 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png CITY COMMERCIAL Commercial CITY LIGHT & POWER Lighting CITY RESIDENTIAL Residential CONTROLLED WATER HEATING (CITY) Commercial CONTROLLED WATER HEATING (RURAL) Commercial ENTERTAINMENT LIGHTING RATE (CITY) Lighting ENTERTAINMENT LIGHTING RATE (RURAL) Lighting INDUSTRIAL (CITY) Industrial

53

Albany Water Gas & Light Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Gas & Light Comm Water Gas & Light Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Albany Water Gas & Light Comm Place Georgia Utility Id 230 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Demand Commercial Commercial Non-Demand Commercial Large Commercial Demand Commercial Residential Residential Security Lights 1000 Watt Metal Halide Metal Pole Lighting Security Lights 1000 Watt Metal Halide Wooden Pole Lighting Security Lights 150 HPSV Fixtures Metal Pole Lighting Security Lights 150 HPSV Fixtures Wooden Pole Lighting

54

Redwood Falls Public Util Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Public Util Comm Public Util Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Redwood Falls Public Util Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 15793 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Area lighting 100 watt Lighting Area lighting 1000 watt Lighting Area lighting 150 watt Lighting Area lighting 250 watt Lighting Area lighting 400 watt Lighting Industrial service rate Industrial Large commercial service rate Commercial

55

Sun Prairie Water & Light Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sun Prairie Water & Light Comm Sun Prairie Water & Light Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Sun Prairie Water & Light Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 18312 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Area Lighting 1000w Halide existing poles Lighting Area Lighting 1000w Halide provided poles Lighting Area Lighting 100w HPS existing poles Lighting Area Lighting 100w HPS provided poles Lighting Area Lighting 150w HPS existing poles Lighting

56

New Castle Municipal Serv Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

New Castle Municipal Serv Comm New Castle Municipal Serv Comm Place Delaware Utility Id 13424 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Space Heating (Grandfathered) Commercial Large General Service Commercial Demand Rate (Primary) Commercial Large General Service Commercial Demand Rate (Secondary) Commercial Medium General Service Commercial Demand Rate Commercial Residential Service Residential Residential Space Heating Residential Small General Service Commercial Non-Demand Rate Commercial

57

North Branch Water & Light Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

North Branch Water & Light Comm North Branch Water & Light Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 13681 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Commercial Large General Service Industrial Residential Residential Residential- Seasonal Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1250/kWh Commercial: $0.1140/kWh Industrial: $0.0750/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a"

58

Oconto Falls Water & Light Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oconto Falls Water & Light Comm Oconto Falls Water & Light Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 13965 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Cp-1 Small Power Service Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service Primary Metering Discount with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service Primary Metering Discount Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Industrial Cp-1 TOD Small Power Optional Time-of-Day Service Primary Metering Discount

59

Le paysage comme reprsentation spaciale : le paysage viticole comme symbole des indications de provenance des vins des rgions Vale dos Vinhedos, Pinto Bandeira et Monte Belo (Brsil).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Le sujet de cette thse est le paysage dans sa spcificit viticole analyse comme reprsentation spatiale dans le processus de construction de l'espace gographique de (more)

Falcade, Ivanira

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Microsoft Word - Comm 21-25Leg ReviewDraft.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Foundations SECTION 21. Comm 20.24, Table 20.24-6 is amended to read: Table 20.24-6 ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air- conditioning Engineers, Inc....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Ga Air Compressor, Ga Air Compressor Products, Ga Air ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Ga Air Compressor, You Can Buy Various High Quality Ga Air Compressor Products from Global Ga Air Compressor Suppliers and Ga Air Compressor ...

62

Google, ou comment s'imposer comme un point de passage oblig 1. Introduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Google, ou comment s'imposer comme un point de passage obligé 1. Introduction Chaque jour des centaines de millions d'internautes utilisent Google gratuitement pour effectuer leurs recherches Google est devenu une véritable passerelle entre les ressources Internet et les internautes s'imposant à

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

FI St Po Crypto IPS 140 tanley ortal Ga ograph 0-2 Sec Wi-Q ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Q Portal Gat ey Wi-Q Port a wireless ga Wi-Q Comm ry 802.15.4 on tested: 3. on tested: 12 tion ... he s the nts. Page 11. ... The PG d lf Test ower-Up ...

2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

64

Yankee bonds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Yankee and Euromarket bonds may soon find their way into the financing of power projects in Latin America. For developers seeking long-term commitments under build, own, operate, and transfer (BOOT) power projects in Latin America, the benefits are substantial.

Delaney, P. (Bear, Stearns Co. Inc., New York, NY (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Diffusion bonding  

SciTech Connect

1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

Anderson, Robert C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

66

Four-Junction Solar Cell with 40% Target Efficiency Fabricated by Wafer Bonding and Layer Transfer: Final Technical Report, 1 January 2005 - 31 December 2007  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We realized high-quality InGaP/GaAs 2-junction top cells on Ge/Si, InGaAs/InP bottom cells, direct-bond series interconnection of tandem cells, and modeling of bonded 3- and 4-junction device performance.

Atwater, H. A.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Impact of the Ga/In ratio on the N incorporation into (In,Ga)(As,N) quantum dots  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, we demonstrate the dependence of the nitrogen incorporation on the Ga/In content into (In,Ga)(As,N) quantum dots (QDs) grown on GaAs (100) by radio-frequency plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Morphological analysis by atomic force microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, together with an estimation of the transition thickness, monitored in situ during the growth, predict a maximum in the N incorporation for 30% Ga content. This result is confirmed by photoluminescence measurements of the as-grown and post-growth annealed samples. We attribute this behavior to a trade off between two mechanisms depending on the Ga/In content: one related to the stability of the Ga-N bond, and the other related to the surface strain and/or In segregation.

Gargallo-Caballero, R.; Guzman, A.; Ulloa, J. M.; Hierro, A. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectronicos y Microtecnologia (ISOM)-Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hopkinson, M. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Luna, E.; Trampert, A. [Paul Drude Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

An inverted AlGaAs/GaAs patterned-Ge tunnel junction cascade concentrator solar cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work to develop inverted-grown Al[sub 0.34]Ga[sub 0.66]As/GaAs cascades. Several significant developments are reported on as follows: (1) The AM1.5 1-sun total-area efficiency of the top Al[sub 0.34]Ga[sub 0.66]As cell for the cascade was improved from 11.3% to 13.2% (NREL measurement [total-area]). (2) The cycled'' organometallic vapor phase epitaxy growth (OMVPE) was studied in detail utilizing a combination of characterization techniques including Hall-data, photoluminescence, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. (3) A technique called eutectic-metal-bonding (EMB) was developed by strain-free mounting of thin GaAs-AlGaAs films (based on lattice-matched growth on Ge substrates and selective plasma etching of Ge substrates) onto Si carrier substrates. Minority-carrier lifetime in an EMB GaAs double-heterostructure was measured as high as 103 nsec, the highest lifetime report for a freestanding GaAs thin film. (4) A thin-film, inverted-grown GaAs cell with a 1-sun AM1.5 active-area efficiency of 20.3% was obtained. This cell was eutectic-metal-bonded onto Si. (5) A thin-film inverted-grown, Al[sub 0.34]Ga[sub 0.66]As/GaAs cascade with AM1.5 efficiency of 19.9% and 21% at 1-sun and 7-suns, respectively, was obtained. This represents an important milestone in the development of an AlGaAs/GaAs cascade by OMVPE utilizing a tunnel interconnect and demonstrates a proof-of-concept for the inverted-growth approach.

Venkatasubramanian, R. (Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Essays on corporate bonds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis consists of three empirical essays on corporate bonds, examining the role of both credit risk and liquidity. In the first chapter, I test the ability of structural models of default to price corporate bonds in ...

Bao, Jack (Jack C.)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

China Ga Air Compressor, China Ga Air Compressor Products ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

China Ga Air Compressor, China Ga Air Compressor Suppliers and Manufacturers Directory - Source a Large Selection of Ga Air Compressor Products at ...

71

AdhesiveBonding.qrk  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adhesive Bonding Adhesive Bonding Manufacturing Technologies Understanding and controlling the factors that affect adhesion is vital for ensuring consistent successful bonding operations. The Manufacturing Science and Technology Center's research into adhesion is focused on achieving a good initial bond and then understanding the mechanisms leading to eventual bond failure. The department is working to understand crack propagation at the interface and has developed a variety of mechanical testing techniques to evalu- ate this failure mode. The factors affecting wetting and formation of the bond (e.g., contamination, surface roughness) are being explored to further our knowledge. In addition to research into adhesion, we bond and join components for our cus- tomers. Researchers have formulated new

72

Private Activity Revenue Bonds (Maryland)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Private Activity Revenue Bonds are available in the form of both taxable bonds and tax-exempt bonds. Both types of bonds provide access to long-term capital markets for fixed asset financing....

73

Elastic properties of Pu metal and Pu-Ga alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present elastic properties, theoretical and experimental, of Pu metal and Pu-Ga ({delta}) alloys together with ab initio equilibrium equation-of-state for these systems. For the theoretical treatment we employ density-functional theory in conjunction with spin-orbit coupling and orbital polarization for the metal and coherent-potential approximation for the alloys. Pu and Pu-Ga alloys are also investigated experimentally using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. We show that orbital correlations become more important proceeding from {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} plutonium, thus suggesting increasing f-electron correlation (localization). For the {delta}-Pu-Ga alloys we find a softening with larger Ga content, i.e., atomic volume, bulk modulus, and elastic constants, suggest a weakened chemical bonding with addition of Ga. Our measurements confirm qualitatively the theory but uncertainties remain when comparing the model with experiments.

Soderlind, P; Landa, A; Klepeis, J E; Suzuki, Y; Migliori, A

2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

74

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

75

De la fixation de jauge consideree comme un des beaux arts et de la symetrie de Slavnov qui s'ensuit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

La fixation de jauge est d\\'efinie comme l'op\\'eration permettant d'exprimer une int\\'egrale sur un espace d'orbite comme int\\'egrale sur le fibr\\'e principal correspondant. Quand la fibre est non compacte cette op\\'eration met en jeu une classe de cohomologie \\`a support compact -ou \\`a d\\'ecroissance rapide- de celle-ci. La sym\\'etrie de Slavnov est l'expression alg\\'ebrique de l'ambiguit\\'e de cette construction.

Raymond Stora

1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Local structure and vibrational properties of alpha'-Pu martensitein Ga-stabilized delta-Pu  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) is used to investigate the local atomic environment and vibrational properties of plutonium and gallium atoms in the {alpha}{prime} and {delta} phases of a mixed phase Pu-Ga alloy. EXAFS results measured at low temperature compare the structure of the mixed phase sample with a single-phase {delta}-Pu sample. EXAFS spectral components attributed to both {alpha}{prime}-Pu and {delta}-Pu were observed in the mixed phase sample. Ga K-edge EXAFS spectra indicate local atomic environments similar to the Pu LIII-edge EXAFS results, which suggests that Ga is substitutional for Pu atoms in both the monoclinic {alpha}{prime}-Pu and the fcc {delta}-Pu structures. In {delta}-Pu, we measure a Ga-Pu bond length contraction of 0.11 Angstroms with respect to the Pu-Pu bond length. The corresponding bond-length contraction around Ga in {alpha}{prime}-Pu is only 0.03 Angstroms. Results from temperature-dependent Pu LIII-edge EXAFS measurements are fit to a correlated Debye model, and a large difference in the Pu-Pu bond Debye temperature is observed for the {alpha}{prime} and {delta} phases: {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}{prime})=159{+-}13 K versus {theta}{sub cD}({delta})=120{+-}3 K. The corresponding analysis for the Ga K EXAFS determines a Ga-Pu bond Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({delta})=188{+-}12 K in the {delta}-Pu phase. These results are related to the observed solubility of Ga in {delta}-Pu, the ''stabilization'' of {delta}-Pu by Ga at room temperature, and the insolubility of Ga in {alpha}{prime}-Pu.

Nelson, E.J.; Blobaum, K.J.M.; Wall, M.A.; Allen, P.G.; Schwartz,A.J.; Booth, C.H.

2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

77

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

78

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

79

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

80

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Bond Financing Program (New Hampshire)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

BFAs Bond Financing Program offers tax-exempt and taxable bonds for fixed-asset expansion projects. Industrial development revenue bonds can be used by manufacturers for the acquisition,...

82

Solid-State Bonding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 5   Surface preparations studied for diffusion bonding of beryllium...with 3 μm alumina and light oil ? Ultrasonic wash for 5 min in 3% Oakite NST aluminum-detergent-distilled

83

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

Martin Chaplin

2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

84

An inverted AlGaAs/GaAs patterned-Ge tunnel junction cascade concentrator solar cell. Final subcontract report, 1 January 1991--31 August 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work to develop inverted-grown Al{sub 0.34}Ga{sub 0.66}As/GaAs cascades. Several significant developments are reported on as follows: (1) The AM1.5 1-sun total-area efficiency of the top Al{sub 0.34}Ga{sub 0.66}As cell for the cascade was improved from 11.3% to 13.2% (NREL measurement [total-area]). (2) The ``cycled`` organometallic vapor phase epitaxy growth (OMVPE) was studied in detail utilizing a combination of characterization techniques including Hall-data, photoluminescence, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. (3) A technique called eutectic-metal-bonding (EMB) was developed by strain-free mounting of thin GaAs-AlGaAs films (based on lattice-matched growth on Ge substrates and selective plasma etching of Ge substrates) onto Si carrier substrates. Minority-carrier lifetime in an EMB GaAs double-heterostructure was measured as high as 103 nsec, the highest lifetime report for a freestanding GaAs thin film. (4) A thin-film, inverted-grown GaAs cell with a 1-sun AM1.5 active-area efficiency of 20.3% was obtained. This cell was eutectic-metal-bonded onto Si. (5) A thin-film inverted-grown, Al{sub 0.34}Ga{sub 0.66}As/GaAs cascade with AM1.5 efficiency of 19.9% and 21% at 1-sun and 7-suns, respectively, was obtained. This represents an important milestone in the development of an AlGaAs/GaAs cascade by OMVPE utilizing a tunnel interconnect and demonstrates a proof-of-concept for the inverted-growth approach.

Venkatasubramanian, R. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Ba-Ga (Barium - Gallium)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ba-Ga crystallographic data...Ba-Ga crystallographic data Phase Composition, wt% Ga Pearson symbol Space group (Ba) 0 cI 2 Im m Ba 10 Ga 4.8 cF 176 Fd m Ba 8 Ga 7 30.8 cP 60 P 2 1 3 BaGa 2 50.4 hP 3 P 6/ mmm BaGa 4 67 tI 10 I 4/ mmm (Ga) 100 hP 2 P 6 3 / mmc...

86

Photochemical tissue bonding  

SciTech Connect

Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

Redmond, Robert W. (Brookline, MA); Kochevar, Irene E. (Charlestown, MA)

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

87

Opportunities in Bond Financing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Opportunities in Bond Financing Opportunities in Bond Financing James Dack Vice President Alternative Energy Finance Group Stern Brothers & Co. Seattle, WA 98101 Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado June 11-13, 2012 2 INTRODUCTION * Stern Brothers, founded in 1917 and headquartered in St. Louis, is an investment banking firm that is focused on project financing (taxable and tax-exempt) for renewable energy, real estate, higher education and healthcare. * Stern's Alternative Energy Finance Group structures and places tax- exempt and taxable debt, and provides financial advisory services for renewable energy projects in the U.S. * Waste-to-energy, second generation biofuels, biochemicals, biomass, solar, wind, landfill gas-to-energy, cogen, CHP, hydro,

88

IMPROVED BONDING METHOD  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process of bonding aluminum to aluminum without fusion by ultrasonic vibrations plus pressure is described. The surfaces to be bonded are coated with an aqueous solution of alkali metal stearate prior to assembling for bonding. (AEC) O H19504 Present information is reviewed on steady state proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of blood cells in mammals. Data are cited from metabolic tracer studies, autoradiographic studies, cytologic studies, studies of hematopoietic response to radiation injuries, and computer analyses of blood cell production. A 3-step model for erythropoiesis and a model for granulocyte kinetics are presented. New approaches to the study of lymphocytopoiesis described include extracorporeal blood irradiation to deplete lymphocytic tissue without direct injury to the formative tissues as a means to study the stressed system, function control, and rates of proliferation. It is pointed out that present knowledge indicates that lymphocytes comprise a mixed family, with diverse life spans, functions, and migration patterns with apparent aimless recycling from modes to lymph to blood to nodes that has not yet been quantitated. Areas of future research are postulated. (70 references.) (C.H.)

Padgett, E.V. Jr.; Warf, D.H.

1964-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

89

The Illiquidity of Corporate Bonds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper examines the illiquidity of corporate bonds and its asset-pricing implications. Using transactions data from 2003 to 2009, we show that the illiquidity in corporate bonds is substantial, significantly greater ...

Bao, Jack

90

Ga-Zr (Gallium - Zirconium)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ga-Zr crystallographic data...Ga 5 Zr 3 44.0 oC 32 Cmcm Ga 3 Zr 2 47 oF 40 Fdd 2 βGaZr 56.7 ? ? αGaZr 56.7 tI 16 I 4 1 / amd Ga 4 Zr 5 62.1 hP 18 P 6 3 / mcm Ga 2 Zr 3 66 tP 10 P 4/ mbm Ga 3 Zr 5 68.6 hP 16 P 6 3 / mcm GaZr 2 72.4 tI 12 I 4/ mcm (βZr) ~94 to 100 cI 2 Im m (αZr) 99.4 to 100 hP 2 P 6 3 / mmc...

91

AlGaN/GaN-based power semiconductor switches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AlGaN/GaN-based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) have great potential for their use as high efficiency and high speed power semiconductor switches, thanks to their high breakdown electric field, mobility and ...

Lu, Bin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Performance improvement of Ge-Sb-Te material by GaSb doping for phase change memory  

SciTech Connect

Effects of GaSb doping on phase change characteristics of Ge-Sb-Te material are investigated by in situ resistance and x-ray diffraction measurement, optical spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The crystallization temperature and data retention of Ge-Sb-Te material increase significantly by the addition of GaSb, which results from the high thermal stability of amorphous GaSb. In addition, GaSb-doped Ge-Sb-Te material exhibits faster crystallization speed due to the change in electronic states as a result of the formation of chemical bonds with Ga element. Incorporation of GaSb is highly effective way to enhance the comprehensive performance of Ge-Sb-Te material for phase change memory.

Lu, Yegang [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Zhonghua; Song, Sannian; Cheng, Limin; Song, Zhitang [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shen, Xiang; Wang, Guoxiang; Dai, Shixun [Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)] [Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

93

Bond Programs | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Bond Programs Jump to: navigation, search Bonds allow governments (and corporations) to raise money by borrowing. A few states and local governments have established bond programs to support energy efficiency and renewable energy for government-owned facilities. After a government has raised an authorized sum of money through the sale of bonds, the money collected is used to improve energy efficiency or to install renewable energy systems on government facilities. The bonding authority is usually reimbursed using the energy savings resulting from these projects. [1]

94

Polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the design and demonstration of polarization-engineered GaN/InGaN/GaN tunnel junction diodes with high current density and low tunneling turn-on voltage. Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) calculations were used to model and design tunnel junctions with narrow bandgap InGaN-based barrier layers. N-polar p-GaN/In0.33Ga0.67N/n-GaN heterostructure tunnel diodes were grown using molecular beam epitaxy. Efficient zero bias tunneling turn-on with a high current density of 118 A/cm2 at a reverse bias of 1V, reaching a maximum current density up to 9.2 kA/cm2 were obtained. These results represent the highest current density reported in III-nitride tunnel junctions, and demonstrate the potential of III-nitride tunnel devices for a broad range of optoelectronic and electronic applications.

Sriram Krishnamoorthy; Digbijoy N. Nath; Fatih Akyol; Pil Sung Park; Michele Esposto; Siddharth Rajan

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

95

GaN High Power Devices  

SciTech Connect

A brief review is given of recent progress in fabrication of high voltage GaN and AlGaN rectifiers, GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors, GaN heterostructure and metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. Improvements in epitaxial layer quality and in fabrication techniques have led to significant advances in device performance.

PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; ZHANG,A.P.; DANG,G.; CAO,X.A.; LEE,K.P.; CHO,H.; GILA,B.P.; JOHNSON,J.W.; MONIER,C.; ABERNATHY,C.R.; HAN,JUNG; BACA,ALBERT G.; CHYI,J.-I.; LEE,C.-M.; NEE,T.-E.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHI,G.C.; CHU,S.N.G.

2000-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

96

Method for vacuum fusion bonding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Fusion bonding and alignment fixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Plasma chemistries for dry etching GaN, AlN, InGaN and InAlN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Etch rates up to 7,000 {angstrom}/min. for GaN are obtained in Cl{sub 2}/H{sub 2}/Ar or BCl{sub 3}/Ar ECR discharges at 1--3mTorr and moderate dc biases. Typical rates with HI/H{sub 2} are about a factor of three lower under the same conditions, while CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} produces maximum rates of only {approximately}2,000 {angstrom}/min. The role of additives such as SF{sub 6}, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2} or Ar to the basic chlorine, bromine, iodine or methane-hydrogen plasma chemistries are discussed. Their effect can be either chemical (in forming volatile products with N) or physical (in breaking bonds or enhancing desorption of the etch products). The nitrides differ from conventional III-V`s in that bond-breaking to allow formation of the etch products is a critical factor. Threshold ion energies for the onset of etching of GaN, InGaN and InAlN are {ge} 75 eV.

Pearton, S.J.; Vartuli, C.B.; Lee, J.W.; Donovan, S.M.; MacKenzie, J.D.; Abernathy, C.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shul, R.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McLane, G.F. [Army Research Lab., Fort Monmouth, NJ (United States); Ren, F. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Category:Savannah, GA | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Savannah, GA Savannah, GA Jump to: navigation, search Go Back to PV Economics By Location Media in category "Savannah, GA" The following 16 files are in this category, out of 16 total. SVFullServiceRestaurant Savannah GA Georgia Power Co.png SVFullServiceRestauran... 80 KB SVHospital Savannah GA Georgia Power Co.png SVHospital Savannah GA... 80 KB SVLargeHotel Savannah GA Georgia Power Co.png SVLargeHotel Savannah ... 75 KB SVLargeOffice Savannah GA Georgia Power Co.png SVLargeOffice Savannah... 82 KB SVMediumOffice Savannah GA Georgia Power Co.png SVMediumOffice Savanna... 85 KB SVMidriseApartment Savannah GA Georgia Power Co.png SVMidriseApartment Sav... 80 KB SVOutPatient Savannah GA Georgia Power Co.png SVOutPatient Savannah ... 84 KB SVPrimarySchool Savannah GA Georgia Power Co.png

100

Category:Atlanta, GA | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GA GA Jump to: navigation, search Go Back to PV Economics By Location Media in category "Atlanta, GA" The following 16 files are in this category, out of 16 total. SVFullServiceRestaurant Atlanta GA Georgia Power Co.png SVFullServiceRestauran... 81 KB SVHospital Atlanta GA Georgia Power Co.png SVHospital Atlanta GA ... 81 KB SVLargeHotel Atlanta GA Georgia Power Co.png SVLargeHotel Atlanta G... 74 KB SVLargeOffice Atlanta GA Georgia Power Co.png SVLargeOffice Atlanta ... 82 KB SVMediumOffice Atlanta GA Georgia Power Co.png SVMediumOffice Atlanta... 84 KB SVMidriseApartment Atlanta GA Georgia Power Co.png SVMidriseApartment Atl... 82 KB SVOutPatient Atlanta GA Georgia Power Co.png SVOutPatient Atlanta G... 83 KB SVPrimarySchool Atlanta GA Georgia Power Co.png SVPrimarySchool Atlant...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

GA SNC Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GA SNC Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name GA-SNC Solar Place Nevada Sector Solar Product Nevada-based PV project developer and joint venture of GA-Solar North America and...

102

Bond Pricing with Default Risk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Bond Issuers Data Range Exxon ARCO Eli Lilly IBM Fordfrom GMM Estimation X Exxon ARCO Eli Lilly IBM FordFord RJR Eli Lilly ARCO UAL Exxon Safeway This table reports

Hsu, Jason C.; Saa-Requejo, Jesus; Santa-Clara, Pedro

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Molecular Bond: EMSL's bimonthly newsletter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Email not displaying correctly? View it on the website. The Molecular Bond newsletter banner December 2013 Allison A. Campbell, EMSL Director I'm pleased to share with you the...

104

Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The ''Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008'', enacted in October 2008, authorized the issuance of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) that may be used by state, local and tribal...

105

Growth of high Bi concentration GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} by molecular beam epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The incorporation of Bi is investigated in the molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x}. Bi content increases rapidly as the As{sub 2}:Ga flux ratio is lowered to 0.5 and then saturates for lower flux ratios. Growth under Ga and Bi rich conditions shows that Bi content increases strongly with decreasing temperature. A model is proposed where Bi from a wetting layer incorporates through attachment to Ga-terminated surface sites. The weak Ga-Bi bond can be broken thermally, ejecting Bi back into the wetting layer. Highly crystalline films with up to 22% Bi were grown at temperatures as low as 200 Degree-Sign C.

Lewis, R. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 Vancouver (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria, V8W 3P6 Victoria (Canada); Masnadi-Shirazi, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria, V8W 3P6 Victoria (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, V6T 1Z4 Vancouver (Canada); Tiedje, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria, V8W 3P6 Victoria (Canada)

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

106

Reliability of Copper Wire Bonding on Copper Substrate with Tin ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Suitable bonding conditions, Tin thickness, stage temperature, wire bonding power and bonding time are chosen through wire bonding tests. Peel strength of a...

107

Lattice-registered growth of GaSb on Si (211) with molecular beam epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A GaSb film was grown on a Si(211) substrate using molecular beam epitaxy indicating full lattice relaxation as well as full lattice registration and dislocation-free growth in the plane perpendicular to the [01 - 1]-direction. Heteroepitaxy of GaSb on a Si(211) substrate is dominated by numerous first order and multiple higher order micro-twins. The atomic-resolved structural study of GaSb films by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals that slight tilt, along with twinning, favors the lattice registry to Si(211) substrates. Preferential bonding of impinging Ga and Sb atoms at the interface due to two distinctive bonding sites on the Si(211) surface enables growth that is sublattice-ordered and free of anti-phase boundaries. The role of the substrate orientation on the strain distribution of GaSb epilayers is further elucidated by investigating the local change in the lattice parameter using the geometric phase analysis method and hence effectiveness of the lattice tilting in reducing the interfacial strain was confirmed further.

Hosseini Vajargah, S.; Botton, G. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Ghanad-Tavakoli, S. [Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Preston, J. S.; Kleiman, R. N. [Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Ideally Glassy Hydrogen Bonded Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The axiomatic theory of ideally glassy networks, which has proved effective in describing phase diagrams and properties of chalcogenide and oxide glasses and their foreign interfaces, is broadened here to include intermolecular interactions in hydrogen-bonded polyalcohols such as glycerol, monosaccharides (glucose), and the optimal bioprotective hydrogen-bonded disaccharide networks formed from trehalose. The methods of Lagrangian mechanics and Maxwellian scaffolds are useful at the molecular level when bonding hierarchies are characterized by constraint counting similar to the chemical methods used by Huckel and Pauling. Whereas Newtonian molecular dynamical methods are useful for simulating large-scale interactions for times of order 10 ps, constraint counting describes network properties on glassy (almost equilibrated) time scales, which may be of cosmological order for oxide glasses, or years for trehalose. The ideally glassy network of trehalose may consist of extensible tandem sandwich arrays.

J. C. Phillips

2005-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

109

Atomic structure and energy spectrum of Ga(As,P)/GaP heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atomic structure and energy spectrum of Ga(As,P)/GaP heterostructures were studied. It was shown that the deposition of GaAs of the same nominal thickness leads to the formation of pseudomorphic GaAs/GaP quantum wells (QW), fully relaxed GaAs/GaP self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs), or pseudomorphic GaAsP/GaP SAQDs depending on the growth temperature. We demonstrate that the atomic structure of Ga(As,P)/GaP heterostructures is ruled by the temperature dependence of adatom diffusion rate and GaAs-GaP intermixing. The band alignment of pseudomorphic GaAs/GaP QW and GaAsP/GaP SAQDs is shown to be of type II, in contrast to that of fully relaxed GaAs/GaP SAQDs, which have the band alignment of type I with the lowest electronic states at the indirect L valley of the GaAs conduction band.

Abramkin, D. S.; Putyato, M. A.; Budennyy, S. A.; Gutakovskii, A. K.; Semyagin, B. R.; Preobrazhenskii, V. V.; Shamirzaev, T. S. [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Lavrentyeva 13, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kolomys, O. F.; Strelchuk, V. V. [V. E. Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductor Physics NAS of Ukraine, Pr. Nauki 41, 03028 Kiev (Ukraine)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Non-bonded ultrasonic transducer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mechanically assembled non-bonded ultrasonic transducer includes a substrate, a piezoelectric film, a wetting agent, a thin metal electrode, and a lens held in intimate contact by a mechanical clamp. No epoxy or glue is used in the assembly of this device.

Eoff, J.M.

1984-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

111

General Atomics (GA) Fusion News: A New Spin on Understanding...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General Atomics (GA) Fusion News: A New Spin on Understanding Plasma Confinement American Fusion News Category: General Atomics (GA) Link: General Atomics (GA) Fusion News: A New...

112

Rodefeld Landfill Ga Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rodefeld Landfill Ga Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Rodefeld Landfill Ga Biomass Facility Facility Rodefeld Landfill Ga Sector Biomass Facility Type Landfill Gas...

113

GaN CVD Reactions: Hydrogen and Ammonia Decomposition and the Desorption of Gallium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Isotopic labeling experiments have revealed correlations between hydrogen reactions, Ga desorption, and ammonia decomposition in GaN CVD. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) were used to demonstrate that hydrogen atoms are available on the surface for reaction after exposing GaN(0001) to deuterium at elevated temperatures. Hydrogen reactions also lowered the temperature for Ga desorption significantly. Ammonia did not decompose on the surface before hydrogen exposure. However, after hydrogen reactions altered the surface, N15H3 did undergo both reversible and irreversible decomposition. This also resulted in the desorption of N2 of mixed isotopes below the onset of GaN sublimation, This suggests that the driving force of the high nitrogen-nitrogen bond strength (226 kcal/mol) can lead to the removal of nitrogen from the substrate when the surface is nitrogen rich. Overall, these findings indicate that hydrogen can influence G-aN CVD significantly, being a common factor in the reactivity of the surface, the desorption of Ga, and the decomposition of ammonia.

Bartram, Michael E.; Creighton, J. Randall

1999-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

114

RECIPIENT:Gwinnett Co, GA  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Gwinnett Co, GA Gwinnett Co, GA u.s DEPARUIENT OFENllRGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NllPA DETERl\JINATION PROJECr TITLE: Gwinnett Co, GA EEC8G Page I or2 STATE: GA Funding Opportunity Announcement Number Procu~ment Instrument Number N[PA Control Number CID Number DE-EEOOOOS05.005 0 Based on my review ortbe information concerning tbe proposed action, as NEPA Compliance Officer (authorized under DOE Order 4SI.IA), I bave made the following determination: ex, EA, EIS APPENDIX AND NUMBER: Description: 8 5.1 Actions to conserve energy, demonstrate potential energy conservation, and promote energy-efficiency that do not increase the indoor concentrations of potentially harmful substances. These actions may involve financial and technical assistance to individuals (such as builders, owners, consultants, designers), organizations (such as utilities), and state

115

State Bond Program | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bonds allow governments (and corporations) to raise money by borrowing. A Bonds allow governments (and corporations) to raise money by borrowing. A few states and local governments have established bond programs to support energy efficiency and renewable energy for government-owned facilities. After a government has raised an authorized sum of money through the sale of bonds, the money collected is used to improve energy efficiency or to install renewable energy systems on government facilities. The bonding authority is usually reimbursed using the energy savings resulting from these projects. [1] State Bond Program Incentives CSV (rows 1 - 7) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Bond Program (New Mexico) State Bond Program New Mexico Schools

116

Secondary Market Taxable Bond Program (Maine)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Secondary Market Taxable Bond Program provides tax-exempt interest rate bond financing for real estate and machinery and equipment acquisitions. Up to 90% of the project debt may be financed,...

