Sample records for boilers boiler fans

  1. Choosing the right boiler air fans at Weston 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spring, N.

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    When it came to choosing the three 'big' boiler air fans - forced draft, induced draft and primary air, the decision revolved around efficiency. The decision making process for fan selection for the Western 4 supercritical coal-fired plant is described in this article. 3 photos.

  2. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    govmanufacturingdistributedenergy chptaps.html * Read more about improving boiler and steam system efficiency on the Advanced Manufacturing Office website: http:...

  3. Recovery Boiler Corrosion Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    11/13/2014 1 Recovery Boiler Corrosion Chemistry Sandy Sharp and Honghi Tran Symposium on Corrosion of a recovery boiler each cause their own forms of corrosion and cracking Understanding the origin of the corrosive conditions enables us to operate a boiler so as to minimize corrosion and cracking select

  4. Minimize Boiler Blowdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on minimizing boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  5. Boiler Corrosion and Monitoring

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    G. R. Holcomb; B. F. McGhee; A. T. Fry; N. J. Simms; K. Davis; Shim, H S; S. J. Bullard

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a collaborative effort to investigate and develop solutions for key material issues affecting the performance of large-scale coal-fired boilers operating at advanced conditions is presented. Advanced conditions include advanced steam temperatures, oxyfuel firing, and co-firing biomass materials. A series of laboratory experimental results are presented on fireside corrosion in environments representing air-, and oxy-fired conditions, and with coal and/or biomass as the fuel. The effects of fluctuating reducing atmospheres and heat flux effects were examined. A variety of boiler corrosion probes and sensors were developed and tested. The probes measured corrosion by section loss and the sensors by electrochemical techniques including electrochemical noise. The probes were tested in coal and waste-to-energy boilers. Correlations between section loss probes and electrochemical noise sensors allow for real-time corrosion rate measurements to be made that allow for changes in boiler operations to be tracked in terms of corrosion effects.

  6. Recovery Boiler Modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdullah, Z.; Salcudean, M.; Nowak, P.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary computations of the cold flow in a simplified geometry of a recovery boiler are presented. The computations have been carried out using a new code containing multigrid methods and segmentation techniques. This approach is shown...

  7. Recovery Boiler Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdullah, Z.; Salcudean, M.; Nowak, P.

    Preliminary computations of the cold flow in a simplified geometry of a recovery boiler are presented. The computations have been carried out using a new code containing multigrid methods and segmentation techniques. This approach is shown...

  8. Computer Control of Boiler Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pareja, G. E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapidly rising energy costs present the opportunity for substantial cost savings through improved boiler combustion control. A process computer control system was installed at an Air Products & Chemicals facility in 1978. As a result the boiler...

  9. Implementation of Boiler Best Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blake, N. R.

    Boilers are an essential part of any industrial plant, and their efficient, economical operation can significantly affect the reliability and profitability of the entire plant. Best Practices for Boilers include tools to determine where a plant...

  10. Computer Control of Boiler Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pareja, G. E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , capability to burn multiple fuels, faster response to demand changes, and fewer shutdowns. INTRODUCTION With the cost of energy r1s1ng so rapidly, more intense scrutiny is given to the purchase of new boiler control systems, as well as to the re... placement of old and outdated boiler controls. More advanced boiler controls are capable of maximizing the efficiency of a boiler steam production process, and thereby minimize the use of the purchased fuels. The elaborate systems which were previously...

  11. Specifying Waste Heat Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    or hydrochloric acid vapor should be mentioned upfront so the HRSG designer can take proper precauations while designing the unit.Material selection is also impacted by the presence of corrosive gases.If partial pressure of hydrogen is high in the gas stream...SPECIFYING WASTE HEAT BOILERS V.Ganapathy.ABCO Industries Abilene,Texas ABSTRACT Waste heat boilers or Heat Recovery Steam 'Generators(HRSGs) as they are often called are used to recover energy from waste gas streams in chemical plants...

  12. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on boiler combustion efficiency provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  13. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  14. Low Temperature Heat Recovery for Boiler Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shook, J. R.; Luttenberger, D. B.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low temperature corrosion proof heat exchangers designed to reduce boiler flue gas temperatures to 150°F or lower are now being commercially operated on gas, oil and coal fired boilers. These heat exchangers, when applied to boiler flue gas...

  15. RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) for Firetube Boilers PIER Renewables Research September 2010 The Issue Researchers at Altex Technologies Corporation in Sunnyvale, industrial combined heat and power (CHP) boiler burner energy system technology ("BBEST"). Their research

  16. Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact Sheet, April 2015 Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact...

  17. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10|BlueFireBoiler MACT Technical

  18. Industrial Boiler Optimization Utilizing CO Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruoff, C. W.; Reiter, R. E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of four No. 6 oil fired boilers with an in stalled capacity of 500,000 lbs/hr. Each boiler was previously designed to operate with excess oxygen as the control parameter. By and large the existing boiler control systems functioned as designed. However... strategies such as load allocation. Increased operating experience with this system promises to open new areas and provide better ways to accompliish boiler control. i REFERENCES 1. Spanbauer, J. P., "Energy Savings Through Advanced Boiler Control...

  19. Steam Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.

    This paper examines several cost-effective steam conservation and boiler plant efficiency advancements that were implemented during a recently completed central steam boiler plant replacement project at a very large semiconductor manufacturing...

  20. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  1. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  2. Covered Product Category: Commercial Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements for commercial boilers, which is a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  3. Underdeposit corrosion in boiler applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seels, F.H.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion in industrial boilers is often associated with localized deposits. The most severe corrosion damage is often beneath the deposit. Waterside deposits can result in tube metal temperatures above the safe working limit for low-carbon steel. The variable of elevated metal temperature influences interactions between the deposit and corrosion processes under the deposit. Four case histories are discussed.

  4. Alternate Materials for Recovery Boiler Superheater Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R [ORNL; Kish, Joseph [McMaster University; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ever escalating demands for increased efficiency of all types of boilers would most sensibly be realized by an increase in the steam parameters of temperature and pressure. However, materials and corrosion limitations in the steam generating components, particularly the superheater tubes, present major obstacles to boiler designers in achieving systems that can operate under the more severe conditions. This paper will address the issues associated with superheater tube selection for many types of boilers; particularly chemical recovery boilers, but also addressing the similarities in issues for biomass and coal fired boilers. It will also review our recent study of materials for recovery boiler superheaters. Additional, more extensive studies, both laboratory and field, are needed to gain a better understanding of the variables that affect superheater tube corrosion and to better determine the best means to control this corrosion to ultimately permit operation of recovery boilers at higher temperatures and pressures.

  5. Kraft recovery boiler physical and chemical processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T.N.; Frederick, W.J. (Adams (Terry N.), Tacoma, WA (USA); Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this book is on the recent research into the physical and chemical processes occurring in and around a black liquor recovery boiler. Almost all of the detailed technical information in this book has previously appeared in the open literature. The purpose here is not to present research for the first time, but to present it in a context of the other processes occurring in recovery boilers. Topics covered include: general characteristics of recovery boilers; black liquor thermal and transport properties; black liquor droplet formation and combustion; recovery boiler char bed processes; flow and mixing in Kraft recovery boilers; entrainment and carryover in recovery furnaces; fume formation and dust chemistry; deposits and boiler plugging; and recovery boiler thermal performance. 257 refs., 102 figs., 38 tabs.

  6. Predictive modelling of boiler fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this reporting period, efforts were initiated to supplement the comprehensive flow field description obtained from the RNG-Spectral Element Simulations by incorporating, in a general framework, appropriate modules to model particle and condensable species transport to the surface. Specifically, a brief survey of the literature revealed the following possible mechanisms for transporting different ash constituents from the host gas to boiler tubes as deserving prominence in building the overall comprehensive model: (1) Flame-volatilized species, chiefly sulfates, are deposited on cooled boiler tubes via the mechanism of classical vapor diffusion. This mechanism is more efficient than the particulate ash deposition, and as a result there is usually an enrichment of condensable salts, chiefly sulfates, in boiler deposits; (2) Particle diffusion (Brownian motion) may account for deposition of some fine particles below 0. 1 mm in diameter in comparison with the mechanism of vapor diffusion and particle depositions, however, the amount of material transported to the tubes via this route is probably small. (3) Eddy diffusion, thermophoretic and electrophoretic deposition mechanisms are likely to have a marked influence in transporting 0.1 to 5[mu]m particles from the host gas to cooled boiler tubes; (4) Inertial impaction is the dominant mechanism in transporting particles above 5[mu]m in diameter to water and steam tubes in pulverized coal fired boiler, where the typical flue gas velocity is between 10 to 25 m/s. Particles above 10[mu]m usually have kinetic energies in excess of what can be dissipated at impact (in the absence of molten sulfate or viscous slag deposit), resulting in their entrainment in the host gas.

  7. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  8. Determining boiler-water makeup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beecher, J.; Herman, K. [Ashland Chemical Co., Boonton, NJ (United States). Drew Industrial Div.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In boiler operations, it is desirable to determine blowdown--and, thus, the feedwater`s concentration cycles--because it enables operators to calculate the theoretical concentrations of iron, copper or dispersant in the system. These calculations are important for maintaining boiler cleanliness. In practice, however, it isn`t always feasible to determine blowdown. For example, if the steam, feedwater and blowdown flows are not measured in a system, or if the measurements are not accurate, the blowdown and feedwater concentration cycles cannot be accurately determined. Also, if demineralized makeup water with very-low silica concentrations is mixed with essentially silica-free condensate, the ratio of silica in the boiler water to the silica in the feedwater may not yield accurate values for the concentration cycle. This method for calculating concentration cycles is accurate to within 5%, when the accuracy of the parameters measured are within the following limits: steam flow (2%); phosphate, residual (5%); micro calcium (50%); micro iron (25%); and phosphate, feed (10%).

  9. Quantifying Energy Savings by Improving Boiler Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, K.; Kissock, J. K.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dayton, OH ABSTRACT On/off operation and excess combustion air reduce boiler energy efficiency. This paper presents methods to quantify energy savings from switching to modulation control mode and reducing excess air in natural gas fired boilers... the accuracy of the methods. INTRODUCTION In our experience, common opportunities for improving boiler efficiency include switching from on/off to modulation control and reducing excess air. The decision about whether to pursue these opportunities...

  10. Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP steam tip sheet on upgrading boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  11. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  12. EPA may force scrubbers on industry boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hume, M.

    1985-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposal requiring scrubber standards for industrial energy users will force industry to invest in the costly pollution control equipment used mostly by utilities today. The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide emissions will require either scrubbing or fluidized-bed combustion regardless of the fuel's sulfur content. Protests from the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners that this is an unfair burden on non-utility boilers note that scrubbing is more costly for smaller boilers, and that it could impede air quality improvement by discouraging the replacement of old boilers. EPA contests these claims.

  13. Boiler System Efficiency Improves with Effective Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, D.

    Water treatment is an important aspect of boiler operation which can affect efficiency or result in damage if neglected. Without effective water treatment, scale can form on boiler tubes, reducing heat transfer, and causing a loss of boiler...

  14. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container...

  15. Best Practices: The Engineering Approach For Industrial Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blake, N. R.

    , as well as plant profitability. Boiler Best Practices represent The Engineering Approach for Boilers-a way to examine mechanical, operational and chemical aspects of the systems (pretreatment through condensate) to ensure reliable boiler operations...

  16. An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification computations cannot happen. 1 Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been

  17. Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only This cost...

  18. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with BackpressureTurbine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators This tip sheet outlines the benefits of...

  19. A Methodology for Optimizing Boiler Operating Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, K. C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the many ways by which an energy manager can conserve energy is the establishment of a strategy for operation of fired boilers. In particular, he can effect total fuel consumption by his decision on how much on-line boiler surplus is required...

  20. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, Charles L. (Tullahoma, TN); Foote, John P. (Tullahoma, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  1. A new blowdown compensation scheme for boiler leak detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    considers the blowdown effect in industrial boiler operation. This adds to the efficiency of recent advancesA new blowdown compensation scheme for boiler leak detection A. M. Pertew ,1 X. Sun ,1 R. Kent in identification-based leak detection techniques of boiler steam- water systems. Keywords: Industrial Boilers, Tube

  2. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  3. Low Temperature Heat Recovery for Boiler Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shook, J. R.; Luttenberger, D. B.

    be economically heated to within 50 0 F of the entering flue gas temperature. Other less common, but practical, uses for energy include driving a low-temperature electric turbine cycle or an absorption chilling cycle. An improvement in boiler efficiency of 3...% to 8% can normally be realized by cooling boiler flue gasses down to llO o F_200 0 F. This recovers a large quantity of the available sensible heat in most boiler flue gas streams. Efficiency can be improv ed by up to 10% if flue gas is cooled down...

  4. Flame Spectral Analysis for Boiler Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalfe, C. I.; Cole, W. E.; Batra, S. K.

    range from the flames and using these measurements to determine the burner operating conditions. Two prototype instruments have been installed on package boilers at a Con Edison powerplant and Polaroid facility, and their performance has been evaluated...

  5. Flame Spectral Analysis for Boiler Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalfe, C. I.; Cole, W. E.; Batra, S. K.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FLAME SPECTRAL ANALYSIS FOR BOILER CONTROL CHRISTOPHER I. METCALFE WILLIAM E. COLE SUSHIL K. BATRA Tecogen, Inc. ( A Subsidiary of Thermo Electron Corporation) Waltham, Massachusetts ABSTRACT SPECTRAL FLAME ANALYSIS FOR BURNER CONTROL During...

  6. Energy Conservation for Boiler Water Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beardsley, M. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chamber itself must be large enough to insure complete combustion. Otherwise, the gases will contact cooler furnace areas and the flame will be quenched. Many types of boiler control instruments are now available to help control fuel preheat...

  7. Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farbstein, S. B.; Moreland, T.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project to build a PYROFLOW circulating fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boiler at the BFGoodrich Chemical Plant at Henry, Illinois, is described. This project is being partially funded by Illinois to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing high...

  8. Commonwealth Small Pellet Boiler Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (MassCEC) and the Department of Energy Resources (DOER) are offering the Commonwealth Small Pellet Boiler Pilot Grant Program to provide grants to residents...

  9. Practical Procedures for Auditing Industrial Boiler Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neil, J. P.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial boiler plants are an area of opportunity in virtually every industry to save energy and reduce costs by using relatively simple, inexpensive auditing procedures. An energy audit consists of inspection, measurement, analysis...

  10. Clean Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on cleaning boiler water-side heat transfer surfaces provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  11. Boiler Efficiency--Consider All the Angles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blakeley, C. P.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of one component of any of the control loops that, together, constitute the boiler control system requires that the operator exercises manual control until the failed component is returned to service. However skilled and conscienti ous an operator... of the story. If one element of one control loop in the boiler control system drifts, the entire interactive control scheme is impaired. Operating efficiencies are sacrificed. Frequent calibration checks and recalibration is a great maintenance expense...

  12. Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, A.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -6, 2000 Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters Air Pollution Control and Boilers Keeping the environment clean Presented by Ashutosh Garg Furnace Improvements Low cost solutions for fired heaters Trace compounds ? Nitric oxides ? Carbon monoxide ? Sulfur... million BTU ? These levels can be achieved by Ultra Low NOx burners or FGR in boilers. ? Primary products of combustion ? Carbon dioxide ? Water vapors ? Oxygen ? Nitrogen ? Trace compounds NOx emissions ? NOx or Oxides of Nitrogen have...

  13. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describing the changes to Environmental Protection Act process standards. The DOE will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal and oil have information on cost-effective, clean energy strategies for compliance, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boiler burning to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expected to finalize the reconsideration process for its Clean Air Act pollution standards National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters (known as Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)), in Spring 2012. This rule applies to large and small boilers in a wide range of industrial facilities and institutions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal or oil have information on cost-effective clean energy strategies for compliance, including combined heat and power, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boilers to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs.

  14. Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merz, Stephan

    Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution Frank LeĂ?ke and Stephan Merz Institut f Introduction We propose a solution to the steam boiler control specification problem [AS] by means of a formal

  15. An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba ()lveczky Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for different

  16. Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution Frank Le ke and Stephan Merz Institut fur We propose a solution to the steam boiler control speci cation problem AS] by means of a formal speci

  17. An ObjectOriented Algebraic SteamBoiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object­Oriented Algebraic Steam­Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba Ë? Olveczky 1# , Piotr Introduction The steam­boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for di

  18. Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henzinger, Thomas A.

    model a steam-boiler control system using hybrid au- tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models and Programming the Steam Boiler Control (J.-R. Abrial, E. Borger, and H. Langmaack, eds.), Lecture Notes

  19. automated boiler combustion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 0.5 % oxygen in the flue gas. The reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO,) emissions from steam boilers has been under study for several years. The NO, from boilers consist almost...

  20. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rapier, Pascal M. (Richmond, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  1. Climate Wise Boiler and Steam Efficiency Wise Rules 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milmoe, P. H.; Winkelman, S. R.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (and excess oxygen, 02), boiler tube cleaning, and re-calibration of boiler controls. ? A good tune-up with preclSlon testing equipment can detect and correct excess air losses, smoking, unbumed fuel losses, sooting, and high stack temperatures... (and excess oxygen, 02), boiler tube cleaning, and re-calibration of boiler controls. ? A good tune-up with preclSlon testing equipment can detect and correct excess air losses, smoking, unbumed fuel losses, sooting, and high stack temperatures...

  2. Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering ­ Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator Currently 70 biodiesel boiler system to drive a steam engine generator. This system is to provide electricity the customer needs, a boiler fueled by biodiesel and outputting to a steam engine was decided upon. The system

  3. Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Mass and Heat balances V d dt = i - eDensity-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Finite Transitions #12;Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research

  4. Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

  5. Fluidized bed boiler convective zone tube replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A major problem with the Georgetown University Atomspheric-Pressure, Fluidized-Bed Combustor-Boiler (GU AFBC) experienced during the first six years of operation was tube erosion. Previous corrective measures for in-bed tube erosion appeared to be effective, but excessive wear of the convective zone tubes was still occurring, and the entire heat transfer tube bundle in the boiler required replacement. In the planned project,the eroded tubes would be replaced, and the convective zone modified to eliminate the problem. Progress is discussed.

  6. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, M.E. (ed.); Montoya, G.M.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Steve; Knapp, David

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a â??biomass-firedâ?ť boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using â??carbon neutralâ?ť fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO{sub 2}. The boiler does require auxiliary â??functions,â?ť however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO{sub 2} emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO{sub 2} per year.

  8. Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

    2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Cleaver-Brooks developed a new gas-fired steam generation system���¢��������the Super Boiler���¢��������for increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, and reduced emissions. The system consists of a firetube boiler with a unique staged furnace design, a two-stage burner system with engineered internal recirculation and inter-stage cooling integral to the boiler, unique convective pass design with extended internal surfaces for enhanced heat transfer, and a novel integrated heat recovery system to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. With these combined innovations, the Super Boiler technical goals were set at 94% HHV fuel efficiency, operation on natural gas with <5 ppmv NOx (referenced to 3%O2), and 50% smaller than conventional boilers of similar steam output. To demonstrate these technical goals, the project culminated in the industrial demonstration of this new high-efficiency technology on a 300 HP boiler at Clement Pappas, a juice bottler located in Ontario, California. The Super Boiler combustion system is based on two stage combustion which combines air staging, internal flue gas recirculation, inter-stage cooling, and unique fuel-air mixing technology to achieve low emissions rather than external flue gas recirculation which is most commonly used today. The two-stage combustion provides lower emissions because of the integrated design of the boiler and combustion system which permit precise control of peak flame temperatures in both primary and secondary stages of combustion. To reduce equipment size, the Super Boiler's dual furnace design increases radiant heat transfer to the furnace walls, allowing shorter overall furnace length, and also employs convective tubes with extended surfaces that increase heat transfer by up to 18-fold compared to conventional bare tubes. In this way, a two-pass boiler can achieve the same efficiency as a traditional three or four-pass firetube boiler design. The Super Boiler is consequently up to 50% smaller in footprint, has a smaller diameter, and is up to 50% lower in weight, resulting in very compact design with reduced material cost and labor costs, while requiring less boiler room floor space. For enhanced energy efficiency, the heat recovery system uses a transport membrane condenser (TMC), a humidifying air heater (HAH), and a split-stage economizer to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. The TMC is a new innovation that pulls a major portion of water vapor produced by the combustion process from the flue gases along with its sensible and latent heat. This results in nearly 100% transfer of heat to the boiler feed water. The HAH improves the effectiveness of the TMC, particularly in steam systems that do not have a large amount of cold makeup water. In addition, the HAH humidifies the combustion air to reduce NOx formation. The split-stage economizer preheats boiler feed water in the same way as a conventional economizer, but extracts more heat by working in tandem with the TMC and HAH to reduce flue gas temperature. These components are designed to work synergistically to achieve energy efficiencies of 92-94% which is 10-15% higher than today���¢��������s typical firetube boilers.

  9. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, S. [EPRI, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  10. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  11. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

  12. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

  13. Recovery Boiler Superheater Ash Corrosion Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R [ORNL] [ORNL; Kish, Joseph [McMaster University] [McMaster University; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations] [FPInnovations

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the trend towards increasing the energy efficiency of black liquor recovery boilers operated in North America, there is a need to utilize superheater tubes with increased corrosion resistance that will permit operation at higher temperatures and pressures. In an effort to identify alloys with improved corrosion resistance under more harsh operating conditions, a field exposure was conducted that involved the insertion of an air-cooled probe, containing six candidate alloys, into the superheater section of an operating recovery boiler. A metallographic examination, complete with corrosion scale characterization using EMPA, was conducted after a 1,000 hour exposure period. Based on the results, a ranking of alloys based on corrosion performance was obtained.

  14. Corporate Reporting of Boiler MACT Energy Assessments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClain, C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency. 2. Improve operating mix of boilers, heaters, and fuels. 3. Maximize the use of waste fuels or process waste heat to minimize cost and emissions. 4. De-bottleneck the powerhouse & utility system. 5. Reduce improper atmospheric venting. 6... of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 What is the calculation protocol in the Super Solver to find value? As Found Historian Process Data Solver Mass/Energy Balance Optimized Plant Operation Rule...

  15. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  16. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  17. Application of Multivariable Control to Oil and Coal Fired Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the boiler, flue gas transport delay, existing boiler control system and analyzer dynamics. The algorithm com ponents are illustrated schematically in Figures 2 and 3. The strategy is designed to optimize com bustion efficiency under current combustion... appropriate action to avoid exceeding those limits. It then calculates the control output required to correct Ea/f without overshooting the Control target value. The entire control strategy is easily tuned in the field. Even though many boiler control...

  18. Modern Boiler Control and Why Digital Systems are Better 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughart, C. L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MODERN BOILER CONTROL AND WHY DIGITAL SYSTEMS ARE BETTER C. L. Hughart Engineering and Hydrocarbons Division Union Carbide Corporation South Charleston, West Virginia ABSTRACT o Fuel o Combustion Air Steam generation in petrochemical... of the advantages of digital boiler controls. This system was in stalled to control two 350,000-pound per hour, 600 psig auxiliary fired boilers which, augmented by other waste heat recovery equipment, will supply the steam for a large petrochemical plant...

  19. Effect of bed pressure drop on performance of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Shi Yang; Guangxi Yue; Jun Su; Zhiping Fu [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Thermal Engineering

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of bed pressure drop and bed inventory on the performances of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was studied. By using the state specification design theory, the fluidization state of the gas-solids flow in the furnace of conventional CFB boilers was reconstructed to operate at a much lower bed pressure drop by reducing bed inventory and control bed quality. Through theoretical analysis, it was suggested that there would exist a theoretical optimal value of bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan energy consumption. The analysis was validated by field tests carried out in a 75 t/h CFB boiler. At full boiler load, when bed pressure drop was reduced from 7.3 to 3.2 kPa, the height of the dense zone in the lower furnace decreased, but the solid suspension density profile in the upper furnace and solid flow rate were barely influenced. Consequently, the average heat transfer coefficient in the furnace was kept nearly the same and the furnace temperature increment was less than 17{sup o}C. It was also found that the carbon content in the fly ash decreased first with decreasing bed pressure drop and then increased with further increasing bed pressure drop. The turning point with minimal carbon content was referred to as the point with optimal bed pressure drop. For this boiler, at the optimum point the bed pressure was around 5.7 kPa with the overall excess air ratio of 1.06. When the boiler was operated around this optimal point, not only the combustion efficiency was improved, but also fan energy consumption and wear of heating surface were reduced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  1. Application of Boiler Op for combustion optimization at PEPCO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maines, P.; Williams, S. [Potomac Electric Power Co., Upper Marlsboro, MD (United States); Levy, E. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title IV requires the reduction of NOx at all stations within the PEPCO system. To assist PEPCO plant personnel in achieving low heat rates while meeting NOx targets, Lehigh University`s Energy Research Center and PEPCO developed a new combustion optimization software package called Boiler Op. The Boiler Op code contains an expert system, neural networks and an optimization algorithm. The expert system guides the plant engineer through a series of parametric boiler tests, required for the development of a comprehensive boiler database. The data are then analyzed by the neural networks and optimization algorithm to provide results on the boiler control settings which result in the best possible heat rate at a target NOx level or produce minimum NOx. Boiler Op has been used at both Potomac River and Morgantown Stations to help PEPCO engineers optimize combustion. With the use of Boiler Op, Morgantown Station operates under low NOx restrictions and continues to achieve record heat rate values, similar to pre-retrofit conditions. Potomac River Station achieves the regulatory NOx limit through the use of Boiler Op recommended control settings and without NOx burners. Importantly, any software like Boiler Op cannot be used alone. Its application must be in concert with human intelligence to ensure unit safety, reliability and accurate data collection.

  2. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    9 Hot-Water Oil Boiler LCC Analysis-Efficiency Levels and10 Hot-Water Gas Boiler LCC Analysis-Efficiency Levels andfurnace and boiler energy-efficiency standards. Determining

  3. 2015-02-13 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2015-02-13 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking This...

  4. Boiler Efficiency vs. Steam Quality- The Challenge of Creating Quality Steam Using Existing Boiler Efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, G.

    A boiler works under pressure and it is not possible to see what is happening inside of it. The terms "wet steam" and "carry over" are every day idioms in the steam industry, yet very few people have ever seen these phenomena and the actual water...

  5. Make boiler feedwater with lower risks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colbert, G.L. [Rexene Products Co., Odessa, TX (United States); Reeves, G.; Combs, G. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Edmonds, C. [Glegg Water Conditioning, Inc., Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The traditional approach to produce water suitable for high-pressure boilers requires using, handling and storing hazardous materials, i.e., acid and caustic. In this case history, an ethylene manufacturer chooses a new technology--electrodeionization (EDI)--to make feedwater for its ethylene furnace`s 1,200-psig steam system. The method was chosen in place of the traditional mixed-bed demineralizer (MBD) process. The new process is competitive in both operating and capital costs. The other bonus for the operating company was eliminating the handling of hazardous materials, thus reducing environmental and safety risks.

  6. Materials development for ultra-supercritical boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported on a US Department of Energy project to develop high temperature, corrosion resistant alloys for use in ultra-supercritical steam cycles. The aim is to achieve boiler operation at 1,400{sup o}F/5,000 psi steam conditions with 47% net cycle efficiency. Most ferritic steel tested such as T92 and Save 12 showed severe corrosion. Nickel-based alloys, especially IN 740 and CCA 617, showed greatest resistance to oxidation with no evidence of exfoliation. Laboratory and in-plant tests have begun. 2 figs.

  7. List of Boilers Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano,LakefrontLighthouse SolarI JumpListBoilers Incentives

  8. Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartment ofEnergy 3Fungible andFurnaces and Boilers

  9. Why the Accuracy of Analytical Instrumentation Affects Boiler Combustion Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFadden, R. W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion trim control systems are utilized to maximize the combustion efficiency of a boiler. The type and cost of a fuel, as well as the size of a boiler, should be considered when selecting the type of combustion trim control system...

  10. A Boiler Plant Energy Efficiency and Load Balancing Survey 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nutter, D. W.; Murphy, D. R.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    continuous oxygen trim equipment was estimated at $9,000 each by a local boiler controls company and depending on the economic strategy, it could be argued that oxygen trim equipment for the two largest boilers should be installed. This is not a large...

  11. Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henzinger, Thomas A.

    model a steam­boiler control system using hybrid au­ tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models and Programming the Steam Boiler Control (J.­R. Abrial, E. B¨orger, and H. Langmaack, eds.), Lecture Notes

  12. Introduction to the Boiler MACT Energy Assessment Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theising, T. R.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    served from affected boiler(s) that are under BASF’s control. • Review of architectural/engineering plans, facility O&M procedures/logs, and fuel usage • Review of facility’s energy management practice and provide recommendations for improvement where...

  13. Stack Gas Heat Recovery from 100 to 1200 HP Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judson, T. H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in reduced production and caused personnel layoffs. U.S. Government reports indicate that roughly 20% of all fuel is consumed in boilers. A savings in boiler fuel consumption can have a positive impact on energy conservation, and become an important component...

  14. A Flexural Mode Tuning Technique for Membraned Boiler Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quarry, M J; Chinn, D J; Rose, J L

    2005-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of tubing used in black-liquor recovery boilers is a major concern in all pulp and paper mills. Extensive corrosion in recovery boiler tubes can result in a significant safety and environmental hazard. Considerable plant resources are expended to inspect recovery boiler tubing. Currently, visual and ultrasonic inspections are primarily used during the annual maintenance shutdown to monitor corrosion rates and cracking of tubing. This project is developing guided acoustic waves for use on recovery boiler tubing. The feature of this acoustic technique is its cost-effectiveness in inspecting long lengths of tubes from a single inspection point. A piezoelectric or electromagnetic transducer induces guided waves into the tubes. The transducer detects fireside defects from the cold side or fireside of the tube. Cracking and thinning on recovery boiler tubes have been detected with this technique in both laboratory and field applications.

  15. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  16. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2005.

  17. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2005.

  18. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of January 1 to March 31, 2006.

  19. Boiler Materials For Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2006.

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Coleman; R. Viswanathan; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  1. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  2. Sulphidation resistance of composite boiler tube materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kish, Joseph [McMaster University; Eng, Philip [FPInnovations; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations; Keiser, James R [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lab-based testing program was undertaken to generate data to better define the sulphidation resistance of composite tubes installed in the lower-furnace section of black liquor recovery boilers. All composite tube cladding alloys tested were observed to have an acceptable corrosion rate at normal operating temperatures (up to 400 C) in the synthetic lower-furnace gaseous environment tested (1% H{sub 2}S-99% N{sub 2}). This acceptable corrosion resistance is due to the expected formation of a relatively protective chromium-rich inner sulphide scale. An increase in temperature up to 560 C was found to significantly increase the corrosion rate. Of the various alloys tested, Alloy HR11N exhibited the lowest corrosion rate at each of the three temperatures tested. Moreover, the corrosion rate was found not to be strongly dependent on the fabrication route (weld overlay versus co-extruded). To minimize corrosion, operating conditions that promote prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures in the lower-furnace section of black liquor recovery boilers should be avoided, regardless of the type of composite tube installed.

  3. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2005.

  4. Chlorine in coal and boiler corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Liu, L. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Ho, K.K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of superheaters in the United Kingdom has been attributed to the high level of chlorine (Cl) in British coals. On the other hand, similar high-Cl Illinois coals have not caused boiler corrosion. This suggests that the extent of boiler corrosion due to Cl may not be directly related to the amount of Cl in the coal but to how the Cl occurs in the coal or to other factors. In this study, both destructive temperature-programmed Thermogravimetry with Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR) and non-destructive X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) techniques were used to examine the thermal evolution characteristics and the forms of Cl in four Illinois and four British coals. The TGA-FTIR results indicate that under oxidizing conditions, both British and Illinois coals release hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas. Maximum evolution of HCl gas from Illinois coals occurs near 425 C, whereas, the temperature of maximum HCl release from British coals occurs between 210 and 280 C. The XANES results indicate that Cl in coal exists in ionic forms including a solid salt form. The HCl evolution profiles of the Illinois and British coals suggests that the way in which Cl ions are associated in Illinois coals is of different from the way they are associated in British coals.

  5. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  6. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

  7. Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  8. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  10. NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Fuel Tech teamed together to investigate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control. The system is comprised of B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} ultra low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NOxOUT{reg_sign}, a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. Development of the low-NO{sub x} burner technology has been a focus in B and W's combustion program. The DRB-4Z{trademark} burner is B and W's newest low-NO{sub x} burner capable of achieving very low NO{sub x}. The burner is designed to reduce NO{sub x} by controlled mixing of the fuel and air. Based on data from several 500 to 600 MWe boilers firing PRB coal, NOx emissions levels of 0.15 to 0.20 lb/ 106 Btu have been achieved from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burners in combination with overfire air ports. Although NOx emissions from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burner are nearing the Ozone Transport Rule (OTR) level of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/106 Btu, the utility boiler owners can still benefit from the addition of an SNCR and/or SCR system in order to comply with the stringent NO{sub x} emission levels facing them. Large-scale testing is planned in B and W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) that simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. The objective of the project is to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/106 Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}. During this period B and W prepared and submitted the project management plan and hazardous substance plan to DOE. The negotiation of a subcontract for Fuel Tech has been started.

  11. Improved Boiler System Operation with Real-time Chemical Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, D.; Jenkins, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and increased energy costs. Next, the boiler scale inhibitor feed and control was switched to the new boiler controller. The controller uses an inert tracer which directly correlates to the amount of inhibitor in the sample monitored. This guarantees... to improve average levels of inhibitor by 30%. See Table 2. The new automation control achieved an average of 3.99 ppm with a target of 4.0 ppm. Even during variable steam loads the boiler controller maintained the consistency of the inhibitor...

  12. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the project’s subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial operation and has achieved all the performance goals.

