Sample records for boiler types combustion

  1. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on boiler combustion efficiency provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  2. Why the Accuracy of Analytical Instrumentation Affects Boiler Combustion Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFadden, R. W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion trim control systems are utilized to maximize the combustion efficiency of a boiler. The type and cost of a fuel, as well as the size of a boiler, should be considered when selecting the type of combustion trim control system...

  3. Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farbstein, S. B.; Moreland, T.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project to build a PYROFLOW circulating fluidized bed combustion (FBC) boiler at the BFGoodrich Chemical Plant at Henry, Illinois, is described. This project is being partially funded by Illinois to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing high...

  4. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Kazakh National University, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan). Dept. of Physics

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  5. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

  6. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

  7. Improved Combustion Efficiencies - Control Systems for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varma, A. C.; Prengle, H. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study of the importance and applications of modern combustion control systems for retrofitting existing boilers and heaters to increase combustion efficiency. Conventional heater control and its deficiencies...

  8. Simulation of Combustion and Thermal Flow in an Industrial Boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saripalli, R.; Wang, T.; Day, B.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    insight into the detailed thermal-flow and combustion in the boiler and showing possible reasons for superheater tube rupture. The exhaust gas temperature is consistent with the actual results from the infrared thermograph inspection....

  9. Application of Boiler Op for combustion optimization at PEPCO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maines, P.; Williams, S. [Potomac Electric Power Co., Upper Marlsboro, MD (United States); Levy, E. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title IV requires the reduction of NOx at all stations within the PEPCO system. To assist PEPCO plant personnel in achieving low heat rates while meeting NOx targets, Lehigh University`s Energy Research Center and PEPCO developed a new combustion optimization software package called Boiler Op. The Boiler Op code contains an expert system, neural networks and an optimization algorithm. The expert system guides the plant engineer through a series of parametric boiler tests, required for the development of a comprehensive boiler database. The data are then analyzed by the neural networks and optimization algorithm to provide results on the boiler control settings which result in the best possible heat rate at a target NOx level or produce minimum NOx. Boiler Op has been used at both Potomac River and Morgantown Stations to help PEPCO engineers optimize combustion. With the use of Boiler Op, Morgantown Station operates under low NOx restrictions and continues to achieve record heat rate values, similar to pre-retrofit conditions. Potomac River Station achieves the regulatory NOx limit through the use of Boiler Op recommended control settings and without NOx burners. Importantly, any software like Boiler Op cannot be used alone. Its application must be in concert with human intelligence to ensure unit safety, reliability and accurate data collection.

  10. Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taler, J.; Taler, D. [Cracow University of Technology, Krakow (Poland)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

  11. Combustion of waste fuels in a fluidized-bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zylkowski, J.; Ehrlich, S.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on a project whose objectives are to determine the impact of the waste fuels on Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) operating procedures, boiler performance, and emissions and to assess the potential for fuel-specific operating problems. The low-grade waste fuels investigated are hogged railroad ties, shredded rubber tires, peat, refuse-derived fuel, and one or more agricultiral wastes. The Northern States Power (NSP) Company converted their French Island Unit No. 2 stoker-fired boiler to a fluidized-bed combustor designed to burn wood waste. NSP and EPRI are investigating cofiring other waste fuels with wood waste. Topics considered include fluidized-bed boiler conversion, fuel resources, economic justification, environmental considerations, the wood-handling system, an auxiliary fuel system, the air quality control system, ash handling and disposal, and the alternate fuels test program.

  12. NOx EMISSIONS PRODUCED WITH COMBUSTION OF POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL IN A UTILITY BOILER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John S. Nordin; Norman W. Merriam

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to estimate the NOx emissions produced when Powder River Basin (PRB) coal is combusted in a utility boiler. The Clean Air Act regulations specify NOx limits of 0.45 lb/mm Btu (Phase I) and 0.40 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for tangentially fired boilers, and 0.50 lb/mm 13tu (Phase II) and 0.46 lb/mm Btu (Phase II) for dry-bottom wall-fired boilers. The Clean Air Act regulations also specify other limits for other boiler types. Compliance for Phase I has been in effect since January 1, 1996. Compliance for Phase II goes into effect on January 1, 2000. Emission limits are expressed as equivalent NO{sub 2} even though NO (and sometimes N{sub 2}O) is the NOx species emitted during combustion. Regulatory agencies usually set even lower NOx emission limits in ozone nonattainment areas. In preparing this report, Western Research Institute (WRI) used published test results from utilities burning various coals, including PRB coal, using state-of-the art control technology for minimizing NOx emissions. Many utilities can meet Clean Air Act NOx emission limits using a combination of tight combustion control and low-NOx burners and by keeping furnaces clean (i.e., no slag buildup). In meeting these limits, some utilities also report problems such as increased carbon in their fly ash and excessive furnace tube corrosion. This report discusses utility experience. The theory of NOx emission formation during coal combustion as related to coal structure and how the coal is combusted is also discussed. From this understanding, projections are made for NOx emissions when processed PRB coal is combusted in a test similar to that done with other coals. As will be shown, there are a lot of conditions for achieving low NOx emissions, such as tight combustion control and frequent waterlancing of the furnace to avoid buildup of deposits.

  13. Continuous Measurement of Carbon Monoxide Improves Combustion Efficiency of CO Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilmour, W. A.; Pregler, D. N.; Branham, R. L.; Prichard, J. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the application of in-situ flue gas CO measurement in the operation of CO Boilers and details the steps needed to optimize combustion efficiency....

  14. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Topical Report outlines guidelines and key considerations for design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers for oxy-combustion. The scope addressed includes only the boiler island, not the entire oxy-fired CO{sub 2} capture plant. These guidelines are primarily developed for tangential-fired boilers and focus on designs capable of dual air and oxy-fired operation. The guidelines and considerations discussed are applicable to both new units and existing boiler retrofits. These guidelines are largely based on the findings from the extensive 15 MW{sub th} pilot testing and design efforts conducted under this project. A summary level description is provided for each major aspect of boiler design impacted by oxy-combustion, and key considerations are discussed for broader application to different utility and industrial designs. Guidelines address the boiler system arrangement, firing system, boiler thermal design, ducting, materials, control system, and other key systems.

  15. Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldajani, Mansour A.

    Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler M.A. Habib a,*, M; accepted 14 April 2007 Available online 24 June 2007 Abstract NOx formation during the combustion process occurs mainly through the oxidation of nitrogen in the combustion air (thermal NOx) and through oxidation

  16. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to conduct laboratory experiments to clarify the mechanism of boiler corrosion, which may lead to solving the corrosion problem associated with the utilization of Illinois' high-sulfur and high-chlorine coal. The kinetics of the release of sulfur and chlorine species during coal combustion is being determined in the laboratories using temperature-programmed pyrolysis coupled with quadrupole gas analysis (QGA) and thermogravimetric analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Samples of boiler deposits and ashes from different locations in boilers using Illinois coal will be analyzed for mineralogical and chemical compositions to understand the relations among deposit compositions, coal compositions, and the gaseous species in combustion gases. The relationship between the level of chlorine in Illinois coal and boiler corrosion will be studied by experiments with simulated combustion gases under combustion conditions. Reduction of sulfur and chloride concentrations in the flue gas using additives will also be evaluated.

  17. automated boiler combustion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and 0.5 % oxygen in the flue gas. The reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO,) emissions from steam boilers has been under study for several years. The NO, from boilers consist almost...

  18. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Techology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: • Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs. • Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). • Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools. • Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems. • Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost. • Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project completion date was April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of fuels, oxyprocess variables and boiler design parameters. Significant improvement of CFD modeling tools and validation against 15 MWth experimental data has been completed. Oxy-boiler demonstration and large reference designs have been developed, supported with the information and knowledge gained from the 15 MWth testing. The results from the 15 MWth testing in the BSF and complimentary bench-scale testing are addressed in this volume (Volume II) of the final report. The results of the modeling efforts (Volume III) and the oxy boiler design efforts (Volume IV) are reported in separate volumes.

  19. Task 2: Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcolm, Gordon R.; McGhee, Barry

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the tasks for the project: Characterize advanced boiler (oxy-fuel combustion, biomass co-fired) gas compositions and ash deposits; Generate critical data on the effects of environmental conditions; develop a unified test method with a view to future standardization; Generate critical data for coating systems for use in advanced boiler systems; Generate critical data for flue gas recycle piping materials for oxy-fuel systems; and, Compile materials performance data from laboratory and pilot plant exposures of candidate alloys for use in advanced boiler systems.

  20. Improved Recovery Boiler Performance Through Control of Combustion, Sulfur, and Alkali Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L.

    2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involved the following objectives: 1. Determine black liquor drying and devolatilization elemental and total mass release rates and yields. 2. Develop a public domain physical/chemical kinetic model of black liquor drop combustion, including new information on drying and devolatilization. 3. Determine mechanisms and rates of sulfur scavenging in recover boilers. 4. Develop non-ideal, public-domain thermochemistry models for alkali salts appropriate for recovery boilers 5. Develop data and a one-dimensional model of a char bed in a recovery boiler. 6. Implement all of the above in comprehensive combustion code and validate effects on boiler performance. 7. Perform gasification modeling in support of INEL and commercial customers. The major accomplishments of this project corresponding to these objectives are as follows: 1. Original data for black liquor and biomass data demonstrate dependencies of particle reactions on particle size, liquor type, gas temperature, and gas composition. A comprehensive particle submodel and corresponding data developed during this project predicts particle drying (including both free and chemisorbed moisture), devolatilization, heterogeneous char oxidation, char-smelt reactions, and smelt oxidation. Data and model predictions agree, without adjustment of parameters, within their respective errors. The work performed under these tasks substantially exceeded the original objectives. 2. A separate model for sulfur scavenging and fume formation in a recovery boiler demonstrated strong dependence on both in-boiler mixing and chemistry. In particular, accurate fume particle size predictions, as determined from both laboratory and field measurements, depend on gas mixing effects in the boilers that lead to substantial particle agglomeration. Sulfur scavenging was quantitatively predicted while particle size required one empirical mixing factor to match data. 3. Condensed-phase thermochemistry algorithms were developed for salt mixtures and compared with sodium-based binary and higher order systems. Predictions and measurements were demonstrated for both salt systems and for some more complex silicate-bearing systems, substantially exceeding the original scope of this work. 4. A multi-dimensional model of char bed reactivity developed under this project demonstrated that essentially all reactions in char beds occur on or near the surface, with the internal portions of the bed being essentially inert. The model predicted composition, temperature, and velocity profiles in the bed and showed that air jet penetration is limited to the immediate vicinity of the char bed, with minimal impact on most of the bed. The modeling efforts substantially exceeded the original scope of this project. 5. Near the completion of this project, DOE withdrew the BYU portion of a multiparty agreement to complete this and additional work with no advanced warning, which compromised the integration of all of this material into a commercial computer code. However, substantial computer simulations of much of this work were initiated, but not completed. 6. The gasification modeling is nearly completed but was aborted near its completion according to a DOE redirection of funds. This affected both this and the previous tasks.

  1. Development of Cost Effective Oxy-Combustion Retrofitting for Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to further develop the oxy-combustion technology for commercial retrofit in existing wall-fired and Cyclone boilers by 2012. To meet this goal, a research project was conducted that included pilot-scale testing and a full-scale engineering and economic analysis.

  2. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  3. Improved Combustion Efficiencies - Control Systems for Process Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varma, A. C.; Prengle, H. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Houston, TX, April 22-25, 1979 TABLE 2 - BAILEY BOILER CONTROL SYSTEMS: FUEL SAVINGS &PAYOUT[4] Control System Estimated Installation Cost(l)($) Fuel Demand F(M BTU/hr) Fuel Savings p (%) Savings S ($/yr) First Year Savings Sl ($/yr...

  4. Low emission U-fired boiler combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ake, Terence (North Brookfield, MA); Beittel, Roderick (Worcester, MA); Lisauskas, Robert A. (Shrewsbury, MA); Reicker, Eric (Barre, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At least one main combustion chamber contains at least one pulverized coal burner. Each pulverized coal burner is operatively arranged for minimizing NO.sub.X production and for maintaining a predetermined operating temperature to liquefy ash within the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber includes a slag drain for removing slag from the combustion chamber. A slag screen is positioned in a generally U-shaped furnace flow pattern. The slag screen is positioned between the combustion chamber and a radiant furnace. The radiant furnace includes a reburning zone for in-furnace No.sub.X reduction. The reburning zone extends between a reburning fuel injection source and at least one overfire air injection port for injecting air.

  5. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4) Assessment of oxy-combustion impacts in two full-scale coal-fired utility boiler retrofits based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air-fired and oxygen-fired operation. This research determined that it is technically feasible to retrofit the combustion system in an air-fired boiler for oxy-fired operation. The impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) were minimal, with the exception of high sulfur levels resulting from untreated flue gas recycle with medium and high-sulfur coals. This work focused on combustion in the radiant and convective sections of the boiler and did not address boiler system integration issues, plant efficiencies, impacts on downstream air pollution control devices, or CO{sub 2} capture and compression. The experimental data, oxy-firing system principles and oxy-combustion process mechanisms provided by this work can be used by electric utilities, boiler OEMs, equipment suppliers, design firms, software vendors, consultants and government agencies to assess retrofit applications of oxy-combustion technologies to existing boilers and to guide development of new designs.

  6. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. Technical report, September 1--November 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to conduct laboratory experiments to clarify the mechanism of boiler corrosion, which may lead to solving the corrosion problem associated with the utilization of Illinois` high-sulfur and high-chlorine coal. The kinetics of the release of sulfur and chlorine species during coal combustion is being determined in the laboratories using temperature-programmed pyrolysis coupled with quadrupole gas analysis (QGA) and thermogravimetric analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Samples of boiler deposits and ashes from different locations in boilers using Illinois coal will be analyzed for mineralogical and chemical compositions to understand the relations among deposit compositions, coal compositions, and the gaseous species in combustion gases. The relationship between the level of chlorine in Illinois coal and boiler corrosion will be studied by experiments with simulated combustion gases under combustion conditions. Reduction of sulfur and chloride concentrations in the flue gas using additives will also be evaluated.

  7. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in coal-fired boilers resulting from the coexistence of sulfur and chlorine in the fuel. A new corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfidation Corrosion Mechanism,” has been proposed to account for the accelerated corrosion wastage observed on the furnace walls of utility boilers burning coals containing sulfur and chlorine. In addition, a second corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfide-to-Oxide Corrosion Mechanism,” has been identified to account for the rapid corrosion attack on superheaters and reheaters. Both of the newly discovered corrosion mechanisms involve the formation of iron chloride (FeCl2) vapor from iron sulfide (FeS) and HCl, followed by the decomposition of FeCl2 via self-sustaining cycling reactions. For higher alloys containing sufficient chromium, the attack on superheaters and reheaters is dominated by Hot Corrosion in the presence of a fused salt. Furthermore, two stages of the hot corrosion mechanism have been identified and characterized in detail. The initiation of hot corrosion attack induced by molten sulfate leads to Stage 1 “acidic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the protective scale formed initially on the deposit-covered alloy surfaces. Once the protective scale is penetrated, Stage 2 Hot Corrosion is initiated, which is dominated by “basic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the scale in the fused salt. Based on the extensive corrosion information generated from this project, corrosion modeling was performed using non-linear regression analysis. As a result of the modeling efforts, two predictive equations have been formulated, one for furnace walls and the other for superheaters and reheaters. These first-of-the-kind equations can be used to estimate the corrosion rates of boiler tubes based on coal chemistry, alloy compositions, and boiler operating conditions for advanced boiler systems.

  8. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  9. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

  10. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of fuels, oxy-process variables and boiler design parameters. Significant improvement of CFD modeling tools and validation against 15 MWth experimental data has been completed. Oxy-boiler demonstration and large reference designs have been developed, supported with the information and knowledge gained from the 15 MWth testing. This report addresses the results from the 15 MWth testing in the BSF.

  11. Design and operation of a coal-washery sludge fired 75 t/h steam fluidized bed combustion boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, X.; Chi, Y.; Yan, J. [and others

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based upon the coal-washery sludge fluidized bed agglomerating combustion technology developed by Zhejiang University and the design and operation experience accumulated from the 35 t/h stream fluidized bed boilers, a coal-washery sludge fired 75 t/h steam circulating fluidized bed boiler (12 MWe) for cogeneration application was designed. The design features of the boiler can be summarized as follows: (1) Combination of solid particle impact separator (in furnace circulation) and moderate temperature ({approximately}500 C) uniflow cyclone; (2) Low solid circulation rate; (3) Loop-seal for solid particle recirculation; (4) Air duct oil burner for boiler start-up; and (5) Coal-Washery sludge firing or co-firing of coal-washery sludge and coal. The boiler is installed at Dongtan Coal Mine Cogeneration Plant in Shandong Province of China. The daily disposal capacity of coal-washery sludge is over 300 tons. The first trial operation of the boiler was on Dec. 18, 1997. The cogeneration plant has been in commercial operation since May 1998. This boiler is the largest capacity boiler to dispose of coal-washery sludge in China. The successful operation of this boiler has sped up the commercialization process of the coal-washery sludge fluidized bed combustion technology.

  12. National Dioxin Study Tier 4 - combustion sources: final test report - Site 8, Black-liquor boiler BLB-C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamgochian, C.L.; Keller, L.E.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a dioxin/furan emissions test of a black-liquor recovery boiler equipped with a drybottom electrostatic precipitator for particulate emissions control. Black-liquor recovery boilers are used at kraft pulp mills to produce process steam and to reclaim inorganic chemicals from spent wood pulping liquors. The dioxin/furan emissions test was conducted under Tier 4 of the National Dioxin Study. The primary objective of Tier 4 is to determine if various combustion sources are sources of dioxin and/or furan emissions. If any of the combustion sources are found to emit dioxin or furan, the secondary objective of Tier 4 is to quantify these emissions. Black-liquor recovery boilers are one of 8 combustion-source categories that have been tested in the Tier 4 program. The tested black-liquor boiler, BLB-C, was selected for the test after an initial information screening and a one-day pretest survey visit. Boiler BLB-C is considered representative of black-liquor recovery boilers with dry-bottom electrostatic precipitators. The amount of chloride present in the black-liquor circuit at this site is considered intermediate to high relative to that found at other kraft pulp mills. Data presented in the report include dioxin (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDD) and furan (tetra through octa homologue +2378 TCDF) results for both stack samples and ash samples. In addition, process data collected during sampling are also presented.

  13. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 5 (Appendix V)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 5 contains model validation simulations and comparison with data.

  14. Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 5: Appendix V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

  15. Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 4: Appendix IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

  16. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes Year 1 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Through the course of Year 1 activities, great progress was made toward understanding the issues associated with oxy-combustion retrofit of coal-fired boilers. All four Year 1 milestones and objectives have been, or will be, completed on schedule and within budget. Progress in the four milestone areas may be summarized as follows: • University of Utah has performed size segregated ash composition measurements in the Oxy-Fuel Combustor (OFC). These experiments indicate that oxy-combustion retrofit may impact ash aerosol mineral matter composition. Both flame temperature and flue gas composition have been observed to influence the concentration of calcium, magnesium and iron in the fine particulate. This could in turn impact boiler fouling and slagging. • Sandia National Labs has shown that char oxidation rate is dependent on particle size (for sizes between 60 and 100 microns) by performing fundamental simulations of reacting char particles. These predictions will be verified by making time-resolved optical measurements of char particle temperature, velocity and size in bench-scale experiments before the end of Year 1. • REI and Siemens have completed the design of an oxy-research burner that will be mounted on University of Utah’s pilot-scale furnace, the L1500. This burner will accommodate a wide range of O2, FGR and mixing strategies under conditions relevant for utility boiler operation. Through CFD modeling of the different burner designs, it was determined that the key factor influencing flame stabilization location is particle heat-up rate. The new oxy-research burner and associated equipment is scheduled for delivery before the end of Year 1. • REI has completed a literature survey of slagging and fouling mechanisms in coal-fired power plants to understand key issues influencing these deposition regimes and infer their behavior under oxy-fired conditions. Based on the results of this survey, an algorithm for integrating slagging predictions into CFD models was outlined. This method accounts for ash formation, particle impaction and sticking, deposit growth and physical properties and impact of the deposit on system flow and heat transfer. A model for fouling in the back pass has also been identified which includes vaporization of sodium, deposition of sodium sulfate on fly ash particles and tube surfaces, and deposit growth rate on tubes. In Year 1, REI has also performed a review of the literature describing corrosion in order to understand the behavior of oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation, and carburization mechanisms in air-fired and oxy-combustion systems. REI and Vattenfall have met and exchanged information concerning oxy-coal combustion mechanisms for CFD simulations currently used by Vattenfall. In preparation for Year 2 of this program, two coals (North Antelope PRB, Western bituminous) have been ordered, pulverized and delivered to the University of Utah and Sandia National Labs. Materials for the corrosion experiments have been identified, suppliers located, and a schedule for equipment fabrication and shakedown has been established. Finally, a flue gas recycle system has been designed and is being constructed for the OFC.

  17. Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

    2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated the ability to improve control of an olefins furnace (via CO-trim) that resulted in significant energy savings and lower emissions such as NOx and other greenhouse gases. The cost to retrofit measurements on an existing olefins furnace was found to be very attractive, with an estimated payback achieved in 4 months or less.

  18. Energy Conservation for Boiler Water Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beardsley, M. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chamber itself must be large enough to insure complete combustion. Otherwise, the gases will contact cooler furnace areas and the flame will be quenched. Many types of boiler control instruments are now available to help control fuel preheat...

  19. Use of fluidized bed coal combustion techniques to study efficiency, emission reduction, boiler effects, and waste utilization: Final report, July 1, 1985-February 28, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesketh, H.E.; Rajan, S.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study program, funded by the US Department of Energy through the Southern Illinois University Coal Research Center's Coal Technology Laboratory, was conducted during the period from July 1984 through February 1986. Two lines of testing were carried out simultaneously. One consisted of using a laboratory-scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) to acquire thermodynamic data and operating characteristics for Illinois coal combustion. The other included acquisition, installation, shakedown, and operation of a large one million Btu/h pilot-scale AFBC (plus boiler and associated instrumentation). Both programs were to study Illinois reference and gob (waste) type coals.

  20. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 3 (Appendices II, sections 2--3 and III)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 3 contains the following appendix sections: Formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides in recovery boilers; Sintering and densification of recovery boiler deposits laboratory data and a rate model; and Experimental data on rates of particulate formation during char bed burning.

  1. Alkali salt ash formation during black liquor combustion at kraft recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikkanen, P. Kauppinen, E.I.; Pyykoenen, J.; Jokiniemi, J.K. [VTT (Finland); Maekinen, M. [Finnish Meterological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recovery boiler is an essential part of paper pulping process, where waste sludge called black liquor is burned for chemical recovery and energy production. This study was carried out at an operating industrial recovery boiler in Finland. Measurement of aerosol particles was carried out at bullnose level of furnace, at boiler exit, and at outlet of electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Aerosol mass size distributions in size range 0.02--50 {micro}m were measured with Berner type low pressure impactor (BLPI) operated with precyclone. BLPI samples were further analyzed with ion chromatography for water soluble Na, K, SO{sub 4}, and Cl. Particle morphology was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Phase composition of crystalline salts was measured with X-ray diffraction (XRD). Particles larger than 1 {micro}m were analyzed with computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM) to derive particle composition classes. At ESP inlet mass size distribution was bimodal with a major mode at about 1.2 {micro}m and a minor mode at about 5 {micro}m (aerodynamic diameter). At ESP outlet the mass size distribution showed only one peak at about 1.2 {micro}m. Both submicron and supermicron particles were agglomerates formed from 0.3 to 0.5 {micro}m spherical primary particles. XRD analyses indicated that particles were crystalline with two phases of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (thenardite and sodium sulphate) and K{sub 3}Na(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}. CCSEM results of individual particles larger than 1 {micro}m showed that 79 to 88 volume percent of particles contained mainly Na and S, 7 to 10 volume percent Na, K, and S with minor amount of particles containing Na, S, and Ca.

  2. BioCoComb -- Gasification of biomass and co-combustion of the gas in a pulverized-coal-boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderl, H.; Zotter, T.; Mory, A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a demonstration project supported by an European Community Thermie Fund a biomass gasifier for bark, wood chips, saw dust, etc. has been installed by Austrian Energy and Environment at the 137 MW{sub el} pulverized-coal fired power station in Zeltweg, Austria. The project title BioCoComb is an abbreviation for Preparation of Biofuel for Co-Combustion, where co-combustion means combustion together with coal in existing power plants. According to the thermal capacity of 10 MW the produced gas substitutes approx. 3% of the coal fired in the boiler. Only the coarse fraction of the biomass has to pass a shredder and is then fed together with the fine fraction without any further pretreatment into the gasifier. In the gasification process the biomass will combust in a substoichiometric atmosphere, create the necessary temperature of 820 C and partly gasify due to the lack of oxygen in the combustion chamber (autothermal operation). The gasifier uses circulating fluidized bed technology, which guarantees even relatively low temperatures in all parts of the gasifier to prevent slagging. The intense motion of the bed material also favors attrition of the biomass particles. Via a hot gas duct the produced low calorific value (LCV) gas is directly led into the furnace of the existing pulverized coal fired boiler for combustion. The gas also contains fine wood char particles, that can pass the retention cyclone and burn out in the furnace of the coal boiler. The main advantages of the BioCoComb concept are: low gas quality sufficient for co-firing; no gas cleaning or cooling; no predrying of the biomass; relatively low temperatures in the gasifier to prevent slagging; favorable effects on power plant emissions (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}); no severe modifications of the existing coal fired boiler; and high flexibility in arranging and integrating the main components into existing plants. The plant started its trial run in November 1997 and has been in successful commercial operation since January 1998.