117

Modeling TLP Bonding in Multicomponent Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... prior to bonding as well as the application of large loads during bonding. .... The profile given in equation (1) is thus appropriate for each of the solutes in the ...

118

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Bond Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

New Mexico's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Bonding Act, which became law in April 2005, authorizes up to $20 million in bonds to finance energy efficiency and renewable energy improvements...

119

Intense terahertz emission from molecular beam epitaxy-grown GaAs/GaSb(001)  

SciTech Connect

Intense terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave emission was observed in undoped GaAs thin films deposited on (100) n-GaSb substrates via molecular beam epitaxy. GaAs/n-GaSb heterostructures were found to be viable THz sources having signal amplitude 75% that of bulk p-InAs. The GaAs films were grown by interruption method during the growth initiation and using various metamorphic buffer layers. Reciprocal space maps revealed that the GaAs epilayers are tensile relaxed. Defects at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb interface were confirmed by scanning electron microscope images. Band calculations were performed to infer the depletion region and electric field at the i-GaAs/n-GaSb and the air-GaAs interfaces. However, the resulting band calculations were found to be insufficient to explain the THz emission. The enhanced THz emission is currently attributed to a piezoelectric field induced by incoherent strain and defects.

Sadia, Cyril P.; Laganapan, Aleena Maria; Agatha Tumanguil, Mae; Estacio, Elmer; Somintac, Armando; Salvador, Arnel [National Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Que, Christopher T. [Physics Department, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila 1004 (Philippines); Yamamoto, Kohji; Tani, Masahiko [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Diffusion bonding of Stratapax for drill bits  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process has been developed for the diffusion bonding of General Electric's Stratapax drill blanks to support studs for cutter assemblies in drill bits. The diffusion bonding process is described and bond strength test data are provided for a variety of materials. The extensive process details, provided in the Appendices, should be sufficient to enable others to successfully build diffusion-bonded drill bit cutter assemblies.

Middleton, J.N.; Finger, J.T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaAsBi/GaAs/AlGaAs separate confinement heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

GaAsBi/GaAs/AlGaAs separate confinement heterostructures are grown using an asymmetric temperature profile due to the low optimal growth temperature of GaAsBi; the bottom AlGaAs barrier is grown at 610 Degree-Sign C, while the GaAsBi quantum well and the top AlGaAs barrier are grown at 320 Degree-Sign C. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and room temperature photoluminescence measurements indicate that this approach results in samples with excellent structural and optical properties. The high quality of the low temperature AlGaAs barrier is attributed to the presence of Bi on the surface as indicated by a (1 Multiplication-Sign 3) surface reconstruction persisting throughout the low temperature growth.

Fan Dongsheng; Yu Shuiqing [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Zeng Zhaoquan; Hu Xian; Dorogan, Vitaliy G.; Li Chen; Benamara, Mourad; Hawkridge, Michael E.; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Salamo, Gregory J. [Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Johnson, Shane R. [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-6206 (United States); Wang, Zhiming M. [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China)

2012-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

122

New GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs, Triple-Bandgap, Tandem Solar Cell for High-Efficiency Terrestrial Concentrator Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs three-junction cells are grown in an inverted configuration on GaAs, allowing high quality growth of the lattice matched GaInP and GaAs layers before a grade is used for the 1-eV GaInAs layer. Using this approach an efficiency of 37.9% was demonstrated.

Kurtz, S.; Wanlass, M.; Kramer, C.; Young, M.; Geisz, J.; Ward, S.; Duda, A.; Moriarty, T.; Carapella, J.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Emery. K.; Jones, K.; Romero, M.; Kibbler, A.; Olson, J.; Friedman, D.; McMahon, W.; Ptak, A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Ultraviolet electroabsorption modulator based on AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ultraviolet electroabsorption modulator based on AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells I. Friel, C online 20 June 2005 An ultraviolet electroabsorption modulator based on AlGaN/GaN quantum wells is demonstrated. Enhanced excitonic absorption in the quantum wells at around 3.48 eV was achieved using

Moustakas, Theodore

124

Self-aligned AlGaN/GaN transistors for sub-mm wave applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes work done towards realizing self-aligned AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Self-aligned transistors are important for improving the frequency of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs by reducing source ...

Saadat, Omair I

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Effect of buffer structures on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor reliability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with three different types of buffer layers, including a GaN/AlGaN composite layer, or 1 or 2 lm GaN thick layers, were fabricated and their reliability compared. The HEMTs with the thick GaN buffer layer showed the lowest critical voltage (Vcri) during off-state drain step-stress, but this was increased by around 50% and 100% for devices with the composite AlGaN/GaN buffer layers or thinner GaN buffers, respectively. The Voff - state for HEMTs with thin GaN and composite buffers were 100 V, however, this degraded to 50 60V for devices with thick GaN buffers due to the difference in peak electric field near the gate edge. A similar trend was observed in the isolation breakdown voltage measurements, with the highest Viso achieved based on thin GaN or composite buffer designs (600 700 V), while a much smaller Viso of 200V was measured on HEMTs with the thick GaN buffer layers. These results demonstrate the strong influence of buffer structure and defect density on AlGaN/GaN HEMT performance and reliability.

Liu, L. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Xi, Y. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ren, F. [University of Florida; Pearton, S. J. [University of Florida; Laboutin, O. [Kopin Corporation, Taunton, MA; Cao, Yu [Kopin Corporation, Taunton, MA; Johnson, Wayne J. [Kopin Corporation, Taunton, MA; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Bonding, antibonding and tunable optical forces in asymmetric membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate that tunable attractive (bonding) and repulsive (anti-bonding) forces can arise in highly asymmetric structures coupled to external radiation, a consequence of the bonding/anti-bonding level repulsion of ...

Hui, Pui-Chuen

127

Low Temperature Bonding Process Using Cu Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Route Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Copper Nitrate Solution AlGaAs-Based Optical ... Defect Energetics and Fission Product Transport in ZrC ... Enhancing Mineral Beneficiation by High Intensity Power Ultrasound.

128

Effect of dislocations on electron mobility in AlGaN/GaN and AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN (x = 0.06, 0.12, 0.24) and AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures were grown on 6 H-SiC, GaN-on-sapphire, and free-standing GaN, resulting in heterostructures with threading dislocation densities of {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}, {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}, and {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} cm{sup -2}, respectively. All growths were performed under Ga-rich conditions by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Dominant scattering mechanisms with variations in threading dislocation density and sheet concentration were indicated through temperature-dependent Hall measurements. The inclusion of an AlN interlayer was also considered. Dislocation scattering contributed to reduced mobility in these heterostructures, especially when sheet concentration was low or when an AlN interlayer was present.

Kaun, Stephen W.; Burke, Peter G.; Kyle, Erin C. H.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Wong, Man Hoi; Mishra, Umesh K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2012-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

129

InGaAsN/GaAs heterojunction for multi-junction solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An InGaAsN/GaAs semiconductor p-n heterojunction is disclosed for use in forming a 0.95-1.2 eV bandgap photodetector with application for use in high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells. The InGaAsN/GaAs p-n heterojunction is formed by epitaxially growing on a gallium arsenide (GaAs) or germanium (Ge) substrate an n-type indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN) layer having a semiconductor alloy composition In.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x As.sub.1-y N.sub.y with 0GaAs layer, with the InGaAsN and GaAs layers being lattice-matched to the substrate. The InGaAsN/GaAs p-n heterojunction can be epitaxially grown by either molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The InGaAsN/GaAs p-n heterojunction provides a high open-circuit voltage of up to 0.62 volts and an internal quantum efficiency of >70%.

Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Klem, John F. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Eric D. (Edgewood, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Local Option - Industrial Facilities and Development Bonds |...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Water Heating Wind Maximum Rebate Locally Determined Program Information Utah Program Type State Bond Program Rebate Amount Locally Determined Under the Utah...

131

Green Infrastructure Bonds (Hawaii) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

allowing the Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism to issue Green Infrastructure Bonds to secture low-cost financing for clean energy installations,...

132

Enhanced Diffusional Processes in Wire Bonding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Enhanced Diffusional Processes in Wire Bonding ... there is a tremendous need for implementation of thinner wires in wire boning processes.

133

SUPPRESSION OF ANTIPHASE DISORDER IN GaAs GROWN ON RELAXED GeSi BUFFERS BY METAL-ORGANIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sublattices, the zinc-blende crystal structure possesses lower symmetry than the diamond cubic structure of wrong nearest-neighbor bonds, they are electrically active defects responsible for scattering and non of antiphase disorder requires control of the substrate surface structure prior to GaAs growth. The usage

134

Magnetism and transport properties of epitaxial Fe-Ga thin films on GaAs(001)  

SciTech Connect

Epitaxial Fe-Ga thin films in disordered bcc {alpha}-Fe crystal structure (A2) have been grown on GaAs(001) by molecular beam epitaxy. The saturated magnetization (M{sub S}) decreased from 1371 to 1105 kA/m with increasing Ga concentration from 10.5 to 24.3 % at room temperature. The lattice parameter increased with the increase in Ga content because of the larger atomic radius of Ga atom than that of Fe. The increase in carrier density with Ga content caused in lower resistivity.

Duong Anh Tuan; Shin, Yooleemi; Cho, Sunglae [Department of Physics, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Dang Duc Dung [Department of Physics, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of General Physics, School of Engineering Physics, Ha Noi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet road, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Vo Thanh Son [Centers for Nanobioenineering and Spintronics, Chungnam National University, Daejon 350-746 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Low-energy positron diffraction from GaAs(110)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intensities of 16 beams of near normal incidence positrons have been measured at {ital T}=120 K and analyzed using a multiple scattering model of the low-energy positron diffraction (LEPD) process. Excellent correspondence between the measured and calculated intensities is obtained for a reconstruction that is primarily a bond-length-conserving rotation of the top layer, with As relaxed outward and Ga inward with a tilt angle {omega}{sub 1} = 28.6 {plus minus} 3{degree}, confirming the results of previous structure analyses for this surface. The quality of the description of the measured intensities, as measured by the x-ray {ital R} factor, is significantly better for LEPD than for low-energy electron diffraction. This result is attributed to the repulsive character of the positron-ion core potential and a resulting more surface sensitive diffraction process for LEPD.

Lessor, D.L. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, K5-17 ISB-1, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)); Duke, C.B. (Xerox Webster Research Center, 800 Phillips Road, 0114-38D, Webster, New York 14580 (United States)); Chen, X.M.; Brandes, G.R.; Canter, K.F. (Department of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02254 (United States)); Ford, W.K. (Advanced Materials Center and Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717 (United States))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

SOLID STATE BONDING OF THORIUM WITH ALUMINUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for bonding thorium and aluminum by placing clean surfaces of thorium and aluminum in contact with each other and hot pressing the metals together in a protective atmosphere at a temperature of about 375 to 575 deg C and at a pressure of at least 10 tsi to effect a bond.

Storchhelm, S.

1959-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Triple-Period Partial Misfit Dislocations at the InN/GaN (0001) Interface: A New Dislocation Core Structure for III-N Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The lattice-misfitInN/GaN (0001) interface supports a triangular network of a-core 90{sup o} partialmisfitdislocations. These misfitdislocations provide excellent strain relief. However, in their unreconstructed form the dislocation contains numerous high-energy N dangling bonds, which must be eliminated by reconstructing the dislocation core. Existing single-period (SP) and double-period (DP) dislocation reconstruction models eliminate these dangling bonds via a like-atom dimerization, such as N-N dimers. However, we show that these N-N dimers are unstable for the III-N materials, so an entirely new reconstruction mechanism is needed. A 'triple-period' (TP) structural model is developed which eliminates N dangling bonds via the formation of N vacancies instead of N-N dimers. The model contains no N-N (or III-III) bonds, fully bonds all N atoms to four group-III neighboring atoms, and satisfies the 'electron counting rule' by transferring charge from In dangling bonds to Ga dangling bonds.

Zhang, L.; McMahon, W. E.; Liu, Y.; Cai, Y.; Xie, M. H.; Wang, N.; Zhang, S. B.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Orbital entanglement in bond-formation processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The accurate calculation of the (differential) correlation energy is central to the quantum chemical description of bond-formation and bond-dissociation processes. In order to estimate the quality of single- and multi-reference approaches for this purpose, various diagnostic tools have been developed. In this work, we elaborate on our previous observation [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 3129 (2012)] that one- and two-orbital-based entanglement measures provide quantitative means for the assessment and classification of electron correlation effects among molecular orbitals. The dissociation behavior of some prototypical diatomic molecules features all types of correlation effects relevant for chemical bonding. We demonstrate that our entanglement analysis is convenient to dissect these electron correlation effects and to provide a conceptual understanding of bond-forming and bond-breaking processes from the point of view of quantum information theory.

Boguslawski, Katharina; Barcza, Gergely; Legeza, Ors; Reiher, Markus

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Bond Graph Modeling Of Variable Structure Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The problem of describing variable structure models in a compact, object--oriented fashion is revisited and analyzed from the perspective of bond graph modeling. Traditionally, bond graphs have always been used to describe continuous-- time physical processes with a fixed structure. Yet, this paper shall demonstrate that bond graphs are equally suitable to describe variable structure models as fixed structure models. Moreover, a bond graph description of variable structure models can teach us a lot about the essential properties of variable structure models, properties that are not easily visible when other modeling approaches are taken. The paper discusses issues related to causality reassignment and conditional index changes as a consequence of switching in a physical system. Keywords: Bond graphs, variable structure system, computational causality, conditional index change, switching, object--oriented modeling, Dymola. INTRODUCTION When the causality strokes were added to the forme...

Franois E. Cellier; Martin Otter; Hilding Elmqvist

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

passivation of InGaN/GaN nanopillar light emitting diodes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Recently, InGaN/GaN based blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) have become widely available commercially, but their efficiency is reduced due to the quantum confined Stark effect (more)

Choi, Won

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Detailed Analysis of Temperature Characteristics of InGaP/InGaAs ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of single-junction solar cells (InGaP, InGaAs, Ge solar cells) were measured at various temperatures. The structures of ...

142

AlGaAsSb/GaSb Distributed Bragg Reflectors Grown by Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

The first AlGaAsSb/GaSb quarter-wave distributed Bragg reflectors grown by metallic vapor phase epitaxy are reported. The peak reflectance is 96% for a 10-period structure.

C.A. Wang; C.J. Vineis; D.R. Calawa

2002-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

143

GA 30+-90 / GA 37-90 VSD: Oil-injected rotary screw ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

GA 30+-90 / GA 37-90 VSD: Oil-injected rotary screw compressors, 30-90 kW / 40-125 hp,Kunshan CompAirs Machinery Plant Co.,Ltd is the leading air ...

144

GA 11+-30/GA 15-30 VSD: Oil-injected rotary screw compressors ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

GA 11+-30/GA 15-30 VSD: Oil-injected rotary screw compressors, 11-30 kW / 15-40 hp,Kunshan CompAirs Machinery Plant Co.,Ltd is the leading air ...

145

GA 90+-160+ / GA 110-160 VSD: Oil-injected rotary screw ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

GA 90+-160+ / GA 110-160 VSD: Oil-injected rotary screw compressors, 90-160 kW / 125-200 hp.,Kunshan CompAirs Machinery Plant Co.,Ltd is the leading ...

146

Room temperature green light emission from nonpolar cubic InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Room temperature green light emission from nonpolar cubic InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-wells Shunfeng Li Cubic InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-wells MQWs with high structural and optical quality are achieved by utilizing freestanding 3C-SiC 001 substrates and optimizing InGaN quantum well growth. Superlattice peaks up

As, Donat Josef

147

Correlation between Ga-O signature and midgap states at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As interface  

SciTech Connect

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As gate stacks were fabricated using different concentrations of NH{sub 4}OH as a pre-deposition treatment. Increased NH{sub 4}OH concentrations significantly reduced the C-V weak inversion hump and the measured near midgap interface states density (D{sub it}). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies revealed that these changes in the electrical properties were accompanied by a reduction in the amount of the Ga-O bonding while As-As dimers as well as other XPS detected InGaAs surface species did not correlate with the observed D{sub it} trend. Possible explanations for these findings are suggested.

Krylov, Igor [Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Gavrilov, Arkady [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Eizenberg, Moshe [Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Department of Materials Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Ritter, Dan [Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2012-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

148

Characteristics study of 2DEG transport properties of AlGaN/GaN and AlGaAs/GaAs-based HEMT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Growth of wide bandgap material over narrow bandgap material, results into a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the heterointerface due to the conduction band discontinuity. In this paper the 2DEG transport properties of AlGaN/GaN-based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) is discussed and its effect on various characteristics such as 2DEG density, C-V characteristics and Sheet resistances for different mole fractions are presented. The obtained results are also compared with AlGaAs/GaAs-based HEMT for the same structural parameter as like AlGaN/GaN-based HEMT. The calculated results of electron sheet concentration as a function of the Al mole fraction are in excellent agreement with some experimental data available in the literature.

Lenka, T. R., E-mail: trlenka@gmail.com; Panda, A. K., E-mail: akpanda62@hotmail.com [National Institute of Science and Technology, Palur Hills (India)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Quantized states in homogenous polarized GaInN GaN quantum wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantized states in homogenous polarized GaInN GaN quantum wells C. Wetzel1, S. Kamiyama1, H. Amano wells is calculated in a single particle model. The act- ing electric eld in the wells and the band gap-dimensional well layers our approach is based on induction from results obtained at the binary GaN barri- ers

Wetzel, Christian M.

150

PIEZOELECTRIC LEVEL SPLITTING IN GaInN/GaN QUANTUM WELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PIEZOELECTRIC LEVEL SPLITTING IN GaInN/GaN QUANTUM WELLS C. Wetzel, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and IInN/GaN multiple quantum well samples in a large set of variable composition a clear correspondence of transitions in photo- and electroreflection, as well as photoluminescence is found. The effective band offset across

Wetzel, Christian M.

151

Pulsed optically detected NMR of single GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pulsed optically detected NMR of single GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells Marcus Eickhoff* and Dieter Suter, nanometer-sized quantum wells possible with excellent sensitivity and selectivity while avoiding.60.-k; 78.55.Cr; 78.67.De Keywords: ODNMR; Pulsed excitation; Quantum well; GaAs 1. Introduction Nuclear

Suter, Dieter

152

Spontaneous emission in GaN/InGaN photonic crystal nanopillars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Sigalas, "InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal, "III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 466, and H. Benisty, "Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution

Recanati, Catherine

153

Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - General Atomics (GA)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

general-atomics-ga General general-atomics-ga General Atomics en The Scorpion's Strategy: "Catch and Subdue" http://www.pppl.gov/node/1132

American Fusion News Category: 
ga">General Atomics (GA)
154

TMS P&GA Wired to Washington  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

P & GA COMMITTEE HOME ... the connection between MSE and such key U.S. initiatives as national security, energy independence, and economic growth.

155

Solving the Mystery of the Billion-Dollar Bond, Double Bond | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solving the Mystery of the Billion-Dollar Bond, Double Bond Solving the Mystery of the Billion-Dollar Bond, Double Bond Solving the Mystery of the Billion-Dollar Bond, Double Bond October 26, 2011 - 4:56pm Addthis John Shanklin, biochemist at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Ed Whittle, research assistant in Shanklin's lab, with a fatty acid molecule model and plant seeds and casings in the foreground. | Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory John Shanklin, biochemist at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Ed Whittle, research assistant in Shanklin's lab, with a fatty acid molecule model and plant seeds and casings in the foreground. | Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? Understanding how proteins exert precise control over double bond

156

Y2, Threading Defect Elimination in GaN Nanostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DD3, A New Approach to Make ZnO-Cu2O Heterojunctions for Solar Cells ... E2, AlGaAs/GaAs/GaN Wafer Fused HBTs with Ar Implanted Extrinsic Collectors.

157

Hydrogen Bonding Penalty upon Ligand Binding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ligand binding involves breakage of hydrogen bonds with water molecules and formation of new hydrogen bonds between protein and ligand. In this work, the change of hydrogen bonding energy in the binding process, namely hydrogen bonding penalty, is evaluated with a new method. The hydrogen bonding penalty can not only be used to filter unrealistic poses in docking, but also improve the accuracy of binding energy calculation. A new model integrated with hydrogen bonding penalty for free energy calculation gives a root mean square error of 0.7 kcal/mol on 74 inhibitors in the training set and of 1.1 kcal/mol on 64 inhibitors in the test set. Moreover, an application of hydrogen bonding penalty into a high throughput docking campaign for EphB4 inhibitors is presented, and remarkably, three novel scaffolds are discovered out of seven tested. The binding affinity and ligand efficiency of the most potent compound is about 300 nM and 0.35 kcal/mol per non-hydrogen atom, respectively.

Hongtao Zhao; Danzhi Huang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Nanocrystal-enabled solid state bonding.  

SciTech Connect

In this project, we performed a preliminary set of sintering experiments to examine nanocrystal-enabled diffusion bonding (NEDB) in Ag-on-Ag and Cu-on-Cu using Ag nanoparticles. The experimental test matrix included the effects of material system, temperature, pressure, and particle size. The nanoparticle compacts were bonded between plates using a customized hot press, tested in shear, and examined post mortem using microscopy techniques. NEDB was found to be a feasible mechanism for low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding of like materials, creating bonded interfaces that were able to support substantial loads. The maximum supported shear strength varied substantially within sample cohorts due to variation in bonded area; however, systematic variation with fabrication conditions was also observed. Mesoscale sintering simulations were performed in order to understand whether sintering models can aid in understanding the NEDB process. A pressure-assisted sintering model was incorporated into the SPPARKS kinetic Monte Carlo sintering code. Results reproduce most of the qualitative behavior observed in experiments, indicating that simulation can augment experiments during the development of the NEDB process. Because NEDB offers a promising route to low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding, we recommend further research and development with a goal of devising new NEDB bonding processes to support Sandia's customers.

San Diego State University, San Diego, CA; Puskar, Joseph David; Tikare, Veena; Garcia Cardona, Cristina (San Diego State University, San Diego, CA); Reece, Mark; Brewer, Luke N. (Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA); Holm, Elizabeth Ann

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

GaAs ohmic contacts for high temperature devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Instrumentation requirements for geothermal wells, jet engines, and nuclear reactors have exceeded the high temperature capability of silicon devices. As one part of a program to develop high temperature compound semiconductor devices, four basic ohmic contact systems for n-type GaAs have been evaluated for contact resistance as a function of temperature (24 to 350/sup 0/C) and time (at 300/sup 0/C): Ni/AuGe; Ag/Si and Ag/Ni/Si; Al/Ge and Al/AlGe; and Au/Nb/Si and Pt/Nb/Si. Optimization of processing parameters produced viable high temperature contacts with all but the Al/Ge systems. Aging at 300/sup 0/C changed the contact resistivity in only the Ag/Ni/Si contacts. Film adhesion was excellent for the Al/Ge, Ni/AuGe, and Ag/Si systems as measured with ultrasonic Al wire bond pull strengths. Lower adhesion was noticed with Nb/Si systems measured with gold wire bond pull strengths.

Coquat, J.A.; Palmer, D.W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Bond graph modeling of centrifugal compressor system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system, active surge control. A novel method of modeling centrifugal compression systems for surge control purposes by using bond graphs is presented. By using the bond graph method, we get a simple description of compression systems based on physical phenomena and it is straight forward to get the dynamic equations. It is demonstrated that several active surge control methods can be represented by the same bond graph. It is also shown how methods for active surge control can be classified using energy flow in terms of upstream energy injection or downstream energy dissipation. A model of a compression system with recycle flow is derived in this work. 1.

Nur Uddin; Jan Tommy Gravdahl

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs Monolithic Tandem Cells for High-Performance Solar Concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present a new approach for ultra-high-performance tandem solar cells that involves inverted epitaxial growth and ultra-thin device processing. The additional degree of freedom afforded by the inverted design allows the monolithic integration of high-, and medium-bandgap, lattice-matched (LM) subcell materials with lower-bandgap, lattice-mismatched (LMM) materials in a tandem structure through the use of transparent compositionally graded layers. The current work concerns an inverted, series-connected, triple-bandgap, GaInP (LM, 1.87 eV)/GaAs (LM, 1.42 eV)/GaInAs (LMM, {approx}1 eV) device structure grown on a GaAs substrate. Ultra-thin tandem devices are fabricated by mounting the epiwafers to pre-metallized Si wafer handles and selectively removing the parent GaAs substrate. The resulting handle-mounted, ultra-thin tandem cells have a number of important advantages, including improved performance and potential reclamation/reuse of the parent substrate for epitaxial growth. Additionally, realistic performance modeling calculations suggest that terrestrial concentrator efficiencies in the range of 40-45% are possible with this new tandem cell approach. A laboratory-scale (0.24 cm2), prototype GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs tandem cell with a terrestrial concentrator efficiency of 37.9% at a low concentration ratio (10.1 suns) is described, which surpasses the previous world efficiency record of 37.3%.

Wanlass, M. W.; Ahrenkiel, S. P.; Albin, D. S.; Carapella, J. J.; Duda, A.; Emery, K.; Geisz, J. F.; Jones, K.; Kurtz, S.; Moriarty, T.; Romero, M. J.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Price of Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price of Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)...

163

A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond...

164

Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds in Acyclic Tertiary Diamines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Search of a Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond in Proton Bridgedand J.A. Gerlt, The Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond in EnzymaticShow That Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds do not Offer a

Khodagholian, Sevana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Ultrasonic characterization of interfaces in composite bonds  

SciTech Connect

The inverse determination of imperfect interfaces from reflection spectra of normal and oblique incident ultrasonic waves in adhesive bonds of multidirectional composites is investigated. The oblique measurements are complicated by the highly dispersed nature of oblique wave spectra at frequencies above 3MHz. Different strategies for bond property reconstruction, including a modulation method, are discussed. The relation of measured interfacial spring density to the physico-chemical model of a composite interface described by polymer molecular bonds to emulate loss of molecular strength on an adhesive composite interface is discussed. This potentially relates the interfacial (adhesion) strength (number of bonds at the adhesive substrate interface) to the spring constant (stiffness) area density (flux), which is an ultrasonically measurable parameter.

Wang, N.; Lobkis, O. I.; Rokhlin, S. I. [Ohio State University, Edison Joining Technology Center, 1248 Arthur E Adams Drive, Columbus OH 43221 (United States); Cantrell, J. H. [NASA Langley Research Center, Mail Stop 231, Hampton, Virginia 23681 (United States)

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

166

Industrial Revenue Bond Program (District of Columbia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The District provides below market bond financing to lower the costs of borrowing for qualified capital construction and renovation projects. The program is available to non-profits, institutions,...

167

US SoAtl GA Site Consumption  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

GA GA Site Consumption million Btu $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 US SoAtl GA Expenditures dollars ALL ENERGY average per household (excl. transportation) 0 4,000 8,000 12,000 16,000 US SoAtl GA Site Consumption kilowatthours $0 $300 $600 $900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 US SoAtl GA Expenditures dollars ELECTRICITY ONLY average per household * Site energy consumption (89.5 million Btu) and energy expenditures per household ($2,067) in Georgia are similar to the U.S. household averages. * Per household electricity consumption in Georgia is among the highest in the country, but similar to other states in the South. * Forty-five percent of homes in Georgia were built since 1990, a characteristic typically associated with lower per household consumption. Georgia homes,

168

US SoAtl GA Site Consumption  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

GA GA Site Consumption million Btu $0 $500 $1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 US SoAtl GA Expenditures dollars ALL ENERGY average per household (excl. transportation) 0 4,000 8,000 12,000 16,000 US SoAtl GA Site Consumption kilowatthours $0 $300 $600 $900 $1,200 $1,500 $1,800 US SoAtl GA Expenditures dollars ELECTRICITY ONLY average per household * Site energy consumption (89.5 million Btu) and energy expenditures per household ($2,067) in Georgia are similar to the U.S. household averages. * Per household electricity consumption in Georgia is among the highest in the country, but similar to other states in the South. * Forty-five percent of homes in Georgia were built since 1990, a characteristic typically associated with lower per household consumption. Georgia homes,

169

Montana Clean Renewable Energy Bond Act (Montana) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Renewable Energy Bond Act (Montana) Montana Clean Renewable Energy Bond Act (Montana) < Back Eligibility StateProvincial Govt Local Government Tribal Government Savings...

170

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Bond Exemption for Small Biofuels...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Bond Exemption for Small Biofuels Suppliers to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Bond Exemption for Small Biofuels Suppliers on Facebook Tweet about...

171

Local Option- Industrial Facilities and Development Bonds (Utah)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Under the Utah Industrial Facilities and Development Act, counties, municipalities, and state universities in Utah may issue Industrial Revenue Bonds (IRBs) or Industrial Development Bonds (IDBs)...

172

Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) Update: New Guidance...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) Update: New Guidance from the U.S. Department of Treasury and Internal Revenue Service Title Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB)...

173

AlGaAs/GaAs nano-hetero-epitaxy on a patterned GaAs substrate by MBE  

SciTech Connect

An AlGaAs/GaAs resonant tunneling diode (RTD) with submicron size was fabricated on {l_brace}111{r_brace} oblique facets of GaAs with selective MBE. The method is based on the fact that a certain facet structure is formed on a patterned substrate in selective MBE because the growth rate depends strongly on the facet structure. The fabrication of a double-barrier structure was attempted on a {l_brace}111{r_brace}B facet. The current-voltage characteristics of the sample showed negative differential resistance at 77K demonstrating that we have achieved an RTD on a submicron facet.

Nishiwaki, T.; Yamaguchi, M.; Sawaki, N. [Department of Electronics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)

2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

174

Accelerated aging of GaAs concentrator solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An accelerated aging study of AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells has been completed. The purpose of the study was to identify the possible degradation mechanisms of AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells in terrestrial applications. Thermal storage tests and accelerated AlGaAs corrosion studies were performed to provide an experimental basis for a statistical analysis of the estimated lifetime. Results of this study suggest that a properly designed and fabricated AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell can be mechanically rugged and environmentally stable with projected lifetimes exceeding 100 years.

Gregory, P.E.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Characterization of high-quality InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells with time-resolved photoluminescence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characterization of high-quality InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells with time-resolved photoluminescence October 1997; accepted for publication 5 January 1998 Recombination in single quantum well and multiquantum well InGaN/GaN structures is studied using time-resolved photoluminescence and pulsed

Bowers, John

176

Optical injection and coherent control of a ballistic charge current in GaAsAlGaAs quantum wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical injection and coherent control of a ballistic charge current in GaAs?AlGaAs quantum wells of Hache´ et al.,2,3 but in this article we report injection into the plane of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells specific to quantum wells. Although we expect the underlying physics of injection and control of currents

Sipe,J. E.

177

Journal of Crystal Growth 298 (2007) 272275 Dislocation analysis in homoepitaxial GaInN/GaN light emitting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of GaInN/GaN-based light emitting diodes (LED) on quasi-bulk GaN with an atomically flat polished were much improved. The optical output power of the light emitting diode increased by more than one. Cathodoluminescence; A1. Threading dislocation density; A2. Homoepitaxial growth; B1. GaInN; B3. Light emitting diode

Wetzel, Christian M.