  13. Application of Multivariable Control to Oil and Coal Fired Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increased visibility provided by advanced measurement and control techniques has shown that control of oil and coal fired boilers is a complex problem involving simultaneous determination of flue gas carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, opacity...

  14. Improved Combustion Efficiencies - Control Systems for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varma, A. C.; Prengle, H. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study of the importance and applications of modern combustion control systems for retrofitting existing boilers and heaters to increase combustion efficiency. Conventional heater control and its deficiencies...

  15. Experience with boiler corrosion using an all polymer program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaffer, A.E.; AlMajnouni, A.D. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reliability of the life expectancy of boilers and related equipment have been compromised due to severe chemical attack resulting in corroded tubes at different locations in the boilers. Although it seems that a chelant is responsible for the tinning, glassy, smooth, and featureless surfaces so characteristic of the chemical attack, ultimately, it is an all polymer program which has induced this corrosion. However, an all polymer program, if applied properly, would not create this corrosion. The severe corrosion experienced with the all polymer program resulted from misapplication, including high levels of residual polymer, low hydroxide alkalinity, and high cycles of concentration in conjunction with prior acid cleaning, which produced clean boiler tubes. This paper not only attempts to investigate this corrosion, but further, it recommends possible methods to mitigate polymer corrosion in the future and enhance the overall condition of the boilers.

  16. Cost-Effective Industrial Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.

    Natural gas and electricity are expensive to the extent that annual fuel and power costs can approach the initial cost of an industrial boiler plant. Within this context, this paper examines several cost-effective efficiency advancements that were...

  17. Improving Boiler Efficiency Modeling Based on Ambient Air Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.

    Optimum economic operation in a large power plant can cut operating costs substantially. Individual plant equipment should be operated under conditions that are most favorable for maximizing its efficiency. It is widely accepted that boiler load...

  18. Improving Boiler Efficiency Modeling Based On Ambient Air Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimum economic operation in a large power plant can cut operating costs substantially. Individual plant equipment should be operated under conditions that are most favorable for maximizing its efficiency. It is widely accepted that boiler load...

  19. Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

  20. Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

  1. Best Practices: The Engineering Approach For Industrial Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blake, N. R.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A plant's boilers represent a large capital investment, as well as a crucial portion of overall plant operations, regardless of the industry our customers are in. It is important to have systems and procedures in place to protect this investment...

  2. Application of Oxygen Trim Control to Small Packaged Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    control. New mechanical interfaces capable of modifying the relationship between the air and fuel linkage on existing boilers without expensive jackshaft modification or installation difficulties has significantly reduce the installed cost. A field...

  3. Simulation of Combustion and Thermal Flow in an Industrial Boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saripalli, R.; Wang, T.; Day, B.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    insight into the detailed thermal-flow and combustion in the boiler and showing possible reasons for superheater tube rupture. The exhaust gas temperature is consistent with the actual results from the infrared thermograph inspection....

  4. Climate Wise Boiler and Steam Efficiency Wise Rules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milmoe, P. H.; Winkelman, S. R.

    (and excess oxygen, 02), boiler tube cleaning, and re-calibration of boiler controls. ? A good tune-up with preclSlon testing equipment can detect and correct excess air losses, smoking, unbumed fuel losses, sooting, and high stack temperatures... control 7. Utilize characterizable fuel valve 8. Convert to atomizing burners Stack Losses and Waste Heat Recovery 9. Reduce net stack temperature by 40 of 10. Utilize stack dampers II. Direct contact condensation heat recovery 12. Pre...

  5. Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

  6. Notice of construction for proposed backup package boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site steam plant consists of coal-fired boilers located at the 200 East and the 200 West Areas. These boilers have provided steam to heat and cool facilities in the 200 Areas since the early 1940`s. As part of Project L-017, ``Steam System Rehabilitation, Phase II``, the 200 West Area coal-fired boilers will be permanently shut down. The shut down will only occur after a proposed package backup boiler (50,000 pounds per hour (lb/hr) steam, firing No. 2 oil) is installed at the 200 West Area. The proposed backup boiler will provide back-up services when the 200 East Area steam line, which provides steam to the 200 West Area, is down for maintenance or, when the demand for steam exceeds the supply available from the 200 East Plant. This application is a request for approval to construct and operate the package backup boiler. This request is being made pursuant to Washington Administration Code (WAC) Chapter 173-400, ``General Regulations for Air Pollution Sources``, and Chapter 173-460, ``Controls for New Sources of Toxic Air Pollutants``.

  7. Guided wave acoustic monitoring of corrosion in recovery boiler tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quarry, M J; Chinn, D J

    2004-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of tubing used in black-liquor recovery boilers is a major concern in all pulp and paper mills. Extensive corrosion in recovery boiler tubes can result in a significant safety and environmental hazard. Considerable plant resources are expended to inspect recovery boiler tubing. Currently, visual and ultrasonic inspections are primarily used during the annual maintenance shutdown to monitor corrosion rates and cracking of tubing. This Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies project is developing guided acoustic waves for use on recovery boiler tubing. The feature of this acoustic technique is its cost-effectiveness in inspecting long lengths of tubes from a single inspection point. A piezoelectric or electromagnetic transducer induces guided waves into the tubes. The transducer detects fireside defects from the coldside or fireside of the tube. Cracking and thinning on recovery boiler tubes have been detected with this technique in both laboratory and field applications. This technique appears very promising for recovery boiler tube application, potentially expediting annual inspection of tube integrity.

  8. Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boiler-Turbine-Generator (BTG) units and a 5.times.5 CFB combustion process of advanced boilers. Those boilers include Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  9. Predictive modelling of boiler fouling. Final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatwani, A

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A spectral element method embodying Large Eddy Simulation based on Re- Normalization Group theory for simulating Sub Grid Scale viscosity was chosen for this work. This method is embodied in a computer code called NEKTON. NEKTON solves the unsteady, 2D or 3D,incompressible Navier Stokes equations by a spectral element method. The code was later extended to include the variable density and multiple reactive species effects at low Mach numbers, and to compute transport of large particles governed by inertia. Transport of small particles is computed by treating them as trace species. Code computations were performed for a number of test conditions typical of flow past a deep tube bank in a boiler. Results indicate qualitatively correct behavior. Predictions of deposition rates and deposit shape evolution also show correct qualitative behavior. These simulations are the first attempts to compute flow field results at realistic flow Reynolds numbers of the order of 10{sup 4}. Code validation was not done; comparison with experiment also could not be made as many phenomenological model parameters, e.g., sticking or erosion probabilities and their dependence on experimental conditions were not known. The predictions however demonstrate the capability to predict fouling from first principles. Further work is needed: use of large or massively parallel machine; code validation; parametric studies, etc.

  10. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  11. Long term performance of boilers using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulledge, J.; Cosulich, J.; Ahmed, S.L.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US EPA estimates that approximately 600 to 700 landfills produce sufficient gas for profitable energy production in the United States. The gas from these landfills could provide enough electricity for about 3 million homes. Yet, there are only about 120 operating landfill gas to energy facilities. A lack of information on successful projects may cause part of this shortfall. This paper provides information on 4 successful projects using landfill gas fired boilers, some of which have operated over a decade. Natural gas fired boilers can be easily converted to bum landfill gas. Several modifications to Districts` boilers, described in this paper, have resulted in many years of safe and corrosion free operation. Most of the modifications are minor. Conversion can be accomplished for under $100,000 in many cases. Information on the reliability and longevity of landfill gas supplies is also provided. Gas from a given landfill is generally available over 99.5% of the time with about 5 brief flow interruptions annually. Actual data from 3 landfills document the high availability of landfill gas. To show the longevity of landfill gas flows, data from the Palos Verdes Landfill are provided. The Palos Verdes Landfill closed in 1980. The Palos Verdes. Landfill Gas to Energy Facility is currently producing over 8 megawatts. Landfill gas pretreatment is not required for boilers. In cases where the landfill gas is being piped offsite, it is usually cost effective to dehydrate the landfill gas. Landfill gas bums cleaner than natural gas. NO{sub x} emissions from landfill gas fired boilers are lower because of the carbon dioxide in the landfill gas. Trace organic destruction efficiency is usually over 99% in landfill gas fired boilers. In addition, flare emissions are eliminated when landfill gas is used to displace fossil fuels in boilers.

  12. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  13. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Yin, Hongxi [Southeast University, Nanjing, China

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  14. Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taler, J.; Taler, D. [Cracow University of Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

  15. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Kazakh National University, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  16. From Basic Control to Optimized Systems-Applying Digital Control Systems to Steam Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hockenbury, W. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation examines the application of Distributed Digital Controls in order to review the application of this recent control technology towards Steam Boilers in a step-by-step manner. The main purpose of a steam generating boiler...

  17. Cyclone Boiler Reburn NOx Control Improvements via Cyclone Design Improvements and Advanced Air Staging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morabito, B.; Nee, B.; Goff, V.; Maringo, G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eastman Kodak owns three Babcock & Wilcox coal fired cyclone boilers and one Combustion Engineering pulverized coal boiler located at Kodak Park in Rochester, New York. Duke Energy Generation Services (DEGS) operates and maintains the steam...

  18. Re ning Abstract Machine Speci cations of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Börger, Egon

    Re ning Abstract Machine Speci cations of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented Executable the steam boiler control speci cation problem to il- lustrate how the evolving algebra approach to the speci

  19. Characterization of the U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. IndustrialCommercial Boiler Population - Final Report, May 2005 Characterization of the U.S. IndustrialCommercial Boiler Population - Final Report, May 2005 The U.S....

  20. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators, July 2004 Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators, July 2004 Many owners and...

  1. Combustion of waste fuels in a fluidized-bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zylkowski, J.; Ehrlich, S.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on a project whose objectives are to determine the impact of the waste fuels on Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) operating procedures, boiler performance, and emissions and to assess the potential for fuel-specific operating problems. The low-grade waste fuels investigated are hogged railroad ties, shredded rubber tires, peat, refuse-derived fuel, and one or more agricultiral wastes. The Northern States Power (NSP) Company converted their French Island Unit No. 2 stoker-fired boiler to a fluidized-bed combustor designed to burn wood waste. NSP and EPRI are investigating cofiring other waste fuels with wood waste. Topics considered include fluidized-bed boiler conversion, fuel resources, economic justification, environmental considerations, the wood-handling system, an auxiliary fuel system, the air quality control system, ash handling and disposal, and the alternate fuels test program.

  2. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  3. Full-Scale Boiler Measurements Demonstrating Striated Flows during Biomass Co-Firing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    based measurements methods #12;Objective Minor impact of biomass cofiring with coal on boiler operation and performance at biomass shares below 20% on an energy basis. Dilution of biomass ash stream reduce potential;06-02-2008 Coal burner side: 1.5 m inside boiler thermal load 433 MW boiler thermal load 440-471 MW #12

  4. Assertional Specification and Verification using PVS of the Steam Boiler Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooman, Jozef

    Assertional Specification and Verification using PVS of the Steam Boiler Control System Jan Vitt 1 of the steam boiler control system has been derived using a formal method based on assumption/commitment pairs Introduction The steam boiler control system, as described in chapter AS of this book, has been designed

  5. Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20 Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study problem is the Steam Boiler Controller problem discussed in this paper. Another representative

  6. Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" Correction Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 1 Correction Sheet After our paper "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" went already to print, Myla_steam_water_est(sr) = #12;Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 2 7. p.11, The initial

  7. Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" Correction Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 1 Correction Sheet After our paper "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" went already to print, Myla of the Steam Boiler Controller" 2 9. p.15, In the activate action error should be error' 10.p.16, Lemma 3

  8. An Algebraic Speci cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bidoit, Michel

    An Algebraic Speci#12;cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System Michel Bidoit 1 , Claude Chevenier describe how to derive an algebraic speci#12;cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System starting from Introduction Our aim is to explain how one can solve the \\Steam-boiler control speci#12;cation problem

  9. Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 37

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 37 Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study problem is the Steam Boiler Controller problem discussed in this paper. Another representative

  10. Analysis and control of a nonlinear boiler-turbine unit Wen Tan a,*,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    using drum boilers and steam turbines: (1) A single boiler is used to generate steam that is directly is then distributed to several turbines through the header. The steam can be used to generate electric- ity as wellAnalysis and control of a nonlinear boiler-turbine unit Wen Tan a,*,1 , Horacio J. Marquez b

  11. Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration Peter Meibom Juha of using electrical heat boilers and heat pumps as wind power integration measures relieving the link\\ZRUGV wind power, integration, heat pumps, electric heat boilers ,QWURGXFWLRQ 3UREOHP RYHUYLHZ The Danish

  12. Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA Submitted to Dr. Bi By Bernard Chan Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas" By Bernard Chan, Brian Chan, and Christopher Young Abstract This report studies the feasibility of replacing natural gas with wood pellets for UBC boilers. A gasification

  13. Gain-scheduled `1 -optimal control for boiler-turbine dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamma, Jeff S.

    , into the mechanical energy acting on the turbine and generator. The steam generated in the boiler system servesGain-scheduled `1 -optimal control for boiler-turbine dynamics with actuator saturation Pang; accepted 2 June 2003 Abstract This paper presents a gain-scheduled approach for boiler-turbine controller

  14. Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation. In this paper, we apply this modeling principle to a well known case study, the steam boiler problem which has model and to assess the difficulty of such a process in a realistic case study. The steam boiler case

  15. Georgetown University atmospheric fluidized bed boiler cogeneration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podbielski, V.; Shaff, D.P.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of one year of operation of the cogeneration system capability of the Georgetown University coal- fired, atmospheric fluidized-bed (AFB) boiler. The AFB was designed and installed under a separate contract with the US Department of Energy. The AFB project funded by DOE to demonstrate that high sulfur coal could be burned in an environmentally acceptable manner in a urban environment such as Georgetown. In addition, operational data from the unit would assist the industry in moving directly into design and construction of commercially warranted industrial size AFB boilers. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume C. Boiler emission report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) test burn program was conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) located in Bruceton, Pa. One of the objectives of the study was to determine the feasibility of burning SRC fuels in boilers set up for fuel oil firing and to characterize emissions. Testing was conducted on the 700-hp oil-fired boiler used for research projects. No. 6 fuel oil was used for baseline data comparison, and the following SRC fuels were tested: SRC Fuel (pulverized SRC), SRC Residual Oil, and SRC-Water Slurry. Uncontrolled particulate emission rates averaged 0.9243 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Fuel, 0.1970 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Residual Oil, and 0.9085 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC-Water Slurry. On a lb/10/sup 6/ Btu basis, emissions from SRC Residual Oil averaged 79 and 78%, respectively, lower than the SRC Fuel and SRC-Water Slurry. The lower SRC Residual Oil emissions were due, in part, to the lower ash content of the oil and more efficient combustion. The SRC Fuel had the highest emission rate, but only 2% higher than the SRC-Water Slurry. Each fuel type was tested under variable boiler operating parameters to determine its effect on boiler emissions. The program successfully demonstrated that the SRC fuels could be burned in fuel oil boilers modified to handle SRC fuels. This report details the particulate emission program and results from testing conducted at the boiler outlet located before the mobile precipitator take-off duct. The sampling method was EPA Method 17, which uses an in-stack filter.

  17. NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan; Jennifer L. Sivy

    2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and Fuel Tech, Inc. (Fuel Tech) teamed to evaluate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology, capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. In a previous project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), promising results were obtained with this technology from large-scale testing in B&W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) which simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. Under the most challenging boiler temperatures at full load conditions, NO{sub x} emissions of 0.19 lb/10{sup 6} Btu were achieved firing Powder River Basin coal while controlling ammonia slip to less than 5 ppm. At a 40 million Btu/hr firing rate, NO{sub x} emissions were as low as 0.09 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. Improved performance with this system was proposed for this new program with injection at full load via a convective pass multiple nozzle lance (MNL) in front of the superheater tubes or in the convective tube bank. Convective pass lances represent the current state-of-the-art in SNCR and needed to be evaluated in order to assess the full potential of the combined technologies. The objective of the program was to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign} System. Commercial installations of B&W's low-NO{sub x} burner, in combination with overfire air ports using PRB coal, have demonstrated a NO{sub x} level of 0.15 to 0.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu under staged combustion conditions. The proposed goal of the combustion system (no SNCR) for this project is a NO{sub x} level at 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. The NO{sub x} reduction goal for SNCR is 25% from the low-NO{sub x} combustion emission levels. Therefore, overall NO{sub x} emissions would approach a level of 0.11 lb/10{sup 6} Btu in commercial installation. The goals of the program were met. At 100% load, using the MNL for very low baseline NO{sub x} (0.094 to 0.162 lb/10{sup 6} Btu depending on burner stoichiometry), an approximately 25% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved (0.071 to 0.124 lb/10{sup 6} Btu) while maintaining NH{sub 3} slip less than 6.4 ppm. At 60% load, using MNL or only wall-injectors for very low baseline NO{sub x} levels, more than 30% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved. Although site specific economic evaluation is required for each unit, our economic evaluation of DRB-4Z{reg_sign} burner and SNCR for a 500 MW{sub e} plant firing PRB shows that the least cost strategy is low-NO{sub x} burner and OFA at a cost of $210 to $525 per ton of NO{sub x} removed. Installation of SNCR allows the utilities to sell more NO{sub x} credit and it becomes economical when NO{sub x} credit cost is more than $5,275 per ton of NO{sub x}.

  18. Improved Combustion Efficiencies - Control Systems for Process Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varma, A. C.; Prengle, H. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 TABLE 2 - BAILEY BOILER CONTROL SYSTEMS: FUEL SAVINGS &PAYOUT[4] Control System Estimated Installation Cost(l)($) Fuel Demand F(M BTU/hr) Fuel Savings p (%) Savings S ($/yr) First Year Savings Sl ($/yr...

  19. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  20. How to Evaluate Low Excess Air Controls for Packaged Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Londerville, S. B.; Kerler, W. J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many types of excess-air trim systems available today in what manufacturers view as a boom market catalyzed by inflated oil prices. For the small boiler owner, determining whether low-excess-air (LEA) firing can be cost-justified and what...

  1. Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted...

  2. A Boiler Plant Energy Efficiency and Load Balancing Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nutter, D. W.; Murphy, D. R.

    is used for heating buildings and to operate a 4000-ton steam-driven chiller. There are five natural gas-fired steam boilers that have rated capacities ranging from 40,000 lb/hr to 100,000 lb/hr at an operating pressure of 125 psig. This paper discusses...

  3. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Bockelie

    2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the research that has been performed by Reaction Engineering International (REI) during the last three months on demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The focus of our efforts during the last six months have been on: (1) Field Tests for RRI at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1, a 130 MW cyclone fired boiler; (2) Extending our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based NOx model to accommodate the chemistry for Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) in cyclone fired boilers; (3) Applying the NOx model to evaluate RRI systems integrated into a boiler with Over Fired Air (OFA) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR); (4) Field Tests of the REI Corrosion Probe at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1; (5) Commence engineering study of ammonia adsorption mechanisms for Fly Ash; (6) Presentation of current program accomplishments and plans for future work to DoE staff members at NETL-FE (Pittsburgh); and (7) Presentation of preliminary field test results for RRI to EPRI CNCIG.

  4. advanced oxyfuel boilers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Steam Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements Texas A&M University - TxSpace...

  5. Best Management Practice #8: Boiler and Steam Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  6. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Topical Report outlines guidelines and key considerations for design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers for oxy-combustion. The scope addressed includes only the boiler island, not the entire oxy-fired CO{sub 2} capture plant. These guidelines are primarily developed for tangential-fired boilers and focus on designs capable of dual air and oxy-fired operation. The guidelines and considerations discussed are applicable to both new units and existing boiler retrofits. These guidelines are largely based on the findings from the extensive 15 MW{sub th} pilot testing and design efforts conducted under this project. A summary level description is provided for each major aspect of boiler design impacted by oxy-combustion, and key considerations are discussed for broader application to different utility and industrial designs. Guidelines address the boiler system arrangement, firing system, boiler thermal design, ducting, materials, control system, and other key systems.

  7. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovidiu Marin; Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter January-March 2003. The main objectives of the project are: To demonstrate the feasibility of the full-oxy combustion with flue gas recirculation on Babcock & Wilcox's 1.5MW pilot boiler, To measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection strategies, To perform an economical feasibility study, comparing this solution with alternate technologies, and To design a new generation, full oxy-fired boiler. The main objective of this quarter was to initiate the project, primarily the experimental tasks. The contractor and its subcontractors have defined a working plan, and the first tasks have been started. Task 1 (Site Preparation) is now in progress, defining the modifications to be implemented to the boiler and oxygen delivery system. The changes are required in order to overcome some current limitations of the existing system. As part of a previous project carried out in 2002, several changes have already been made on the pilot boiler, including the enrichment of the secondary and tertiary air with oxygen or the replacement of these streams with oxygen-enriched recycled flue gas. A notable modification for the current project involves the replacement of the primary air with oxygen-enriched flue gas. Consequently, the current oxygen supply and flue gas recycle system is being modified to meet this new requirement. Task 2 (Combustion and Emissions Performance Optimization) has been initiated with a preliminary selection of four series of tests to be performed. So far, the project schedule is on-track: site preparation (Task 1) should be completed by August 1st, 2003 and the tests (Task 2) are planned for September-October 2003. The Techno-Economic Study (Task 3) will be initiated in the following quarter.

  8. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

  9. Staged fluidized-bed coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rehmat, A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Dorfman, L.; Shibayama, G. (Fluor-Daniels, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)); Waibel, R. (Zink (J.) and Co., Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Staged Fluidized-Bed Coal Combustion System (ASC) is a novel clean coal technology for either coal-fired repowering of existing boilers or for incremental power generation using combined-cycle gas turbines. This new technology combines staged combustion for gaseous emission control, in-situ sulfur capture, and an ash agglomeration/vitrification process for the agglomeration/vitrification of ash and spent sorbent, thus rendering solid waste environmentally benign. The market for ASC is expected to be for clean coal-fired repowering of generating units up to 250 MW, especially for units where space is limited. The expected tightening of the environmental requirements on leachable solids residue by-products could considerably increase the marketability for ASC. ASC consists of modular low-pressure vessels in which coal is partially combusted and gasified using stacked fluidized-bed processes to produce low-to-medium-Btu, high-temperature gas. This relatively clean fuel gas is used to repower/refuel existing pulverized-coal, natural gas, or oil-fired boilers using bottom firing and reburning techniques. The benefits of ASC coal-fired repowering include the ability to repower boilers without obtaining additional space while meeting the more stringent environmental requirements of the future. Low NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate levels are expected while a nonleachable solid residue with trace metal encapsulation is produced. ASC also minimizes boiler modification and life-extension expenditures. Repowered efficiencies can be restored to the initial operating plant efficiency, and the existing boiler capacity can be increased by 10%. Preliminary cost estimates indicate that ASC will have up to a $250/kW capital cost advantage over existing coal-fired repowering options. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

    2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power plants are a significant part of the nation���¢��������s power generating capacity, currently accounting for more than 55% of the country���¢��������s total electricity production. Extending the reliable lifetimes of fossil fired boiler components and reducing the maintenance costs are essential for economic operation of power plants. Corrosion and erosion are leading causes of superheater and reheater boiler tube failures leading to unscheduled costly outages. Several types of coatings and weld overlays have been used to extend the service life of boiler tubes; however, the protection afforded by such materials was limited approximately one to eight years. Power companies are more recently focused in achieving greater plant efficiency by increasing steam temperature and pressure into the advanced-ultrasupercritical (A-USC) condition with steam temperatures approaching 760�������°C (1400�������°F) and operating pressures in excess of 35MPa (5075 psig). Unfortunately, laboratory and field testing suggests that the resultant fireside environment when operating under A-USC conditions can potentially cause significant corrosion to conventional and advanced boiler materials1-2. In order to improve reliability and availability of fossil fired A-USC boilers, it is essential to develop advanced nanostructured coatings that provide excellent corrosion and erosion resistance without adversely affecting the other properties such as toughness and thermal fatigue strength of the component material.

  11. Superheater Corrosion In Biomass Boilers: Today's Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, William (Sandy) [SharpConsultant

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report broadens a previous review of published literature on corrosion of recovery boiler superheater tube materials to consider the performance of candidate materials at temperatures near the deposit melting temperature in advanced boilers firing coal, wood-based fuels, and waste materials as well as in gas turbine environments. Discussions of corrosion mechanisms focus on the reactions in fly ash deposits and combustion gases that can give corrosive materials access to the surface of a superheater tube. Setting the steam temperature of a biomass boiler is a compromise between wasting fuel energy, risking pluggage that will shut the unit down, and creating conditions that will cause rapid corrosion on the superheater tubes and replacement expenses. The most important corrosive species in biomass superheater corrosion are chlorine compounds and the most corrosion resistant alloys are typically FeCrNi alloys containing 20-28% Cr. Although most of these materials contain many other additional additions, there is no coherent theory of the alloying required to resist the combination of high temperature salt deposits and flue gases that are found in biomass boiler superheaters that may cause degradation of superheater tubes. After depletion of chromium by chromate formation or chromic acid volatilization exceeds a critical amount, the protective scale gives way to a thick layer of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} over an unprotective (FeCrNi){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel. This oxide is not protective and can be penetrated by chlorine species that cause further acceleration of the corrosion rate by a mechanism called active oxidation. Active oxidation, cited as the cause of most biomass superheater corrosion under chloride ash deposits, does not occur in the absence of these alkali salts when the chloride is present as HCl gas. Although a deposit is more corrosive at temperatures where it is molten than at temperatures where it is frozen, increasing superheater tube temperatures through the measured first melting point of fly ash deposits does not necessarily produce a step increase in corrosion rate. Corrosion rate typically accelerates at temperatures below the first melting temperature and mixed deposits may have a broad melting temperature range. Although the environment at a superheater tube surface is initially that of the ash deposits, this chemistry typically changes as the deposits mature. The corrosion rate is controlled by the environment and temperature at the tube surface, which can only be measured indirectly. Some results are counter-intuitive. Two boiler manufacturers and a consortium have developed models to predict fouling and corrosion in biomass boilers in order to specify tube materials for particular operating conditions. It would be very useful to compare the predictions of these models regarding corrosion rates and recommended alloys in the boiler environments where field tests will be performed in the current program. Manufacturers of biomass boilers have concluded that it is more cost-effective to restrict steam temperatures, to co-fire biofuels with high sulfur fuels and/or to use fuel additives rather than try to increase fuel efficiency by operating with superheater tube temperatures above melting temperature of fly ash deposits. Similar strategies have been developed for coal fired and waste-fired boilers. Additives are primarily used to replace alkali metal chloride deposits with higher melting temperature and less corrosive alkali metal sulfate or alkali aluminum silicate deposits. Design modifications that have been shown to control superheater corrosion include adding a radiant pass (empty chamber) between the furnace and the superheater, installing cool tubes immediately upstream of the superheater to trap high chloride deposits, designing superheater banks for quick replacement, using an external superheater that burns a less corrosive biomass fuel, moving circulating fluidized bed (CFB) superheaters from the convective pass into the hot recirculated fluidizing medium and adding an insulating layer to superh

  12. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babcock/Wilcox; Illinois State Geological; Worley Parsons; Parsons Infrastructure/Technology Group

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, B&W and Air Liquide are developing and optimizing the oxy-combustion process for retrofitting existing boilers as well as new plants. The main objectives of the project is to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of the oxy-combustion technology with flue gas recycle in a 5-million Btu/hr coal-fired pilot boiler, (2) measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection and flue gas recycle strategies, and (3) perform technical and economic feasibility studies for application of the technology in demonstration and commercial scale boilers. This document summarizes the work performed during the period of performance of the project (Oct 2002 to June 2007). Detailed technical results are reported in corresponding topical reports that are attached as an appendix to this report. Task 1 (Site Preparation) has been completed in 2003. The experimental pilot-scale O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion tests of Task 2 (experimental test performance) has been completed in Q2 2004. Process simulation and cost assessment of Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has been completed in Q1 2005. The topical report on Task 3 has been finalized and submitted to DOE in Q3 2005. The calculations of Task 4 (Retrofit Recommendation and Preliminary Design of a New Generation Boiler) has been completed in 2004. In Task 6 (engineering study on retrofit applications), the engineering study on 25MW{sub e} unit has been completed in Q2, 2008 along with the corresponding cost assessment. In Task 7 (evaluation of new oxy-fuel power plants concepts), based on the design basis document prepared in 2005, the design and cost estimate of the Air Separation Units, the boiler islands and the CO{sub 2} compression and trains have been completed, for both super and ultra-supercritical case study. Final report of Task-7 is published by DOE in Oct 2007.

  13. Bridging the experience gap: Burning tires in a utility boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denhof, D.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For many communities, a solution to waste tire management problems may be no farther than the nearest coal-fired utility or industrial boiler. Sending waste tires to be used as a fuel in existing boilers is one way communities can prevent tires from creating problems in landfills, or from growing into nuisances and potentially dangerous stockpiles while waiting for recycling markets to develop. For utilities, using tire-derived fuel can help control fuel costs and conserve coal. When the State of Wisconsin sought alternatives to disposing of waste tires in its landfills, Wisconsin Power & Light came forward to meet the challenge. Now, the electric utility is shredding and burning more than 1 million tires a year at its coal-fired generating station in southern Wisconsin.

  14. Thermal Behavior of Floor Tubes in a Kraft Recovery Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, R.E.; Choudhury, K.A.; Gorog, J.P.; Hall, L.M.; Keiser, J.R.; Sarma, G.B.

    1999-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperatures of floor tubes in a slope-floored black liquor recovery boiler were measured using an array of thermocouples located on the tube crowns. It was found that sudden, short duration temperature increases occurred with a frequency that increased with distance from the spout wall. To determine if the temperature pulses were associated with material falling from the convective section of the boiler, the pattern of sootblower operation was recorded and compared with the pattern of temperature pulses. During the period from September, 1998, through February, 1999, it was found that more than 2/3 of the temperature pulses occurred during the time when one of the fast eight sootblowers, which are directed at the back of the screen tubes and the leading edge of the first superheater bank, was operating.

  15. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  16. Increase Your Boiler Pressure to Decrease Your Electric Bill: The True Cost of CHP 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downing, A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    benefit of clean, low cost and reliable onsite power production. Introduction What if plant designers could create a payback on a replacement or new boiler? Operators still get the heat for the process, but now instead of a large capital investment... is not complicated and produces real savings. For our analysis, a company is examining the economic and operating variables inherit with replacing their current 65 psig low pressure boiler with a high pressure 400 psig boiler. They still only require 65 psig...

  17. Boiler suppliers ask for investigation of secret, illegal foreign financing deals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smock, R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The boiler industry has asked the US Department of Commerce to protect it from what it claims may be secret illegal financing deals by foreign suppliers. Complaints by the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA) cite two cases involving French and Swedish suppliers and warn of South American deals under consideration. ABMA suggests that foreign governments may be subsidizing commercial financing to encourage exports in violation of US tariff laws. Those purchasing the impartial boilers deny that anything improper or illegal was done. (DCK)

  18. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

    2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability in conventional coal-fired fossil power plants is most often caused by fireside corrosion of boiler waterwalls. Industry-wide, the rate of wall thickness corrosion wastage of fireside waterwalls in fossil-fired boilers has been of concern for many years. It is significant that the introduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls with staged burners systems has increased reported waterwall wastage rates to as much as 120 mils (3 mm) per year. Moreover, the reducing environment produced by the low-NOx combustion process is the primary cause of accelerated corrosion rates of waterwall tubes made of carbon and low alloy steels. Improved coatings, such as the MCrAl nanocoatings evaluated here (where M is Fe, Ni, and Co), are needed to reduce/eliminate waterwall damage in subcritical, supercritical, and ultra-supercritical (USC) boilers. The first two tasks of this six-task project-jointly sponsored by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)-have focused on computational modeling of an advanced MCrAl nanocoating system and evaluation of two nanocrystalline (iron and nickel base) coatings, which will significantly improve the corrosion and erosion performance of tubing used in USC boilers. The computational model results showed that about 40 wt.% is required in Fe based nanocrystalline coatings for long-term durability, leading to a coating composition of Fe-25Cr-40Ni-10 wt.% Al. In addition, the long term thermal exposure test results further showed accelerated inward diffusion of Al from the nanocrystalline coatings into the substrate. In order to enhance the durability of these coatings, it is necessary to develop a diffusion barrier interlayer coating such TiN and/or AlN. The third task 'Process Advanced MCrAl Nanocoating Systems' of the six-task project jointly sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)- has focused on processing of advanced nanocrystalline coating systems and development of diffusion barrier interlayer coatings. Among the diffusion interlayer coatings evaluated, the TiN interlayer coating was found to be the optimum one. This report describes the research conducted under the Task 3 workscope.

  19. Building America Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controllers, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PARR

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  20. Maintaining Low Oxygen (O2) in Coal Fueled Utility Boilers Using CO Instrumentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, D.; Downing, T.

    and the annual fuel savings possible from this 02 reduction. Unit til 1.8 a pulverized coal fired, 565 MW, CE boiler system placed in service July 27, 1982. Complete and safe combustion in this boiler is maintained by continuously monitoring 02 and CO...Il at Muleshoe, Texas. This is a 565 :Megawatt unit utilizing a Combustion Engineering boiler firing sub-bituminous Wyoming coal thrQugh six elevations of tilting tangential nozzles. The boiler is balanced draft with two air preheaters. Environmental...