  3. Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL); Feldman, Earl E. (Willowbrook, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL); Glickert, Roger W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

  4. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

  5. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Donnals, G.L.; Cao, J.; Ruch, R.R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Shao, D. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to study the evolution of gaseous sulfur and chlorine species during temperature-controlled pyrolysis and combustion and their effect on boiler corrosion. We have been developing two techniques for determining the gas evolution profiles of sulfur and chlorine during coal pyrolysis and combustion. First, using a pyrolysis-combustion system in combination with a quadrupole gas analyzer, the evolution of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in combustion gas during temperature-programmed coal pyrolysis-combustion was monitored. When the atmosphere of the combustion chamber was changed to a reducing condition, gaseous COS and H{sub 2}S were also detected in the combustion gas. Detection of hydrogen chloride by QGA has been improved by using a larger-diameter (75 {mu}m) capillary tubing. The HC1 evolution profile during the pyrolysis of coal IBC-109 was determined by QGA and by a chloride ion selective electrode for quantitative purposes. Second, the technique of thermogravimetry (TG) in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to characterize gaseous species during coal pyrolysis. Gas evolution profiles of sulfur (SO{sub 2} and COS), chlorine (HC1), and nitrogen (NH{sub 3} and HCN) species were determined for coal IBC-109. Similar release profiles of HCI and NH{sub 3} supported an interpretation that chlorine gnd nitrogen are closely associated in coal. COS may be formed by reaction of CO with H{sub 2}S in the gas phase. A mass balance study of chlorine evolution from coal IBC-109 in a TG-FTIR experiment was completed; the chloride dissolved in solutions was determined by an ion chromatographic technique.

  6. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Cao, J.; Moore, D.M.; Xu, J.; Ruch, R.R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Upchurch, M.L.; Cao, H.B. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evolution of HCl during coal pyrolysis and its relation to chlorine forms in raw coal were studied using a temperature-programmed pyrolysis and gas combustion in conjunction with a quadrupole gas analyzer (QGA). Using a new filament source in the QGA significantly improved the sensitivity of HCl detection. The major peak at 445{degrees}C showed an increased intensity and a new HCl evolution peak at 600{degrees}C was observed during pyrolysis of Illinois coal IBC-109. Pyrolysis of coal IBC-109 spiked with NaCl solution showed a strong peak of HCl evolution above 700{degrees}C. In the study of boiler deposits, several sample preparation procedures for X-ray diffraction analysis were developed and six minerals were unambiguously determined in superheater and heater deposits from a power plant in Illinois. Effects of composite gases containing 0.2% HCl on six metals were tested at 600{degrees}C and 200{degrees}C, and at 100{degrees}C with moisture for 400 hours. Similar tests were conducted with a composite gas containing no HCl at 600{degrees}C and 200{degrees}C. The results allow us to assess the factors controlling the corrosion rate: Boiler materials, temperature, concentration of HCl in combustion gases, and chloride condensate on metal surfaces.

  7. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1993--August 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement with the purpose of determining if CWSF prepared from a cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.5 wt % ash and 0.9 wt % sulfur) can be effectively burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will also generate information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The approach being used in the program is as follows: 1. Install a natural gas/fuel oil-designed package boiler and generate baseline data firing natural gas; 2. Shake down the system with CWSF and begin the first 1,000 hours of testing using the burner/atomizer system provided with the boiler. The first 1,000-hour demonstration was to consist of boiler operation testing and combustion performance evaluation using CWSF preheat, a range of atomizing air pressures (up to 200 psig as compared to the 100 psig boiler manufacturer design pressure), and steam as the atomizing medium; 3. If the combustion performance was not acceptable based on the combustion efficiency obtained and the level of gas support necessary to maintain flame stabilization, then low-cost modifications were to be implemented, such as installing a quarl and testing alternative atomizers; 4. If acceptable combustion performance was not obtained with the low-cost modifications, then the first demonstration was to be terminated and the burner system replaced with one of proven CWSF design.

  8. Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 3: Appendix II, Sections 2 & 3 and Appendix III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Grace, W.J. Frederick, M. Salcudean, R.A. Wessel

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

  9. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesnor, J.D. [ABB/Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  10. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1992--February 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Wincek, R.T.; Clark, D.A.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1993-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in a heavy fuel oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing wig determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will be identified

  11. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1992--August 15, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Pisupati, S.V.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, J.; Walsh, P.M.; Shamanna, S.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) program expansion (additional 1,000 hours of testing). The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits.

  12. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  13. Task 2 Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems (NETL-US)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL; Tylczak, Joseph [NETL

    2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Exposures were completed to ~1400 hr. Analysis of kinetics are close to completion. No oxy-combustion gas phase effects were found at 700{degrees}C.

  14. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

  15. Advanced combustion system for industrial boilers. Phase 2, Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.; Millard, W.P.; Attig, R.C.; Schulz, R.J.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This During this quarter, work continued on development/improvement of the low-NO{sub x} coal combustor for the boiler system. Reburning tests were conducted in the external, water-cooled test duct with a length of 15 feet using ultra fine coal with propane to reduce the NO{sub x} levels to as low as 0.295 lb-NO{sub x}/MBtu. Work also continued on design/construction of the new coal-feed system that will be used for the 100-hour demonstration test with the on-line refillable coal hopper operating in air at atmospheric pressure. Coal will be loaded into the hopper from bulk bags. Initial testing of the UTSI boiler control and automation system was successful. Normally-pulverized coal with approximately 70% passing a number 200 sieve was burned in the external test duct. Initial flame-visualization tests were successful, and the burner was able to handle coal without being micronized to the ultra fine level. Refractory was poured for a new combustor second-stage assembly. Subsequently, the combustor was installed inside the 200 hp fire-tube boiler.

  16. Computer Control of Boiler Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pareja, G. E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapidly rising energy costs present the opportunity for substantial cost savings through improved boiler combustion control. A process computer control system was installed at an Air Products & Chemicals facility in 1978. As a result the boiler...

  17. Plasma enhancement of combustion of solid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Institute of Combustion Problems, Alma Ata (Kazakhstan)

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma fuel systems that increase the coal burning efficiency are discussed. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free startup of boilers and stabilizating a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burner and burning all types of power-generating coal. Plasma ignition, thermochemical treatment of an air-fuel mixture prior to combustion, and its burning in a power-generating boiler were numerically simulated. Environmental friendliness of the plasma technology was demonstrated.

  18. Operation of the NRCh constriction of boilers in 300 MW energy units during combustion of anthracite dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminskii, V.P.; Mironov, S.N.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operation of the furnace constriction of boilers in 300 MW units during combustion of anthracite dust with liquid slag removal now requires special attention on the part of both operating personnel at thermal power plants and designers. The reason behind this is charring of the studs and carborundum mass on the roof portion of the constriction with subsequent exposure of the tubes; external high-temperature corrosion of the tubes on the roof portion and on the upper incline of the constriction with subsequent tapering of the tube walls to 1.5 mm and their breaking; the presence of corrosion-fatigue destruction of the tube walls in the upper incline of the constriction with formation of scale, transverse deep grooves and fissures on the front side of the tubes. Overall, at the present time the constriction is a point of failure that requires intensified control and greater repair costs to replace damaged sections of the heating surfaces. In conjunction with this, complex analysis of operation of the constriction has been carried out.

  19. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, Charles L. (Tullahoma, TN); Foote, John P. (Tullahoma, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  20. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  1. 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABB CE's Low NOx Bulk Furnace Staging (LNBFS) System and Low NOx Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) are demonstrated in stepwise fashion. These systems incorporate the concept of advanced overfire air (AOFA), clustered coal nozzles, and offset air. A complete description of the installed technologies is provided in the following section. The primary objective of the Plant Lansing Smith demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology are also being performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  2. Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 2: Appendix I, Section 5, and Appendix II, Section 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Grace, W.J. Frederick, M. Salcudean, R.A. Wessel

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler; and (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

  3. Black Liquor Combustion Validated Recovery Boiler Modeling, Final Year Report, Volume 1: Main Text and Appendix I, Sections 1-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Grace, W.J. Frederick, M. Salcudean, R.A. Wessel

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated in October 1990 with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. Many of these objectives were accomplished at the end of the first five years and documented in a comprehensive report on that work (DOE/CE/40936-T3, 1996). A critical review of recovery boiler modeling, carried out in 1995, concluded that further enhancements of the model were needed to make reliable predictions of key output variables. In addition, there was a need for sufficient understanding of fouling and plugging processes to allow model outputs to be interpreted in terms of the effect on plugging and fouling. As a result, the project was restructured and reinitiated at the end of October 1995, and was completed in June 1997. The entire project is now complete and this report summarizes all of the work done on the project since it was restructured. The key tasks to be accomplished under the restructured project were to (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes; (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the results; (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquor submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the U.S. kraft pulp industry.

  4. Turbulent Combustion in Type Ia Supernova Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. K. Roepke; W. Hillebrandt

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the astrophysical modeling of type Ia supernova explosions and describe numerical methods to implement numerical simulations of these events. Some results of such simulations are discussed.

  5. Energy Department Awards $2.6 Million to Boost Combustion Efficiency...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2.6 Million to Boost Combustion Efficiency in Industrial Boilers Energy Department Awards 2.6 Million to Boost Combustion Efficiency in Industrial Boilers September 26, 2005 -...

  6. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO[sub x] burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulatecharacteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, and LNB without AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO[sub x] emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu. Flyash LOI values for the LNB configuration are approximately 8 percent at full-load. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. Abbreviated diagnostic tests for the LNB+AOFA configuration indicate that at 500 MWe, NO[sub x] emissions are approximately 0.55 lb/MBtu with corresponding flyash LOI values of approximately 11 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO[sub x] emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing of the LNB+AOFA configuration will be performed when the stackparticulate emissions issue is resolved. Testing of a process optimization package on Plant Hammond Unit 4 was performed during this quarter. The software was configured to minimize NO[sub x] emissions using total combustion air flow and advanced overfire air distribution as the controlled parameters. Preliminary results from this testing indicate that this package shows promise in reducing NO[sub x] emissions while maintaining or improving other boiler performance parameters.

  7. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chau, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  8. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

  9. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, [October--December, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, tests of the LNCFS Level III system were conducted to determine the effect that fuel fineness has on NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels. Results showed that changing the fineness of the fuel has almost no effect on NOx emissions; however, unburned carbon levels can be reduced significantly by increasing fuel fineness.

  10. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  11. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO{sub x} emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO{sub x} emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO{sub x} combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

  12. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO[sub x] emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO[sub x] emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO[sub x] combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

  13. Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Study of Biomass Combustion in a Thermal 108 MW Grate-Fired Boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosendahl, Lasse

    Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Study of Biomass Combustion in a Thermal 108 MW Grate used to fire biomass for heat and power production. However, grate-firing systems are often reported and modernized. This paper presents the efforts toward a reliable baseline computational fluid dynamics (CFD

  14. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Appendix, Book 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the industry need for a pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, Babcock Wilcox (B&W) designed, fabricated, and installed such a facility at its Alliance Research Center (ARC) in 1985. The project involved conversion of an existing pulverized coal-fired facility to be cyclone-firing capable. Additionally, convective section tube banks were installed in the upper furnace in order to simulate a typical boiler convection pass. The small boiler simulator (SBS) is designed to simulate most fireside aspects of full-size utility boilers such as combustion and flue gas emissions characteristics, fireside deposition, etc. Prior to the design of the pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, the various cyclone boiler types were reviewed in order to identify the inherent cyclone boiler design characteristics which are applicable to the majority of these boilers. The cyclone boiler characteristics that were reviewed include NO{sub x} emissions, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) carbon loss, and total furnace residence time. Previous pilot-scale cyclone-fired furnace experience identified the following concerns: (1) Operability of a small cyclone furnace (e.g., continuous slag tapping capability). (2) The optimum cyclone(s) configuration for the pilot-scale unit. (3) Compatibility of NO{sub x} levels, carbon burnout, cyclone ash carryover to the convection pass, cyclone temperature, furnace residence time, and FEGT.

  15. Maintain Combustion Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, R. J.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy is consumed, and wasted, in liberal amounts in the combustion processes which supply heat energy to boilers and process heaters. Close attention to combustion systems can be extremely beneficial: Optimum air to fuel ratios, i.e., maintaining...

  16. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  17. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) system followed by Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  18. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) system followed by Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

  19. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the project is to investigate the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance on Unit 2 at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith located near Lynn Haven, Florida. The project will characterize emissions and performance of a tangentially-fired boiler operating in the following configurations: Baseline as-found'' configuration: Phase 1; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 2 and simulated low NO{sub x} bulk furnace staging (LNBFS): Phase 2; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 3, Phase 3a and simulated LNCFS Level 1, Phase 3b.

  1. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Phase 1, Baseline tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the project is to investigate the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance on Unit 2 at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith located near Lynn Haven, Florida. The project will characterize emissions and performance of a tangentially-fired boiler operating in the following configurations: Baseline ``as-found`` configuration: Phase 1; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 2 and simulated low NO{sub x} bulk furnace staging (LNBFS): Phase 2; retrofitted low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS) Level 3, Phase 3a and simulated LNCFS Level 1, Phase 3b.

  2. Quantifying Energy Savings by Improving Boiler Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, K.; Kissock, J. K.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dayton, OH ABSTRACT On/off operation and excess combustion air reduce boiler energy efficiency. This paper presents methods to quantify energy savings from switching to modulation control mode and reducing excess air in natural gas fired boilers... the accuracy of the methods. INTRODUCTION In our experience, common opportunities for improving boiler efficiency include switching from on/off to modulation control and reducing excess air. The decision about whether to pursue these opportunities...

  3. Kraft recovery boiler physical and chemical processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T.N.; Frederick, W.J. (Adams (Terry N.), Tacoma, WA (USA); Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this book is on the recent research into the physical and chemical processes occurring in and around a black liquor recovery boiler. Almost all of the detailed technical information in this book has previously appeared in the open literature. The purpose here is not to present research for the first time, but to present it in a context of the other processes occurring in recovery boilers. Topics covered include: general characteristics of recovery boilers; black liquor thermal and transport properties; black liquor droplet formation and combustion; recovery boiler char bed processes; flow and mixing in Kraft recovery boilers; entrainment and carryover in recovery furnaces; fume formation and dust chemistry; deposits and boiler plugging; and recovery boiler thermal performance. 257 refs., 102 figs., 38 tabs.

  4. 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report second quarter, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ABB CE`s Low NOx Bulk Furnace Staging (LNBFS) System and Low NOx Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) are demonstrated in stepwise fashion. These systems incorporate the concept of advanced overfire air (AOFA), clustered coal nozzles, and offset air. A complete description of the installed technologies is provided in the following section. The primary objective of the Plant Lansing Smith demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology are also being performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  5. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  6. EPA may force scrubbers on industry boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hume, M.

    1985-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposal requiring scrubber standards for industrial energy users will force industry to invest in the costly pollution control equipment used mostly by utilities today. The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide emissions will require either scrubbing or fluidized-bed combustion regardless of the fuel's sulfur content. Protests from the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners that this is an unfair burden on non-utility boilers note that scrubbing is more costly for smaller boilers, and that it could impede air quality improvement by discouraging the replacement of old boilers. EPA contests these claims.

  7. A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion in the development of combustion science. Several aspects of these two-dimensional flame cells are identified for premixed combustion when the other types of idealized flames are inapplicable. 1 #12;Nomenclature fuel

  8. LES Simulations of Turbulent Combustion in a Type Ia Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    to be thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs. SNIa are important sources of energy and chemical elements deposited of the burning are all determined by the speed of thermonuclear burning [27]. The problem of turbulent combustion. The mechanism and the speed of thermonuclear burning in SNIa remain an unsolved theoretical problem. A recent

  9. Cyclone Boiler Reburn NOx Control Improvements via Cyclone Design Improvements and Advanced Air Staging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morabito, B.; Nee, B.; Goff, V.; Maringo, G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eastman Kodak owns three Babcock & Wilcox coal fired cyclone boilers and one Combustion Engineering pulverized coal boiler located at Kodak Park in Rochester, New York. Duke Energy Generation Services (DEGS) operates and maintains the steam...

  10. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  11. Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L

    2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boiler-Turbine-Generator (BTG) units and a 5.times.5 CFB combustion process of advanced boilers. Those boilers include Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  12. Alternate Materials for Recovery Boiler Superheater Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R [ORNL; Kish, Joseph [McMaster University; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ever escalating demands for increased efficiency of all types of boilers would most sensibly be realized by an increase in the steam parameters of temperature and pressure. However, materials and corrosion limitations in the steam generating components, particularly the superheater tubes, present major obstacles to boiler designers in achieving systems that can operate under the more severe conditions. This paper will address the issues associated with superheater tube selection for many types of boilers; particularly chemical recovery boilers, but also addressing the similarities in issues for biomass and coal fired boilers. It will also review our recent study of materials for recovery boiler superheaters. Additional, more extensive studies, both laboratory and field, are needed to gain a better understanding of the variables that affect superheater tube corrosion and to better determine the best means to control this corrosion to ultimately permit operation of recovery boilers at higher temperatures and pressures.

  13. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Public design report (preliminary and final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Public Design Report presents the design criteria of a DOE Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 (500 MW) near Rome, Georgia. The technologies being demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NO{sub x} burner. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NO{sub x} burners, advanced overfire systems, and digital control system.

  14. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume C. Boiler emission report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) test burn program was conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) located in Bruceton, Pa. One of the objectives of the study was to determine the feasibility of burning SRC fuels in boilers set up for fuel oil firing and to characterize emissions. Testing was conducted on the 700-hp oil-fired boiler used for research projects. No. 6 fuel oil was used for baseline data comparison, and the following SRC fuels were tested: SRC Fuel (pulverized SRC), SRC Residual Oil, and SRC-Water Slurry. Uncontrolled particulate emission rates averaged 0.9243 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Fuel, 0.1970 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Residual Oil, and 0.9085 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC-Water Slurry. On a lb/10/sup 6/ Btu basis, emissions from SRC Residual Oil averaged 79 and 78%, respectively, lower than the SRC Fuel and SRC-Water Slurry. The lower SRC Residual Oil emissions were due, in part, to the lower ash content of the oil and more efficient combustion. The SRC Fuel had the highest emission rate, but only 2% higher than the SRC-Water Slurry. Each fuel type was tested under variable boiler operating parameters to determine its effect on boiler emissions. The program successfully demonstrated that the SRC fuels could be burned in fuel oil boilers modified to handle SRC fuels. This report details the particulate emission program and results from testing conducted at the boiler outlet located before the mobile precipitator take-off duct. The sampling method was EPA Method 17, which uses an in-stack filter.

  15. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly progress report, 1992: Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulatecharacteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, and LNB without AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO{sub x} emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu. Flyash LOI values for the LNB configuration are approximately 8 percent at full-load. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. Abbreviated diagnostic tests for the LNB+AOFA configuration indicate that at 500 MWe, NO{sub x} emissions are approximately 0.55 lb/MBtu with corresponding flyash LOI values of approximately 11 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO{sub x} emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing of the LNB+AOFA configuration will be performed when the stackparticulate emissions issue is resolved. Testing of a process optimization package on Plant Hammond Unit 4 was performed during this quarter. The software was configured to minimize NO{sub x} emissions using total combustion air flow and advanced overfire air distribution as the controlled parameters. Preliminary results from this testing indicate that this package shows promise in reducing NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining or improving other boiler performance parameters.

  16. Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

  17. Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, A.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -6, 2000 Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters Air Pollution Control and Boilers Keeping the environment clean Presented by Ashutosh Garg Furnace Improvements Low cost solutions for fired heaters Trace compounds ? Nitric oxides ? Carbon monoxide ? Sulfur... million BTU ? These levels can be achieved by Ultra Low NOx burners or FGR in boilers. ? Primary products of combustion ? Carbon dioxide ? Water vapors ? Oxygen ? Nitrogen ? Trace compounds NOx emissions ? NOx or Oxides of Nitrogen have...

  18. An Energy Analysis of the Catalytic Combustion Burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Q.; Zhang, S.; Duan, Z.; Zhou, Q.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas boilers of conventional flame always produce varying degrees of combustion products NOx and CO, which pollute the environment and waste energy. As a new way of combustion, catalytic combustion breaks the flammable limits of conventional...

  19. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  20. Combustion Catalysts in Industry- An Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merrell, G. A.; Knight, R. S.

    Combustion catalysts improve boiler efficiency by extracting more heat energy from the fuel and by reducing heat losses when operating at minimum excess air. In addition, an effective combustion catalyst may reduce the level of smoke and solid...

  1. Application of Multivariable Control to Oil and Coal Fired Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the boiler, flue gas transport delay, existing boiler control system and analyzer dynamics. The algorithm com ponents are illustrated schematically in Figures 2 and 3. The strategy is designed to optimize com bustion efficiency under current combustion... appropriate action to avoid exceeding those limits. It then calculates the control output required to correct Ea/f without overshooting the Control target value. The entire control strategy is easily tuned in the field. Even though many boiler control...

  2. Modern Boiler Control and Why Digital Systems are Better 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughart, C. L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MODERN BOILER CONTROL AND WHY DIGITAL SYSTEMS ARE BETTER C. L. Hughart Engineering and Hydrocarbons Division Union Carbide Corporation South Charleston, West Virginia ABSTRACT o Fuel o Combustion Air Steam generation in petrochemical... of the advantages of digital boiler controls. This system was in stalled to control two 350,000-pound per hour, 600 psig auxiliary fired boilers which, augmented by other waste heat recovery equipment, will supply the steam for a large petrochemical plant...

  3. Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

  4. Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of recuperative air preheaters...

  5. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  6. Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

    2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Cleaver-Brooks developed a new gas-fired steam generation system���¢��������the Super Boiler���¢��������for increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, and reduced emissions. The system consists of a firetube boiler with a unique staged furnace design, a two-stage burner system with engineered internal recirculation and inter-stage cooling integral to the boiler, unique convective pass design with extended internal surfaces for enhanced heat transfer, and a novel integrated heat recovery system to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. With these combined innovations, the Super Boiler technical goals were set at 94% HHV fuel efficiency, operation on natural gas with <5 ppmv NOx (referenced to 3%O2), and 50% smaller than conventional boilers of similar steam output. To demonstrate these technical goals, the project culminated in the industrial demonstration of this new high-efficiency technology on a 300 HP boiler at Clement Pappas, a juice bottler located in Ontario, California. The Super Boiler combustion system is based on two stage combustion which combines air staging, internal flue gas recirculation, inter-stage cooling, and unique fuel-air mixing technology to achieve low emissions rather than external flue gas recirculation which is most commonly used today. The two-stage combustion provides lower emissions because of the integrated design of the boiler and combustion system which permit precise control of peak flame temperatures in both primary and secondary stages of combustion. To reduce equipment size, the Super Boiler's dual furnace design increases radiant heat transfer to the furnace walls, allowing shorter overall furnace length, and also employs convective tubes with extended surfaces that increase heat transfer by up to 18-fold compared to conventional bare tubes. In this way, a two-pass boiler can achieve the same efficiency as a traditional three or four-pass firetube boiler design. The Super Boiler is consequently up to 50% smaller in footprint, has a smaller diameter, and is up to 50% lower in weight, resulting in very compact design with reduced material cost and labor costs, while requiring less boiler room floor space. For enhanced energy efficiency, the heat recovery system uses a transport membrane condenser (TMC), a humidifying air heater (HAH), and a split-stage economizer to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. The TMC is a new innovation that pulls a major portion of water vapor produced by the combustion process from the flue gases along with its sensible and latent heat. This results in nearly 100% transfer of heat to the boiler feed water. The HAH improves the effectiveness of the TMC, particularly in steam systems that do not have a large amount of cold makeup water. In addition, the HAH humidifies the combustion air to reduce NOx formation. The split-stage economizer preheats boiler feed water in the same way as a conventional economizer, but extracts more heat by working in tandem with the TMC and HAH to reduce flue gas temperature. These components are designed to work synergistically to achieve energy efficiencies of 92-94% which is 10-15% higher than today���¢��������s typical firetube boilers.

  7. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Topical report, LNCFS Levels 1 and 3 test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results from the third phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICC-1) project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The purpose of this project was to study the NO{sub x} emissions characteristics of ABB Combustion Engineering`s (ABB CE) Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) Levels I, II, and III. These technologies were installed and tested in a stepwise fashion at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2. The objective of this report is to provide the results from Phase III. During that phase, Levels I and III of the ABB C-E Services Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System were tested. The LNCFS Level III technology includes separated overfire air, close coupled overfire air, clustered coal nozzles, flame attachment coal nozzle tips, and concentric firing. The LNCFS Level I was simulated by closing the separated overfire air nozzles of the LNCFS Level III system. Based upon long-term data, LNCFS Level HI reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 45 percent at full load. LOI levels with LNCFS Level III increased slightly, however, tests showed that LOI levels with LNCFS Level III were highly dependent upon coal fineness. After correcting for leakage air through the separated overfire air system, the simulated LNCFS Level I reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 37 percent. There was no increase in LOI with LNCFS Level I.

  8. Super low NO.sub.x, high efficiency, compact firetube boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chojnacki, Dennis A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Knight, Richard A.; Cygan, David F.; Korenberg, Jacob

    2005-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A firetube boiler furnace having two combustion sections and an in-line intermediate tubular heat transfer section between the two combustion sections and integral to the pressure vessel. This design provides a staged oxidant combustion apparatus with separate in-line combustion chambers for fuel-rich primary combustion and fuel-lean secondary combustion and sufficient cooling of the combustion products from the primary combustion such that when the secondary combustion oxidant is added in the secondary combustion stage, the NO.sub.x formation is less than 5 ppmv at 3% O.sub.2.

  9. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical report, January 14, 1997--August 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schorr, B.S.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. Bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. Also, to deposit model Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings, an electrodeposition technique was developed and coatings with various volume fractions (0-35%) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were produced. The powder and electrodeposition processing of Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Composites provide the ability to produce two phase microstructure without changing the microstructure of the matrix material. Therefore, the effect of hard second phase particles size and volume fraction on erosion resistance could be analyzed.