178

Discrete Steps in the Capacitance-Voltage Characteristics of GaInN/GaN Light Emitting Diode Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Discrete Steps in the Capacitance-Voltage Characteristics of GaInN/GaN Light Emitting Diode and GaInN/GaN heterostructures typically used for high efficiency light emitting diodes is of high materials for green, blue, and UV light emitting diodes (LED) [1-2]. It is known that huge piezoelectric

Wetzel, Christian M.

179

Analysis of Schottky gate electron tunneling in polarization induced AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

( gate=nickel)/(barrier=GaN/Al (y) Ga (1?y) N)/(buffer=GaN)/(substrate=SiC ) polarizationinduced high electron mobility transistors (PI-HEMTs) show promise for ultrahigh power microwave amplification. The polarization fields in these Ga-face

Lester F. Eastman

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

GA Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name GA-Solar Place Madrid, Spain Zip 28045 Sector Solar Product Madrid based solar project developer, owned by Spanish industrial group Corporacion Gestamp. Coordinates 40.4203°, -3.705774° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.4203,"lon":-3.705774,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

J1, MBE Growth of Metamorphic InGaP on GaAs and GaP for Wide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I4, Electrical Spin Injection in a Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Spin-Polarized Light Emitting Diode (Spin-LED) I5, Properties of MnAs/GaMnAs/MnAs Magnetic...

182

Epoxy bond and stop etch fabrication method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A class of epoxy bond and stop etch (EBASE) microelectronic fabrication techniques is disclosed. The essence of such techniques is to grow circuit components on top of a stop etch layer grown on a first substrate. The first substrate and a host substrate are then bonded together so that the circuit components are attached to the host substrate by the bonding agent. The first substrate is then removed, e.g., by a chemical or physical etching process to which the stop etch layer is resistant. EBASE fabrication methods allow access to regions of a device structure which are usually blocked by the presence of a substrate, and are of particular utility in the fabrication of ultrafast electronic and optoelectronic devices and circuits.

Simmons, Jerry A. (Sandia Park, NM); Weckwerth, Mark V. (Pleasanton, CA); Baca, Wes E. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) Update: New  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8, 2012 8, 2012 Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) Update: New Guidance from the U.S. Department of Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) are federally-subsidized bonds that enable state, tribal, and local government issuers to borrow money to fund a range of energy conservation projects at very attractive borrowing rates over long contract terms. In June 2012, the U.S. Department of the Treasury (Treasury) and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) published a notice to clarify what constitutes a qualified project for potential issuers of the approximately $2.5 billion of remaining QECB issuance capacity. The guidance addresses two qualified uses of QECB proceeds-how issuers should measure energy use reductions in publicly-owned buildings and what constitutes a green community program.

184

AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors based on InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures with photo-chemical vapor deposition of SiO2 dielectrics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) based on InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well (MQW) structure has been fabricated with SiO"2 dielectric deposited via photo-chemical vapor deposition (PHCVD) using a deuterium lamp ... Keywords: GaN, HEMT, MQW, Photo-chemical vapor deposition, SiO 2

Kai-Hsuan Lee; Ping-Chuan Chang; Shoou-Jinn Chang

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

Sugama, T.

1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

186

Free carrier accumulation at cubic AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cubic Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N/GaN heterostructures were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on 3C-SiC (001) substrates. A profile of the electrostatic potential across the cubic-AlGaN/GaN heterojunction was obtained using electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. The experimental potential profile indicates that the unintentionally doped layers show n-type behavior and accumulation of free electrons at the interface with a density of 5.1 x 10{sup 11}/cm{sup 2}, about one order of magnitude less than in wurtzite AlGaN/GaN junctions. A combination of electron holography and cathodoluminescence measurements yields a conduction-to-valence band offset ratio of 5:1 for the cubic AlGaN/GaN interface, which also promotes the electron accumulation. Band diagram simulations show that the donor states in the AlGaN layer provide the positive charges that to a great extent balance the two-dimensional electron gas.

Wei, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Huang, J. Y.; Ponce, F. A. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Tschumak, E.; Zado, A.; As, D. J. [Department of Physics, Universitaet Paderborn, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany)

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

187

L1, Formation of Structural Defects in AlGaN/GaN High Electron ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transmission electron microscope (TEM) cross sectional image has shown that electrical degradation is closely related to structural damage in the GaN cap and ...

188

Bonded Radii and the Contraction of the Electron Density of the Oxygen Atom by Bonded Interactions  

SciTech Connect

The bonded radii for more than 550 bonded pairs of atoms, comprising more than 50 crystals, determined from experimental and theoretical electron density distributions, are compared with the effective ionic, ri(M), and crystal radii, rc(M), for metal atoms, M, bonded to O atoms. At odds with the fixed ionic radius of 1.40 , assumed for the O atom in the compilation of the ionic radii, the bonded radius for the atom, rb(O), is not fixed but displays a relatively wide range of values as the O atom is progressively polarized by the M-O bonded interactions: as such, rb(O) decreases systematically from 1.40 (the Pauling radius of the oxide anion) as bond lengths decrease when bonded to an electropositive atom like sodium, to 0.64 (Braggs atomic radius of the O atom) when bonded to an electronegative atom like nitrogen. Both rb(M) and rb(O) increase in tandum with the increasing coordination number of the M atom. The bonded radii of the M atoms are highly correlated with both ri(M) and rc(M), but they both depart systematically from rb(M) and become smaller as the electronegativity of the M atom increases and the M-O bond length decreases. The well-developed correlations between both sets of radii and rb(M) testifies to the relative precision of both sets of radii and the fact that both sets are highly correlated the M-O bond 1 lengths. On the other hand, the progressive departure of rb(O) from the fixed ionic radius of the O atom with the increasing electronegativity of the bonded M atom indicates that any compilation of sets of ionic radii, assuming that the radius for the oxygen atom is fixed in value, is problematical and impacts on the accuracy of the resulting sets of ionic and crystal radii thus compiled. The assumption of a fixed O atom radius not only results in a negative ionic radii for several atoms, but it also results in values of rb(M) that are much as ~ 0.6 larger than the ri(M) and rc(M) values, respectively, particularly for the more electronegative M atoms. On the other hand, the ionic radii are in closer agreement with rb(M) for the more electropositive atoms. Notwithstanding that ionic radii are typically smaller than bonded radii, particularly for the more electronegative atoms, they have been used with considerable success in understanding and rationalizing problems and properties in crystal chemistry primarily because both ionic and crystal radii are highly correlated on a one-to-one basis with both the bonded radii and the associated M-O bond lengths. The lack of agreement between the effective ionic and crystal radii and the bonded radii for the more shared bonded interactions is ascribed to the progressive increase in the polarization of the O atom by the bonded atoms with a concomitant decrease in its radius, a factor that was neglected in the compilation of ionic and crystal radii for fluorides, oxides, sulfides and nitrides. This accounts for ionic radii for these materials being smaller than the bonded radii for the more electronegative atoms.

Gibbs, Gerald V.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Spackman, M. A.

2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

189

Plasma Damage in p-GaN  

SciTech Connect

The effect of Inductively Coupled Plasma H{sub 2} or Ar discharges on the breakdown voltage of p-GaN diodes was measured over a range of ion energies and fluxes. The main effect of plasma exposure is a decrease in net acceptor concentration to depths of 400-550{angstrom}. At high ion fluxes or energies there can be type conversion of the initially p-GaN surface. Post etch annealing at 900 C restores the initial conductivity.

Cao, X.A.; Dang, G.T.; Hickman, R.A.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Van Hove, J.M.; Zhang, A.P.; Zhang, L.

1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

190

GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection  

SciTech Connect

GaTe semiconductor is used as a room-temperature radiation detector. GaTe has useful properties for radiation detectors: ideal bandgap, favorable mobilities, low melting point (no evaporation), non-hygroscopic nature, and availability of high-purity starting materials. The detector can be used, e.g., for detection of illicit nuclear weapons and radiological dispersed devices at ports of entry, in cities, and off shore and for determination of medical isotopes present in a patient.

Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Mandal, Krishna C. (Ashland, MA)

2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

191

Municipal bond financing of solar energy facilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of the laws of municipal bond financing to solar facilities is examined. The type of facilities under consideration are outlined. The general legal principles of municipal securities financing are discussed. The effect of recent decisions applying antitrust liability to municipal corporations is also discussed. Five specific types of municipal bonds are explained. The application of Section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended, to the issuance of municipal bonds for solar facility financing is examined also. Five bond laws of five representative states are examined and whether the eight types of solar facilities under consideration could be financed under such law is discussed. The application of the general legal principle is illustrated. Three hypothetical situations are set forth and common legal issues to be confronted by city officials in proposing such financing are discussed. These issues will be raised in most financings, but the purpose is to examine the common context in which they are raised. It is concluded that if it can be shown that the purpose of the solar facilities to be financed is to benefit the public, all legal obstacles to the use of municipal financing of solar facilities can be substantially overcome.

White, S.S.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Thermally stable, plastic-bonded explosives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

By use of an appropriate thermoplastic rubber as the binder, the thermal stability and thermal stress characteristics of plastic-bonded explosives may be greatly improved. In particular, an HMX-based explosive composition using an oil-extended styrene-ethylenebutylene-styrene block copolymer as the binder exhibits high explosive energy and thermal stability and good handling safety and physical properties.

Benziger, Theodore M. (Santa Fe, NM)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

DISSOLUTION METHOD OF REMOVING BONDING AGENTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for removing residual aluminumsilicon bonding agents from uranium slugs after the removal of aluminum coatings. To accomplish this the slug is immersed in an aqueous solution about 0.75 N in hydrofluoric acid and about 7 N in nitric acid.

Hyman, H.H.

1960-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

194

Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin  

SciTech Connect

By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

Taylor, Gene W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Atomic-resolution study of polarity reversal in GaSb grown on Si by scanning transmission electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The atomic-resolved reversal of the polarity across an antiphase boundary (APB) was observed in GaSb films grown on Si by high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The investigation of the interface structure at the origin of the APB reveals that coalescence of two domains with Ga-prelayer and Sb-prelayer causes the sublattice reversal. The local strain and lattice rotation distributions of the APB, attributed to the discordant bonding length at the APB with the surrounding GaSb lattice, were further studied using the geometric phase analysis technique. The crystallographic characteristics of the APBs and their interaction with other planar defects were observed with HAADF-STEM. The quantitative agreement between experimental and simulated images confirms the observed polarities in the acquired HAADF-STEM data. The self-annihilation mechanism of the APBs is addressed based on the rotation induced by anti-site bonds and APBs' faceting.

Hosseini Vajargah, S.; Woo, S. Y.; Botton, G. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Brockhouse Institute for Material Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Ghanad-Tavakoli, S. [Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Kleiman, R. N.; Preston, J. S. [Brockhouse Institute for Material Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Schottky-Drain Technology for AlGaN/GaN High-Electron Mobility Transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this letter, we demonstrate 27% improvement in the buffer breakdown voltage of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown on Si substrate by using a new Schottky-drain contact technology. Schottky-drain ...

Lu, Bin

197

Simulation and Design Analysis of (A1Ga)As/GaAs MODFET Integrated Circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new (AlGa)As/GaAs MODFET integrated circuit simulator is described. Our simulator is a customized version of SPICE incorporating the extended charge control model for MODFET's and the velocity saturation model for ungated FET's used as the load devices. ...

Choong H. Hyun; M. S. Shur; N. C. Cirillo

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Nanocrystals cylindrical microcavities exploiting thin-walled InGaAs/GaAs microtubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper relies on the design and fabrication of CdSe/ZnS core/shell colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) cylindrical microcavities for microphotonics applications. The fabrication technology relies on the release of the strain in strained heterostructures, ... Keywords: Colloidal nanocrystals, InGaAs/GaAs microtubes, Strained multilayer

C. Giordano; M. T. Todaro; A. Salhi; L. Martiradonna; I. Viola; A. Passab; L. Carbone; G. Gigli; A. Passaseo; M. De Vittorio

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system by an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure has been further confirmed by measuring its electrical properties. The effect of persistent photoconductivity (PPC) has been observed and its unique features have been utilized to study the properties of 2DEG formed by the AlGaN/GaN heterointerface. Sharp electronic transitions from the first to the second subbands in the 2DEG channel have been observed by monitoring the 2DEG carrier mobility as a function of carrier concentration through the use of PPC. These results are expected to have significant implications on field-effect transistor and high electron mobility transistor applications based on the GaN system. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

Li, J.Z.; Lin, J.Y.; Jiang, H.X. [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2601 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2601 (United States); Khan, M.A.; Chen, Q. [APA Optics, Inc., Blaine, Minnesota 55449 (United States)] [APA Optics, Inc., Blaine, Minnesota 55449 (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Lattice-matched epitaxial GaInAsSb/GaSb thermophotovoltaic devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The materials development of Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y} alloys for lattice-matched thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices is reported. Epilayers with cutoff wavelength 2--2.4 {micro}m at room temperature and lattice-matched to GaSb substrates were grown by both low-pressure organometallic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy. These layers exhibit high optical and structural quality. For demonstrating lattice-matched thermophotovoltaic devices, p- and n-type doping studies were performed. Several TPV device structures were investigated, with variations in the base/emitter thicknesses and the incorporation of a high bandgap GaSb or AlGaAsSb window layer. Significant improvement in the external quantum efficiency is observed for devices with an AlGaAsSb window layer compared to those without one.

Wang, C.A.; Choi, H.K.; Turner, G.W.; Spears, D.L.; Manfra, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Lexington, MA (United States). Lincoln Lab.; Charache, G.W. [Lockheed Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Tax-Exempt Industrial Revenue Bonds (Kansas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Revenue Bonds (Kansas) Industrial Revenue Bonds (Kansas) Tax-Exempt Industrial Revenue Bonds (Kansas) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Industrial Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Kansas Program Type Bond Program Provider Revenue Tax-Exempt Industrial Revenue Bonds are issued by cities and counties for the purchase, construction, improvement or remodeling of a facility for agricultural, commercial, hospital, industrial, natural resources, recreational development or manufacturing purposes. The board of county commissioners of any county or the governing body of any city may approve an exemption of property funded by industrial revenue bonds (IRB's). Some

202

Private Activity Bond Allocation (Missouri) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bond Allocation (Missouri) Bond Allocation (Missouri) Private Activity Bond Allocation (Missouri) < Back Eligibility Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Maximum Rebate Total Program Cap 2012: $571,015,360 Program Info State Missouri Program Type Bond Program Provider Missouri Department of Economic Development The Private Activity Bond Allocation Program provides low-interest financing through tax-exempt bonds for certain types of projects, including electric and gas utility projects. Eligible applicants include certain state agencies, cities, counties and industrial development authorities

203

MBE growth of high electron mobility 2DEGs in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures controlled by RHEED  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have grown 2DEG AlGaN/GaN heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) with electron mobilities up to 21500 cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1} at 2 K. In-situ RHEED was applied to optimize different aspects of Ga-rich growth. This paper gives a compact overview of the experimental key aspects that significantly affect the low temperature electron mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. Growth at the transition towards Ga droplet formation produced the best results. A quantitative analysis of the magnetoresistance confirmes scattering at dislocations as the dominant scattering process at low temperature.

Broxtermann, D.; Sivis, M.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A. [IV. physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Various Carbon to Carbon Bond Lengths Inter-related via the Golden Ratio, and their Linear Dependence on Bond Energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work presents the relations between the carbon to carbon bond lengths in the single, double and triple bonds and in graphite, butadiene and benzene. The Golden ratio, which was shown to divide the Bohr radius into two parts pertaining to the charged particles, the electron and proton, and to divide inter-atomic distances into their cationic and anionic radii, also plays a role in the carbon-carbon bonds and in the ionic/polar character of those in graphite, butadiene and benzene. Further, the bond energies of the various CC bonds are shown to vary linearly with the bond lengths.

Raji Heyrovska

2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

205

Bonding in the Superionic Phase of Water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The predicted superionic phase of water is investigated via ab initio molecular dynamics at densities of 2.0-3.0 g/cc (34-115 GPa) along the 2000K isotherm. They find that extremely rapid (superionic) diffusion of protons occurs in a fluid phase at pressures between 34 and 58 GPa. A transition to a stable body-centered cubic (bcc) O lattice with superionic proton conductivity is observed between 70 and 75 GPa, a much higher pressure than suggested in prior work. They find that all molecular species at pressures greater than 75 GPa are too short lived to be classified as bound states. Up to 95 GPa, they find a solid superionic phase characterization by covalent O-H bonding. Above 95 GPa, a transient network phase is found characterized by symmetric O-H hydrogen bonding with nearly 50% covalent character. In addition, they describe a new metastable superionic phase with quenched O disorder.

Goldman, N; Fried, L E; Kuo, I W; Mundy, C J

2005-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

206

Definition: Cement Bond Log | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Cement Bond Log Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Cement Bond Log A representation of the integrity of the cement job, especially whether the cement is adhering solidly to the outside of the casing. The log is typically obtained from one of a variety of sonic-type tools. The newer versions, called cement evaluation logs, along with their processing software, can give detailed, 360-degree representations of the integrity of the cement job, whereas older versions may display a single line representing the integrated integrity around the casing.[1] Related Terms Acoustic Logs References ↑ Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like.

207

Double pulse doped InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Double pulse doped ({delta}-doped) InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) heterostructures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy using a multiwafer technological system. The room-temperature electron mobility was determined by the Hall method as 6550 and 6000 cm{sup 2}/(V s) at sheet electron densities of 3.00 x 10{sup 12} and 3.36 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, respectively. HEMT heterostructures fabricated in a single process feature high uniformity of structural and electrical characteristics over the entire area of wafers 76.2 mm in diameter and high reproducibility of characteristics from process to process.

Egorov, A. Yu., E-mail: anton@beam.ioffe.ru; Gladyshev, A. G.; Nikitina, E. V.; Denisov, D. V.; Polyakov, N. K.; Pirogov, E. V.; Gorbazevich, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Physics and Technology Center for Research and Education (Russian Federation)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

208

Activating unreactive C-H bonds  

SciTech Connect

The procedures tested to attempt to reactivate carbon-hydrogen bonds in completely saturated organic compounds are discussed. Saturated hydrocarbons appear in petroleum, coal, in synthetic fuels produced by liquefaction of coal and other fossil fuels, and in synthetic fuels produced by Fisher-Tropsch chemistry from syngas. Their potential use as feedstocks for the chemical industry requires that the hydrocarbons be functionalized. The use of transition-metal complexes for the 'activation' process is discussed.

Maugh, T.H. II

1983-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

209

Cement Bond Log | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cement Bond Log Cement Bond Log Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Cement Bond Log Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Log Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Acoustic Logs Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 0.8585 centUSD 8.5e-4 kUSD 8.5e-7 MUSD 8.5e-10 TUSD / foot Median Estimate (USD): 1.25125 centUSD 0.00125 kUSD 1.25e-6 MUSD 1.25e-9 TUSD / foot High-End Estimate (USD): 3.00300 centUSD 0.003 kUSD 3.0e-6 MUSD 3.0e-9 TUSD / foot Time Required Low-End Estimate: 0.35 days9.582478e-4 years 8.4 hours 0.05 weeks 0.0115 months / job

210

Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Microchannel cooling of face down bonded chips  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Microchannel cooling is applied to flip-chip bonded integrated circuits, in a manner which maintains the advantages of flip-chip bonds, while overcoming the difficulties encountered in cooling the chips. The technique is suited to either multichip integrated circuit boards in a plane, or to stacks of circuit boards in a three dimensional interconnect structure. Integrated circuit chips are mounted on a circuit board using flip-chip or control collapse bonds. A microchannel structure is essentially permanently coupled with the back of the chip. A coolant delivery manifold delivers coolant to the microchannel structure, and a seal consisting of a compressible elastomer is provided between the coolant delivery manifold and the microchannel structure. The integrated circuit chip and microchannel structure are connected together to form a replaceable integrated circuit module which can be easily decoupled from the coolant delivery manifold and the circuit board. The coolant supply manifolds may be disposed between the circuit boards in a stack and coupled to supplies of coolant through a side of the stack.

Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Microchannel cooling of face down bonded chips  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Microchannel cooling is applied to flip-chip bonded integrated circuits, in a manner which maintains the advantages of flip-chip bonds, while overcoming the difficulties encountered in cooling the chips. The technique is suited to either multi chip integrated circuit boards in a plane, or to stacks of circuit boards in a three dimensional interconnect structure. Integrated circuit chips are mounted on a circuit board using flip-chip or control collapse bonds. A microchannel structure is essentially permanently coupled with the back of the chip. A coolant delivery manifold delivers coolant to the microchannel structure, and a seal consisting of a compressible elastomer is provided between the coolant delivery manifold and the microchannel structure. The integrated circuit chip and microchannel structure are connected together to form a replaceable integrated circuit module which can be easily decoupled from the coolant delivery manifold and the circuit board. The coolant supply manifolds may be disposed between the circuit boards in a stack and coupled to supplies of coolant through a side of the stack.

Bernhardt, A.F.

1993-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

214

Properties of glass-bonded zeolite monoliths  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been shown that mineral waste forms can be used to immobilize waste salt generated during the pyrochemical processing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). Solid, leach resistant monoliths were formed by hot-pressing mixtures of salt-occluded zeolite A powders and glass frit at 990 K and 28 MPa. Additional samples have now been fabricated and tested. Normalized release rates for all elements, including iodide and chloride, were less than 1 g/m{sup 2}d in 28-day tests in deionized water and in brine at 363 K (90{degrees}C). Preliminary results indicate that these rates fall with time with both leachants and that the zeolite phase in the glass-bonded zeolite does not function as an ion exchanger. Some material properties were measured. The Poisson ratio and Young`s modulus were slightly smaller in glass-bonded zeolite than in borosilicate glass. Density depended on zeolite fraction. The glass-bonded zeolite represents a promising mineral waste form for IFR salt.

Lewis, M.A.; Fischer, D.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Murphy, C.D. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Major Business Expansion Bond Program (Maine) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Expansion Bond Program (Maine) Expansion Bond Program (Maine) Major Business Expansion Bond Program (Maine) < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Maine Program Type Bond Program Provider Finance Authority of Maine The Major Business Expansion Bond Program provides long-term, credit-enhanced financing up to $25,000,000 at taxable bond rates for businesses creating or retaining at least 50 jobs; up to $10,000,000 is available for businesses which expand their manufacturing services. The bond proceeds may be used to acquire real estate, machinery, equipment, or rehabilitate or expand an existing facility. The interest rate is determined by market forces at the time of the bond sale

216

Local Government Revenue Bonds (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Government Revenue Bonds (Montana) Government Revenue Bonds (Montana) Local Government Revenue Bonds (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Montana Program Type Bond Program Provider Any interested county or municipality. Limited obligation local government bonds ("special revenue bonds") may be issued for qualified electric energy generation facilities, including those powered by renewables. These bonds generally are secured by the project itself. The taxing power or general credit of the government may not be used to secure the bonds. Local governments may not operate any project

217

Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: New Bond Helps Toledo...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Bond Helps Toledo, Ohio, Expand Financing Pool to someone by E-mail Share Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: New Bond Helps Toledo, Ohio, Expand Financing Pool on Facebook...

218

Pre-plated reactive diffusion-bonded battery electrode plaques  

SciTech Connect

A high strength, metallic fiber battery plaque is made using reactive diffusion bonding techniques, where a substantial amount of the fibers are bonded together by an iron-nickel alloy.

Maskalick, Nicholas J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Pooled Bond Program (South Dakota) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pooled Bond Program (South Dakota) Pooled Bond Program (South Dakota) Pooled Bond Program (South Dakota) < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State South Dakota Program Type Bond Program Provider South Dakota Governor's Office of Economic Development The Pooled Bond Program offered by the Economic Development Finance Authority is designed for capital intensive projects, providing small businesses access to larger capital markets for tax-exempt or taxable bond issuances. Bond proceeds can be used to finance 80 percent of new construction, and 75 percent of new equipment costs, with no greater than 25 percent of the bond proceeds being used for ancillary activities such as

220

Industrial Revenue Bond Issuance Cost Assistance (Wisconsin) | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Revenue Bond Issuance Cost Assistance (Wisconsin) Revenue Bond Issuance Cost Assistance (Wisconsin) Industrial Revenue Bond Issuance Cost Assistance (Wisconsin) < Back Eligibility Local Government Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Wind Solar Program Info State Wisconsin Program Type Bond Program Provider Wisconsin Economic Development Corporation Industrial Revenue Bonds (IRB) are tax-exempt bonds that can be used to stimulate capital investment and job creation by providing private borrowers with access to financing at interest rates that are lower than conventional bank loans. The IRB process involves five separate entities - the borrower, lender, bond attorney, issuer, and WEDC. WEDC allocates the bonding authority or the volume cap for the program under Wis. Stat. §

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

GaN Nanopore Arrays: Fabrication and Characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GaN nanopore arrays with pore diameters of approximately 75 nm were fabricated by inductively coupled plasma etching (ICP) using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films as etch masks. Nanoporous AAO films were formed on the GaN ...

Wang, Yadong

222

GA-AL-SC | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GA-AL-SC GA-AL-SC GA-AL-SC October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Duke-1-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Duke On-System System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Duke-2-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Central System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Duke-3-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: None System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Duke-4-E Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Duke Self-Schedulers System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 MISS-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: South Mississippi Electric Power Association System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012 Pump-1-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule

223

Magnetoelastic Coupling in NiMnGa Ferromagnetic Shape ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Magnetoelastic Coupling in NiMnGa Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloys. Peng Zhao (Dept. of Materials Science and ...

224

Oil prices and government bond risk premiums Herv Alexandre*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oil prices and government bond risk premiums By Hervé Alexandre*º Antonin de Benoist * Abstract : This article analyses the impact of oil price on bond risk premiums issued by emerging economies. No empirical study has yet focussed on the effects of the oil price on government bond risk premiums. We develop

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

Advanced technologies for improving high frequency performance of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, we have used a combination of physical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental work to identify and overcome some of the main challenges in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) for ...

Chung, Jinwook W. (Jinwook Will)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Evolution of structural defects associated with electrical degradation in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have investigated the surface morphology of electrically stressed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy after removing the gate metallization by ...

Makaram, Prashanth

227

Enhancement-mode AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with high linearity fabricated by hydrogen plasma treatment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enhancement-mode (E-mode) AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are highly desirable for power and digital electronic circuits. Several technologies have been demonstrated in the last few years to fabricate ...

Palacios, Tomas

228

GaN: Defect and Device Issues  

SciTech Connect

The role of extended and point defects, and key impurities such as C, O and H, on the electrical and optical properties of GaN is reviewed. Recent progress in the development of high reliability contacts, thermal processing, dry and wet etching techniques, implantation doping and isolation and gate insulator technology is detailed. Finally, the performance of GaN-based electronic and photonic devices such as field effect transistors, UV detectors, laser diodes and light-emitting diodes is covered, along with the influence of process-induced or grown-in defects and impurities on the device physics.

Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.

1998-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

229

GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices.

Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Sandia Park, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

A New Combustion Synthesis Method for GaN:Eu3+ and Ga2O3 :Eu3+  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A New Combustion Synthesis Method for GaN:Eu3+ and Ga2O3 :Eu3+ Luminescent Powders G. A. Hirata1 between the precursors. The preparation of Eu-doped Ga2O3 powders was achieved using a new combustion)3 and Ga(NO3)3 as the precursors and hydrazine as (non-carbonaceous) fuel. A spontaneous combustion

McKittrick, Joanna

231

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy ofGaP_{1-x}N_x Photocorroded as a Result of Hydrogen Productionthrough Water Electrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells produce hydrogen gas through the sunlight driven electrolysis of water. By extracting hydrogen and oxygen from water and storing solar energy in the H-H bond, they offer a promising renewable energy technology. Addition of dilute amounts of nitrogen to III-V semiconductors has been shown to dramatically increase the stability of these materials for hydrogen production. In an effort to learn more about the origin of semiconductor photocorrosion in PEC cells, three samples of p-type GaP with varying levels of nitrogen content (0%, 0.2%, 2%) were photocorroded and examined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). GaPN samples were observed to be more efficient during the hydrogen production process than the pure GaP samples. Sample surfaces contained gallium oxides in the form of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ga(OH){sub 3} and phosphorus oxide (P{sub 2}O{sub 5}), as well as surface oxides from exposure to air. A significant shift in intensity from bulk to surface peaks dramatic nitrogen segregation to the surface during photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Further investigations, including using a scanning electron microscope to investigate sample topography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis for solution analyses, are under way to determine the mechanism for these changes.

Mayer, Marie A.; /Illinois U., Urbana /SLAC

2006-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

232

Bond and Loan Program (Arkansas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bond and Loan Program (Arkansas) Bond and Loan Program (Arkansas) Bond and Loan Program (Arkansas) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Bond Program Loan Program Provider Department of Finance and Administration The Bond and Loan programs of Arkansas are four programs designed to

233

Tax-Exempt Bond Financing (Delaware) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bond Financing (Delaware) Bond Financing (Delaware) Tax-Exempt Bond Financing (Delaware) < Back Eligibility Utility Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Retail Supplier Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Delaware Program Type Bond Program Provider Delaware Economic Development Office The Delaware Economic Development Authority provides tax-exempt bond financing for financial assistance to new or expanding businesses, governmental units and certain organizations that are exempt from federal

234

GaAs/AlGaAs nanostructured composites for free-space and integrated optical devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fainman, "Influence of chlorine on etched sidewalls inFainman, Influence of chlorine on etched sidewalls inthe RIBE of GaAs with chlorine (Cl 2 ), ion beam sputtering

Tsai, Chia-Ho

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

JJ2, Optical Polarization of Non-Polar GaInN/GaN LEDs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I4, Electrical Spin Injection in a Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Spin-Polarized Light Emitting Diode (Spin-LED) I5, Properties of MnAs/GaMnAs/MnAs Magnetic...

236

K1, Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Catalyst-Free InGaN/GaN Nanowires ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I4, Electrical Spin Injection in a Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Spin-Polarized Light Emitting Diode (Spin-LED) I5, Properties of MnAs/GaMnAs/MnAs Magnetic...

237

Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

238

Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Riddle, Robert A. (Tracy, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Single-Issue Industrial Revenue Bond Program (Missouri) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Single-Issue Industrial Revenue Bond Program (Missouri) Single-Issue Industrial Revenue Bond Program (Missouri) Single-Issue Industrial Revenue Bond Program (Missouri) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Retail Supplier Systems Integrator Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Program Info State Missouri Program Type Bond Program Provider Missouri Development Finance Board The Missouri Development Finance Board administers a Single-Issue Tax-Exempt Industrial Revenue Bond Program as well as a Taxable Industrial Revenue Bond Program. The Tax-Exempt Program finances (i) the acquisition, construction and equipping of qualified manufacturing production facilities and/or equipment, and (ii) refinances outstanding tax-exempt bonds. It

240

Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (Ohio) Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (Ohio) Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Institutional Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Schools Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Ohio Program Type Bond Program Provider Ohio Air Quality Development Authority The Ohio Air Quality Development Authority (OAQDA) administers the Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECB) program in Ohio. QECBs have been used by local governments and public universities to finance the installation of energy conserving equipment in publicly owned buildings. Under a QECB financing package, OAQDA authorizes Air Quality Development Bonds for issuance as a Series A federally tax-exempt bond and a Series B

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Economic Development Bond Program (Iowa) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bond Program (Iowa) Bond Program (Iowa) Economic Development Bond Program (Iowa) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Schools Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info Funding Source Iowa Finance Authority State Iowa Program Type Bond Program Provider Iowa Finance Authority Through its Economic Development Bond Program, the Iowa Finance Authority (IFA) issues tax-exempt bonds on behalf of private entities or organizations for eligible purposes. The responsibility for repayment of the bonds rests with the applicant. Neither IFA nor the State of Iowa has

242

Method for bonding a transmission line to a downhole tool  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for bonding a transmission line to the central bore of a downhole tool includes a pre-formed interface for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. The pre-formed interface includes a first surface that substantially conforms to the outside contour of a transmission line and a second surface that substantially conforms to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. In another aspect of the invention, a method for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool includes positioning a transmission line near the inside wall of a downhole tool and placing a mold near the transmission line and the inside wall. The method further includes injecting a bonding material into the mold and curing the bonding material such that the bonding material bonds the transmission line to the inside wall.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

243

Guided Neuronal Growth on Arrays of Biofunctionalized GaAs/InGaAs Semiconductor Microtubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate embedded growth of cortical mouse neurons in dense arrays of semiconductor microtubes. The microtubes, fabricated from a strained GaAs/InGaAs heterostructure, guide axon growth through them and enable electrical and optical probing of propagating action potentials. The coaxial nature of the microtubes -- similar to myelin -- is expected to enhance the signal transduction along the axon. We present a technique of suppressing arsenic toxicity and prove the success of this technique by overgrowing neuronal mouse cells.