  1. Consider Installing Turbulators on Two- and Three-Pass Firetube Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on installing turbulators on firetube boilers provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  2. A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in boiler and steam turbine technology, materialschange; Steam plant; Steam turbine; Electricity 1.housed ?ve 10,000 kW steam turbines and typically required

  3. Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #7 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam energy tip sheet for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO). The prevention of scale formation in firetube boilers can result in substantial energy savings. Scale deposits occur when calcium, magnesium, and silica, commonly found in most water supplies, react to form a continuous layer of material on the waterside of the boiler heat exchange tubes. Scale creates a problem because it typically possesses a thermal conductivity, an order of magnitude less than the corresponding value for bare steel. Even thin layers of scale serve as an effective insulator and retard heat transfer. The result is overheating of boiler tube metal, tube failures, and loss of energy efficiency. Fuel consumption may increase by up to 5% in firetube boilers because of scale. The boilers steam production may be reduced if the firing rate cannot be increased to compensate for the decrease in combustion efficiency. Energy losses as a function of scale thickness and composition are given. Any scale in a boiler is undesirable. The best way to deal with scale is not to let it form in the first place. Prevent scale formation by: (1) Pretreating of boiler makeup water (using water softeners, demineralizers, and reverse osmosis to remove scale-forming minerals); (2) Injecting chemicals into the boiler feedwater; and (3) Adopting proper boiler blowdown practices.

  4. Benefits of Industrial Boiler Control and Economic Load Allocation at AMOCO Chemicals, Decatur, Alabama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, J.

    by feed-forward action from boiler steam flow. In addition, recovery from the loss of a boiler is enhanced by a running integral scheme designed to distribute the production from the lost boiler to the remaining on-line boilers in a rapid... of the efficiency calculations are fed units of this value are BTU of fuel per pound of directly to the TELA application. TELA uses this steam. Prior to Honeywell controls installation, the infonnation to automatically maintain the steam cost plant produced steam...

  5. Continuous Measurement of Carbon Monoxide Improves Combustion Efficiency of CO Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilmour, W. A.; Pregler, D. N.; Branham, R. L.; Prichard, J. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the application of in-situ flue gas CO measurement in the operation of CO Boilers and details the steps needed to optimize combustion efficiency....

  6. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Appendix, Book 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the industry need for a pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, Babcock Wilcox (B&W) designed, fabricated, and installed such a facility at its Alliance Research Center (ARC) in 1985. The project involved conversion of an existing pulverized coal-fired facility to be cyclone-firing capable. Additionally, convective section tube banks were installed in the upper furnace in order to simulate a typical boiler convection pass. The small boiler simulator (SBS) is designed to simulate most fireside aspects of full-size utility boilers such as combustion and flue gas emissions characteristics, fireside deposition, etc. Prior to the design of the pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, the various cyclone boiler types were reviewed in order to identify the inherent cyclone boiler design characteristics which are applicable to the majority of these boilers. The cyclone boiler characteristics that were reviewed include NO{sub x} emissions, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) carbon loss, and total furnace residence time. Previous pilot-scale cyclone-fired furnace experience identified the following concerns: (1) Operability of a small cyclone furnace (e.g., continuous slag tapping capability). (2) The optimum cyclone(s) configuration for the pilot-scale unit. (3) Compatibility of NO{sub x} levels, carbon burnout, cyclone ash carryover to the convection pass, cyclone temperature, furnace residence time, and FEGT.

  7. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Department of Energy to improve steam system performance. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators (July 2004) More Documents & Publications...

  8. A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in boiler and steam turbine technology, materialshoused ?ve 10,000 kW steam turbines and typically requiredchange; Steam plant; Steam turbine; Electricity 1.

  9. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

  10. New 90,000 PPH Coal Fired Boiler Plant at Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, Durham North Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaskey, G. T.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company in Durham, North Carolina is installing a future cogeneration, coal fired boiler system designed and built by Energy Systems (ESI) of Chattanooga, Tennessee. The complete boiler plant is comprised of a 90,000 pph Dorr...

  11. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  12. Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion probes are being developed and combined with an existing measurement technology to provide a tool for assessing the extent of corrosion of metallic materials on the fireside in coal-fired boilers. The successful development of this technology will provide power plant operators the ability to (1) accurately monitor metal loss in critical regions of the boiler, such as waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters; and (2) use corrosion rates as process variables. In the former, corrosion data could be used to schedule maintenance periods and in the later, processes can be altered to decrease corrosion rates. The research approach involves laboratory research in simulated environments that will lead to field tests of corrosion probes in coal-fired boilers. Laboratory research has already shown that electrochemically-measured corrosion rates for ash-covered metals are similar to actual mass loss corrosion rates. Electrochemical tests conducted using a potentiostat show the corrosion reaction of ash-covered probes at 500?C to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates measured are similar to those from an automated corrosion monitoring system. Tests of corrosion probes made with mild steel, 304L stainless steel (SS), and 316L SS sensors showed that corrosion of the sensors in a very aggressive incinerator ash was controlled by the ash and not by the alloy content. Corrosion rates in nitrogen atmospheres tended to decrease slowly with time. The addition of oxygen-containing gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide to nitrogen caused a more rapid decrease in corrosion rate, while the addition of water vapor increased the corrosion rate.

  13. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter October-December 2003. Task 1 (Site Preparation) had been completed in the previous reporting period. In this reporting period, one week of combustion parameters optimization has been performed in Task 2 (experimental test performance) of the project. Under full-oxy conditions (100% air replacement with O{sub 2}-enriched flue gas) in 1.5MW{sub th} coal-fired boiler, the following parameters have been varied and their impact on combustion characteristics measured: the recirculated flue gas flow rate has been varied from 80% to 95% of total flue gas flow, and the total oxygen flow rate into the primary air zone of the boiler has been set to levels ranging from 15% to 25% of the total oxygen consumption in the overall combustion. In current reporting period, significant progress has also been made in Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) of the project: mass and energy balance calculations and cost assessment have been completed on plant capacity of 533MW{sub e} gross output while applying the methodology described in previous reporting periods. Air-fired PC Boiler and proposed Oxygen-fired PC Boiler have been assessed, both for retrofit application and new unit. The current work schedule is to review in more details the experimental data collected so far as well as the economics results obtained on the 533MWe cases, and to develop a work scope for the remainder of the project. Approximately one week of pilot testing is expected during the first quarter of 2004, including mercury emission measurement and heat transfer characterization. The project was on hold from mid-November through December 2003 due to non-availability of funds. Out of the {approx}$785k allocated DOE funds in this project, $497k have been spent to date ($480 reported so far), mainly in site preparation, test performance and economics assessment. In addition to DOE allocated funds, to date approximately $330k has been cost-shared by the participants, bringing the total project cost up to $827k ($810k reported so far) as on December 31st, 2003.

  14. METHANE DE-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The project seeks to develop and validate a new pulverized coal combustion system to reduce utility PC boiler NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less without post-combustion flue gas cleaning. Work during the quarter included completion of the equipment fabrication and installation efforts for the 3-million Btu/h pilot system at BBP's Pilot-Scale Combustion Facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA. Final selection of the first two test coals and preliminary selection of the final two test coals were also completed.

  15. Standby cooling system for a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crispin, Larry G. (Akron, OH); Weitzel, Paul S. (Canal Fulton, OH)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for protecting components including the heat exchangers of a fluidized bed boiler against thermal mismatch. The system includes an injection tank containing an emergency supply of heated and pressurized feedwater. A heater is associated with the injection tank to maintain the temperature of the feedwater in the tank at or about the same temperature as that of the feedwater in the heat exchangers. A pressurized gas is supplied to the injection tank to cause feedwater to flow from the injection tank to the heat exchangers during thermal mismatch.

  16. Effects of copper deposition on boiler waterside surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wangerin, M.C.; Rondum, K.D. [Ashland Chemical Co., Boonton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The relative importance of metal oxide corrosion products in waterside deposits, as opposed to traditional scale-forming constituents, is discussed, and the sources of copper and copper oxide boiler deposits are reviewed. Also reviewed are explanations of some of the problems associated with the presence of deposits and especially, copper-containing deposits. These include those due to a reduction in heat transfer and tube metal overheating, as well as various corrosion mechanisms. Case histories, which illustrate certain deleterious mechanisms due to the presence of such deposition, are also presented.

  17. Why Do Kraft Recovery Boiler Composite Floor Tubes Crack?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.

    2001-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Cracks were first reported in 1992 in co-extruded 304L stainless steel/SA210 Gd Al carbon steel floor tubes of North American black liquor recovery boilers. Since then, a considerable amount of information has been collected on the tube environment, crack characteristics, the stress state of the tubes, and the crack initiation and propagation mechanisms. These studies have identified both operating procedures that apparently can greatly lessen the likelihood of crack formation in the stainless steel layer and alternate materials that appear to be much more resistant to cracking than is 304L stainless.

  18. Synergistic air port corrosion in kraft recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Localized hot corrosion can occur on the cold-side of air-ports in Kraft recovery boilers. Depending on the basicity of the molten salt, either acidic or basic fluxing takes place, with a solubility minima at the transition between the two reactions. For stainless steel, if the basicity of the fused salt is between the iron and chromium oxide solubility minima, then a synergistic effect can occur that leads to rapid corrosion. The products of one reaction are the reactants of the other, which eliminates the need for rate-controlling diffusion. This effect can explain why stainless steel is attacked more readily than carbon steel.

  19. Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10|BlueFireBoiler MACT TechnicalFact

  20. Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUE 08:59 FAX 423DepartmentUpgrade Boilers with

  1. A Assertional verification using PVS Vitt & Hooman We present details of the PVS specification of the steam boiler control system.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooman, Jozef

    of the steam boiler control system. In general, a PVS specification consists of a number of theories where each

  2. Predictive control and thermal energy storage for optimizing a multi-energy district boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Predictive control and thermal energy storage for optimizing a multi- energy district boiler Julien energy storage. 1. Introduction Managing energy demand, promoting renewable energy and finding ways of the OptiEnR research project, the present paper deals with optimizing the multi-energy district boiler

  3. Energy Conservation Through Use of Boiler Economizers (Economic and Practical Considerations)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roethe, L. A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most productive means of obtaining conservation of energy lies in the improvement of the fuel-to-steam efficiency of high pressure steam generating boilers. Boilers operating at steam pressures of 100 psig and above are viable prospects...

  4. Analysis of Heating Systems and Scale of Natural Gas-Condensing Water Boilers in Northern Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Y.; Wang, S.; Pan, S.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, various heating systems and scale of the natural gas-condensing water boiler in northern zones are discussed, based on a technical-economic analysis of the heating systems of natural gas condensing water boilers in northern zones...

  5. Analysis of Heating Systems and Scale of Natural Gas-Condensing Water Boilers in Northern Zones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Y.; Wang, S.; Pan, S.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, various heating systems and scale of the natural gas-condensing water boiler in northern zones are discussed, based on a technical-economic analysis of the heating systems of natural gas condensing water boilers in northern zones...

  6. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of fuels, oxy-process variables and boiler design parameters. Significant improvement of CFD modeling tools and validation against 15 MWth experimental data has been completed. Oxy-boiler demonstration and large reference designs have been developed, supported with the information and knowledge gained from the 15 MWth testing. This report addresses the results from the 15 MWth testing in the BSF.

  7. National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 11-12, 2005 1 Quantifying Savings From Improved Boiler Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    /off operation and excess combustion air reduce boiler energy efficiency. This paper presents methods to quantify for improving boiler efficiency include switching from on/off to modulation control and reducing excess air EFFICIENCY We define boiler efficiency as the ratio of heat transferred to the water/steam to the total fuel

  8. Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio J. Marquez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio detection in boiler steam-water systems. The algorithm has been tested using real industrial data from Syncrude Canada, and has proven to be effective in detection of boiler tube or steam leaks; proper

  9. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kychakoff, George; Afromowitz, Martin A; Hugle, Richard E

    2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions and about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler. An image pre-processing circuit (95) in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. An image segmentation module (105) for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. An image-understanding unit (115) matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system (130) for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  10. Studies, Transport and Treatment Concept for Boilers from Berkeley NPP, England - 13599

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirendal, Bo [Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden)] [Studsvik Nuclear AB (Sweden); Saul, David; Robinson, Joe; Davidson, Gavin [Studsvik UK Ltd (United Kingdom)] [Studsvik UK Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In November 2011 Studsvik was awarded a contract to transport five decommissioned boilers from the Berkeley Nuclear Licensed Site in the UK to the Studsvik Nuclear Site in Sweden for metal treatment and recycling. A key objective of the project was to remove the boilers from the site by 31 March 2012 and this was successfully achieved with all boilers off site by 22 March and delivered to Studsvik on 6 April. Four boilers have been processed and the fifth is planned for completion by end of December 2012.The project had many challenges including a very tight timescale and has been successfully delivered to cost and ahead of the baseline programme. This paper describes the project and the experience gained from treatment of the first four boilers. It is the first UK project to send large components overseas for recycling and provides new insight into the processing of Magnox gas-circuit components. (authors)

  11. New source performance standards for industrial boilers. Volume 2. Review of industry operating practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, R.J.; Weisenberg, I.J.; Wilson, K.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The applicability is evaluated of several possible versions of a revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for industrial boilers to boilers that are operated according to typical industry practices. A survey of operating practices is presented, and it is concluded that an NSPS that includes too high a percent removal requirement for SO/sub 2/ (90%) might be excessively costly and cause operating problems for the industrial operator. More field evaluations of low excess air and low Btu gasification are required to validate these techniques for pollution control under industrial boiler operating conditions. The cost of two small boilers with no SO/sub 2/ controls was less than one large boiler of twice the capacity with SO/sub 2/ controls. The annual cost of operating and maintaining the control system accounted for the difference.

  12. Coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO sub x control demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Babcock Wilcox engineering studies followed by pilot-scale testing has developed/confirmed the potential of utilizing gas, oil or coal reburning as a viable NO{sub x} reduction technology. To date, two US sponsored programs promote natural gas/oil as a reburning fuel because it was believed that gas/oil will provide significantly higher combustion efficiency than using coal at the reburn zone. Although B W has shown that gas/oil reburning will play a role in reducing NO{sub x} emissions from cyclone boilers, B W coal reburning research has also shown that coal as a reburning fuel performs nearly as well as gas/oil without deleterious effects on combustion efficiency. This means that boilers using reburning for NO, control can maintain 100% coal usage instead of switching to 20% gas/oil for reburning. As a result of the B W performed coal reburning research, the technology has advanced to the point which it is now ready for demonstration on a commercial scale.

  13. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

  14. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

  15. Pattern of Thermal Fluctuations in a Recovery Boiler Floor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdullah, Z.; Gorog, J.P.; Keiser, J.R.; Meyers, L.E.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1999-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The floor of a black liquor recovey boiler at a mill in central Canada has experienced cracking and delamination of the composite tubing near the spout wall and deformation of the floor panels that is most severe in the vicinity of the spout wall. One possible explanation for the observed damage is impacts of salt cake falling from the convective section onto the floor. In order to determine if such impacts do occur, strain gauges and thermocouples were installed on the boiler floor in areas where cracking and deformation were most frequent. The data obtained from these instruments indicate that brief, sudden temperature fluctuations do occur, and changes in the strain experienced by the affected tube occur simultaneously. These fluctuations appear to occur less often along the spout wall and more frequently with increasing distance from the wall. The frequency of these temperature fluctuations is insufficient for thermal fatigue to be the sole cause of the cracking observed on the tubes, but the data are consistent with what might be expected from pieces of falling salt cake.

  16. Pattern of thermal fluctuations in a recovery boiler floor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Meyers, L.E.; Swindeman, R.W.; Gorog, J.P.; Abdullah, Z.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The floor of a black liquor recovery boiler at a mill in central Canada has experienced cracking and delamination of the composite tubing near the spout wall and deformation of the floor panels that is most severe in the vicinity of the spout wail. One possible explanation for the observed damage is impacts of salt cake falling from the convective section onto the floor. In order to determine if such impacts do occur, strain gauges and thermocouples were installed on the boiler floor in areas where cracking and deformation were most frequent. The data obtained from these instruments indicate that brief, sudden temperature fluctuations do occur, and changes in the strain experienced by-the affected tube occur simultaneously. These fluctuations appear to occur less often along the spout wall and more frequently with increasing distance from the wall. The frequency of these temperature fluctuations is insufficient for thermal fatigue to be the sole cause of the cracking observed on the tubes, but the data are consistent with what might be expected from pieces of falling salt cake.

  17. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable to minimize the need for overfire air by maximizing NO{sub x} reduction in the burner. The proposed combustion concept aims to greatly reduce NO{sub x} emissions by incorporating a novel modification to conventional or low-NO{sub x} PC burners using gas-fired coal preheating to destroy NO{sub x} precursors and prevent NO{sub x} formation. A concentrated PC stream enters the burner, where flue gas from natural gas combustion is used to heat the PC up to about 1500 F prior to coal combustion. Secondary fuel consumption for preheating is estimated to be 3 to 5% of the boiler heat input. This thermal pretreatment releases coal volatiles, including fuel-bound nitrogen compounds into oxygen-deficient atmosphere, which converts the coal-derived nitrogen compounds to molecular N{sub 2} rather than NO. Design, installation, shakedown, and testing on Powder River Basin (PRB) coal at a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at RPI's (Riley Power, Inc.) pilot-scale combustion facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA demonstrated that the PC PREHEAT process has a significant effect on final O{sub x} formation in the coal burner. Modifications to both the pilot system gas-fired combustor and the PC burner led to NO{sub x} reduction with PRB coal to levels below 0.15 lb/million Btu with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

  18. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  19. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chau, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  20. Final technical report. In-situ FT-IR monitoring of a black liquor recovery boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Markham; Joseph Cosgrove; David Marran; Jorge Neira; Chad Nelson; Peter Solomon

    1999-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project developed and tested advanced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instruments for process monitoring of black liquor recovery boilers. The state-of-the-art FT-IR instruments successfully operated in the harsh environment of a black liquor recovery boiler and provided a wealth of real-time process information. Concentrations of multiple gas species were simultaneously monitored in-situ across the combustion flow of the boiler and extractively at the stack. Sensitivity to changes of particulate fume and carryover levels in the process flow were also demonstrated. Boiler set-up and operation is a complex balance of conditions that influence the chemical and physical processes in the combustion flow. Operating parameters include black liquor flow rate, liquor temperature, nozzle pressure, primary air, secondary air, tertiary air, boiler excess oxygen and others. The in-process information provided by the FT-IR monitors can be used as a boiler control tool since species indicative of combustion efficiency (carbon monoxide, methane) and pollutant emissions (sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid and fume) were monitored in real-time and observed to fluctuate as operating conditions were varied. A high priority need of the U.S. industrial boiler market is improved measurement and control technology. The sensor technology demonstrated in this project is applicable to the need of industry.

  1. Composite tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers: A state-of-the-art review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R. [Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keiser, J.R.; Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beginning in the mid-1960s, increasing energy costs in Finland and Sweden made energy recovery more critical to the cost-effective operation of a kraft pulp mill. Boiler designers responded to this need by raising the steam operating pressure, but almost immediately the wall tubes in these new boilers began to corrode rapidly. Test panels installed in the walls of the most severely corroding boiler identified austenitic stainless steel as sufficiently resistant to the new corrosive conditions, and discussions with Sandvik AB, a Swedish tube manufacturer, led to the suggestion that coextruded tubes be used for water wall service in kraft recovery boilers. Replacement of carbon steel by coextruded tubes has solved most of the corrosion problems experienced by carbon steel wall tubes, however, these tubes have not been problem-free. Beginning in early 1995, a multidisciplinary research program funded by the US Department of Energy was established to investigate the cause of cracking in coextruded tubes and to develop improved materials for use in water walls and floors of kraft recovery boilers. One portion of that program, a state-of-the-art review of public- and private-domain documents related to coextruded tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers is reported here. Sources of information that were consulted for this review include the following: tube manufacturers, boiler manufacturers, public-domain literature, companies operating kraft recovery boilers, consultants and failure analysis laboratories, and failure analyses conducted specifically for this project. Much of the information contained in this report involves cracking problems experienced in recovery boiler floors and those aspects of spout and air-port-opening cracking not readily attributable to thermal fatigue. 61 refs.

  2. Fuel Cost Savings Through Computer Control of a Boiler Complex - - Two Case Histories 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worthley, C. M.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with CO control the target is irrlependent of the fuel used. m measurenent also provides a signal which increases dramatically as a condition of insufficient air is approached, thus providiI1g' a big plus in boiler control safety, Total Air... _---?~... .I I OIL I #3 I I I _______-:..J --------..., PROCESS STEAM o I I IJ FIGURE 6. SIMPLIFIED DIAGRAM OF POWER CCW'LEX (CASE it 1) I The power boiler control system controls the four power boilers and allocates the load participation so...

  3. User's manual for the INDCEPT code for estimating industrial steam boiler plant capital investment costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, H I; Fuller, L C; Hudson, II, C R

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The INDCEPT computer code package was developed to provide conceptual capital investment cost estimates for single- and multiple-unit industrial steam boiler plants. Cost estimates can be made as a function of boiler type, size, location, and date of initial operation. The output includes a detailed breakdown of the estimate into direct and indirect costs. Boiler plant cost models are provided to reflect various types and sources of coal and alternate means of sulfur and particulate removal. Cost models are also included for low-Btu and medium-Btu gas produced in coal gasification plants.

  4. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Techology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: • Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs. • Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). • Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools. • Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems. • Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost. • Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project completion date was April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of fuels, oxyprocess variables and boiler design parameters. Significant improvement of CFD modeling tools and validation against 15 MWth experimental data has been completed. Oxy-boiler demonstration and large reference designs have been developed, supported with the information and knowledge gained from the 15 MWth testing. The results from the 15 MWth testing in the BSF and complimentary bench-scale testing are addressed in this volume (Volume II) of the final report. The results of the modeling efforts (Volume III) and the oxy boiler design efforts (Volume IV) are reported in separate volumes.

  5. Task 2: Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcolm, Gordon R.; McGhee, Barry

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the tasks for the project: Characterize advanced boiler (oxy-fuel combustion, biomass co-fired) gas compositions and ash deposits; Generate critical data on the effects of environmental conditions; develop a unified test method with a view to future standardization; Generate critical data for coating systems for use in advanced boiler systems; Generate critical data for flue gas recycle piping materials for oxy-fuel systems; and, Compile materials performance data from laboratory and pilot plant exposures of candidate alloys for use in advanced boiler systems.

  6. Coal-fired boiler costs for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurzius, S.C.; Barnes, R.W.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several of the current sources of information provide data on coal-fired steam boiler costs. As published, these data give widely varying and possibly inconsistent conclusions. This study was undertaken to determine the extent to which the differences in the various sets of published data bases could be resolved and, if possible, to arrive at more reliable cost correlations to be used in Oak Ridge Energy Demand Models. Our principal finding is that it is indeed possible to restate the costs within each data base on a more consistent basis. When this is done, reasonable engineering correlations of all the cost data versus steam plant capacity can be made over the 10,000 to 5000,000 lb/hr range.

  7. Computation Modeling and Assessment of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Shingledecker; D. Gandy; N. Cheruvu; R. Wei; K. Chan

    2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability of coal-fired fossil plants is most often caused by fire-side corrosion of boiler waterwalls and tubing. Reliable coatings are required for Ultrasupercritical (USC) application to mitigate corrosion since these boilers will operate at a much higher temperatures and pressures than in supercritical (565 C {at} 24 MPa) boilers. Computational modeling efforts have been undertaken to design and assess potential Fe-Cr-Ni-Al systems to produce stable nanocrystalline coatings that form a protective, continuous scale of either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The computational modeling results identified a new series of Fe-25Cr-40Ni with or without 10 wt.% Al nanocrystalline coatings that maintain long-term stability by forming a diffusion barrier layer at the coating/substrate interface. The computational modeling predictions of microstructure, formation of continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. Advanced coatings, such as MCrAl (where M is Fe, Ni, or Co) nanocrystalline coatings, have been processed using different magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. Several coating trials were performed and among the processing methods evaluated, the DC pulsed magnetron sputtering technique produced the best quality coating with a minimum number of shallow defects and the results of multiple deposition trials showed that the process is repeatable. scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. The cyclic oxidation test results revealed that the nanocrystalline coatings offer better oxidation resistance, in terms of weight loss, localized oxidation, and formation of mixed oxides in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, than widely used MCrAlY coatings. However, the ultra-fine grain structure in these coatings, consistent with the computational model predictions, resulted in accelerated Al diffusion from the coating into the substrate. An effective diffusion barrier interlayer coating was developed to prevent inward Al diffusion. The fire-side corrosion test results showed that the nanocrystalline coatings with a minimum number of defects have a great potential in providing corrosion protection. The coating tested in the most aggressive environment showed no evidence of coating spallation and/or corrosion attack after 1050 hours exposure. In contrast, evidence of coating spallation in isolated areas and corrosion attack of the base metal in the spalled areas were observed after 500 hours. These contrasting results after 500 and 1050 hours exposure suggest that the premature coating spallation in isolated areas may be related to the variation of defects in the coating between the samples. It is suspected that the cauliflower-type defects in the coating were presumably responsible for coating spallation in isolated areas. Thus, a defect free good quality coating is the key for the long-term durability of nanocrystalline coatings in corrosive environments. Thus, additional process optimization work is required to produce defect-free coatings prior to development of a coating application method for production parts.

  8. Design and development for a low emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy initiated the Combustion 2000 program to develop the next generation of coal-fired power plants. Sargent & Lundy (S&L) is working on the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) portion of the program led by Riley Stoker Corporation, with support from Textron Defense Systems, Tecogen, and Reaction Engineering International. Together these organizations form {open_quotes}the Riley Team.{close_quotes} There are four phases of the LEBS development program. Currently, we are working in Phase I, which involves the design of a 400 MWe unit. Phase II through IV will involve pilot scale component testing and a Proof-of-Concept facility ({approximately}40MWe) design, construction, and operation. This document comprises the Design and Development Report for the LEBS. The report describes the design basis, design uncertainties and development plan for each of the major LEBS subsystems.

  9. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  10. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovidiu Marin; Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter April-June 2003. The main focus of this quarter has been the site preparation (task 1) for the test campaign scheduled in September/October 2003. Task 3 (Techno-economical assessment) has also been initiated while selecting the methodology to be used in the economics analysis and specifying the plants to be compared: In Task 1 (Site Preparation), the process definition and design activities have been completed, the equipment and instruments required have been identified, and the fabrication and installation activities have been initiated, to implement the required modifications on the pilot boiler. As of today, the schedule calls for completion of construction by late-July. System check-down is scheduled for the first two weeks of August. In Task 2 (Combustion and Emissions Performance Optimization), four weeks of testing are planned, two weeks starting second half of August and two weeks starting at the end of September. In Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study), the plants to be evaluated have been specified, including baseline cases (air fired PC boilers with or without CO{sub 2} capture), O{sub 2}-fired cases (with or without flue gas recirculation) and IGCC cases. Power plants ranging from 50 to 500MW have been selected and the methodology to be used has been described, both for performance evaluation and cost assessment. The first calculations will be performed soon and the first trends will be reported in the next quarter. As part of Task 5 (Project Management & Reporting), the subcontract between Babcock&Wilcox and American Air Liquide has been finalized. The subcontract between ISGS and American Air Liquide is in the final stages of completion.

  11. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter July--September 2003. Significant progress has been made in Task 1 (Site Preparation), Task 2 (Test performance) and Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) of the project: the site preparation has been completed, two weeks of tests have been performed and the power generating units to be compared from an economical standpoint have been selected and accurately described. In the experimental part of this effort (task1), the partners in this project demonstrated the feasibility of 100% air replacement with O{sub 2}-enriched flue gas on 1.5MW coal-fired boiler. The air infiltration have been reduced to approximately 5% of the stoichiometry, enabling to reach around 70% of CO{sub 2} in the flue gases. Higher air in-leakage reduction is expected using alternative boiler operating procedure in order to achieve higher CO{sub 2} concentration in flue gas for further sequestration or reuse. The NO{sub x} emissions have been shown considerably lower in O{sub 2}-fired conditions than in air-baseline, the reduction rate averaging 70%. An additional week of tests is scheduled mid October 2003 for combustion parameter optimization, and some more days of operation will be dedicated to mercury emission measurement and heat transfer characterization. Out of the $485k already allocated in this project, $300k has been spent and reported to date, mainly in site preparation ({approx}$215k) and test performance ({approx}$85k). In addition to DOE allocated funds, to date approximately $240k has been cost-shared by the participants, bringing the total project cost up to $540k as on September 30, 2003.

  12. The reapplication of energetic materials as boiler fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, S.G.; Sclippa, G.C.; Ross, J.R. [and others

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decommissioning of weapons stockpiles, off-specification production, and upgrading of weapons systems results in a large amount of energetic materials (EM) such as rocket propellant and primary explosives that need to be recycled or disposed of each year. Presently, large quantities of EM are disposed of in a process known as open-burn/open-detonation (OB/OD), which not only wastes their energy content, but may release large quantities of hazardous material into the environment. Here the authors investigate the combustion properties of several types of EM to determine the feasibility of reapplication of these materials as boiler fuels, a process that could salvage the energy content of the EM as well as mitigate any potential adverse environmental impact. Reapplication requires pretreatment of the fuels to make them safe to handle and to feed. Double-base nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin, trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitroguanidine, and a rocket propellant binder primarily composed of polybutidiene impregnated with aluminum flakes have been burned in a 100-kW downfired flow reactor. Most of these fuels have high levels of fuel-bound nitrogen, much of it bound in the form of nitrate groups, resulting in high NO{sub x} emissions during combustion. The authors have measured fuel-bound nitrate conversion efficiencies to NO{sub x} of up to 80%, suggesting that the nitrate groups do not follow the typical path of fuel nitrogen through HCN leading to NO{sub x}, but rather form NO{sub x} directly. They show that staged combustion is effective in reducing NO{sub x} concentrations in the postcombustion gases by nearly a factor of 3. In the rocket binder, measured aluminum particle temperatures in excess of 1700{degrees}C create high levels of thermal NO{sub x}, and also generate concern that molten aluminum particles could potentially damage boiler equipment. Judicious selection of the firing method is thus required for aluminum-containing materials.

  13. Recovery Boiler Modeling: An Improved Char Burning Model Including Sulfate Reduction and Carbon Removal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grace, T. M.; Wag, K. J.; Horton, R. R.; Frederick, W. J.

    gasification, reactions between oxygen and combustibles in the boundary layer, and integration of sulfate reduction and sulfide reoxidation into the char burning process. Simulations using the model show that for typical recovery boiler conditions, char burning...

  14. 2014-02-07 Issuance: Test Procedure for Commercial Packaged Boilers; Request for Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register request for information regarding test procedures for commercial packaged boilers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 7, 2014.

  15. A methodology for in-situ calibration of steam boiler instrumentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Guanghua

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a broadly useful diagnostic methodology to engineers and plant managers for finding the in-situ operating characteristics of power plant boilers when metered data is either missing or obviously erroneous. The methodology is able...

  16. A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    change; Steam plant; Steam turbine; Electricity 1.housed ?ve 10,000 kW steam turbines and typically requiredAdvances in boiler and steam turbine technology, materials

  17. Benefits of Industrial Boiler Control and Economic Load Allocation at AMOCO Chemicals, Decatur, Alabama 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the economic benefits realized by Amoco's Decatur plant from the utilization of Honeywell's Industrial Boiler Control solution and Turbo Economic Load Allocation packages on an integrated four...

  18. The Enbridge "Steam Saver" Program: Steam Boiler Plant Efficiency-Update to Year End 2005 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, B.; Johnson, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or refractory. Improve condensate return. Add an Oxygen trim system Repair heat exchangers to permit condensate return.. Replace or re-build the boiler control system. Fix steam leaks. Repair a defective economizer. Implement a pressurized condensate...

  19. From Basic Control to Optimized Systems-Applying Digital Control Systems to Steam Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hockenbury, W. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on heat transferred to a process. If that process suffers an upset, unstable conditions can propagate from one process to another via the steam supply system. The closer the tolerance in the boiler control system, the smaller the steam header...

  20. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The...

  1. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to conduct laboratory experiments to clarify the mechanism of boiler corrosion, which may lead to solving the corrosion problem associated with the utilization of Illinois' high-sulfur and high-chlorine coal. The kinetics of the release of sulfur and chlorine species during coal combustion is being determined in the laboratories using temperature-programmed pyrolysis coupled with quadrupole gas analysis (QGA) and thermogravimetric analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Samples of boiler deposits and ashes from different locations in boilers using Illinois coal will be analyzed for mineralogical and chemical compositions to understand the relations among deposit compositions, coal compositions, and the gaseous species in combustion gases. The relationship between the level of chlorine in Illinois coal and boiler corrosion will be studied by experiments with simulated combustion gases under combustion conditions. Reduction of sulfur and chloride concentrations in the flue gas using additives will also be evaluated.

  2. 2014-01-31 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers; Notice of Data Availability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of data availability regarding energy conservation standards for residential boilers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on January 31, 2014.

  3. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  4. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  5. The Enbridge "Steam Saver" Program: Steam Boiler Plant Efficiency-Update to Year End 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, B.; Johnson, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and incentive grants. Stand-alone projects encompass a wide range of projects. Examples include: -conversion of steam heated Air Handling Units from steam to natural gas. -Heat Recovery Projects. -Installation of RO water treatment systems.... These facilities have large Central Heating Plants. Some institutions have installed co- generation, replacing boilers with Heat Recovery Steam Generators. TABLE 2 BOILER POPULATION FOR STEAM PLANTS WITH ANNUAL FUEL CONSUMPTION GREATER THAN 70 MILLION CUBIC...

  6. Flue Gas Conditioning to Reduce Particulate Emissions in Industrial Coal-Fired Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, B.; Keon, E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FLUE GAS CONDITIONING TO REDUCE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN INDUSTRIAL COAL-FIRED BOILERS Barry Miller and Ed Keon Apollo Technologies, Inc. Whippany, New Jersey ABSTRACT Chemical technology has been used successfully to solve many... inspection of the ESP, careful observation of ESP controls to determine spark rate and voltage drop during sparking, in-situ resistivity mea surements, rapper on-off observations, and a re view of records to investigate the relationship of boiler...