  10. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal fired boilers. Second quarterly technical progress report, [April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an advanced overfire air (AOFA) system followed by low NO{sub x} burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. Baseline, AOFA, and LNB without AOFA test segments have been completed. Analysis of the 94 days of LNB long-term data collected show the full-load NO{sub x} emission levels to be approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu with flyash LOI values of approximately 8 percent. Corresponding values for the AOFA configuration are 0.94 lb/MBtu and approximately 10 percent. For comparison, the long-term full-load, baseline NO{sub x} emission level was approximately 1.24 lb/MBtu at 5.2 percent LOI. Comprehensive testing of the LNB plus AOFA configuration began in May 1993 and is scheduled to end during August 1993. As of June 30, the diagnostic, performance, chemical emissions tests segments for this configuration have been conducted and 29 days of long-term, emissions data collected. Preliminary results from the May--June 1993 tests of the LNB plus AOFA system show that the full load NO{sub x} emissions are approximately 0.42 lb/MBtu with corresponding fly ash LOI values near 8 percent. This is a substantial improvement in both NO{sub x} emissions and LOI values when compared to the results obtained during the February--March 1992 abbreviated testing of this system.

  11. Use of fluidized bed coal combustion techniques to study efficiency, emission reduction, boiler effects, and waste utilization. Annual report, January 1-June 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesketh, H.E.; Rajan, S.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The acquisition of thermodynamic and operating data on a wide variety of waste coals in a laboratory-scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) unit is reported. The coals tested include: (1) low and medium heating value gob pile wastes, with ash content as high as 60%; (2) pelletized gob waste fines; (3) various cuts taken from beneficiation plant rejects with low heating values and high ash content; and (4) a partially devolatilized char produced from a caking Illinois coal. These waste coals could be successfully burned in the bench-scale unit with the exception of the high ash content beneficiation plant reject with a low heating value of 1700 Btu/lb. Some of the waste coals exhibited better combustion characteristics than others. The results obtained and the recommendations for improving the combustion and emission characteristics of the waste coals are discussed. Shakedown tests have been completed with the 1-ft diameter, 1 MBtu/h pilot-scale AFBC unit, and the results are reported. 1 ref., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 11-12, 2005 1 Quantifying Savings From Improved Boiler Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    /off operation and excess combustion air reduce boiler energy efficiency. This paper presents methods to quantify for improving boiler efficiency include switching from on/off to modulation control and reducing excess air EFFICIENCY We define boiler efficiency as the ratio of heat transferred to the water/steam to the total fuel

  13. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    govmanufacturingdistributedenergy chptaps.html * Read more about improving boiler and steam system efficiency on the Advanced Manufacturing Office website: http:...

  14. Recovery Boiler Corrosion Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    11/13/2014 1 Recovery Boiler Corrosion Chemistry Sandy Sharp and Honghi Tran Symposium on Corrosion of a recovery boiler each cause their own forms of corrosion and cracking Understanding the origin of the corrosive conditions enables us to operate a boiler so as to minimize corrosion and cracking select

  15. Maintaining Low Oxygen (O2) in Coal Fueled Utility Boilers Using CO Instrumentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, D.; Downing, T.

    and the annual fuel savings possible from this 02 reduction. Unit til 1.8 a pulverized coal fired, 565 MW, CE boiler system placed in service July 27, 1982. Complete and safe combustion in this boiler is maintained by continuously monitoring 02 and CO...Il at Muleshoe, Texas. This is a 565 :Megawatt unit utilizing a Combustion Engineering boiler firing sub-bituminous Wyoming coal thrQugh six elevations of tilting tangential nozzles. The boiler is balanced draft with two air preheaters. Environmental...

  16. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Donnals, G.L.; Cao, J.; Ruch, R.R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Shao, D. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four replicate experiments of pyrolysis with quadrupole gas analyzer and ion selective electrode were conducted to monitor the release of chlorine and sulfur from a high-chlorine Illinois coal IBC-109 (0.42% chlorine on dry basis). The chlorine in coal is released solely as HCl, and the HCl release profile shows a broad peak between 250{degree}C and 600{degree}C with a maximum at 445{degree}C. In contrast, the sulfur release profile shows three peaks; the sulfur released around 370{degree}C may be derived from a labile (possibly aliphatic) component of organic sulfur, the main peak at 475{degree}C corresponds to the release of the main component (thiophenic) of organic sulfur, and the third peak at 600{degree} results from the decomposition of pyrite. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is the major sulfur species under an oxidizing condition in the combustion gas; additional gaseous sulfur species (COS and H{sub 2}S) are observed when the atmosphere is changed to a reducing condition. Sodium and chlorine contents in char residues determined by neutron activation analysis showed that 98% of chlorine in coal was volatilized during pyrolysis to 800{degree}C, and all the sodium is retained in the chars. The thermogravimetry-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy experiments were carried out to characterize gaseous species during pyrolysis of four Illinois coals (IBC-103, -105, -106, and -109). Gas evolution profiles of sulfur (H{sub 2}S, S0{sub 2}, and COS), chlorine (HCl), and nitrogen (NH{sub 3} and HCN) species were determined. Similar release profiles of HCl and NH{sub 3} supported an interpretation that chlorine and nitrogen are closely associated in coal. COS may be formed by reaction of CO with H{sub 2}S in the gas phase.

  17. The reapplication of energetic materials as boiler fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, S.G.; Sclippa, G.C.; Ross, J.R. [and others

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decommissioning of weapons stockpiles, off-specification production, and upgrading of weapons systems results in a large amount of energetic materials (EM) such as rocket propellant and primary explosives that need to be recycled or disposed of each year. Presently, large quantities of EM are disposed of in a process known as open-burn/open-detonation (OB/OD), which not only wastes their energy content, but may release large quantities of hazardous material into the environment. Here the authors investigate the combustion properties of several types of EM to determine the feasibility of reapplication of these materials as boiler fuels, a process that could salvage the energy content of the EM as well as mitigate any potential adverse environmental impact. Reapplication requires pretreatment of the fuels to make them safe to handle and to feed. Double-base nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin, trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitroguanidine, and a rocket propellant binder primarily composed of polybutidiene impregnated with aluminum flakes have been burned in a 100-kW downfired flow reactor. Most of these fuels have high levels of fuel-bound nitrogen, much of it bound in the form of nitrate groups, resulting in high NO{sub x} emissions during combustion. The authors have measured fuel-bound nitrate conversion efficiencies to NO{sub x} of up to 80%, suggesting that the nitrate groups do not follow the typical path of fuel nitrogen through HCN leading to NO{sub x}, but rather form NO{sub x} directly. They show that staged combustion is effective in reducing NO{sub x} concentrations in the postcombustion gases by nearly a factor of 3. In the rocket binder, measured aluminum particle temperatures in excess of 1700{degrees}C create high levels of thermal NO{sub x}, and also generate concern that molten aluminum particles could potentially damage boiler equipment. Judicious selection of the firing method is thus required for aluminum-containing materials.

  18. Minimize Boiler Blowdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on minimizing boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  19. Recovery Boiler Modeling: An Improved Char Burning Model Including Sulfate Reduction and Carbon Removal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grace, T. M.; Wag, K. J.; Horton, R. R.; Frederick, W. J.

    gasification, reactions between oxygen and combustibles in the boundary layer, and integration of sulfate reduction and sulfide reoxidation into the char burning process. Simulations using the model show that for typical recovery boiler conditions, char burning...

  20. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semi-annual technical progress report, February 1996--July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banovic, S.W.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Present coal-fired boiler environments remain hostile to the materials of choice since corrosion and erosion can be a serious problem in certain regions of the boiler. Recently, the Clean Air Act Amendment is requiring electric power plants to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions to the environment. To reduce NO{sub x}, emissions, new low NO{sub x}, combustors are utilized which burn fuel with a substoichiometric amount of oxygen (i.e., low oxygen partial pressure). In these low NO{sub x} environments, H{sub 2}S gas is a major source of sulfur. Due to the sulfidation process, corrosion rates in reducing parts of boilers have increased significantly and existing boiler tube materials do not always provide adequate corrosion resistance. Combined attack due to corrosion and erosion is a concern because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. One method to combat corrosion and erosion in coal-fired boilers is to apply coatings to the components subjected to aggressive environments. Thermal spray coatings, a cermet composite comprised of hard ceramic phases of oxide and/or carbide in a metal binder, have been used with some success as a solution to the corrosion and erosion problems in boilers. However, little is known on the effect of the volume fraction, size, and shape of the hard ceramic phase on the erosion and corrosion resistance of the thermally sprayed coatings. It is the objective of this research to investigate metal matrix composite (cermet) coatings in order to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination that will give the best erosion and corrosion resistance in new advanced coal-fired boilers.

  1. Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farbstein, S. B.; Moreland, T.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , in turn, obtains essentially all of its natural gas supply from the Panhandle Eastern Pipeline Company. Gas prices have increased from $0.48 to $5.45 per million Btu in the last 12 years (Figure 3), and, despite our energy conservation program... is purchased. The crushed or sized coal will be transferred by a dense phase pneumatic conveying system to the steel storage silo. The level of the storage silo will control the conveying operation. The silo can hold 450 tons of prepared coal...

  2. Nutrient release from combustion residues of two contrasting herbaceous vegetation types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    (muffle and flame burning) to combust herbaceous biomass from contrasting nutrient level sites to estimate combustion methods yielded contrasting results, where temperatures greatly affected nutrient quantity by a variety of parame- ters such as fuel load quantity and quality, moisture content, ambient air temperature

  3. 176 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, VOL. 2, NO. 3, AUGUST 2006 Combustion Efficiency Optimization and Virtual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    --In this paper, a data-mining approach is applied to op- timize combustion efficiency of a coal-fired boiler pressure and air/fuel ratio) to improve boiler's combustion efficiency as well as reduce NOx emissions176 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, VOL. 2, NO. 3, AUGUST 2006 Combustion Efficiency

  4. Effect of coal type, residence time, and combustion configuration on the submicron aerosol composition and size distribution from pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linak, W.P.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulverized samples of Utah bituminous, Beulah (North Dakota) low Na lignite, Deulah high Na lignite and Texas (San Miguel) lignite coals were burned at a rate of 2.5 kg/hr in a laboratory furnace under various (overall fuel lean) combustion conditions. Particle size distributions (PSD) and size segregated particle filter samples were taken at various positions within the convection section. Temperature and gas concentrations were measured throughout. The evolution of the submicron PSD within the convection section for the four coals was similar, although the location of the initial particle mode at the convection section inlet varied with coal type. While stage combustion of the Utah bituminous coal had a variable effect on the volume of submicron aerosol produced, staged combustion of two of the three lignites (Beulah low Na and Texas) caused a definite increase in the submicron aerosol volume. Chemical analysis of the size segregated particle samples show the trace elements, As, Pb, Zn, and the major elements, Na and K to be enriched in the submicron aerosol. Auger depth profiles show these small particles to be comprised of a core enriched in Fe, Si, Ca and Mg and surface layers enriched in Na and K. These results point to a mechanism of homogeneous nucleation of low vapor pressure species followed by successive layering of progressively more volatile species. Volatile species are enriched in the submicron aerosol due to the large surface areas provided. Modeling efforts show that while coagulation may be the dominant mechanism to describe the aerosol evolving within the convection section, it cannot be used solely to predict the PSD. Another mechanism, presumably surface area dependent growth (condensation) must be included.

  5. Common Excess Air Trends in Industrial Boilers with Single-Point Positioning Control and Strategies to Optimize Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    Common Excess Air Trends in Industrial Boilers with Single-Point Positioning Control and Strategies mechanically linking the fuel valve and combustion air damper. To match combustion air flow with fuel input, inlet dampers are typically calibrated at high fire. At part-load, combustion air generally decreases

  6. Boiler Corrosion and Monitoring

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    G. R. Holcomb; B. F. McGhee; A. T. Fry; N. J. Simms; K. Davis; Shim, H S; S. J. Bullard

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of a collaborative effort to investigate and develop solutions for key material issues affecting the performance of large-scale coal-fired boilers operating at advanced conditions is presented. Advanced conditions include advanced steam temperatures, oxyfuel firing, and co-firing biomass materials. A series of laboratory experimental results are presented on fireside corrosion in environments representing air-, and oxy-fired conditions, and with coal and/or biomass as the fuel. The effects of fluctuating reducing atmospheres and heat flux effects were examined. A variety of boiler corrosion probes and sensors were developed and tested. The probes measured corrosion by section loss and the sensors by electrochemical techniques including electrochemical noise. The probes were tested in coal and waste-to-energy boilers. Correlations between section loss probes and electrochemical noise sensors allow for real-time corrosion rate measurements to be made that allow for changes in boiler operations to be tracked in terms of corrosion effects.

  7. Recovery Boiler Modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdullah, Z.; Salcudean, M.; Nowak, P.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary computations of the cold flow in a simplified geometry of a recovery boiler are presented. The computations have been carried out using a new code containing multigrid methods and segmentation techniques. This approach is shown...

  8. Recovery Boiler Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdullah, Z.; Salcudean, M.; Nowak, P.

    Preliminary computations of the cold flow in a simplified geometry of a recovery boiler are presented. The computations have been carried out using a new code containing multigrid methods and segmentation techniques. This approach is shown...

  9. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyclone furnaces operate with high excess air and at high temperature. The heat release during combustion is very high and as a result the boiler volume is much smaller than would be found in a conventional pc-fired system. The Marion Unit 1 boiler, at the level of the cyclone entry, has a small cross-section; about 5-feet in depth and about 20-feet in width. A boiler schematic showing the LNS Burner and relative location of the superheater region and overfire air ports is shown in Figure 1. The LNS Burner's combustion process is fundamentally different from that of the cyclone, and the combustion products are also different. The LNS Burner products enter the boiler as hot, fuel-rich gases. Additional overfire air must be added to complete this combustion step with care taken to avoid the formation of thermal NO{sub x}. If done correctly, S0{sub 2} is controlled and significant NO{sub x} reductions are achieved. Because of the small boiler volume, flow modelling was found to be necessary to insure that adequate mixing of LNS Burner combustion products with air can be accomplished to achieve NO{sub x} emissions goals. Design requirements for the air injection system for the Marion boiler were developed using FLUENT, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A series of runs were made to obtain a design for final air injection that met the process design goals as closely as possible.

  10. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  11. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  12. METHANE DE-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The project seeks to develop and validate a new pulverized coal combustion system to reduce utility PC boiler NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less without post-combustion flue gas cleaning. Work during the quarter included completion of the equipment fabrication and installation efforts for the 3-million Btu/h pilot system at BBP's Pilot-Scale Combustion Facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA. Final selection of the first two test coals and preliminary selection of the final two test coals were also completed.

  13. A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grcar, Joseph F

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    411–422. [9] I. Glassman, Combustion, 3rd Edition, AcademicB. Lewis, G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flames and Explosions ofin Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion Joseph F. Grcar a a

  14. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, VOL. 3, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2007 73 Constraint-Based Control of Boiler Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    -Based Control of Boiler Efficiency: A Data-Mining Approach Zhe Song and Andrew Kusiak, Member, IEEE Abstract--In this paper, a data-mining approach is used to de- velop a model for optimizing the efficiency of an electric-utility boiler subject to operating constraints. Selection of process vari- ables to optimize combustion

  15. Wick-type liquid-metal combustion. Final report, 15 Oct 88-14 Apr 91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, L.; Lyu, H.Y.; Hsu, K.Y.

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was conducted to study wick combustion of Li and SF6. A single-line laser induced fluorescence thermometry with Li2 as fluorescence species was developed. Wick combustion of Li and SF6 was conducted in vacuum chamber at sub-atmospheric pressures. The combustion results in a bright pinkish flame. Emission spectra show that the flame luminosity is dominated by the resonance-emission line of Li atoms. On analysis, a conserved scalar approach was employed to model the wick flame. A single equation was obtained to describe the interface condition of wick combustion. Numerical solutions were obtained for laminar wick diffusion flames. The prediction yields similarity profiles for planar Li-SF6 wick diffusion flames, but similarity solutions are not obtained for cylindrical wick diffusion flames. Cylindrical wick diffusion flames are found to deviate substantially from the planar geometry. The effects on mass burning rates due to fuel composition variations were studied employing fuel-rich and product-rich liquids at 0.0035 MPa in the analysis. Product-rich fuel yielded a much lower flame temperature; the mass burning rate, however, was higher than the pure lithium at 0.01 MPa. Results suggest that wick configuration may achieve a higher fuel utilization than the submerged jet.

  16. Wick-type liquid-metal combustion. Annual report, 15 October 1988-14 October 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, L.D.; Lyu, H.Y.; Hsu, K.Y.

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental and theoretical investigation was conducted to study the wick combustion of lithium and sulfur hexafluoride. A single-line laser induced fluorescence thermometry with Li2 as fluorescence species was developed. The calibration experiments yielded promising results; refinements, however, are needed before the technique can be applied to combustion flame measurements. Wick combustion of ethanol and hexane in air as well as Li and SF6 was conducted in a vacuum chamber at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures. The ethanol and hexane wick diffusion flames showed flame oscillations, similar to flame flickers in buoyant jet diffusion flames. The oscillation frequency was estimated in the range 5 to 8 Hz at the pressures examined. The flame stand-off distance was estimated in the range 5 to 8 Hz at the pressures examined. The flame stand-off distance was found to increase when the system pressure was decreased. The wick combustion of Li and SF6 resulted in a bright pinkish flame. The luminous zone appeared quite close to the wick surface at the condition examined. Near the complete consumption of lithium, the wick was burned out due to loss of liquid lithium as a heat sink. On the analysis, a conserved scalar approach was employed to model the wick flame. A single equation was obtain to describe the interface condition of the wick combustion. Numerical solutions were obtained for laminar wick diffusion flames. The prediction yields similarity profiles for both ethanol-air and Li-SF6 wick diffusion flames although non-similar governing equations were retained in the formulation.

  17. Final technical report. In-situ FT-IR monitoring of a black liquor recovery boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Markham; Joseph Cosgrove; David Marran; Jorge Neira; Chad Nelson; Peter Solomon

    1999-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project developed and tested advanced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instruments for process monitoring of black liquor recovery boilers. The state-of-the-art FT-IR instruments successfully operated in the harsh environment of a black liquor recovery boiler and provided a wealth of real-time process information. Concentrations of multiple gas species were simultaneously monitored in-situ across the combustion flow of the boiler and extractively at the stack. Sensitivity to changes of particulate fume and carryover levels in the process flow were also demonstrated. Boiler set-up and operation is a complex balance of conditions that influence the chemical and physical processes in the combustion flow. Operating parameters include black liquor flow rate, liquor temperature, nozzle pressure, primary air, secondary air, tertiary air, boiler excess oxygen and others. The in-process information provided by the FT-IR monitors can be used as a boiler control tool since species indicative of combustion efficiency (carbon monoxide, methane) and pollutant emissions (sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid and fume) were monitored in real-time and observed to fluctuate as operating conditions were varied. A high priority need of the U.S. industrial boiler market is improved measurement and control technology. The sensor technology demonstrated in this project is applicable to the need of industry.

  18. Implementation of Boiler Best Practices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blake, N. R.

    Boilers are an essential part of any industrial plant, and their efficient, economical operation can significantly affect the reliability and profitability of the entire plant. Best Practices for Boilers include tools to determine where a plant...

  19. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objectives of the project are to: (1) demonstrate the performance of three combustion NO{sub x} control technologies; (2) determine the short-term NO{sub x} emission trends for each of the operating configurations; (3) determine the dynamic long-term NO{sub x} emission characteristics for each of the operating configurations using sophisticated statistical techniques; (4) evaluate progressive cost-effectiveness (i.e., dollars per ton of NO{sub x} removed) of the low NO{sub x} combustion technologies tested; and (5) determine the effects on other combustion parameters (e.g., CO production, carbon carry-over, particulate characteristics) of applying the low NO{sub x} combustion technologies. (VC)

  20. Computer Control of Boiler Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pareja, G. E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , capability to burn multiple fuels, faster response to demand changes, and fewer shutdowns. INTRODUCTION With the cost of energy r1s1ng so rapidly, more intense scrutiny is given to the purchase of new boiler control systems, as well as to the re... placement of old and outdated boiler controls. More advanced boiler controls are capable of maximizing the efficiency of a boiler steam production process, and thereby minimize the use of the purchased fuels. The elaborate systems which were previously...

  1. Specifying Waste Heat Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    or hydrochloric acid vapor should be mentioned upfront so the HRSG designer can take proper precauations while designing the unit.Material selection is also impacted by the presence of corrosive gases.If partial pressure of hydrogen is high in the gas stream...SPECIFYING WASTE HEAT BOILERS V.Ganapathy.ABCO Industries Abilene,Texas ABSTRACT Waste heat boilers or Heat Recovery Steam 'Generators(HRSGs) as they are often called are used to recover energy from waste gas streams in chemical plants...

  2. Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanisms for Combustion of Hydrocarbon and Other Types of Chemical Fuels

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Reaction mechanisms have been tested and validated extensively through comparisons between computed results and measured data from laboratory experiments (e.g., shock tubes, laminar flames, rapid compression machines, flow reactors, stirred reactors) and from practical systems (e.g., diesel engines, spark-ignition engines, homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) engines). These kinetic models are used to examine a wide range of combustion systems.

  3. WMU Power Generation Study Task 2.0 Corn Cob Co-Combustion Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Much attention has been focused on renewable energy use in large-scale utilities and very small scale distributed energy systems. However, there is little information available regarding renewable energy options for midscale municipal utilities. The Willmar Municipal Utilities Corn Cob-Coal Co-Combustion Project was initiated to investigate opportunities available for small to midscale municipal utilities to "go green". The overall goal of the Project was to understand the current t'enewable energy research and energy efficiency projects that are or have been implemented at both larger and smaller scale and determine the applicability to midscale municipal utilities. More specific objectives for Task 2.0 of this project were to determine the technical feasibility of co-combusting com cobs with coal in the existing WMU boiler, and to identify any regulatory issues that might need to be addressed if WMU were to obtain a significant portion of its heat from such co-combustion. This report addresses the issues as laid out in the study proposal. The study investigated the feasibility of and demonstrated the technical effectiveness of co-combusting corn cobs with coal in the Willmar Municipal Utilities stoker boiler steam generation power plant. The results of the WMU Co-Combustion Project will serve as a model for other midscale utilities who wish to use corn cobs to generate renewable electrical energy. As a result of the Co-Combustion Project, the WMU plans to upgrade their stoker boiler to accept whole corn cobs as well as other types of biomass, while still allowing the fuel delivery system to use 100% coal as needed. Benefits of co-combustion will include: energy security, reduced Hg and CO2 air emissions, improved ash chemistry, potential future carbon credit sales, an immediate positive effect on the local economy, and positive attention focused on the WMU and the City of Willmar. The first step in the study was to complete a feasibility analysis. The feasibility analysis anticipated only positive results from the combustion of corn cobs with coal in the WMU power plant boiler, and therefore recommended that the project proceed. The study proceeded with a review of the existing WMU Power Plant configuration; cob fuel analyses; an application for an Air Quality Permit from the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency to conduct the co-combustion test burns; identification of and a site visit to a similar facility in Iowa; an evaluation of cob grinding machines; and agreements with a corn grower, a cob harvester, and the City of Willmar to procure, harvest, and store cobs. The WMU power plant staff constructed a temporary cob feed system whereby the cobs could be injected into the #3 Boiler firebox, at rates up to 40% of the boiler total heat input. Test burns were conducted, during which air emissions were monitored and fuel and ash samples analyzed. The results of the test burns indicated that the monitored flue gas quality improved slightly during the test burns. The WMU was able to determine that modifications to the #3 Boiler fuel feed system to accept com cobs on a permanent basis would be technically feasible and would enable the WMU to generate electricity from renewable fuels on a dispatchable basis.

  4. Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #7 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam energy tip sheet for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO). The prevention of scale formation in firetube boilers can result in substantial energy savings. Scale deposits occur when calcium, magnesium, and silica, commonly found in most water supplies, react to form a continuous layer of material on the waterside of the boiler heat exchange tubes. Scale creates a problem because it typically possesses a thermal conductivity, an order of magnitude less than the corresponding value for bare steel. Even thin layers of scale serve as an effective insulator and retard heat transfer. The result is overheating of boiler tube metal, tube failures, and loss of energy efficiency. Fuel consumption may increase by up to 5% in firetube boilers because of scale. The boilers steam production may be reduced if the firing rate cannot be increased to compensate for the decrease in combustion efficiency. Energy losses as a function of scale thickness and composition are given. Any scale in a boiler is undesirable. The best way to deal with scale is not to let it form in the first place. Prevent scale formation by: (1) Pretreating of boiler makeup water (using water softeners, demineralizers, and reverse osmosis to remove scale-forming minerals); (2) Injecting chemicals into the boiler feedwater; and (3) Adopting proper boiler blowdown practices.

  5. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Staged fluidized-bed coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rehmat, A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Dorfman, L.; Shibayama, G. (Fluor-Daniels, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)); Waibel, R. (Zink (J.) and Co., Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Staged Fluidized-Bed Coal Combustion System (ASC) is a novel clean coal technology for either coal-fired repowering of existing boilers or for incremental power generation using combined-cycle gas turbines. This new technology combines staged combustion for gaseous emission control, in-situ sulfur capture, and an ash agglomeration/vitrification process for the agglomeration/vitrification of ash and spent sorbent, thus rendering solid waste environmentally benign. The market for ASC is expected to be for clean coal-fired repowering of generating units up to 250 MW, especially for units where space is limited. The expected tightening of the environmental requirements on leachable solids residue by-products could considerably increase the marketability for ASC. ASC consists of modular low-pressure vessels in which coal is partially combusted and gasified using stacked fluidized-bed processes to produce low-to-medium-Btu, high-temperature gas. This relatively clean fuel gas is used to repower/refuel existing pulverized-coal, natural gas, or oil-fired boilers using bottom firing and reburning techniques. The benefits of ASC coal-fired repowering include the ability to repower boilers without obtaining additional space while meeting the more stringent environmental requirements of the future. Low NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate levels are expected while a nonleachable solid residue with trace metal encapsulation is produced. ASC also minimizes boiler modification and life-extension expenditures. Repowered efficiencies can be restored to the initial operating plant efficiency, and the existing boiler capacity can be increased by 10%. Preliminary cost estimates indicate that ASC will have up to a $250/kW capital cost advantage over existing coal-fired repowering options. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion New Polarized-Depolarized Measurement Capability Extends Use of RamanRayleigh Methods to More Flame Types On April 23, 2014, in Capabilities, CRF, Energy, Facilities,...