Cornelius S. Bausch; Aune Koitme; Eric Stava; Amanda Price; Pedro J. Resto; Yu Huang; David Sonnenberg; Yuliya Stark; Christian Heyn; Justin C. Williams; Erik W. Dent; Robert H. Blick

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

244

Recent progress in InGaAsSb/GaSb TPV devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

AstroPower is developing InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices. This photovoltaic cell is a two-layer epitaxial InGaAsSb structure formed by liquid-phase epitaxy on a GaSb substrate. The (direct) bandgap of the In{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}As{sub 1{minus}y}Sb{sub y} alloy is 0.50 to 0.55 eV, depending on its exact alloy composition (x,y); and is closely lattice-matched to the GaSb substrate. The use of the quaternary alloy, as opposed to a ternary alloy--such as, for example InGaAs/InP--permits low bandgap devices optimized for 1,000 to 1,500 C thermal sources with, at the same time, near-exact lattice matching to the GaSb substrate. Lattice matching is important since even a small degree of lattice mismatch degrades device performance and reliability and increases processing complexity. Internal quantum efficiencies as high as 95% have been measured at a wavelength of 2 microns. At 1 micron wavelengths, internal quantum efficiencies of 55% have been observed. The open-circuit voltage at currents of 0.3 A/cm{sup 2} is 0.220 volts and 0.280 V for current densities of 2 A/cm{sup 2}. Fill factors of 56% have been measured at 60 mA/cm{sup 2}. However, as current density increases there is some decrease in fill factor. The results to date show that the GaSb-based quaternary compounds provide a viable and high performance energy conversion solution for thermophotovoltaic systems operating with 1,000 to 1,500 C source temperatures.

Shellenbarger, Z.A.; Mauk, M.G.; DiNetta, L.C. [AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (United States); Charache, G.W. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

GaNPAs Solar Cells Lattice-Matched To GaP: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This conference paper describes the III-V semiconductors grown on silicon substrates are very attractive for lower-cost, high-efficiency multijunction solar cells, but lattice-mismatched alloys that result in high dislocation densities have been unable to achieve satisfactory performance. GaNxP1-x-yAsy is a direct-gap III-V alloy that can be grown lattice-matched to Si when y= 4.7x - 0.1. We propose the use of lattice-matched GaNPAs on silicon for high-efficiency multijunction solar cells. We have grown GaNxP1-x-yAsy on GaP (with a similar lattice constant to silicon) by metal-organic chemical vapor phase epitaxy with direct band-gaps in the range of 1.5 to 2.0 eV. We demonstrate the performance of single-junction GaNxP1-x-yAsy solar cells grown on GaP substrates and discuss the prospects for the development of monolithic high-efficiency multijunction solar cells based on silicon substrates.

Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.; Kurtz, S.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

GaSb/GaP compliant interface for high electron mobility AlSb/InAs heterostructures on (001) GaP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the epitaxial growth of an AlSb/InAs heterostructure on a (001) GaP substrate. We investigate the conditions for the most efficient relaxation of GaSb islands on GaP. In particular, we show that the GaP surface treatment and the growth temperature are crucial for the formation of a two-dimensional periodic array of 90 deg. misfit dislocations at the episubstrate interface. With this relaxation process, an AlSb/InAs heterostructure exhibiting a room temperature mobility of 25 500 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} on GaP is demonstrated. This result paves the way to the integration of Sb-based devices on Si substrates through the use of GaP/Si templates.

El Kazzi, S.; Desplanque, L.; Coinon, C.; Wallart, X. [Institut d'Electronique, de Microelectronique, et de Nanotechnologie, UMR-CNRS 8520, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France); Wang, Y.; Ruterana, P. [CIMAP UMR 6252 CNRS-ENSICAEN-CEA-UCBN, 6, Boulevard du Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France)

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

247

Reactive codoping of GaAlInP compound semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A GaAlInP compound semiconductor and a method of producing a GaAlInP compound semiconductor are provided. The apparatus and method comprises a GaAs crystal substrate in a metal organic vapor deposition reactor. Al, Ga, In vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing organometallic compounds. P vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing phospine gas, group II vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing an organometallic group IIA or IIB compound. Group VIB vapors are prepared by thermally decomposing a gaseous compound of group VIB. The Al, Ga, In, P, group II, and group VIB vapors grow a GaAlInP crystal doped with group IIA or IIB and group VIB elements on the substrate wherein the group IIA or IIB and a group VIB vapors produced a codoped GaAlInP compound semiconductor with a group IIA or IIB element serving as a p-type dopant having low group II atomic diffusion.

Hanna, Mark Cooper (Boulder, CO); Reedy, Robert (Golden, CO)

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

248

Chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic formed by chemically reacting a monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and a sparsely soluble oxide, with a sparsely soluble silicate in an aqueous solution. The monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and sparsely soluble oxide are both in powder form and combined in a stochiometric molar ratio range of (0.5-1.5):1 to form a binder powder. Similarly, the sparsely soluble silicate is also in powder form and mixed with the binder powder to form a mixture. Water is added to the mixture to form a slurry. The water comprises 50% by weight of the powder mixture in said slurry. The slurry is allowed to harden. The resulting chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic exhibits high flexural strength, high compression strength, low porosity and permeability to water, has a definable and bio-compatible chemical composition, and is readily and easily colored to almost any desired shade or hue.

Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Jeong, Seung Y. (Westmont, IL); Lohan, Dirk (Chicago, IL); Elizabeth, Anne (Chicago, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Microsoft Word - BSA Comm Rev10.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0; (Jun-12) 1 of 12 0; (Jun-12) 1 of 12 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES, LLC GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COMMERCIAL ITEMS AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY Table of Contents Article 1 DEFINITIONS ................................................................................................................... 2 Article 2 ORDER OF PRECEDENCE ............................................................................................. 2 Article 3 ACCEPTANCE OF AGREEMENT, SURVIVABILITY ................................................. 3

250

BGE_Comments_CurrentComms.pdf  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reading (based Reading (based on hourly reads) Cellular network 5000 30 minutes 19.2K >90% <15 sec >95% 4 1 2 Direct Load Control 22 250K 8 hours 1K 100% <120 sec >99% 2 1 2 Real time pricing At the customer premises At charging stations 53 1755 8 hours 9600 bps >90% 5 sec <5 per mo. >95% 5 2 1 CBC-5000 2330 CBC-7000 1621 LVC N/A 638 4 hours N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A See comment See comment N/A N/A Customer Calls N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Applications Distributed Generation Management in-Home Display of Customer Usage Automated Feeder Switching Transformer Monitoring Voltage and Current Monitoring 8 hours 1K >60% Capacitor Bank Control Fault Current Indicator 10 sec >99% 4 1 2 Quantified Estimates Ranking of Relative Importance of Each Estimated Number of End Point Devices to

251

NANO COMM PREZ (compatible).ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Science U.S. Department of Energy Products 2006 - 212 manufacturer-indentified, nano- enabled consumer products Today - More than 610 consumer products Each week -...

252

Microsoft Word - BSA Comm Rev9.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9; (Aug. 2011) 1 of 10 BROOKHAVEN SCIENCE ASSOCIATES, LLC GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COMMERCIAL ITEMS AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY 1. DEFINITIONS. The following terms...

253

Digital Bond Fact Sheet.cdr  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

cost-shared effort between industry and cost-shared effort between industry and Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit Bandolier Audit Files for optimizing security configurations and the Portaledge event detection capability for energy control systems Bandolier Audit Files for optimizing security configurations and the Portaledge event detection capability for energy control systems Cyber Security for Energy Delivery Systems Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability Project Lead: Digital Bond Partners: OSIsoft Tenable Network Security PacifiCorp Tennessee Valley Authority Other Participating Vendors: ABB AREVA Emerson Matrikon SNC Telvent Bandolier and Portaledge The Concept Bandolier-The Approach By building configuration audit and attack detection capabilities into tools already

254

A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via hydrogen bonds. Recently, a team of Berkeley Lab and University of Southern California researchers, using the ALS, discovered to their surprise that in some cases, protons can find ways to transfer even when hydrogen bonds are blocked. Sometimes You Have to

255

The Ohio Enterprise Bond Fund (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bond Fund (Ohio) Bond Fund (Ohio) The Ohio Enterprise Bond Fund (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Commercial State/Provincial Govt Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Maximum Rebate $10 million Program Info Funding Source Ohio Treasurer of State Start Date 1988 State Ohio Program Type Bond Program The Ohio Enterprise Bond Fund (OEBF) was created in 1988 to promote economic development, create and retain quality jobs and assist governmental operations. The program enables non-profit and for-profit borrowers to access the national capital markets through bonds issued through OEBF. The program is administered by the Ohio Department of Development and financing is provided by the Ohio Treasurer of State.

256

A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via hydrogen bonds. Recently, a team of Berkeley Lab and University of Southern California researchers, using the ALS, discovered to their surprise that in some cases, protons can find ways to transfer even when hydrogen bonds are blocked. Sometimes You Have to

257

Growth and photoluminescence of self-catalyzed GaP/GaNP core/shell nanowires on Si(111) by gas source molecular beam epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report a study on self-catalyzed GaP/GaNP core/shell nanowires (NWs) grown on Si(111) by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. Scanning electron microscopy images show that vertical and uniform GaP NWs and GaP/GaNP core/shell NWs are grown on Si(111). The density ranges from {approx}1 x 10{sup 7} to {approx}5 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} across the substrate. Typical diameters are {approx}110 nm for GaP NWs and {approx}220 nm for GaP/GaNP NWs. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) signal from the GaP/GaNP core/shell NWs confirms that N is incorporated in the shell and the average N content is {approx}0.9%. The PL low-energy tail is significantly reduced, compared to bulk GaNP.

Kuang, Y. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Sukrittanon, S. [Graduate Program of Material Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Li, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Tu, C. W. [Graduate Program of Material Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

258

Flip Chip Bonded LEDs for High Thermal Dissipation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we present the initial results of the thermal and mechanical properties of the flip chip mounted HBLEDs with various bonding materials. The flip chip...

259

New Concept of Ultra Low Cost Chemically Bonded Ceramic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, New Concept of Ultra Low Cost Chemically Bonded Ceramic Materials Fabricated From Traditional Fillers and Wastes. Author(s), Henry A.

260

Challenges of Using Copper as a Bonding Wire Material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to its malleability and surface properties, gold as a wire material is ideally suited for the bonding process. However, the cost of gold has increased...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Characterization of Wire Bonds Sujected to Ultrasonic ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... Characterization of Wire Bonds Sujected to Ultrasonic Welding and Thermal Cycling by Anil Saigal, Peterson Silva, Robert Greif and Michael...

262

Diffusion Bonding Aluminium Alloys and Composites: New Approaches and Modelling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

certain materials. Some oxide films either dissolve in the bulk of the metal or decompose at the bonding temperature (e.g. those of many steels, copper, titanium, tantalum and zirconium), and so metal-to-metal contact can be readily established... to the diffusion bonding of all materials. Diffusion bonding of most metals is conducted under a vacuum of 10-3-10-5 mbar or in an inert atmosphere (normally dry nitrogen, argon or helium) in order to reduce detrimental oxidation of the faying surfaces. Bonding...

Shirzadi Ghoshouni, Amir Abbas

1998-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

263

Efficient Microwave Susceptor Design for Wafer Bonding Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This MSc Thesis demonstrates the use of a novel efficient metallic susceptor for generating controllable and rapid localized heating for low-cost substrate bonding using commercial (more)

Toossi, Amirali

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Study on the Bond Mechanism of Vanadium Titano-magnetite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The bond mechanism of vanadium titano-magnetite pellets mixed with coal powder by rotary hearth furnace was studied under the condition of...

265

Mn-doped Ga(As,P) and (Al,Ga)As ferromagnetic semiconductors: Electronic structure calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A remarkable progress towards functional ferromagnetic semiconductor materials for spintronics has been achieved in p-type (Ga,Mn)As. Robust hole-mediated ferromagnetism has, however, been observed also in other III-V hosts such as antimonides, GaP, or (Al,Ga)As, which opens a wide area of possibilities for optimizing the host composition towards higher ferromagnetic Curie temperatures. Here we explore theoretically hole-mediated ferromagnetism and Mn incorporation in Ga(As,P) and (Al,Ga)As ternary hosts. While alloying (Ga,Mn)As with Al has only a small effect on the Curie temperature we predict a sizable enhancement of Curie temperatures in the smaller lattice constant Ga(As,P) hosts. Mn-doped Ga(As,P) is also favorable, as compared to (Al,Ga)As, with respect to the formation of carrier and moment compensating interstitial Mn impurities. In (Ga,Mn) (As,P) we find a marked decrease of the partial concentration of these detrimental impurities with increasing P content.

Masek, J.; Kudrnovsky, J.; Maca, F.; Sinova, Jairo; MacDonald, A. H.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, T.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Temperature-Dependence of Exciton Radiative Recombination in (Al,Ga)N/GaN Quantum Wells Grown on a-Plane GaN Substrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5221, 34095 Montpellier, France E-mail: pmc53@cam.ac.uk Received October 12, 2012; accepted November 22, 2012; published online May 20, 2013 This article presents the dynamics of excitons in a-plane (Al,Ga)N/GaN single quantum wells of various...

Corfdir, Pierre; Dussaigne, Amlie; Teisseyre, Henryk; Suski, Tadeusz; Grzegory, Izabella; Lefebvre, Pierre; Giraud, Etienne; Shahmohammadi, Mehran; Phillips, Richard; Ganire, Jean-Daniel; Grandjean, Nicolas; Deveaud, Benot

267

Bismuth in gallium arsenide: Structural and electronic properties of GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The structural and electronic properties of cubic GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} alloys with bismuth concentration 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 are studied using the 'special quasi-random structures' (SQS) approach of Zunger along with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation (EV-GGA). The lattice constant, bulk modulus, derivative of bulk modulus and energy gap vary with bismuth concentration nonlinearly. The present calculations show that the band gap decreases substantially with increasing bismuth concentration and that spin-orbit coupling influences the nature of bonding at high Bi concentrations. - Graphical abstract: Bowing effect of spin-orbit split-off band values versus Bi content with and without spin-orbit coupling for GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} (at x=0.25, 0.50 and 0.75). Calculations are done with GGA. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural and electronic properties of GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} alloys were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present results of lattice constant, energy gap, bulk modulus and derivative. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The band gap decreases substantially with increasing Bi concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations of the density of states and charge densities are also presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have performed calculations without and with spin-orbit coupling.

Reshak, Ali Hussain, E-mail: maalidph@yahoo.co.uk [School of Complex Systems, FFWP-South Bohemia University, Nove Hrady 37333 (Czech Republic); School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Kamarudin, H. [School of Material Engineering, Malaysia University of Perlis, P.O Box 77, d/a Pejabat Pos Besar, 01007 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Auluck, S. [National Physical Laboratory Dr. KS Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technological University of Czestochowa, Al. Armii Krajowej 17/19, Czestochowa (Poland)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Growth orientation dependent photoluminescence of GaAsN alloys  

SciTech Connect

We report photoluminescence (PL) studies of both as-grown and electron-irradiated GaAsN epilayers on (311)A/B and (100) GaAs substrates. A long room-temperature (RT) PL lifetime, as well as an enhanced N incorporation, is observed in (311)B GaAsN epilayers as compared with (311)A and (100) samples. There is no direct correlation between the RT PL lifetime and the emission intensity from Ga vacancy complex detected at low temperature. The lifetime damage coefficient is relatively low for (311)B GaAsN. The irradiation-induced nonradiative recombination defects are suggested to be N- and/or As-related according to a geometrical analysis based on the tetrahedral coordination of GaAsN crystal.

Han, Xiuxun; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Kojima, Nobuaki; Ohshita, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Masafumi [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Sato, Shinichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

2012-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

269

Effect of Temperature on GaGdO/GaN Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors  

SciTech Connect

GaGdO was deposited on GaN for use as a gate dielectric in order to fabricate a depletion metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). This is the fmt demonstration of such a device in the III-Nitride system. Analysis of the effect of temperature on the device shows that gate leakage is significantly reduced at elevated temperature relative to a conventional metal semiconductor field effeet transistor (MESFET) fabricated on the same GaN layer. MOSFET device operation in fact improved upon heating to 400 C. Modeling of the effeet of temperature on contact resistance suggests that the improvement is due to a reduction in the parasitic resistances present in the device.

Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hong, M.; Lothian, J.R.; Marcus, M.A.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Schurman, M.J.

1998-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

270

Growth and Fabrication of GaN/AlGaN Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor  

SciTech Connect

A GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistor structure with Mg doping in the base and Si Doping in the emitter and collector regions was grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition in c-axis Al(2)O(3). Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry measurements showed no increase in the O concentration (2-3x10(18) cm(-3)) in the AlGaN emitter and fairly low levels of C (~4-5x10(17) cm (-3)) throughout the structure. Due to the non-ohmic behavior of the base contact at room temperature, the current gain of large area (~90 um diameter) devices was <3. Increasing the device operating temperature led to higher ionization fractions of the mg acceptors in the base, and current gains of ~10 were obtained at 300 degree C.

Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.G.; Cao, X.A.; Cho, H.; Dang, G.T.; Donovan, S.M.; Han, J.; Jung, K.B.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Willison, C.G.; Wilson, R.G.; Zhang, A.P.; Zhang, L

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

271

A InGaN/GaN quantum dot green ({lambda}=524 nm) laser  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of self-organized InGaN/GaN quantum dot lasers are reported. The laser heterostructures were grown on c-plane GaN substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and the laser facets were formed by focused ion beam etching with gallium. Emission above threshold is characterized by a peak at 524 nm (green) and linewidth of 0.7 nm. The lowest measured threshold current density is 1.2 kA/cm{sup 2} at 278 K. The slope and wall plug efficiencies are 0.74 W/A and {approx}1.1%, respectively, at 1.3 kA/cm{sup 2}. The value of T{sub 0}=233 K in the temperature range of 260-300 K.

Zhang Meng; Banerjee, Animesh; Lee, Chi-Sen; Hinckley, John M.; Bhattacharya, Pallab [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Center for Nanoscale Photonics and Spintronics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States)

2011-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

272

Evaluation of defects and degradation in GaAs-GaAlAs wafers using transmission cathodoluminescence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large number of GaAs substrates GaAlAs double-heterostructure (DH) wafers, and high-radiance GaAlAs DH light-emitting diodes (LEDS) were evaluated using transmission cathodoluminescence (TCL). We show that only epitaxial wafers with a high defect density as revealed by TCL readily develop dark line defects (DLDs) with current injection, optical excitation, or electron beam excitation. Furthermore, in agreement with the previous work, the electron-beam-induced DLDs originate at dislocations and their growth requires minority-carrier injection. Based on these results, it is inferred that TCL can serve as a nondestructive screening technique for the selection of materials that produces a high yield of reliable LEDs.

Chin, A.K.; Keramidas, V.G.; Johnston, W.D. Jr.; Mahajan, S.; Roccasecca, D.D.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

GaInSb and GaInAsSb thermophotovoltaic device fabrication and characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices have been fabricated using epitaxial ternary and quaternary layers grown on GaSb substrates. The GaInSb layers were grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) and the InGaAsSb lattice-matched layers were grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). Device fabrication steps include unannealed p-type ohmic contacts, annealed Sn/Au n-type ohmic contacts, and a thick Ag top-surface contact using a lift-off process. Devices are characterized primarily by dark I-V, photo I-V, and quantum efficiency measurements, which are correlated to microscopic and macroscopic material properties. Particular emphasis has been on material enhancements to increase quantum efficiency and decrease dark saturation current density. TPV device performance is presently limited by the base diffusion length, typically 1 to 2 microns.

Hitchcock, C.; Gutmann, R.; Borrego, J.; Ehsani, H.; Bhat, I. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Freeman, M.; Charache, G. [Lockheed Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Transport properties of InGaAs/GaAs Heterostructures with {delta}-doped quantum wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The lateral transport of electrons in single- and double-well pseudomorphic GaAs/n-InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with quantum wells 50-100 meV deep and impurity {delta}-layers in the wells, with concentrations in the range 10{sup 11} electron mobility with an increase in the impurity concentration. The results obtained indicate that the impurity-band electron states play an important role in the conductivity of these structures. Involvement of the impurity band also allows to explain adequately the characteristics of the conductivity of double-well structures; in contrast to single-well structures, band bending caused by asymmetric doping is of great importance. The numerical calculations of conductivity within the model under consideration confirm these suggestions.

Baidus, N. V. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Physical-Technical Research Institute (Russian Federation); Vainberg, V. V. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine); Zvonkov, B. N. [Nizhni Novgorod State University, Physical-Technical Research Institute (Russian Federation); Pylypchuk, A. S., E-mail: pylypchuk@iop.kiev.ua; Poroshin, V. N.; Sarbey, O. G. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

275

Radiation Hard AlGaN Detectors and Imager  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation hardness of AlGaN photodiodes was tested using a 65 MeV proton beam with a total proton fluence of 3x10{sup 12} protons/cm{sup 2}. AlGaN Deep UV Photodiode have extremely high radiation hardness. These new devices have mission critical applications in high energy density physics (HEDP) and space explorations. These new devices satisfy radiation hardness requirements by NIF. NSTec is developing next generation AlGaN optoelectronics and imagers.

None

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

InGaAs and Ge MOSFETs with high ? dielectrics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

InGaAs and Ge MOSFETs with high @k's are now the leading candidates for technology beyond the 15nm node CMOS. The UHV-Al"2O"3/Ga"2O"3(Gd"2O"3) [GGO]/InGaAs has low electrical leakage current densities, C-V characteristics with low interfacial densities ... Keywords: Atomic layer deposition, Germanium, High ? dielectrics, III-V Compound semiconductor, MOSFETs, Molecular beam epitaxy

W. C. Lee; P. Chang; T. D. Lin; L. K. Chu; H. C. Chiu; J. Kwo; M. Hong

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Atomistic Modeling of Thermodynamic Properties of Pu-Ga Alloys ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atomistic Modeling of Thermodynamic Properties of Pu-Ga Alloys Based on the ... Resources for the Selection and Use of Interatomic Potentials in Atomistic...

278

GA Hot Cell D&D Closeout Report  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

contractors supported the dismantlement including asbestos removal and concrete cutting, electrical, and HVAC. Project support functions were provided by GA organizations...

279

Light emission from InGaAs:Bi/GaAs quantum wells at 1.3 {mu}m  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highly strained InGaAs:Bi quantum wells (QWs) were grown on (001)-oriented GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Photoluminescence (PL) reveals strong improvements in the optical properties evidenced by 10 times enhancement in PL intensity and extended emission wavelength up to 1.29 {mu}m when Bi is introduced to InGaAs/GaAs QWs. The improved optical quality results from the Bi surfactant effect as well as the Bi incorporation. Post growth thermal annealing shows that Bi atoms in InGaAs/GaAs QWs do not show good thermal stability at 650 Degree-Sign C and tend to diffuse out of the QWs resulting in large wavelength blue-shifts.

Ye Hong; Song Yuxin; Wang Shumin [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg SE-41296 (Sweden); Gu Yi [Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Bulk growth of GaSb and Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}Sb  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

GaSb and InGaSb have been demonstrated to be suitable choices for high efficiency thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells. Synthesis and growth of bulk GaSb single crystals and GaInSb polycrystals have been carried out by the vertical Bridgman technique, with a baffle immersed in the melt and by complete encapsulation of the melt by low melting temperature alkali halides or oxides. The critical roles of the baffle and the encapsulation are discussed. Efforts in obtaining device grade GaSb with superior structural and electrical properties and compositionally homogeneous GaInSb are described, emphasizing the key steps in the growth cycle developed to obtain good crystalline quality.

Dutta, P.S.; Ostrogorsky, A.G.; Gutmann, R.J.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

P8, Fabrication of Subwavelength Pillar Arrays on GaAs by Confined ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DD3, A New Approach to Make ZnO-Cu2O Heterojunctions for Solar Cells ... E2, AlGaAs/GaAs/GaN Wafer Fused HBTs with Ar Implanted Extrinsic Collectors.

282

II4, Compositionally-Graded Layers Composed of Tandem InGaAs ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The specification of the 6 miscut is important because it provides step ..... of Metamorphic InGaP on GaAs and GaP for Wide-Bandgap Photovoltaic Junctions.

283

Highly Polarized Green Light Emitting Diode in m-Axis GaInN/GaN Shi You, Theeradetch Detchprohm, Mingwei Zhu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Highly Polarized Green Light Emitting Diode in m-Axis GaInN/GaN Shi You, Theeradetch Detchprohm in nonpolar light-emitting diodes (LEDs) covering the blue to green spectral range. In photo- luminescence, m's overall power efficiency. Linearly polarized light can be efficiently generated in GaInN/GaN-based light-emitting

Wetzel, Christian M.

284

Metal-On-Metal Bonding and Rebonding Revisited  

SciTech Connect

Density-functional calculations for a wide variety of metals show that, contrary to the rebonding view of adsorbate bonding, addimers do not have notably longer surface bonds than adatoms, do not reside farther above the surface, and do not meet the rebonding arguments for augmented mobility. Rebonding concepts are found to have some utility in explaining addimer stability.

Bogicevic, A.

1999-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

285

Time- and temperature-dependent failures of a bonded joint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Time and temperature dependent properties of a tubular lap bonded joint are reported. The joint bonds a cast iron rod and a composite pipe together with an epoxy type of an adhesive material containing chopped glass fiber. A new fabrication method is proposed.

Sihn, Sangwook; Miyano, Yasushi; Tsai, S.W. [Stanford Univ., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

FULL ARTICLE Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FULL ARTICLE Bond-selective imaging of deep tissue through the optical window between 1600 and 1850 nm Pu Wang**; 1 , Han-Wei Wang**; 1 , Michael Sturek2 , and Ji-Xin Cheng*; 1; 3 1 Weldon School nm for bond-selective deep tis- sue imaging through harmonic vibrational excitation and acoustic

Cheng, Ji-Xin

287

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

288

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

289

Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (CREBs) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (CREBs) Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (CREBs) Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (CREBs) < Back Eligibility Local Government Municipal Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Bioenergy Buying & Making Electricity Water Solar Wind Program Info Start Date 09/01/2010 (New CREBs Electric Cooperatives Solicitation) Expiration Date 11/01/2010 Program Type Federal Loan Program Rebate Amount Varies Provider U.S. Internal Revenue Service '''''Note: The IRS is not currently accepting applications for New CREB bond volume. The deadline for New CREB applications from electric cooperatives under IRS Announcement 2010-54 expired November 1, 2010. Bond volume for other eligible sectors (government entities and public power providers) was fully allocated in October 2009.

290

Renewable Energy Project Bond Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Project Bond Program Project Bond Program Renewable Energy Project Bond Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Solar Wind Program Info State Idaho Program Type State Bond Program Provider Idaho Energy Resources Authority Legislation enacted in Idaho in April 2005 ([http://legislature.idaho.gov/legislation/2005/S1192.html Senate Bill 1192]) allows independent (non-utility) developers of renewable energy projects in the state to request financing from the Idaho Energy Resources Authority, a state bonding authority created in March 2005 by the Environment, Energy and Technology Energy Resources Authority Act (House Bill 106). The authority was created to finance the construction of

291

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

292

Bonded multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard x-rays.  

SciTech Connect

We have fabricated partial Multilayer Laue Lens (MLL) linear zone plate structures with thousands of alternating WSi{sub 2} and Si layers and various outermost zone widths according to the Fresnel zone plate formula. Using partial MLL structures, we were able to focus hard X-rays to line foci with a width of 30 nm and below. Here, we describe challenges and approaches used to bond these multilayers to achieve line and point focusing. Bonding was done by coating two multilayers with AuSn and heating in a vacuum oven at 280-300 C. X-ray reflectivity measurements confirmed that there was no change in the multilayers after heating to 350 C. A bonded MLL was polished to a 5-25 {micro}m wedge without cracking. SEM image analyses found well-positioned multilayers after bonding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a bonded full MLL for focusing hard X-rays.

Liu, C.; Conley, R.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Maser, J.; Kang, H.C.; Yan, H.; Stephenson, G.B.; Advanced Photonics Research Institute; Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology

2007-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

293

New Phases of Hydrogen-Bonded Systems at Extreme Conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We study the behavior of hydrogen-bonded systems under high-pressure and temperature. First principle calculations of formic acid under isotropic pressure up to 70 GPa reveal the existence of a polymerization phase at around 20 GPa, in support of recent IR, Raman, and XRD experiments. In this phase, covalent bonding develops between molecules of the same chain through symmetrization of hydrogen bonds. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations of water at pressures up to 115 GPa and 2000 K. Along this isotherm, we are able to define three different phases. We observe a molecular fluid phase with superionic diffusion of the hydrogens for pressure 34 GPa to 58 GPa. We report a transformation to a phase dominated by transient networks of symmetric O-H hydrogen bonds at 95-115 GPa. As in formic acid, the network can be attributed to the symmetrization of the hydrogen bond, similar to the ice VII to ice X transition.

Manaa, M R; Goldman, N; Fried, L E

2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

294

Effect of gas feeding methods on optical properties of GaN grown by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: Ga vacancies, GaN growth, gas feeding method, optical property, rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD), yellow luminescence

Sun Jung Kim; Young Hun Seo; Kee Suk Nahm; Yun Bong Hahn; Hyun Wook Shim; Eun-Kyung Suh; Kee Young Lim; Hyung Jae Lee

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

JJ5, Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Simulation of AlGaN/GaN HFETs ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, gate insulation has shown to significantly reduce the leakage .... E6, Development of Surface Activation Based Nano-Bonding and Interconnect System ... Microstructure and Properties of Colloidal ITO Films and Cold- Sputtered ITO...

296

Functional Imprinting Structures on GaN-Based Light-Emitting ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: GaN, light-emitting diode (LED), imprinting technology, far-field pattern modulation, light extraction. 1. Introduction. GaN-based light-emitting diodes...