  7. Upgrade of Multiple Boiler/Turbine Plant to Microprocessor Control- A Case History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenk, J. R.; Sommer, A. C.

    -j------ I I UPGRADE OF MULTIPLE BOILER/TURBINE PLANT TO MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL - A CASE HISTORY John R. Schenk Manager, Utilities &Energy Conservation General Electric Company Erie, Pennsylvania and Alan C. SOlllller Bailey Controls... Company ABSTRACT The Utilities Operation of the General Electric - Erie Plant is responsible for providing all energy for the Plant. The primary source is coal, which is used in four boilers to pro duce steam for the generation of electricity...

  8. Fluid Bed Waste Heat Boiler Operating Experience in Dirty Gas Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreeger, A. H.

    FLUID BED WASTE HEAT BOILER OPERATING EXPERIENCE IN DIRTY GAS STREAMS Alan H. Kreeger. Aerojet Energy Conversion Company. Sacramento. California ABSTRACT The first industrial fluid bed waste heat boiler in the U. S. is operating... on an aluminium melting furnace at the ALCOA Massena Integrated Aluminum Works in upstate New York. Waste heat from an aluminum melting furnace is captured for general plant use for the first time in this plant. It is accomplished with advanced fluid bed heat...

  9. Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, C. [National Power Training Institute, Durgapur (India)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on the quality of raw coal and output requirement. It should be sufficient to dry pulverized coal (PC). Drying capacity is also limited by utmost PA fan power to supply air. The PA temperature is limited by air preheater (APH) inlet flue gas temperature; an increase in this will result in efficiency loss of the boiler. The higher PA inlet temperature can be attained through the economizer gas bypass, the steam coiled APH, and the partial flue gas recirculation. The PS/coal ratioincreases with a decrease in grindability or pulverizer output and decreases with a decrease in VM. The flammability of mixture has to be monitored on explosion limit. Through calibration, the PA flow and efficiency of conveyance can be verified. The velocities of coal/air mixture to prevent fallout or to avoid erosion in the coal carrier pipe are dependent on the PC particle size distribution. Metal loss of grinding elements inversely depends on the YGP index of coal. Variations of dynamic loading and wearing of grinding elements affect the available milling capacity and percentage rejects. Therefore, capacity mapping in necessary to ensure the available pulverizer capacity to avoid overcapacity or undercapacity running of the pulverizing system, optimizing auxiliary power consumption. This will provide a guideline on the distribution of raw coal feeding in different pulverizers of a boiler to maximize system efficiency and control, resulting in a more cost effective heat rate.

  10. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyclone furnaces operate with high excess air and at high temperature. The heat release during combustion is very high and as a result the boiler volume is much smaller than would be found in a conventional pc-fired system. The Marion Unit 1 boiler, at the level of the cyclone entry, has a small cross-section; about 5-feet in depth and about 20-feet in width. A boiler schematic showing the LNS Burner and relative location of the superheater region and overfire air ports is shown in Figure 1. The LNS Burner's combustion process is fundamentally different from that of the cyclone, and the combustion products are also different. The LNS Burner products enter the boiler as hot, fuel-rich gases. Additional overfire air must be added to complete this combustion step with care taken to avoid the formation of thermal NO{sub x}. If done correctly, S0{sub 2} is controlled and significant NO{sub x} reductions are achieved. Because of the small boiler volume, flow modelling was found to be necessary to insure that adequate mixing of LNS Burner combustion products with air can be accomplished to achieve NO{sub x} emissions goals. Design requirements for the air injection system for the Marion boiler were developed using FLUENT, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A series of runs were made to obtain a design for final air injection that met the process design goals as closely as possible.

  11. Final Report: Guided Acoustic Wave Monitoring of Corrosion in Recovery Boiler Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinn, D J; Quarry, M J; Rose, J L

    2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of tubing used in black-liquor recovery boilers is a major concern in all pulp and paper mills. Extensive corrosion in recovery boiler tubes can result in a significant safety and environmental hazard. Considerable plant resources are expended to inspect recovery boiler tubing. Currently, visual and ultrasonic inspections are primarily used during the annual maintenance shutdown to monitor corrosion rates and cracking of tubing. This Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies project is developing guided acoustic waves for use on recovery boiler tubing. The feature of this acoustic technique is its cost-effectiveness in inspecting long lengths of tubes from a single inspection point. A piezoelectric or electromagnetic transducer induces guided waves into the tubes. The transducer detects fireside defects from the cold side or fireside of the tube. Cracking and thinning on recovery boiler tubes have been detected with this technique in both laboratory and field applications. This technique appears very promising for recovery boiler tube application, potentially expediting annual inspection of tube integrity.

  12. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers - Control Strategies for Optimizing Performance and Comfort in Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of a gas-fired condensing boiler with baseboard convectors and an indirect water heater has become a common option for high-efficiency residential space heating in cold climates. While there are many condensing boilers available on the market with rated efficiencies in the low to mid 90% efficient range, it is imperative to understand that if the control systems are not properly configured, these heaters will perform no better than their non-condensing counterparts. Based on previous research efforts, it is apparent that these types of systems are typically not designed and installed to achieve maximum efficiency (Arena 2010). It was found that there is a significant lack of information for contractors on how to configure the control systems to optimize overall efficiency. For example, there is little advice on selecting the best settings for the boiler reset curve or how to measure and set flow rates in the system to ensure that the return temperatures are low enough to promote condensing. It has also been observed that recovery from setback can be extremely slow and, at times, not achieved. Recovery can be affected by the outdoor reset control, the differential setting on the boiler and over-sizing of the boiler itself. This guide is intended for designers and installers of hydronic heating systems interested in maximizing the overall system efficiency of condensing boilers when coupled with baseboard convectors. It is applicable to new and retrofit applications.

  13. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabienne Chatel-Pelage; Rajani Varagani

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter April-June 2004. Task 1 (Site Preparation) had been completed 2003, along with three weeks of oxycombustion tests in Task 2 (experimental test performance) of the project. In current reporting period, the experimental testing has been completed: one additional week of tests has been performed to finalize the optimization of the combustion characteristics in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environment ; two more days of testing were dedicated to mercury sampling in air-fired or O{sub 2}-fired conditions, and to characterization of heat transfer in O{sub 2} conditions vs. to air-blown conditions. Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has also been completed in current quarter: 250MWe, 500MWe and 1000MWe oxygen-fired PC unit have been simulated and quoted, and their performance and cost have been compared to same-capacity air-fired pulverized coal (PC) unit and IGCC. New and retrofit cases have been evaluated. The comparison has been completed in terms of capital cost, operating cost, cost of electricity and cost of CO{sub 2} avoided. The scope of task 4 (Conceptual Boiler Design) had been modified as per DOE request in previous quarter. Engineering calculations are currently in progress. Next steps include detail review of the experimental data collected during the entire testing campaign, finalization of detailed report on economic task, and reporting of the preliminary results in the boiler design task. Two papers summarizing the project main achievements have been presented at Clearwater coal conference in April 2004 (overall project results), and at the CO{sub 2} sequestration conference in May 2004 (emphasis on economics). Out of the {approx}$785k allocated DOE funds in this project, $545k have been spent to date, mainly in site preparation, test performance and economics assessment. In addition to DOE allocated funds, to date approximately $400k have been cost-shared by the participants, bringing the total project cost up to $945k as on June 30, 2004.

  14. Scale-up of commercial PCFB boiler plant technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamar, T.W.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DMEC-1 Demonstration Project will provide an 80 MWe commercial-scale demonstration of the Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) technology. Following confirmation of the PCFB design in the 80 MWe scale, the technology with be scaled to even larger commercial units. It is anticipated that the market for commercial scale PCFB plants will exist most predominantly in the utility and independent power producer (IPP) sectors. These customers will require the best possible plant efficiency and the lowest achievable emissions at competitive cost. This paper will describe the PCFB technology and the expected performance of a nominal 400 MWe PCFB power plant Illinois No. 6 coal was used as a representative fuel for the analysis. The description of the plant performance will be followed by a discussion of the scale-up of the major PCFB components such as the PCFB boiler, the pressure vessel, the ceramic filter, the coal/sorbent handling steam, the gas turbine, the heat recovery unit and the steam turbine, demonstrating the reasonableness of scale-up from demonstration plant to a nominal 400 MWe unit.

  15. Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is presently the world's primary fuel for generating electrical power and, being more abundant and less expensive than oil or natural gas, is expected to continue its dominance into the future. Coal, however, is more carbon intensive than natural gas and oil and consequently coal-fired power plants are large point source emitters of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Since CO{sub 2} is a greenhouse gas, which may have an adverse impact on the world's climate/weather patterns, studies have been conducted to determine the feasibility and economic impact of capturing power plant CO{sub 2} emissions for pipeline transport to a sequestration/storage site. The stack gas that exhausts from a modern coal-fired power plant typically contains about 15% CO{sub 2} on a dry volume basis. Although there are numerous processes available for removing CO{sub 2} from gas streams, gas scrubbing with amine solvent is best suited for this application because of the large gas volumes and low CO{sub 2} concentrations involved. Unfortunately the energy required to regenerate the solvent for continued use as a capturing agent is large and imposes a severe energy penalty on the plant. In addition this ''back end'' or post combustion cleanup requires the addition of large vessels, which, in retrofit applications, are difficult to accommodate. As an alternative to post combustion scrubbing, Foster Wheeler (FW) has proposed that the combustion process be accomplished with oxygen rather than air. With all air nitrogen eliminated, a CO{sub 2}-water vapor rich flue gas will be generated. After condensation of the water vapor, a portion of the flue gas will be recirculated back to the boiler to control the combustion temperature and the balance of the CO{sub 2} will be processed for pipeline transport. This proposed oxygen-carbon dioxide (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) combustion process eliminates the need for CO{sub 2} removal/separation and reduces the cost of supplying a CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration. FW has developed a conceptual design of an O{sub 2} fired boiler to determine overall plant performance and economics. Five subtasks were conducted: (1) a literature review, (2) a system design and analysis, (3) a low NOx burner design and analysis, (4) a furnace and heat recovery area design analysis, and (5) an economic analysis. The objective of the literature search is to locate any data/information relevant to the Oxygen-Based PC Boiler conceptual design. The objective of the system design and analysis task is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency within practical considerations. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 MW plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.6% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 65% of the air-fired reference case. The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent CFD computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas sw

  16. Design and operation of a coal-washery sludge fired 75 t/h steam fluidized bed combustion boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, X.; Chi, Y.; Yan, J. [and others

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based upon the coal-washery sludge fluidized bed agglomerating combustion technology developed by Zhejiang University and the design and operation experience accumulated from the 35 t/h stream fluidized bed boilers, a coal-washery sludge fired 75 t/h steam circulating fluidized bed boiler (12 MWe) for cogeneration application was designed. The design features of the boiler can be summarized as follows: (1) Combination of solid particle impact separator (in furnace circulation) and moderate temperature ({approximately}500 C) uniflow cyclone; (2) Low solid circulation rate; (3) Loop-seal for solid particle recirculation; (4) Air duct oil burner for boiler start-up; and (5) Coal-Washery sludge firing or co-firing of coal-washery sludge and coal. The boiler is installed at Dongtan Coal Mine Cogeneration Plant in Shandong Province of China. The daily disposal capacity of coal-washery sludge is over 300 tons. The first trial operation of the boiler was on Dec. 18, 1997. The cogeneration plant has been in commercial operation since May 1998. This boiler is the largest capacity boiler to dispose of coal-washery sludge in China. The successful operation of this boiler has sped up the commercialization process of the coal-washery sludge fluidized bed combustion technology.

  17. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kychakoff, George (Maple Valley, WA); Afromowitz, Martin A. (Mercer Island, WA); Hogle, Richard E. (Olympia, WA)

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions of about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler, or producing feeding signals to a data processing system for information to enable a distributed control system by which the boilers are operated to operate said boilers more efficiently. The data processing system includes an image pre-processing circuit in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. It also includes an image compensation system for array compensation to correct for pixel variation and dead cells, etc., and for correcting geometric distortion. An image segmentation module receives a cleaned image from the image pre-processing circuit for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. It also accomplishes thresholding/clustering on gray scale/texture and makes morphological transforms to smooth regions, and identifies regions by connected components. An image-understanding unit receives a segmented image sent from the image segmentation module and matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  18. Regulation of hazardous air pollutants emitted from fossil-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Daellenbach, K.K.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The changes made in {section}112 of the Clean Air Act by the 1990 Amendments to the Act will affect the regulation of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted by fossil-fired boilers. The 1990 Amendments designated 189 chemicals/compounds as HAPS. Major and area sources of these pollutants in categories designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be subject to emission standards set by EPA. Industrial and institutional/commercial boilers are two such categories of HAPs designated by EPA for which emission standards will be issued. Fossil-fired boilers can emit a variety of HAPS. All or a portion of such emissions that exceed designated thresholds are likely to be regulated. This paper discusses how the 1990 amendments impact fossil-fired boilers. The steps are outlined which can be taken by owners of industrial and institutional/commercial boilers before the final emission standards are issued. These steps include participation in EPA`s standard setting process, participation in EPA`s early reduction program to delay the time when compliance with the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standard is required, and consideration of any planned modifications to a facility which might subject that facility to a MACT standard set in advance of the EPA-set standard.

  19. Design considerations for sludge fired fluidized bed incinerator-cum-boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bapat, D.W.; Vishwanathan, K. [Thermax Ltd., Pune (India). Research and Development Centre

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal Limited, a major player in the field of Fluidized Bed Boilers in India, has supplied on a turnkey basis, three boilers each of 22.5 tons per hour capacity as a part of Cogeneration system for PT. South Pacific Viscose, Indonesia. The plant generates huge volumes of sludge from its effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). The sludge produced from the ETP has a moisture content of about 98%, which is subsequently reduced to about 78% using a decanter before feeding the sludge into the boiler. The waste sludge has a negative heating value ({minus}150 kcal/kg on NCV basis) and required coal as support fuel for burning. The plant`s requirement was to incinerate the entire sludge generated in the plant, which meant that nearly 50% of the fuel fed to the boiler consisted of the waste sludge. Additional requirements were to burn coal and oil as back-up fuels. This paper deals with the challenges encountered and various design features provided in the configuration of the incinerator-cum-boiler including conveying, feeding and spreading arrangement of the waste sludge for effective incineration in addition to burning coal and oil. Also included in the paper is a brief description of the automatic control logics for combustion control and bed temperature control.

  20. Mechanical Design of Steel Tubing for Use in Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taljat, B.; Zacharaia, T.; Wang, X.; Kesier, J.; Swindeman, R.; Hubbard, C.

    1999-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Finite element models were developed for thermal-mechanical analysis of black liquor recovery boiler floor tubes. Residual stresses in boiler floors due to various manufacturing processes were analyzed. The modeling results were verified by X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements at room temperature on as-manufactured tubes as well as tubes after service. The established finite element models were then used to evaluate stress conditions during boiler operation. Using these finite element models, a parametric response surface study was performed to investigate the influence of material properties of the clad layer on stresses in the floor tubes during various boiler operating conditions, which yielded a generalized solution of stresses in the composite tube floors. The results of the study are useful for identifying the mechanisms of cracking experienced by recovery boilers. Based on the results of the response surface study, a recommendation was made for more suitable materials in terms of the analyzed mechanical properties. Alternative materials and manufacturing processes are being considered to improve the resistance to cracking and the in-service life of composite tubes. To avoid numerous FE stress-strain analyses of composite tubes made of different material combinations, a response surface study was performed that considered two essential mechanical properties of the clad material - coefficient of thermal expansion and yield stress - as independent variables. The response surface study provided a generalized solution of stresses in the floor in terms of the two selected parameters.

  1. Materials for the pulp and paper industry. Section 1: Development of materials for black liquor recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Payzant, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor recovery boilers are essential components of kraft pulp and paper mills because they are a critical element of the system used to recover the pulping chemicals required in the kraft pulping process. In addition, the steam produced in these boilers is used to generate a significant portion of the electrical power used in the mill. Recovery boilers require the largest capital investment of any individual component of a paper mill, and these boilers are a major source of material problems in a mill. The walls and floors of these boilers are constructed of tube panels that circulate high pressure water. Molten salts (smelt) accumulate on the floor of recovery boilers, and leakage of water into the boiler can result in a violent explosion when the leaked water instantly vaporizes upon contacting the molten smelt. Because corrosion of the conventionally-used carbon steel tubing was found to be excessive in the lower section of recovery boilers, use of stainless steel/carbon steel co-extruded tubing was adopted for boiler walls to lessen corrosion and reduce the likelihood of smelt/water explosions. Eventually, this co-extruded or composite (as it is known in the industry) tubing was selected for use as a portion or all of the floor of recovery boilers, particularly those operating at pressures > 6.2 MPa (900 psi), because of the corrosion problems encountered in carbon steel floor tubes. Since neither the cause of the cracking nor an effective solution has been identified, this program was established to develop a thorough understanding of the degradation that occurs in the composite tubing used for walls and floors. This is being accomplished through a program that includes collection and review of technical reports, examination of unexposed and cracked tubes from boiler floors, computer modeling to predict residual stresses under operating conditions, and operation of laboratory tests to study corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and thermal fatigue.

  2. NICKEL SPECIES EMISSION INVENTORY FOR OIL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Richard L. Schulz; Donald L. Toman; Carolyn M. Nyberg

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Representative duplicate fly ash samples were obtained from the stacks of 400-MW and 385-MW utility boilers (Unit A and Unit B, respectively) using a modified U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 17 sampling train assembly as they burned .0.9 and 0.3 wt% S residual oils, respectively, during routine power plant operations. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) samples were analyzed for nickel (Ni) concentrations and speciation using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and a water-soluble Ni extraction method. ROFA water extraction residues were also analyzed for Ni speciation using XAFS and XRD. Total Ni concentrations in the ROFAs were similar, ranging from 1.3 to 1.5 wt%; however, stack gas Ni concentrations in the Unit A were {approx}990 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} compared to {approx}620 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} for Unit B because of the greater residual oil feed rates employed at Unit A to attain higher load (i.e., MW) conditions with a lower heating value oil. Ni speciation analysis results indicate that ROFAs from Unit A contain about 3 wt% NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O (where x is assumed to be 6 for calculation purposes) and a Ni-containing spinel compound, similar in composition to (Mg,Ni)(Al,Fe){sub 2}O{sub 4}. ROFAs from Unit B contain on average 2.0 wt% NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O and 1.1 wt% NiO. XAFS and XRD analyses did not detect any nickel sulfide compounds, including nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) (XAFS detection limit is 5% of the total Ni concentration). In addition, XAFS measurements indicated that inorganic sulfate and organic thiophene species account for >97% of the total sulfur in the ROFAs. The presence of NiSO{sub 4} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O and nickel oxide compound mixtures and lack of carcinogenic Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} or nickel sulfide compounds (e.g., NiS, NiS{sub 2}) in ROFAs stack-sampled from 400- and 385-MW boilers are contrary to EPA's Ni inhalation cancer risk assessment (''Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress'', February 1998), where it is assumed that the Ni compound mixture emitted from oil-fired utilities is 50% as carcinogenic as Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}. Apparently, this assumption greatly overestimates the Ni inhalation cancer risk from oil-fired utilities.

  3. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  4. METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project seeks to develop and validate a new pulverized coal combustion system to reduce utility PC boiler NOx emissions to 0.15 lb per million Btu or less without post-combustion flue gas cleaning. Work during previous reporting periods completed the design, installation, shakedown and initial PRB coal testing of a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at BBP's Pilot-Scale Combustion Facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA. Based on these results, modifications to the gas-fired preheat combustor and PC burner were defined, along with a modified testing plan and schedule. A revised subcontract was executed with BBP to reflect changes in the pilot testing program. Modeling activities were continued to develop and verify revised design approaches for both the Preheat gas combustor and PC burner. Reactivation of the pilot test system was then begun with BBP personnel. During the previous reporting period, reactivation of the pilot test system was completed with the modified Preheat gas combustor. Following shakedown of the modified gas combustor alone, a series of successful tests of the new combustor with PRB coal using the original PC burner were completed. NOx at the furnace exit was reduced significantly with the modified gas combustor, to as low as 150 ppm with only 36 ppm CO (both corrected to 3% O2). Concurrent with testing, GTI and BBP collaborated on development of two modified designs for the PC burner optimized to fire preheated char and pyrolysis products from the Preheat gas combustor. During the current reporting period, one of the two modified PC burner designs was fabricated and installed in the pilot test facility. Testing of the modified pilot system (modified gas combustor and modified PC burner) during the quarter included 38 tests with PRB coal. NOx reduction was significantly improved to levels as low as 60-100 ppmv with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

  5. Structural analysis of a reflux pool-boiler solar receiver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E.L.; Stone, C.M.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupled thermal-structural finite element calculations of a reflux pool-boiler solar receiver were performed to characterize the operating stresses and to address issues affecting the service life of the receiver. Analyses performed using shell elements provided information for receiver material selection and design optimization. Calculations based on linear elastic fracture mechanics principles were performed using continuum elements to assess the vulnerability of a seam-weld to fatigue crack growth. All calculations were performed using ABAQUS, a general purpose finite element code, and elements specifically formulated for coupled thermal-structural analysis. Two materials were evaluated: 316L SS and Haynes 230 alloys. The receiver response was simulated for a combination of structural and thermal loads that represent the startup and operating conditions of the receiver. For both materials, maximum stresses in the receiver developed shortly after startup due to uneven temperature distribution across the receiver surface. The largest effective stress was near yield in the 316L SS receiver and below 39 percent of yield in the Haynes 230 receiver. The calculations demonstrated that stress reductions of over 25 percent could be obtained by reducing the aft dome thickness to one closer to the absorber. The fatigue calculations demonstrated that the stress distribution near the seam-weld notch depends primarily on the structural load created by internal pressurization of the receiver rather than the thermal, indicating that the thermal loads can be neglected when assessing the stress intensity near the seam-weld notch. The stress intensity factor, computed using the J-integral method and crack opening-displacement field equations, was significantly below the fatigue threshold for most steels. The calculations indicated that the weld notch was always loaded in compression, a condition which is not conducive to fatigue crack growth. 15 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Gas mixing in the wall layer of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterneus, J.; Johnsson, F. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Conversion

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tracer-gas measurements were carried out in the transport zone of a 12 MW CFB boiler with special emphasis on the wall-layer flow. Helium (He) was used as tracer gas and a mass spectrometer was used to determine the He-concentrations. The primary gas velocity, U{sub 0}, was 1.2, 2.6 and 4.3 m/s (no secondary air) and the bed material was silica sand with an average particle diameter of 0.32 mm. Tracer gas was injected at different distances from one of the furnace walls and sampled above and below the injection level. In the wall layer, tracer-gas concentrations were detected above (C{sub above}) as well as below (C{sub below}) the injection height for all operating conditions, i.e., the gas flows both up and down from the injection point. The data show that the net flow of tracer gas in the wall layer depends on the operating conditions, and the concentration ratio of the down- and up-flowing gas, {psi} = C{sub below}/C{sub above}, decreases with increased gas velocity ({psi} > 1 for U{sub 0} = 1.2 m/s, {psi} {approx} 1 for U{sub 0} = 2.6 m/s and {psi} < 1 for U{sub 0} = 4.3 m/s). There exists a gas exchange between the core region and the wall-layer. A plug flow model applied to the core region gives a radial dispersion coefficient, D{sub r}, in the range of 0.015--0.025 m{sup 2}/s which is higher than the D{sub r} values reported in literature which are below 0.01 m{sup 2}/x. However, the latter values were obtained in tall and narrow risers.

  7. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

  8. Maximum Achievable Control Technology for New Industrial Boilers (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of Clean Air Act 90 (CAAA90, the EPA on February 26, 2004, issued a final rulethe National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) to reduce emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters. The rule requires industrial boilers and process heaters to meet limits on HAP emissions to comply with a Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) floor level of control that is the minimum level such sources must meet to comply with the rule. The major HAPs to be reduced are hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, and nickel. The EPA predicts that the boiler MACT rule will reduce those HAP emissions from existing sources by about 59,000 tons per year in 2005.

  9. ISSUANCE: 2014-11-13 Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers: Public Meeting and Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers: Public Meeting and Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document

  10. New 90,000 PPH Coal Fired Boiler Plant at Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, Durham North Carolina 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaskey, G. T.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company in Durham, North Carolina is installing a future cogeneration, coal fired boiler system designed and built by Energy Systems (ESI) of Chattanooga, Tennessee. The complete boiler plant is comprised of a 90,000 pph Dorr-Oliver/E.Keeler...

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, VOL. 3, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2007 73 Constraint-Based Control of Boiler Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    -Based Control of Boiler Efficiency: A Data-Mining Approach Zhe Song and Andrew Kusiak, Member, IEEE Abstract--In this paper, a data-mining approach is used to de- velop a model for optimizing the efficiency of an electric-utility boiler subject to operating constraints. Selection of process vari- ables to optimize combustion

  12. Speci cation and Veri cation of a Steam-Boiler with Signal-Coq Micka l Kerb uf1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Speci cation and Veri cation of a Steam-Boiler with Signal-Coq Micka l Kerb uf1 , David Nowak2 assistant, Coq, for the speci cation and the veri cation of co-inductive properties of the well-known steam cation tools. Keywords: synchronous programming, theorem proving, the steam- boiler problem. 1

  13. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  14. Correlating benzene, total hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from wood-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, A.J.; Grande, D.E.; Berens, J.R. [Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States); Piotrowski, J. [Tenneco Packaging, Inc., Tomahawk, WI (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hazardous air pollutants, including benzene, are generated by the incomplete combustion of fuels. Organic compound emissions, which are generally products of incomplete combustion, are reduced by promoting high quality combustion, for example by controlling furnace exit temperatures and establishing minimum residence times. Monitoring carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is important since the amount of carbon monoxide emitted represents the quality of combustion which in turn represents the amount of hazardous air pollutants being generated. Total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions are also related to the quality of combustion. Recently the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) measured the benzene and total hydrocarbon emissions from two large industrial wood fired boilers. These boilers are located at Tenneco Packaging, a container board manufacturing facility in northern Wisconsin. Temperature, oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations were sampled continuously by Tenneco Packaging`s emission monitoring system. The Department`s team used an organic vapor analyzer to continuously measure concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC). The Department`s team also used a modified USEPA Method 18 sampling train to capture organic vapors for subsequent analysis by gas chromatography. The data show correlations between benzene and carbon monoxide, and between benzene and THC concentrations. The emissions sampling occurred both upstream of the particulate emissions control system as well as at the stack. The CO variations during actual boiler operation appeared to be well correlated with changes in boiler steam load. That is, increases in CO generally accompanied a change, either up or down, in boiler load. Lower concentrations of CO were associated with stable combustion, as indicated by periods of constant or nearly constant boiler load.

  15. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesnor, J.D. [ABB/Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  16. Conversion of a black liquor recovery boiler to wood firing: A case history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eleniewski, M.A. [Detroit Stoker Company, Monroe, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1983 a large integrated pulp and paper mill in southeastern United States retired an older chemical recovery boiler when it was replaced by a newer and larger unit as part of a mill expansion. At that time the mill was generating steam and power using wood waste, natural gas and black liquor, a common fuel mix for pulp mills. The retirement of the recovery boiler presented an opportunity for the mill and corporate engineering to evaluate various mixes of fuels for the mill.

  17. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy at high temperatures in industrial boilers and furnaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, Peter M. (University of Alabama at Birmingham and Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL); Shaddix, Christopher R.; Sickafoose, Shane M.; Blevins, Linda Gail

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied (1) near the superheater of an electric power generation boiler burning biomass, coat, or both, (2) at the exit of a glass-melting furnace burning natural gas and oxygen, and (3) near the nose arches of two paper mill recovery boilers burning black liquor. Difficulties associated with the high temperatures and high particle loadings in these environments were surmounted by use of novel LIBS probes. Echelle and linear spectrometers coupled to intensified CCD cameras were used individually and sometimes simultaneously. Elements detected include Na, K, Ca, Mg, C, B, Si, Mn, Al, Fe, Rb, Cl, and Ti.

  18. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  19. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  20. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  1. Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldajani, Mansour A.

    Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler M.A. Habib a,*, M; accepted 14 April 2007 Available online 24 June 2007 Abstract NOx formation during the combustion process occurs mainly through the oxidation of nitrogen in the combustion air (thermal NOx) and through oxidation

  2. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Henderson, H.; Varshney, K.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  3. DETECTION OF EVENTS CAUSING PLUGGAGE OF A COAL-FIRED BOILER: A DATA MINING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    DETECTION OF EVENTS CAUSING PLUGGAGE OF A COAL-FIRED BOILER: A DATA MINING APPROACH ANDREW KUSIAK partitioning, parameter reduction, and data mining. Two inde- pendent data mining algorithms have been applied to detect both static and dynamic relationships among the process parameters. The multi-angle data mining

  4. Model of penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration in the paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reister, D.B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model has been developed to forecast the penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration of electricity in the paper industry. Given the demand for energy services (process steam and electricity) by the paper industry, the Penetration Model forecasts the demand for purchased fuel and electricity. The model splits the demand for energy service between energy carriers (coal, fuel oil/natural gas, bark, and spent liquor) on the basis of the installed capacity of 16 types of boilers (combinations of four types of energy carriers and four types of throttle conditions). Investment in new boilers is allocated by an empirical distribution function among the 16 types of boilers on the basis of life cycle cost. In the short run (5 years), the Penetration Model has a small price response. The model has a large price response in the long run (30 years). For constant fuel prices, the model forecasts a 19-percent share for coal and a 65-percent share for residual oil in the year 2000. If the real price of oil and gas doubles by the year 2000, the model forecasts a 68-percent share for coal and a 26-percent share for residual oil.

  5. Damage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    for the development of life-prediction systems. Many methods for estimating fatigue life were proposed on which lifeDamage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1 Donglin Li Tongwen Chen2 of the system. For model I, we incorporate the improved rainflow cycle counting method and a continuous

  6. Low No sub x /SO sub x burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative's (SIPC's) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC's Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner's SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  7. Development of Cost Effective Oxy-Combustion Retrofitting for Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to further develop the oxy-combustion technology for commercial retrofit in existing wall-fired and Cyclone boilers by 2012. To meet this goal, a research project was conducted that included pilot-scale testing and a full-scale engineering and economic analysis.

  8. Low Carbon Footprint and Ultra Low NOx Boilers through Efficiency Gain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benz, R,; Staedter, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low Carbon Footprint and Ultra Low NOx Boilers through Efficiency Gain Robert Benz Marcel Staedter... Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 6-9, 2008. M. Staedter, R. Benz / Low Carbon, Ultra Low NOx through Efficiency Gain where y denotes the mole fraction of excess...

  9. The effects of sliding pressure operation on utility boiler tube integrity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewitt-Dick, D.B.; Wangerin, M.C. [Ashland Chemical Co., Boonton, NJ (United States). Ashland Chemical Co.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sliding pressure operation is employed by utilities to optimize efficiency during periods of reduced load demand. However, this mode of operation can lead to a deterioration in boiler tube integrity. The various mechanisms involved and their effects on tube integrity are discussed. Case histories are also provided, which illustrate these phenomena.

  10. Fluid Bed Waste Heat Boiler Operating Experience in Dirty Gas Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreeger, A. H.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first industrial fluid bed waste heat boiler in the U. S. is operating on an aluminium melting furnace at the ALCOA Massena Integrated Aluminum Works in upstate New York. Waste heat from an aluminum melting furnace is captured for general plant...

  11. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

  12. Method of prevention of deposits in the pipes of waste heat boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettert, H.; Kaempfer, K.

    1983-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for preventing deposits in the pipes of waste heat boilers employed for cooling gases in the partial autothermal oxidation of fossil fuels to prepare hydrogen or synthesis gases, wherein the pipes are flushed, at the operating temperature, with hydrogen-containing gases which contain little or no H/sub 2/S.

  13. Fuel Cost Savings Through Computer Control of a Boiler Complex - - Two Case Histories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worthley, C. M.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    large pulp and paper mill complex in which multiple power boilers and turbine generators are controlled so as to meet the total energy demand of the mill at minimum cost. Also discussed are results from a second installation involving control of a...

  14. Predictive modelling of boiler fouling. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this reporting period, efforts were initiated to supplement the comprehensive flow field description obtained from the RNG-Spectral Element Simulations by incorporating, in a general framework, appropriate modules to model particle and condensable species transport to the surface. Specifically, a brief survey of the literature revealed the following possible mechanisms for transporting different ash constituents from the host gas to boiler tubes as deserving prominence in building the overall comprehensive model: (1) Flame-volatilized species, chiefly sulfates, are deposited on cooled boiler tubes via the mechanism of classical vapor diffusion. This mechanism is more efficient than the particulate ash deposition, and as a result there is usually an enrichment of condensable salts, chiefly sulfates, in boiler deposits; (2) Particle diffusion (Brownian motion) may account for deposition of some fine particles below 0. 1 mm in diameter in comparison with the mechanism of vapor diffusion and particle depositions, however, the amount of material transported to the tubes via this route is probably small. (3) Eddy diffusion, thermophoretic and electrophoretic deposition mechanisms are likely to have a marked influence in transporting 0.1 to 5{mu}m particles from the host gas to cooled boiler tubes; (4) Inertial impaction is the dominant mechanism in transporting particles above 5{mu}m in diameter to water and steam tubes in pulverized coal fired boiler, where the typical flue gas velocity is between 10 to 25 m/s. Particles above 10{mu}m usually have kinetic energies in excess of what can be dissipated at impact (in the absence of molten sulfate or viscous slag deposit), resulting in their entrainment in the host gas.