  8. Regulatory impacts and affects of emissions of the combustion of scrap tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karell, M.A.; Blumenthal, M.H.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scrap tires have several advantages as a fuel for combustion. Combustion of scrap tires as a supplement to existing fuel is an economically viable alternative. In addition, policies that would reduce the growing stockpiles of scrap tires would also reduce its potential environmental hazards (emissions of toxic compounds from arson-caused fires and breeding ground for disease-carrying insects). The growing number of industrial applications as a supplemental fuel include cement kilns, the pulp and paper industry, and utility boilers. A growing body of studies of air emissions from scrap tire and tire-derived fuel (TDF-) supplemented combustion has been conducted over the past decade. For some pollutants and applications, co-combustion with TDF has been shown to decrease emissions. This paper summarizes trends in the effects of supplementing combustion with TDF on emissions of different pollutants. At the same time, scrap tire and TDF combustion are not currently regulated by a specific NSPS or MACT standard because these standards typically regulate an emission unit, not a fuel type. The USEPA is currently debating how to regulate facilities which supplement their combustion with scrap tires. This paper discusses some options that the USEPA is considering.

  9. Correlating benzene, total hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from wood-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, A.J.; Grande, D.E.; Berens, J.R. [Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States); Piotrowski, J. [Tenneco Packaging, Inc., Tomahawk, WI (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hazardous air pollutants, including benzene, are generated by the incomplete combustion of fuels. Organic compound emissions, which are generally products of incomplete combustion, are reduced by promoting high quality combustion, for example by controlling furnace exit temperatures and establishing minimum residence times. Monitoring carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is important since the amount of carbon monoxide emitted represents the quality of combustion which in turn represents the amount of hazardous air pollutants being generated. Total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions are also related to the quality of combustion. Recently the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) measured the benzene and total hydrocarbon emissions from two large industrial wood fired boilers. These boilers are located at Tenneco Packaging, a container board manufacturing facility in northern Wisconsin. Temperature, oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations were sampled continuously by Tenneco Packaging`s emission monitoring system. The Department`s team used an organic vapor analyzer to continuously measure concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC). The Department`s team also used a modified USEPA Method 18 sampling train to capture organic vapors for subsequent analysis by gas chromatography. The data show correlations between benzene and carbon monoxide, and between benzene and THC concentrations. The emissions sampling occurred both upstream of the particulate emissions control system as well as at the stack. The CO variations during actual boiler operation appeared to be well correlated with changes in boiler steam load. That is, increases in CO generally accompanied a change, either up or down, in boiler load. Lower concentrations of CO were associated with stable combustion, as indicated by periods of constant or nearly constant boiler load.

  10. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable to minimize the need for overfire air by maximizing NO{sub x} reduction in the burner. The proposed combustion concept aims to greatly reduce NO{sub x} emissions by incorporating a novel modification to conventional or low-NO{sub x} PC burners using gas-fired coal preheating to destroy NO{sub x} precursors and prevent NO{sub x} formation. A concentrated PC stream enters the burner, where flue gas from natural gas combustion is used to heat the PC up to about 1500 F prior to coal combustion. Secondary fuel consumption for preheating is estimated to be 3 to 5% of the boiler heat input. This thermal pretreatment releases coal volatiles, including fuel-bound nitrogen compounds into oxygen-deficient atmosphere, which converts the coal-derived nitrogen compounds to molecular N{sub 2} rather than NO. Design, installation, shakedown, and testing on Powder River Basin (PRB) coal at a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at RPI's (Riley Power, Inc.) pilot-scale combustion facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA demonstrated that the PC PREHEAT process has a significant effect on final O{sub x} formation in the coal burner. Modifications to both the pilot system gas-fired combustor and the PC burner led to NO{sub x} reduction with PRB coal to levels below 0.15 lb/million Btu with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

  11. Low Temperature Heat Recovery for Boiler Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shook, J. R.; Luttenberger, D. B.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low temperature corrosion proof heat exchangers designed to reduce boiler flue gas temperatures to 150°F or lower are now being commercially operated on gas, oil and coal fired boilers. These heat exchangers, when applied to boiler flue gas...

  12. RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) for Firetube Boilers PIER Renewables Research September 2010 The Issue Researchers at Altex Technologies Corporation in Sunnyvale, industrial combined heat and power (CHP) boiler burner energy system technology ("BBEST"). Their research

  13. Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact Sheet, April 2015 Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact...

  14. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semiannual technical progress report, August 14, 1996--January 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is presently being conducted to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination in thermally sprayed metal matrix composite coatings for erosion and corrosion resistance in new coal-fired boilers. The research will be accomplished by producing model cermet composites using powder metallurgy and electrodeposition methods in which the effect of ceramic/metal combination for the erosion and corrosion resistance will be determined. These results will provide the basis for determining the optimum hard phase constituent size and volume percent in thermal spray coatings. Thermal spray coatings will be applied by our industrial sponsor and tested in our erosion and corrosion laboratories. In the first six months of this project, bulk powder processed Ni-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites were produced at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The results of microstructural characterization of these alloys were presented in the first semiannual report. The composite samples contained 0, 21, 27, 37, and 45 volume percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with an average particle size of 12 um. An increase in the volume fraction of alumina in the nickel matrix from 0 to 45% led to a significant increase in hardness of these composites.

  15. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovidiu Marin; Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter January-March 2003. The main objectives of the project are: To demonstrate the feasibility of the full-oxy combustion with flue gas recirculation on Babcock & Wilcox's 1.5MW pilot boiler, To measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection strategies, To perform an economical feasibility study, comparing this solution with alternate technologies, and To design a new generation, full oxy-fired boiler. The main objective of this quarter was to initiate the project, primarily the experimental tasks. The contractor and its subcontractors have defined a working plan, and the first tasks have been started. Task 1 (Site Preparation) is now in progress, defining the modifications to be implemented to the boiler and oxygen delivery system. The changes are required in order to overcome some current limitations of the existing system. As part of a previous project carried out in 2002, several changes have already been made on the pilot boiler, including the enrichment of the secondary and tertiary air with oxygen or the replacement of these streams with oxygen-enriched recycled flue gas. A notable modification for the current project involves the replacement of the primary air with oxygen-enriched flue gas. Consequently, the current oxygen supply and flue gas recycle system is being modified to meet this new requirement. Task 2 (Combustion and Emissions Performance Optimization) has been initiated with a preliminary selection of four series of tests to be performed. So far, the project schedule is on-track: site preparation (Task 1) should be completed by August 1st, 2003 and the tests (Task 2) are planned for September-October 2003. The Techno-Economic Study (Task 3) will be initiated in the following quarter.

  16. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureCommentsEnergyandapproximately 10|BlueFireBoiler MACT Technical

  17. Study of the potential valorization of metal contaminated Salix via phytoextraction by combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Study of the potential valorization of metal contaminated Salix via phytoextraction by combustion V: trace elements, phytoextraction, Salix, combustion, dredged sediment landfill site Abstract and biomass production. Two combustion assays were performed in a biomass boiler of 30 KW, the first one

  18. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion performance guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sotelo, E. (Sotelo (Ernest), Berkeley, CA (USA))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance specifications for conventional coal-fired boilers typically call for tests to be conducted in accordance with the ASME Performance Test Code for Steam Generating Units, PTC 4.1. The Code establishes procedures for conducting performance tests primarily to determine efficiency and capacity. The current edition of the PTC 4.1 is not entirely applicable to atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion boilers, however. AFBC boilers typically are equipped with integral sulfur capture through the addition of a sorbent material along with the fuel feed to the combustor, and this new technology introduces heat losses and credits that are not described in PTC 4.1. These heat losses and credits include combustion heat loss due to the calcination of the sorbent, heat credit due to sulfation, and the effects of calcination and sulfation on the dry flue gas flow, all of which significantly affect boiler efficiency calculations. The limitations of the current issue of the PTC 4.1 is recognized and the Code is now being reviewed to include heat losses and credits common to AFBC boilers. While this work will take some time, there is an immediate need for procedures for performance testing of AFBC boilers. These Guidelines are prepared to meet that need in the interim. The Guidelines detail procedures for boiler efficiency tests. They introduce technical and economic issues that may influence the test level of detail and accuracy. Methods of identifying required measurements, selection of measurement schemes, and assessment of measured versus estimated values are presented. A case study is used to illustrate the procedures and indicate which are the major credits and losses in the efficiency of a typical AFBC boiler. 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babcock/Wilcox; Illinois State Geological; Worley Parsons; Parsons Infrastructure/Technology Group

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, B&W and Air Liquide are developing and optimizing the oxy-combustion process for retrofitting existing boilers as well as new plants. The main objectives of the project is to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of the oxy-combustion technology with flue gas recycle in a 5-million Btu/hr coal-fired pilot boiler, (2) measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection and flue gas recycle strategies, and (3) perform technical and economic feasibility studies for application of the technology in demonstration and commercial scale boilers. This document summarizes the work performed during the period of performance of the project (Oct 2002 to June 2007). Detailed technical results are reported in corresponding topical reports that are attached as an appendix to this report. Task 1 (Site Preparation) has been completed in 2003. The experimental pilot-scale O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion tests of Task 2 (experimental test performance) has been completed in Q2 2004. Process simulation and cost assessment of Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has been completed in Q1 2005. The topical report on Task 3 has been finalized and submitted to DOE in Q3 2005. The calculations of Task 4 (Retrofit Recommendation and Preliminary Design of a New Generation Boiler) has been completed in 2004. In Task 6 (engineering study on retrofit applications), the engineering study on 25MW{sub e} unit has been completed in Q2, 2008 along with the corresponding cost assessment. In Task 7 (evaluation of new oxy-fuel power plants concepts), based on the design basis document prepared in 2005, the design and cost estimate of the Air Separation Units, the boiler islands and the CO{sub 2} compression and trains have been completed, for both super and ultra-supercritical case study. Final report of Task-7 is published by DOE in Oct 2007.

  20. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Steve; Knapp, David

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a â??biomass-firedâ?ť boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using â??carbon neutralâ?ť fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO{sub 2}. The boiler does require auxiliary â??functions,â?ť however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO{sub 2} emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO{sub 2} per year.

  1. Industrial Boiler Optimization Utilizing CO Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruoff, C. W.; Reiter, R. E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of four No. 6 oil fired boilers with an in stalled capacity of 500,000 lbs/hr. Each boiler was previously designed to operate with excess oxygen as the control parameter. By and large the existing boiler control systems functioned as designed. However... strategies such as load allocation. Increased operating experience with this system promises to open new areas and provide better ways to accompliish boiler control. i REFERENCES 1. Spanbauer, J. P., "Energy Savings Through Advanced Boiler Control...

  2. Combustion of black liquor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullen, W.T.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an improvement in the combustion of black liquor in an existing Tomlison recovery boiler unit in which black liquor is sprayed into a furnace in which it is successively dried, pyrolyzed and converted to a bed of solid carbonaceous residue, using a primary air stream and a secondary air stream and the residue is subsequently converted to a smelt. The improvement comprises: the addition of between an effective amount up to 5% oxygen by volume to the primary air stream directed at the bed of solid carbonaceous residue, the amount of oxygen added being sufficient to increase the adiabatic flame temperature, the combustion rate of the solid carbonaceous material, the rate of pyrolysis, the temperature in the lower portion of the furnace, the the drying rate of black liquor droplets, and to decrease the temperature of the gases entering the heat transfer surfaces in the upper portion of the furnace and the rate of deposit formation on the surfaces and wherein the amount of black liquor combusted is increased as compared with the amount combusted in the same furnace operated without the addition of oxygen to the primary air.

  3. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers. Final report, October 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sommer, T.; Melick, T.; Morrison, D.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this DOE sponsored project was to successfully fire coal-water slurry in a fire-tube boiler that was designed for oil/gas firing and establish a data base that will be relevant to a large number of existing installations. Firing slurry in a fire-tube configuration is a very demanding application because of the extremely high heat release rates and the correspondingly low furnace volume where combustion can be completed. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the major obstacle when firing slurry in a fire-tube boiler, the program was focused on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. The boiler system was successfully designed and operated to fire coal-water slurry for extended periods of time with few slurry related operational problems. The host facility was a 3.8 million Btu/hr Cleaver-Brooks fire-tube boiler located on the University of Alabama Campus. A slurry atomizer was designed that provided outstanding atomization and was not susceptible to pluggage. The boiler was operated for over 1000 hours and 12 shipments of slurry were delivered. The new equipment engineered for the coal-water slurry system consisted of the following: combustion air and slurry heaters; cyclone; baghouse; fly ash reinjection system; new control system; air compressor; CWS/gas burner and gas valve train; and storage tank and slurry handling system.

  4. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyclone furnaces operate with high excess air and at high temperature. The heat release during combustion is very high and as a result the boiler volume is much smaller than would be found in a conventional pc-fired system. The Marion Unit 1 boiler, at the level of the cyclone entry, has a small cross-section; about 5-feet in depth and about 20-feet in width. A boiler schematic showing the LNS Burner and relative location of the superheater region and overfire air ports is shown in Figure 1. The LNS Burner`s combustion process is fundamentally different from that of the cyclone, and the combustion products are also different. The LNS Burner products enter the boiler as hot, fuel-rich gases. Additional overfire air must be added to complete this combustion step with care taken to avoid the formation of thermal NO{sub x}. If done correctly, S0{sub 2} is controlled and significant NO{sub x} reductions are achieved. Because of the small boiler volume, flow modelling was found to be necessary to insure that adequate mixing of LNS Burner combustion products with air can be accomplished to achieve NO{sub x} emissions goals. Design requirements for the air injection system for the Marion boiler were developed using FLUENT, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A series of runs were made to obtain a design for final air injection that met the process design goals as closely as possible.

  5. Building America Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controllers, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PARR

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  6. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Volume 29, 2002/pp. 11151121 LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF AN ULTRALOW NOx PREMIXED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    1115 Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Volume 29, 2002/pp. 1115­1121 LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF AN ULTRALOW NOx PREMIXED COMBUSTION CONCEPT FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILERS DAVID LITTLEJOHN,1 ADRIAN J Berkeley, CA 94720, USA 2 CMC Engineering 1455 Bittern Drive Sunnyvale, CA 94087, USA A combustion concept

  7. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ThermoChem, under contract to the Department of Energy, conducted extensive research, development and demonstration work on a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) to confirm that advanced technology can meet these performance objectives. The ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC system integrates a pulse combustor with an atmospheric bubbling-bed type fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) In this modular configuration, the pulse combustor burns the fuel fines (typically less than 30 sieve or 600 microns) and the fluidized bed combusts the coarse fuel particles. Since the ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC employs both the pulse combustor and the AFBC technologies, it can handle the full-size range of coarse and fines. The oscillating flow field in the pulse combustor provides for high interphase and intraparticle mass transfer rates. Therefore, the fuel fines essentially burn under kinetic control. Due to the reasonably high temperature (>1093 C but less than the temperature for ash fusion to prevent slagging), combustion of fuel fines is substantially complete at the exit of the pulse combustor. The additional residence time of 1 to 2 seconds in the freeboard of the PAFBC unit then ensures high carbon conversion and, in turn, high combustion efficiency. A laboratory unit was successfully designed, constructed and tested for over 600 hours to confirm that the PAFBC technology could meet the performance objectives. Subsequently, a 50,000 lb/hr PAFBC demonstration steam boiler was designed, constructed and tested at Clemson University in Clemson, South Carolina. This Final Report presents the detailed results of this extensive and successful PAFBC research, development and demonstration project.

  8. Reduction of NO[sub x] emissions coke oven gas combustion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terza, R.R. (USS Clairton Works, PA (United States)); Sardesai, U.V. (Westfield Engineering and Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes by-product processing at Clairton Works which uses a unique cryogenic technology. Modifications to the desulfurization facility, nitrogen oxide formation in combustion processes (both thermal and fuel NO[sub x]), and the boilers plants are described. Boilers were used to study the contribution of fuel NO[sub x] formation during the combustion of coke oven gas. Results are summarized. The modifications made to the desulfurization facility resulted in the overall H[sub 2]S emission being reduced by 2-4 grains/100scf and the NO[sub x] emission being reduced by 21-42% in the boiler stacks.

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  10. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  11. NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Fuel Tech teamed together to investigate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control. The system is comprised of B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} ultra low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NOxOUT{reg_sign}, a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. Development of the low-NO{sub x} burner technology has been a focus in B and W's combustion program. The DRB-4Z{trademark} burner is B and W's newest low-NO{sub x} burner capable of achieving very low NO{sub x}. The burner is designed to reduce NO{sub x} by controlled mixing of the fuel and air. Based on data from several 500 to 600 MWe boilers firing PRB coal, NOx emissions levels of 0.15 to 0.20 lb/ 106 Btu have been achieved from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burners in combination with overfire air ports. Although NOx emissions from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burner are nearing the Ozone Transport Rule (OTR) level of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/106 Btu, the utility boiler owners can still benefit from the addition of an SNCR and/or SCR system in order to comply with the stringent NO{sub x} emission levels facing them. Large-scale testing is planned in B and W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) that simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. The objective of the project is to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/106 Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B and W's DRB-4Z{trademark} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}. During this period B and W prepared and submitted the project management plan and hazardous substance plan to DOE. The negotiation of a subcontract for Fuel Tech has been started.

  12. Effect of bed pressure drop on performance of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Shi Yang; Guangxi Yue; Jun Su; Zhiping Fu [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Thermal Engineering

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of bed pressure drop and bed inventory on the performances of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was studied. By using the state specification design theory, the fluidization state of the gas-solids flow in the furnace of conventional CFB boilers was reconstructed to operate at a much lower bed pressure drop by reducing bed inventory and control bed quality. Through theoretical analysis, it was suggested that there would exist a theoretical optimal value of bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan energy consumption. The analysis was validated by field tests carried out in a 75 t/h CFB boiler. At full boiler load, when bed pressure drop was reduced from 7.3 to 3.2 kPa, the height of the dense zone in the lower furnace decreased, but the solid suspension density profile in the upper furnace and solid flow rate were barely influenced. Consequently, the average heat transfer coefficient in the furnace was kept nearly the same and the furnace temperature increment was less than 17{sup o}C. It was also found that the carbon content in the fly ash decreased first with decreasing bed pressure drop and then increased with further increasing bed pressure drop. The turning point with minimal carbon content was referred to as the point with optimal bed pressure drop. For this boiler, at the optimum point the bed pressure was around 5.7 kPa with the overall excess air ratio of 1.06. When the boiler was operated around this optimal point, not only the combustion efficiency was improved, but also fan energy consumption and wear of heating surface were reduced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  14. How to Evaluate Low Excess Air Controls for Packaged Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Londerville, S. B.; Kerler, W. J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many types of excess-air trim systems available today in what manufacturers view as a boom market catalyzed by inflated oil prices. For the small boiler owner, determining whether low-excess-air (LEA) firing can be cost-justified and what...

  15. Steam Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.

    This paper examines several cost-effective steam conservation and boiler plant efficiency advancements that were implemented during a recently completed central steam boiler plant replacement project at a very large semiconductor manufacturing...

  16. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance. A specific goal is to achieve a material that will sinter to desired density without compromising other variables such as reaction to binder systems or phase purity. Oxygen-enhanced combustion requires a facility which is capable of supplying high purity oxygen (>99.5%) at low costs. This goal can be achieved through the thermal integration of high temperature air separation with ceramic OTM. The objective of the OTM process development program (Task 2.3) is to demonstrate successfully the program objectives on a lab-scale single OTM tube reactor under process conditions comparable to those of an optimum large-scale oxygen facility. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the first quarter April--June 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1 Oxygen Enhanced Coal Combustion; Task 2 Oxygen Transport Membranes; and Task 4 Program Management.

  17. User's manual for the INDCEPT code for estimating industrial steam boiler plant capital investment costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowers, H I; Fuller, L C; Hudson, II, C R

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The INDCEPT computer code package was developed to provide conceptual capital investment cost estimates for single- and multiple-unit industrial steam boiler plants. Cost estimates can be made as a function of boiler type, size, location, and date of initial operation. The output includes a detailed breakdown of the estimate into direct and indirect costs. Boiler plant cost models are provided to reflect various types and sources of coal and alternate means of sulfur and particulate removal. Cost models are also included for low-Btu and medium-Btu gas produced in coal gasification plants.

  18. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  19. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  20. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  1. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?˘ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?˘ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?˘ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?˘ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?˘ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?˘ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

  2. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter October-December 2003. Task 1 (Site Preparation) had been completed in the previous reporting period. In this reporting period, one week of combustion parameters optimization has been performed in Task 2 (experimental test performance) of the project. Under full-oxy conditions (100% air replacement with O{sub 2}-enriched flue gas) in 1.5MW{sub th} coal-fired boiler, the following parameters have been varied and their impact on combustion characteristics measured: the recirculated flue gas flow rate has been varied from 80% to 95% of total flue gas flow, and the total oxygen flow rate into the primary air zone of the boiler has been set to levels ranging from 15% to 25% of the total oxygen consumption in the overall combustion. In current reporting period, significant progress has also been made in Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) of the project: mass and energy balance calculations and cost assessment have been completed on plant capacity of 533MW{sub e} gross output while applying the methodology described in previous reporting periods. Air-fired PC Boiler and proposed Oxygen-fired PC Boiler have been assessed, both for retrofit application and new unit. The current work schedule is to review in more details the experimental data collected so far as well as the economics results obtained on the 533MWe cases, and to develop a work scope for the remainder of the project. Approximately one week of pilot testing is expected during the first quarter of 2004, including mercury emission measurement and heat transfer characterization. The project was on hold from mid-November through December 2003 due to non-availability of funds. Out of the {approx}$785k allocated DOE funds in this project, $497k have been spent to date ($480 reported so far), mainly in site preparation, test performance and economics assessment. In addition to DOE allocated funds, to date approximately $330k has been cost-shared by the participants, bringing the total project cost up to $827k ($810k reported so far) as on December 31st, 2003.

  3. Coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO sub x control demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Babcock Wilcox engineering studies followed by pilot-scale testing has developed/confirmed the potential of utilizing gas, oil or coal reburning as a viable NO{sub x} reduction technology. To date, two US sponsored programs promote natural gas/oil as a reburning fuel because it was believed that gas/oil will provide significantly higher combustion efficiency than using coal at the reburn zone. Although B W has shown that gas/oil reburning will play a role in reducing NO{sub x} emissions from cyclone boilers, B W coal reburning research has also shown that coal as a reburning fuel performs nearly as well as gas/oil without deleterious effects on combustion efficiency. This means that boilers using reburning for NO, control can maintain 100% coal usage instead of switching to 20% gas/oil for reburning. As a result of the B W performed coal reburning research, the technology has advanced to the point which it is now ready for demonstration on a commercial scale.

  4. Covered Product Category: Commercial Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements for commercial boilers, which is a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  5. Underdeposit corrosion in boiler applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seels, F.H.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion in industrial boilers is often associated with localized deposits. The most severe corrosion damage is often beneath the deposit. Waterside deposits can result in tube metal temperatures above the safe working limit for low-carbon steel. The variable of elevated metal temperature influences interactions between the deposit and corrosion processes under the deposit. Four case histories are discussed.

  6. Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevilla Esparza, Cristhian Israel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CombustionCombustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coupled Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . Burning

  7. Characterizing and modeling combustion of mild-gasification chars in pressurized fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C.S.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance estimates for the UCC2, IGTP1, and IGTP2 chars were made for a typical utility PFBC boiler having nominal characteristics similar to those of the American Electric Power 75 MW(e) Tidd PFBC demonstration facility. Table 2 summarizes the assumed boiler operating conditions input to the PFBC simulation code. Input fuel parameters for the chars and reference fuels were determined from their standard ASTM analyses (Table 1) and the results of the bench-scale characterization tests at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The required characterization information for the reference fuels was available from the B&W data base, and the combustion reactivity information for the mild-gasification chars was generated in the pressurized bench-scale reactor as described earlier. Note that the combustion reactivity parameters for Beulah lignite are those previously measured at low-pressure conditions. It was necessary to use the previous values as the new parameters could not be accurately measured in the pressurized bench-scale facility. Based on very limited measurements of particle size attrition in paste-type feed systems, it was assumed that all of the fuels (including the chars) would have a very small (essentially negligible) degree of attrition in the feed system. Char devolatilization parameters were assumed to be equal to those of anthracite because of the very low levels of volatiles present in UCC2, IGTP1, and IGTP2. Major fuel input parameters and higher heating values are summarized in Table 3.

  8. Characterizing and modeling combustion of mild-gasification chars in pressurized fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C.S.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance estimates for the UCC2, IGTP1, and IGTP2 chars were made for a typical utility PFBC boiler having nominal characteristics similar to those of the American Electric Power 75 MW(e) Tidd PFBC demonstration facility. Table 2 summarizes the assumed boiler operating conditions input to the PFBC simulation code. Input fuel parameters for the chars and reference fuels were determined from their standard ASTM analyses (Table 1) and the results of the bench-scale characterization tests at B W's Alliance Research Center. The required characterization information for the reference fuels was available from the B W data base, and the combustion reactivity information for the mild-gasification chars was generated in the pressurized bench-scale reactor as described earlier. Note that the combustion reactivity parameters for Beulah lignite are those previously measured at low-pressure conditions. It was necessary to use the previous values as the new parameters could not be accurately measured in the pressurized bench-scale facility. Based on very limited measurements of particle size attrition in paste-type feed systems, it was assumed that all of the fuels (including the chars) would have a very small (essentially negligible) degree of attrition in the feed system. Char devolatilization parameters were assumed to be equal to those of anthracite because of the very low levels of volatiles present in UCC2, IGTP1, and IGTP2. Major fuel input parameters and higher heating values are summarized in Table 3.