297

The optical and vibrational properties of the quaternary chalcopyrite semiconductor alloy Ag{sub x}Cu{sub 1-x}GaS{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

The absorption, emission and Raman spectra of the quaternary chalcopyrite alloys Ag{sub x}Cu{sub 1-x}GaS{sub 2} have been measured as a function of the Ag concentration. We find strong and highly nonlinear dependence on the alloy concentration in the optical band gap (a large bowing parameter). On the other hand, most of the Raman peaks exhibit either small energy shifts or large broadening with alloying. We conclude that the effect of substitution of the Ag cations by Cu in AgGaS{sub 2} on its band structure cannot be predicted by the simple virtual crystal potential approximation as a result of the large difference in electronegativity and bond length between Ag and Cu. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

Choi, In-Hwan [Physics Department, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Sung-Hwan [Physics Department, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, Korea (Korea, Republic of); Yu, P. Y. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2000-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

Semi-flexible hydrogen-bonded and non-hydrogen bonded lattice polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the addition of stiffness to the lattice model of hydrogen-bonded polymers in two and three dimensions. We find that, in contrast to polymers that interact via a homogeneous short-range interaction, the collapse transition is unchanged by any amount of stiffness: this supports the physical argument that hydrogen bonding already introduces an effective stiffness. Contrary to possible physical arguments, favouring bends in the polymer does not return the model's behaviour to that comparable to the semi-flexible homogeneous interaction model, where the canonical $\\theta$-point occurs for a range of parameter values. In fact, for sufficiently large bending energies the crystal phase disappears altogether, and no phase transition of any type occurs. We also compare the order-disorder transition from the globule phase to crystalline phase in the semi-flexible homogeneous interaction model to that for the fully-flexible hybrid model with both hydrogen and non-hydrogen like interactions. We show that these phase transitions are of the same type and are a novel polymer critical phenomena in two dimensions. That is, it is confirmed that in two dimensions this transition is second-order, unlike in three dimensions where it is known to be first order. We also estimate the crossover exponent and show that there is a divergent specific heat, finding $\\phi=0.7(1)$ or equivalently $\\alpha=0.6(2)$. This is therefore different from the $\\theta$ transition, for which $\\alpha=-1/3$.

J Krawczyk; AL Owczarek; T Prellberg

2008-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

299

Method for joining metal by solid-state bonding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present development is directed to a method for joining metal at relatively low temperatures by solid-state bonding. Planar surfaces of the metal workpieces are placed in a parallel abutting relationship with one another. A load is applied to at least one of the workpieces for forcing the workpieces together while one of the workpieces is relatively slowly oscillated in a rotary motion over a distance of about 1.degree.. After a preselected number of oscillations, the rotary motion is terminated and the bond between the abutting surfaces is effected. An additional load may be applied to facilitate the bond after terminating the rotary motion.

Burkhart, L. Elkin (Oak Ridge, TN); Fultz, Chester R. (Kingston, TN); Maulden, Kerry A. (Knoxville, TN)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Wire bond vibration of forward pixel tracking detector of CMS  

SciTech Connect

Wire bonds of the Forward Pixel (FPix) tracking detectors are oriented in the direction that maximizes Lorentz Forces relative to the 4 Tesla field of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Detector's magnet. The CMS Experiment is under construction at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. We were concerned about Lorentz Force oscillating the wires at their fundamental frequencies and possibly fracturing or breaking them at their heels, as happened with the CDF wire bonds. This paper reports a study to understand what conditions break such bonds.

Atac, M.; /Fermilab; Gobbi, B.; /Northwestern U.; Kwan, S.; Pischalnikov, Y.; /Fermilab; Spencer, E.; /Northwestern U.; Sellberg, G.; Pavlicek, V.; /Fermilab

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Bonded Bracket Assmebly for Frameless Solar Panels  

SciTech Connect

In February 2011 the US Department of Energy announced their new Sunshot Initiative. The Sunshot goal is to reduce the total cost of solar energy systems by about 75 percent before the end of the decade. The DOE estimated that a total installed cost of $1 per watt for photovoltaic systems would be equivalent to 6???¢/kilowatt hour (kWh) for energy available from the grid. The DOE also estimated that to meet the $1 per watt goal, PV module costs would need to be reduced to $.50 per watt, balance of systems costs would need to be reduced to $.40 per watt, and power electronic costs would need to reach $.10 per watt. To address the BOS balance of systems cost component of the $1 per watt goal, the DOE announced a funding opportunity called (BOS-X) Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reductions. The DOE identified eight areas within the total BOS costs: 1) installation labor, 2) installation materials, 3) installation overhead and profit, 4) tracker, 5) permitting and commissioning, 6) site preparation, 7) land acquisition, 8) sales tax. The BOS-X funding announcement requested applications in four specific topics: Topic 1: Transformational Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) Modules Topic 2: Roof and Ground Mount Innovations Topic 3: Transformational Photovoltaic System Designs Topic 4: Development of New Wind Load Codes for PV Systems The application submitted by ARaymond Tinnerman reflected the requirements listed in Topic #2, Roof and Ground Mount Innovations. The goal of topic #2 was to develop technologies that would result in the extreme reduction of material and labor costs associated with applications that require physical connections and attachments to roof and ground mount structures. The topics researched in this project included component cost reduction, labor reduction, weight reduction, wiring innovations, and alternative material utilization. The project objectives included: 1) The development of an innovative quick snap bracket assembly that would be bonded to frameless PV modules for commercial rooftop installations. 2) The development of a composite pultruded rail to replace traditional racking materials. 3) In partnership with a roofing company, pilot the certification of a commercial roof to be solar panel compliant, eliminating the need for structural analysis and government oversight resulting in significantly decreased permitting costs. 4) Reduce the sum of all cost impacts in topic #2 from a baseline total of $2.05/watt to $.34/watt.

Murray, Todd

2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

Lasing characteristics of GaSb/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots embedded in an InGaAs quantum well  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be applicable to light sources in fiber-optic communication systems.13 However, there have been no reports intriguing optoelectronic device possibilities on GaAs substrates including lasers, detectors, or solar cells

Jalali. Bahram

303

Near ultraviolet emission from nonpolar cubic AlxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Near ultraviolet emission from nonpolar cubic AlxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells J. Schörmann,a S and multiple quantum wells. The well widths ranged from 2.5 to 7.5 nm. Samples were grown by rf-plasma assisted wells clear reflection high energy electron diffraction oscillations were observed indicating a two

As, Donat Josef

304

High Breakdown ( > \\hbox {1500 V} ) AlGaN/GaN HEMTs by Substrate-Transfer Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this letter, we present a new technology to increase the breakdown voltage of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown on Si substrates. This new technology is based on the removal of the original Si ...

Lu, Bin

305

Development of high power green light emitting diode dies in piezoelectric GaInN/GaN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development of high power green light emitting diode dies in piezoelectric GaInN/GaN Christian in green light emitting diodes is one of the big challenges towards all-solid- state lighting. The prime,3], and commercialization [4,5] of high brightness light emitting diodes LEDs has led to a 1.82 Billion-$/year world market

Detchprohm, Theeradetch

306

Wavelength-resolved low-frequency noise of GaInN/GaN green light emitting diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wavelength-resolved low-frequency noise of GaInN/GaN green light emitting diodes S. L. Rumyantseva well light emitting diodes. The light intensity noise was measured as a function of wavelength within the light emitting diode spectral emission line. The spectral noise density is found to increase

Wetzel, Christian M.

307

Structural and optical studies of nitrogen incorporation into GaSb-based GaInSb quantum wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the incorporation of nitrogen into (Ga,In)Sb grown on GaSb and report room temperature photoluminescence from GaInSb(N) quantum wells. X-ray diffraction and channeling nuclear reaction analysis, together with Rutherford backscattering, were employed to identify the optimal molecular beam epitaxial growth conditions that minimized the incorporation of non-substitutional nitrogen into GaNSb. Consistent with this hypothesis, GaInSb(N) quantum wells grown under the conditions that minimized non-substitutional nitrogen exhibited room temperature photoluminescence, indicative of significantly improved radiative efficiency. Further development of this material system could enable type-I laser diodes emitting throughout the (3-5 {mu}m) wavelength range.

Nair, Hari P.; Crook, Adam M.; Bank, Seth R. [Microelectronics Research Center, Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Rd, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Yu, Kin M. [Electronic Materials Program, Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

308

GaSb/GaAs quantum dot formation and demolition studied with cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy study of GaSb/GaAs quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Various nanostructures are observed as a function of the growth parameters. During growth, relaxation of the high local strain fields of the nanostructures plays an important role in their formation. Pyramidal dots with a high Sb content are often accompanied by threading dislocations above them. GaSb ring formation is favored by the use of a thin GaAs first cap layer and a high growth temperature of the second cap layer. At these capping conditions, strain-driven Sb diffusion combined with As/Sb exchange and Sb segregation remove the center of a nanostructure, creating a ring. Clusters of GaSb without a well defined morphology also appear regularly, often with a highly inhomogeneous structure which is sometimes divided up in fragments.

Smakman, E. P.; Garleff, J. K.; Rambabu, P.; Koenraad, P. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5612 AZ (Netherlands); Young, R. J.; Hayne, M. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

309

Ultrafast 2D IR anisotropy of water reveals reorientation during hydrogen-bond switching  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rearrangements of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water are believed to involve rapid and concerted hydrogen bond switching events, during which a hydrogen bond donor molecule undergoes large angle molecular reorientation ...

Ramasesha, Krupa

310

Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of carbon bonds under a variety of conditions in general, not just in the liquid. Carbon phase diagram. The properties of the liquid phase have remained unclear because of the...

311

Do Main Chain Hydrogen Bonds Create Dominant Electron Transfer Pathways?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Main Chain Hydrogen Bonds Create Dominant Electron Transfer Pathways? An Main Chain Hydrogen Bonds Create Dominant Electron Transfer Pathways? An Investigation in Designed Proteins Yongjian Zheng, Martin A. Case, James F. Wishart, and George L. McLendon J. Phys. Chem. B, 107, 7288-7292 (2003). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: We have investigated the contribution of main chain hydrogen bond (H-bond) pathways to the tunneling matrix elements which control electron transfer (ET) rates across an alpha-helical protein matrix. The paradigm system for these investigations is a metal ion-assembled parallel three-helix bundle protein that contains a ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridyl) electron donor and a ruthenium(III) pentammine electron acceptor separated by a direct metal to metal distance of ca. 19 Å, requiring tunneling through 15 Å of

312

Renewable Energy Project Bond Program (Idaho) | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Renewable Energy Project Bond Program (Idaho) This is the approved revision of this page, as well as being the most recent. Jump...

313

Localized Shear Bands in Explosively Bonded Alloy 718/ Copper ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

copper (with silver content of 0.078 wt %) was cold worked to 40% before bonding. Two plates of Alloy 718 with one plate of copper in between were explosively.

314

Investigation of bond graphs for nuclear reactor simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work proposes a simple and effective approach to modeling multiphysics nuclear reactor problems using bond graphs. The conventional method of modeling the coupled multiphysics transients in nuclear reactors is operator ...

Sosnovsky, Eugeny

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

FUNDAMENTALS OF WETTING AND BONDING BETWEEN CERAMICS AND METALS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. B. Adams and J. A. Pask, "Fundamentals of Glass-to-Metalapplied glass. The same fundamentals and requirements applyand R. M. Fulrath, "Fundamentals of Glass-to-Metal Bonding:

Pask, J.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Foreign trade zones and bonded warehouses for luxury goods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore and compare the benefits of establishing and operating Foreign Trade Zones (FTZs) and Bonded Warehouses (BWs) for luxury goods in North America, using the case of the distribution network of Ralph Lauren Corporation ...

Petrova, Nadya (Nadya Naydenova)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

IRS Announces New Tribal Economic Development Bond Allocation Guidance |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

IRS Announces New Tribal Economic Development Bond Allocation IRS Announces New Tribal Economic Development Bond Allocation Guidance IRS Announces New Tribal Economic Development Bond Allocation Guidance July 18, 2012 - 3:46pm Addthis To promote economic growth in tribal communities, Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) published new guidance on July 18, 2012, allocating Tribal Economic Development Bonds (TEDBs). The TEDB program was established under the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act, and provides Tribes with the authority to issue tax-exempt debt for a wider range of activities to spur job creation and promote economic growth in Indian country. Providing Tribes with the ability to issue tax-exempt debt for a broader scope of activities similar to that available to states and local governments lowers

318

Method of making sintered ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making an intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite involves combining a particulate brittle intermetallic precursor with a particulate reactant metal and a particulate ceramic to form a mixture and heating the mixture in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to react the brittle intermetallic precursor and the reactant metal to form a ductile intermetallic and sinter the mixture to form a ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite. 2 figs.

Plucknett, K.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.

1999-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

319

Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time-Resolved Study of Bonding Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print Wednesday, 28 September 2005 00:00 We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt, requiring temperatures above 5000 K at pressures above 100 bar. Maintaining such conditions in a laboratory is a challenge that has hampered efforts to fully understand the chemical bonding properties of this biologically, industrially, and environmentally important element. At the ALS, researchers have found a way to rapidly heat a carbon sample and contain the resulting liquid long enough to perform picosecond time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The technique provides a way to measure the bonding properties of liquid carbon at near-solid densities that can then be compared with results from molecular dynamics simulations.

320

On martingale measures and pricing for continuous bond-stock market with stochastic bond  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper studies pricing of stock options for the case when the evolution of the risk-free assets or bond is stochastic. We show that, in the typical scenario, the martingale measure is not unique, that there are non-replicable claims, and that the martingale prices can vary significantly; for instance, for a European put option, any positive real number is a martingale price for some martingale measure. In addition, the second moment of the hedging error for a strategy calculated via a given martingale measure can take any arbitrary positive value under some equivalent measure. Some reasonable choices of martingale measures are suggested, including a measure that ensures local risk minimizing hedging strategy.

Dokuchaev, Nikolai

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Effect of Sb on the Properties of GaInP Top Cells (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The summary of this report is that: (1) Sb can be used to increase V{sub oc} of a GaInP top cell; (2) the photovoltaic quality of GaInP is relatively unaffected by the presence of Sb; and (3) Sb-doped GaInP/GaAs tandem cells show promise for achieving efficiencies over 32%.

Olson, J. M.; McMahon, W. E.; Kurtz, S.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Financing green development: "climate bonds as a solution for institutional investors engagement.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study examines whether climate bonds are achieving the desired investment scale to tackle climate change and whether those bonds are being issued with features (more)

Aguiar, Paulo Ricardo Rua

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Financing green development: 'Climate Bonds as a solution for institutional investors engagement.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study examines whether climate bonds are achieving the desired investment scale to tackle climate change and whether those bonds are being issued with features (more)

Aguiar, Paulo Ricardo Rua

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Dielectrics for GaN based MIS-diodes  

SciTech Connect

GaN MIS diodes were demonstrated utilizing AlN and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as insulators. A 345 {angstrom} of AlN was grown on the MOCVD grown n-GaN in a MOMBE system using trimethylamine alane as Al precursor and nitrogen generated from a wavemat ECR N2 plasma. For the Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) growth, a multi MBE chamber was used and a 195 {angstrom} oxide is E-beam evaporated from a single crystal source of Ga{sub 5}Gd{sub 3}O{sub 12}. The forward breakdown voltage of AlN and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) diodes are 5V and 6V, respectively, which are significantly improved from {approximately} 1.2 V of schottky contact. From the C-V measurements, both kinds of diodes showed good charge modulation from accumulation to depletion at different frequencies. The insulator GaN interface roughness and the thickness of the insulator were measured with x-ray reflectivity.

Ren, F.; Abernathy, C.R.; MacKenzie, J.D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Effect of bonding and aging temperatures on bond strengths of Cu with 75Sn25In solders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present study, the interaction between thin film Cu and non-eutectic Sn-In is studied. The effects of the bonding and aging temperature on microstructure, IMC formation and also shear strength are investigated by ...

Thompson, Carl V.

326

Atomic hydrogen cleaning of polarized GaAs photocathodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Atomic hydrogen cleaning followed by heat cleaning at 450 C was used to prepare negative-electron-affinity GaAs photocathodes. When hydrogen ions were eliminated, quantum efficiencies of 15% were obtained for bulk GaAs cathodes, higher than the results obtained using conventional 600 C heat cleaning. The low-temperature cleaning technique was successfully applied to thin, strained GaAs cathodes used for producing highly polarized electrons. No depolarization was observed even when the optimum cleaning time of about 30 seconds was extended by a factor of 100.

Maruyama, Takashi

2003-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

327

Bond-valence methods for pKa prediction. II. Bond-valence, electrostatic, molecular geometry, and solvation effects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a previous contribution, we outlined a method for predicting (hydr)oxy-acid and oxide surface acidity constants based on three main factors: bond valence, Me?O bond ionicity, and molecular shape. Here electrostatics calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to qualitatively show that Me?O bond ionicity controls the extent to which the electrostatic work of proton removal departs from ideality, bond valence controls the extent of solvation of individual functional groups, and bond valence and molecular shape controls local dielectric response. These results are consistent with our model of acidity, but completely at odds with other methods of predicting acidity constants for use in multisite complexation models. In particular, our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of solvated monomers clearly indicate that hydrogen bonding between (hydr)oxo-groups and water molecules adjusts to obey the valence sum rule, rather than maintaining a fixed valence based on the coordination of the oxygen atom as predicted by the standard MUSIC model.

Bickmore, Barry R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Tadanier, Christopher J.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Doud, Darrin

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Outdoor Testing of GaInP2/GaAs Tandem Cells with Top Cell Thickness Varied  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this study, we measure the performance of GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells under direct beam sunlight outdoors in order to quantify their sensitivity to both spectral variation and GaInP2 top-cell thickness. A set of cells with five different top-cell thicknesses was mounted on a two-axis tracker with the incident sunlight collimated to exclude all except the direct beam. Current-voltage (I-V) curves were taken throughout the course of several days, along with measurements of the direct solar spectrum. Our two major conclusions are: (1) GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells designed for either the ASTM G-173 direct (G-173D) spectrum or the "air mass 1.5 global" (AM1.5G) spectrum perform the best, and (2) cells can be characterized indoors and modeled using outdoor spectra with the same result. These results are equally valid for GaInP2/GaAs/Ge triple-junction cells.

McMahon, W. E.; Emergy, K. E.; Friedman, D. J.; Ottoson, L.; Young, M. S.; Ward, J. S.; Kramer, C. M.; Duda, A.; Kurtz, S.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

On-Sun Comparison of GaInP2/GaAs Tandem Cells with Top Cell Thickness Varied  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study compares the on-sun performance of a set of GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells with different GaInP2 top-cell thicknesses. Because high-efficiency III-V cells are best suited to concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) applications, the cells were mounted on a two-axis tracker with the incident sunlight collimated to exclude all except the direct beam. Current-voltage (I-V) curves were taken throughout the course of several days, along with measurements of the direct solar spectrum. Our two major conclusions are: (1) GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells designed for an ''air mass 1.5 global'' (AM 1.5G) or a ''low aerosol optical depth'' (Low AOD) spectrum perform the best, and (2) cells can be characterized indoors and modeled using outdoor spectra to predict the correct result. These results are equally valid for GaInP2/GaAs/Ge triple-junction cells.

McMahon, W. E.; Emery, K. E.; Friedman, D. J.; Ottoson, L.; Young, M. S.; Ward, J. S.; Kramer, C. M.; Duda, A.; Kurtz, S.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

lntersubbancl transitions in high indium content InGaAs/AIGaAs quantum wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lntersubbancl transitions in high indium content InGaAs/AIGaAs quantum wells H. C. Chui, S. M. Lord report the first observation of intersubband transitions in In,Ga, -#s(y=O.3,0.5)/ AlGaAs quantum wells. These quantum wells were grown on a GaAs substrate with a linearly graded InGaAs buffer to achieve strain

Fejer, Martin M.

331

Realization of compressively strained GaN films grown on Si(110) substrates by inserting a thin AlN/GaN superlattice interlayer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the strain properties of GaN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Si(110) substrates. It is found that the strain of the GaN film can be converted from a tensile to a compressive state simply by inserting a thin AlN/GaN superlattice structure (SLs) within the GaN film. The GaN layers seperated by the SLs can have different strain states, which indicates that the SLs plays a key role in the strain modulation during the growth and the cooling down processes. Using this simple technique, we grow a crack-free GaN film exceeding 2-{mu}m-thick. The realization of the compressively strained GaN film makes it possible to grow thick GaN films without crack generation on Si substrates for optic and electronic device applications.

Shen, X. Q.; Takahashi, T.; Kawashima, H.; Ide, T.; Shimizu, M. [Advanced Power Electronics Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Umezono 1-1-1, Central 2, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

332

Fabrication of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals in AlGaInP/GaInP Membranes by Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fabrication process of two-dimensional photonic crystals in an AlGaInP/GaInP multi-quantum-well membrane structure is developed. The process includes high resolution electron-beam lithography, pattern transfer into ...

Chen, A.

333

FUPWG Meeting Agenda - Atlanta, GA | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Atlanta, GA Atlanta, GA FUPWG Meeting Agenda - Atlanta, GA October 7, 2013 - 3:16pm Addthis Energy on My Mind / FUPWG / Atlanta, GA / May 3-4, 2006 Hosted by: AGL Resources Logo May 3-4, 2006 Hosted by AGL Resources Atlanta, Georgia Tuesday, May 2, 2006 5:00 - 6:30 Steering Committee meeting in the Danube Tigris Room 6:30 until... Networking dinner at the Marriott Wednesday, May 3, 2006 7:45 am Registration/Continental Breakfast 8:30 - 8:45 Welcome from Suzanne Sitherwood, SVP, Southern Operations, President, Atlanta Gas Light, Chattanooga Gas & Florida City Gas 8:45 - 9:00 FEMP Southeast Regional Office Welcome Traci Leath, FEMP 9:00 - 9:45 Washington Update David McAndrew, FEMP 9:45 - 10:15 Break - Networking 10:15 - 11:20 Navy Technical Program Update Paul Kistler, U.S. Navy

334

Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Qatar (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Qatar (Million Cubic Feet) Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Qatar (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep...

335

Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Bridgman method is used to grow especially undoped and doped single crystals of GaSe. Composition and impurity content of the grown crystals were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, photoluminescence (PL), and IR transmission measurements were performed at room temperature. The long wavelength lattice vibrations of four modifications of GaSe were described in the framework of modified one-layer linear-chain model which also takes into consideration the interaction of the selenium (Se) atom with the second nearest neighbor gallium (Ga) atom in the same layer. The existence of an eight-layer modification of GaSe is suggested and the vibrational frequencies of this modification are explained in the framework of a lattice dynamical model considered in the present work. Frequencies and the type of vibrations (gap, local, or resonance) for the impurity atoms were calculated and compared with the experimental results.

Allakhverdiev, K. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey) and Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan)]. E-mail: kerim.allahverdi@mam.gov.tr; Baykara, T. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Ellialtioglu, S. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Hashimzade, F. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Huseinova, D. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Kawamura, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Kaya, A.A. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Kulibekov, A.M. [Department of Physics, Mugla University, Mugla 48000 (Turkey); Onari, S. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

336

HH5, Antiferromagnetic Interlayer Exchange Couplings in Ga  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Author(s), Sun Jae Chung, Sanghoon Lee, Brian J. Kirby, Julie A. Borchers, ... LATE NEWS: KK3, Non-Catalytic Synthesis of GaN Nanostructures at Low...

337

Preparation of GaAs photocathodes at low temperature  

SciTech Connect

The preparation of an atomically clean surface is a necessary step in the formation of negative electron affinity (NEA) GaAs. Traditional methods to this end include cleaving, heat cleaning and epitaxial growth. Cleaving has the advantage of yielding a fresh surface after each cleave, but is limited to small areas and is not suitable for specialized structures. Heat cleaning is both simple and highly successful, so it is used as a preparation method in virtually all laboratories employing a NEA source on a regular basis. Due to its high cost and complexity, epitaxial growth of GaAs with subsequent in vacuo transfer is not a practical solution for most end users of GaAs as a NEA electron source. While simple, the heating cleaning process has a number of disadvantages. Here, a variety of cleaning techniques related to preparation of an atomically clean GaAs surface without heating to 600 C are discussed and evaluated.

Mulhollan, G.; Clendenin, J.; Tang, H.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Elba Island, GA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Trinidad and Tobago (Million Cubic Feet) Elba Island, GA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Trinidad and Tobago (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul...

339

Elba Island, GA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Egypt (Million Cubic Feet) Elba Island, GA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Egypt (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2011 5,780...

340

Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Million Cubic Feet) Elba Island, GA Liquefied Natural Gas Total Imports (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

GaAs Films Prepared by RF-Magnetron Sputtering  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors reported on the optical absorption, adhesion, and microstructure of RF-magnetron sputtered films of hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline GaAs films for the 1 to 25 {micro}m infrared wavelength rate. Sputtering parameters which were varied include sputtering power, temperature and pressure, and hydrogen sputtering-gas concentration. TEM results show a sharp transition from purely amorphous GaAs to a mixture of microcrystalline GaAs in an amorphous matrix at 34 {+-} 2 C. By optimizing the sputtering parameters, the optical absorption coefficient can be decreased below 100 cm{sup -1} for wavelengths greater than about 1.25 {micro}m. These results represent the lowest reported values of optical absorption for sputtered films of GaAs directly measured by spectrophotometry for the near-infrared wavelength region.

L.H. Ouyang; D.L. Rode; T. Zulkifli; B. Abraham-Shrauner; N. Lewis; M.R. Freeman

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Micro Raman Spectroscopy of Annealed Erbium Implanted GaN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wurtzite GaN epilayers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on sapphire substrates were subsequently ion implanted with Er to a dose of 510? cm?. The implanted samples were annealed in nitrogen atmosphere ...

Vajpeyi, Agam P.

343

Elba Island, GA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Equatorial Guinea (Million Cubic Feet) Elba Island, GA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Equatorial Guinea (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

344

Elba Island, GA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nigeria (Million Cubic Feet) Elba Island, GA Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas Imports from Nigeria (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

345

Cathodoluminescence Microanalysis of Suspended GaN Nano ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CL from bulk GaN is dominated by the ~3.4 eV near-band-edge emission. In contrast, the suspended nano-membranes emit a broad defect associated emission...

346

BB2, Novel Cs-Free GaN Photocathodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

L6, PECVD-SiN, Si or Si/Al2O3-Capped ED-Mode AlN/GaN Inverters Hide details for [

347

Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt, requiring temperatures above 5000 K at pressures above 100 bar. Maintaining such conditions in a laboratory is a challenge that has hampered efforts to fully understand the chemical bonding properties of this biologically, industrially, and environmentally important element. At the ALS, researchers have found a way to rapidly heat a carbon sample and contain the resulting liquid long enough to perform picosecond time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The technique provides a way to measure the bonding properties of liquid carbon at near-solid densities that can then be compared with results from molecular dynamics simulations.

348

Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt, requiring temperatures above 5000 K at pressures above 100 bar. Maintaining such conditions in a laboratory is a challenge that has hampered efforts to fully understand the chemical bonding properties of this biologically, industrially, and environmentally important element. At the ALS, researchers have found a way to rapidly heat a carbon sample and contain the resulting liquid long enough to perform picosecond time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The technique provides a way to measure the bonding properties of liquid carbon at near-solid densities that can then be compared with results from molecular dynamics simulations.

349

Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt, requiring temperatures above 5000 K at pressures above 100 bar. Maintaining such conditions in a laboratory is a challenge that has hampered efforts to fully understand the chemical bonding properties of this biologically, industrially, and environmentally important element. At the ALS, researchers have found a way to rapidly heat a carbon sample and contain the resulting liquid long enough to perform picosecond time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The technique provides a way to measure the bonding properties of liquid carbon at near-solid densities that can then be compared with results from molecular dynamics simulations.

350

Thermal carrier emission and nonradiative recombinations in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN quantum wells grown on bulk GaN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate, via time-resolved photoluminescence, the temperature-dependence of charge carrier recombination mechanisms in nonpolar (Al,Ga)N/GaN single quantum wells (QWs) grown via molecular beam epitaxy on the a-facet of bulk GaN crystals. We study the influence of both QW width and barrier Al content on the dynamics of excitons in the 10-320 K range. We first show that the effective lifetime of QW excitons {tau} increases with temperature, which is evidence that nonradiative mechanisms do not play any significant role in the low-temperature range. The temperature range for increasing {tau} depends on the QW width and Al content in the (Al,Ga)N barriers. For higher temperatures, we observe a reduction in the QW emission lifetime combined with an increase in the decay time for excitons in the barriers, until both exciton populations get fully thermalized. Based on analysis of the ratio between barrier and QW emission intensities, we demonstrate that the main mechanism limiting the radiative efficiency in our set of samples is related to nonradiative recombination in the (Al,Ga)N barriers of charge carriers that have been thermally emitted from the QWs.

Corfdir, P.; Dussaigne, A.; Giraud, E.; Ganiere, J.-D.; Grandjean, N.; Deveaud-Pledran, B. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Teisseyre, H. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Suski, T.; Grzegory, I. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Lefebvre, P. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb - UMR5221 - CNRS - Universite Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier (France)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Modeling of InGaSb thermophotovoltaic cells and materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A closed form computer program has been developed for the simulation and optimization of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}Sb thermophotovoltaic cells operating at room temperature. The program includes material parameter models of the energy bandgap, optical absorption constant, electron and hole mobility, intrinsic carrier concentration and index of refraction for any composition of GaInSb alloys.

Zierak, M.; Borrego, J.M.; Bhat, I.; Gutmann, R.J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Charache, G. [Lockheed Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

SEU design consideration for MESFETs on LT GaAs  

SciTech Connect

Computer simulation results are reported on transistor design and single-event charge collection modeling of metal-semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) fabricated in the Vitesse H-GaAsIII{reg_sign} process on Low Temperature grown (LT) GaAs epitaxial layers. Tradeoffs in Single Event Upset (SEU) immunity and transistor design are discussed. Effects due to active loads and diffusion barriers are examined.

Weatherford, T.R.; Radice, R.; Eskins, D. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Thermal Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for Power Electronics Packaging Applications (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the thermal performance and reliability of bonded interfaces for power electronics packaging applications.

Devoto, D.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Influence of defect formation as a result of incorporation of a Mn {delta} layer on the photosensitiviy spectrum of InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of defect formation upon the deposition of a Mn {delta} layer and a GaAs coating layer (with the use of laser evaporation) on the photosensitivity spectra of heterostructures with InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells located in the near-surface region has been studied.

Gorshkov, A. P., E-mail: gorskovap@phys.unn.ru; Karpovich, I. A.; Pavlova, E. D.; Kalenteva, I. L. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

Charge Profiling of the p-AlGaN Electron Blocking Layer in AlGaInN Light Emitting Diode Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charge Profiling of the p-AlGaN Electron Blocking Layer in AlGaInN Light Emitting Diode Structures, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Characterization of operational AlGaInN heterostructure light emitting diodes (LEDs the device lifetime in a non-destructive mode. INTRODUCTION Group ­ III nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs

Wetzel, Christian M.

356

Business Incentive Loans and Bonds (Georgia) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Business Incentive Loans and Bonds (Georgia) Business Incentive Loans and Bonds (Georgia) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Transportation Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Maximum Rebate Unlimited but generally should not exceed 20% of the asset needs of the company's Gerogia location. Program Info State Georgia Program Type Bond Program Loan Program Provider Georgia Department of Community Affairs The Strategic Industries Loan Fund (SILF) is a program offered by the

357

Characterization of interfacial bonding using a scanning Kelvin probe  

SciTech Connect

Interfaces play a crucial role in determining the ultimate properties and service life of coating and film materials. However, the characterization and measurement of interfacial bonding, in particular of the local strength, is difficult. The high sensitivity of the electron work function (EWF) to surface conditions has attracted increasing interest in applications of the Kelvin probing technique to investigate the mechanical behavior of materials. In this study, the Kelvin method was used to characterize the interfacial bond formed between pure copper and brass after annealing in argon gas. It was demonstrated that low EWF values, small EWF fluctuations, and narrow fluctuation ranges in interfacial regions corresponded to good bonding. Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between the EWF and the interfacial strength determined by the microindentation method using a universal microtribometer. The Kelvin probing technique could be a powerful tool for studying the local property and structure of interfaces.

Li, W.; Li, D.Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Changchun University, People's Republic of China (130022) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2G8 (Canada); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G 2G6 (Canada)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

The genesis of the quantum theory of the chemical bond  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An historical overview is given of the relevant steps that allowed the genesis of the quantum theory of the chemical bond, starting from the appearance of the new quantum mechanics and following later developments till approximately 1931. General ideas and some important details are discussed concerning molecular spectroscopy, as well as quantum computations for simple molecular systems performed within perturbative and variational approaches, for which the Born-Oppenheimer method provided a quantitative theory accounting for rotational, vibrational and electronic states. The novel concepts introduced by the Heitler-London theory, complemented by those underlying the method of the molecular orbitals, are critically analyzed along with some of their relevant applications. Further improvements in the understanding of the nature of the chemical bond are also considered, including the ideas of one-electron and three-electron bonds introduced by Pauling, as well as the generalizations of the Heitler-London theory ...