  15. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in coal-fired boilers resulting from the coexistence of sulfur and chlorine in the fuel. A new corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfidation Corrosion Mechanism,” has been proposed to account for the accelerated corrosion wastage observed on the furnace walls of utility boilers burning coals containing sulfur and chlorine. In addition, a second corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfide-to-Oxide Corrosion Mechanism,” has been identified to account for the rapid corrosion attack on superheaters and reheaters. Both of the newly discovered corrosion mechanisms involve the formation of iron chloride (FeCl2) vapor from iron sulfide (FeS) and HCl, followed by the decomposition of FeCl2 via self-sustaining cycling reactions. For higher alloys containing sufficient chromium, the attack on superheaters and reheaters is dominated by Hot Corrosion in the presence of a fused salt. Furthermore, two stages of the hot corrosion mechanism have been identified and characterized in detail. The initiation of hot corrosion attack induced by molten sulfate leads to Stage 1 “acidic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the protective scale formed initially on the deposit-covered alloy surfaces. Once the protective scale is penetrated, Stage 2 Hot Corrosion is initiated, which is dominated by “basic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the scale in the fused salt. Based on the extensive corrosion information generated from this project, corrosion modeling was performed using non-linear regression analysis. As a result of the modeling efforts, two predictive equations have been formulated, one for furnace walls and the other for superheaters and reheaters. These first-of-the-kind equations can be used to estimate the corrosion rates of boiler tubes based on coal chemistry, alloy compositions, and boiler operating conditions for advanced boiler systems.

  16. Alkali deposits found in biomass boilers: The behavior of inorganic material in biomass-fired power boilers -- Field and laboratory experiences. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States); Jenkins, B.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bryers, R.W. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Oden, L.L. [Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the major findings of the Alkali Deposits Investigation, a collaborative effort to understand the causes of unmanageable ash deposits in biomass-fired electric power boilers. Volume 1 of this report provide an overview of the project, with selected highlights. This volume provides more detail and discussion of the data and implications. This document includes six sections. The first, the introduction, provides the motivation, context, and focus for the investigation. The remaining sections discuss fuel properties, bench-scale combustion tests, a framework for considering ash deposition processes, pilot-scale tests of biomass fuels, and field tests in commercially operating biomass power generation stations. Detailed chemical analyses of eleven biomass fuels representing a broad cross-section of commercially available fuels reveal their properties that relate to ash deposition tendencies. The fuels fall into three broad categories: (1) straws and grasses (herbaceous materials); (2) pits, shells, hulls and other agricultural byproducts of a generally ligneous nature; and (3) woods and waste fuels of commercial interest. This report presents a systematic and reasonably detailed analysis of fuel property, operating condition, and boiler design issues that dictate ash deposit formation and property development. The span of investigations from bench-top experiments to commercial operation and observations including both practical illustrations and theoretical background provide a self-consistent and reasonably robust basis to understand the qualitative nature of ash deposit formation in biomass boilers. While there remain many quantitative details to be pursued, this project encapsulates essentially all of the conceptual aspects of the issue. It provides a basis for understanding and potentially resolving the technical and environmental issues associated with ash deposition during biomass combustion. 81 refs., 124 figs., 76 tabs.

  17. Influence of Transfer Efficiency of the Outdoor Pipe Network and Boiler Operating Efficiency on the Building Heat Consumption Index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, X.; Wang, Z.; Liu, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the influence of transfer efficiency of the outdoor pipe network and operating efficiency of the boiler on the building heat consumption index, on the premise of saving up to 65 percent energy in different climates. The results...

  18. Dover Textiles - A Case History on Retrofitting Factories with a Boiler System Fueled on Coal, Wood and Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a coal, wood, and waste fired boiler system to serve two plants. This case history will document payback periods of less than three years; return on investments of 20% plus; benefits of North Carolina and federal investment tax credits; EPA...

  19. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. Technical report, September 1--November 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to conduct laboratory experiments to clarify the mechanism of boiler corrosion, which may lead to solving the corrosion problem associated with the utilization of Illinois` high-sulfur and high-chlorine coal. The kinetics of the release of sulfur and chlorine species during coal combustion is being determined in the laboratories using temperature-programmed pyrolysis coupled with quadrupole gas analysis (QGA) and thermogravimetric analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Samples of boiler deposits and ashes from different locations in boilers using Illinois coal will be analyzed for mineralogical and chemical compositions to understand the relations among deposit compositions, coal compositions, and the gaseous species in combustion gases. The relationship between the level of chlorine in Illinois coal and boiler corrosion will be studied by experiments with simulated combustion gases under combustion conditions. Reduction of sulfur and chloride concentrations in the flue gas using additives will also be evaluated.

  20. Control of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers by Dry Removal with Lime and Limestone Sorbants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, M. H.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pulverized coal-fired boiler equipment. These are: (1) coal cleaning to remove pyritic sulfur, (2) conventional wet, nonregenerable scrubbing with alkaline slurry and solution processes, and (3) dry processes which involve direct introduction of lime...

  1. Background information for RACT determination of NOx emissions from Maryland power plants. Part 1. Boilers. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borkowicz, R.J.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the report is to provide an evaluation of potential NOx control technologies for utility boilers in the State of Maryland. The boilers discussed are owned and operated by Baltimore Gas Electric Company (BG E), Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO), Delmarva Power and Light (DP L), and Allegheny Power. The paper focuses on available technologies, costs, achievable NOx reductions, unique characteristics of specific units, and strategies for achieving low NOx emissions.

  2. National Dioxin Study Tier 4 - combustion sources: final test report - Site 8, Black-liquor boiler BLB-C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamgochian, C.L.; Keller, L.E.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a dioxin/furan emissions test of a black-liquor recovery boiler equipped with a drybottom electrostatic precipitator for particulate emissions control. Black-liquor recovery boilers are used at kraft pulp mills to produce process steam and to reclaim inorganic chemicals from spent wood pulping liquors. The dioxin/furan emissions test was conducted under Tier 4 of the National Dioxin Study. The primary objective of Tier 4 is to determine if various combustion sources are sources of dioxin and/or furan emissions. If any of the combustion sources are found to emit dioxin or furan, the secondary objective of Tier 4 is to quantify these emissions. Black-liquor recovery boilers are one of 8 combustion-source categories that have been tested in the Tier 4 program. The tested black-liquor boiler, BLB-C, was selected for the test after an initial information screening and a one-day pretest survey visit. Boiler BLB-C is considered representative of black-liquor recovery boilers with dry-bottom electrostatic precipitators. The amount of chloride present in the black-liquor circuit at this site is considered intermediate to high relative to that found at other kraft pulp mills. Data presented in the report include dioxin (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDD) and furan (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDF) results for both stack samples and ash samples. In addition, process data collected during sampling are also presented.

  3. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers. Final report, October 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sommer, T.; Melick, T.; Morrison, D.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this DOE sponsored project was to successfully fire coal-water slurry in a fire-tube boiler that was designed for oil/gas firing and establish a data base that will be relevant to a large number of existing installations. Firing slurry in a fire-tube configuration is a very demanding application because of the extremely high heat release rates and the correspondingly low furnace volume where combustion can be completed. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the major obstacle when firing slurry in a fire-tube boiler, the program was focused on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. The boiler system was successfully designed and operated to fire coal-water slurry for extended periods of time with few slurry related operational problems. The host facility was a 3.8 million Btu/hr Cleaver-Brooks fire-tube boiler located on the University of Alabama Campus. A slurry atomizer was designed that provided outstanding atomization and was not susceptible to pluggage. The boiler was operated for over 1000 hours and 12 shipments of slurry were delivered. The new equipment engineered for the coal-water slurry system consisted of the following: combustion air and slurry heaters; cyclone; baghouse; fly ash reinjection system; new control system; air compressor; CWS/gas burner and gas valve train; and storage tank and slurry handling system.

  4. Constraint-based control of boiler efficiency: A data-mining approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Z.; Kusiak, A. [University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a data-mining approach is used to develop a model for optimizing the efficiency of an electric-utility boiler subject to operating constraints. Selection of process variables to optimize combustion efficiency is discussed. The selected variables are critical for control of combustion efficiency of a coal-fired boiler in the presence of operating constraints. Two schemes of generating control settings and updating control variables are evaluated. One scheme is based on the controllable and noncontrollable variables. The second one incorporates response variables into the clustering process. The process control scheme based on the response variables produces the smallest variance of the target variable due to reduced coupling among the process variables. An industrial case study, and its implementation illustrate the control approach developed in this paper.

  5. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  6. An experimental correlation for temperature distribution at the membrane wall of CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golriz, M.R. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation was carried out to study and correlate temperature distribution at the membrane wall in the combustion chamber of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The present results and their previously published data on the temperature distribution are correlated. The experimental data corresponded to operating conditions ranging from 2.6 to 6.6 m/s superficial gas velocity, 740 to 920 C bulk bed temperature, and 3 to 70 kg/m{sup 3} suspension density for 270 {micro}m and 290 {micro}m silica sand particles. Finally, experimental data in the available literature on temperature measurements at the membrane wall of CFB boilers have been compared with the experimental results and the correlation.

  7. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4) Assessment of oxy-combustion impacts in two full-scale coal-fired utility boiler retrofits based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air-fired and oxygen-fired operation. This research determined that it is technically feasible to retrofit the combustion system in an air-fired boiler for oxy-fired operation. The impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) were minimal, with the exception of high sulfur levels resulting from untreated flue gas recycle with medium and high-sulfur coals. This work focused on combustion in the radiant and convective sections of the boiler and did not address boiler system integration issues, plant efficiencies, impacts on downstream air pollution control devices, or CO{sub 2} capture and compression. The experimental data, oxy-firing system principles and oxy-combustion process mechanisms provided by this work can be used by electric utilities, boiler OEMs, equipment suppliers, design firms, software vendors, consultants and government agencies to assess retrofit applications of oxy-combustion technologies to existing boilers and to guide development of new designs.

  8. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  9. Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO[sub x] Control Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project involves retrofitting/testing the reburning technology at Wisconsin Power Light's 100 MWe Nelson Dewey Unit [number sign]2 in Cassville, Wisconsin to determine the commercial applicability of this technology to reduce NO[sub x] emission levels. Based upon the data collected and evaluated f or reburn No[sub x] reduction performance with the Lamar Indiana bituminous coal f or boiler loads of 110 MW, 82 MW, and 60 MW, average NO[sub x] reductions of 52.4%, 50.1% and 35.8%, respectively were achieved. Average emissions of NO[sub x]with reburn in operation were 290 ppm (.39 lb/million Btu) , 265 ppm (.36 lb/million Btu) and 325 ppm (.44 lb/million Btu) respectively, all corrected to 3% 02 content. Boiler efficiency losses due to increased unburned carbon in the ash were 0.1% at 110 NW, .25% at 83 MW and 1.5% at 60 MW. Reburn performance results with western sub-bituminous coal at 110 MW, 82 MW and 60 MW boiler loads indicated NO[sub x] reductions of 55.4%, 52.1% and 52.6% respectively. Under optimal conditions, NO[sub x] reductions approaching 63% were achieved with the more reactive western sub-bituminous coal. Boiler efficiency losses due to increased unburned carbon in the ash were unchanged at full load, a loss of 0.2% at 83 MW and a loss of .3% at low load, much improved over results with the Lamar coal.

  10. Economic Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer; Archie Robertson

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report determines the capital and operating costs of two different oxygen-based, pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants and compares their economics to that of a comparable, air-based PC plant. Rather than combust their coal with air, the oxygen-based plants use oxygen to facilitate capture/removal of the plant CO{sub 2} for transport by pipeline to a sequestering site. To provide a consistent comparison of technologies, all three plants analyzed herein operate with the same coal (Illinois No 6), the same site conditions, and the same supercritical pressure steam turbine (459 MWe). In the first oxygen-based plant, the pulverized coal-fired boiler operates with oxygen supplied by a conventional, cryogenic air separation unit, whereas, in the second oxygen-based plant, the oxygen is supplied by an oxygen ion transport membrane. In both oxygen-based plants a portion of the boiler exhaust gas, which is primarily CO{sub 2}, is recirculated back to the boiler to control the combustion temperature, and the balance of the flue gas undergoes drying and compression to pipeline pressure; for consistency, both plants operate with similar combustion temperatures and utilize the same CO{sub 2} processing technologies. The capital and operating costs of the pulverized coal-fired boilers required by the three different plants were estimated by Foster Wheeler and the balance of plant costs were budget priced using published data together with vendor supplied quotations. The cost of electricity produced by each of the plants was determined and oxygen-based plant CO{sub 2} mitigation costs were calculated and compared to each other as well as to values published for some alternative CO{sub 2} capture technologies.

  11. CONDENSING ECONOMIZERS FOR SMALL COAL-FIRED BOILERS AND FURNACES PROJECT REPORT - JANUARY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impacts are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  12. Expert Meeting: Optimized Heating Systems Using Condensing Boilers and Baseboard Convectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On August 11, 2011, in Denver, CO, a Building America Expert Meeting was held in conjunction with the Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting, to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors. A meeting objective was to provide an opportunity for other Building America teams and industry experts to provide feedback and specific suggestions for the planned research.

  13. NOx EMISSIONS PRODUCED WITH COMBUSTION OF POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL IN A UTILITY BOILER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John S. Nordin; Norman W. Merriam

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to estimate the NOx emissions produced when Powder River Basin (PRB) coal is combusted in a utility boiler. The Clean Air Act regulations specify NOx limits of 0.45 lb/mm Btu (Phase I) and 0.40 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for tangentially fired boilers, and 0.50 lb/mm 13tu (Phase II) and 0.46 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for dry-bottom wall-fired boilers. The Clean Air Act regulations also specify other limits for other boiler types. Compliance for Phase I has been in effect since January 1, 1996. Compliance for Phase II goes into effect on January 1, 2000. Emission limits are expressed as equivalent NO{sub 2} even though NO (and sometimes N{sub 2}O) is the NOx species emitted during combustion. Regulatory agencies usually set even lower NOx emission limits in ozone nonattainment areas. In preparing this report, Western Research Institute (WRI) used published test results from utilities burning various coals, including PRB coal, using state-of-the art control technology for minimizing NOx emissions. Many utilities can meet Clean Air Act NOx emission limits using a combination of tight combustion control and low-NOx burners and by keeping furnaces clean (i.e., no slag buildup). In meeting these limits, some utilities also report problems such as increased carbon in their fly ash and excessive furnace tube corrosion. This report discusses utility experience. The theory of NOx emission formation during coal combustion as related to coal structure and how the coal is combusted is also discussed. From this understanding, projections are made for NOx emissions when processed PRB coal is combusted in a test similar to that done with other coals. As will be shown, there are a lot of conditions for achieving low NOx emissions, such as tight combustion control and frequent waterlancing of the furnace to avoid buildup of deposits.

  14. A new coordinated control strategy for boiler-turbine system of coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.Y.; Liu, H.B.; Cai, W.J.; Soh, Y.C.; Xie, L.H. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the new development of the boiler-turbine coordinated control strategy using fuzzy reasoning and autotuning techniques. The boiler-turbine system is a very complex process that is a multivariable, nonlinear, slowly time-varying plant with large settling time and a lot of uncertainties. As there exist strong couplings between the main steam pressure control loop and the power output control loop in the boiler-turbine unit with large time-delay and uncertainties, automatic coordinated control of the two loops is a very challenging problem. This paper presents a new coordinated control strategy (CCS) which is organized into two levels: a basic control level and a high supervision level. Proportional-integral derivative (PID) type controllers are used in the basic level to perform basic control functions while the decoupling between two control loops can be realized in the high level. A special subclass of fuzzy inference systems, called the Gaussian partition with evenly (GPE) spaced midpoints systems, is used to self-tune the main steam pressure PID controller's parameters online based on the error signal and its first difference, aimed at overcoming the uncertainties due to changing fuel calorific value, machine wear, contamination of the boiler heating surfaces and plant modeling errors. For the large variation of operating condition, a supervisory control level has been developed by autotuning technique. The developed CCS has been implemented in a power plant in China, and satisfactory industrial operation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy has enhanced the adaptability and robustness of the process. Indeed, better control performance and economic benefit have been achieved.

  15. Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 5: Appendix V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

  16. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.

    2001-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.

  17. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.

    2000-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.

  18. Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 4: Appendix IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

  19. Measurements of POM emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnichsen, T.W.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of polycyclic organic matter (POM) from fossil-fuel combustion systems are of concern due to the potential carcinogenic activity of specific POM species. The initial objectives of this research program were to (1) conduct a limited laboratory verification of state-of-the-art POM sampling and analysis techniques for pulverized coal-fired combustion exhausts and (2) measure the POM emissions of up to four coal-fired utility boilers. Initial laboratory tests, involving the injection of synthetic POM tracers into the sampling and analytical procedures were capable of accurate POM measurements. However, subsequent tracer recovery results and measurements of combustion generated POM from a coal-fired laboratory test furnace and a utility boiler were highly erratic. The program was consequently redirected to include a comprehensive evaluation of the analytical techniques and interfering factors in the flue gas or sampling train that may have impacted the POM measurements. State-of-the-art GC/MS analytical technical techniques were shown to be generally adequate, but some questions remain concerning sample preparation and adaptability for routine measurements. Review of the literature identified the potential for interaction of POM with the fly ash in either the flue-gas stream or the sampling system. The results of these evaluations were incorporated into a final field-test program on a coal-fired utility boiler. While some improvement in tracer recoveries and combustion-generated POM were obtained, several inconsistencies in the data were still apparent. Recommendations for future POM-measurement programs on utility boilers are presented.

  20. Advanced combustion system for industrial boilers. Phase 2, Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.; Millard, W.P.; Attig, R.C.; Schulz, R.J.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This During this quarter, work continued on development/improvement of the low-NO{sub x} coal combustor for the boiler system. Reburning tests were conducted in the external, water-cooled test duct with a length of 15 feet using ultra fine coal with propane to reduce the NO{sub x} levels to as low as 0.295 lb-NO{sub x}/MBtu. Work also continued on design/construction of the new coal-feed system that will be used for the 100-hour demonstration test with the on-line refillable coal hopper operating in air at atmospheric pressure. Coal will be loaded into the hopper from bulk bags. Initial testing of the UTSI boiler control and automation system was successful. Normally-pulverized coal with approximately 70% passing a number 200 sieve was burned in the external test duct. Initial flame-visualization tests were successful, and the burner was able to handle coal without being micronized to the ultra fine level. Refractory was poured for a new combustor second-stage assembly. Subsequently, the combustor was installed inside the 200 hp fire-tube boiler.

  1. Technical and economic feasibility of alternative fuel use in process heaters and small boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical and economic feasibility of using alternate fuels - fuels other than oil and natural gas - in combustors not regulated by the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA) was evaluated. FUA requires coal or alternate fuel use in most large new boilers and in some existing boilers. Section 747 of FUA authorizes a study of the potential for reduced oil and gas use in combustors not subject to the act: small industrial boilers with capacities less than 100 MMBtu/hr, and process heat applications. Alternative fuel use in combustors not regulated by FUA was examined and the impact of several measures to encourage the substitution of alternative fuels in these combustors was analyzed. The primary processes in which significant fuel savings can be achieved are identified. Since feedstock uses of oil and natural gas are considered raw materials, not fuels, feedstock applications are not examined in this analysis. The combustors evaluated in this study comprise approximately 45% of the fuel demand projected in 1990. These uses would account for more than 3.5 million barrels per day equivalent fuel demand in 1990.

  2. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program, under Round 2, a project for Full Scale Demonstration of Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x},) Control was selected. DOE sponsored The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Company, with Wisconsin Power & Light (WP&L) as the host utility, to demonstrate coal reburning technology at WP&L`s 110 MW{sub c}, cyclone-fired Unit No.2 at the Nelson Dewey Generating Station in Cassville, Wisconsin. The coal reburning demonstration was justified based on two prior studies. An Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and B&W sponsored engineering feasibility study indicated that the majority of cyclone-equipped boilers could successfully apply reburning technology to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions by 50 to 70%. An EPRI/Gas Research Institute (GRI)/B&W pilot-scale evaluation substantiated this conclusion through pilot-scale testing in B&W`s 6 million Btu/hr Small Boiler Simulator. Three different reburning fuels, natural gas, No. 6 oil, and pulverized coal were tested. This work showed that coal as a reburning fuel performs nearly as well as gas/oil without deleterious effects of combustion efficiency. Coal was selected for a full scale demonstration since it is available to all cyclone units and represents the highest level of technical difficulty-in demonstrating the technology.

  3. Minimum separation distances for natural gas pipeline and boilers in the 300 area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Graham, T.M.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing actions to reduce energy expenditures and improve energy system reliability at the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. These actions include replacing the centralized heating system with heating units for individual buildings or groups of buildings, constructing a new natural gas distribution system to provide a fuel source for many of these units, and constructing a central control building to operate and maintain the system. The individual heating units will include steam boilers that are to be housed in individual annex buildings located at some distance away from nearby 300 Area nuclear facilities. This analysis develops the basis for siting the package boilers and natural gas distribution systems to be used to supply steam to 300 Area nuclear facilities. The effects of four potential fire and explosion scenarios involving the boiler and natural gas pipeline were quantified to determine minimum separation distances that would reduce the risks to nearby nuclear facilities. The resulting minimum separation distances are shown in Table ES.1.

  4. Characteristics and sources of intermediate size particles in recovery boilers : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Shaddix, Christopher R.; Verrill, Christopher L. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA); Wessel, Richard A. (Babcock & Wilcox Company, Barberton, OH)

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, a collaborative investigation was conducted on the sources, characteristics, and deposition of particles intermediate in size between submicron fume and carryover in recovery boilers. Laboratory experiments on suspended-drop combustion of black liquor and on black liquor char bed combustion demonstrated that both processes generate intermediate size particles (ISP), amounting to 0.5-2% of the black liquor dry solids mass (BLS). Measurements in two U.S. recovery boilers show variable loadings of ISP in the upper furnace, typically between 0.6-3 g/Nm{sup 3}, or 0.3-1.5% of BLS. The measurements show that the ISP mass size distribution increases with size from 5-100 {micro}m, implying that a substantial amount of ISP inertially deposits on steam tubes. ISP particles are depleted in potassium, chlorine, and sulfur relative to the fuel composition. Comprehensive boiler modeling demonstrates that ISP concentrations are substantially overpredicted when using a previously developed algorithm for ISP generation. Equilibrium calculations suggest that alkali carbonate decomposition occurs at intermediate heights in the furnace and may lead to partial destruction of ISP particles formed lower in the furnace. ISP deposition is predicted to occur in the superheater sections, at temperatures greater than 750 C, when the particles are at least partially molten.

  5. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 5 (Appendix V)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 5 contains model validation simulations and comparison with data.

  6. Advanced Oxyfuel Boilers and Process Heaters for Cost Effective CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max Christie; Rick Victor; Bart van Hassel; Nagendra Nagabushana; Juan Li; Joseph Corpus; Jamie Wilson

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the advanced boilers and process heaters program is to assess the feasibility of integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) into combustion processes for cost effective CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Introducing CO{sub 2} capture into traditional combustion processes can be expensive, and the pursuit of alternative methods, like the advanced boiler/process heater system, may yield a simple and cost effective solution. In order to assess the integration of an advanced boiler/process heater process, this program addressed the following tasks: Task 1--Conceptual Design; Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluation; Task 3--OTM Development; Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning; and Task 5--Program Management. This Final report documents and summarizes all of the work performed for the DOE award DE-FC26-01NT41147 during the period from January 2002-March 2007. This report outlines accomplishments for the following tasks: conceptual design and economic analysis, oxygen transport membrane (OTM) development, laboratory scale evaluations, and program management.

  7. Chlorine in coal and its relationship with boiler corrosion. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M.; Ruch, R.R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Limited literature and use history data have suggested that some high-chlorine Illinois coals do not cause boiler corrosion while extensive data developed by the British correlate corrosion with chlorine content and other parameters related to the coal and boiler. The differences in corrosivity in coals may be due to the coal properties, to blending of coals, or to the boiler parameters in which they were burned. The goals of this study focus on coal properties. In this quarter, both destructive temperature-programmed Thermogravimetry with Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR) and non-destructive X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) techniques were used to examine the forms and the evolution characteristics of chlorine in coals. The TGA-FTIR results indicate that under oxidation condition, both British and Illinois coals release hydrogen chloride gas. Illinois coals release the gas at high temperature with maximum evolution temperature ranged between 210 and 280 C. The XANES results indicate that chlorine in coal exists in ionic forms including a solid salt form. The solid NaCl salt form, however, is observed only in some of the British coals and none of the Illinois coals. These results combined with TGA-FTIR results suggest that the chlorine ions in Illinois coals are different from the chlorine ions in British coals.

  8. Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NO, reduction (70VO) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Depatiment of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was petformed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NO, emission level of 0.73 lb/1 OG Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50Y0. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NO, in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of' natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NO, emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 18%. The performance goal of 70/40 reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18%.

  9. Improved Recovery Boiler Performance Through Control of Combustion, Sulfur, and Alkali Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L.

    2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involved the following objectives: 1. Determine black liquor drying and devolatilization elemental and total mass release rates and yields. 2. Develop a public domain physical/chemical kinetic model of black liquor drop combustion, including new information on drying and devolatilization. 3. Determine mechanisms and rates of sulfur scavenging in recover boilers. 4. Develop non-ideal, public-domain thermochemistry models for alkali salts appropriate for recovery boilers 5. Develop data and a one-dimensional model of a char bed in a recovery boiler. 6. Implement all of the above in comprehensive combustion code and validate effects on boiler performance. 7. Perform gasification modeling in support of INEL and commercial customers. The major accomplishments of this project corresponding to these objectives are as follows: 1. Original data for black liquor and biomass data demonstrate dependencies of particle reactions on particle size, liquor type, gas temperature, and gas composition. A comprehensive particle submodel and corresponding data developed during this project predicts particle drying (including both free and chemisorbed moisture), devolatilization, heterogeneous char oxidation, char-smelt reactions, and smelt oxidation. Data and model predictions agree, without adjustment of parameters, within their respective errors. The work performed under these tasks substantially exceeded the original objectives. 2. A separate model for sulfur scavenging and fume formation in a recovery boiler demonstrated strong dependence on both in-boiler mixing and chemistry. In particular, accurate fume particle size predictions, as determined from both laboratory and field measurements, depend on gas mixing effects in the boilers that lead to substantial particle agglomeration. Sulfur scavenging was quantitatively predicted while particle size required one empirical mixing factor to match data. 3. Condensed-phase thermochemistry algorithms were developed for salt mixtures and compared with sodium-based binary and higher order systems. Predictions and measurements were demonstrated for both salt systems and for some more complex silicate-bearing systems, substantially exceeding the original scope of this work. 4. A multi-dimensional model of char bed reactivity developed under this project demonstrated that essentially all reactions in char beds occur on or near the surface, with the internal portions of the bed being essentially inert. The model predicted composition, temperature, and velocity profiles in the bed and showed that air jet penetration is limited to the immediate vicinity of the char bed, with minimal impact on most of the bed. The modeling efforts substantially exceeded the original scope of this project. 5. Near the completion of this project, DOE withdrew the BYU portion of a multiparty agreement to complete this and additional work with no advanced warning, which compromised the integration of all of this material into a commercial computer code. However, substantial computer simulations of much of this work were initiated, but not completed. 6. The gasification modeling is nearly completed but was aborted near its completion according to a DOE redirection of funds. This affected both this and the previous tasks.

  10. Feasible experimental study on the utilization of a 300 MW CFB boiler desulfurizating bottom ash for construction applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, X.F.; Amano, R.S. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    CFB boiler ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. The disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed boiler power plants. However for a 300 MW CFB boiler power plant, there will be 600,000 tons of ash discharged per year and will result in great volumes and disposal cost of ash byproduct. It was very necessary to solve the utilization of CFB ash and to decrease the disposal cost of CFB ash. The feasible experimental study results on the utilization of the bottom ashes of a 300 MW CFB boiler in Baima power plant in China were reported in this paper. The bottom ashes used for test came from the discharged bottom ashes in a 100 MW CFB boiler in which the anthracite and limestone designed for the 300 MW CFB project was burned. The results of this study showed that the bottom ash could be used for cementitious material, road concrete, and road base material. The masonry cements, road concrete with 30 MPa compressive strength and 4.0 MPa flexural strength, and the road base material used for base courses of the expressway, the main road and the minor lane were all prepared with milled CFB bottom ashes in the lab. The better methods of utilization of the bottom ashes were discussed in this paper.

  11. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 3 (Appendices II, sections 2--3 and III)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 3 contains the following appendix sections: Formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides in recovery boilers; Sintering and densification of recovery boiler deposits laboratory data and a rate model; and Experimental data on rates of particulate formation during char bed burning.

  12. Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, especially NOX. The project involved operating gas reburning technology combined with low NO, burner technology (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired utility boiler. Low NOX burners are designed to create less NOX than conventional burners. However, the NO, control achieved is in the range of 30-60-40, and typically 50%. At the higher NO, reduction levels, CO emissions tend to be higher than acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce the level of NO. in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. When combined, GR and LNBs work in harmony to both minimize NOX emissions and maintain an acceptable level of CO emissions. The demonstration was performed at Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit 3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW. wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal and had a pre GR-LNB baseline NOX emission of 0.73 lb/1 Oe Btu. The target for the project was a reduction of 70 percent in NOX emissions. Project sponsors included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER). EER conducted a comprehensive test demonstration program over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved. Intensive measurements were taken to quantify the reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability, and all factors influencing costs. The results showed that GR-LNB technology achieved excellent emission reductions. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was somewhat less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 180A. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at higher gas heat inputs. The impact on boiler equipment was determined to be very minimal. Toward the end of the testing, the flue gas recirculation (used to enhance gas penetration into the furnace) system was removed and new high pressure gas injectors were installed. Further, the low NOX burners were modified and gave better NO. reduction performance. These modifications resulted in a similar NO, reduction performance (64%) at a reduced level of gas heat input (-13Yo). In addition, the OFA injectors were re-designed to provide for better control of CO emissions. Although not a part of this project, the use of natural gas as the primary fuel with gas reburning was also tested. The gas/gas reburning tests demonstrated a reduction in NOX emissions of 43% (0.30 lb/1 OG Btu reduced to 0.17 lb/1 OG Btu) using 7% gas heat input. Economics are a key issue affecting technology development. Application of GR-LNB requires modifications to existing power plant equipment and as a result, the capital and operating costs depend largely on site-specific factors such as: gas availability at the site, gas to coal delivered price differential, sulfur dioxide removal requirements, windbox pressure, existing burner throat diameters, and reburn zone residence time available. Based on the results of this CCT project, EER expects that most GR-LNB installations will achieve at least 60% NOX control when firing 10-15% gas. The capital cost estimate for installing a GR-LNB system on a 300 MW, unit is approximately $25/kW. plus the cost of a gas pipeline (if required). Operating costs are almost entirely related to the differential cost of the natural gas compared to coal.

  13. Optimization of Trona/Limestone Injection for SO2 Control in Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobotec USA develops and markets air pollution control systems for utility boilers and other combustion systems. They have a particular interest in technologies that can reduce NOx, SOx, and mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and have been investigating the injection of sorbents such as limestone and trona into a boiler to reduce SOx and Hg emissions. WRI proposed to use the Combustion Test Facility (CTF) to enable Mobotec to conduct a thorough evaluation of limestone and trona injection for SO{sub 2} control. The overall goal of the project was to characterize the SO{sub 2} reductions resulting from the injection of limestone and trona into the CTF when fired with a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal used in one of Mobotec's Midwest installations. Results revealed that when limestone was injected at Ca:S molar ratios of 1.5 to 3.0, the resulting SO{sub 2} reductions were 35-55%. It is believed that further reductions can be attained with improved mixing of the sorbent with the combustion gases. When limestone was added to the coal, at Ca:S molar ratios of 0.5 to 1.5, the SO{sub 2} reductions were 13-21%. The lower reductions were attributed to dead-burning of the sorbent in the high temperature flame zone. In cases where limestone was both injected into the furnace and added to the coal, the total SO{sub 2} reductions for a given Ca:S molar ratio were similar to the reductions for furnace injection only. The injection of trona into the mid-furnace zone, for Na:S molar ratios of 1.4 to 2.4, resulted in SO{sub 2} reductions of 29-43%. Limestone injection did not produce any slag deposits on an ash deposition probe while trona injection resulted in noticeable slag deposition.

  14. Sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver on-sun test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andraka, C E; Moreno, J B; Diver, R B; Moss, T A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficient operation of a Stirling engine requires the application of a high heat flux to the relatively small area occupied by the heater head tubes. Previous attempts to couple solar energy to Stirling engines generally involved directly illuminating the heater head tubes with concentrated sunlight. In this study, operation of a 75-kW{sub t} sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been demonstrated and its performance characterized on Sandia's nominal 75-kW{sub t} parabolic-dish concentrator, using a cold-water gas-gap calorimeter to simulate Stirling engine operation. The pool boiler (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) supplies heat to the engine in the form of latent heat released from condensation of the metal vapor on the heater head tubes. The advantages of the pool boiler include uniform tube temperature, leading to longer life and higher temperature available to the engine, and decoupling of the design of the solar absorber from the engine heater head. The two-phase system allows high input thermal flux, reducing the receiver size and losses, therefore improving system efficiency. The receiver thermal efficiency was about 90% when operated at full power and 800{degree}C. Stable sodium boiling was promoted by the addition of 35 equally spaced artificial cavities in the wetted absorber surface. High incipient boiling superheats following cloud transients were suppressed passively by the addition of small amounts of xenon gas to the receiver volume. Stable boiling without excessive incipient boiling superheats was observed under all operating conditions. The receiver developed a leak during performance evaluation, terminating the testing after accumulating about 50 hours on sun. The receiver design is reported here along with test results including transient operations, steady-state performance evaluation, operation at various temperatures, infrared thermography, x-ray studies of the boiling behavior, and a postmortem analysis.