  9. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the project’s subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial operation and has achieved all the performance goals.

  10. Physical aspects and modelling of turbulent MILD combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minamoto, Yuki

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion is one of combustion technologies which can improve efficiency and reduce emissions simultaneously. This combustion type is characterised by the highly preheated reactant temperature...

  11. Predictive modelling of boiler fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this reporting period, efforts were initiated to supplement the comprehensive flow field description obtained from the RNG-Spectral Element Simulations by incorporating, in a general framework, appropriate modules to model particle and condensable species transport to the surface. Specifically, a brief survey of the literature revealed the following possible mechanisms for transporting different ash constituents from the host gas to boiler tubes as deserving prominence in building the overall comprehensive model: (1) Flame-volatilized species, chiefly sulfates, are deposited on cooled boiler tubes via the mechanism of classical vapor diffusion. This mechanism is more efficient than the particulate ash deposition, and as a result there is usually an enrichment of condensable salts, chiefly sulfates, in boiler deposits; (2) Particle diffusion (Brownian motion) may account for deposition of some fine particles below 0. 1 mm in diameter in comparison with the mechanism of vapor diffusion and particle depositions, however, the amount of material transported to the tubes via this route is probably small. (3) Eddy diffusion, thermophoretic and electrophoretic deposition mechanisms are likely to have a marked influence in transporting 0.1 to 5[mu]m particles from the host gas to cooled boiler tubes; (4) Inertial impaction is the dominant mechanism in transporting particles above 5[mu]m in diameter to water and steam tubes in pulverized coal fired boiler, where the typical flue gas velocity is between 10 to 25 m/s. Particles above 10[mu]m usually have kinetic energies in excess of what can be dissipated at impact (in the absence of molten sulfate or viscous slag deposit), resulting in their entrainment in the host gas.

  12. Sulphidation resistance of composite boiler tube materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kish, Joseph [McMaster University; Eng, Philip [FPInnovations; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations; Keiser, James R [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lab-based testing program was undertaken to generate data to better define the sulphidation resistance of composite tubes installed in the lower-furnace section of black liquor recovery boilers. All composite tube cladding alloys tested were observed to have an acceptable corrosion rate at normal operating temperatures (up to 400 C) in the synthetic lower-furnace gaseous environment tested (1% H{sub 2}S-99% N{sub 2}). This acceptable corrosion resistance is due to the expected formation of a relatively protective chromium-rich inner sulphide scale. An increase in temperature up to 560 C was found to significantly increase the corrosion rate. Of the various alloys tested, Alloy HR11N exhibited the lowest corrosion rate at each of the three temperatures tested. Moreover, the corrosion rate was found not to be strongly dependent on the fabrication route (weld overlay versus co-extruded). To minimize corrosion, operating conditions that promote prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures in the lower-furnace section of black liquor recovery boilers should be avoided, regardless of the type of composite tube installed.

  13. Why the Accuracy of Analytical Instrumentation Affects Boiler Combustion Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFadden, R. W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    process, accuracy of analysis is imperative to insure that the goal of increasing and maintaining thermal efficiency at its optimum value, is met. Accuracy, and the verification thereof is necessary in order to achieve the remaining effic~ency...

  14. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To: CongestionDevelopment ofofthe PublicDocumentof Energy

  15. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of Energy IRSJuly 2012 |EnergyMotor OperationYour

  16. Boiler Combustion Control and Monitoring System | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s ReplyApplicationCommittee |FY14Junefor Canada LunnProducts &

  17. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGrid Integration0-1 March 2013 WHAT: TheIntegrating2/19

  18. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGrid Integration0-1 March 2013 WHAT:

  19. Superheater Corrosion In Biomass Boilers: Today's Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, William (Sandy) [SharpConsultant

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report broadens a previous review of published literature on corrosion of recovery boiler superheater tube materials to consider the performance of candidate materials at temperatures near the deposit melting temperature in advanced boilers firing coal, wood-based fuels, and waste materials as well as in gas turbine environments. Discussions of corrosion mechanisms focus on the reactions in fly ash deposits and combustion gases that can give corrosive materials access to the surface of a superheater tube. Setting the steam temperature of a biomass boiler is a compromise between wasting fuel energy, risking pluggage that will shut the unit down, and creating conditions that will cause rapid corrosion on the superheater tubes and replacement expenses. The most important corrosive species in biomass superheater corrosion are chlorine compounds and the most corrosion resistant alloys are typically FeCrNi alloys containing 20-28% Cr. Although most of these materials contain many other additional additions, there is no coherent theory of the alloying required to resist the combination of high temperature salt deposits and flue gases that are found in biomass boiler superheaters that may cause degradation of superheater tubes. After depletion of chromium by chromate formation or chromic acid volatilization exceeds a critical amount, the protective scale gives way to a thick layer of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} over an unprotective (FeCrNi){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel. This oxide is not protective and can be penetrated by chlorine species that cause further acceleration of the corrosion rate by a mechanism called active oxidation. Active oxidation, cited as the cause of most biomass superheater corrosion under chloride ash deposits, does not occur in the absence of these alkali salts when the chloride is present as HCl gas. Although a deposit is more corrosive at temperatures where it is molten than at temperatures where it is frozen, increasing superheater tube temperatures through the measured first melting point of fly ash deposits does not necessarily produce a step increase in corrosion rate. Corrosion rate typically accelerates at temperatures below the first melting temperature and mixed deposits may have a broad melting temperature range. Although the environment at a superheater tube surface is initially that of the ash deposits, this chemistry typically changes as the deposits mature. The corrosion rate is controlled by the environment and temperature at the tube surface, which can only be measured indirectly. Some results are counter-intuitive. Two boiler manufacturers and a consortium have developed models to predict fouling and corrosion in biomass boilers in order to specify tube materials for particular operating conditions. It would be very useful to compare the predictions of these models regarding corrosion rates and recommended alloys in the boiler environments where field tests will be performed in the current program. Manufacturers of biomass boilers have concluded that it is more cost-effective to restrict steam temperatures, to co-fire biofuels with high sulfur fuels and/or to use fuel additives rather than try to increase fuel efficiency by operating with superheater tube temperatures above melting temperature of fly ash deposits. Similar strategies have been developed for coal fired and waste-fired boilers. Additives are primarily used to replace alkali metal chloride deposits with higher melting temperature and less corrosive alkali metal sulfate or alkali aluminum silicate deposits. Design modifications that have been shown to control superheater corrosion include adding a radiant pass (empty chamber) between the furnace and the superheater, installing cool tubes immediately upstream of the superheater to trap high chloride deposits, designing superheater banks for quick replacement, using an external superheater that burns a less corrosive biomass fuel, moving circulating fluidized bed (CFB) superheaters from the convective pass into the hot recirculated fluidizing medium and adding an insulating layer to superh

  20. Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

  1. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TechnologiesCombustion Combustion The Combustion Research Facility (CRF) is an internationally recognized center of excellence for combustion science and technology whose...

  3. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, William D

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  4. Free Energy and Internal Combustion Engine Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William D. Harris

    2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of one type (Carnot) of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) cycle is analyzed within the framework of thermodynamic free energies. ICE performance is different from that of an External Combustion Engine (ECE) which is dictated by Carnot's rule.

  5. High-temperature corrosion in advanced combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Yanez-Herrero, M.; Fornasieri, C.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conceptual designs of advanced combustion systems that utilize coal as a feedstock require high temperature furnaces and heat transfer surfaces capable of operation at much elevated temperatures than those prevalent in current coal-fired power plants. The combination of elevated temperatures and hostile combustion environments necessitate development/application of advanced ceramic materials in these designs. The present paper characterizes the chemistry of coal-fired combustion environments over a wide temperature range of interest in these systems and discusses preliminary experimental results on several materials with potential for application in these systems. An experimental program has been initiated to evaluate materials for advanced combustion systems. Several candidate materials have been identified for evaluation. The candidates included advanced metallic alloys, monolithic ceramics, ceramic particulate/ceramic matrix composites, ceramic fiber/ceramic matrix composites, and ceramic whisker/ceramic matrix composites. The materials examined so far included nickel-base superalloys, alumina, stabilized zirconia, different types of silicon carbide, and silicon nitride. Coupon specimens of several of the materials have been tested in an air environment at 1000, 1200, and 1400{degree}C for 168 h. In addition, specimens were exposed to sodium-sulfate-containing salts at temperatures of 1000 and 1200{degree}C for 168 h. Extensive microstructural analyses were conducted on the exposed specimens to evaluate the corrosion performance of the materials for service in air and fireside environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Additional tests are underway with several of the materials to evaluate their corrosion performance as a function of salt chemistry, alkali vapor concentration, gas chemistry, exposure temperature, and exposure time.

  6. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Second-Generation System Research and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Robertson; D. Horazak; R. Newby; H. Goldstein

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant--called a Second-Generation or Advanced Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (APCFB) plant--offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 45% (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. The APCFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed boiler (PCFB), and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2300 F and higher. A conceptual design was previously prepared for this new type of plant and an economic analysis presented, all based on the use of a Siemens Westinghouse W501F gas turbine with projected carbonizer, PCFB, and topping combustor performance data. Having tested these components at the pilot plant stage, the referenced conceptual design is being updated to reflect more accurate performance predictions together with the use of the more advanced Siemens Westinghouse W501G gas turbine and a conventional 2400 psig/1050 F/1050 F/2-1/2 in. steam turbine. This report describes the updated plant which is projected to have an HHV efficiency of 48% and identifies work completed for the October 2001 through September 2002 time period.

  7. Constraint-based control of boiler efficiency: A data-mining approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Z.; Kusiak, A. [University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a data-mining approach is used to develop a model for optimizing the efficiency of an electric-utility boiler subject to operating constraints. Selection of process variables to optimize combustion efficiency is discussed. The selected variables are critical for control of combustion efficiency of a coal-fired boiler in the presence of operating constraints. Two schemes of generating control settings and updating control variables are evaluated. One scheme is based on the controllable and noncontrollable variables. The second one incorporates response variables into the clustering process. The process control scheme based on the response variables produces the smallest variance of the target variable due to reduced coupling among the process variables. An industrial case study, and its implementation illustrate the control approach developed in this paper.

  8. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  9. Measurements of POM emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnichsen, T.W.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of polycyclic organic matter (POM) from fossil-fuel combustion systems are of concern due to the potential carcinogenic activity of specific POM species. The initial objectives of this research program were to (1) conduct a limited laboratory verification of state-of-the-art POM sampling and analysis techniques for pulverized coal-fired combustion exhausts and (2) measure the POM emissions of up to four coal-fired utility boilers. Initial laboratory tests, involving the injection of synthetic POM tracers into the sampling and analytical procedures were capable of accurate POM measurements. However, subsequent tracer recovery results and measurements of combustion generated POM from a coal-fired laboratory test furnace and a utility boiler were highly erratic. The program was consequently redirected to include a comprehensive evaluation of the analytical techniques and interfering factors in the flue gas or sampling train that may have impacted the POM measurements. State-of-the-art GC/MS analytical technical techniques were shown to be generally adequate, but some questions remain concerning sample preparation and adaptability for routine measurements. Review of the literature identified the potential for interaction of POM with the fly ash in either the flue-gas stream or the sampling system. The results of these evaluations were incorporated into a final field-test program on a coal-fired utility boiler. While some improvement in tracer recoveries and combustion-generated POM were obtained, several inconsistencies in the data were still apparent. Recommendations for future POM-measurement programs on utility boilers are presented.

  10. Design considerations for sludge fired fluidized bed incinerator-cum-boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bapat, D.W.; Vishwanathan, K. [Thermax Ltd., Pune (India). Research and Development Centre

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal Limited, a major player in the field of Fluidized Bed Boilers in India, has supplied on a turnkey basis, three boilers each of 22.5 tons per hour capacity as a part of Cogeneration system for PT. South Pacific Viscose, Indonesia. The plant generates huge volumes of sludge from its effluent Treatment Plant (ETP). The sludge produced from the ETP has a moisture content of about 98%, which is subsequently reduced to about 78% using a decanter before feeding the sludge into the boiler. The waste sludge has a negative heating value ({minus}150 kcal/kg on NCV basis) and required coal as support fuel for burning. The plant`s requirement was to incinerate the entire sludge generated in the plant, which meant that nearly 50% of the fuel fed to the boiler consisted of the waste sludge. Additional requirements were to burn coal and oil as back-up fuels. This paper deals with the challenges encountered and various design features provided in the configuration of the incinerator-cum-boiler including conveying, feeding and spreading arrangement of the waste sludge for effective incineration in addition to burning coal and oil. Also included in the paper is a brief description of the automatic control logics for combustion control and bed temperature control.

  11. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Topics covered in this presentation include: the continued importance of coal; related materials challenges; combining oxy-combustion & A-USC steam; and casting large superalloy turbine components.

  12. Determining boiler-water makeup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beecher, J.; Herman, K. [Ashland Chemical Co., Boonton, NJ (United States). Drew Industrial Div.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In boiler operations, it is desirable to determine blowdown--and, thus, the feedwater`s concentration cycles--because it enables operators to calculate the theoretical concentrations of iron, copper or dispersant in the system. These calculations are important for maintaining boiler cleanliness. In practice, however, it isn`t always feasible to determine blowdown. For example, if the steam, feedwater and blowdown flows are not measured in a system, or if the measurements are not accurate, the blowdown and feedwater concentration cycles cannot be accurately determined. Also, if demineralized makeup water with very-low silica concentrations is mixed with essentially silica-free condensate, the ratio of silica in the boiler water to the silica in the feedwater may not yield accurate values for the concentration cycle. This method for calculating concentration cycles is accurate to within 5%, when the accuracy of the parameters measured are within the following limits: steam flow (2%); phosphate, residual (5%); micro calcium (50%); micro iron (25%); and phosphate, feed (10%).

  13. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  14. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  15. Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP steam tip sheet on upgrading boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  17. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

    2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability in conventional coal-fired fossil power plants is most often caused by fireside corrosion of boiler waterwalls. Industry-wide, the rate of wall thickness corrosion wastage of fireside waterwalls in fossil-fired boilers has been of concern for many years. It is significant that the introduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls with staged burners systems has increased reported waterwall wastage rates to as much as 120 mils (3 mm) per year. Moreover, the reducing environment produced by the low-NOx combustion process is the primary cause of accelerated corrosion rates of waterwall tubes made of carbon and low alloy steels. Improved coatings, such as the MCrAl nanocoatings evaluated here (where M is Fe, Ni, and Co), are needed to reduce/eliminate waterwall damage in subcritical, supercritical, and ultra-supercritical (USC) boilers. The first two tasks of this six-task project-jointly sponsored by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)-have focused on computational modeling of an advanced MCrAl nanocoating system and evaluation of two nanocrystalline (iron and nickel base) coatings, which will significantly improve the corrosion and erosion performance of tubing used in USC boilers. The computational model results showed that about 40 wt.% is required in Fe based nanocrystalline coatings for long-term durability, leading to a coating composition of Fe-25Cr-40Ni-10 wt.% Al. In addition, the long term thermal exposure test results further showed accelerated inward diffusion of Al from the nanocrystalline coatings into the substrate. In order to enhance the durability of these coatings, it is necessary to develop a diffusion barrier interlayer coating such TiN and/or AlN. The third task 'Process Advanced MCrAl Nanocoating Systems' of the six-task project jointly sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)- has focused on processing of advanced nanocrystalline coating systems and development of diffusion barrier interlayer coatings. Among the diffusion interlayer coatings evaluated, the TiN interlayer coating was found to be the optimum one. This report describes the research conducted under the Task 3 workscope.

  18. Boiler System Efficiency Improves with Effective Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, D.

    Water treatment is an important aspect of boiler operation which can affect efficiency or result in damage if neglected. Without effective water treatment, scale can form on boiler tubes, reducing heat transfer, and causing a loss of boiler...

  19. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container...

  20. Best Practices: The Engineering Approach For Industrial Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blake, N. R.

    , as well as plant profitability. Boiler Best Practices represent The Engineering Approach for Boilers-a way to examine mechanical, operational and chemical aspects of the systems (pretreatment through condensate) to ensure reliable boiler operations...

  1. Internal combustion engine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, C.W.

    1987-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine system comprising: an engine body including a main combustion engine for transmitting the power generated by explosion pressure to a pumping piston and a power transmission apparatus for transmitting to a power crank shaft power that is increased by the ratio of the cross-sectional area of a combustion chamber piston to a power piston. The stroke distance of the combustion chamber piston is equal to that of the power piston; a swash plate-type stirling engine coupled to an exhaust gas outlet of the main combustion engine to be driven by exhaust heat therefrom; a one-stage screw-type compressor coupled by a driving shaft to the swash plate-type stirling engine, thereby generating a great amount of compressed air; a turbo-charger mounted adjacent to a gas outlet of the stirling engine to force a supply of fresh air into the combustion chamber of the main combustion engine; a booster being mounted between a compressed air source and the power transmission apparatus to amplify the air pressure derived from the compressed air source and then provide the amplified air pressure to the power transmission apparatus by operation of a cam in accordance with the rotation of the first crankshaft; compressed air sources being mounted between the compressor and the booster for storing a great amount of compressed air from the compressor; and an accumulator in communication with the power transmission apparatus through a fluid oil pipe, thereby maintaining constant control of the oil pressure in the power transmission apparatus.

  2. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

    2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power plants are a significant part of the nation���¢��������s power generating capacity, currently accounting for more than 55% of the country���¢��������s total electricity production. Extending the reliable lifetimes of fossil fired boiler components and reducing the maintenance costs are essential for economic operation of power plants. Corrosion and erosion are leading causes of superheater and reheater boiler tube failures leading to unscheduled costly outages. Several types of coatings and weld overlays have been used to extend the service life of boiler tubes; however, the protection afforded by such materials was limited approximately one to eight years. Power companies are more recently focused in achieving greater plant efficiency by increasing steam temperature and pressure into the advanced-ultrasupercritical (A-USC) condition with steam temperatures approaching 760�������°C (1400�������°F) and operating pressures in excess of 35MPa (5075 psig). Unfortunately, laboratory and field testing suggests that the resultant fireside environment when operating under A-USC conditions can potentially cause significant corrosion to conventional and advanced boiler materials1-2. In order to improve reliability and availability of fossil fired A-USC boilers, it is essential to develop advanced nanostructured coatings that provide excellent corrosion and erosion resistance without adversely affecting the other properties such as toughness and thermal fatigue strength of the component material.

  3. Combustion Group Group members

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    Combustion Group Group members: Thierry Poinsot, Emilien Courtine, Luc Vervisch, Benjamin Farcy § New combustion and energy-conversion concepts #12;Introduction Combustion research thrusts Combustion Dynamics and Flame-Stabilization Research objectives § Obtain fundamental understanding of combustion

  4. BPACK -- A computer model package for boiler reburning/co-firing performance evaluations. User`s manual, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, K.T.; Li, B.; Payne, R.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual presents and describes a package of computer models uniquely developed for boiler thermal performance and emissions evaluations by the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The model package permits boiler heat transfer, fuels combustion, and pollutant emissions predictions related to a number of practical boiler operations such as fuel-switching, fuels co-firing, and reburning NO{sub x} reductions. The models are adaptable to most boiler/combustor designs and can handle burner fuels in solid, liquid, gaseous, and slurried forms. The models are also capable of performing predictions for combustion applications involving gaseous-fuel reburning, and co-firing of solid/gas, liquid/gas, gas/gas, slurry/gas fuels. The model package is conveniently named as BPACK (Boiler Package) and consists of six computer codes, of which three of them are main computational codes and the other three are input codes. The three main codes are: (a) a two-dimensional furnace heat-transfer and combustion code: (b) a detailed chemical-kinetics code; and (c) a boiler convective passage code. This user`s manual presents the computer model package in two volumes. Volume 1 describes in detail a number of topics which are of general users` interest, including the physical and chemical basis of the models, a complete description of the model applicability, options, input/output, and the default inputs. Volume 2 contains a detailed record of the worked examples to assist users in applying the models, and to illustrate the versatility of the codes.

  5. An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification computations cannot happen. 1 Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been

  6. Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed Loop, Space Heating Applications Only This cost...

  7. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with BackpressureTurbine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators This tip sheet outlines the benefits of...

  8. Combustion processes in black liquor recovery: Analysis and interpretation of combustion rate data and an engineering design model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredrick, W.J.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to develop computational models for predicting the combustion times for black liquor droplets in a recovery furnace environment. These models are needed as an important component of large-scale, global recovery boiler models. The work is divided into two tasks: interpretation of experimental black liquor single droplet combustion data from two laboratories; and formulation and evaluation of computational models for the stages of combustion of black liquor droplets. This report contains the results of the project. 109 refs., 64 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Combustion Air Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughart, C. L.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of boiler control improvement projects may be disappointing due to unrealistic expectations and a failure to recognize the study and analysis required to ensure success. Early recognition of the need for data collection and boiler...

  10. Combustion Air Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughart, C. L.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of boiler control improvement projects may be disappointing due to unrealistic expectations and a failure to recognize the study and analysis required to ensure success. Early recognition of the need for data collection and boiler...

  11. A Methodology for Optimizing Boiler Operating Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, K. C.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the many ways by which an energy manager can conserve energy is the establishment of a strategy for operation of fired boilers. In particular, he can effect total fuel consumption by his decision on how much on-line boiler surplus is required...

  12. Economic Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer; Archie Robertson

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report determines the capital and operating costs of two different oxygen-based, pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants and compares their economics to that of a comparable, air-based PC plant. Rather than combust their coal with air, the oxygen-based plants use oxygen to facilitate capture/removal of the plant CO{sub 2} for transport by pipeline to a sequestering site. To provide a consistent comparison of technologies, all three plants analyzed herein operate with the same coal (Illinois No 6), the same site conditions, and the same supercritical pressure steam turbine (459 MWe). In the first oxygen-based plant, the pulverized coal-fired boiler operates with oxygen supplied by a conventional, cryogenic air separation unit, whereas, in the second oxygen-based plant, the oxygen is supplied by an oxygen ion transport membrane. In both oxygen-based plants a portion of the boiler exhaust gas, which is primarily CO{sub 2}, is recirculated back to the boiler to control the combustion temperature, and the balance of the flue gas undergoes drying and compression to pipeline pressure; for consistency, both plants operate with similar combustion temperatures and utilize the same CO{sub 2} processing technologies. The capital and operating costs of the pulverized coal-fired boilers required by the three different plants were estimated by Foster Wheeler and the balance of plant costs were budget priced using published data together with vendor supplied quotations. The cost of electricity produced by each of the plants was determined and oxygen-based plant CO{sub 2} mitigation costs were calculated and compared to each other as well as to values published for some alternative CO{sub 2} capture technologies.

  13. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

  14. Design and development for a low emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy initiated the Combustion 2000 program to develop the next generation of coal-fired power plants. Sargent & Lundy (S&L) is working on the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) portion of the program led by Riley Stoker Corporation, with support from Textron Defense Systems, Tecogen, and Reaction Engineering International. Together these organizations form {open_quotes}the Riley Team.{close_quotes} There are four phases of the LEBS development program. Currently, we are working in Phase I, which involves the design of a 400 MWe unit. Phase II through IV will involve pilot scale component testing and a Proof-of-Concept facility ({approximately}40MWe) design, construction, and operation. This document comprises the Design and Development Report for the LEBS. The report describes the design basis, design uncertainties and development plan for each of the major LEBS subsystems.

  15. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

  16. Combustion properties of coal-char blends: NO{sub x} emission characteristics. Interim final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Khan, L.; Khan, S. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Smoot, L.D.; Germane, G.J.; Eatough, C.N. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Under pulverized coal combustion conditions, NO{sub x} formed during the release of volatile matter far exceed NO{sub x} formed from combustion of the resulting char. It is believed that interactions of NO{sub x} with char is responsible for the reduced NO{sub x} formation from the combustion of char. The goal of this research is to assess the potential technical and economical benefits of co-firing coal-char blends in pulverized coal boilers to reduce NO{sub x}. The rationale for the proposed research is that the presence of char in the flame during the initial stages of combustion may provide catalytic activity for reduction of NO{sub x} produced from volatile nitrogen. This project is a cooperative effort between the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and BYU/ACERC. Seven hundred and fifty pounds of three coal-char blends containing 12.5%, 25%, and 50% char and 125 pounds of a coal-activated carbon blend containing 12.5% activated carbon were prepared. The volatile matter contents of the blends ranged from 27.3 to 35.6% (dry basis). Char (16.2 wt% volatile matter) was made from an Illinois No. 6 coal (Peabody Coal Company) in a continuous feed charring oven under mild gasification conditions. Nine combustion tests will be performed with the coal and blends in a 0.5--1.0 MBtu/hr combustor located at BYU. Combustion data will be analyzed to determine the effect of blend type, stoichiometry, and flame temperature on NO{sub x} formation, ignition characteristics, flame stability, and combustion efficiency. A four month no-cost extension has been requested for the project. The results of the combustion tests will be reported in the final technical report in December 1993.

  17. Combustion & Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, W.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) ? Combustion of fossil fuels for ? Electricity ? Industrial processes ? Vehicle propulsion ? Cooking and heat ? Other ? Munitions ? Fireworks ? Light ? Cigarettes, hookahs? FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH FFCOMBUSTION: THE THREAT ? SCALE (think health... for public health and strategies to reduce GHG ? Reduce CO2 emissions by 50% by 2030 ? Reduction in PM2.5 deaths greatly offset costs in all models FFCOMBUSTION & HEALTH FFCOMBUSTION: PM EXPOSURE ? Combustion is source of most concern ? Health...