Esposito, S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

ELEVATED TEMPERATURE DIFFUSION BONDING OF TUNGSTEN TO TUNGSTEN UNDER PRESSURE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid-state diffusion bonding of tungsten to tungsten was investigated at temperatures ranging from 1700 to 2600 nif- C, under surface contact pressures up to 3000 psi, while under high vacuum or hydrogen atmosphere. Various interface coatings were employed to promote diffusion, including graphite, oxide, metal slurries, electroplates, direct surface oxidation, and Mo - -W deposits from carbonyl decompositions. Thorough metallurgical bonding was achieved, particularly with the latter two surface coatings, after 2 hours at 2350 nif- C in H/sub 2/ under 1400 psi. Corresponding tensile strengths of 30,000 psi were obtained. Powder-compacted tungsten sheet containing 50 vo1% UO/sub 2/, spray-coated with an outer layer of tungsten, was effectively bonded to itself and to tungsten metal under 2 hour diffusion treatments at 2000 nif- C and moderate pressures of the order of 1000 psi. (auth)

Batista, R.I.; Hanks, G.S.; Murphy, D.J.

1962-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Metal-bonded, carbon fiber-reinforced composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Metal bonded carbon fiber-reinforced composites are disclosed in which the metal and the composite are strongly bound by (1) providing a matrix-depleted zone in the composite of sufficient depth to provide a binding site for the metal to be bonded and then (2) infiltrating the metal into the matrix-free zone to fill a substantial portion of the zone and also provide a surface layer of metal, thereby forming a strong bond between the composite and the metal. The invention also includes the metal-bound composite itself, as well as the provision of a coating over the metal for high-temperature performance or for joining to other such composites or to other substrates.

Sastri, Suri A. (Lexington, MA); Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Cooke, Richard A. (Framingham, MA); Litchfield, John K. (Bedford, MA); Smith, Mark B. (Ipswich, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Diffusion bonding resistant valve development for sodium service  

SciTech Connect

Unanticipated functional failures occurred in valves undergoing containment integrity testing for liquid sodium service. The failures resulted from diffusion bonding of the Stellite 6B valve plug to the Type 316 stainless steel (SS) seat. As a result of these failures, a valve development program was undertaken. A modified valve incorporating a Tribaloy 800 plug showed significant improvement in resistance to diffusion bonding but still failed after long term exposure in a closed position. A second modified valve using Tribaloy 800 in both the valve plug and seat successfully resisted diffusion bonding failure. This paper reports the details of the testing and posttest valve examinations. The results of scanning electron microscopy, dispersive x-ray spectrometry, and metallography provide the characteristics of the valve failures. Limitations of the various valve designs are also discussed.

Crandall, D.L.; Low, J.O.; Chung, D.T.; Loop, R.B.

1984-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

362

Bond Amendment, Security Clearances - January 1, 2008 | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bond Amendment, Security Clearances - January 1, 2008 Bond Amendment, Security Clearances - January 1, 2008 Bond Amendment, Security Clearances - January 1, 2008 January 1, 2008 In General.-Title III of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (50 U.S.C. 435b) is amended by adding at the end the following new section: "SEC. 3002. SECURITY CLEARANCES; LIMITATIONS SEC. 1072. SECURITY CLEARANCES; LIMITATIONS. (a) In General.-Title III of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (50 U.S.C. 435b) is amended by adding at the end the following new section: "SEC. 3002. SECURITY CLEARANCES; LIMITATIONS. "(a) Definitions.-In this section: "(1) Controlled substance.-The term `controlled substance' has the meaning given that term in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C.

363

Rhodium-Catalyzed C-C Bond Formation via Heteroatom-Directed C-H Bond Activation  

SciTech Connect

Once considered the 'holy grail' of organometallic chemistry, synthetically useful reactions employing C-H bond activation have increasingly been developed and applied to natural product and drug synthesis over the past decade. The ubiquity and relative low cost of hydrocarbons makes C-H bond functionalization an attractive alternative to classical C-C bond forming reactions such as cross-coupling, which require organohalides and organometallic reagents. In addition to providing an atom economical alternative to standard cross - coupling strategies, C-H bond functionalization also reduces the production of toxic by-products, thereby contributing to the growing field of reactions with decreased environmental impact. In the area of C-C bond forming reactions that proceed via a C-H activation mechanism, rhodium catalysts stand out for their functional group tolerance and wide range of synthetic utility. Over the course of the last decade, many Rh-catalyzed methods for heteroatom-directed C-H bond functionalization have been reported and will be the focus of this review. Material appearing in the literature prior to 2001 has been reviewed previously and will only be introduced as background when necessary. The synthesis of complex molecules from relatively simple precursors has long been a goal for many organic chemists. The ability to selectively functionalize a molecule with minimal pre-activation can streamline syntheses and expand the opportunities to explore the utility of complex molecules in areas ranging from the pharmaceutical industry to materials science. Indeed, the issue of selectivity is paramount in the development of all C-H bond functionalization methods. Several groups have developed elegant approaches towards achieving selectivity in molecules that possess many sterically and electronically similar C-H bonds. Many of these approaches are discussed in detail in the accompanying articles in this special issue of Chemical Reviews. One approach that has seen widespread success involves the use of a proximal heteroatom that serves as a directing group for the selective functionalization of a specific C-H bond. In a survey of examples of heteroatom-directed Rh catalysis, two mechanistically distinct reaction pathways are revealed. In one case, the heteroatom acts as a chelator to bind the Rh catalyst, facilitating reactivity at a proximal site. In this case, the formation of a five-membered metallacycle provides a favorable driving force in inducing reactivity at the desired location. In the other case, the heteroatom initially coordinates the Rh catalyst and then acts to stabilize the formation of a metal-carbon bond at a proximal site. A true test of the utility of a synthetic method is in its application to the synthesis of natural products or complex molecules. Several groups have demonstrated the applicability of C-H bond functionalization reactions towards complex molecule synthesis. Target-oriented synthesis provides a platform to test the effectiveness of a method in unique chemical and steric environments. In this respect, Rh-catalyzed methods for C-H bond functionalization stand out, with several syntheses being described in the literature that utilize C-H bond functionalization in a key step. These syntheses are highlighted following the discussion of the method they employ.

Colby, Denise; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

2010-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

364

Excitons in single and double GaAs/AlGaAs/ZnSe/Zn(Cd)MnSe heterovalent quantum wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exciton photoluminescence spectra, photoluminescence excitation spectra, and magnetophotoluminescence spectra of single (GaAs/AlGaAs/ZnMnSe) and double (GaAs/AlGaAs/ZnSe/ZnCdMnSe) heterovalent quantum wells formed by molecular beam epitaxy are studied. It is shown that the exciton absorption spectrum of such quantum wells mainly reproduces the resonant exciton spectrum expected for usual quantum wells with similar parameters, while the radiative exciton recombination have substantial distinctions, in particular the additional localization mechanism determined by defects generated by heterovalent interface exists. The nature of these localization centers is not currently clarified; their presence leads to broadening of photoluminescence lines and to an increase in the Stokes shift between the peaks of luminescence and absorption, as well as determining the variation in the magnetic g factor of bound exciton complexes.

Toropov, A. A., E-mail: toropov@beam.ioffe.ru; Kaibyshev, V. Kh.; Terent'ev, Ya. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Kop'ev, P. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Mechanism for radiative recombination and defect properties of GaP/GaNP core/shell nanowires  

SciTech Connect

Recombination processes in GaP/GaNP core/shell nanowires (NWs) grown on a Si substrate by molecular beam epitaxy are examined using a variety of optical characterization techniques, including cw- and time-resolved photoluminescence and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR). Superior optical quality of the structures is demonstrated based on the observation of intense emission from a single NW at room temperature. This emission is shown to originate from radiative transitions within N-related localized states. From ODMR, growth of GaP/GaNP NWs is also found to facilitate formation of complex defects containing a P atom at its core that act as centers of competing non-radiative recombination.

Dobrovolsky, A.; Stehr, J. E.; Chen, S. L.; Chen, W. M.; Buyanova, I. A. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, S-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Kuang, Y. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Sukrittanon, S. [Graduate Program of Materials Science and Engineering, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Tu, C. W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Optical anisotropy of GaSb type-II nanorods on vicinal (111)B GaAs  

SciTech Connect

We form self-assembled GaSb type-II nanorods on a vicinal (111)B GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and study their optical anisotropy. The GaSb nanorods are elongated and aligned along the [-1 0 1] direction, where the average length, width, and height are about 84, 30, and 2.5 nm. In polarized photoluminescence (PL) measurements, the peak of the GaSb nanorods is observed at about 1.1 eV, where the PL intensity is largest for the [-1 0 1] polarization and smallest for the polarization perpendicular to it. The degree of polarization is more than 20% and depends on the recombination energy. By comparing with a theoretical model based on 4 x 4 Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian, we find that the experimental results are explained by considering the Sb/As inter-diffusion and the nanorod height distribution.

Kawazu, Takuya; Noda, Takeshi; Mano, Takaaki; Sakuma, Yoshiki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Akiyama, Yoshihiro [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Sakaki, Hiroyuki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya (Japan)

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

367

EE9, MBE Grown InGaAsSbN/GaSb Single Quantum Wells for Mid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I4, Electrical Spin Injection in a Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Spin-Polarized Light Emitting Diode (Spin-LED) I5, Properties of MnAs/GaMnAs/MnAs Magnetic...

368

II3, 2?m Thick Device Quality GaN on Si(111) Using AlGaN Graded ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I4, Electrical Spin Injection in a Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Spin-Polarized Light Emitting Diode (Spin-LED) I5, Properties of MnAs/GaMnAs/MnAs Magnetic...

369

JJ1, Internal Quantum Efficiency of Polar and Non-Polar GaInN/GaN ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

I4, Electrical Spin Injection in a Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Spin-Polarized Light Emitting Diode (Spin-LED) I5, Properties of MnAs/GaMnAs/MnAs Magnetic...

370

Reducing the efficiency droop by lateral carrier confinement in InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficiency droop is a major obstacle facing high-power application of InGaN/GaN quantum-well (QW) light-emitting diodes. In this letter, we report the suppression of efficiency droop induced by density-activated defect recombination in nanorod structure of a-plane InGaN/GaN QWs. In the high carrier density regime, the retained emission efficiency in a dry-etched nanorod sample is observed to be over two times higher than that in its parent QW sample. We further argue that the improvement is a combined effect of the amendment contributed by lateral carrier confinement and the deterioration made by surface trapping.

Shi, Chentian; Yang, Fan; Park, Min Joo; Kwak, Joon Seop; Jung, Sukkoo; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

SnO2-gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors based oxygen sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrothermally grown SnO2 was integrated with AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) sensor as the gate electrode for oxygen detection. The crystalline of the SnO2 was improved after annealing at 400 C. The grain growth kinetics of the SnO2 nanomaterials, together with the O2 gas sensing properties and sensing mechanism of the SnO2 gated HEMT sensors were investigated. Detection of 1% oxygen in nitrogen at 100 C was possible. A low operation temperature and low power consumption oxygen sensor can be achieved by combining the SnO2 films with the AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure

Hung, S.T. [Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan; Chung, Chi-Jung [Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan; Chen, Chin Ching [University of Florida, Gainesville; Lo, C. F. [University of Florida; Ren, F. [University of Florida; Pearton, S. J. [University of Florida; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Correlation of polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} device efficiency with homojunction depth and interfacial structure: X-ray photoemission and positron annihilation spectroscopic characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Angled-resolved high resolution photoemission measurements on valence band electronic structure and Cu 2p, In 3d, Ga 2p, and Se 3d core lines were used to evaluate surface and near-surface chemistry of CuInSe{sub 2} and Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} device grade thin films. XPS compositional depth profiles were also acquired from the near-surface region, and bonding of the Cu, In, Ga, and Se was determined as a function of depth. A Cu-poor region was found, indicating CuIn{sub 5}Se{sub 8} or a CuIn{sub 3}Se{sub 5}-In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} mixture. Correlation between the depth of the Cu-poor region/bulk interface and device efficiency showed that the depth was 115 {angstrom} for a 16.4% CIGS device, 240 {angstrom} for a 15.0% CIGS, and 300 {angstrom} for 14.0% CIGS, with similar trends for CIS films. The surface region is n-type, the bulk is p-type, with a 0.5 eV valence band offset. Depth of homojunction may be the determining factor in device performance. Positron annihilation spectroscopy gave similarly illuminating results.

Nelson, A.J.; Sobol, P.E.; Gabor, A.M.; Contreras, M.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

ELEVATED TEMPERATURE DIFFUSION BONDING OF TUNGSTEN TO TUNGSTEN UNDER PRESSURE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid state diffusion bonding of tungsten to tungsten was investigated at temperatures ranging from 1700 to 2600 nif- C, under surface contact pressures up to 3000 psi, while under high vacuum or hydrogen atmosphere. Various interface coatings were employed to promote diffusion, including graphite, oxide, and metai slurries, electro-plates, direct surface oxidation, and Mo-W deposits from carbonyl decompositions. Thorough metallurgical bonding was achieved, particularly with the latter two surface coatings, after 2 hours at 2350 nif- C in H/sub 2/ under 1400 psi. Corresponding tensile strengths of 30000 psi were obtained. (auth)

Batista, R.I.; Hanks, G.S.; Murphy, D.J.

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Phase equilibrium predictions for polar and hydrogen bonding mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Perturbed-Hard-Chain Theory (PHCT) has been generalized to treat pure compounds and mixtures with polar forces (dipoles and quadrupoles) as well as hydrogen bonding. The generalization to polar compounds is based on the perturbation expansion for anisotropic molecules by Gubbins and coworkers. The effects of hydrogen bonding are taken into account using an approach similar to that of Heidemann and Prausnitz. With these two generalizations, accurate mixture VLE and LLE predictions can be made, even for highly non-ideal systems, using pure component parameters alone. 8 refs., 4 figs.

Donohue, M.D.; Vimalchand, P.; Ikonomou, G.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Suppression of nuclear spin diffusion at a GaAs/AlGaAs interface measured with a single quantum dot nano-probe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear spin polarization dynamics are measured in optically pumped individual GaAs/AlGaAs interface quantum dots by detecting the time-dependence of the Overhauser shift in photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Long nuclear polarization decay times of ~ 1 minute have been found indicating inefficient nuclear spin diffusion from the GaAs dot into the surrounding AlGaAs matrix in externally applied magnetic field. A spin diffusion coefficient two orders lower than that previously found in bulk GaAs is deduced.

A. E. Nikolaenko; E. A. Chekhovich; M. N. Makhonin; I. W. Drouzas; A. B. Vankov; J. Skiba-Szymanska; M. S. Skolnick; P. Senellart; A. Lemaitre; A. I. Tartakovskii

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Elimination of charge-enhancement effects in GaAs FETs with a low-temperature grown GaAs buffer layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of low temperature grown GaAs (LT GaAs) buffer layer in GaAs FETs is shown via computer simulation and experimental measurement to reduce ion-induced charge collection by two to three orders of magnitude. This reduction in collected charge is associated with the efficient reduction of charge-enhancement mechanisms in the FETs. Error rate calculations indicate that the soft error rate of LT GaAs integrated circuits will be reduced by several orders of magnitude when compared to conventional FET-based GaAs ICs.

McMorrow, D.; Weatherford, T.R.; Curtice, W.R.; Knudson, A.R.; Buchner, S.; Melinger, J.S.; Tran, L.H.; Campbell, A.B. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Active region based on graded-gap InGaN/GaN superlattices for high-power 440- to 470-nm light-emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect

The structural and optical properties of light-emitting diode structures with an active region based on ultrathin InGaN quantum wells limited by short-period InGaN/GaN superlattices from both sides have been investigated. The dependences of the external quantum efficiency on the active region design are analyzed. It is shown that the use of InGaN/GaN structures as limiting graded-gap short-period superlattices may significantly increase the quantum efficiency.

Tsatsulnikov, A. F., E-mail: Andrew@beam.ioffe.ru; Lundin, W. V.; Sakharov, A. V.; Zavarin, E. E.; Usov, S. O.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Cherkashin, N. A.; Ber, B. Ya.; Kazantsev, D. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Mizerov, M. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Center for Microelectronics, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Park, Hee Seok [Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co. Ltd. (Korea, Republic of); Hytch, M.; Hue, F. [National Center for Scientific Research, Center for Material Elaboration and Structural Studies (France)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

High Voltage GaN Schottky Rectifiers  

SciTech Connect

Mesa and planar GaN Schottky diode rectifiers with reverse breakdown voltages (V{sub RB}) up to 550V and >2000V, respectively, have been fabricated. The on-state resistance, R{sub ON}, was 6m{Omega}{center_dot} cm{sup 2} and 0.8{Omega}cm{sup 2}, respectively, producing figure-of-merit values for (V{sub RB}){sup 2}/R{sub ON} in the range 5-48 MW{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. At low biases the reverse leakage current was proportional to the size of the rectifying contact perimeter, while at high biases the current was proportional to the area of this contact. These results suggest that at low reverse biases, the leakage is dominated by the surface component, while at higher biases the bulk component dominates. On-state voltages were 3.5V for the 550V diodes and {ge}15 for the 2kV diodes. Reverse recovery times were <0.2{micro}sec for devices switched from a forward current density of {approx}500A{center_dot}cm{sup -2} to a reverse bias of 100V.

CAO,X.A.; CHO,H.; CHU,S.N.G.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHYI,J.-I.; DANG,G.T.; HAN,JUNG; LEE,C.-M.; PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; WILSON,R.G.; ZHANG,A.P.

1999-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

379

CC2, Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in In X Al 1-X N/Aln/GaN ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DD3, A New Approach to Make ZnO-Cu2O Heterojunctions for Solar Cells ... E2, AlGaAs/GaAs/GaN Wafer Fused HBTs with Ar Implanted Extrinsic Collectors.

380

Phonon Knudsen flow in GaAs/AlAs superlattices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The measured in-plane thermal conductivity, {delta}{sub SL} of GaAs/AlAs superlattices with even moderate layer thicknesses are significantly smaller than the weighted average, {delta}{sub l} = 67 W/Km, of the bulk GaAs and AlAs conductivities. One expects a suppression of the thermal conductivity to that of an actual Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As alloy when the thickness of the GaAs and AlAs layers approaches that of a single monolayer. However, the observed superlattice thermal conductivity remains suppressed even at layer thickness {approx_gt} 10 nm. The low thermal conductivities, and very high mobilities, make n-doped GaAs/AlAs superlattices attractive possibilities for thermoelectric devices. With Molecular-Beam-Epitaxial grown GaAs/AlAs superlattices one can expect the individual GaAs and AlAs layers to be extremely clean. Defect and/or alloy scattering is limited to be near the heterostructure interfaces. The authors estimate the room-temperature phonon mean-free-path to be 42 (22) nm for the longitudinal (transverse) mode and thus comparable to or smaller than the layer thicknesses. Thus they expect an important phonon scattering at the interfaces. They study this phonon scattering at the superlattice interfaces assuming a Knudsen flow characterized by diffusive scattering. The solid curve in the figure shows the Knudsen-flow theory estimated for the superlattice thermal conductivity which shows a significant reduction when the layer thickness is shorter than the estimated phonon mean free paths.

Hyldgaard, P.; Mahan, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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381

Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) to Fund a Residential  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) to Fund a Residential Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) to Fund a Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program: Case Study on Saint Louis County, MO Title Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) to Fund a Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program: Case Study on Saint Louis County, MO Publication Type Policy Brief Authors Zimring, Mark Secondary Title Clean Energy Program Policy Brief Publisher LBNL Place Published Berkeley Year of Publication 2011 Pagination 7 Date Published 06/2011 Abstract Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) are federally-subsidized debt instruments that enable state, tribal, and local government issuers to borrow money to fund a range of qualified energy conservation projects. QECBs offer issuers very attractive borrowing rates and long terms, and can fund low-interest energy efficiency loans for home and commercial property owners. Saint Louis County, MO recently issued over $10 million of QECBs to finance the Saint Louis County SAVES residential energy efficiency loan program. The county's experience negotiating QECB regulations and restrictions can inform future issuers.

382

Exchange of bonded hydrogen in amorphous silicon by deuterium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We show that bonded hydrogen in a-Si:H is readily exchanged by atomic deuterium when exposed to a deuterium plasma discharge. The effective diffusion coefficient for the D,H exchange 10/sup -14/ cm/sup 2//sec at 160/sup 0/C, is comparable to that of interstitial hydrogen in c-Si.

Abeles, B.; Yang, L.; Leta, D.P.; Majkrzak, C.F.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Simulation of an Electrical Substation Using the Bond Graph Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulation and especially computer simulation, is a basic tool since it enables engineers to understand how systems work without actually needing to see them. They can learn how they work in different circumstances and optimize their design with considerably ... Keywords: simulation, electrical substations, elements, electricity, bond graph

Gregorio Romero; Jesus Felez; Joaquin Maroto; Jose Manuel Mera

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Component supervision by sensor placement on bond-graph model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The component supervision procedure consists of the comparison of the actual behaviour with the reference behaviour which describes the normal mode. The analytical redundancy has to find relations between known variables of the system. These relations ... Keywords: bond graphs, causal paths, modelling, sensors placement, supervision

M. Khemliche; B. Ould Bouamama; A. Khellaf; M. Mostefa

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Efficient simulation of hybrid systems: A hybrid bond graph approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate and efficient simulations facilitate cost-effective design and analysis of large, complex, embedded systems, whose behaviors are typically hybrid, i.e. continuous behaviors interspersed with discrete mode changes. In this paper we present an ... Keywords: component-oriented modeling, dynamic causal assignment, hybrid bond graphs, modeling and simulation environments, simulation of hybrid systems

Indranil Roychoudhury; Matthew J Daigle; Gautam Biswas; Xenofon Koutsoukos

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Chemical bonding of hydrogen molecules to transition metal complexes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The complex W(CO){sub 3}(PR{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}) (CO = carbonyl; PR{sub 3} = organophosphine) was prepared and was found to be a stable crystalline solid under ambient conditions from which the hydrogen can be reversibly removed in vacuum or under an inert atmosphere. The weakly bonded H{sub 2} exchanges easily with D{sub 2}. This complex represents the first stable compound containing intermolecular interaction of a sigma-bond (H-H) with a metal. The primary interaction is reported to be donation of electron density from the H{sub 2} bonding electron pair to a vacant metal d-orbital. A series of complexes of molybdenum of the type Mo(CO)(H{sub 2})(R{sub 2}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PR{sub 2}){sub 2} were prepared by varying the organophosphine substitutent to demonstrate that it is possible to bond either dihydrogen or dihydride by adjusting the electron-donating properties of the co-ligands. Results of infrared and NMR spectroscopic studies are reported. 20 refs., 5 fig.

Kubas, G.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Radiographic study of impact in polymer-bonded explosives  

SciTech Connect

Computer-tomography generated material-density maps from flash x-ray radiographs of the impact of cylinders of mockup polymer-bonded explosive (PBX) striking a steel plate. Comparison of the density fields with computer simulation allowed discrimination of rather complex deformation and flow models for insensitive explosives to be used in further studies of chemical reactions initiated by shock waves.

Fugelso, E.; Jacobson, J.D.; Karpp, R.R.; Jensen, R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Effect of Cross Accumulative Roll Bonding Process on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, J. Materials and Processes for Enhanced Performance ... of mechanical properties and optimizing the roll bonding technologies of dissimilar LMCS. ... and Recovery Process of Rare Metals from Oil Desulfurization Spent Catalyst ... Redox Investigation of NiFe2O4 Supported on Al2O3 and Yttria- Stabilized...

389

Method of preparation of bonded polyimide fuel cell package  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described herein are processes for fabricating microfluidic fuel cell systems with embedded components in which micron-scale features are formed by bonding layers of DuPont Kapton.TM. polyimide laminate. A microfluidic fuel cell system fabricated using this process is also described.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Jankowski, Alan (Livermore, CA); Graff, Robert T. (Modesto, CA); Bettencourt, Kerry (Dublin, CA)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

390

Strain relaxation in GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N superlattices grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the misfit relaxation process in GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.44) superlattices (SL) deposited by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The SLs under consideration were designed to achieve intersubband absorption in the mid-infrared spectral range. We have considered the case of growth on GaN (tensile stress) and on AlGaN (compressive stress) buffer layers, both deposited on GaN-on-sapphire templates. Using GaN buffer layers, the SL remains almost pseudomorphic for x = 0.1, 0.3, with edge-type threading dislocation densities below 9 x 10{sup 8} cm{sup -2} to 2 x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}. Increasing the Al mole fraction to 0.44, we observe an enhancement of misfit relaxation resulting in dislocation densities above 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}. In the case of growth on AlGaN, strain relaxation is systematically stronger, with the corresponding increase in the dislocation density. In addition to the average relaxation trend of the SL, in situ measurements indicate a periodic fluctuation of the in-plane lattice parameter, which is explained by the different elastic response of the GaN and AlGaN surfaces to the Ga excess at the growth front. The results are compared with GaN/AlN SLs designed for near-infrared intersubband absorption.

Kotsar, Y.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Das, A.; Monroy, E. [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/NPSC, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Doisneau, B. [SIMaP, Grenoble INP, Domaine Universitaire, BP 75, 38402 Saint Martin d'Heres (France); Sarigiannidou, E. [LMGP, Grenoble INP, 3 Parvis Louis Neel, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble cedex 1 (France)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Testing of ethylene propylene seals for the GA-4/GA-9 casks  

SciTech Connect

The primary O-ring seal of the GA-4 and GA-9 casks was tested for leakage with a full-scale mockup of the cask lid and flange. Tests were performed at temperatures of ambient, {minus}41{degrees}, 121{degrees}, and 193{degrees}C. Shim plates between the lid and flange simulated gaps caused by thermal distortion. The testing used a helium mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD). Results showed that the primary seal was leaktight for all test conditions. Helium permeation through the seal began in 13--23 minutes for the ambient tests and in 1--2 minutes for the tests at elevated temperatures. After each test several hours of the pumping were typically required to reduce the MSLD background reading to an acceptable level for the next test, indicating that the seal had become saturated with helium. To verify that the test results showed permeation and not real leakage, several response checks were conducted in which a calibrated leak source was inserted in the detector line near the seal. When the leak source was activated the detector responded within seconds.

Boonstra, R.H.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Nanostructuring of silicon substrates for the site-controlled growth of GaAs/In0.15Ga0.85As/GaAs nanostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the optimization of electron beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) dry etching processes to fabricate pre-patterned Si (100) substrates with sub-100nm holes with controlled size and shape. An efficient in situ cleaning sequence ... Keywords: Electron beam lithography, ICP dry etching, InGaAs quantum dots, MBE growth, Nanostructuring of silicon

Muhammad Usman; Tariq Alzoubi; Mohamed Benyoucef; Johann Peter Reithmaier

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Electric field engineering in GaN high electron mobility transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the last few years, AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have become the top choice for power amplification at frequencies up to 20 GHz. Great interest currently exists in industry and academia to increase ...

Zhao, Xu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Light extraction in individual GaN nanowires on Si for LEDs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GaN-based nanowires hold great promise for solid state lighting applications because of their waveguiding properties and the ability to grow nonpolar GaN nanowire-based heterostructures, which could lead to increased light ...

Zhou, Xiang

395

High electron mobility in Ga(In)NAs films grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the highest mobility values above 2000 cm{sup 2}/Vs in Si doped GaNAs film grown by molecular beam epitaxy. To understand the feature of the origin which limits the electron mobility in GaNAs, temperature dependences of mobility were measured for high mobility GaNAs and referential low mobility GaInNAs. Temperature dependent mobility for high mobility GaNAs is similar to the GaAs case, while that for low mobility GaInNAs shows large decrease in lower temperature region. The electron mobility of high quality GaNAs can be explained by intrinsic limiting factor of random alloy scattering and extrinsic factor of ionized impurity scattering.

Miyashita, Naoya; Ahsan, Nazmul; Monirul Islam, Muhammad; Okada, Yoshitaka [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Inagaki, Makoto [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511, Aichi (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masafumi [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511, Aichi (Japan)

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

396

Black-body radiation shift of the Ga$^{+}$ clock transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The blackbody radiation shift of the Ga$^+$ $4s^2 \\ ^1S^e_0 \\to 4s4p \\ ^3P^o_0$ clock transition is computed to be $-$$0.0140 \\pm 0.0048$ Hz at 300 K. The small shift is consistent with the blackbody shifts of the clock transitions of other group III ions which are of a similar size. The polarizabilities of the Ga$^+$ $4s^2 \\ ^1S^e_0$, $4s4p \\ ^3P^o_0$, and $4s4p \\ ^1P^o_1$ states were computed using the configuration interaction method with an underlying semi-empirical core potential. A byproduct of the analysis involved large scale calculations of the low lying spectrum and oscillator strengths of the Ga$^{2+}$ ion.

Cheng, Yongjun

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Aug. 8-9, 2006 HAPL meeting, GA Open Discussion on Advanced Armor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aug. 8-9, 2006 HAPL meeting, GA 1 Open Discussion on Advanced Armor Concepts Moderated by A. René in case the W armor does not work. #12;Aug. 8-9, 2006 HAPL meeting, GA 3 Roman Aquaduct at Pont du Gard, Provence #12;Aug. 8-9, 2006 HAPL meeting, GA 4 Possible Advanced Armor Options Include: · Engineered

Raffray, A. René

398

Current injection efficiency of InGaAsN quantum-well lasers Nelson Tansua  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Current injection efficiency of InGaAsN quantum-well lasers Nelson Tansua Department of Electrical-threshold current injection efficiency of quantum well QW lasers is clarified. The analysis presented here is applied to the current injection efficiency of 1200 nm emitting InGaAs and 1300 nm emitting InGaAsN QW

Gilchrist, James F.

399

ANN-based GA for generating the sizing curve of stand-alone photovoltaic systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent advances in artificial intelligence techniques have allowed the application of such technologies in real engineering problems. In this paper, an artificial neural network-based genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) model was developed for generating the ... Keywords: ANN, ANN-GA, GA, Prediction, Sizing curve, Stand-alone PV system

Adel Mellit

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Luminescence Enhancement in InGaN and ZnO by Water Vapor ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dependence of Ag/In Ratio of AgInS2 Crystals Grown by Hot-Press Method ... Analysis of Temperature Characteristics of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge Triple-Junction Solar Cell ... Luminescence Enhancement in InGaN and ZnO by Water Vapor Remote...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Surface plasmon enhanced InGaN light emitter Koichi Okamoto*a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is a very promising method for developing the super bright light emitting diodes (LEDs). Moreover, we foundGaN/GaN, light emitting diode, quantum well, internal quantum efficiency, solid-state light source 1. INTRODUCTION Since 1993, InGaN quantum wells (QW)-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been continuously

Okamoto, Koichi

402

TESLA-FEL 2007-03 Application of low cost GaAs LED as neutron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

neutrons in unbiased Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Light Emitting Diodes (LED) resulted in a reduction Keywords: COTS components, Displacement damage, Electron Linear Accelerator, GaAs Light emitting diode (LED) Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) light emitting diode (LED) for the assessment of integrated neutron fluence

403

Seamless On-Wafer Integration of Si(100) MOSFETs and GaN HEMTs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first on-wafer integration of Si(100) MOSFETs and AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) is demonstrated. To enable a fully Si-compatible process, we fabricated a novel Si(100)-GaN-Si(100) virtual substrate ...

Piner, Edwin L.