  15. Alkali salt ash formation during black liquor combustion at kraft recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikkanen, P. Kauppinen, E.I.; Pyykoenen, J.; Jokiniemi, J.K. [VTT (Finland); Maekinen, M. [Finnish Meterological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recovery boiler is an essential part of paper pulping process, where waste sludge called black liquor is burned for chemical recovery and energy production. This study was carried out at an operating industrial recovery boiler in Finland. Measurement of aerosol particles was carried out at bullnose level of furnace, at boiler exit, and at outlet of electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Aerosol mass size distributions in size range 0.02--50 {micro}m were measured with Berner type low pressure impactor (BLPI) operated with precyclone. BLPI samples were further analyzed with ion chromatography for water soluble Na, K, SO{sub 4}, and Cl. Particle morphology was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Phase composition of crystalline salts was measured with X-ray diffraction (XRD). Particles larger than 1 {micro}m were analyzed with computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) to derive particle composition classes. At ESP inlet mass size distribution was bimodal with a major mode at about 1.2 {micro}m and a minor mode at about 5 {micro}m (aerodynamic diameter). At ESP outlet the mass size distribution showed only one peak at about 1.2 {micro}m. Both submicron and supermicron particles were agglomerates formed from 0.3 to 0.5 {micro}m spherical primary particles. XRD analyses indicated that particles were crystalline with two phases of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (thenardite and sodium sulphate) and K{sub 3}Na(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}. CCSEM results of individual particles larger than 1 {micro}m showed that 79 to 88 volume percent of particles contained mainly Na and S, 7 to 10 volume percent Na, K, and S with minor amount of particles containing Na, S, and Ca.

  16. MANAGING OXIDE SCALE EXFOLIATION IN BOILERS WITH TP347H SUPERHEATER TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL] [ORNL; Wright, Ian G. [WrightHT, Inc.] [WrightHT, Inc.; Shingledecker, John P. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)] [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Tortorelli, Peter F [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model based on a concept of fraction of exfoliated area as a function of oxide scale strain energy was developed to predict the extent of exfoliation of steam-side scale from boiler tube superheater loops. As compared with the Armitt diagram, which can be used to predict when scale damage and exfoliation would be likely to occur, a fraction of exfoliated area approach provides an estimation of mass of scale released and the fraction of tube likely to be blocked by the exfoliation. This paper show results for the extent of blockage expected in a single bend of a superheater loop was predicted as a function of operating time, bend geometry, and outlet steam temperature under realistic service conditions that include outages. The deposits of exfoliated scale were assumed to be distributed horizontally the tubes bends. Three types of bends were considered: regular bends, short bends, and hairpin bends. The progressive increase in steam and tube temperatures along a single loop of superheater tubing and the ensuing variation of oxide scale thickness are considered. Numerical simulation results for a superheater loop made of TP347H austenitic steel indicated that tube blockage fractions larger than 50% are likely to occur within the first two years of boiler operation (with regularly scheduled outages) for outlet tube temperatures of 540-570oC, which is consistent with practical experience. Higher blockage fractions were predicted for tubes with short bends and hairpin bends than for tubes with regular bends, of length that are larger than five internal tube diameters. Finally, the blockage model presented can be used with some confidence to devise operating schedules for managing the consequences of oxide scale exfoliation based on projections of time to some critical blockage fraction for specific boiler operating conditions.

  17. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  18. Super low NO.sub.x, high efficiency, compact firetube boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chojnacki, Dennis A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Knight, Richard A.; Cygan, David F.; Korenberg, Jacob

    2005-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A firetube boiler furnace having two combustion sections and an in-line intermediate tubular heat transfer section between the two combustion sections and integral to the pressure vessel. This design provides a staged oxidant combustion apparatus with separate in-line combustion chambers for fuel-rich primary combustion and fuel-lean secondary combustion and sufficient cooling of the combustion products from the primary combustion such that when the secondary combustion oxidant is added in the secondary combustion stage, the NO.sub.x formation is less than 5 ppmv at 3% O.sub.2.

  19. Three dimension temperature field reconstruction with image processing technique on pulverized coal boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Peihua; Qi Guoshui; Ma Zengyi [and others

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature field distribution measurement is important for combustion diagnostics. With CCD camera, the authors can obtain abundance digital data of flame image instantaneous. Every data represent radiation heat transfer along projection beam. Based on Optic geometric and heat transfer theory, they develop a 3-d flame temperature field reconstruction technique, which can calculate a 3-d zone temperature using two perspectives CCD camera. The optical geometric relation of CCD's image formation and flame radiation heat transfer model is deduced, they establish the reconstruction equation group from radiation heat transfer, and optimization is introduced to solve these equation. The result of a PC boiler is presented.

  20. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  1. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  2. Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10|BlueFireBoiler MACT

  3. File:Boiler permit packet s-20.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation,Size of this preview: 463Map.pdfFile Edit withBoiler

  4. Firing microfine coal with a low NOx, RSFC burner in an industrial boiler designed for oil and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornhock, D.E.; Patel, R.; Borio, R.W. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States). ABB Power Plant Labs.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ABB Power Plant Laboratories (ABB-PPL) working under a US Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) contract has carried out tests with the Radially Stratified Flame Core (RSFC) burner which was licensed from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who developed and patented the RSFC burner. Tests were carried out in a small industrial boiler, designed for oil and natural gas, located at the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University who was working as a subcontractor to ABB-PPL. The paper presents results from the long-term testing task in the DOE-PETC program with particular attention being paid to the challenges faced in maintaining high combustion efficiencies while achieving low NOx in a small industrial boiler designed for firing oil or natural gas. The paper will also address the issue of ash management when firing coal in a boiler designed for fuels having essentially no ash.

  5. RCRA, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Boilers and industrial furnaces (40 cfr part 266, subpart h) updated July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The module summarizes the regulations affecting hazardous waste processes in boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs). If defines boilers and industrial furnaces and describes the criteria associated with the definitions. It describes the requirements for processing hazardous waste in BIFs, including the distinctions between permitted and interim status units. It explains the requirements for the specially regulated BIFs and gives examples of each.

  6. BPACK -- A computer model package for boiler reburning/co-firing performance evaluations. User`s manual, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, K.T.; Li, B.; Payne, R.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual presents and describes a package of computer models uniquely developed for boiler thermal performance and emissions evaluations by the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The model package permits boiler heat transfer, fuels combustion, and pollutant emissions predictions related to a number of practical boiler operations such as fuel-switching, fuels co-firing, and reburning NO{sub x} reductions. The models are adaptable to most boiler/combustor designs and can handle burner fuels in solid, liquid, gaseous, and slurried forms. The models are also capable of performing predictions for combustion applications involving gaseous-fuel reburning, and co-firing of solid/gas, liquid/gas, gas/gas, slurry/gas fuels. The model package is conveniently named as BPACK (Boiler Package) and consists of six computer codes, of which three of them are main computational codes and the other three are input codes. The three main codes are: (a) a two-dimensional furnace heat-transfer and combustion code: (b) a detailed chemical-kinetics code; and (c) a boiler convective passage code. This user`s manual presents the computer model package in two volumes. Volume 1 describes in detail a number of topics which are of general users` interest, including the physical and chemical basis of the models, a complete description of the model applicability, options, input/output, and the default inputs. Volume 2 contains a detailed record of the worked examples to assist users in applying the models, and to illustrate the versatility of the codes.

  7. Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO[sub x] Control Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO[sub x], Control Demonstration project progress for July, August, and September 1992 is identified in this tenth quarterly report and pertains to the on-going activities of Phase III Operation and Disposition. The project involves retrofitting/testing the reburning technology at Wisconsin Power Light's 100 MWe Nelson Dewey Unit [number sign]2 in Cassville, Wisconsin to determine the commercial applicability of this technology to reduce NO[sub x] emission levels. Phase III activities emphasized continuation of long-term testing. WP L is operating the reburn system in full automatic in a load following mode, using Lamar coal, which is an Indiana bituminous medium sulfur content fuel. Reductions in NO[sub x] emissions continue at the 50%+ level with no apparent significant adverse impacts to boiler operation. As of the end of September, a second set of performance tests were initiated to determine if any performance impacts as a result of long-term operation have occurred. Data evaluation continued in an effort to design a testing sequence to more precisely evaluate reburn impact on unburned carbon. These tests will be carried out during the second set of performance tests in early October. Performance and mathematical modeling are being carried out to understand the cause of the reduction in furnace exit gas temperature observed during reburn testing on Lamar coal and to predict whether the same phenomenon will occur on future units where reburn technology is being considered.

  8. Split stream boilers for high-temperature/high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, I.G. [Rice (I.G.), Spring, TX (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research and development work on high-temperature and high-pressure (up to 1,500 F TIT and 4,500 psia) topping steam turbines and associated steam generators for steam power plants as well as combined cycle plants is being carried forward by DOE, EPRI, and independent companies. Aeroderivative gas turbines and heavy-duty gas turbines both will require exhaust gas supplementary firing to achieve high throttle temperatures. This paper presents an analysis and examples of a split stream boiler arrangement for high-temperature and high-pressure topping steam turbine combined cycles. A portion of the gas turbine exhaust flow is run in parallel with a conventional heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). This side stream is supplementary fired opposed to the current practice of full exhaust flow firing. Chemical fuel gas recuperation can be incorporated in the side stream as an option. A significant combined cycle efficiency gain of 2 to 4 percentage points can be realized using this split stream approach. Calculations and graphs show how the DOE goal of 60 percent combined cycle efficiency burning natural gas fuel can be exceeded. The boiler concept is equally applicable to the integrated coal gas fuel combined cycle (IGCC).

  9. Investigation of Fly Ash and Activated Carbon Obtained from Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely; Zheng Yao

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addressed the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addressed the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project has determined the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed have also been determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control have been analyzed in an effort to determine the effects of SCR on the ash.

  10. Wood Pellet-Fired Biomass Boiler Project at the Ketchikan Federal Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomberlin, G.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass boiler systems have existed for many years, but the technology has advanced in recent decades and can now provide automated and efficient operation for a relatively modest investment. Key advances in system monitoring and control allow for lower operating costs, since the control systems run all aspects of the boiler, including feed, load reduction and even tube cleaning. These advances have made such systems economical on a small scale in situations where inexpensive fuels like natural gas are not available. This creates an opportunity for building operators in remote, cold-climate locations to reduce the use of expensive fuels for heating buildings. GSA Region 10 installed the system at the federal building in Ketchikan, Alaska and submitted the project to the Green Proving Ground (GPG) program. GSA's GPG program contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess the installation and the technology. The system serves as a demonstration to assess actual system efficiencies, as well as operating characteristics and financial benefits. In addition to installation and operational issues, the project team/researchers examined other issues, including fuel transportation costs, building energy savings, and overall economics.

  11. NO{sub x} CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Poisoned catalysts were prepared and tested in the CCS. Poisoning with sodium produced a noticeable drop in activity, which was larger at higher space velocity. A computer code was written at BYU to predict conversion along a cylindrical monolithic reactor. This code may be useful for monolith samples that will be tested in the laboratory. Shakedown of the slipstream reactor was completed at AEP's Rockport plant. Ammonia was connected to the reactor. The measurement of O{sub 2} and NO{sub x} made by the CEMs corresponded to values measured by the plant at the economizer outlet. Excellent NO{sub x} reduction was observed in preliminary tests of the reactor. Some operational problems were noted and these will be addressed next quarter.

  12. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers - Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has told us a couple of things consistently for several years now: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step by step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  13. ADVANCED OXYFUEL BOILERS AND PROCESS HEATERS FOR COST EFFECTIVE CO2 CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Sirman; Leonard Switzer; Bart van Hassel

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished during the second year of the program, January-December 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Conceptual Design, Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluations, Task 3--OTM Development, Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning and Task 5--Program Management. The program has experienced significant delays due to several factors. The budget has also been significantly under spent. Based on recent technical successes and confirmation of process economics, significant future progress is expected. Concepts for integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTMs) into boilers and process heaters to facilitate oxy-fuel combustion have been investigated. OTM reactor combustion testing was delayed to insufficient reliability of the earlier OTM materials. Substantial improvements to reliability have been identified and testing will recommence early in 2004. Promising OTM material compositions and OTM architectures have been identified that improve the reliability of the ceramic elements. Economic evaluation continued. Information was acquired that quantified the attractiveness of the advanced oxygen-fired boiler. CO{sub 2} capture and compression are still estimated to be much less than $10/ton CO{sub 2}.

  14. ADVANCED OXYFUEL BOILERS AND PROCESS HEATERS FOR COST EFFECTIVE CO{sub 2} CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; G. Maxwell Christie

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished during the first year of the program, January-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1--Conceptual Design, Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluations, Task 3--OTM Development, Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning and Task 5--Program Management. The program has experienced significant delays due to several factors. The budget has also been significantly under spent. Based on recent technical successes significant future progress is expected. A number of concepts for integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTMs) into boilers and process heaters to facilitate oxy-fuel combustion have been proposed. A detailed modeling plan has been proposed and early modeling work has focused on developing spreadsheet based models for quick engineering calculations. Combustion reactor laboratory scale evaluations efforts have been delayed due to the closing of Praxair's Tarrytown facility in December 2001. Experimental facilities and personnel have been relocated to Praxair's facility in Tonawanda. The facilities have recently been re-commissioned. Work with the OTM development task has also been delayed as early material selections were discarded. More recently, more promising OTM material compositions have been identified. Economic evaluation commenced. Information was acquired that quantified the attractiveness of the advanced oxygen-fired boiler. CO{sub 2} capture and compression are still estimated to be much less than $10/ton carbon.

  15. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  16. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

  17. Modular approach for modelling a multi-energy district boiler Julien Eynard, Stphane Grieu1 and Monique Polit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -fuel oil boiler engaging (-) Daily consumption of wood (kg) Cumulative consumption of wood (kg) Real of fuel oil (l) Daily consumption of fuel oil (l) Cumulative consumption of fuel oil (l) Number of tappet, Perpignan, France; {julien.eynard; grieu; polit}@univ-perp.fr Abstract: the present paper deals

  18. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economics and/or political intervention may one day dictate the conversion from oil or natural gas to coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technical Center (DOE-FETC) supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories with support from the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University with the goal of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall goal the following specific objectives were targeted: develop a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical and operational requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintain boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieve combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and determine economic payback periods as a function of key variables.

  19. Low No{sub x}/SO{sub x} burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Baseline test report: Issue A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC`s) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC`s Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner`s SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  20. Dover Textiles - A Case History on Retrofitting Factories with a Boiler System Fueled on Coal, Wood and Waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The shortage of affordable gas and oil boiler fuels and the recent Iran/Iraq war underscores the urgent need for the American industrial system to convert to domestically controlled fuels and particularly coal, wood, and waste. More talk than action...

  1. MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University of Tennessee Georgia Tech SURF 2010 Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University If the temperature is above the first melting point of the scale, severe corrosion of the tubes can result temperatures, reducing efficiency. The corrosive nature of the superheater environment arises primarily from

  2. Common Excess Air Trends in Industrial Boilers with Single-Point Positioning Control and Strategies to Optimize Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    Common Excess Air Trends in Industrial Boilers with Single-Point Positioning Control and Strategies mechanically linking the fuel valve and combustion air damper. To match combustion air flow with fuel input, inlet dampers are typically calibrated at high fire. At part-load, combustion air generally decreases

  3. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1992--February 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  4. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1992--August 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

  5. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  6. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, CB

    2004-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is the sequential production of two forms of useful energy from a single fuel source. In most CHP applications, chemical energy in fuel is converted to both mechanical and thermal energy. The mechanical energy is generally used to generate electricity, while the thermal energy or heat is used to produce steam, hot water, or hot air. Depending on the application, CHP is referred to by various names including Building Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP); Cooling, Heating, and Power for Buildings (CHPB); Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP); Integrated Energy Systems (IES), or Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The principal technical advantage of a CHP system is its ability to extract more useful energy from fuel compared to traditional energy systems such as conventional power plants that only generate electricity and industrial boiler systems that only produce steam or hot water for process applications. By using fuel energy for both power and heat production, CHP systems can be very energy efficient and have the potential to produce electricity below the price charged by the local power provider. Another important incentive for applying cogeneration technology is to reduce or eliminate dependency on the electrical grid. For some industrial processes, the consequences of losing power for even a short period of time are unacceptable. The primary objective of the guide is to present information needed to evaluate the viability of cogeneration for new or existing industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boiler installations and to make informed CHP equipment selection decisions. Information presented is meant to help boiler owners and operators understand the potential benefits derived from implementing a CHP project and recognize opportunities for successful application of cogeneration technology. Topics covered in the guide follow: (1) an overview of cogeneration technology with discussions about benefits of applying cogeneration technology and barriers to implementing cogeneration technology; (2) applicable federal regulations and permitting issues; (3) descriptions of prime movers commonly used in CHP applications, including discussions about design characteristics, heat-recovery options and equipment, fuels and emissions, efficiency, maintenance, availability, and capital cost; (4) electrical generators and electrical interconnection equipment; (5) cooling and dehumidification equipment; (6) thermodynamic cycle options and configurations; (7) steps for evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of applying cogeneration technology; and (8) information sources.

  7. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of the boiler. When combined with SNCR, a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.12-0.14 lb/MBtu can be expected when implementing a full ALTA system on this unit. Cost effectiveness of the full ALTA system was estimated at $2,152/ton NO{sub x} removed; this was less than 75% of the cost estimated for an SCR system on a unit of this size.

  8. HYDRONIC BASEBOARD THERMAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WITH OUTDOOR RESET CONTROL TO ENABLE THE USE OF A CONDENSING BOILER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of condensing boilers in residential heating systems offers the potential for significant improvements in efficiency. For these to operate in a condensing mode the return water temperature needs to be about 10 degrees below the saturation temperature for the flue gas water vapor. This saturation temperature depends on fuel type and excess air and ranges from about 110 F to 135 F. Conventional baseboard hydronic distribution systems are most common and these are designed for water temperatures in the 180 F range, well above the saturation temperature. Operating strategies which may allow these systems to operate in a condensing mode have been considered in the past. In this study an approach to achieving this for a significant part of the heating season has been tested in an instrumented home. The approach involves use of an outdoor reset control which reduces the temperature of the water circulating in the hydronic loop when the outdoor temperature is higher than the design point for the region. Results showed that this strategy allows the boiler to operate in the condensing region for 80% of the winter heating season with oil, 90% with propane, and 95% with gas, based on cumulative degree days. The heating system as tested combines space heating and domestic hot water loads using an indirect, 40 gallon tank with an internal heat exchanger. Tests conducted during the summer months showed that the return water temperature from the domestic hot water tank heat exchanger is always below a temperature which will provide condensing operation of the boiler. In the field tests both the condensing boiler and the conventional, non-condensing boiler were in the test home and each was operated periodically to provide a direct performance comparison.

  9. Limited Energy Engineering Analysis (EEAP) study of summer boiler at high temperature hot water plants, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a study of the existing High Temperature Hot Water Distribution Systems at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. There are two systems with central boilers located in Buildings 1021 and 2369. The study focuses on the operation of the boilers during the summer months which is required to provide domestic hot water and sanitizing steam to various buildings. Because the boilers are operating under a reduced load condition, it may be cost effective in terms of energy conservation to implement one of the following energy conservation opportunities (ECO`s).

  10. Resilient Monitoring Systems: Architecture, Design, and Application to Boiler/Turbine Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humberto E. Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Semyon M. Meerkov; Maruthi T. Ravichandran

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resilient monitoring systems, considered in this paper, are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this work is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools. The performance of the overall system is evaluated using a simplified boiler/turbine plant. The measure of resiliency is quantified using Kullback-Leibler divergence, and is shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered.

  11. Integrated process and apparatus for control of pollutants in coal-fired boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, T.G.; Offen, G.R.

    1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for reducing SO[sub x] and NO[sub x] levels in flue gases generated by the combustion of coal in a boiler in which low NO[sub x] burners and air staging ports are utilized to inhibit the amount of NO[sub x] initially produced in the combustion of the coal. A selected concentration of urea is introduced downstream of the combustion zone after the temperature has been reduced to the range of 1300 F to 2000 F, and a sodium-based reagent is introduced into the flue gas stream after further reducing the temperature of the stream to the range of 200 F to 900 F. Under certain conditions, calcium injection may be employed along with humidification of the flue gas stream for selective reduction of the pollutants. 7 figs.

  12. Integrated process and apparatus for control of pollutants in coal-fired boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Terry G. (Aurora, CO); Offen, George R. (Woodside, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reducing SO.sub.x and NO.sub.x levels in flue gases generated by the combustion of coal in a boiler in which low NO.sub.x burners and air staging ports are utilized to inhibit the amount of NO.sub.x initially produced in the combustion of the coal, a selected concentration of urea is introduced downstream of the combustion zone after the temperature has been reduced to the range of 1300.degree. F. to 2000.degree. F., and a sodium-based reagent is introduced into the flue gas stream after further reducing the temperature of the stream to the range of 200.degree. F. to 900.degree. F. Under certain conditions, calcium injection may be employed along with humidification of the flue gas stream for selective reduction of the pollutants.

  13. Rivesville multicell fluidized bed boiler. Annual technical progress report. July 1978-June 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design, construction and test program of a 300,000 lb/hr steam generating capacity multicell fluidized bed boiler (MFB), as a pollution free method of burning high-sulfur or highly corrosive coals, is being carried out. The concept involves burning fuels such as coal, in a fluidized bed of limestone particles that react with the sulfur compounds formed during combustion to reduce air pollution. Nitrogen oxide emissions are also reduced at the lower combustion temperatures. The CaSO/sub 4/ produced in the furnace is discharged with the ash or regenerated to CaO for reuse in the fluidized bed. Information is presented on continued operation of the Rivesville MFB steam generating plant in a commercial mode and for determining performance and emission characteristics; studies and tests on flyash characterization and reinjection, fuel feed eductors and needles, air distributor, corrosion-erosion and sulfur capture; engineering studies to improve MFB performance and reliability.

  14. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes Year 1 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Through the course of Year 1 activities, great progress was made toward understanding the issues associated with oxy-combustion retrofit of coal-fired boilers. All four Year 1 milestones and objectives have been, or will be, completed on schedule and within budget. Progress in the four milestone areas may be summarized as follows: • University of Utah has performed size segregated ash composition measurements in the Oxy-Fuel Combustor (OFC). These experiments indicate that oxy-combustion retrofit may impact ash aerosol mineral matter composition. Both flame temperature and flue gas composition have been observed to influence the concentration of calcium, magnesium and iron in the fine particulate. This could in turn impact boiler fouling and slagging. • Sandia National Labs has shown that char oxidation rate is dependent on particle size (for sizes between 60 and 100 microns) by performing fundamental simulations of reacting char particles. These predictions will be verified by making time-resolved optical measurements of char particle temperature, velocity and size in bench-scale experiments before the end of Year 1. • REI and Siemens have completed the design of an oxy-research burner that will be mounted on University of Utah’s pilot-scale furnace, the L1500. This burner will accommodate a wide range of O2, FGR and mixing strategies under conditions relevant for utility boiler operation. Through CFD modeling of the different burner designs, it was determined that the key factor influencing flame stabilization location is particle heat-up rate. The new oxy-research burner and associated equipment is scheduled for delivery before the end of Year 1. • REI has completed a literature survey of slagging and fouling mechanisms in coal-fired power plants to understand key issues influencing these deposition regimes and infer their behavior under oxy-fired conditions. Based on the results of this survey, an algorithm for integrating slagging predictions into CFD models was outlined. This method accounts for ash formation, particle impaction and sticking, deposit growth and physical properties and impact of the deposit on system flow and heat transfer. A model for fouling in the back pass has also been identified which includes vaporization of sodium, deposition of sodium sulfate on fly ash particles and tube surfaces, and deposit growth rate on tubes. In Year 1, REI has also performed a review of the literature describing corrosion in order to understand the behavior of oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation, and carburization mechanisms in air-fired and oxy-combustion systems. REI and Vattenfall have met and exchanged information concerning oxy-coal combustion mechanisms for CFD simulations currently used by Vattenfall. In preparation for Year 2 of this program, two coals (North Antelope PRB, Western bituminous) have been ordered, pulverized and delivered to the University of Utah and Sandia National Labs. Materials for the corrosion experiments have been identified, suppliers located, and a schedule for equipment fabrication and shakedown has been established. Finally, a flue gas recycle system has been designed and is being constructed for the OFC.

  15. Development of advanced NO[sub x] control concepts for coal-fired utility boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid technologies for the reduction of NO[sub x] emissions from coal-fired utility boilers have shown the potential to offer greater levels of NO[sub x] control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has developed a hybrid NO[sub x] control strategy involving two proprietary concepts which has the potential to meet the US Department of Energy's NO[sub x] reduction goal at a significant reduction in cost compared to existing technology. The process has been named CombiNO[sub x]. CombiNO[sub x] is an integration of three technologies: modified reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection. These technologies are combined to achieve high levels of NO[sub x] emission reduction from coal-fired power plants equipped with S0[sub x] scrubbers. The first two steps, modified reburning and promoted SNCR are linked. It has been shown that performance of the SNCR agent is dependent upon local oxidation of CO. Reburning is used to generate the optimum amount of CO to promote the SNCR agent. Approximately 10 percent reburning is required, this represents half of that required for conventional reburning. If the reburn fuel is natural gas, the combination of reburning and SNCR may result in a significant cost savings over conventional reburning. The third step, injection of methanol into the flue gas, is used to oxidize NO to N0[sub 2] which may subsequently be removed in a wet scrubber. Pilot-scale tests performed at EER's 1 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) have demonstrated NO[sub x] reductions up to 92%. The program's next phase entails process scale-up to a 10 MMBtu/hr furnace also located at EER's Santa Anna test site.

  16. Pool boiler reflux solar receiver for Stirling dish-electric systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of competitive, modular bulk electric power from the sun may be greatly enhanced by the use of a reflux heat pipe receiver to combine a heat engine such as Stirling with a paraboloidal dish concentrator. This combination represents a potential improvement over previous successful demonstrations of dish-electric technology in terms of enhanced performance, lower cost, longer life, and greater flexibility in engine design. There are, however, important issues and unknowns which must be addressed to determine engineering feasibility of these devices. In the pool boiler reflux receiver, concentrated solar radiation causes liquid metal (sodium or potassium) to boil. The vapor flows to the engine heater heads, where it condenses and releases the latent heat. The condensate is returned to the receiver absorber pool by gravity (refluxing). This is essentially an adaptation of heat pipe technology to the peculiar requirements of concentrated solar flux, and provides many advantages over conventional heated tube receiver technology. Boiling theory indicates that long-term stable boiling of liquid metal may be difficult to achieve. Laboratory scale experiments have been performed. Initial tests confirmed that boiling is unstable in a baseline boiler. Boiling stability was established after the addition of ''artificial cavities'' to the heated surface, and successful boiling of sodium was demonstrated for 100 hours. Other stabilizing influences may have been present, and will be discussed. The flux and geometry closely simulated a real receiver. The results of these tests are presented, along with the design of a full scale receiver for on-sun testing and considerations for long term operation. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, June--September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  18. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  19. Reducing auxiliary power consumption with F. D. fans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henson, G.E. (PSI Energy, Cayuga Generating Station, Cayuga, IN (US))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On June 6, 1988, the Unit No. 1-A forced draft fan at Cayuga station failed in service. This failure and the subsequent replacement of the 1-A F.D. fan and 1.-B F.D. fan with a more energy efficient design, resulted in a reduction in auxiliary power consumption by 2,000 Kilo watts/hr. Annual savings are projected to be $129,000.00 for 1989. Cayuga station was designed and constructed with pressurized boilers. The forced draft fans supplied combustion air, and also were designed to force this air through the entire boiler. In 1975, induced draft (I.D.) fans were installed. This design change modified the boiler to a balanced draft system, which reduced the force or pressure of the air that the F.D. fans were required to supply. Operating as a balance draft unit, the station had considerably more F.D. fan capacity than was necessary. After the failure, a system and economic evaluation warranted a change in design specifications for the F.D. fans, with the quantity of air remaining unchanged, but supplied at a lower pressure. This paper deals with the cause of failure, economic details and justification of the new design fans, as well as the final testing of the fans after being placed in service.

  20. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyclone furnaces operate with high excess air and at high temperature. The heat release during combustion is very high and as a result the boiler volume is much smaller than would be found in a conventional pc-fired system. The Marion Unit 1 boiler, at the level of the cyclone entry, has a small cross-section; about 5-feet in depth and about 20-feet in width. A boiler schematic showing the LNS Burner and relative location of the superheater region and overfire air ports is shown in Figure 1. The LNS Burner`s combustion process is fundamentally different from that of the cyclone, and the combustion products are also different. The LNS Burner products enter the boiler as hot, fuel-rich gases. Additional overfire air must be added to complete this combustion step with care taken to avoid the formation of thermal NO{sub x}. If done correctly, S0{sub 2} is controlled and significant NO{sub x} reductions are achieved. Because of the small boiler volume, flow modelling was found to be necessary to insure that adequate mixing of LNS Burner combustion products with air can be accomplished to achieve NO{sub x} emissions goals. Design requirements for the air injection system for the Marion boiler were developed using FLUENT, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A series of runs were made to obtain a design for final air injection that met the process design goals as closely as possible.

  1. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; Rhett McLaren; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz; Joseph J. Battista

    2003-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, utilizing funds furnished by the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, investigated the installation of a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The study was performed using a team that included personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. The activities included assessing potential feedstocks at the University Park campus and surrounding region with an emphasis on biomass materials, collecting and analyzing potential feedstocks, assessing agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion tendencies, identifying the optimum location for the boiler system through an internal site selection process, performing a three circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler design and a 15-year boiler plant transition plan, determining the costs associated with installing the boiler system, developing a preliminary test program, determining the associated costs for the test program, and exploring potential emissions credits when using the biomass CFB boiler.

  2. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  3. A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions are measured with the blends. Again, consistent with our past experience with biodiesel blends, significant reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions nearing 50% with 100% Jatropha oil, were also measured. This is in contrast with the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, where the NOx has a tendency to increase. In addition to the gaseous emission measurements, particulate emissions were measured using an EPA CTM-39 system to obtain both particulates, of sizes below 2.5 microns, so-called PM2.5, and of sizes larger than 2.5 microns. The results show that the particulate emissions are lower with the blending of Jatropha oil. Overall, one can conclude that the blending of Jatropha oil with residual oil is a feasible approach to using non-edible plant oil to provide a renewable content to residual oil, with significant benefits in the reduction of pollutant emissions such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates.

  4. Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO{sub x} Control Demonstration. Quarterly report No. 12, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project involves retrofitting/testing the reburning technology at Wisconsin Power & Light`s 100 MWe Nelson Dewey Unit {number_sign}2 in Cassville, Wisconsin to determine the commercial applicability of this technology to reduce NO{sub x} emission levels. Based upon the data collected and evaluated f or reburn No{sub x} reduction performance with the Lamar Indiana bituminous coal f or boiler loads of 110 MW, 82 MW, and 60 MW, average NO{sub x} reductions of 52.4%, 50.1% and 35.8%, respectively were achieved. Average emissions of NO{sub x}with reburn in operation were 290 ppm (.39 lb/million Btu) , 265 ppm (.36 lb/million Btu) and 325 ppm (.44 lb/million Btu) respectively, all corrected to 3% 02 content. Boiler efficiency losses due to increased unburned carbon in the ash were 0.1% at 110 NW, .25% at 83 MW and 1.5% at 60 MW. Reburn performance results with western sub-bituminous coal at 110 MW, 82 MW and 60 MW boiler loads indicated NO{sub x} reductions of 55.4%, 52.1% and 52.6% respectively. Under optimal conditions, NO{sub x} reductions approaching 63% were achieved with the more reactive western sub-bituminous coal. Boiler efficiency losses due to increased unburned carbon in the ash were unchanged at full load, a loss of 0.2% at 83 MW and a loss of .3% at low load, much improved over results with the Lamar coal.

  5. Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 3: Appendix II, Sections 2 & 3 and Appendix III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Grace, W.J. Frederick, M. Salcudean, R.A. Wessel

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

  6. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Tasks 3 and 4 Materials for Heat Recovery in Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R.; Kish, Joseph R.; Singh, Preet M.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Yuan, Jerry; Gorog, J. Peter; Frederick, Laurie A.; Jette, Francois R.; Meisner, Roberta A.; Singbeil, Douglas L.