  18. COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical Measurement of Combustion Products by Zeeman Atomicand T. Hadeishi • . . • . • . • • . • Combustion Sources offrom Pulverized Coal Combustion J. Pennucci, R. Greif, F.

  19. Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Combustion To develop a more thorough understanding of combustion, scientists and engineers must be able to analyze the interaction of many different chemical species at...

  20. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers - Control Strategies for Optimizing Performance and Comfort in Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of a gas-fired condensing boiler with baseboard convectors and an indirect water heater has become a common option for high-efficiency residential space heating in cold climates. While there are many condensing boilers available on the market with rated efficiencies in the low to mid 90% efficient range, it is imperative to understand that if the control systems are not properly configured, these heaters will perform no better than their non-condensing counterparts. Based on previous research efforts, it is apparent that these types of systems are typically not designed and installed to achieve maximum efficiency (Arena 2010). It was found that there is a significant lack of information for contractors on how to configure the control systems to optimize overall efficiency. For example, there is little advice on selecting the best settings for the boiler reset curve or how to measure and set flow rates in the system to ensure that the return temperatures are low enough to promote condensing. It has also been observed that recovery from setback can be extremely slow and, at times, not achieved. Recovery can be affected by the outdoor reset control, the differential setting on the boiler and over-sizing of the boiler itself. This guide is intended for designers and installers of hydronic heating systems interested in maximizing the overall system efficiency of condensing boilers when coupled with baseboard convectors. It is applicable to new and retrofit applications.

  1. A new blowdown compensation scheme for boiler leak detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    considers the blowdown effect in industrial boiler operation. This adds to the efficiency of recent advancesA new blowdown compensation scheme for boiler leak detection A. M. Pertew ,1 X. Sun ,1 R. Kent in identification-based leak detection techniques of boiler steam- water systems. Keywords: Industrial Boilers, Tube

  2. Integrated process and apparatus for control of pollutants in coal-fired boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, T.G.; Offen, G.R.

    1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for reducing SO[sub x] and NO[sub x] levels in flue gases generated by the combustion of coal in a boiler in which low NO[sub x] burners and air staging ports are utilized to inhibit the amount of NO[sub x] initially produced in the combustion of the coal. A selected concentration of urea is introduced downstream of the combustion zone after the temperature has been reduced to the range of 1300 F to 2000 F, and a sodium-based reagent is introduced into the flue gas stream after further reducing the temperature of the stream to the range of 200 F to 900 F. Under certain conditions, calcium injection may be employed along with humidification of the flue gas stream for selective reduction of the pollutants. 7 figs.

  3. Integrated process and apparatus for control of pollutants in coal-fired boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Terry G. (Aurora, CO); Offen, George R. (Woodside, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reducing SO.sub.x and NO.sub.x levels in flue gases generated by the combustion of coal in a boiler in which low NO.sub.x burners and air staging ports are utilized to inhibit the amount of NO.sub.x initially produced in the combustion of the coal, a selected concentration of urea is introduced downstream of the combustion zone after the temperature has been reduced to the range of 1300.degree. F. to 2000.degree. F., and a sodium-based reagent is introduced into the flue gas stream after further reducing the temperature of the stream to the range of 200.degree. F. to 900.degree. F. Under certain conditions, calcium injection may be employed along with humidification of the flue gas stream for selective reduction of the pollutants.

  4. Characteristics and sources of intermediate size particles in recovery boilers : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L. (Brigham Young University, Provo, UT); Shaddix, Christopher R.; Verrill, Christopher L. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA); Wessel, Richard A. (Babcock & Wilcox Company, Barberton, OH)

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, a collaborative investigation was conducted on the sources, characteristics, and deposition of particles intermediate in size between submicron fume and carryover in recovery boilers. Laboratory experiments on suspended-drop combustion of black liquor and on black liquor char bed combustion demonstrated that both processes generate intermediate size particles (ISP), amounting to 0.5-2% of the black liquor dry solids mass (BLS). Measurements in two U.S. recovery boilers show variable loadings of ISP in the upper furnace, typically between 0.6-3 g/Nm{sup 3}, or 0.3-1.5% of BLS. The measurements show that the ISP mass size distribution increases with size from 5-100 {micro}m, implying that a substantial amount of ISP inertially deposits on steam tubes. ISP particles are depleted in potassium, chlorine, and sulfur relative to the fuel composition. Comprehensive boiler modeling demonstrates that ISP concentrations are substantially overpredicted when using a previously developed algorithm for ISP generation. Equilibrium calculations suggest that alkali carbonate decomposition occurs at intermediate heights in the furnace and may lead to partial destruction of ISP particles formed lower in the furnace. ISP deposition is predicted to occur in the superheater sections, at temperatures greater than 750 C, when the particles are at least partially molten.

  5. Advanced Oxyfuel Boilers and Process Heaters for Cost Effective CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max Christie; Rick Victor; Bart van Hassel; Nagendra Nagabushana; Juan Li; Joseph Corpus; Jamie Wilson

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the advanced boilers and process heaters program is to assess the feasibility of integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) into combustion processes for cost effective CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Introducing CO{sub 2} capture into traditional combustion processes can be expensive, and the pursuit of alternative methods, like the advanced boiler/process heater system, may yield a simple and cost effective solution. In order to assess the integration of an advanced boiler/process heater process, this program addressed the following tasks: Task 1--Conceptual Design; Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluation; Task 3--OTM Development; Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning; and Task 5--Program Management. This Final report documents and summarizes all of the work performed for the DOE award DE-FC26-01NT41147 during the period from January 2002-March 2007. This report outlines accomplishments for the following tasks: conceptual design and economic analysis, oxygen transport membrane (OTM) development, laboratory scale evaluations, and program management.

  6. Low No sub x /SO sub x burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative's (SIPC's) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC's Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner's SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  7. Firing microfine coal with a low NOx, RSFC burner in an industrial boiler designed for oil and gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornhock, D.E.; Patel, R.; Borio, R.W. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States). ABB Power Plant Labs.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Fuels Research Center

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ABB Power Plant Laboratories (ABB-PPL) working under a US Department of Energy-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) contract has carried out tests with the Radially Stratified Flame Core (RSFC) burner which was licensed from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who developed and patented the RSFC burner. Tests were carried out in a small industrial boiler, designed for oil and natural gas, located at the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University who was working as a subcontractor to ABB-PPL. The paper presents results from the long-term testing task in the DOE-PETC program with particular attention being paid to the challenges faced in maintaining high combustion efficiencies while achieving low NOx in a small industrial boiler designed for firing oil or natural gas. The paper will also address the issue of ash management when firing coal in a boiler designed for fuels having essentially no ash.

  8. Low Temperature Heat Recovery for Boiler Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shook, J. R.; Luttenberger, D. B.

    be economically heated to within 50 0 F of the entering flue gas temperature. Other less common, but practical, uses for energy include driving a low-temperature electric turbine cycle or an absorption chilling cycle. An improvement in boiler efficiency of 3...% to 8% can normally be realized by cooling boiler flue gasses down to llO o F_200 0 F. This recovers a large quantity of the available sensible heat in most boiler flue gas streams. Efficiency can be improv ed by up to 10% if flue gas is cooled down...

  9. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion of coal and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with deposits most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Other deposit locations included side walls and return loops. Three general types of mineralogic reactions were observed to occur in the agglomerates and deposits. Although alkalies may play a role with some {open_quotes}high alkali{close_quotes} lignites, we found agglomeration was initiated due to fluxing reactions between iron (II) from pyrites and aluminosilicates from clays. This is indicated by the high amounts of iron, silica, and alumina in the agglomerates and the mineralogy of the agglomerates. Agglomeration likely originated in the dense phase of the FBC bed within the volatile plume which forms when coal is introduced to the boiler. Secondary mineral reactions appear to occur after the agglomerates have formed and tend to strengthen the agglomerates. When calcium is present in high amounts, most of the minerals in the resulting deposits are in the melilite group (gehlenite, melilite, and akermanite) and pyroxene group (diopside and augite). During these solid-phase reactions, the temperature of formation of the melilite minerals can be lowered by a reduction of the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (Diopside + Calcite {r_arrow}Akermanite).

  10. Combustion Group Group members

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    Combustion Group Group members: Thierry Poinsot, Emilien Courtine, Luc Vervisch, Benjamin Farcy 2014 #12;Combustion Group Combustion Physics and Modeling Pollutants, Emissions, and Soot Formation Thermoacoustics and Combustion Dynamics Research focus § Examine mechanisms responsible for flame stabilization

  11. NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan; Jennifer L. Sivy

    2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and Fuel Tech, Inc. (Fuel Tech) teamed to evaluate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology, capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. In a previous project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), promising results were obtained with this technology from large-scale testing in B&W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) which simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. Under the most challenging boiler temperatures at full load conditions, NO{sub x} emissions of 0.19 lb/10{sup 6} Btu were achieved firing Powder River Basin coal while controlling ammonia slip to less than 5 ppm. At a 40 million Btu/hr firing rate, NO{sub x} emissions were as low as 0.09 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. Improved performance with this system was proposed for this new program with injection at full load via a convective pass multiple nozzle lance (MNL) in front of the superheater tubes or in the convective tube bank. Convective pass lances represent the current state-of-the-art in SNCR and needed to be evaluated in order to assess the full potential of the combined technologies. The objective of the program was to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign} System. Commercial installations of B&W's low-NO{sub x} burner, in combination with overfire air ports using PRB coal, have demonstrated a NO{sub x} level of 0.15 to 0.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu under staged combustion conditions. The proposed goal of the combustion system (no SNCR) for this project is a NO{sub x} level at 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. The NO{sub x} reduction goal for SNCR is 25% from the low-NO{sub x} combustion emission levels. Therefore, overall NO{sub x} emissions would approach a level of 0.11 lb/10{sup 6} Btu in commercial installation. The goals of the program were met. At 100% load, using the MNL for very low baseline NO{sub x} (0.094 to 0.162 lb/10{sup 6} Btu depending on burner stoichiometry), an approximately 25% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved (0.071 to 0.124 lb/10{sup 6} Btu) while maintaining NH{sub 3} slip less than 6.4 ppm. At 60% load, using MNL or only wall-injectors for very low baseline NO{sub x} levels, more than 30% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved. Although site specific economic evaluation is required for each unit, our economic evaluation of DRB-4Z{reg_sign} burner and SNCR for a 500 MW{sub e} plant firing PRB shows that the least cost strategy is low-NO{sub x} burner and OFA at a cost of $210 to $525 per ton of NO{sub x} removed. Installation of SNCR allows the utilities to sell more NO{sub x} credit and it becomes economical when NO{sub x} credit cost is more than $5,275 per ton of NO{sub x}.

  12. Flame Spectral Analysis for Boiler Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalfe, C. I.; Cole, W. E.; Batra, S. K.

    range from the flames and using these measurements to determine the burner operating conditions. Two prototype instruments have been installed on package boilers at a Con Edison powerplant and Polaroid facility, and their performance has been evaluated...

  13. Flame Spectral Analysis for Boiler Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalfe, C. I.; Cole, W. E.; Batra, S. K.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FLAME SPECTRAL ANALYSIS FOR BOILER CONTROL CHRISTOPHER I. METCALFE WILLIAM E. COLE SUSHIL K. BATRA Tecogen, Inc. ( A Subsidiary of Thermo Electron Corporation) Waltham, Massachusetts ABSTRACT SPECTRAL FLAME ANALYSIS FOR BURNER CONTROL During...

  14. Commonwealth Small Pellet Boiler Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Massachusetts Clean Energy Center (MassCEC) and the Department of Energy Resources (DOER) are offering the Commonwealth Small Pellet Boiler Pilot Grant Program to provide grants to residents...

  15. Practical Procedures for Auditing Industrial Boiler Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neil, J. P.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial boiler plants are an area of opportunity in virtually every industry to save energy and reduce costs by using relatively simple, inexpensive auditing procedures. An energy audit consists of inspection, measurement, analysis...

  16. Clean Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This revised ITP tip sheet on cleaning boiler water-side heat transfer surfaces provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  17. An experimental correlation for temperature distribution at the membrane wall of CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golriz, M.R. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Thermo and Fluid Dynamics

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation was carried out to study and correlate temperature distribution at the membrane wall in the combustion chamber of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The present results and their previously published data on the temperature distribution are correlated. The experimental data corresponded to operating conditions ranging from 2.6 to 6.6 m/s superficial gas velocity, 740 to 920 C bulk bed temperature, and 3 to 70 kg/m{sup 3} suspension density for 270 {micro}m and 290 {micro}m silica sand particles. Finally, experimental data in the available literature on temperature measurements at the membrane wall of CFB boilers have been compared with the experimental results and the correlation.

  18. Boiler Efficiency--Consider All the Angles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blakeley, C. P.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of one component of any of the control loops that, together, constitute the boiler control system requires that the operator exercises manual control until the failed component is returned to service. However skilled and conscienti ous an operator... of the story. If one element of one control loop in the boiler control system drifts, the entire interactive control scheme is impaired. Operating efficiencies are sacrificed. Frequent calibration checks and recalibration is a great maintenance expense...

  19. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  20. METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project seeks to develop and validate a new pulverized coal combustion system to reduce utility PC boiler NOx emissions to 0.15 lb per million Btu or less without post-combustion flue gas cleaning. Work during previous reporting periods completed the design, installation, shakedown and initial PRB coal testing of a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at BBP's Pilot-Scale Combustion Facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA. Based on these results, modifications to the gas-fired preheat combustor and PC burner were defined, along with a modified testing plan and schedule. A revised subcontract was executed with BBP to reflect changes in the pilot testing program. Modeling activities were continued to develop and verify revised design approaches for both the Preheat gas combustor and PC burner. Reactivation of the pilot test system was then begun with BBP personnel. During the previous reporting period, reactivation of the pilot test system was completed with the modified Preheat gas combustor. Following shakedown of the modified gas combustor alone, a series of successful tests of the new combustor with PRB coal using the original PC burner were completed. NOx at the furnace exit was reduced significantly with the modified gas combustor, to as low as 150 ppm with only 36 ppm CO (both corrected to 3% O2). Concurrent with testing, GTI and BBP collaborated on development of two modified designs for the PC burner optimized to fire preheated char and pyrolysis products from the Preheat gas combustor. During the current reporting period, one of the two modified PC burner designs was fabricated and installed in the pilot test facility. Testing of the modified pilot system (modified gas combustor and modified PC burner) during the quarter included 38 tests with PRB coal. NOx reduction was significantly improved to levels as low as 60-100 ppmv with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

  1. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and...

  2. Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion Regimes Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion Regimes 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  3. Regenerative combustion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  4. Optimization of Trona/Limestone Injection for SO2 Control in Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobotec USA develops and markets air pollution control systems for utility boilers and other combustion systems. They have a particular interest in technologies that can reduce NOx, SOx, and mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and have been investigating the injection of sorbents such as limestone and trona into a boiler to reduce SOx and Hg emissions. WRI proposed to use the Combustion Test Facility (CTF) to enable Mobotec to conduct a thorough evaluation of limestone and trona injection for SO{sub 2} control. The overall goal of the project was to characterize the SO{sub 2} reductions resulting from the injection of limestone and trona into the CTF when fired with a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal used in one of Mobotec's Midwest installations. Results revealed that when limestone was injected at Ca:S molar ratios of 1.5 to 3.0, the resulting SO{sub 2} reductions were 35-55%. It is believed that further reductions can be attained with improved mixing of the sorbent with the combustion gases. When limestone was added to the coal, at Ca:S molar ratios of 0.5 to 1.5, the SO{sub 2} reductions were 13-21%. The lower reductions were attributed to dead-burning of the sorbent in the high temperature flame zone. In cases where limestone was both injected into the furnace and added to the coal, the total SO{sub 2} reductions for a given Ca:S molar ratio were similar to the reductions for furnace injection only. The injection of trona into the mid-furnace zone, for Na:S molar ratios of 1.4 to 2.4, resulted in SO{sub 2} reductions of 29-43%. Limestone injection did not produce any slag deposits on an ash deposition probe while trona injection resulted in noticeable slag deposition.

  5. Alkali deposits found in biomass boilers: The behavior of inorganic material in biomass-fired power boilers -- Field and laboratory experiences. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States); Jenkins, B.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bryers, R.W. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Oden, L.L. [Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the major findings of the Alkali Deposits Investigation, a collaborative effort to understand the causes of unmanageable ash deposits in biomass-fired electric power boilers. Volume 1 of this report provide an overview of the project, with selected highlights. This volume provides more detail and discussion of the data and implications. This document includes six sections. The first, the introduction, provides the motivation, context, and focus for the investigation. The remaining sections discuss fuel properties, bench-scale combustion tests, a framework for considering ash deposition processes, pilot-scale tests of biomass fuels, and field tests in commercially operating biomass power generation stations. Detailed chemical analyses of eleven biomass fuels representing a broad cross-section of commercially available fuels reveal their properties that relate to ash deposition tendencies. The fuels fall into three broad categories: (1) straws and grasses (herbaceous materials); (2) pits, shells, hulls and other agricultural byproducts of a generally ligneous nature; and (3) woods and waste fuels of commercial interest. This report presents a systematic and reasonably detailed analysis of fuel property, operating condition, and boiler design issues that dictate ash deposit formation and property development. The span of investigations from bench-top experiments to commercial operation and observations including both practical illustrations and theoretical background provide a self-consistent and reasonably robust basis to understand the qualitative nature of ash deposit formation in biomass boilers. While there remain many quantitative details to be pursued, this project encapsulates essentially all of the conceptual aspects of the issue. It provides a basis for understanding and potentially resolving the technical and environmental issues associated with ash deposition during biomass combustion. 81 refs., 124 figs., 76 tabs.

  6. Three dimension temperature field reconstruction with image processing technique on pulverized coal boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Peihua; Qi Guoshui; Ma Zengyi [and others

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature field distribution measurement is important for combustion diagnostics. With CCD camera, the authors can obtain abundance digital data of flame image instantaneous. Every data represent radiation heat transfer along projection beam. Based on Optic geometric and heat transfer theory, they develop a 3-d flame temperature field reconstruction technique, which can calculate a 3-d zone temperature using two perspectives CCD camera. The optical geometric relation of CCD's image formation and flame radiation heat transfer model is deduced, they establish the reconstruction equation group from radiation heat transfer, and optimization is introduced to solve these equation. The result of a PC boiler is presented.

  7. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  8. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.A.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the program was to develop an advanced coal combustion system for firing beneficiated coal fuels (BCFs) capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas. The High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor system is capable of firing microfine coal-water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system were that it be simple to operate and offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal-fired combustor technology. (VC)

  9. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovidiu Marin; Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter April-June 2003. The main focus of this quarter has been the site preparation (task 1) for the test campaign scheduled in September/October 2003. Task 3 (Techno-economical assessment) has also been initiated while selecting the methodology to be used in the economics analysis and specifying the plants to be compared: In Task 1 (Site Preparation), the process definition and design activities have been completed, the equipment and instruments required have been identified, and the fabrication and installation activities have been initiated, to implement the required modifications on the pilot boiler. As of today, the schedule calls for completion of construction by late-July. System check-down is scheduled for the first two weeks of August. In Task 2 (Combustion and Emissions Performance Optimization), four weeks of testing are planned, two weeks starting second half of August and two weeks starting at the end of September. In Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study), the plants to be evaluated have been specified, including baseline cases (air fired PC boilers with or without CO{sub 2} capture), O{sub 2}-fired cases (with or without flue gas recirculation) and IGCC cases. Power plants ranging from 50 to 500MW have been selected and the methodology to be used has been described, both for performance evaluation and cost assessment. The first calculations will be performed soon and the first trends will be reported in the next quarter. As part of Task 5 (Project Management & Reporting), the subcontract between Babcock&Wilcox and American Air Liquide has been finalized. The subcontract between ISGS and American Air Liquide is in the final stages of completion.

  10. ADVANCED, LOW/ZERO EMISSION BOILER DESIGN AND OPERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabienne Chatel-Pelage

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter July--September 2003. Significant progress has been made in Task 1 (Site Preparation), Task 2 (Test performance) and Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) of the project: the site preparation has been completed, two weeks of tests have been performed and the power generating units to be compared from an economical standpoint have been selected and accurately described. In the experimental part of this effort (task1), the partners in this project demonstrated the feasibility of 100% air replacement with O{sub 2}-enriched flue gas on 1.5MW coal-fired boiler. The air infiltration have been reduced to approximately 5% of the stoichiometry, enabling to reach around 70% of CO{sub 2} in the flue gases. Higher air in-leakage reduction is expected using alternative boiler operating procedure in order to achieve higher CO{sub 2} concentration in flue gas for further sequestration or reuse. The NO{sub x} emissions have been shown considerably lower in O{sub 2}-fired conditions than in air-baseline, the reduction rate averaging 70%. An additional week of tests is scheduled mid October 2003 for combustion parameter optimization, and some more days of operation will be dedicated to mercury emission measurement and heat transfer characterization. Out of the $485k already allocated in this project, $300k has been spent and reported to date, mainly in site preparation ({approx}$215k) and test performance ({approx}$85k). In addition to DOE allocated funds, to date approximately $240k has been cost-shared by the participants, bringing the total project cost up to $540k as on September 30, 2003.

  11. Simulation of lean premixed turbulent combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    turbulent methane combustion. Proc. Combust. Inst. , 29:in premixed turbulent combustion. Proc. Combust. Inst. ,for zero Mach number combustion. Combust. Sci. Technol. ,

  12. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describing the changes to Environmental Protection Act process standards. The DOE will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal and oil have information on cost-effective, clean energy strategies for compliance, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boiler burning to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expected to finalize the reconsideration process for its Clean Air Act pollution standards National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters (known as Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)), in Spring 2012. This rule applies to large and small boilers in a wide range of industrial facilities and institutions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal or oil have information on cost-effective clean energy strategies for compliance, including combined heat and power, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boilers to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs.

  13. Model of penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration in the paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reister, D.B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model has been developed to forecast the penetration of coal boilers and cogeneration of electricity in the paper industry. Given the demand for energy services (process steam and electricity) by the paper industry, the Penetration Model forecasts the demand for purchased fuel and electricity. The model splits the demand for energy service between energy carriers (coal, fuel oil/natural gas, bark, and spent liquor) on the basis of the installed capacity of 16 types of boilers (combinations of four types of energy carriers and four types of throttle conditions). Investment in new boilers is allocated by an empirical distribution function among the 16 types of boilers on the basis of life cycle cost. In the short run (5 years), the Penetration Model has a small price response. The model has a large price response in the long run (30 years). For constant fuel prices, the model forecasts a 19-percent share for coal and a 65-percent share for residual oil in the year 2000. If the real price of oil and gas doubles by the year 2000, the model forecasts a 68-percent share for coal and a 26-percent share for residual oil.

  14. High Efficiency Burners by Retrofit - A Simple Inexpensive Way to Improve Combustion Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, W. T.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing direct fired process heaters and steam boilers can have their efficiencies remarkably improved, and thus cut the fuel bill, by conversion from conventional type natural draft burners to high intensity, "forced draft" type burners...

  15. Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merz, Stephan

    Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution Frank LeĂ?ke and Stephan Merz Institut f Introduction We propose a solution to the steam boiler control specification problem [AS] by means of a formal

  16. An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba ()lveczky Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for different

  17. Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution Frank Le ke and Stephan Merz Institut fur We propose a solution to the steam boiler control speci cation problem AS] by means of a formal speci

  18. An ObjectOriented Algebraic SteamBoiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object­Oriented Algebraic Steam­Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba Ë? Olveczky 1# , Piotr Introduction The steam­boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for di

  19. Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henzinger, Thomas A.

    model a steam-boiler control system using hybrid au- tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models and Programming the Steam Boiler Control (J.-R. Abrial, E. Borger, and H. Langmaack, eds.), Lecture Notes

  20. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rapier, Pascal M. (Richmond, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  1. Climate Wise Boiler and Steam Efficiency Wise Rules 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milmoe, P. H.; Winkelman, S. R.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (and excess oxygen, 02), boiler tube cleaning, and re-calibration of boiler controls. ? A good tune-up with preclSlon testing equipment can detect and correct excess air losses, smoking, unbumed fuel losses, sooting, and high stack temperatures... (and excess oxygen, 02), boiler tube cleaning, and re-calibration of boiler controls. ? A good tune-up with preclSlon testing equipment can detect and correct excess air losses, smoking, unbumed fuel losses, sooting, and high stack temperatures...

  2. Rivesville multicell fluidized bed boiler. Annual technical progress report. July 1978-June 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design, construction and test program of a 300,000 lb/hr steam generating capacity multicell fluidized bed boiler (MFB), as a pollution free method of burning high-sulfur or highly corrosive coals, is being carried out. The concept involves burning fuels such as coal, in a fluidized bed of limestone particles that react with the sulfur compounds formed during combustion to reduce air pollution. Nitrogen oxide emissions are also reduced at the lower combustion temperatures. The CaSO/sub 4/ produced in the furnace is discharged with the ash or regenerated to CaO for reuse in the fluidized bed. Information is presented on continued operation of the Rivesville MFB steam generating plant in a commercial mode and for determining performance and emission characteristics; studies and tests on flyash characterization and reinjection, fuel feed eductors and needles, air distributor, corrosion-erosion and sulfur capture; engineering studies to improve MFB performance and reliability.