404

Vertically aligned GaN nanotubes - Fabrication and current image analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, we present a one step formation method of nanotubes on GaN film, and then map out local current of nanotubes. GaN nanotubes were formed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching and found that tops of these nanotubes were hexagonal with ... Keywords: C-AFM, FESEM, GaN, ICP, Nanotubes

Shang-Chao Hung; Yan-Kuin Su; Shoou-Jinn Chang; Y. H. Chen

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Epitaxial EuO thin films on GaAs  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the epitaxial growth of EuO on GaAs by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Thin films are grown in an adsorption-controlled regime with the aid of an MgO diffusion barrier. Despite the large lattice mismatch, it is shown that EuO grows well on MgO(001) with excellent magnetic properties. Epitaxy on GaAs is cube-on-cube and longitudinal magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements demonstrate a large Kerr rotation of 0.57 deg., a significant remanent magnetization, and a Curie temperature of 69 K.

Swartz, A. G.; Ciraldo, J.; Wong, J. J. I.; Li Yan; Han Wei; Lin Tao; Shi, J.; Kawakami, R. K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Mack, S.; Awschalom, D. D. [Center for Spintronics and Quantum Computation, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2010-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

406

GA Hot Cell D&D Closeout Report  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

GENERAL ATOMICS GENERAL ATOMICS HOT CELL FACILITY DECONTAMINATION & DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT FINAL PROJECT CLOSEOUT REPORT prepared for GA HOT CELL D&D PROJECT CONTRACT NUMBERS DE-AC03-84SF11962 and DE-AC03-95SF20798 PBS VL-GA-0012 Approvals Prepared by: James Davis, III Date Project Manager, Oakland Environmental Programs Office Reviewed by: John Lee Date Deputy, Oakland Environmental Programs Office Approved by: Laurence McEwen Date Acting Director, Oakland Environmental Programs Office General Atomics Hot Cell Facility D&D Project Closeout Report Contents Page i CONTENTS CONTENTS.....................................................................................................................................

407

AlP/GaP distributed Bragg reflectors  

SciTech Connect

Distributed Bragg reflectors with high reflectivity bands centered at wavelengths from 530 to 690 nm (green to red) based on AlP/GaP quarter-wave stacks are prepared on (001)GaP using gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy. Additionally, the complex refractive index of AlP is measured using spectroscopic ellipsometry within the range of 330-850 nm in order to facilitate an accurate reflector design. Structures consisting of 15 quarter-wave stacks reach a peak reflectance between 95% and 98%, depending on the spectral position of the maximum.

Emberger, Valentin; Hatami, Fariba; Ted Masselink, W. [Department of Physics, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Peters, Sven [Sentech Instruments GmbH, Schwarzschildstr. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs : numerical supplement.  

SciTech Connect

This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide, GaAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz and O.A. von Lilienfeld, 'Simple intrinsic defects in GaAs', Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci Eng., Vol. 17, 084007 (2009), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models. The numerical results for density functional theory calculations of properties of simple intrinsic defects in gallium arsenide are presented.

Schultz, Peter Andrew

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Electron Hall Mobility in GaAsBi  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present measurements of the electron Hall mobility in n-type GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} epilayers. We observed no significant degradation in the electron mobility with Bi incorporation in GaAs, up to a concentration of 1.2%. At higher Bi concentration ({ge} 1.6%) some degradation of the electron mobility was observed, although there is no apparent trend. Temperature dependent Hall measurements of the electron mobility suggest neutral impurity scattering to be the dominant scattering mechanism.

Kini, R. N.; Bhusal, L.; Ptak, A. J.; France, R.; Mascarenhas, A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Bond County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bond County, Illinois: Energy Resources Bond County, Illinois: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 38.902985°, -89.4742177° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.902985,"lon":-89.4742177,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

411

The significant human-animal bond: Pets with cancer  

SciTech Connect

Veterinarians have responsibilities to both the animal and its owner. In the past several years there has been an increased awareness and concern about human-animal bonds. As a result, we have begun to appreciate the nature, strength, and significance of bonds that develop between humans and companion animals. It is typical for a pet to be perceived as and treated as a member of the family and as a result, animals provide special and beneficial relationships for many years. It is partly because of this role of the pet in promoting human health and happiness that we as veterinarians have an obligation to assist both owner and animal. The mark of the good practitioner concerns not only the ability to diagnose and treat accurately, but also the ability to show understanding and compassionate judgement.

Weller, R.E.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Bond strength and stress measurements in thermal barrier coatings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal barrier coatings have been used extensively in aircraft gas turbines for more than 15 years to insulate combustors and turbine vanes from the hot gas stream. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide metal temperature reductions as much as 300{degrees}F, with improvements in durability of two times or more being achieved. The introduction of TBCs deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processes in the last five years has provided a major improvement in durability and also enabled TBCs to be applied to turbine blades for improved engine performance. This program evaluates the bond strength of yttria stabilized zirconia coatings with MCrAlY and Pt-Al bond coats utilizing diffraction and fluorescence methods.

Gell, M.; Jordan, E.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

413

Analyzing the growth of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN superlattices in self-induced GaN nanowires by x-ray diffraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Self-induced GaN nanowires are grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, with In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N quantum wells inserted to form an axial superlattice. From the {omega}-2{theta} scans of a laboratory x-ray diffraction experiment, we obtain the superlattice period, the thickness of the quantum wells, and the In content in this layer. The axial growth rate of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N quantum wells is significantly enhanced, which we attribute to increased Ga diffusion along the nanowire sidewalls in the presence of In.

Woelz, M.; Kaganer, V. M.; Brandt, O.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.

2011-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

414

Generalized Integrands and Bond Portfolios: Pitfalls and Counter Examples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct Zero-Coupon Bond markets driven by a cylindrical Brownian motion in which the notion of generalized portfolio has important flaws: There exist bounded smooth random variables with generalized hedging portfolios for which the price of their risky part is $+\\infty$ at each time. For these generalized portfolios, sequences of the prices of the risky part of approximating portfolios can be made to converges to any given extended real number in $[-\\infty, \\infty].$

Taflin, Erik

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing fluorinated diamond particles bonded in a filled fluorocarbon resin matrix. Simple hot pressing techniques permit the formation of such matrices from which diamond impregnated grinding tools and other articles of manufacture can be produced. Teflon fluorocarbon resins filled with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ yield grinding tools with substantially improved work-to-wear ratios over grinding wheels known in the art.

Taylor, G.W.; Roybal, H.E.

1983-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

416

Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy in InGaAsN Lattice-Matched to GaAs: Preprint  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This conference paper describes the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements have been performed on the quaternary semiconductor InGaAsN. A series of as-grown, metal-organic chemical vapor deposited samples having varying composition were grown and measured. A GaAs sample was used as a baseline for comparison. After adding only In to GaAs, we did not detect significant additional defects; however, adding N and both N and In led to larger hole-trap peaks and additional electron-trap peaks in the DLTS data. The samples containing about 2% N, with and without about 6% In, had electron traps with activation energies of about 0.2 and 0.3 eV. A sample with 0.4% N had an electron trap with an activation energy of 0.37 eV.

Johnston, S. W.; Ahrenkiel, R. K.; Friedman, D. J.; Kurtz, S. R.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Characteristics of InGaP/InGaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors with triple delta-doped sheets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fundamental and insightful characteristics of InGaP/InGaAs double channel pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (DCPHEMTs) with graded and uniform triple {delta}-doped sheets are coomprehensively studied and demonstrated. To gain physical insight, band diagrams, carrier densities, and direct current characteristics of devices are compared and investigated based on the 2D semiconductor simulator, Atlas. Due to uniform carrier distribution and high electron density in the double InGaAs channel, the DCPHEMT with graded triple {delta}-doped sheets exhibits better transport properties, higher and linear transconductance, and better drain current capability as compared with the uniformly triple {delta}-doped counterpart. The DCPHEMT with graded triple {delta}-doped structure is fabricated and tested, and the experimental data are found to be in good agreement with simulated results.

Chu, Kuei-Yi [National Cheng-Kung University, Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering (China); Chiang, Meng-Hsueh, E-mail: mhchiang@niu.edu.tw; Cheng, Shiou-Ying, E-mail: sycheng@niu.edu.tw [National II an University, Department of Electronic Engineering (China); Liu, Wen-Chau [National Cheng-Kung University, Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering (China)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Vacuum fusion bonded glass plates having microstructures thereon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

A Very Short Ruthenium(II) - Nitrogen Heterocycle Bond  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Very Short Ruthenium(II) - Nitrogen Heterocycle Bond: The Crystal Very Short Ruthenium(II) - Nitrogen Heterocycle Bond: The Crystal Structures of Pentaammine(N-methylpyrazinium)ruthenium(II) Iodide and Pentaammine(N-methylpyrazinium)ruthenium(III) p-Toluenesulfonate Pentahydrate James F. Wishart, Avi Bino and Henry Taube Inorg. Chem. 25, 3318-3321 (1986) Abstract: The crystal structures of [(NH3)5Ru(NC4H4NCH3)] I3 and [(NH3)5Ru(NC4H4NCH3)] (CH3C6H4SO3)4°5H2O have been solved to weighted R factors of 0.053 and 0.083, respectively. For the former structure, the space group is Pmma with a = 10.655(2)Å, b = 7.704(1)Å, c = 21.488(3)Å, and Z = 4. The Ru(II)-N(Mepyz) distance of 1.95(1)Å in this complex is the shortest yet reported for a ruthenium(II) to heteroctclic nitrogen bond. A difference of 0.04(1)Å between the cis (2.122(7)Å and 2.136(8)Å) and

420

Effect of hydrogen bond cooperativity on the behavior of water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Four scenarios have been proposed for the low--temperature phase behavior of liquid water, each predicting different thermodynamics. The physical mechanism which leads to each is debated. Moreover, it is still unclear which of the scenarios best describes water, as there is no definitive experimental test. Here we address both open issues within the framework of a microscopic cell model by performing a study combining mean field calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. We show that a common physical mechanism underlies each of the four scenarios, and that two key physical quantities determine which of the four scenarios describes water: (i) the strength of the directional component of the hydrogen bond and (ii) the strength of the cooperative component of the hydrogen bond. The four scenarios may be mapped in the space of these two quantities. We argue that our conclusions are model-independent. Using estimates from experimental data for H bond properties the model predicts that the low-temperature phase diagram of water exhibits a liquid--liquid critical point at positive pressure.

Kevin Stokely; Marco G. Mazza; H. Eugene Stanley; Giancarlo Franzese

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Ultra High p-doping Material Research for GaN Based Light Emitters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main goal of the Project is to investigate doping mechanisms in p-type GaN and AlGaN and controllably fabricate ultra high doped p-GaN materials and epitaxial structures. Highly doped p-type GaN-based materials with low electrical resistivity and abrupt doping profiles are of great importance for efficient light emitters for solid state lighting (SSL) applications. Cost-effective hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) technology was proposed to investigate and develop p-GaN materials for SSL. High p-type doping is required to improve (i) carrier injection efficiency in light emitting p-n junctions that will result in increasing of light emitting efficiency, (ii) current spreading in light emitting structures that will improve external quantum efficiency, and (iii) parameters of Ohmic contacts to reduce operating voltage and tolerate higher forward currents needed for the high output power operation of light emitters. Highly doped p-type GaN layers and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with low electrical resistivity will lead to novel device and contact metallization designs for high-power high efficiency GaN-based light emitters. Overall, highly doped p-GaN is a key element to develop light emitting devices for the DOE SSL program. The project was focused on material research for highly doped p-type GaN materials and device structures for applications in high performance light emitters for general illumination P-GaN and p-AlGaN layers and multi-layer structures were grown by HVPE and investigated in terms of surface morphology and structure, doping concentrations and profiles, optical, electrical, and structural properties. Tasks of the project were successfully accomplished. Highly doped GaN materials with p-type conductivity were fabricated. As-grown GaN layers had concentration N{sub a}-N{sub d} as high as 3 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Mechanisms of doping were investigated and results of material studies were reported at several International conferences providing better understanding of p-type GaN formation for Solid State Lighting community. Grown p-type GaN layers were used as substrates for blue and green InGaN-based LEDs made by HVPE technology at TDI. These results proved proposed technical approach and facilitate fabrication of highly conductive p-GaN materials by low-cost HVPE technology for solid state lighting applications. TDI has started the commercialization of p-GaN epitaxial materials.

Vladimir Dmitriev

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

422

Activation energy of degradation in GaAlAs double heterostructure laser diodes  

SciTech Connect

Aging test of GaAlAs double heterostructure (DH) laser diodes is performed in the temperature range of 50--180 /sup 0/C. In samples for the aging test, AuSn-alloy bonding solder is used and the facet coating with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ film is performed. Samples are operated in the light emitting diode (LED) mode with the application of the constant current of 4 kA/cm/sup 2/ and 6 kA/cm/sup 2/ at temperatures above 80 /sup 0/C and in the automatic power control (APC) lasing mode with the constant optical power of 5 mW/facet at 50 and 70 /sup 0/C. The activation energy is 0.5 eV obtained from the results of the LED mode operation at 4 kA/cm/sup 2/. The parameter to evaluate the degradation is the current at which the optical power at 25 /sup 0/C is 5 mW/facet. This parameter includes the deterioration of the external differencial efficiency. It is shown that the increasing rates of this parameter are almost the same at the same temperature between the LED mode operation at 4 kA/cm/sup 2/ and 6 kA/cm/sup 2/. The increasing rate is almost the same when samples are operated in the APC lasing mode. Twenty-three samples operated at 70 /sup 0/C maintain the optical power of 5 mW/facet set initially over 5000 h. The averaged increasing rate of that parameter in these samples is 7.1 x 10/sup -6//h. The activation energy of 0.5 eV is almost the same as that of GaAlAs DH LED's which is 0.56 eV. It is presumed that point defects which disperse homogeneously cause the degradation of laser diodes and this degradation mode seemed to be the same as LED owing to the improvements against the facet degradation and the contact degradation.

Imai, H.; Hori, K.; Takusagawa, M.; Wakita, K.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Using GA-ANN algorithm to predicate coal bump energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A GA-ANN network was constructed for preidcating coal bump energy, based on the 300 training samples form simulated results with PFC2D software for different coal particle stiffness. It was tested that the average relative error of fitted-output value ... Keywords: artificial neural network, coal bump, energy, genetic algorithm, predication

Yunliang Tan; Tongbin Zhao; Zhigang Zhao

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Properties of H, O and C in GaN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electrical properties of the light ion impurities H, O and C in GaN have been examined in both as-grown and implanted material. H is found to efficiently passivate acceptors such as Mg, Ca and C. Reactivation occurs at {ge} 450 C and is enhanced by minority carrier injection. The hydrogen does not leave the GaN crystal until > 800 C, and its diffusivity is relatively high ({approximately} 10{sup {minus}11} cm{sup 2}/s) even at low temperatures (< 200 C) during injection by wet etching, boiling in water or plasma exposure. Oxygen shows a low donor activation efficiency when implanted into GaN, with an ionization level of 30--40 meV. It is essentially immobile up to 1,100 C. Carbon can produce low p-type levels (3 {times} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3}) in GaN during MOMBE, although there is some evidence it may also create n-type conduction in other nitrides.

Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Lee, J.W. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Optimization on Seawater Desulfurization Efficiency Based on LSSVM-GA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Seawater flue gas Desulfurization (SFGD) was adopted in many coal-fired power plants of littoral for its low cost and high desulfurization efficiency. Operating Parameters would seriously affect SFGD efficiency, the desulfurization efficiency can be ... Keywords: SFGD, desulfurization efficiency, LSSVM, GA, optimization

Liu Ding-ping; Li Xiao-wei

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Development of ZnO:Ga as an Ultrafast Scintillator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report on several methods for synthesizing the ultra-fast scintillator ZnO(Ga), and measurements of the resulting products. This material has characteristics that make it an excellent alpha detector for tagging the time and direction of individual neutrons produced by t-d and d-d neutron generators (associated particle imaging). The intensity and decay time are strongly dependent on the method used for dopant incorporation. We compare samples made by diffusion of Ga metal to samples made by solid state reaction between ZnO and Ga2O3 followed by reduction in hydrogen. The latter is much more successful and has a pure, strong near-band-edge fluorescence and an ultra-fast decay time of the x-ray-excited luminescence. The luminescence increases dramatically as the temperature is reduced to 10K. We also present results of an alternate low-temperature synthesis that produces luminescent particles with a more uniform size distribution. We examine possible mechanisms for the bright near-band-edge scintillation and favor the explanation that it is due to the recombination of Ga3+ donor electrons with ionization holes trapped on H+ ion acceptors.

Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.; Derenzo, S.E.; Weber, M.J.

2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

427

Low cost high power GaSB photovoltaic cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High power density and high capacity factor are important attributes of a thermophotovoltaics (TPV) system and GaSb cells are enabling for TPV systems. A TPV cogeneration unit at an off grid site will compliment solar arrays producing heat and electricity on cloudy days with the solar arrays generating electricity on sunny days. Herein

Lewis M. Fraas; Han X. Huang; Shi-Zhong Ye; She Hui; James Avery; Russell Ballantyne

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Low cost high power GaSb thermophotovoltaic cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High power density and high capacity factor are important attributes of a TPV system and GaSb cells are enabling for TPV systems. A TPV cogeneration unit at an off grid site will compliment solar arrays producing heat and electricity on cloudy days with the solar arrays generating electricity on sunny days. Herein

Lewis M. Fraas; Han X. Huang; Shi-Zhong Ye; James Avery; Russell Ballantyne

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

AlGaAsSb buffer/barrier on GaAs substrate for InAs channel devices with high electron mobility and practical reliability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: AlGaAsSb, Hall elements, InAs, Sb, buffer/barriers, deep quantum well, field effect transistors, reliability

S. Miya; S. Muramatsu; N. Kuze; K. Nagase; T. Iwabuchi; A. Ichii; M. Ozaki; I. Shibasaki

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Characterization and device performance of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The study of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers is of interest in that Ag-chalcopyrites exhibit both wider bandgaps and lower melting points than their Cu counterparts. (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers were deposited over the composition range 0 < Ag/(Ag+Cu) < 1 and 0.3 < Ga/(In+Ga) < 1.0 using a variety of elemental co-evaporation processes. Films were found to be singlephase over the entire composition range, in contrast to prior studies. Devices with Ga content 0.3 < Ga/(In+Ga) <0.5 tolerated Ag incorporation up to Ag/(Ag+Cu) = 0.5 without appreciable performance loss. Ag-containing films with Ga/(In+Ga) = 0.8 showed improved device characteristics over Cu-only control samples, in particular a 30-40% increase in short-circuit current. An absorber layer with composition Ag/(Ag+Cu) = 0.75 and Ga/(In+Ga) = 0.8 yielded a device with VOC = 890 mV, JSC = 20.5mA/cm2, fill factor = 71.3%, and ? = 13.0%.

Hanket, Gregory; Boyle, Jonathan H.; Shafarman, William N.

2009-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

431

Optical and quantum efficiency analysis of (Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

(Ag,Cu)(In,Ga)Se2 thin films have been deposited by elemental co-evaporation over a wide range of compositions and their optical properties characterized by transmission and reflection measurements and by relative shift analysis of quantum efficiency device measurements. The optical bandgaps were determined by performing linear fits of (?h?)2 vs. h?, and the quantum efficiency bandgaps were determined by relative shift analysis of device curves with fixed Ga/(In+Ga) composition, but varying Ag/(Cu+Ag) composition. The determined experimental optical bandgap ranges of the Ga/(In+Ga) = 0.31, 0.52, and 0.82 groups, with Ag/(Cu+Ag) ranging from 0 to 1, were 1.19-1.45 eV, 1.32-1.56 eV, and 1.52-1.76 eV, respectively. The optical bowing parameter of the different Ga/(In+Ga) groups was also determined.

Boyle, Jonathan; Hanket, Gregory; Shafarman, William

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

432

Dependence on proton energy of degradation of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of proton irradiation energy on dc, small signal, and large signal rf characteristics of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were investigated. AlGaN/GaN HEMTs were irradiated with protons at fixed fluence of 51015/cm2 and energies of 5, 10, and 15 MeV. Both dc and rf characteristics revealed more degradation at lower irradiation energy, with reductions of maximum transconductance of 11%, 22%, and 38%, and decreases in drain saturation current of 10%, 24%, and 46% for HEMTs exposed to 15, 10, and 5MeV protons, respectively. The increase in device degradation with decreasing proton energy is due to the increase in linear energy transfer and corresponding increase in nonionizing energy loss with decreasing proton energy in the active region of the HEMTs. After irradiation, both subthreshold drain leakage current and reverse gate current decreased more than 1 order of magnitude for all samples. The carrier removal rate was in the range 121 336 cm1 over the range of proton energies employed in this study

Liu, L. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Xi, Y. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Wang, Y.l. [University of Florida; Ren, F. [University of Florida; Pearton, S. J. [University of Florida; Kim, H.-Y. [Korea University; Kim, J. [Korea University; Fitch, Robert C [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; Walker, Dennis E [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; Chabak, Kelson D [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; Gillespie, James k [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; Tetlak, Stephen E [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; Via, Glen D [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; Crespo, Antonio [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young`s modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs.

Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Mining and Geological Engineering

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Fuel cell system with separating structure bonded to electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell assembly comprises a separating structure configured for separating a first reactant and a second reactant wherein the separating structure has an opening therein. The fuel cell assembly further comprises a fuel cell comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and an electrolyte interposed between the first and second electrodes, and a passage configured to introduce the second reactant to the second electrode. The electrolyte is bonded to the separating structure with the first electrode being situated within the opening, and the second electrode being situated within the passage.

Bourgeois, Richard Scott (Albany, NY); Gudlavalleti, Sauri (Albany, NY); Quek, Shu Ching (Clifton Park, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Powers, James Daniel (Santa Monica, CA)

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

435

ECCENTRIC ROLLING OF POWDER AND BONDING AGENT INTO SPHERICAL PELLETS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A machine is described for pelletizing powder and bonding agent into spherical pellets of high density and uniform size. In this device, the material to be compacted is added to a flat circular pan which is moved in a circular orbit in a horizontal plane about an axis displaced from that of the pan's central axis without rotating the pan about its central axis. This movement causes the material contained therein to roll around the outside wall of the container and build up pellets of uniform shape, size, and density.

Patton, G. Jr.; Zirinsky, S.

1961-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

A local view of bonding and diffusion at metal surfaces  

SciTech Connect

First-principles density functional calculations and corresponding experimental results underline the importance of basic chemical concepts, such as coordination, valence saturation and promotion-hybridization energetics, in understanding bonding and diffusion of atoms at and on metal surfaces. Several examples are reviewed, including outer-layer relaxations of clean hcp(0001) surfaces, liquid-metal-embrittlement energetics, separation energies of metal-adatom dimers, concerted substitutional self-diffusion on fcc(001) surfaces, and adsorption and diffusion barrier sites for adatoms near steps.

Feibelman, P.J.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear 306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel EIS-0306: Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Summary This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the proposed electrometallurgical treatment of DOE-owned sodium bonded spent nuclear fuel in the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). Public Comment Opportunities None available at this time. Documents Available for Download September 19, 2000 EIS-0306: Record of Decision Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel July 1, 2000 EIS-0306: Final Environmental Impact Statement Treatment and Management of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel July 1, 1999 EIS-0306: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Treatment of Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel

438

Electroluminescence and Transmission Electron Microscopy Characterization of Reverse-Biased AlGaN/GaN Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reverse-bias stress testing has been applied to a large set of more than 50 AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, which were fabricated using the same process but with different values of the AlN mole fraction and the AlGaN barrier-layer thickness, as well as different substrates (SiC and sapphire). Two sets of devices having different defect types and densities, related to the different growth conditions and the choice of nucleation layer, were also compared. When subjected to gate drain (or gate-to-drain and source short-circuited) reverse-bias testing, all devices presented the same time-dependent failure mode, consisting of a significant increase in the gate leakage current. This failure mechanism occurred abruptly during step-stress experiments when a certain negative gate voltage, or critical voltage, was exceeded or, during constant voltage tests, at a certain time, defined as time to breakdown. Electroluminescence (EL) microscopy was systematically used to identify localized damaged areas that induced an increase of gate reverse current. This current increase was correlated with the increase of EL intensity, and significant EL emission during tests occurred only when the critical voltage was exceeded. Focused-ion-beam milling produced cross-sectional samples suitable for electron microscopy observation at the sites of failure points previously identified by EL microscopy. In highdefectivity devices, V-defects were identified that were associated with initially high gate leakage current and corresponding to EL spots already present in untreated devices. Conversely, identification of defects induced by reverse-bias testing proved to be extremely difficult, and only nanometer-size cracks or defect chains, extending vertically from the gate edges through the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction, were found. No signs of metal/semiconductor interdiffusion or extended defective areas were visible.

Cullen, David A [ORNL; Smith, David J [Arizona State University; Passaseo, Adriana [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche; Tasco, Vittorianna [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche; Stocco, Antonio [Universita di Padova; Meneghini, Matteo [Universita di Padova; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio [Universita di Padova; Zanoni, Enrico [Universita di Padova

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

DOI: 10.1021/bi101428e Hydrogen Bonding in the Active Site of Ketosteroid Isomerase: Electronic Inductive Effects and Hydrogen Bond Coupling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: Computational studies are performed to analyze the physical properties of hydrogen bonds donated by Tyr16 and Asp103 to a series of substituted phenolate inhibitors bound in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase (KSI). As the solution pKa of the phenolate increases, these hydrogen bond distances decrease, the associated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts increase, and the fraction of protonated inhibitor increases, in agreement with prior experiments. The quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations provide insight into the electronic inductive effects along the hydrogen bonding network that includes Tyr16, Tyr57, and Tyr32, as well as insight into hydrogen bond coupling in the active site. The calculations predict that the most-downfield NMR chemical shift observed experimentally corresponds to the Tyr16-phenolate hydrogen bond and that Tyr16 is the proton donor when a bound naphtholate inhibitor is observed to be protonated in electronic absorption experiments. According to these calculations, the electronic inductive effects along the hydrogen bonding network of tyrosines cause the Tyr16 hydroxyl to be more acidic than the Asp103 carboxylic acid moiety, which is immersed in a relatively nonpolar environment. When one of the distal tyrosine residues in the network is mutated to phenylalanine, thereby diminishing this inductive effect, the Tyr16-phenolate hydrogen bond becomes longer and the Asp103-phenolate hydrogen bond shorter, as observed in NMR experiments. Furthermore, the calculations suggest that

Philip Hanoian; Paul A. Sigala; Daniel Herschlag; Sharon Hammes-schiffer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Analysis and testing of adhesively bonded lap joints  

SciTech Connect

Detailed studies of adhesively bonded tubular lap joints subjected to axial loads can be efficiently performed with two-dimensional (2D) finite element analyses. However, three-dimensional (3D) analyses are required to model the bending of tubes and the axial loading of many other shapes such as airfoils. Unfortunately, these 3D analyses require significantly more time and computer resources than 2D analyses. Thus, it is of interest to determine whether some aspects of 3D behavior can be captured with 2D analyses. A series of finite element analyses will show that the shear stress in the adhesive of a tubular or an elliptic lap joint -- due to a bending load -- can be reasonably estimated with a 2D analysis even though the behavior is 3D. After the agreement between 2D and 3D analyses is detailed, preliminary efforts to assess the importance of adhesive geometry at the end of the bond will be discussed. Experimental measurements of the mechanical properties of a structural adhesive used in joint tests will also be presented. Tension, compression, and stress relaxation data for a filled, amine-cured epoxy adhesive will be discussed.

Metzinger, K.E.; Guess, T.R.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

IMPACT OF CAPILLARY AND BOND NUMBERS ON RELATIVE PERMEABILITY  

SciTech Connect

Recovery and recovery rate of oil, gas and condensates depend crucially on their relative permeability. Relative permeability in turn depends on the pore structure, wettability and flooding conditions, which can be represented by a set of dimensionless groups including capillary and bond numbers. The effect of flooding conditions on drainage relative permeabilities is not well understood and is the overall goal of this project. This project has three specific objectives: to improve the centrifuge relative permeability method, to measure capillary and bond number effects experimentally, and to develop a pore network model for multiphase flows. A centrifuge has been built that can accommodate high pressure core holders and x-ray saturation monitoring. The centrifuge core holders can operate at a pore pressure of 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) and an overburden pressure of 17 MPa (2500 psi). The effect of capillary number on residual saturation and relative permeability in drainage flow has been measured. A pore network model has been developed to study the effect of capillary numbers and viscosity ratio on drainage relative permeability. Capillary and Reynolds number dependence of gas-condensate flow has been studied during well testing. A method has been developed to estimate relative permeability parameters from gas-condensate well test data.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

442

GaSb substrates with extended IR wavelength for advanced space based applications  

SciTech Connect

GaSb substrates have advantages that make them attractive for implementation of a wide range of infrared (IR) detectors with higher operating temperatures for stealth and space based applications. A significant aspect that would enable widespread commercial application of GaSb wafers for very long wavelength IR (VLWIR) applications is the capability for transmissivity beyond 15 m. Due largely to the GaSb (antisite) defect and other point defects in undoped GaSb substrates, intrinsic GaSb is still slightly p-type and strongly absorbs in the VLWIR. This requires backside thinning of the GaSb substrate for IR transmissivity. An extremely low n-type GaSb substrate is preferred to eliminate thinning and provide a substrate solution for backside illuminated VLWIR devices. By providing a more homogeneous radial distribution of the melt solute to suppress GaSb formation and controlling the cooling rate, ultra low doped n:GaSb has been achieved. This study examines the surface properties and IR transmission spectra of ultra low doped GaSb substrates at both room and low temperatures. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), homoepitaxy by MBE, and infrared Fourier transform (FTIR) analysis was implemented to examine material quality. As compared with standard low doped GaSb, the ultra low doped substrates show over 50% transmission and consistent wavelength transparency past 23 m with improved %T at low temperature. Homoepitaxy and AFM results indicate the ultra low doped GaSb has a low thermal desorbtion character and qualified morphology. In summary, improvements in room temperature IR transmission and extended wavelength characteristics have been shown consistently for ultra low doped n:GaSb substrates.

Allen, Lisa P.; Flint, Patrick; Dallas, Gordon; Bakken, Daniel; Blanchat, Kevin; Brown, Gail J.; Vangala, Shivashankar R.; Goodhue, William D.; Krishnaswami, Kannan

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Two-color picosecond experiments on anti-Stokes photoluminescence in GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric double quantum wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

quantum wells S. C. Hohng and D. S. Kima) Department of Physics and Condensed Matter Research Institute in GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric double quantum wells. Direct evidence for forbidden absorption is shown heterojunctions and asymmetric double quan- tum wells was found and its origin is still being hotly de- bated

Hohng, Sung Chul

444

Light output enhancement of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with contrasting indium tin-oxide nanopatterned structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various nanopatterns on the transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) layer are investigated to enhance the light extraction efficiency of the InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Triangular, square, and circular nanohole patterns with the square ...

Sang Hyun Jung, Keun Man Song, Young Su Choi, Hyeong-Ho Park, Hyun-Beom Shin, Ho Kwan Kang, Jaejin Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Optically pumped InxGa???xN/InyGa???yN multiple quantum well vertical cavity surface emitting laser operating at room temperature.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Room temperature vertical cavity lasing at the wavelength of 433nm has been successfully realized in InxGa???xN/InyGa???yN multiple quantum well without Bragg mirrors under photo-excitation. At high excitation intensity, ...