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE-funded project on materials for industrial heat recovery systems included four research tasks: materials for aluminum melting furnace recuperator tubes, materials and operational changes to prevent cracking and corrosion of the co-extruded tubes that form primary air ports in black liquor recovery boilers, the cause of and means to prevent corrosion of carbon steel tubes in the mid-furnace area of recovery boilers, and materials and operational changes to prevent corrosion and cracking of recovery boiler superheater tubes. Results from studies on the latter two topics are given in this report while separate reports on results for the first two tasks have already been published. Accelerated, localized corrosion has been observed in the mid-furnace area of kraft recovery boilers. This corrosion of the carbon steel waterwall tubes is typically observed in the vicinity of the upper level of air ports where the stainless clad co-extruded wall tubes used in the lower portion of the boiler are welded to the carbon steel tubes that extend from this transition point or “cut line” to the top of the boiler. Corrosion patterns generally vary from one boiler to another depending on boiler design and operating parameters, but the corrosion is almost always found within a few meters of the cut line and often much closer than that. This localized corrosion results in tube wall thinning that can reach the level where the integrity of the tube is at risk. Collection and analysis of gas samples from various areas near the waterwall surface showed reducing and sulfidizing gases were present in the areas where corrosion was accelerated. However, collection of samples from the same areas at intervals over a two year period showed the gaseous environment in the mid-furnace section can cycle between oxidizing and reducing conditions. These fluctuations are thought to be due to gas flow instabilities and they result in an unstable or a less protective scale on the carbon steel tubes. Also, these fluctuating air flow patterns can result in deposition of black liquor on the wall tubes, and during periods when deposition is high, there is a noticeable increase in the concentrations of sulfur-bearing gases like hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan. Laboratory studies have shown that chromized and aluminized surface treatments on carbon steel improve the resistance to sulfidation attack. Studies of superheater corrosion and cracking have included laboratory analyses of cracked tubes, laboratory corrosion studies designed to simulate the superheater environment and field tests to study the movement of superheater tubes and to expose a corrosion probe to assess the corrosion behavior of alternate superheater alloys, particularly alloys that would be used for superheaters operating at higher temperatures and higher pressures than most current boilers. In the laboratory corrosion studies, samples of six alternate materials were immersed in an aggressive, low melting point salt mixture and exposed for times up to 336 h, at temperatures of 510, 530 or 560°C in an inert or reactive cover gas. Using weight change and results of metallographic examination, the samples were graded on their resistance to the various environments. For the superheater corrosion probe studies, samples of the same six materials were exposed on an air-cooled corrosion probe exposed in the superheater section of a recovery boiler for 1000 h. Post exposure examination showed cracking and/or subsurface attack in the samples exposed at the higher temperatures with the attack being more severe for samples 13 exposed above the first melting temperature of the deposits that collected on the superheater tubes. From these superheater studies, a ranking was developed for the six materials tested. The task addressing cracking and corrosion of primary air port tubes that was part of this project produced results that have been extensively implemented in recovery boilers in North America, the Nordic countries and many other parts of the world. By utilizing these results, boilers ar

  7. Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

  8. Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL); Feldman, Earl E. (Willowbrook, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL); Glickert, Roger W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

  9. Chlorine in coal and its relationship with boiler corrosion. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M.; Ruch, R.R.; Chou, C.L. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Limited literature and use history data have suggested that some high-chlorine Illinois coals do not cause boiler corrosion while extensive data developed by the British correlate corrosion with chlorine content and other parameters related to the coal and boiler. The differences in corrosivity in coals may be due to the coal properties, to blending of coals, or to the boiler parameters in which they were burned. The goals of this study focus on coal properties and are: (1) to characterize chlorine and other constituents in coals which have been reported to behave differently with respect to corrosion problems during combustion; (2) to determine the evolution profiles of chlorine-containing compounds in coals during pyrolysis and oxidation; and (3) to examine the behavior of Cl-, S-, N-, O-containing compounds in coal during pyrolysis. Proximate, ultimate, and ash composition analyses for all of the British and Illinois coal samples were completed in this quarter. Analysis of the acid-soluble sodium and potassium in coals is in progress. These data, along with ash composition data, will be used to assess a coal`s relative corrosion potential. The HCl evolution profiles obtained from oxidation of the five Illinois coal samples were examined. The results indicate that temperatures of maximum HCl evolution range were 430{degree}C to 450{degree}C.

  10. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and related combustion performance. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive Powder River Basin coal (PRB) to a moderately reactive Midwestern bituminous coal (HVB) to a less reactive medium volatile Eastern bituminous coal (MVB). Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis.

  11. Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850.degree. F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850.degree. F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400.degree. F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

  12. System Modeling of ORNL s 20 MW(t) Wood-fired Gasifying Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Wiggins, Gavin [ORNL; Hao, Ye [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of the new 20 MW(t) wood-fired steam plant currently under construction by Johnson Controls, Inc. at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. The new plant will utilize a low-temperature air-blown gasifier system developed by the Nexterra Systems Corporation to generate low-heating value syngas (producer gas), which will then be burned in a staged combustion chamber to produce heat for the boiler. This is considered a showcase project for demonstrating the benefits of clean, bio-based energy, and thus there is considerable interest in monitoring and modeling the energy efficiency and environmental footprint of this technology relative to conventional steam generation with petroleum-based fuels. In preparation for system startup in 2012, we are developing steady-state and dynamic models of the major process components, including the gasifiers and combustor. These tools are intended to assist in tracking and optimizing system performance and for carrying out future conceptual studies of process changes that might improve the overall energy efficiency and sustainability. In this paper we describe the status of our steady-state gasifier and combustor models and illustrate preliminary results from limited parametric studies.

  13. Mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash from a MSW fluidized-bed incinerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenan, F., E-mail: f.bodenan@brgm.f [BRGM - French Geological Survey, Environment and Processes Division, BP 36009, 3 Av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex (France); Guyonnet, D.; Piantone, P.; Blanc, P. [BRGM - French Geological Survey, Environment and Processes Division, BP 36009, 3 Av. C. Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex (France)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an investigation of the mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash sampled from a municipal solid waste fluidized-bed incinerator, subject to 18 months of dynamic leaching in a large percolation column experiment. A particular focus is on the redox behaviour of Cr(VI) in relation to metal aluminium Al{sup 0}, as chromium may represent an environmental or health hazard. The leaching behaviour and interaction between Cr(VI) and Al{sup 0} are interpreted on the basis of mineralogical evolutions observed over the 18-month period and of saturation indices calculated with the geochemical code PhreeqC and reviewed thermodynamic data. Results of mineralogical analyses show in particular the alteration of mineral phases during leaching (e.g. quartz and metal aluminium grains), while geochemical calculations suggest equilibria of percolating fluids with respect to specific mineral phases (e.g. monohydrocalcite and aluminium hydroxide). The combination of leaching data on a large scale and mineralogical analyses document the coupled leaching behaviour of aluminium and chromium, with chromium appearing in the pore fluids in its hexavalent and mobile state once metal aluminium is no longer available for chromium reduction.

  14. Dynamic air deposited coatings for power and black liquor recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verstak, A.A.; Baranovski, V.E. [Advanced Surface Technologies Inc., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic Air Deposition (DyAir) is a novel coating method designed to protect the tubing of power and black liquor recovery boilers against corrosion attack at elevated temperatures. The method utilizes the energy of combustion of gaseous fuel and air to heat the powder material to a temperature just below its melting point and accelerate it over 600 m/s to form a coating. The Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Mo DyAir coatings revealed no gas permeability and extremely low oxygen content. Compared to the electric arc and HVOF-sprayed coatings, the DyAir coatings exhibited higher hardness and better crack resistance. During aging at 400 and 700 C the bond strength and crack resistance of the DyAir coatings increased dramatically due to intensive diffusion processes in absence of internal corrosion attack. The DyAir coatings revealed outstanding resistance to corrosion, such as sulfidation attack in presence of hydrochloric acid gas at 400 C, oxidation attack at 700 C and oxidation attack in presence of chlorine at 400 C.

  15. Status Report on Studies of Recovery Boiler Composite Floor Tube Cracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eng, P.; Frederick, L.A.; Hoffmann, C.M.; Keiser, J.R.; Mahmood, J.; Maziasz, P.J.; Prescott, R.; Sarma, G.B.; Singbeil, D.L.; Singh, P.M.; Swindeman, R.W.; Wang, X.-L.

    1999-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Cracking of the stainless steel layer of co-extruded 304L stainless steel/SA210 Gd A 1 carbon steel black liquor recovery boiler floor tubes has been identified as one of the most serious material problems in the pulp and paper industry. A DOE-funded study was initiated in 1995 with the goal of determining the cause of and possible solutions to this cracking problem. These studies have characterized tube cracking as well as the chemical and thermal environment and stress state of floor tubes. Investigations of possible cracking mechanisms indicate that stress corrosion cracking rather than thermal fatigue is a more likely cause of crack initiation. The cracking mechanism appears to require the presence of hydrated sodium sulfide and is most likely active during shut-downs and/or start-ups. Based on these results and operating experience, certain alloys appear to be more resistant than others to cracking in the floor environment, and certain operating practices appear to significantly lessen the likelihood of cracking. This report is the latest in a series of progress reports presented on this project.

  16. Low NOx Burner Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no over-fire gas (OFG) and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas swirl, coal burnout was relatively small, due to the low oxygen content of the primary gas stream. Consequently, the burners were modified to include primary gas swirl to bring the coal particles in contact with the secondary gas. An optimal primary gas swirl was chosen to achieve sufficient burnout.

  17. Rationale for chemical control of feedwater and boiler water. Volume 1. Concentration models. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bawden, R.J.; Mann, G.M.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operating PWR units in the USA have experienced very severe corrosion of the tube support plate at the crevice between the tube and the support. This results in distortion of the plate and crushing of the tube (denting). The first task of this project required that currently available computational methods to estimate the pH attained by concentrating boiler water under various fault conditions such as condenser leakage of river waters and faulty operation of condensate polishing plant. Particular attention has been paid to systems in which sulfate predominates. In the second task, the mechanisms are discussed by which solutions become concentrated in porous deposits on a boiling heat transfer surface. It is concluded that more experimental data are needed to test the validity of existing models. High solution concentrations in the deposit may occur at a heat flux close to the critical value for drying out the base of the deposit. The pore to bulk concentration ratio is calculated for a porous deposit modelled as a set of capillaries with various size distributions. The uniform pore-size model overestimates the concentration ratio.

  18. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1993--August 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement with the purpose of determining if CWSF prepared from a cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt % ash and 0.9 wt % sulfur) can be effectively burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will also generate information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The approach being used in the program is as follows: 1. Install a natural gas/fuel oil-designed package boiler and generate baseline data firing natural gas; 2. Shake down the system with CWSF and begin the first 1,000 hours of testing using the burner/atomizer system provided with the boiler. The first 1,000-hour demonstration was to consist of boiler operation testing and combustion performance evaluation using CWSF preheat, a range of atomizing air pressures (up to 200 psig as compared to the 100 psig boiler manufacturer design pressure), and steam as the atomizing medium; 3. If the combustion performance was not acceptable based on the combustion efficiency obtained and the level of gas support necessary to maintain flame stabilization, then low-cost modifications were to be implemented, such as installing a quarl and testing alternative atomizers; 4. If acceptable combustion performance was not obtained with the low-cost modifications, then the first demonstration was to be terminated and the burner system replaced with one of proven CWSF design.

  19. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

  20. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that aims to predict the conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide should allow for the conversion of char-nitrogen to HCN. The extent of the HCN conversion to NO or N{sub 2} will depend on the composition of the atmosphere surrounding the particle. A pilot-scale testing campaign was carried out to evaluate the impact of multiburner firing on NO{sub x} emissions using a three-burner vertical array. In general, the results indicated that multiburner firing yielded higher NO{sub x} emissions than single burner firing at the same fuel rate and excess air. Mismatched burner operation, due to increases in the firing rate of the middle burner, generally demonstrated an increase in NO{sub x} over uniform firing. Biased firing, operating the middle burner fuel rich with the upper and lower burners fuel lean, demonstrated an overall reduction in NO{sub x} emissions; particularly when the middle burner was operated highly fuel rich. Computational modeling indicated that operating the three burner array with the center burner swirl in a direction opposite to the other two resulted in a slight reduction in NO{sub x}.

  1. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.G.Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

    2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An initial testing campaign was carried out during the summer of 2000 to evaluate the impact of multiburner firing on NOx emissions. Extensive data had been collected during the Fall of 1999 and Spring of 2000 using a single pulverized-coal (PC) burner, and this data collection was funded by a separate Department of Energy program, the Combustion 2000 Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) project under the direction of DB Riley. This single-burner data was thus available for comparison with NOx emissions obtained while firing three burners at the same overall load and operating conditions. A range of operating conditions were explored that were compatible with single-burner data, and thus the emission trends as a function of air staging, burner swirl and other parameters will be described below. In addition, a number of burner-to-burner operational variations were explored that provided interesing insight on their potential impact on NOx emissions. Some of these variations include: running one burner very fuel rich while running the others fuel lean; varying the swirl of a single burner while holding others constant; increasing the firing rate of a single burner while decreasing the others. In general, the results to date indicated that multiburner firing yielded higher NOx emissions than single burner firing at the same fuel rate and excess air. At very fuel rich burner stoichiometries (SR < 0.75), the difference between multiple and single burners became indistinguishable. This result is consistent with previous single-burner data that showed that at very rich stoichiometries the NOx emissions became independent of burner settings such as air distributions, velocities and burner swirl.

  2. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  3. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  4. 2014-03-31 Issuance: Test Procedure for Commercial Packaged Boilers; Request for Information, Reopening of the Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice reopening the comment period for the request for information regarding the commercial packaged boiler test procedure rulemaking, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 31, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  5. Causes and solutions for cracking of coextruded and weld overlay floor tubes in black liquor recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Taljat, B.; Wang, X.L. [and others

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cracking of coextruded, black liquor recovery boiler floor tubes is both a safety and an economic issue to mill operators. In an effort to determine the cause of the cracking and to identify a solution, extensive studies, described in this and three accompanying papers, are being conducted. In this paper, results of studies to characterize both the cracking and the chemical and thermal environment are reported. Based on the results described in this series of papers, a possible mechanism is presented and means to lessen the likelihood of cracking or to totally avoid cracking of floor tubes are offered.

  6. BioCoComb -- Gasification of biomass and co-combustion of the gas in a pulverized-coal-boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderl, H.; Zotter, T.; Mory, A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a demonstration project supported by an European Community Thermie Fund a biomass gasifier for bark, wood chips, saw dust, etc. has been installed by Austrian Energy and Environment at the 137 MW{sub el} pulverized-coal fired power station in Zeltweg, Austria. The project title BioCoComb is an abbreviation for Preparation of Biofuel for Co-Combustion, where co-combustion means combustion together with coal in existing power plants. According to the thermal capacity of 10 MW the produced gas substitutes approx. 3% of the coal fired in the boiler. Only the coarse fraction of the biomass has to pass a shredder and is then fed together with the fine fraction without any further pretreatment into the gasifier. In the gasification process the biomass will combust in a substoichiometric atmosphere, create the necessary temperature of 820 C and partly gasify due to the lack of oxygen in the combustion chamber (autothermal operation). The gasifier uses circulating fluidized bed technology, which guarantees even relatively low temperatures in all parts of the gasifier to prevent slagging. The intense motion of the bed material also favors attrition of the biomass particles. Via a hot gas duct the produced low calorific value (LCV) gas is directly led into the furnace of the existing pulverized coal fired boiler for combustion. The gas also contains fine wood char particles, that can pass the retention cyclone and burn out in the furnace of the coal boiler. The main advantages of the BioCoComb concept are: low gas quality sufficient for co-firing; no gas cleaning or cooling; no predrying of the biomass; relatively low temperatures in the gasifier to prevent slagging; favorable effects on power plant emissions (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}); no severe modifications of the existing coal fired boiler; and high flexibility in arranging and integrating the main components into existing plants. The plant started its trial run in November 1997 and has been in successful commercial operation since January 1998.

  7. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Quarterly report, October 1994--December 1994; January 1995--March 1995; April 1995--June 1995; July 1995--September 1995; October 1995--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers five quarters of work on the engineering development of a coal-fired low -emissions boiler systems. Contents include summaries of activities and key accomplishments for the following: project management; NO{sub x} subsystem; SO{sub 2}/particulate/air toxics/solid by-product subsystems; controls and sensors subsystems; boiler subsystem; and balance of plant subsystem.

  8. RCRA/UST, superfund, and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Boilers and indutrial furnaces (40 CFR part 266, subpart H) updated as of July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The module summarizes the regulations affecting hazardous waste processes in boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs). It defines boilers and industrial furnaces and describes the criteria associated with the definitions. It explains the difference in applicability between regulations found in Part 266, Subpart H, and those found in Part 266, Subpart E. It describes the requirements for processing hazardous waste in BIFs, including the distinctions between permitted and interim status units and explains the requirements for the specially regulated BIF units and gives examples of each.

  9. Advanced In-Furnace NOx Control for Wall and Cyclone-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Sarv

    2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A NO{sub x} minimization strategy for coal-burning wall-fired and cyclone boilers was developed that included deep air staging, innovative oxygen use, reburning, and advanced combustion control enhancements. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was applied to refine and select the best arrangements. Pilot-scale tests were conducted by firing an eastern high-volatile bituminous Pittsburgh No.8 coal at 5 million Btu/hr in a facility that was set up with two-level overfire air (OFA) ports. In the wall-fired mode, pulverized coal was burned in a geometrically scaled down version of the B and W DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} burner. At a fixed overall excess air level of 17%, NO{sub x} emissions with single-level OFA ports were around 0.32 lb/million Btu at 0.80 burner stoichiometry. Two-level OFA operation lowered the NO{sub x} levels to 0.25 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment in the staged burner reduced the NO{sub x} values to 0.21 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment plus reburning and 2-level OFA operation further curbed the NO{sub x} emissions to 0.19 lb/million Btu or by 41% from conventional air-staged operation with single-level OFA ports. In the cyclone firing arrangement, oxygen enrichment of the cyclone combustor enabled high-temperature and deeply staged operation while maintaining good slag tapping. Firing the Pittsburgh No.8 coal in the optimum arrangement generated 112 ppmv NO{sub x} (0.15 lb/million Btu) and 59 ppmv CO. The optimum emissions results represent 88% NO{sub x} reduction from the uncontrolled operation. Levelized costs for additional NO{sub x} removal by various in-furnace control methods in reference wall-fired or cyclone-fired units already equipped with single-level OFA ports were estimated and compared with figures for SCR systems achieving 0.1 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. Two-level OFA ports could offer the most economical approach for moderate NO{sub x} control, especially for smaller units. O{sub 2} enrichment in combination with 2-level OFA was not cost effective for wall-firing. For cyclone units, NO{sub x} removal by two-level OFA plus O{sub 2} enrichment but without coal reburning was economically attractive.

  10. Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

    2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated the ability to improve control of an olefins furnace (via CO-trim) that resulted in significant energy savings and lower emissions such as NOx and other greenhouse gases. The cost to retrofit measurements on an existing olefins furnace was found to be very attractive, with an estimated payback achieved in 4 months or less.

  11. Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO{sub x} Control Demonstration. Quarterly report No. 10, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NO{sub x}, Control Demonstration project progress for July, August, and September 1992 is identified in this tenth quarterly report and pertains to the on-going activities of Phase III Operation and Disposition. The project involves retrofitting/testing the reburning technology at Wisconsin Power & Light`s 100 MWe Nelson Dewey Unit {number_sign}2 in Cassville, Wisconsin to determine the commercial applicability of this technology to reduce NO{sub x} emission levels. Phase III activities emphasized continuation of long-term testing. WP&L is operating the reburn system in full automatic in a load following mode, using Lamar coal, which is an Indiana bituminous medium sulfur content fuel. Reductions in NO{sub x} emissions continue at the 50%+ level with no apparent significant adverse impacts to boiler operation. As of the end of September, a second set of performance tests were initiated to determine if any performance impacts as a result of long-term operation have occurred. Data evaluation continued in an effort to design a testing sequence to more precisely evaluate reburn impact on unburned carbon. These tests will be carried out during the second set of performance tests in early October. Performance and mathematical modeling are being carried out to understand the cause of the reduction in furnace exit gas temperature observed during reburn testing on Lamar coal and to predict whether the same phenomenon will occur on future units where reburn technology is being considered.

  12. Coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, January, February, and March 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Babcock & Wilcox engineering studies followed by pilot-scale testing has developed/confirmed the potential of utilizing gas, oil or coal reburning as a viable NO{sub x} reduction technology. To date, two US sponsored programs promote natural gas/oil as a reburning fuel because it was believed that gas/oil will provide significantly higher combustion efficiency than using coal at the reburn zone. Although B&W has shown that gas/oil reburning will play a role in reducing NO{sub x} emissions from cyclone boilers, B&W coal reburning research has also shown that coal as a reburning fuel performs nearly as well as gas/oil without deleterious effects on combustion efficiency. This means that boilers using reburning for NO, control can maintain 100% coal usage instead of switching to 20% gas/oil for reburning. As a result of the B&W performed coal reburning research, the technology has advanced to the point which it is now ready for demonstration on a commercial scale.

  13. Full operating range robust hybrid control of a coal-fired boiler/turbine unit - article no. 041011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, K.; Bentsman, J.; Taft, C.W. [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. for Engineering Science & Mechanics

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-input-multi-output robust controllers recently designed for the megawatt output/throttle pressure control in a coal-fired power plant boiler/turbine unit have demonstrated performance robustness noticeably superior to that of the currently employed nonlinear PID-based controller. These controllers, however, have been designed only for the range of 150-185 MW around the 185 MW nominal operating point, exhibiting a significant loss of performance in the lower range of 120-150 MW. Through system identification, the reason for this performance loss is demonstrated in the current work to be a pronounced dependence of the boiler/turbine unit steady state gains on the operating point. This problem is addressed via a hybrid control law consisting of two robust controllers and a robust switch between them activated by the set point change. The controllers are designed to cover the corresponding half-ranges of the full operating range. This permits attainment of the desired overall performance as well as reduction of modeling uncertainty induced by the operating point change to approximately 25% of that associated with the previous designs. Robust switching is accomplished through a novel hybrid mode of behavior-robustly controlled discrete transition.

  14. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Cao, J.; Moore, D.M.; Xu, J.; Ruch, R.R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Upchurch, M.L.; Cao, H.B. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolution of HCl during coal pyrolysis and its relation to chlorine forms in raw coal were studied using a temperature-programmed pyrolysis and gas combustion in conjunction with a quadrupole gas analyzer (QGA). Using a new filament source in the QGA significantly improved the sensitivity of HCl detection. The major peak at 445{degrees}C showed an increased intensity and a new HCl evolution peak at 600{degrees}C was observed during pyrolysis of Illinois coal IBC-109. Pyrolysis of coal IBC-109 spiked with NaCl solution showed a strong peak of HCl evolution above 700{degrees}C. In the study of boiler deposits, several sample preparation procedures for X-ray diffraction analysis were developed and six minerals were unambiguously determined in superheater and heater deposits from a power plant in Illinois. Effects of composite gases containing 0.2% HCl on six metals were tested at 600{degrees}C and 200{degrees}C, and at 100{degrees}C with moisture for 400 hours. Similar tests were conducted with a composite gas containing no HCl at 600{degrees}C and 200{degrees}C. The results allow us to assess the factors controlling the corrosion rate: Boiler materials, temperature, concentration of HCl in combustion gases, and chloride condensate on metal surfaces.

  15. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry Kraft recovery boilers. Final report, Phase 1, Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The objectives are to develop a preliminary design of a recovery furnace simulator; evaluate the economics of high-solids; and delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies to improve chemical recovery.

  16. 202 IEEE TRANS.4CTIONS Oh'AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. AC-18,NO. 3, J U K E 1973 Design and Analysis of Boiler-Turbine-Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwatny, Harry G.

    of Boiler-Turbine-Generator Controls Using Optimal Linear Regulator Theory JOHN P. McDOKALD AND HARRY G with the existing control structure throughsimulationusing the nonlinear process model. T I. IKTRODUCTION HE these are nonstandard automatic control procedures suchas using attemperating sprays to generate steam

  17. FIELD PERFORMANCE OF EROSION RESISTANT MATERIALS ON BOILER INDUCED DRAFI' FAN BLADES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR57451 CleanFORTechnical InformationFIELD

  18. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard; Kenneth E. Baldrey; Richard Schlager

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. Preliminary testing has identified a class of common deliquescent salts that effectively control flyash resistivity on a variety of coals. A method to evaluate cohesive properties of flyash in the laboratory has been selected and construction of an electrostatic tensiometer test fixture is underway. Preliminary selection of a variety of chemicals that will be screened for effect on flyash cohesion has been completed.

  19. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

  20. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  1. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

    2002-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, the final technical design and cost estimate were submitted to Penn State by Foster Wheeler. In addition, Penn State initiated the internal site selection process to finalize the site for the boiler plant.

  2. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The 100-D-9 site is the former location of an underground storage tank used for holding fuel for the 184-DA Boiler House. Results of soil-gas samples taken from six soil-gas probes in a rectangle around the site the tank had been removed from concluded that there were no volatile organic compounds at detectable levels in the area. The 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  3. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is concerned with the development of an a coal-fired low-emission boiler system. During march, separate kick-off meetings were held with PSI Powerserve, Raytheon and B&W`s Environmental Equipment Division to begin work on Phase I Task 5, the Commercial Plant Design. In addition, a meeting was held with MIT to discuss and review work completed and schedule work remaining on the project.

  4. Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 2: Appendix I, Section 5, and Appendix II, Section 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Grace, W.J. Frederick, M. Salcudean, R.A. Wessel

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

  5. Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 1: Main Text and Appendix I, Sections 1-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Grace, W.J. Frederick, M. Salcudean, R.A. Wessel

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

  6. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

    2002-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives.

  7. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke

    2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels.

  8. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke; Joseph J. Battista

    2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives.

  9. Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan (Gas Technology Institute); R. Glickert (ESA Environmental Solutions)

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX® (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

  10. Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid Omar

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature proved to be effective in the oxidation of both NOx and elemental mercury, and (3) higher residence time, lower temperature, and higher molar ratio of O{sub 3}/NOx contributed to the highest elemental mercury and NOx reductions.

  11. Linear regression analysis of emissions factors when firing fossil fuels and biofuels in a commercial water-tube boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Falcone Miller; Bruce G. Miller [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper compares the emissions factors for a suite of liquid biofuels (three animal fats, waste restaurant grease, pressed soybean oil, and a biodiesel produced from soybean oil) and four fossil fuels (i.e., natural gas, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, and pulverized coal) in Penn State's commercial water-tube boiler to assess their viability as fuels for green heat applications. The data were broken into two subsets, i.e., fossil fuels and biofuels. The regression model for the liquid biofuels (as a subset) did not perform well for all of the gases. In addition, the coefficient in the models showed the EPA method underestimating CO and NOx emissions. No relation could be studied for SO{sub 2} for the liquid biofuels as they contain no sulfur; however, the model showed a good relationship between the two methods for SO{sub 2} in the fossil fuels. AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels were also compared to the mass balance emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Overall, the AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels did not compare well with the mass balance emissions factors or the EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Regression analysis of the AP-42, EPA, and mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels showed a significant relationship only for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. However, the regression models underestimate the SO{sub 2} emissions by 33%. These tests illustrate the importance in performing material balances around boilers to obtain the most accurate emissions levels, especially when dealing with biofuels. The EPA emissions factors were very good at predicting the mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels and to a lesser degree the biofuels. While the AP-42 emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors are easier to perform, especially in large, full-scale systems, this study illustrated the shortcomings of estimation techniques. 23 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Eliminating air heater plugging and corrosion caused by SCR/SNCR systems for NOx control on coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guffre, J. [Paragon Airheater Technologies (United States)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In a typical coal-fired power plant the rotary regenerative air heater is responsible for 5-10% of the boiler's total efficiency. The three biggest threats to air heater performance deterioration are corrosion of the heat exchange surfaces, plugging, and air heater leakage through the seals. The article concentrates on the vastly increased level of corrosion and plugging issues associated with installing selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) systems for controlling nitrogen oxide emissions. Some injected ammonia in the SCR process reacts with SO{sub 2} to form ammonium sulphate and bisulphate (ABS) which is deposited on the air heater element surfaces. This can be overcome by applying coatings, using corrosion-resistant steels, reconfiguring the air heaters to a two layer design, improving air heater blowers, improving technologies for removing ammonia 'slip' before it enters the air heater, and using new catalysts that reduce the oxidation of SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. 4 figs.

  13. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of fly ash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory fly ash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

  14. Operation of the NRCh constriction of boilers in 300 MW energy units during combustion of anthracite dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminskii, V.P.; Mironov, S.N.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operation of the furnace constriction of boilers in 300 MW units during combustion of anthracite dust with liquid slag removal now requires special attention on the part of both operating personnel at thermal power plants and designers. The reason behind this is charring of the studs and carborundum mass on the roof portion of the constriction with subsequent exposure of the tubes; external high-temperature corrosion of the tubes on the roof portion and on the upper incline of the constriction with subsequent tapering of the tube walls to 1.5 mm and their breaking; the presence of corrosion-fatigue destruction of the tube walls in the upper incline of the constriction with formation of scale, transverse deep grooves and fissures on the front side of the tubes. Overall, at the present time the constriction is a point of failure that requires intensified control and greater repair costs to replace damaged sections of the heating surfaces. In conjunction with this, complex analysis of operation of the constriction has been carried out.

  15. Retrofitting a 240 MWe front fired boiler for low-NOx and low UBC firing[UnBurned Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santis, R. de; Mainini, G.; Pasini, S.; Ligasacchi, S.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENEL Sulcis No.3 is a 240 MWe coal fired unit located in southern Sardinia (Italy) and originally based on a combustion system of 24 circular, radial blade burners arranged in 4 rows on the boiler front wall, fed by 6 mills. In 1992--93 a first NOx reduction project was developed, involving the burners replacement with new XCL Low-NOx burners and the installation of OFA ports; this project was subsequently canceled, mainly due to strong expected problems in UBC control. As a result of the joint Ansaldo/ENEL effort in the development of a new coal fired Low-NOx burner (TEA-C), a new project was developed and implemented in 1996--97, involving the simple replacement of the existing burners with TEA-C, the removal of Y-splitters on coal pipes and the installation of rotary classifiers on the existing mills. The unit was brought back to service, after the burners' retrofit, in late summer 1997 and the progressive installation of rotary classifiers is still ongoing; Sulcis 3 is presently operating with 3 (out of 6) rotary classifiers installed, with outstanding results (NOx {lt} 0.53 lb/MBtu, UBC {le} 7% burning South American, low ash coals). The paper provides an overview on the design choices and describes the results obtained by field testing the newly installed Low-NOx combustions system.

  16. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume A. Southern Research Institute report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion tests were performed using three forms of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) as the fuel for a 700 hp oil-designed water-tube boiler at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). This report contains the results from a program of measurements and analyses performed by Southern Research Institute (SoRI) under contract to the International Coal Refining Company (ICRC). The major objectives of the work performed by Southern Research Institute were: (1) to characterize the particulate matter resulting from the combustion of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) and its fuel forms, and (2) to develop estimates of the specific collection areas required for varying levels of collection of fly ash from SRC combustion in electrostatic precipitators. The report contains physical and chemical characterizations of particles collected during the combustion experiments, and a discussion of electrostatic precipitation of SRC fly ash based on performance measurements with a small-scale precipitator and on simulations using a mathematical model. 9 references, 90 figures, 14 tables.

  17. Development of a Novel Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with an Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    BOC, the world's second largest industrial gas company, has developed a novel high temperature sorption based technology referred to as CAR (Cyclic Autothermal Recovery) for oxygen production and supply to oxy-fuel boilers with flue gas recycle. This technology is based on sorption and storage of oxygen in a fixed bed containing mixed ionic and electronic conductor materials. The objective of the proposed work was to construct a CAR PDU that was capable of producing 10-scfm of oxygen, using steam or recycled flue gas as the sweep gas, and install it in the Combustion Test Facility. The unit was designed and fabricated at BOC/The Linde Group, Murray Hill, New Jersey. The unit was then shipped to WRI where the site had been prepared for the unit by installation of air, carbon dioxide, natural gas, nitrogen, computer, electrical and infrastructure systems. Initial experiments with the PDU consisted of flowing air into both sides of the absorption systems and using the air heaters to ramp up the bed temperatures. The two beds were tested individually to operational temperatures up to 900 C in air. The cycling process was tested where gases are flowed alternatively from the top then bottom of the beds. The PDU unit behaved properly with respect to flow, pressure and heat during tests. The PDU was advanced to the point where oxygen production testing could begin and integration to the combustion test facility could occur.

  18. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semi-annual technical progress report, February 1996--July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banovic, S.W.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Present coal-fired boiler environments remain hostile to the materials of choice since corrosion and erosion can be a serious problem in certain regions of the boiler. Recently, the Clean Air Act Amendment is requiring electric power plants to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions to the environment. To reduce NO{sub x}, emissions, new low NO{sub x}, combustors are utilized which burn fuel with a substoichiometric amount of oxygen (i.e., low oxygen partial pressure). In these low NO{sub x} environments, H{sub 2}S gas is a major source of sulfur. Due to the sulfidation process, corrosion rates in reducing parts of boilers have increased significantly and existing boiler tube materials do not always provide adequate corrosion resistance. Combined attack due to corrosion and erosion is a concern because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. One method to combat corrosion and erosion in coal-fired boilers is to apply coatings to the components subjected to aggressive environments. Thermal spray coatings, a cermet composite comprised of hard ceramic phases of oxide and/or carbide in a metal binder, have been used with some success as a solution to the corrosion and erosion problems in boilers. However, little is known on the effect of the volume fraction, size, and shape of the hard ceramic phase on the erosion and corrosion resistance of the thermally sprayed coatings. It is the objective of this research to investigate metal matrix composite (cermet) coatings in order to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination that will give the best erosion and corrosion resistance in new advanced coal-fired boilers.

  19. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  20. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Donnals, G.L.; Cao, J.; Ruch, R.R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Shao, D. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to study the evolution of gaseous sulfur and chlorine species during temperature-controlled pyrolysis and combustion and their effect on boiler corrosion. We have been developing two techniques for determining the gas evolution profiles of sulfur and chlorine during coal pyrolysis and combustion. First, using a pyrolysis-combustion system in combination with a quadrupole gas analyzer, the evolution of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in combustion gas during temperature-programmed coal pyrolysis-combustion was monitored. When the atmosphere of the combustion chamber was changed to a reducing condition, gaseous COS and H{sub 2}S were also detected in the combustion gas. Detection of hydrogen chloride by QGA has been improved by using a larger-diameter (75 {mu}m) capillary tubing. The HC1 evolution profile during the pyrolysis of coal IBC-109 was determined by QGA and by a chloride ion selective electrode for quantitative purposes. Second, the technique of thermogravimetry (TG) in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to characterize gaseous species during coal pyrolysis. Gas evolution profiles of sulfur (SO{sub 2} and COS), chlorine (HC1), and nitrogen (NH{sub 3} and HCN) species were determined for coal IBC-109. Similar release profiles of HCI and NH{sub 3} supported an interpretation that chlorine gnd nitrogen are closely associated in coal. COS may be formed by reaction of CO with H{sub 2}S in the gas phase. A mass balance study of chlorine evolution from coal IBC-109 in a TG-FTIR experiment was completed; the chloride dissolved in solutions was determined by an ion chromatographic technique.