  3. Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering ­ Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator Currently 70 biodiesel boiler system to drive a steam engine generator. This system is to provide electricity the customer needs, a boiler fueled by biodiesel and outputting to a steam engine was decided upon. The system

  4. Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Mass and Heat balances V d dt = i - eDensity-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Finite Transitions #12;Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research

  5. Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

  6. Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is presently the world's primary fuel for generating electrical power and, being more abundant and less expensive than oil or natural gas, is expected to continue its dominance into the future. Coal, however, is more carbon intensive than natural gas and oil and consequently coal-fired power plants are large point source emitters of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Since CO{sub 2} is a greenhouse gas, which may have an adverse impact on the world's climate/weather patterns, studies have been conducted to determine the feasibility and economic impact of capturing power plant CO{sub 2} emissions for pipeline transport to a sequestration/storage site. The stack gas that exhausts from a modern coal-fired power plant typically contains about 15% CO{sub 2} on a dry volume basis. Although there are numerous processes available for removing CO{sub 2} from gas streams, gas scrubbing with amine solvent is best suited for this application because of the large gas volumes and low CO{sub 2} concentrations involved. Unfortunately the energy required to regenerate the solvent for continued use as a capturing agent is large and imposes a severe energy penalty on the plant. In addition this ''back end'' or post combustion cleanup requires the addition of large vessels, which, in retrofit applications, are difficult to accommodate. As an alternative to post combustion scrubbing, Foster Wheeler (FW) has proposed that the combustion process be accomplished with oxygen rather than air. With all air nitrogen eliminated, a CO{sub 2}-water vapor rich flue gas will be generated. After condensation of the water vapor, a portion of the flue gas will be recirculated back to the boiler to control the combustion temperature and the balance of the CO{sub 2} will be processed for pipeline transport. This proposed oxygen-carbon dioxide (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) combustion process eliminates the need for CO{sub 2} removal/separation and reduces the cost of supplying a CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration. FW has developed a conceptual design of an O{sub 2} fired boiler to determine overall plant performance and economics. Five subtasks were conducted: (1) a literature review, (2) a system design and analysis, (3) a low NOx burner design and analysis, (4) a furnace and heat recovery area design analysis, and (5) an economic analysis. The objective of the literature search is to locate any data/information relevant to the Oxygen-Based PC Boiler conceptual design. The objective of the system design and analysis task is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency within practical considerations. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 MW plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.6% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 65% of the air-fired reference case. The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent CFD computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas sw

  7. Fluidized bed boiler convective zone tube replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A major problem with the Georgetown University Atomspheric-Pressure, Fluidized-Bed Combustor-Boiler (GU AFBC) experienced during the first six years of operation was tube erosion. Previous corrective measures for in-bed tube erosion appeared to be effective, but excessive wear of the convective zone tubes was still occurring, and the entire heat transfer tube bundle in the boiler required replacement. In the planned project,the eroded tubes would be replaced, and the convective zone modified to eliminate the problem. Progress is discussed.

  8. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, M.E. (ed.); Montoya, G.M.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    XBL 803-181) product combustion gas mixtures is in samplethrough reaction in the post-combustion gases. The selectiveaddition to the post-combustion gases have been investigated

  10. COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gases of light fuel oil combustion as a function of severalsystem suitable for the combustion of light oils are underoil, shale, and biomass in these devices poses a dilemma. Much of the scientific understanding of combustion

  11. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program, under Round 2, a project for Full Scale Demonstration of Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x},) Control was selected. DOE sponsored The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Company, with Wisconsin Power & Light (WP&L) as the host utility, to demonstrate coal reburning technology at WP&L`s 110 MW{sub c}, cyclone-fired Unit No.2 at the Nelson Dewey Generating Station in Cassville, Wisconsin. The coal reburning demonstration was justified based on two prior studies. An Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and B&W sponsored engineering feasibility study indicated that the majority of cyclone-equipped boilers could successfully apply reburning technology to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions by 50 to 70%. An EPRI/Gas Research Institute (GRI)/B&W pilot-scale evaluation substantiated this conclusion through pilot-scale testing in B&W`s 6 million Btu/hr Small Boiler Simulator. Three different reburning fuels, natural gas, No. 6 oil, and pulverized coal were tested. This work showed that coal as a reburning fuel performs nearly as well as gas/oil without deleterious effects of combustion efficiency. Coal was selected for a full scale demonstration since it is available to all cyclone units and represents the highest level of technical difficulty-in demonstrating the technology.

  12. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, June--September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  13. Advanced Combustion and Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and predictive tools for fuel property effects on combustion and engine efficiency optimization (Fuels & Lubricants Technologies) * Lack of modeling capability for combustion and...

  14. Sandia Hydrogen Combustion Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Combustion Research Sandia Hydrogen Combustion Research Sebastian A. Kaiser (PI) Sandia National Laboratories Christopher M. White University of New Hampshire Sponsor: DoE...

  15. Method and system for controlled combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A. K. (Berkeley, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for controlling combustion in internal combustion engines of both the Diesel or Otto type, which relies on establishing fluid dynamic conditions and structures wherein fuel and air are entrained, mixed and caused to be ignited in the interior of a multiplicity of eddies, and where these structures are caused to sequentially fill the headspace of the cylinders.

  16. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  18. ADVANCED OXYFUEL BOILERS AND PROCESS HEATERS FOR COST EFFECTIVE CO2 CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Sirman; Leonard Switzer; Bart van Hassel

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished during the second year of the program, January-December 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Conceptual Design, Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluations, Task 3--OTM Development, Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning and Task 5--Program Management. The program has experienced significant delays due to several factors. The budget has also been significantly under spent. Based on recent technical successes and confirmation of process economics, significant future progress is expected. Concepts for integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTMs) into boilers and process heaters to facilitate oxy-fuel combustion have been investigated. OTM reactor combustion testing was delayed to insufficient reliability of the earlier OTM materials. Substantial improvements to reliability have been identified and testing will recommence early in 2004. Promising OTM material compositions and OTM architectures have been identified that improve the reliability of the ceramic elements. Economic evaluation continued. Information was acquired that quantified the attractiveness of the advanced oxygen-fired boiler. CO{sub 2} capture and compression are still estimated to be much less than $10/ton CO{sub 2}.

  19. ADVANCED OXYFUEL BOILERS AND PROCESS HEATERS FOR COST EFFECTIVE CO{sub 2} CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; G. Maxwell Christie

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished during the first year of the program, January-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1--Conceptual Design, Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluations, Task 3--OTM Development, Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning and Task 5--Program Management. The program has experienced significant delays due to several factors. The budget has also been significantly under spent. Based on recent technical successes significant future progress is expected. A number of concepts for integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTMs) into boilers and process heaters to facilitate oxy-fuel combustion have been proposed. A detailed modeling plan has been proposed and early modeling work has focused on developing spreadsheet based models for quick engineering calculations. Combustion reactor laboratory scale evaluations efforts have been delayed due to the closing of Praxair's Tarrytown facility in December 2001. Experimental facilities and personnel have been relocated to Praxair's facility in Tonawanda. The facilities have recently been re-commissioned. Work with the OTM development task has also been delayed as early material selections were discarded. More recently, more promising OTM material compositions have been identified. Economic evaluation commenced. Information was acquired that quantified the attractiveness of the advanced oxygen-fired boiler. CO{sub 2} capture and compression are still estimated to be much less than $10/ton carbon.

  20. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, S. [EPRI, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  1. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  2. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economics and/or political intervention may one day dictate the conversion from oil or natural gas to coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technical Center (DOE-FETC) supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories with support from the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University with the goal of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall goal the following specific objectives were targeted: develop a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical and operational requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintain boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieve combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and determine economic payback periods as a function of key variables.

  3. Low No{sub x}/SO{sub x} burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Baseline test report: Issue A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC`s) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC`s Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner`s SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  4. POINTWISE GREEN FUNCTION BOUNDS AND STABILITY OF COMBUSTION WAVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texier, Benjamin - Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu, Université Paris 7

    POINTWISE GREEN FUNCTION BOUNDS AND STABILITY OF COMBUSTION WAVES GREGORY LYNG, MOHAMMADREZA ROOFI for traveling wave solutions of an abstract viscous combustion model including both Majda's model and the full-wave) approximation. Notably, our results apply to combustion waves of any type: weak or strong, detonations or defla

  5. JV Task 108 - Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion and Combustion Testing of Turkish Tufanbeyli Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Hajicek; Jay Gunderson; Ann Henderson; Stephen Sollom; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two combustion tests were performed at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) using Tufanbeyli coal from Turkey. The tests were performed in a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) and a pulverized coal-fired furnace, referred to as the combustion test facility (CTF). One of the goals of the project was to determine the type of furnace best suited to this coal. The coal is high in moisture, ash, and sulfur and has a low heating value. Both the moisture and the sulfur proved problematic for the CTF tests. The fuel had to be dried to less than 37% moisture before it could be pulverized and further dried to about 25% moisture to allow more uniform feeding into the combustor. During some tests, water was injected into the furnace to simulate the level of flue gas moisture had the fuel been fed without drying. A spray dryer was used downstream of the baghouse to remove sufficient sulfur to meet the EERC emission standards permitted by the North Dakota Department of Health. In addition to a test matrix varying excess air, burner swirl, and load, two longer-term tests were performed to evaluate the fouling potential of the coal at two different temperatures. At the lower temperature (1051 C), very little ash was deposited on the probes, but deposition did occur on the walls upstream of the probe bank, forcing an early end to the test after 2 hours and 40 minutes of testing. At the higher temperature (1116 C), ash deposition on the probes was significant, resulting in termination of the test after only 40 minutes. The same coal was burned in the CFBC, but because the CFBC uses a larger size of material, it was able to feed this coal at a higher moisture content (average of 40.1%) compared to the CTF (ranging from 24.2% to 26.9%). Sulfur control was achieved with the addition of limestone to the bed, although the high calcium-to-sulfur rate required to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions resulted in heat loss (through limestone calcination) and additional ash handling. A more efficient downstream sulfur scrubber capable of operation at a much lower Ca/S ratio would result in significantly higher boiler efficiency for this coal. At the operating temperature of a typical CFBC, bed agglomeration and convective pass fouling are not likely to be significant problems with this fuel. Compared to pulverized coal-firing, CFBC technology is clearly the better choice for this fuel. It provides more efficient sulfur capture, lower NO{sub x} emissions, better solids-handling capability, and can utilize a wetter feedstock, requiring less crushing and sizing. The lower operating temperature of CFBC boilers (820 C) reduces the risk of fouling and agglomeration. Care must be taken to minimize heat loss in the system to accommodate the low heating value of the coal.

  6. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  7. Predictive modelling of boiler fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As this study incorporates in a general framework, appropriate modules to model condensable species transport to the surface along with particles, the need for a suitable solver for the reaction component of the species equations with regard to issues of stability, stiffness, economy, etc. becomes obvious. It is generally agreed in the literature that the major problem associated with the simultaneous integration of large sets of chemical kinetic rate equations is that of stiffness. Although stiffness does not have a simple definition, it is characterized by widely varying time constants. For example, in hydrogen-air combustion, the induction time is of the order of microseconds whereas the nitric oxide formation time is of the order of milliseconds. These widely different time constants present classical methods (such as the popular explicit Runge-Kutta method) with the following difficulty: to ensure stability of the numerical solution, these methods are restricted to using very short time steps that are determined by the smallest time constant. However, the time for all chemical species to reach near-equilibrium values is determined by the longest time constant. As a result, classical methods require excessive amounts of computer time to solve stiff systems of ordinary differential equations (ODE's). Several approaches for the solution of stiff ODE's have been proposed. Of all these techniques, the general purpose codes EPISODE and LSODE are regarded as the best available packaged'' codes for the solution of stiff systems of ODE'S. However, although these codes may be the best available for solving an arbitrary systems ODE'S, it may be possible to construct superior methods for solving a particular system of ODE's governing the behavior of a specific problem. In this view, an exponentially fitted method, CREK1D, deserves a special mention and is described briefly.

  8. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the roles and responsibilities of each position within the Combustion Byproducts Recyclcing Consortium.

  9. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [University of Rouen, Rouen (France)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  10. The combustion and handling properties of several heavy bitumen emulsions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whaley, H.; Wong, J.K.L.; Banks, G.N.; Lee, S.W.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A research program was undertaken by ACT/CANMET to compare the combustion and heat transfer characteristics of a number of bitumen-based water emulsions with those of heavy fuel oil. The addition of water gives some advantage in the areas of fuel handling, atomization and emissions. These studies showed that the emulsions burn and transfer heat in a manner similar to commercial heavy fuel oils and make excellent fuels for boiler and process combustors. However, if the heavy bitumen is partially upgraded, the emulsion made from these residues can sometimes give rise to combustion and emissions related concerns. Particular attention must be paid to the burner/atomization system in order to avoid combustion problems resulting in unacceptably high levels of soot deposition and emissions.

  11. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Boiler Efficiency--Consider All the Angles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blakeley, C. P.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY (Assuming constant radiation and other unaccounted-for losses) As is Reading Corrected Reading From an To an increased combustion efficiency of: original efficiency of: 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% 85% 90% 95% 50% $9.10 16.70 23...

  13. Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington D.C. ace15daw.pdf More Documents & Publications Stretch Efficiency for Combustion Engines: Exploiting New Combustion Regimes Stretch Efficiency for Combustion...

  14. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    duty Diesel Combustion Research Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Paul Miles Sandia National Laboratories Light-Duty Combustion Modeling Rolf Reitz University of Wisconsin...

  15. Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, N.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a critical role in combustion processes just as chemicalparameters are essential for combustion modeling; molecularwith Application to Combustion. Transport Theor Stat 2003;

  16. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  17. Advanced Combustion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Advanced Combustion Combustion engines drive a large percentage of our nation's transportation vehicles and power generation and manufacturing facilities. Today's...

  18. Recovery Boiler Superheater Ash Corrosion Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R [ORNL] [ORNL; Kish, Joseph [McMaster University] [McMaster University; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations] [FPInnovations

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the trend towards increasing the energy efficiency of black liquor recovery boilers operated in North America, there is a need to utilize superheater tubes with increased corrosion resistance that will permit operation at higher temperatures and pressures. In an effort to identify alloys with improved corrosion resistance under more harsh operating conditions, a field exposure was conducted that involved the insertion of an air-cooled probe, containing six candidate alloys, into the superheater section of an operating recovery boiler. A metallographic examination, complete with corrosion scale characterization using EMPA, was conducted after a 1,000 hour exposure period. Based on the results, a ranking of alloys based on corrosion performance was obtained.

  19. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fabienne Chatel-Pelage; Rajani Varagani

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reviews the work performed during the quarter April-June 2004. Task 1 (Site Preparation) had been completed 2003, along with three weeks of oxycombustion tests in Task 2 (experimental test performance) of the project. In current reporting period, the experimental testing has been completed: one additional week of tests has been performed to finalize the optimization of the combustion characteristics in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environment ; two more days of testing were dedicated to mercury sampling in air-fired or O{sub 2}-fired conditions, and to characterization of heat transfer in O{sub 2} conditions vs. to air-blown conditions. Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has also been completed in current quarter: 250MWe, 500MWe and 1000MWe oxygen-fired PC unit have been simulated and quoted, and their performance and cost have been compared to same-capacity air-fired pulverized coal (PC) unit and IGCC. New and retrofit cases have been evaluated. The comparison has been completed in terms of capital cost, operating cost, cost of electricity and cost of CO{sub 2} avoided. The scope of task 4 (Conceptual Boiler Design) had been modified as per DOE request in previous quarter. Engineering calculations are currently in progress. Next steps include detail review of the experimental data collected during the entire testing campaign, finalization of detailed report on economic task, and reporting of the preliminary results in the boiler design task. Two papers summarizing the project main achievements have been presented at Clearwater coal conference in April 2004 (overall project results), and at the CO{sub 2} sequestration conference in May 2004 (emphasis on economics). Out of the {approx}$785k allocated DOE funds in this project, $545k have been spent to date, mainly in site preparation, test performance and economics assessment. In addition to DOE allocated funds, to date approximately $400k have been cost-shared by the participants, bringing the total project cost up to $945k as on June 30, 2004.

  20. Corporate Reporting of Boiler MACT Energy Assessments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClain, C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency. 2. Improve operating mix of boilers, heaters, and fuels. 3. Maximize the use of waste fuels or process waste heat to minimize cost and emissions. 4. De-bottleneck the powerhouse & utility system. 5. Reduce improper atmospheric venting. 6... of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 What is the calculation protocol in the Super Solver to find value? As Found Historian Process Data Solver Mass/Energy Balance Optimized Plant Operation Rule...

  1. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  2. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  3. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  4. Combustion Control Using Infrared and Visible Light Devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, S. E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the boiler controller, while other heat inputs and useful heat outputs which remain relatively constant can be entered on the control panel. Wasteful heat output such as stack losses are not to be included; only useful heat outputs such as space heating... to the boiler controller at the speed of light, time lag in the combustion analysis system is 78 7.69 6.41 5.13 3.85 2.56 1.28 reduced to nil. Thus, the infrared flame monitor 79 8.86' 7.59 6.33 5.06 3.80 2.S3 1.27 ing system is capable of holding...

  5. Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel Methodology Engineering University of Notre Dame University of Notre Dame #12;Outline: Overview of combustion synthesis Reaction system Combustion front analaysis Theoretical model results Conclusions Acknowledgements #12

  6. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  7. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a presentation of work carried out on Phase II of the HIPPS program under DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 from June 1995 to March 2001. The objective of this report is to emphasize the results and achievements of the program and not to archive every detail of the past six years of effort. These details are already available in the twenty-two quarterly reports previously submitted to DOE and in the final report from Phase I. The report is divided into three major foci, indicative of the three operational groupings of the program as it evolved, was restructured, or overtaken by events. In each of these areas, the results exceeded DOE goals and expectations. HIPPS Systems and Cycles (including thermodynamic cycles, power cycle alternatives, baseline plant costs and new opportunities) HITAF Components and Designs (including design of heat exchangers, materials, ash management and combustor design) Testing Program for Radiative and Convective Air Heaters (including the design and construction of the test furnace and the results of the tests) There are several topics that were part of the original program but whose importance was diminished when the contract was significantly modified. The elimination of the subsystem testing and the Phase III demonstration lessened the relevance of subtasks related to these efforts. For example, the cross flow mixing study, the CFD modeling of the convective air heater and the power island analysis are important to a commercial plant design but not to the R&D product contained in this report. These topics are of course, discussed in the quarterly reports under this contract. The DOE goal for the High Performance Power Plant System ( HIPPS ) is high thermodynamic efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. Specifically, the goal is a 300 MWe plant with > 47% (HHV) overall efficiency and {le} 0.1 NSPS emissions. This plant must fire at least 65% coal with the balance being made up by a premium fuel such as natural gas. To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization issues of fabrication and reliability, availability and maintenance. The program that has s

  8. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  9. Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NO, reduction (70VO) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Depatiment of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was petformed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NO, emission level of 0.73 lb/1 OG Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50Y0. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NO, in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of' natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NO, emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 18%. The performance goal of 70/40 reduction was met on many test runs, but at a higher reburn gas heat input. S02 emissions, based on coal replacement, were reduced by 18%.

  10. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    9 Hot-Water Oil Boiler LCC Analysis-Efficiency Levels and10 Hot-Water Gas Boiler LCC Analysis-Efficiency Levels andfurnace and boiler energy-efficiency standards. Determining

  11. Kraft black liquor combustion: Advancement in fundamental understanding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clay, D.T.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-generated fuel streams plus purchased fossil fuel and power supply the pulp and paper industry with its energy requirements. The total industry energy use for 1986 was approximately 2.3 Quad (2300 trillion Btus). Self-generated and residue fuels accounted for 57% of the energy requirements. Spent pulping liquors provide the single largest self-generated energy source, approximately one Quad (900 trillion Btus). The pulp and paper industry also leads the nation in cogeneration performance. In 1986 eighty-nine percent (89%) of the 46 billion KWHs generated were produced by cogeneration. Spent pulping liquors supply the single largest fuel source (35%) to these cogeneration facilities. Spent pulping liquors consist of solubilized wood organics, spent inorganic chemicals, and water. Since kraft pulp dominates the North American market, 74%, kraft black liquor is the dominant spent pulping liquor. Effective recovery of high level energy and chemicals from black liquor contributes heavily toward dominance of kraft pulping. The kraft chemical recovery cycle centers around the recovery boiler. Kraft recovery boilers have been commercially available for over 50 years. The potential still exists, however, for significant improvements in energy recovery and black liquor throughput. Potential energy benefits from black liquor combustion research amount to 30 trillion Btus. Energy recovery increases often are an additional benefit from modifications made to increase black liquor throughput. Capacity increases of at least 5% are often achievable. Increased energy productivity of the kraft chemical recovery boiler will come by incorporation of improved fundamental knowledge into the technology used for boiler upgrades and new boiler construction. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Rotary internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crittenden, W.

    1987-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an improved rotary internal combustion engine comprising: (a) a combustion chamber which is generally circular in cross-section and which has a ring-like peripheral wall; (b) a driven shaft member journaled for rotation and disposed to pass eccentrically through the combustion chamber; (c) a compression chamber which is generally circular in cross-section positioned with a ring-like wall is adjacent to and spatially offset with the combustion chamber such that the driven shaft passes centrally therethrough; and (d) a circular combustion rotor fixed concentrically to the shaft member for rotation eccentrically within the combustion chamber. The combustion rotor is positioned such that the space between the periphery of the rotor and the periphery of the combustion chamber results in a crescent shape.

  13. Technical support for combustion 2000 program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.; Natesan, K.; Livengood, C.D.; Schmalzer, D.K.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) is an important component of the high-performance power system (HIPPS) being developed in the Combustion 2000 program. The purpose of HITAF is to raise superheated steam for the Rankin cycle and to heat the clean working fluid (air) to 1,800-2,400{degree}F for the Brayton cycle. Analytical and experimental investigations are being carried out to design, analyze and assess different concepts for high temperature advanced furnaces capable of heating compressed air to 1,800-2,400{degree}F; to evaluate performance of metallic and ceramic materials for service at elevated temperatures in HITAF environment; and to conduct critical, systems-oriented evaluations of advanced flue-gas cleanup (FGC) technologies appropriate to the low-emission-boiler systems (LEBS).

  14. Consider Compressed Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, R. H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sharing systems employing gas turbines. Incentives for compressed combustion have been explored and are presented in this discussion....

  15. Staged, High-Pressure Oxy-Combustion Technology: Development and Scale-Up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axelbaum, Richard; Xia, Fei; Gopan, Akshay; Kumfer, Benjamin

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Washington University in St. Louis and its project partners are developing a unique pressurized oxy-combustion process that aims to improve efficiency and costs by reducing the recycling of flue gas to near zero. Normally, in the absence of recycled flue gas or another inert gas, combustion of fuel and oxygen results in a dramatic increase in temperature of the combustion products and radiant energy, as compared to combustion in air. High heat flux to the boiler tubes may result in a tube surface temperatures that exceed safe operating limits. In the Staged Pressurized Oxy-Combustion (SPOC) process, this problem is addressed by staging the delivery of fuel and by novel combustion design that allows control of heat flux. In addition, the main mode of heat transfer to the steam cycle is by radiation, as opposed to convection. Therefore, the requirement for recycling large amounts of flue gas, for temperature control or to improve convective heat transfer, is eliminated, resulting in a reduction in auxiliary loads. The following report contains a detailed summary of scientific findings and accomplishments for the period of Oct. 1, 2013 to Sept 30, 2014. Results of ASPEN process and CFD modelling activities aimed at improving the SPOC process and boiler design are presented. The effects of combustion pressure and fuel moisture on the plant efficiency are discussed. Combustor pressure is found to have only a minor impact beyond 16 bar. For fuels with moisture content greater than approx 30%, e.g. coal/water slurries, the amount of latent heat of condensation exceeds that which can be utilized in the steam cycle and plant efficiency is reduced significantly. An improved boiler design is presented that achieves a more uniform heat flux profile. In addition, a fundamental study of radiation in high-temperature, high-pressure, particle-laden flows is summarized which provides a more complete understanding of heat transfer in these unusual conditions and to allow for optimization. The results reveal that for the SPOC design, absorption and emission due to particles is the dominant factor for determining the wall heat flux. The mechanism of “radiative trapping” of energy within the high-temperature flame region and the approach to utilizing this mechanism to control wall heat flux are described. This control arises, by design, from the highly non-uniform (non-premixed) combustion characteristics within the SPOC boiler, and the resulting gradients in temperature and particle concentration. Finally, a simple method for estimating the wall heat flux in pressurized combustion systems is presented.

  16. 2015-02-13 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2015-02-13 Issuance: Test Procedure for Furnaces and Boilers; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking This...

  17. Turbulent Combustion Luc Vervisch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kern, Michel

    ;19 "Perfect" combustion modes: Fuel + Oxidizer () Products Engines, gas turbines... Laboratory experiment1 Turbulent Combustion Modeling Luc Vervisch INSA de Rouen, IUF, CORIA-CNRS Quelques problèmes rencontrés en chimie numérique : Hydrologie - Combustion - Atmosphère 16 décembre, INRIA Rocquencourt #12

  18. Boiler Efficiency vs. Steam Quality- The Challenge of Creating Quality Steam Using Existing Boiler Efficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, G.

    A boiler works under pressure and it is not possible to see what is happening inside of it. The terms "wet steam" and "carry over" are every day idioms in the steam industry, yet very few people have ever seen these phenomena and the actual water...

  19. Make boiler feedwater with lower risks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colbert, G.L. [Rexene Products Co., Odessa, TX (United States); Reeves, G.; Combs, G. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Edmonds, C. [Glegg Water Conditioning, Inc., Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The traditional approach to produce water suitable for high-pressure boilers requires using, handling and storing hazardous materials, i.e., acid and caustic. In this case history, an ethylene manufacturer chooses a new technology--electrodeionization (EDI)--to make feedwater for its ethylene furnace`s 1,200-psig steam system. The method was chosen in place of the traditional mixed-bed demineralizer (MBD) process. The new process is competitive in both operating and capital costs. The other bonus for the operating company was eliminating the handling of hazardous materials, thus reducing environmental and safety risks.