Chen, Zhen

446

Ultralow nonalloyed Ohmic contact resistance to self aligned N-polar GaN high electron mobility transistors by In(Ga)N regrowth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultralow Ohmic contact resistance and a self-aligned device structure are necessary to reduce the effect of parasitic elements and obtain higher f{sub t} and f{sub max} in high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). N-polar (0001) GaN HEMTs, offer a natural advantage over Ga-polar HEMTs, in terms of contact resistance since the contact is not made through a high band gap material [Al(Ga)N]. In this work, we extend the advantage by making use of polarization induced three-dimensional electron-gas through regrowth of graded InGaN and thin InN cap in the contact regions by plasma (molecular beam epitaxy), to obtain an ultralow Ohmic contact resistance of 27 OMEGA mum to a GaN 2DEG.

Dasgupta, Sansaptak; Nidhi,; Brown, David F.; Wu, Feng; Keller, Stacia; Speck, James S.; Mishra, Umesh K. [Department of ECE, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States) and Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2010-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

447

GaN Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors  

SciTech Connect

A GaN based depletion mode metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) was demonstrated using Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as the gate dielectric. The MOS gate reverse breakdown voltage was > 35V which was significantly improved from 17V of Pt Schottky gate on the same material. A maximum extrinsic transconductance of 15 mS/mm was obtained at V{sub ds} = 30 V and device performance was limited by the contact resistance. A unity current gain cut-off frequency, f{sub {tau}}, and maximum frequency of oscillation, f{sub max} of 3.1 and 10.3 GHz, respectively, were measured at V{sub ds} = 25 V and V{sub gs} = {minus}20 V.

Ren, F.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.; Cheng, P.; Shul, R.J.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hong, M.; Lothian, J.R.; Schurman, M.J.

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

448

Dynamic Model of Hydrogen in GaN  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dynamic Model of Hydrogen in GaN by S. M. Myers and A. F. Wright Motivation-Hydrogen is incorporated into p-type GaN during MOCVD growth, producing highly stable passivation of the Mg acceptors. Complete acceptor activation by thermal H release requires temperatures that threaten material integrity, prompting compromises in device processing. At lower temperatures, forward bias of p-n junctions or electron-beam irradiation produces a metastable, reversible activation without H release. To understand and control such effects, we are developing a mathematical model of H behavior wherein state energies from density-functional theory are employed in diffusion-reaction equations. Previously, we used the greatly simplifying assumptions of local equilibrium among states

449

A GaAs transceiver chip for optical data transmission  

SciTech Connect

The present article describes a transceiver VLSI chip for optical data transmission, at 1 Gbit/s (1.4 Gbit/s in selected production), made in GaAs technology. The transceiver makes the parallel-to-serial and serial-to-parallel conversion as well as the encoding and decoding of 32 bit data words. The circuit operates in a completely asynchronous mode, allowing the possibility of switching on-off the transmission in few nsec and of using the transceiver not only in point-to-point topologies, but also in flooding topologies (i.e. star connections). The radiation hardness and the relatively low power consumption, respect to TTL, of the GaAs, extend the use of the chip to a large number of applications in present and future high energy physics experimental apparatus.

Mirabelli, G.; Petrolo, E.; Valente, E. (Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Roma (Italy)); Cardarelli, R.; Santonico, R. (Sezione di Roma 2 and Univ. di Roma (Italy). Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare); Ferrer, M.L. (Lab. Nazionali di Frascati (Italy). Ist. Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

A method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors includes providing a process chamber and a source electrode adjacent to the process chamber. The process chamber contains a sample comprising a Ga-based compound semiconductor. The sample is in contact with a platen which is electrically connected to a first power supply, and the source electrode is electrically connected to a second power supply. The method includes flowing SiCl.sub.4 gas into the chamber, flowing Ar gas into the chamber, and flowing H.sub.2 gas into the chamber. RF power is supplied independently to the source electrode and the platen. A plasma is generated based on the gases in the process chamber, and regions of a surface of the sample adjacent to one or more masked portions of the surface are etched to create a substantially smooth etched surface including features having substantially vertical walls beneath the masked portions.

Qiu, Weibin; Goddard, Lynford L.

2012-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

451

AlGaAs diode pumped tunable chromium lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An all-solid-state laser system is disclosed wherein the laser is pumped in the longwave wing of the pump absorption band. By utilizing a laser material that will accept unusually high dopant concentrations without deleterious effects on the crystal lattice one is able to compensate for the decreased cross section in the wing of the absorption band, and the number of pump sources which can be used with such a material increases correspondingly. In a particular embodiment a chromium doped colquiriite-structure crystal such as Cr:LiSrAlF.sub.6 is the laser material. The invention avoids the problems associated with using AlGaInP diodes by doping the Cr:LiSrAlF.sub.6 heavily to enable efficient pumping in the longwave wing of the absorption band with more practical AlGaAs diodes.

Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

CsBr/GaN Heterojunction Photoelectron Source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental results on a new CsBr/GaN heterojunction photocathode structure are presented. The results indicate a fourfold improvement in photoyield relative to CsBr/Cr photocathodes. A model is presented based on intraband states in CsBr and electron injection from the GaN (with 1% addition of indium) substrate to explain the observed photoyield enhancement. The photocathode lifetime at high current density (>40 A/cm{sup 2}) is limited by laser heating of the small illuminated area. Calculations are presented for sapphire and diamond substrates, indicating a factor of 20 reduction in temperature for the latter. The results are encouraging for the realization of a high photoyield photocathode operating at high current density with long lifetime.

Maldonado, J.R.; /Stanford U., Elect. Eng. Dept.; Liu, Z.; Sun, Y.; /SLAC, SSRL; Schuetter, S.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Pianetta, P.; /SLAC, SSRL; Pease, R.F.W.; /Stanford U., Elect. Eng. Dept.

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

453

Method of plasma etching GA-based compound semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of plasma etching Ga-based compound semiconductors includes providing a process chamber and a source electrode adjacent thereto. The chamber contains a Ga-based compound semiconductor sample in contact with a platen which is electrically connected to a first power supply, and the source electrode is electrically connected to a second power supply. SiCl.sub.4 and Ar gases are flowed into the chamber. RF power is supplied to the platen at a first power level, and RF power is supplied to the source electrode. A plasma is generated. Then, RF power is supplied to the platen at a second power level lower than the first power level and no greater than about 30 W. Regions of a surface of the sample adjacent to one or more masked portions of the surface are etched at a rate of no more than about 25 nm/min to create a substantially smooth etched surface.

Qiu, Weibin; Goddard, Lynford L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Materials physics and device development for improved efficiency of GaN HEMT high power amplifiers.  

SciTech Connect

GaN-based microwave power amplifiers have been identified as critical components in Sandia's next generation micro-Synthetic-Aperture-Radar (SAR) operating at X-band and Ku-band (10-18 GHz). To miniaturize SAR, GaN-based amplifiers are necessary to replace bulky traveling wave tubes. Specifically, for micro-SAR development, highly reliable GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), which have delivered a factor of 10 times improvement in power performance compared to GaAs, need to be developed. Despite the great promise of GaN HEMTs, problems associated with nitride materials growth currently limit gain, linearity, power-added-efficiency, reproducibility, and reliability. These material quality issues are primarily due to heteroepitaxial growth of GaN on lattice mismatched substrates. Because SiC provides the best lattice match and thermal conductivity, SiC is currently the substrate of choice for GaN-based microwave amplifiers. Obviously for GaN-based HEMTs to fully realize their tremendous promise, several challenges related to GaN heteroepitaxy on SiC must be solved. For this LDRD, we conducted a concerted effort to resolve materials issues through in-depth research on GaN/AlGaN growth on SiC. Repeatable growth processes were developed which enabled basic studies of these device layers as well as full fabrication of microwave amplifiers. Detailed studies of the GaN and AlGaN growth of SiC were conducted and techniques to measure the structural and electrical properties of the layers were developed. Problems that limit device performance were investigated, including electron traps, dislocations, the quality of semi-insulating GaN, the GaN/AlGaN interface roughness, and surface pinning of the AlGaN gate. Surface charge was reduced by developing silicon nitride passivation. Constant feedback between material properties, physical understanding, and device performance enabled rapid progress which eventually led to the successful fabrication of state of the art HEMT transistors and amplifiers.

Kurtz, Steven Ross; Follstaedt, David Martin; Wright, Alan Francis; Baca, Albert G.; Briggs, Ronald D.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Missert, Nancy A.; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Marsh, Phil F.; Koleske, Daniel David; Lee, Stephen Roger; Shul, Randy John; Seager, Carleton Hoover; Tigges, Christopher P.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning micro-Raman spectroscopy of structural irregularities and strains deep inside the multilayered InGaN/GaN heterostructure  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning confocal Raman spectroscopy are used to study the spatial distribution of strains in the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN layers and structural quality of these layers in a multilayered light-emitting diode structure produced by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition onto (0001)-oriented sapphire substrates. It is shown that elastic strains almost completely relax at the heterointerface between the thick GaN buffer layer and In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/GaN buffer superlattice. It is established that the GaN layers in the superlattice are in a stretched state, whereas the alloy layers are in a compressed state. In magnitude, the stretching strains in the GaN layers are lower than the compressive strains in the InGaN layers. It is shown that, as compared to the buffer layers, the layers of the superlattice contain a smaller number of dislocations and the distribution of dislocations is more randomly disordered. In micro-Raman studies on scanning through the thickness of the multilayered structure, direct evidence is obtained for the asymmetric gradient distributions of strains and crystal imperfections of the epitaxial nitride layers along the direction of growth. It is shown that the emission intensity of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N quantum well is considerably (more than 30 times) higher than the emission intensity of the GaN barrier layers, suggesting the high efficiency of trapping of charge carriers by the quantum well.

Strelchuk, V. V., E-mail: Strelch@isp.kiev.ua; Kladko, V. P.; Avramenko, E. A.; Kolomys, O. F.; Safryuk, N. V.; Konakova, R. V. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine); Yavich, B. S., E-mail: byavich@soptel.ru [ZAO Svetlana-Optoelectronics (Russian Federation); Valakh, M. Ya.; Machulin, V. F.; Belyaev, A. E. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Realization of high-quality HfO{sub 2} on In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As by in-situ atomic-layer-deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High {kappa} dielectric of HfAlO/HfO{sub 2} was an in-situ atomic-layer-deposited directly on molecular beam epitaxy grown In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As surface without using pre-treatments or interfacial passivation layers, where HfAlO (HfO{sub 2}:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {approx} 4:1) with high re-crystallization temperature was employed as the top oxide layer. The HfAlO ({approx}4.5 nm)/HfO{sub 2} (0.8 nm)/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As metal oxide semiconductor capacitors have exhibited an oxide/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As interface free of arsenic-related defective bonding, thermodynamic stability at 800 deg. C, and low leakage current densities of oxide thickness of less than 1 nm has been achieved by reducing the HfAlO thickness to {approx}2.7 nm with the same initial HfO{sub 2} thickness of {approx}0.8 nm.

Lin, T. D.; Hong, M. [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lin, C. A.; Huang, M. L.; Lee, W. C. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Kwo, J. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2012-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

457

UV-Photoassisted Etching of GaN in KOH  

SciTech Connect

The etch rate of GaN under W-assisted photoelectrochemical conditions in KOH solutions is found to be a strong function of illumination intensity, solution molarity, sample bias and material doping level. At low e-h pair generation rates, grain boundaries are selectively etched, while at higher illumination intensities etch rates for unintentionally doped (n - 3x 10^12Gcm-3) GaN are 2 1000 .min-l. The etching is diffusion limited under our conditions with an activation energy of - 0.8kCal.mol-1. The etched surfaces are rough, but retain their stoichiometry. PEC etching is found to selectively reveal grain boundaries in GaN under low light illumination conditions. At high lamp powers the rates increase with sample temperature and the application of bias to the PEC cell, while they go through a maximum with KOH solution molarity. The etching is diffusion-limited, producing rough surface morphologies that are suitable in a limited number of device fabrication steps. The surfaces however appear to remain relatively close to their stoichiometric composition.

Abernathy, C.R.; Auh, K.H.; Cho, H.; Donovan, S.M.; Han, J.; Lambers, E.S.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren F.; Shul, R.J.

1998-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

458

Comparative study of GaN growth process by MOVPE  

SciTech Connect

A comparative study of two different MOVPE reactors used for GaN growth is presented. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to determine common gas phase and fluid flow behaviors within these reactors. This paper focuses on the common thermal fluid features of these two MOVPE reactors with different geometries and operating pressures that can grow device-quality GaN-based materials. The study clearly shows that several growth conditions must be achieved in order to grow high quality GaN materials. The high-temperature gas flow zone must be limited to a very thin flow sheet above the susceptor, while the bulk gas phase temperature must be very low to prevent extensive pre-deposition reactions. These conditions lead to higher growth rates and improved material quality. A certain range of gas flow velocity inside the high-temperature gas flow zone is also required in order to minimize the residence time and improve the growth uniformity. These conditions can be achieved by the use of either a novel reactor structure such as a two-flow approach or by specific flow conditions. The quantitative ranges of flow velocities, gas phase temperature, and residence time required in these reactors to achieve high quality material and uniform growth are given.

Sun, J.; Redwing, J.M.; Kuech, T.F.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Low-temperature magnetization of (Ga,Mn) As semiconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a comprehensive study of the ferromagnetic moment per Mn atom in (Ga,Mn)As ferromagnetic semiconductors. Theoretical discussion is based on microscopic calculations and on an effective model of Mn local moments antiferromagnetically coupled to valence band hole spins. The validity of the effective model over the range of doping studied is assessed by comparing with microscopic tight-binding/coherent-potential approximation calculations. Using the virtual crystal k center dot p model for hole states, we evaluate the zero-temperature mean-field contributions to the magnetization from the hole kinetic and exchange energies, and magnetization suppression due to quantum fluctuations of Mn moment orientations around their mean-field ground state values. Experimental low-temperature ferromagnetic moments per Mn are obtained by superconducting quantum interference device and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a series of (Ga,Mn)As semiconductors with nominal Mn doping ranging from similar to 2 to 8%. Hall measurements in as-grown and annealed samples are used to estimate the number of uncompensated substitutional Mn moments. Based on our comparison between experiment and theory we conclude that all these Mn moments in high quality (Ga,Mn)As materials have nearly parallel ground state alignment.

Jungwirth, T.; Masek, J.; Wang, KY; Edmonds, KW; Sawicki, M.; Polini, M.; Sinova, Jairo; MacDonald, AH; Campion, RP; Zhao, LX; Farley, NRS; Johal, TK; van der Laan, G.; Foxon, CT; Gallagher, BL.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Substrate misorientation effects on epitaxial GaInAsSb  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of substrate misorientation on the growth of GaInAsSb was studied for epilayers grown lattice-matched to GaSb substrates by low-pressure organometallic vapor phase epitaxy. The substrates were (100) misoriented 2 or 6{degree} toward (110), (111)A, or (111)B. The surface is mirror-like and featureless for layers grown with a 6{degree} toward (111)B misorientation, while, a slight texture was observed for layers grown on all other misorientations. The optical quality of layers, as determined by the full width at half-maximum of photoluminescence spectra measured at 4K, is significantly better for layers grown on substrates with a 6{degree} toward (111)B misorientation. The incorporation of Zn as a p-type dopant in GaInAsSb is about 1.5 times more efficient on substrates with 6{degree} toward (111)B misorientation compared to 2{degree} toward (110) misorientation. The external quantum efficiency of thermophotovoltaic devices is not, however, significantly affected by substrate misorientation.

Wang, C.A.; Choi, H.K.; Oakley, D.C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Lexington, MA (United States). Lincoln Lab.; Charache, G.W. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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461

Desferal (DFO) induced Ga-67 washout from normal tissue, tumor and abscess in experimental animals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the experimental animal, desferal (DFO) given intravenously washes out Ga-67 from all tissues. This effect is not uniform: blood activity is reduced very markedly, while liver activity is less affected. Maximal effect of DFO occurs if given close to the Ga-67 injection. When the time interval between the two is increased, the absolute amount of Ga-67 excreted in the urine in excess of the spontaneous excretion is reduced. Administration of DFO does not effect Ga-67 gastrointestinal excretion. In three animal tumor models (EMT-6 sarcoma in Balb/c mice, spontaneous adenocarcinoma in mice, and spontaneous adenocarcinoma in the rabbit) and in sterile abscess-bearing rats, the administration of DFO 24 hrs after Ga-67-citrate improves significantly the target-to-nontarget ratio. Animals given 50 mg/kg DFO I.V. after Ga-67 citrate showed a significant reduction in the whole-body activity as seen in a one-week follow up.

Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Atkins, H.L.; Brill, A.B.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Low energy electron beam induced vacancy activation in GaN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental evidence on low energy electron beam induced point defect activation in GaN grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is presented. The GaN samples are irradiated with a 5-20 keV electron beam of a scanning electron microscope and investigated by photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements. The degradation of the band-to-band luminescence of the irradiated GaN films is associated with the activation of point defects. The activated defects were identified as in-grown Ga-vacancies. We propose that MOVPE-GaN contains a significant concentration of passive V{sub Ga}-H{sub n} complexes that can be activated by H removal during low energy electron irradiation.

Nykaenen, H.; Suihkonen, S.; Sopanen, M. [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Kilanski, L. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/56, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Tuomisto, F. [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 11100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

463

Low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells utilizing GaAs-on-Si technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work to develop technology to deposit GaAs on Si using a nucleation layer of atomic-layer-epitaxy-grown GaAs or AlAs on Si. This ensures two-dimensional nucleation and should lead to fewer defects in the final GaAs layer. As an alternative, we also developed technology for depositing GaAs on sawtooth-patterned Si. Preliminary studies showed that this material can have a very low defect density, [approximately] 1 [times] 10[sup 5] cm[sup [minus]5], as opposed to our conventionally grown GaAs on SL which has a typical defect density of over 1 [times]10[sup 7] cm[sup [minus]2]. Using these two now methods of GaAs-on-Si material growth, we made solar cells that are expected to show higher efficiencies than those of previous cells.

Vernon, S.M. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Flip Chip Bonding of Sn-58Bi Solder Bumps Formed on Flexible PCB  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Route Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Copper Nitrate Solution AlGaAs-Based Optical ... Defect Energetics and Fission Product Transport in ZrC ... Enhancing Mineral Beneficiation by High Intensity Power Ultrasound.

465

Ultra-shallow quantum dots in an undoped GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas  

SciTech Connect

We report quantum dots fabricated on very shallow 2-dimensional electron gases, only 30 nm below the surface, in undoped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Due to the absence of dopants, an improvement of more than one order of magnitude in mobility (at 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}) with respect to doped heterostructures with similar depths is observed. These undoped wafers can easily be gated with surface metallic gates patterned by e-beam lithography, as demonstrated here from single-level transport through a quantum dot showing large charging energies (up to 1.75 meV) and excited state energies (up to 0.5 meV).

Mak, W. Y.; Sfigakis, F.; Beere, H. E.; Farrer, I.; Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Das Gupta, K. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom) [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Klochan, O.; Hamilton, A. R. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

466

Terrestrial Concentrator PV Modules Based on GaInP/GaAs/Ge TJ Cells and Minilens Panels  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a description of research activity in the field of cost-effective modules realizing the concept of very high solar concentration with small-aperture area Fresnel lenses and multijunction III-V cells. Structural simplicity and 'all-glass' design are the guiding principles of the corresponding development. The advanced concentrator modules are made with silicone Fresnel lens panels (from 8 up to 144 lenses, each lens is 4 times 4 cm{sup 2} in aperture area) with composite structure. GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction cells with average efficiencies of 31.1 and 34.7% at 1000 suns were used for the modules. Conversion efficiency as high as 26.3% has been measured indoors in a test module using a newly developed large-area solar simulator.

Rumyantsev, V. D.; Sadchikov, N. A.; Chalov, A. E.; Ionova, E. A.; Friedman, D. J.; Glenn, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Quaternary Bismide Alloy ByGa1-yAs1-xBix Lattice Matched to GaAs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report on the lattice matched quaternary alloy, B{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}As{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} grown by molecular beam epitaxy at conditions conducive to bismuth incorporation. Incorporating a smaller atom (boron) along with the larger atom (bismuth) allows for a reduction of the epi-layer strain and lattice matching to GaAs for compositions of Bi:B{approx_equal}1.3:1. The addition of boron flux does not significantly affect the bismuth incorporation and no change in the band gap energy is observed with increasing boron content. However, excess, non-substitutional boron is incorporated which leads to an increase in hole density, as well as an increase in the density of shallow in-gap states as observed by the loss of localization of photo-excited excitons.

Deaton, D. A.; Ptak, A. J.; Alberi, K.; Mascarenhas, A.

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

468

Impact of proton irradiation on dc performance of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of proton irradiation dose on dc characteristics and the reliability of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were investigated. The HEMTs were irradiated with protons at a fixed energy of 5 MeV and doses ranging from 109 to 2 1014 cm-2. For the dc characteristics, there was only minimal degradation of saturation drain current (IDSS), transconductance (gm), electron mobility and sheet carrier concentration at doses below 2 1013 cm-2, while the reduction of these parameters were 15%, 9%, 41% and 16.6%, respectively, at a dose of 2 1014 cm-2. At this same dose condition, increases of 37% in drain breakdown voltage (VBR) and of 45% in critical voltage (Vcri) were observed. The improvement of device reliability was attributed to the modification of the depletion region due to the introduction of a higher density of defects after irradiation at a higher dose.

Liu, L. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Cuervo, C.V. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Xi, Y. Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ren, F. [University of Florida; Pearton, S. J. [University of Florida; Kim, H.-Y. [Korea University; Kim, J. [Korea University; Kravchenko, Ivan I [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Harmonic Responses in 2DEG AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT Devices Due to Plasma Wave Interaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plasma waves are oscillations of electron density in time and space, and in deep submicron field effect transistors, typical plasma frequencies, omega{sub p}, lie in the terahertz range and do not involve any quantum transitions. Hence, using plasma wave excitation for detection and/or generation of THz oscillations is a very promising approach. In this paper, the investigation of plasma wave interaction between the plasma waves propagating in a short-channel High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (HEMT) and the radiated electromagnetic waves was carried out. Experimentally, we have demonstrated the detection of the terahertz (THz) radiation by an AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT up to third harmonic at room temperature and their resonant responses show very good agreement with the calculated results.

Hashim, A. M.; Alias, Q. I. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Kasai, S.; Hasegawa, H. [Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics, Hokkaido University North 12 West 8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

470

Weird Oxygen Bonding under Pressure | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Breakthrough in Improving Osteoporosis Drug Design A Breakthrough in Improving Osteoporosis Drug Design Allaying Structural-Alloy Corrosion Putting the Pressure on MOFs Newly Described "Dragon" Protein Could Be Key to Bird Flu Cure Hearing the Highest Pitches Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Weird Oxygen Bonding under Pressure AUGUST 8, 2008 Bookmark and Share Schematic shows the topology of π* orbital interactions in the (O2)4 cluster. (Image copyright National Academy of Sciences, PNAS.) Oxygen, the third most abundant element in the cosmos and essential to life on Earth, changes its forms dramatically under pressure, transforming to a solid with spectacular colors. Eventually it becomes metallic and a

471

Measurement-Based Quantum Computing with Valence-Bond-Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement-based quantum computing (MBQC) is a model of quantum computing that proceeds by sequential measurements of individual spins in an entangled resource state. However, it remains a challenge to produce efficiently such resource states. Would it be possible to generate these states by simply cooling a quantum many-body system to its ground state? Cluster states, the canonical resource states for MBQC, do not occur naturally as unique ground states of physical systems. This inherent hurdle has led to a significant effort to identify alternative resource states that appear as ground states in spin lattices. Recently, some interesting candidates have been identified with various valence-bond-solid (VBS) states. In this review, we provide a pedagogical introduction to recent progress regarding MBQC with VBS states as possible resource states. This study has led to an interesting interdisciplinary research area at the interface of quantum information science and condensed matter physics.

Kwek, Leong Chuan; Zeng, Bei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

NREL-Low-Cost Financing with Clean Renewable Energy Bonds Webinar | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NREL-Low-Cost Financing with Clean Renewable Energy Bonds Webinar NREL-Low-Cost Financing with Clean Renewable Energy Bonds Webinar Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low-Cost Financing with Clean Renewable Energy Bonds Agency/Company /Organization: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Partner: United States Department of Energy Sector: Energy Topics: Finance Resource Type: Webinar, Training materials, Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.nrel.gov/applying_technologies/state_local_activities/webinar_2009 Low-Cost Financing with Clean Renewable Energy Bonds Screenshot References: Low-Cost Financing with Clean Renewable Energy Bonds[1] Logo: Low-Cost Financing with Clean Renewable Energy Bonds Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Assistance Project for state and local officials, this Webinar described the elements of clean

473

Subpicosecond spin relaxation in GaAsSb multiple quantum wells K. C. Hall,a)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Subpicosecond spin relaxation in GaAsSb multiple quantum wells K. C. Hall,a) S. W. Leonard, and H quantum wells are measured at 295 K using time-resolved circular dichroism induced by 1.5 m, 100 fs pulses times shorter than those in InGaAs and InGaAsP wells with similar band gaps. The shorter relaxation

Van Driel, Henry M.

474

Interstellar Isomers: The Importance of Bonding Energy Differences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present strong detections of methyl cyanide, vinyl cyanide, ethyl cyanide and cyanodiacetylene molecules with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) toward the Sgr B2(N) molecular cloud. Attempts to detect the corresponding isocyanide isomers were only successful in the case of methyl isocyanide for its J(K)=1(0)-0(0) transition, which is the first interstellar report of this line. To determine the spatial distribution of methyl isocyanide, we used archival Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) array data for the J(K)=4(K)-3(K) (K=0-3) transitions but no emission was detected. From ab initio calculations, the bonding energy difference between the cyanide and isocyanide molecules is >8500 cm^-1 (>12,000 K). That we detect methyl isocyanide emission with a single antenna (Gaussian beamsize(Omega_B)=1723 arcsec^2) but not with an interferometer (Omega_B=192 arcsec^2), strongly suggests that methyl isocyanide has a widespread spatial distribution toward the Sgr B2(N) region. Thus, large-scale, non-thermal processes in the surrounding medium may account for the conversion of methyl cyanide to methyl isocyanide while the LMH hot core, which is dominated by thermal processes, does not produce a significant amount of methyl isocyanide. Ice analog experiments by other investigators have shown that radiation bombardment of methyl cyanide can produce methyl isocyanide, thus supporting our observations. We conclude that isomers separated by such large bonding energy differences are distributed in different interstellar environments, making the evaluation of column density ratios between such isomers irrelevant unless it can be independently shown that these species are co-spatial.

Anthony J. Remijan; J. M. Hollis; F. J. Lovas; D. F. Plusquellic; P. R. Jewell

2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

475

Time resolved studies of bond activation by organometallic complexes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 1971, Jetz and Graham discovered that the silicon-hydrogen bond in silanes could be broken under mild photochemical conditions in the presence of certain transition metal carbonyls. Such reactions fall within the class of oxidative addition. A decade later, similar reactivity was discovered in alkanes. In these cases a C-H bond in non-functionalized alkanes was broken through the oxidative addition of Cp*Ir(H){sub 2}L (Cp* = (CH{sub 3}){sub 5}C{sub 5}, L = PPh{sub 3}, Ph = C{sub 6}H{sub 5}) to form Cp*ML(R)(H) or of Cp*Ir(CO){sub 2} to form Cp*Ir(CO)(R)(H). These discoveries opened an entirely new field of research, one which naturally included mechanistic studies aimed at elucidating the various paths involved in these and related reactions. Much was learned from these experiments but they shared the disadvantage of studying under highly non-standard conditions a system which is of interest largely because of its characteristics under standard conditions. Ultrafast time-resolved IR spectroscopy provides an ideal solution to this problem; because it allows the resolution of chemical events taking place on the femto-through picosecond time scale, it is possible to study this important class of reactions under the ambient conditions which are most of interest to the practicing synthetic chemist. Certain of the molecules in question are particularly well-suited to study using the ultrafast IR spectrophotometer described in the experimental section because they contain one or more carbonyl ligands.

Wilkens, M.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

The metallurgical integrity of the frit vent assembly diffusion bond  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Iridium alloy clad vent sets (CVSs) are now being made by Energy Systems at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. These CVSs are being made for the US Department of Energy`s (NE-53) General Purpose Heat Source- Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) program, which is to supply electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s Cassini mission to Saturn. A GPHS-RTG has 72 CVSs. Each CVS encapsulates one {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet. The helium gas produced from the alpha decay of the {sup 238}Pu is vented through a nominal 0.45-mm-diam hole in the vent cup of each CVS. A frit vent assembly that is electron beam welded over the vent hole allows helium gas to escape but prevents plutonia fines from exiting. The metallurgical integrity of frit vent assemblies produced by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) were compared with those produced earlier by EG&G-Mound Applied Technology, Inc. (EG&G-MAT). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs were taken (at magnifications of from 126X to 1,000X) of the starting frit vent powder and the diffusion-bonded powder in finished frit vent assemblies produced by Energy Systems and EG&G-MAT. Frit vent assemblies also were metallographically prepared and visually examined/photographed at magnifications of from 50X to 1,000X. The SEM and metallographic examinations of the particle-to-particle and particle-to-foil component diffusion bonds indicated that the Energy Systems-produced and EG&G-MAT-produced frit vent assemblies have comparable metallurgical integrity. Statistical analysis of the Energy Systems production data shows that the frit vent manufacturing yield is 91%.

Ulrich, G.B. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States). Process Metallurgy Dept.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Effect of Mg ionization efficiency on performance of Npn AlGaN/GaN heterojunction bipolar transistors  

SciTech Connect

A drift-diffusion transport model has been used to examine the performance capabilities of AlGaN/GaN Npn heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). The Gummel plot from the first GaN-based HBT structure recently demonstrated is adjusted with simulation by using experimental mobility and lifetime reported in the literature. Numerical results have been explored to study the effect of the p-type Mg doping and its incomplete ionization in the base. The high base resistance induced by the deep acceptor level is found to be the cause of limiting current gain values. Increasing the operating temperature of the device activates more carriers in the base. An improvement of the simulated current gain by a factor of 2 to 4 between 25 and 300 C agrees well with the reported experimental results. A preliminary analysis of high frequency characteristics indicates substantial progress of predicted rf performances by operating the device at higher temperature due to a reduced extrinsic base resistivity.

MONIER,C.; PEARTON,S.J.; CHANG,PING-CHIH; BACA,ALBERT G.

2000-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

478

Reliability of GaN HEMTs: Electrical and Radiation-induced Failure ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Advanced Materials for Power Electronics, Power Conditioning, and Power Conversion II. Presentation Title, Reliability of GaN HEMTs: Electrical...

479

Thermoelectric Study of InGaN-Based Materials for Thermal Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Thermoelectric Study of InGaN-Based Materials for Thermal ... Structural and Thermal Stability Properties of Cellulose Nanocomposites with...

480

X-Ray Studies of GaN Film Grown on Si Using Electrochemical Deposition Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the X-ray studies of GaN thin films deposited on Si (111) substrate at different current density using electrochemical deposition technique. The structural properties of GaN films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD analysis showed that hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zinc blende GaN phases were both deposited on Si (111). The lattice constants, the average size of h-GaN crystals and the in-plane (along a-axis) and out of plane (along c-axis) strains were calculated from XRD analysis.

Al-Heuseen, K.; Hashim, M. R. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bond comm ga" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

M4, Semipolar AlGaN Buffers for Deep Ultraviolet Diode Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On-axis reciprocal space mapping of the graded AlGaN showed tilt at each interface associated ..... New Concepts and Materials for Solar Power Conversion

482

Solidification and Microstructure Evaluation of the Ni-Ga and Co-Ni ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ni-Ga binary system is thus one of the basic binary system which forms the dominated ? ... The Effects of Natural and Marangoni Convection on the Resultant...

483

Structure and Composition Peculiarities of GaN/AlN Multiple ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thickness of AlN and GaN layers in MQWs (multiple quantum wells) were ... InAs Quantum Dots by Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy and Spectroscopy.