  1. System design study to reduce capital and operating cost of a moving distributor, AFB advanced concept - comparison with an oil-fired boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mah, C.S.; West, L.K.; Anderson, R.E.; Berkheimer, I.L.; Cahill, D.V.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Aerojet Energy Conversion Company, under contract with the United States Department of Energy, has performed a comparative economic study of the Aerojet Universal Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (UAFBC) system and a coventional atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. The program title, ''System Design Study to Reduce Capital and Operating Cost and Bench Scale Testing of a Moving Distributor, AFB Concept,'' is a good description of the general objective of the program. The specific objective was to compare the UAFBC with the conventional AFBC in terms of normalized steam cost. The boilers were designed for 150,00 lb/hr of steam at 650 psig and 750/sup 0/F. The reference coal used in the analysis was Pittsburgh No. 8 coal with a sulfur content of 4.3% and a higher heating value of 12,919 Bru/lb. The analysis assumed a plant life of 20 years and a discount rate of 15%. The UAFBC systems included the usual elements of the conventional cola-fired AFBC steam plant, but the coal preparation sysbsystem for the UAFBC was considerably simpler because the system can use ''run-of-mine'' coal. The UAFBC boiler itself consisted of a staged-combustion fluidized-bed, superimposed over a static bed, the latter supported by a moving distributor. It incorporated a fines burnup combustor, an entrained reciculating gas cleanup bed, and conventional convection boiler. The key features of the UAFBC design were: High fuel flexibility; low NO/sub x/ emission; and superior turndown capability. 30 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Use of fluidized bed coal combustion techniques to study efficiency, emission reduction, boiler effects, and waste utilization: Final report, July 1, 1985-February 28, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesketh, H.E.; Rajan, S.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study program, funded by the US Department of Energy through the Southern Illinois University Coal Research Center's Coal Technology Laboratory, was conducted during the period from July 1984 through February 1986. Two lines of testing were carried out simultaneously. One consisted of using a laboratory-scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) to acquire thermodynamic data and operating characteristics for Illinois coal combustion. The other included acquisition, installation, shakedown, and operation of a large one million Btu/h pilot-scale AFBC (plus boiler and associated instrumentation). Both programs were to study Illinois reference and gob (waste) type coals.

  3. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, 1 October 1993--31 December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, P.; Borio, R. [ABB/Combustion Engineering, Windsor, CT (United States); Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); McGowan, J.G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the ninth quarter of the program. During this quarter, the natural gas baseline testing at the Penn State demonstration boiler was completed, results were analyzed and are presented here. The burner operates in a stable manner over an 8/1 turndown, however due to baghouse temperature limitations (300{degrees}F for acid dewpoint), the burner is not operated for long periods of time below 75% load. Boiler efficiency averaged 83.1% at the 100 percent load rate while increasing to 83.7% at 75% load. NO{sub x} emissions ranged from a low of 0.17 Lbs/MBtu to a high of 0.24 Lbs/MBtu. After the baseline natural gas testing was completed, work continued on hardware optimization and testing with the goal of increasing carbon conversion efficiency on 100% coal firing from {approx}95% to 98%. Several coal handling and feeding problems were encountered during this quarter and no long term testing was conducted. While resolving these problems several shorter term (less than 6 hour) tests were conducted. These included, 100% coal firing tests, 100% natural gas firing tests, testing of air sparges on coal to simulate more primary air and a series of cofiring tests. For 100% coal firing, the carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) obtained this quarter did not exceed the 95-96% barrier previously reached. NO{sub x} emissions on coal only ranged from {approx} 0.42 to {approx} 0.78 Lbs/MBtu. The burner has not been optimized for low NO{sub x} yet, however, due to the short furnace residence time, meeting the goals of 98% CCE and <0.6 Lbs/MBtu NO{sub x} simultaneously will be difficult. Testing on 100% natural gas in the boiler after coal firing indicated no changes in efficiency due to firing in a `dirty` boiler. The co-firing tests showed that increased levels of natural gas firing proportionately decreased NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and CO.

  4. Operational Performance Evaluation of Boiler 9 at the TAMU Power Plant at College Station, Submitted to the Power Plant of Texas A&M University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Veteto, B.; Liu, M.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    %. The measured gas consumption from Westinghouse agreed with the predicted value. It appears that the gas meter are now operating properly after the calibration. The actual air flow rate was 10 times higher than the meter measured data. The predicted steam..., and O2 level. These data were also recorded by the Westinghouse control system. To Stack - Figure 1 : Systematic Diagram of Boiler 9 Bad on the measured steam flow rate, the monthly average load ratio varied from 10% to 80%. Figure 2 presents...

  5. Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #24 (Fact Sheet), Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUE 08:59 FAX 423DepartmentUpgrade Boilers with4

  6. Pilot-scale boiler study of sulfur hexafluoride and emissions of CO, CO sub 2 , O sub 2 , and unburned hydrocarbons as surrogates for verification of hazardous waste destruction removal efficiency. Final report, October 1986-June 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proctor, C.L.; Fournier, D.L.; Hopmeier, M.; Roychoudhury, S.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as a tracer and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and unburned hydrocarbons as surrogates for verification of hazardous-waste destruction removal efficiency (DRE) is discussed. These measurements were made in a pilot-scale firetube boiler facility and in a natural gas fired steam plant boiler. The data indicates that toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and isopropanol are well-suited for destruction in a firetube boiler environment. Trichloroethylene and monochlorobenzene required auxillary fuel to maintain stable combustion. SF6 DRE was significantly lower than waste DREs for all runs. It also tracked waste DREs in most runs. Reduced waste and SF6 DREs were accompanied by lower emissions of CO{sub 2} and by increased emissions of O{sub 2} and total unburned hydrocarbons (TUHC). DREs tended to fall with increased CO concentration depicted by a few data points.

  7. Toxecon Retrofit for Mercury and Mulit-Pollutant Control on Three 90-MW Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Derenne; Robin Stewart

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) project was based on a cooperative agreement between We Energies and the DOE Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to design, install, evaluate, and demonstrate the EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} air pollution control process. Project partners included Cummins & Barnard, ADA-ES, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The primary goal of this project was to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Michigan. Additional goals were to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter emissions; allow reuse and sale of fly ash; advance commercialization of the technology; demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use at power plants; and demonstrate recovery of mercury from the sorbent. Mercury was controlled by injection of activated carbon upstream of the TOXECON{trademark} baghouse, which achieved more than 90% removal on average over a 44-month period. During a two-week test involving trona injection, SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by 70%, although no coincident removal of NOx was achieved. The TOXECON{trademark} baghouse also provided enhanced particulate control, particularly during startup of the boilers. On this project, mercury CEMs were developed and tested in collaboration with Thermo Fisher Scientific, resulting in a reliable CEM that could be used in the power plant environment and that could measure mercury as low as 0.1 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Sorbents were injected downstream of the primary particulate collection device, allowing for continued sale and beneficial use of captured fly ash. Two methods for recovering mercury using thermal desorption on the TOXECON{trademark} PAC/ash mixture were successfully tested during this program. Two methods for using the TOXECON{trademark} PAC/ash mixture in structural concrete were also successfully developed and tested. This project demonstrated a significant reduction in the rate of emissions from Presque Isle Units 7, 8, and 9, and substantial progress toward establishing the design criteria for one of the most promising mercury control retrofit technologies currently available. The Levelized Cost for 90% mercury removal at this site was calculated at $77,031 per pound of mercury removed with a capital cost of $63,189 per pound of mercury removed. Mercury removal at the Presque Isle Power Plant averages approximately 97 pounds per year.

  8. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  9. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume E. Evaluation of fabric filter for particulate emission control. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three types of Solvent Refined Coal Fuels namely, Pulverized SRC Fuel Solids, SRC Residual Fuel Oil and SRC Fuel Water Slurry were fired, one at a time, in a 700 HP boiler designed for oil firing. The purpose was to demonstrate the suitability of SRC Fuels in serving as an alternative to fuel oil and to evaluate the feasibility of fabric filters for control of emissions from SRC fuel fired boilers. Two types of fabric filters, namely a Pulse Jet, full scale Baghouse and a Reverse Air, pilot scale filter were tested. The Pulse Jet Baghouse was an existing full scale unit with a cloth area of 1924 square feet and a gas flow capacity of approximately 10,000 ACFM at 400/sup 0/F. The Reverse Air Pilot Filter was a bench scale, portable unit with a cloth area of 1 square foot and a gas flow capacity of up to 6 ACFM at 400/sup 0/F. This report presents the results of particulate mass emission rates, operating conditions and performance of the two fabric filters. The particulate emissions from all fuel types were easily controlled to less than 0.01 lb/million Btu within normal and conventional working range of the fabric filters and with no special or restrictive operating conditions.

  10. A Comparison of Creep-Rupture Tested Cast Alloys HR282, IN740 and 263 for Possible Application in Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbine and Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, P D; Evens, N; Yamamoto, Y; Maziasz, P

    2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Cast forms of traditionally wrought Ni-base precipitation-strengthened superalloys are being considered for service in the ultra-supercritical conditions (760°C, 35MPa) of next-generation steam boilers and turbines. After casting and homogenization, these alloys were given heat-treatments typical for each in the wrought condition to develop the gamma-prime phase. Specimens machined from castings were creep-rupture tested in air at 800°C. In their wrought forms, alloy 282 is expected to precipitate M23C6 within grain boundaries, alloy 740 is expected to precipitate several grain boundary phases including M23C6, G Phase, and ? phase, and alloy 263 has M23C6 and MC within its grain boundaries. This presentation will correlate the observed creep-life of these cast alloys with the microstructures developed during creep-rupture tests, with an emphasis on the phase identification and chemistry of precipitated grain boundary phases. The suitability of these cast forms of traditionally wrought alloys for turbine and boiler components will also be discussed.

  11. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology program: Evaluation of gas reburning and low-NO sub x burners on a wall-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report briefly describes the Gas Reburning and Low-NO{sub x} Burners technology which is a low-cost technology that can be applied in both retrofit and new applications. This demonstration will be conducted on a utility boiler in Colorado at Cherokee Station {number sign}3; however, the technology is applicable to industrial boilers and other combustion systems. Although this technology is primarily a NO{sub x} reduction technology, some reductions in other emissions will take place. Since 15--20% of the coal is replaced with natural gas, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions are reduced commensurately. Also the lower carbon-to-hydrogen ratio of natural gas compared to coal reduces CO{sub 2} emissions. The formation of NO{sub x} is controlled by several factors: (1) the amount of nitrogen that is chemically bound in the fuel; (2) the flame temperature; (3) the residence time that combustion products remain at very high temperatures; and (4) the amount of excess oxygen available, especially at the hottest parts of the flame. Decreasing any of these parameters, tends to reduce NO{sub x} formation. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Task 2: Boiler Corrosion,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, B. S. Covino, Jr., H.-S. Shim, K. Davis, D. A. Eden, M. White, and H. Ban

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For continued use of coal for power generation, there are needs to: –Improve efficiency –Decrease emissions (esp. CO2) –Use alternate fuels or fuel mixes

  13. UTILITIES -STOKER BOILER REPLACEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayfield, John

    HUGHESAVE COUNTRY CL UBBLVD GRAEBER ST BIG BLU ESTEMCOURT LI TTLE BLUESTEM COURT CO LLEGE MAPLE, WILLOW

  14. Boilers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in CarbonofBiotins Energia Jump to:BlackBluewatt Jump

  15. Applying Nonlinear Signal Analysis Technologies to Flame Scanner Signals to Improve Staging of Cyclone Boilers for NOx control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flynn, T. J. [Babcock and Wilcox Company, The; Bailey, R. T. [Babcock and Wilcox Company, The; Fuller, T. A. [Babcock and Wilcox Company, The; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Stallings, J. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Himes, R. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Bermke, R. [Alliant Energy

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyclone{trademark} boiler owners continue to drive down NO{sub x} emissions by increasingly sophisticated staging and air distribution schemes. For example, Alliant Energy has employed RMT's SmartBurn{reg_sign} technology, and Ameren UE has pioneered neural nets to reduce emissions. Over the last 11 years under sponsorship of EPRI, the team of ORNL and B&W has developed pulverized coal burner diagnostic technology by applying nonlinear signal analysis techniques to flame scanner signals. The team has extended the technology to cyclones to facilitate deeper staging of the cyclones to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Development projects were conducted at the Alliant Energy Edgewater Units 3 and 4, and Ameren UE Sioux Unit 1. Nonlinear analysis statistics were correlated to upsets in cyclone operation resulting from poor air distribution in the burner and barrel. The team demonstrated that the lighter and main flame scanners can be used to independently guide adjustments to the burner and barrel.

  16. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke

    2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, work focused on completing the biofuel characterization and the design of the conceptual fluidized bed system.

  17. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits

    2001-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, work focused on performing the design of the conceptual fluidized bed system and determining the system economics.

  18. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Curtis Jawdy

    2000-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal or coal refuse, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and Cofiring Alternatives. The major emphasis of work during this reporting period was to assess the types and quantities of potential feedstocks and collect samples of them for analysis. Approximately twenty different biomass, animal waste, and other wastes were collected and analyzed.

  19. 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABB CE's Low NOx Bulk Furnace Staging (LNBFS) System and Low NOx Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) are demonstrated in stepwise fashion. These systems incorporate the concept of advanced overfire air (AOFA), clustered coal nozzles, and offset air. A complete description of the installed technologies is provided in the following section. The primary objective of the Plant Lansing Smith demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology are also being performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  20. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3, Industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, R.L.; Borio, R. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G. [Pennsylvania State, PA (United States); McGowan, J.G. [Massachusetts Univ. (United States)

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to retrofit the previously developed High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. During this reporting period, activities included completing the ``Task 3 Topical Report.`` The report is being reviewed internally by the ABB CE project team. Overall, all the program goals were met except carbon conversion efficiency. Based on all the results obtained to date the ABB CE/Penn State team believes that conducting the 1000 hr demonstration (Task 5) is warranted. Since, Penn State has planned to conduct long term combustion tests on micronized coal and coal-water fuels for other DOE-funded Projects during the first quarter of 1995, the demonstration phase (Task 5) of the subject program is tentatively scheduled to begin in June 1995, pending DOE approval. Work continued under Task 4.0 to complete the ``Commercialization Plan`` with ABB CE`s cognizant Business Unit. To address the lower combustion efficiency than the original project goal (95% vs 98%) during Task 3, the data were evaluated in-detail to understand which of the key parameters might be adjusted to achieve the desired burnout. To identify reasons for this lower combustion efficiency, and to evaluate which of the key parameters (i.e, coal fineness, residence time, coal reactivities etc.) are important for maximizing the combustion efficiency, ABB CE`s proprietary mathematical model known as the Lower Furnace Program-Slice Kinetic Model (LFP-SKM) was used for simulating the combustion process in the Penn State boiler (at full load firing rate). Fuel kinetic information for this study was selected on a surrogate basis from ABB CE`s extensive in-house data base.

  1. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 11, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quotes} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: (1) NO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS. (2) SO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS. (3) Particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: (1) Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation. (2) Reduced air toxics emissions. (3) Increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a Commercial Generation Unit. The work in Phase I covered a 24-month period and included system analysis, RD&T Plan formulation, component definition, and preliminary Commercial Generating Unit (CGU) design. Phase II will cover a 15-month period and will include preliminary Proof-of-Concept Test Facility (POCTF) design and subsystem testing. Phase III will cover a 9-month period and will produce a revised CGU design and a revised POCTF design, cost estimate and a test plan. Phase IV, the final Phase, will cover a 36-month period and will include POCTF detailed design, construction, testing, and evaluation.

  2. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO[sub x] burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulatecharacteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, and LNB without AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO[sub x] emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu. Flyash LOI values for the LNB configuration are approximately 8 percent at full-load. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. Abbreviated diagnostic tests for the LNB+AOFA configuration indicate that at 500 MWe, NO[sub x] emissions are approximately 0.55 lb/MBtu with corresponding flyash LOI values of approximately 11 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO[sub x] emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing of the LNB+AOFA configuration will be performed when the stackparticulate emissions issue is resolved. Testing of a process optimization package on Plant Hammond Unit 4 was performed during this quarter. The software was configured to minimize NO[sub x] emissions using total combustion air flow and advanced overfire air distribution as the controlled parameters. Preliminary results from this testing indicate that this package shows promise in reducing NO[sub x] emissions while maintaining or improving other boiler performance parameters.

  3. Continuous Commissioning® of a Single Fan Dual Duct System in an Office Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, D.; Liu, M.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The building has a total of 216 dual duct independent terminal boxes with air flow stations. The boxes are used for both interior and exterior zones. Pneumatic controllers and actuators are installed. A dual-duct single fan AHU serves the building... the setting. OPTIMAL CONTROL SCHEDULES The control schedule optimization includes terminal boxes, AHU, chillers, and boilers. All the pneumatic controls for the AHU system, except box controllers, are updated to DDC controls before the optimal...

  4. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the project is to investigate the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance on Unit 2 at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith located near Lynn Haven, Florida. The project will characterize emissions and performance of a tangentially-fired boiler operating in the following configurations: Baseline as-found'' configuration: Phase 1; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 2 and simulated low NO{sub x} bulk furnace staging (LNBFS): Phase 2; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 3, Phase 3a and simulated LNCFS Level 1, Phase 3b.

  5. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Phase 1, Baseline tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the project is to investigate the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance on Unit 2 at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith located near Lynn Haven, Florida. The project will characterize emissions and performance of a tangentially-fired boiler operating in the following configurations: Baseline ``as-found`` configuration: Phase 1; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 2 and simulated low NO{sub x} bulk furnace staging (LNBFS): Phase 2; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 3, Phase 3a and simulated LNCFS Level 1, Phase 3b.

  6. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

  7. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, [October--December, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, tests of the LNCFS Level III system were conducted to determine the effect that fuel fineness has on NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels. Results showed that changing the fineness of the fuel has almost no effect on NOx emissions; however, unburned carbon levels can be reduced significantly by increasing fuel fineness.

  8. Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the heat flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.J.; Eddings, E.G.; Ring, T.; Thornock, J.; Draper, T.; Isaac, B.; Rezeai, D.; Toth, P.; Wu, Y.; Kelly, K.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this task is to produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers. Validation data came from the Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) for tangentially fired, oxy-coal operation. This task brings together experimental data collected under Alstom’s DOE project for measuring oxy-firing performance parameters in the BSF with this University of Utah project for large eddy simulation (LES) and validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ). The Utah work includes V/UQ with measurements in the single-burner facility where advanced strategies for O2 injection can be more easily controlled and data more easily obtained. Highlights of the work include: • Simulations of Alstom’s 15 megawatt (MW) BSF, exploring the uncertainty in thermal boundary conditions. A V/UQ analysis showed consistency between experimental results and simulation results, identifying uncertainty bounds on the quantities of interest for this system (Subtask 9.1) • A simulation study of the University of Utah’s oxy-fuel combustor (OFC) focused on heat flux (Subtask 9.2). A V/UQ analysis was used to show consistency between experimental and simulation results. • Measurement of heat flux and temperature with new optical diagnostic techniques and comparison with conventional measurements (Subtask 9.3). Various optical diagnostics systems were created to provide experimental data to the simulation team. The final configuration utilized a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) camera to measure heat flux and temperature, which was synchronized with a high-speed, visible camera to utilize two-color pyrometry to measure temperature and soot concentration. • Collection of heat flux and temperature measurements in the University of Utah’s OFC for use is subtasks 9.2 and 9.3 (Subtask 9.4). Several replicates were carried to better assess the experimental error. Experiments were specifically designed for the generation of high-fidelity data from a turbulent oxy-coal flame for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models. Experiments were also conducted on the OFC to determine heat flux profiles using advanced strategies for O2 injection. This is important when considering retrofit of advanced O2 injection in retrofit configurations.

  9. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase III, Industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report No. 14, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, R.L.; Borio, R. [ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, Windsor, CT (United States). U.S. Power Plant Labs.; Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., PA (United States); McGowan, J.G. [Massachusetts Univ., MA (United States)

    1995-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to retrofit the previously developed High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the fourteenth quarter (January `95 through March `95) of the program. The ABB project team met with cognizant DOE-PETC and Penn State personnel on February 15, 1995 at Penn State to discuss our ideas for a new burner (RSFC-based) to replace the HEACC burner prior to the long term ({approximately}1000 hrs) demonstration phase of this project. The main reasons for the proposed new burner were to improve combustion efficiencies and NO{sub x} reduction. Recent, experience at MIT with 5 million Btu/hr coal firing experiments on RSFC burner have shown remarkable performance. Results indicate that RSFC-based burner has the potential to produce lower NO{sub x} and higher carbon conversion efficiencies than the HEACC burner. M.I.T. developed the RSFC burner and obtained a patent for the concept. A decision was made to go with the new, RSFC-based burner during 1000 hr demonstration. ABB-CE will fund the costs ({approximately}$50K) for design/fabrication of the proposed new burner. Penn State plans to improve coal handling by installation of a gravimetric feeder and redesign/installation of a mass flow bottom on the surge bin.

  10. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor, Phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report No. 15, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to retrofit a burner capable of firing microfine coal to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the fifteenth quarter (April `95 through June `95) of the program. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1.0) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components. (2.0) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC (High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor) burner. (3.0) Installation and testing of a prototype HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application. (4.0) Economics evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. (5.0) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. Task 1 through Task 4 were previously completed. Based on all the results obtained to date the ABB/Penn State team and DOE/PETC have decided to conduct a 1000 hr demonstration test (Task 5). Importantly, a decision was made to employ a new burner for the demonstration. The new burner is based on the concept called {open_quotes}Radially Stratified Flame Core (RSFC){close_quotes}, developed by MIT and licensed by ABB. Work under Task 5 of this program was started during this reporting period.

  11. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUID BED BOILERS (Phase II--Evaluation of the Oxyfuel CFB Concept)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John L. Marion; Nsakala ya Nsakala

    2003-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall project goal is to determine if carbon dioxide can be captured and sequestered at a cost of about $10/ton of carbon avoided, using a newly constructed Circulating Fluidized Bed combustor while burning coal with a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, instead of air. This project is structured in two Phases. Phase I was performed between September 28, 2001 and May 15, 2002. Results from Phase I were documented in a Topical Report issued on May 15, 2003 (Nsakala, et al., 2003), with the recommendation to evaluate, during Phase II, the Oxyfuel-fired CFB concept. DOE NETL accepted this recommendation, and, hence approved the project continuation into Phase II. Phase 2. The second phase of the project--which includes pilot-scale tests of an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed test facility with performance and economic analyses--is currently underway at ALSTOM's Power Plant Laboratories, located in Windsor, CT (US). The objective of the pilot-scale testing is to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in oxygen/carbon dioxide mixtures. Results will be used in the design of oxygen-fired CFB boilers--both retrofit and new Greenfield--as well as to provide a generic performance database for other researchers. At the conclusion of Phase 2, revised costs and performance will be estimated for both retrofit and new Greenfield design concepts with CO2 capture, purification, compression, and liquefaction.

  12. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

  13. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical report, January 14, 1997--August 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schorr, B.S.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. Bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. Also, to deposit model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings, an electrodeposition technique was developed and coatings with various volume fractions (0-35%) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were produced. The powder and electrodeposition processing of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Composites provide the ability to produce two phase microstructure without changing the microstructure of the matrix material. Therefore, the effect of hard second phase particles size and volume fraction on erosion resistance could be analyzed.

  14. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electrical utilities. The results of this study will be used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate whether regulation of HAPs emissions from utilities is warranted. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling/Results/Special Topics describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data. The Special Topics section of Volume 1 reports on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/particle distributions of toxic chemicals. Volume 2: Appendices include field sampling data sheets, quality assurance results, and uncertainty calculations. The chemicals measured at Niles Boiler No. 2 were the following: five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); ammonia and cyanide; elemental carbon; radionuclides; volatile organic compounds (VOC); semivolatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and polychlorinated dioxins and furans; and aldehydes.

  15. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. Phase II subsystem test design and plan - an addendum to the Phase II RD & T Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. The plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further then regulations. In the late 1980`s it was commonly believed that coal-fired power plants of the future would incorporate either some form of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBS) technologies. However, recent advances In emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements In steam turbine and cycle design have clearly indicated that pulverized coal technology can continue to be competitive In both cost and performance. In recognition of the competitive potential for advanced pulverized coal-fired systems with other emerging advanced coal-fired technologies, DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research and development initiative In late 1990 named, Combustion 2000, with the intention of preserving and expanding coal as a principal fuel In the Generation of electrical power. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization, the nearer-term Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program, and for the future, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. B&W is participating In the LEBS program.

  16. Duct Leakage Modeling in EnergyPlus and Analysis of Energy Savings from Implementing SAV with InCITeTM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HeatingLoad, BoilerPlant Heat Supply, FAN-SCHED;HeatingLoad, BoilerPlant Heat Supply, BoilerPlant heating

  17. To: Regional Technical Forum Staff From: Zach Podell-Eberhardt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for this measure. o 40 hp boiler forced draft fan VFD: not eligible because boiler control contractors almost

  18. Evaluation of Gas Reburning & Low NOx Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler Performance and Economics Report Gas Reburning-Low NOx Burner System Cherokee Station Unit 3 Public Service Company of Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NOX reduction (70%) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was performed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado Bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NOX emission level of 0.73 lb/106 Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50%. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NOX in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NOX emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 18Y0. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18Y0. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18Y0. Toward the end of the program, a Second Generation gas injection system was installed. Higher injector gas pressures were used that eliminated the need for flue gas recirculation as used in the first generation design. The Second Generation GR resulted in similar NOX reduction performance as that for the First Generation. With an improvement in the LNB performance in combination with the new gas injection system , the reburn gas could be reduced to 12.5% of the total boiler heat input to achieve al 64?40 reduction in NO, emissions. In addition, the OFA injectors were modified to provide for better mixing to lower CO emissions.

  19. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly technical progress report 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  1. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO[sub x] to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO[sub 2] and SO[sub 3] and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  2. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

  3. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

  4. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO{sub x} emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO{sub x} emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO{sub x} combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

  5. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO[sub x] emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO[sub x] emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO[sub x] combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

  6. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  7. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet), Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO OverviewAttachments Energy RatingsDepartmentRevs BatteriesWashingtonOFFICEHomes:AirBoiler

  8. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  9. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 4, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  10. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) system followed by Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  11. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) system followed by Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  12. Predictive modelling of boiler fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As this study incorporates in a general framework, appropriate modules to model condensable species transport to the surface along with particles, the need for a suitable solver for the reaction component of the species equations with regard to issues of stability, stiffness, economy, etc. becomes obvious. It is generally agreed in the literature that the major problem associated with the simultaneous integration of large sets of chemical kinetic rate equations is that of stiffness. Although stiffness does not have a simple definition, it is characterized by widely varying time constants. For example, in hydrogen-air combustion, the induction time is of the order of microseconds whereas the nitric oxide formation time is of the order of milliseconds. These widely different time constants present classical methods (such as the popular explicit Runge-Kutta method) with the following difficulty: to ensure stability of the numerical solution, these methods are restricted to using very short time steps that are determined by the smallest time constant. However, the time for all chemical species to reach near-equilibrium values is determined by the longest time constant. As a result, classical methods require excessive amounts of computer time to solve stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODE's). Several approaches for the solution of stiff ODE's have been proposed. Of all these techniques, the general purpose codes EPISODE and LSODE are regarded as the best available packaged'' codes for the solution of stiff systems of ODE'S. However, although these codes may be the best available for solving an arbitrary systems ODE'S, it may be possible to construct superior methods for solving a particular system of ODE's governing the behavior of a specific problem. In this view, an exponentially fitted method, CREK1D, deserves a special mention and is described briefly.

  13. Regenerative Boiler Feedwater Heater Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    O- REFEREWCE (,\\SI:: J CURRENT CASE I CHANGE INCR or DEeR 7JTAL FUEL M 10?E. BTU/HR 842.44 827. 9~ -14.50 .i) .. ft!::.::r COUPLED SHAFT P()I,oIER 8HP 4700 4700 0 TuTAl ELECTRICAL GENERATION 8AC... PRESSURE TURBINES CONDENSING TURBI HES 5TE...

  14. CHP Integrated with Packaged Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Carlo Castaldini, President, CMCE, Inc. carlo@cmc-engineering.com 408-314-0382 U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting Washington, D.C. June 1-2, 2011 ALTEX...

  15. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures. Firing rates in the pilot test facility ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 MM-Btu/hr. Pilot-scale testing was performed at ALSTOM's Multi-use Test Facility (MTF), located in Windsor, Connecticut.

  16. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Public design report (preliminary and final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Public Design Report presents the design criteria of a DOE Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 (500 MW) near Rome, Georgia. The technologies being demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NO{sub x} burner. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NO{sub x} burners, advanced overfire systems, and digital control system.

  17. 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report second quarter, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ABB CE`s Low NOx Bulk Furnace Staging (LNBFS) System and Low NOx Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) are demonstrated in stepwise fashion. These systems incorporate the concept of advanced overfire air (AOFA), clustered coal nozzles, and offset air. A complete description of the installed technologies is provided in the following section. The primary objective of the Plant Lansing Smith demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology are also being performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  18. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  19. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly progress report, 1992: Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulatecharacteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, and LNB without AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO{sub x} emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu. Flyash LOI values for the LNB configuration are approximately 8 percent at full-load. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. Abbreviated diagnostic tests for the LNB+AOFA configuration indicate that at 500 MWe, NO{sub x} emissions are approximately 0.55 lb/MBtu with corresponding flyash LOI values of approximately 11 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO{sub x} emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing of the LNB+AOFA configuration will be performed when the stackparticulate emissions issue is resolved. Testing of a process optimization package on Plant Hammond Unit 4 was performed during this quarter. The software was configured to minimize NO{sub x} emissions using total combustion air flow and advanced overfire air distribution as the controlled parameters. Preliminary results from this testing indicate that this package shows promise in reducing NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining or improving other boiler performance parameters.

  20. PARTICULATE CHARACTERIZATION AND ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNER FOR THE CONTROL OF NO{sub x} AND PM{sub 2.5} FOR COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ralph Bailey; Hamid Sarv; Jim Warchol; Debi Yurchison

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the serious challenge facing coal-fired electric utilities with regards to curbing their NO{sub x} and fine particulate emissions, Babcock and Wilcox and McDermott Technology, Inc. conducted a project entitled, ''Particulate Characterization and Ultra Low-NO{sub x} Burner for the Control of NO{sub x} and PM{sub 2.5} for Coal Fired Boilers.'' The project included pilot-scale demonstration and characterization of technologies for removal of NO{sub x} and primary PM{sub 2.5} emissions. Burner development and PM{sub 2.5} characterization efforts were based on utilizing innovative concepts in combination with sound scientific and fundamental engineering principles and a state-of-the-art test facility. Approximately 1540 metric tonnes (1700 tons) of high-volatile Ohio bituminous coal were fired. Particulate sampling for PM{sub 2.5} emissions characterization was conducted in conjunction with burner testing. Based on modeling recommendations, a prototype ultra low-NO{sub x} burner was fabricated and tested at 100 million Btu/hr in the Babcock and Wilcox Clean Environment Development Facility. Firing the unstaged burner with a high-volatile bituminous Pittsburgh 8 coal at 100 million Btu/hr and 17% excess air achieved a NO{sub x} goal of 0.20 lb NO{sub 2}/million Btu with a fly ash loss on ignition (LOI) of 3.19% and burner pressure drop of 4.7 in H{sub 2}O for staged combustion. With the burner stoichiometry set at 0.88 and the overall combustion stoichiometry at 1.17, average NO{sub x} and LOI values were 0.14 lb NO{sub 2}/million Btu and 4.64% respectively. The burner was also tested with a high-volatile Mahoning 7 coal. Based on the results of this work, commercial demonstration is being pursued. Size classified fly ash samples representative of commercial low-NO{sub x} and ultra low-NO{sub x} combustion of Pittsburgh 8 coal were collected at the inlet and outlet of an ESP. The mass of size classified fly ash at the ESP outlet was sufficient to evaluate the particle size distribution, but was of insufficient size to permit reliable chemical analysis. The size classified fly ash from the inlet of the ESP was used for detailed chemical analyses. Chemical analyses of the fly ash samples from the ESP outlet using a high volume sampler were performed for comparison to the size classified results at the inlet. For all test conditions the particulate removal efficiency of the ESP exceeded 99.3% and emissions were less than the NSPS limits of {approx}48 mg/dscm. With constant combustion conditions, the removal efficiency of the ESP increased as the ESP voltage and Specific Collection Area (SCA) increased. The associated decrease in particle emissions occurred in size fractions both larger and smaller than 2.5 microns. For constant ESP voltage and SCA, the removal efficiency for the ultra low-NO{sub x} combustion ash (99.4-99.6%) was only slightly less than for the low-NO{sub x} combustion ash (99.7%). The decrease in removal efficiency was accompanied by a decrease in ESP current. The emission of PM{sub 2.5} from the ESP did not change significantly as a result of the change in combustion conditions. Most of the increase in emissions was in the size fraction greater than 2.5 microns, indicating particle re-entrainment. These results may be specific to the coal tested in this program. In general, the concentration of inorganic elements and trace species in the fly ash at the ESP inlet was dependent on the particle size fraction. The smallest particles tended to have higher concentrations of inorganic elements/trace species than larger particles. The concentration of most elements by particle size range was independent of combustion condition and the concentration of soluble ions in the fly ash showed little change with combustion condition when evaluated on a carbon free basis.