  20. Materials development for ultra-supercritical boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported on a US Department of Energy project to develop high temperature, corrosion resistant alloys for use in ultra-supercritical steam cycles. The aim is to achieve boiler operation at 1,400{sup o}F/5,000 psi steam conditions with 47% net cycle efficiency. Most ferritic steel tested such as T92 and Save 12 showed severe corrosion. Nickel-based alloys, especially IN 740 and CCA 617, showed greatest resistance to oxidation with no evidence of exfoliation. Laboratory and in-plant tests have begun. 2 figs.

  1. List of Boilers Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano,LakefrontLighthouse SolarI JumpListBoilers Incentives

  2. Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartment ofEnergy 3Fungible andFurnaces and Boilers

  3. A Boiler Plant Energy Efficiency and Load Balancing Survey 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nutter, D. W.; Murphy, D. R.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    continuous oxygen trim equipment was estimated at $9,000 each by a local boiler controls company and depending on the economic strategy, it could be argued that oxygen trim equipment for the two largest boilers should be installed. This is not a large...

  4. Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henzinger, Thomas A.

    model a steam­boiler control system using hybrid au­ tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models and Programming the Steam Boiler Control (J.­R. Abrial, E. B¨orger, and H. Langmaack, eds.), Lecture Notes

  5. Introduction to the Boiler MACT Energy Assessment Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theising, T. R.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    served from affected boiler(s) that are under BASF’s control. • Review of architectural/engineering plans, facility O&M procedures/logs, and fuel usage • Review of facility’s energy management practice and provide recommendations for improvement where...

  6. Stack Gas Heat Recovery from 100 to 1200 HP Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judson, T. H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in reduced production and caused personnel layoffs. U.S. Government reports indicate that roughly 20% of all fuel is consumed in boilers. A savings in boiler fuel consumption can have a positive impact on energy conservation, and become an important component...

  7. A Flexural Mode Tuning Technique for Membraned Boiler Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quarry, M J; Chinn, D J; Rose, J L

    2005-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of tubing used in black-liquor recovery boilers is a major concern in all pulp and paper mills. Extensive corrosion in recovery boiler tubes can result in a significant safety and environmental hazard. Considerable plant resources are expended to inspect recovery boiler tubing. Currently, visual and ultrasonic inspections are primarily used during the annual maintenance shutdown to monitor corrosion rates and cracking of tubing. This project is developing guided acoustic waves for use on recovery boiler tubing. The feature of this acoustic technique is its cost-effectiveness in inspecting long lengths of tubes from a single inspection point. A piezoelectric or electromagnetic transducer induces guided waves into the tubes. The transducer detects fireside defects from the cold side or fireside of the tube. Cracking and thinning on recovery boiler tubes have been detected with this technique in both laboratory and field applications.

  8. Computation Modeling and Assessment of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Shingledecker; D. Gandy; N. Cheruvu; R. Wei; K. Chan

    2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability of coal-fired fossil plants is most often caused by fire-side corrosion of boiler waterwalls and tubing. Reliable coatings are required for Ultrasupercritical (USC) application to mitigate corrosion since these boilers will operate at a much higher temperatures and pressures than in supercritical (565 C {at} 24 MPa) boilers. Computational modeling efforts have been undertaken to design and assess potential Fe-Cr-Ni-Al systems to produce stable nanocrystalline coatings that form a protective, continuous scale of either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The computational modeling results identified a new series of Fe-25Cr-40Ni with or without 10 wt.% Al nanocrystalline coatings that maintain long-term stability by forming a diffusion barrier layer at the coating/substrate interface. The computational modeling predictions of microstructure, formation of continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. Advanced coatings, such as MCrAl (where M is Fe, Ni, or Co) nanocrystalline coatings, have been processed using different magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. Several coating trials were performed and among the processing methods evaluated, the DC pulsed magnetron sputtering technique produced the best quality coating with a minimum number of shallow defects and the results of multiple deposition trials showed that the process is repeatable. scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. The cyclic oxidation test results revealed that the nanocrystalline coatings offer better oxidation resistance, in terms of weight loss, localized oxidation, and formation of mixed oxides in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, than widely used MCrAlY coatings. However, the ultra-fine grain structure in these coatings, consistent with the computational model predictions, resulted in accelerated Al diffusion from the coating into the substrate. An effective diffusion barrier interlayer coating was developed to prevent inward Al diffusion. The fire-side corrosion test results showed that the nanocrystalline coatings with a minimum number of defects have a great potential in providing corrosion protection. The coating tested in the most aggressive environment showed no evidence of coating spallation and/or corrosion attack after 1050 hours exposure. In contrast, evidence of coating spallation in isolated areas and corrosion attack of the base metal in the spalled areas were observed after 500 hours. These contrasting results after 500 and 1050 hours exposure suggest that the premature coating spallation in isolated areas may be related to the variation of defects in the coating between the samples. It is suspected that the cauliflower-type defects in the coating were presumably responsible for coating spallation in isolated areas. Thus, a defect free good quality coating is the key for the long-term durability of nanocrystalline coatings in corrosive environments. Thus, additional process optimization work is required to produce defect-free coatings prior to development of a coating application method for production parts.

  9. Chlorine in coal and its relationship with boiler corrosion. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M.; Ruch, R.R.; Chou, C.L. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Limited literature and use history data have suggested that some high-chlorine Illinois coals do not cause boiler corrosion while extensive data developed by the British correlate corrosion with chlorine content and other parameters related to the coal and boiler. The differences in corrosivity in coals may be due to the coal properties, to blending of coals, or to the boiler parameters in which they were burned. The goals of this study focus on coal properties and are: (1) to characterize chlorine and other constituents in coals which have been reported to behave differently with respect to corrosion problems during combustion; (2) to determine the evolution profiles of chlorine-containing compounds in coals during pyrolysis and oxidation; and (3) to examine the behavior of Cl-, S-, N-, O-containing compounds in coal during pyrolysis. Proximate, ultimate, and ash composition analyses for all of the British and Illinois coal samples were completed in this quarter. Analysis of the acid-soluble sodium and potassium in coals is in progress. These data, along with ash composition data, will be used to assess a coal`s relative corrosion potential. The HCl evolution profiles obtained from oxidation of the five Illinois coal samples were examined. The results indicate that temperatures of maximum HCl evolution range were 430{degree}C to 450{degree}C.

  10. NOx reduction through combustion optimization at PEPCO`s Potomac River Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cramer, D.S.; Williams, S.E.; Watkins, J.T. [Potomac Electric Power Company, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the work done under EPRI Project RP 3383 at Potomac River Station to reduce NOx emissions by adjusting boiler controls. it details the method followed by PEPCO and Lehigh engineers to achieve a 35% reduction in average NOx emissions over a one-month extended test. Parameters that had the largest effect on NOx are discussed. A description of instruments installed to better monitor and control combustion is included.

  11. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  12. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2005.

  13. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2005.

  14. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of January 1 to March 31, 2006.

  15. Boiler Materials For Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2006.

  16. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Coleman; R. Viswanathan; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  17. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  18. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2005.

  19. Chlorine in coal and boiler corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Liu, L. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Ho, K.K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of superheaters in the United Kingdom has been attributed to the high level of chlorine (Cl) in British coals. On the other hand, similar high-Cl Illinois coals have not caused boiler corrosion. This suggests that the extent of boiler corrosion due to Cl may not be directly related to the amount of Cl in the coal but to how the Cl occurs in the coal or to other factors. In this study, both destructive temperature-programmed Thermogravimetry with Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR) and non-destructive X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) techniques were used to examine the thermal evolution characteristics and the forms of Cl in four Illinois and four British coals. The TGA-FTIR results indicate that under oxidizing conditions, both British and Illinois coals release hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas. Maximum evolution of HCl gas from Illinois coals occurs near 425 C, whereas, the temperature of maximum HCl release from British coals occurs between 210 and 280 C. The XANES results indicate that Cl in coal exists in ionic forms including a solid salt form. The HCl evolution profiles of the Illinois and British coals suggests that the way in which Cl ions are associated in Illinois coals is of different from the way they are associated in British coals.

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  1. Module 3: Hydrogen Use in Internal Combustion Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This course covers combustive properties, air/fuel ratio, types of pre-ignition problems, type of ignition systems, crankcase ventilation issues, thermal efficiency, emissions, power output, effect of mixing hydrogen

  2. A Detailed Multi-Zone Thermodynamic Simulation For Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Xingyu 1985-

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed multi-zone thermodynamic simulation has been developed for the direct-injection (DI) diesel engine combustion process. For the purpose of predicting heterogeneous type combustion systems, the model explores the formation of pre...

  3. A Detailed Multi-Zone Thermodynamic Simulation For Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Xingyu 1985-

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed multi-zone thermodynamic simulation has been developed for the direct-injection (DI) diesel engine combustion process. For the purpose of predicting heterogeneous type combustion systems, the model explores the formation of pre...

  4. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  5. Coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, January, February, and March 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Babcock & Wilcox engineering studies followed by pilot-scale testing has developed/confirmed the potential of utilizing gas, oil or coal reburning as a viable NO{sub x} reduction technology. To date, two US sponsored programs promote natural gas/oil as a reburning fuel because it was believed that gas/oil will provide significantly higher combustion efficiency than using coal at the reburn zone. Although B&W has shown that gas/oil reburning will play a role in reducing NO{sub x} emissions from cyclone boilers, B&W coal reburning research has also shown that coal as a reburning fuel performs nearly as well as gas/oil without deleterious effects on combustion efficiency. This means that boilers using reburning for NO, control can maintain 100% coal usage instead of switching to 20% gas/oil for reburning. As a result of the B&W performed coal reburning research, the technology has advanced to the point which it is now ready for demonstration on a commercial scale.

  6. Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

  7. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

  8. Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  9. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of the boiler. When combined with SNCR, a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.12-0.14 lb/MBtu can be expected when implementing a full ALTA system on this unit. Cost effectiveness of the full ALTA system was estimated at $2,152/ton NO{sub x} removed; this was less than 75% of the cost estimated for an SCR system on a unit of this size.

  10. Condensing Heat Exchangers Optimize Steam Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, B.; Sullivan, P. A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the flue gas from the p~oducts of combustion faom natural gas from 300 to the dew point of 129 results in an efficiency increase of 3%. Further cooling, resulting in condensa tion of water vapor, increases the rate of heat recovery dramatically and a...

  11. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMICS OF A NOMINAL 500 MWe SECOND-GENERATION PFB COMBUSTION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Robertson; H. Goldstein; D. Horazak; R. Newby

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research has been conducted under United States Department of Energy Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called a Second Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Plant (2nd Gen PFB), offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 48 percent, with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than those of conventional pulverized coal-fired (PC) plants with wet flue gas desulfurization. The 2nd Gen PFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed boiler, and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a gas turbine combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2300 F and higher. A conceptual design and an economic analysis was previously prepared for this plant. When operating with a Siemens Westinghouse W501F gas turbine, a 2400psig/1000 F/1000 F/2-1/2 in. Hg. steam turbine, and projected carbonizer, PCFB, and topping combustor performance data, the plant generated 496 MWe of power with an efficiency of 44.9 percent (coal higher heating value basis) and a cost of electricity 22 percent less than a comparable PC plant. The key components of this new type of plant have been successfully tested at the pilot plant stage and their performance has been found to be better than previously assumed. As a result, the referenced conceptual design has been updated herein to reflect more accurate performance predictions together with the use of the more advanced Siemens Westinghouse W501G gas turbine. The use of this advanced gas turbine, together with a conventional 2400 psig/1050 F/1050 F/2-1/2 in. Hg. steam turbine increases the plant efficiency to 48.2 percent and yields a total plant cost of $1,079/KW (January 2002 dollars). The cost of electricity is 40.7 mills/kWh, a value 12 percent less than a comparable PC plant.

  12. Pilot-scale boiler study of sulfur hexafluoride and emissions of CO, CO sub 2 , O sub 2 , and unburned hydrocarbons as surrogates for verification of hazardous waste destruction removal efficiency. Final report, October 1986-June 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proctor, C.L.; Fournier, D.L.; Hopmeier, M.; Roychoudhury, S.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as a tracer and emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and unburned hydrocarbons as surrogates for verification of hazardous-waste destruction removal efficiency (DRE) is discussed. These measurements were made in a pilot-scale firetube boiler facility and in a natural gas fired steam plant boiler. The data indicates that toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, and isopropanol are well-suited for destruction in a firetube boiler environment. Trichloroethylene and monochlorobenzene required auxillary fuel to maintain stable combustion. SF6 DRE was significantly lower than waste DREs for all runs. It also tracked waste DREs in most runs. Reduced waste and SF6 DREs were accompanied by lower emissions of CO{sub 2} and by increased emissions of O{sub 2} and total unburned hydrocarbons (TUHC). DREs tended to fall with increased CO concentration depicted by a few data points.

  13. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume A. Southern Research Institute report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion tests were performed using three forms of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) as the fuel for a 700 hp oil-designed water-tube boiler at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). This report contains the results from a program of measurements and analyses performed by Southern Research Institute (SoRI) under contract to the International Coal Refining Company (ICRC). The major objectives of the work performed by Southern Research Institute were: (1) to characterize the particulate matter resulting from the combustion of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) and its fuel forms, and (2) to develop estimates of the specific collection areas required for varying levels of collection of fly ash from SRC combustion in electrostatic precipitators. The report contains physical and chemical characterizations of particles collected during the combustion experiments, and a discussion of electrostatic precipitation of SRC fly ash based on performance measurements with a small-scale precipitator and on simulations using a mathematical model. 9 references, 90 figures, 14 tables.

  14. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to 40% by 2010, the CCP Extension Program be expanded at OSU, with support from state and federal agencies, utilities, trade groups, and the university, to focus on the following four specific areas of promise: (a) Expanding use in proven areas (such as use of fly ash in concrete); (b) Removing or reducing regulatory and perceptual barriers to use (by working in collaboration with regulatory agencies); (c) Developing new or under-used large-volume market applications (such as structural fills); and (d) Placing greater emphasis on FGD byproducts utilization.

  15. Improved Boiler System Operation with Real-time Chemical Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, D.; Jenkins, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and increased energy costs. Next, the boiler scale inhibitor feed and control was switched to the new boiler controller. The controller uses an inert tracer which directly correlates to the amount of inhibitor in the sample monitored. This guarantees... to improve average levels of inhibitor by 30%. See Table 2. The new automation control achieved an average of 3.99 ppm with a target of 4.0 ppm. Even during variable steam loads the boiler controller maintained the consistency of the inhibitor...

  16. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY); Bool, III, Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  17. Low NOx combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  18. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  19. In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernath, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sinquefield, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States); Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Barfield, M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility]|[Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Fluidized bed combustion of alternate fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howe, W.C.; Divilio, R.J. [Combustion Systems, Inc., Aptos, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology offers the opportunity combust a broader range of fuels than previously possible with other technologies. FBC boilers are currently being used throughout the world to dispose of a wide range of solid and semi-solid waste fuels, including municipal and industrial solid wastes and sludges, agricultural wastes, and coal mining or cleaning wastes. FBCs can also accommodate cofiring waste fuels in units designed for coal or other solid fuels with relative ease compared to conventional technology. The capacity and experience base for coal-fired FBCs has increased in recent years so that utility-scale reheat units of 200-300 MWe in size are now commercially available, and larger units are now being considered. As utilities install fluidized bed boilers to generate power, it is anticipated that many will at some point consider cofiring one or more waste fuels either together or with coal to reduce the quantity and cost of the primary fuel, and in many cases, help offset the environmental impact of other disposal options such as landfills. In order to assist the industry in their evaluations, this report summarizes the fuel characteristics, experience base, and technical issues associated with burning selected fuels using FBC technology, including: Municipal Solid Wastes; Biomass; Sewage Sludge; Paper Manufacturing and Recycling Wastes; Scrap Tires; and Automobile Wastes.

  1. JV 58-Effects of Biomass Combustion on SCR Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Joshua R. Strege; Donald P. McCollor; Jason D. Laumb; Lingbu Kong

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable slipstream selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactor was installed at a biomass cofired utility boiler to examine the rates and mechanisms of catalyst deactivation when exposed to biomass combustion products. The catalyst was found to deactivate at a much faster rate than typically found in a coal-fired boiler, although this may have been the result of high ash loading rather than a general property of biomass combustion. Deactivation was mainly the result of alkali and alkaline-earth sulfate formation and growth in catalyst pores, apparently caused by alkaline-earth ash deposition on or near the pore sites. The high proportion of biomass in the fuel contributed to elevated levels of alkali and alkaline-earth material in the ash when compared to coal ash, and these higher levels provided more opportunity for sulfate formation. Based on laboratory tests, neither catalyst material nor ammonia contributed measurably to ash mass gains via sulfation. A model constructed using both field and laboratory data was able to predict catalyst deactivation of catalysts under subbituminous coal firing but performed poorly at predicting catalyst deactivation under cofiring conditions. Because of the typically higher-than coal levels of alkali and alkaline-earth elements present in biomass fuels that are available for sulfation at typical SCR temperatures, the use of SCR technology and biomass cofiring needs to be carefully evaluated prior to implementation.

  2. A new coordinated control strategy for boiler-turbine system of coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.Y.; Liu, H.B.; Cai, W.J.; Soh, Y.C.; Xie, L.H. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the new development of the boiler-turbine coordinated control strategy using fuzzy reasoning and autotuning techniques. The boiler-turbine system is a very complex process that is a multivariable, nonlinear, slowly time-varying plant with large settling time and a lot of uncertainties. As there exist strong couplings between the main steam pressure control loop and the power output control loop in the boiler-turbine unit with large time-delay and uncertainties, automatic coordinated control of the two loops is a very challenging problem. This paper presents a new coordinated control strategy (CCS) which is organized into two levels: a basic control level and a high supervision level. Proportional-integral derivative (PID) type controllers are used in the basic level to perform basic control functions while the decoupling between two control loops can be realized in the high level. A special subclass of fuzzy inference systems, called the Gaussian partition with evenly (GPE) spaced midpoints systems, is used to self-tune the main steam pressure PID controller's parameters online based on the error signal and its first difference, aimed at overcoming the uncertainties due to changing fuel calorific value, machine wear, contamination of the boiler heating surfaces and plant modeling errors. For the large variation of operating condition, a supervisory control level has been developed by autotuning technique. The developed CCS has been implemented in a power plant in China, and satisfactory industrial operation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy has enhanced the adaptability and robustness of the process. Indeed, better control performance and economic benefit have been achieved.

  3. Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, especially NOX. The project involved operating gas reburning technology combined with low NO, burner technology (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired utility boiler. Low NOX burners are designed to create less NOX than conventional burners. However, the NO, control achieved is in the range of 30-60-40, and typically 50%. At the higher NO, reduction levels, CO emissions tend to be higher than acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce the level of NO. in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. When combined, GR and LNBs work in harmony to both minimize NOX emissions and maintain an acceptable level of CO emissions. The demonstration was performed at Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit 3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW. wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal and had a pre GR-LNB baseline NOX emission of 0.73 lb/1 Oe Btu. The target for the project was a reduction of 70 percent in NOX emissions. Project sponsors included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER). EER conducted a comprehensive test demonstration program over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved. Intensive measurements were taken to quantify the reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability, and all factors influencing costs. The results showed that GR-LNB technology achieved excellent emission reductions. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was somewhat less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 180A. The performance goal of 70% reduction was met on many test runs, but at higher gas heat inputs. The impact on boiler equipment was determined to be very minimal. Toward the end of the testing, the flue gas recirculation (used to enhance gas penetration into the furnace) system was removed and new high pressure gas injectors were installed. Further, the low NOX burners were modified and gave better NO. reduction performance. These modifications resulted in a similar NO, reduction performance (64%) at a reduced level of gas heat input (-13Yo). In addition, the OFA injectors were re-designed to provide for better control of CO emissions. Although not a part of this project, the use of natural gas as the primary fuel with gas reburning was also tested. The gas/gas reburning tests demonstrated a reduction in NOX emissions of 43% (0.30 lb/1 OG Btu reduced to 0.17 lb/1 OG Btu) using 7% gas heat input. Economics are a key issue affecting technology development. Application of GR-LNB requires modifications to existing power plant equipment and as a result, the capital and operating costs depend largely on site-specific factors such as: gas availability at the site, gas to coal delivered price differential, sulfur dioxide removal requirements, windbox pressure, existing burner throat diameters, and reburn zone residence time available. Based on the results of this CCT project, EER expects that most GR-LNB installations will achieve at least 60% NOX control when firing 10-15% gas. The capital cost estimate for installing a GR-LNB system on a 300 MW, unit is approximately $25/kW. plus the cost of a gas pipeline (if required). Operating costs are almost entirely related to the differential cost of the natural gas compared to coal.

  4. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

  5. Application of Multivariable Control to Oil and Coal Fired Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increased visibility provided by advanced measurement and control techniques has shown that control of oil and coal fired boilers is a complex problem involving simultaneous determination of flue gas carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, opacity...

  6. Experience with boiler corrosion using an all polymer program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaffer, A.E.; AlMajnouni, A.D. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reliability of the life expectancy of boilers and related equipment have been compromised due to severe chemical attack resulting in corroded tubes at different locations in the boilers. Although it seems that a chelant is responsible for the tinning, glassy, smooth, and featureless surfaces so characteristic of the chemical attack, ultimately, it is an all polymer program which has induced this corrosion. However, an all polymer program, if applied properly, would not create this corrosion. The severe corrosion experienced with the all polymer program resulted from misapplication, including high levels of residual polymer, low hydroxide alkalinity, and high cycles of concentration in conjunction with prior acid cleaning, which produced clean boiler tubes. This paper not only attempts to investigate this corrosion, but further, it recommends possible methods to mitigate polymer corrosion in the future and enhance the overall condition of the boilers.

  7. Cost-Effective Industrial Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.

    Natural gas and electricity are expensive to the extent that annual fuel and power costs can approach the initial cost of an industrial boiler plant. Within this context, this paper examines several cost-effective efficiency advancements that were...

  8. Improving Boiler Efficiency Modeling Based on Ambient Air Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.

    Optimum economic operation in a large power plant can cut operating costs substantially. Individual plant equipment should be operated under conditions that are most favorable for maximizing its efficiency. It is widely accepted that boiler load...

  9. Improving Boiler Efficiency Modeling Based On Ambient Air Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimum economic operation in a large power plant can cut operating costs substantially. Individual plant equipment should be operated under conditions that are most favorable for maximizing its efficiency. It is widely accepted that boiler load...

  10. Best Practices: The Engineering Approach For Industrial Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blake, N. R.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A plant's boilers represent a large capital investment, as well as a crucial portion of overall plant operations, regardless of the industry our customers are in. It is important to have systems and procedures in place to protect this investment...

  11. Application of Oxygen Trim Control to Small Packaged Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    control. New mechanical interfaces capable of modifying the relationship between the air and fuel linkage on existing boilers without expensive jackshaft modification or installation difficulties has significantly reduce the installed cost. A field...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: combustion simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    combustion simulation Direct Measurement of Key Molecule Will Increase Accuracy of Combustion Models On March 3, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, CRF, Energy,...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: advanced combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    combustion Sandia and General Motors: Advancing Clean Combustion Engines with Predictive Simulation Tools On February 14, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Partnership, Transportation Energy...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Engine Combustion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Direct Measurement of Key Molecule Will Increase Accuracy of Combustion Models On March 3, 2015, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, CRF, Energy, Facilities, News,...

  15. Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research Optimized Algorithms Boost Combustion Research Methane Flame Simulations Run 6x Faster on NERSC's Hopper Supercomputer November 25,...

  16. ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory ALS Evidence Confirms Combustion Theory Print Wednesday, 22 October 2014 11:43 Researchers recently uncovered the first step in the process...

  17. An atmospheric pressure, fluidized bed combustion system burning high-chlorine coals in the convection section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, K.; Xie, W.; Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of fireside corrosion in power plant boiler components is always a major concern when the fuels include high-sulfur and high-chlorine coals (or refuse waste). Sulfur and chloride products may play important roles especially in fireside corrosion in atmospheric pressure, fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) systems, caused by the capture of sulfur and chlorine by limestone used as bed material in the combustor, and the resulting deposition of sulfur- or chlorine-rich compounds onto metallic surfaces. Results were reported from tests in a 0.1-MW{sub th} AFBC system where 1,000-h test burns were conducted using two coals with widely differing chlorine levels, and limestone was used as the sulfur sorbent. Coupons of three stainless steels (Types 304 [UNS S30400], 309 [UNS S30900], 347 [UNS S34700]) were exposed to the hot flue gases in the freeboard ({approximately} 10- cm below the location of the convection pass tubes). Deposits formed on the alloys contained high sulfur concentrations in their outer parts, as well as sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. Sulfur appeared to be associated with calcium and magnesium, suggesting that the fly ash may have reacted further after being deposited on the surface of the coupon. Areas of high sulfur concentration also correlated well with areas of high chromium content of the inner layers of the scales. cross sections of samples indicated that sulfur had penetrated into the alloy and reacted to form sulfide corrosion products. There was no direct evidence to show that alkali chlorides were involved in the corrosion process. No chloride was identified in the alloy samples. There was slight oxide spallation observed on all three alloys, with the degree of spallation in the following order: Type 304 > Type 347 > Type 309.

  18. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  19. Climate Wise Boiler and Steam Efficiency Wise Rules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milmoe, P. H.; Winkelman, S. R.

    (and excess oxygen, 02), boiler tube cleaning, and re-calibration of boiler controls. ? A good tune-up with preclSlon testing equipment can detect and correct excess air losses, smoking, unbumed fuel losses, sooting, and high stack temperatures... control 7. Utilize characterizable fuel valve 8. Convert to atomizing burners Stack Losses and Waste Heat Recovery 9. Reduce net stack temperature by 40 of 10. Utilize stack dampers II. Direct contact condensation heat recovery 12. Pre...

  20. Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

  1. Notice of construction for proposed backup package boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site steam plant consists of coal-fired boilers located at the 200 East and the 200 West Areas. These boilers have provided steam to heat and cool facilities in the 200 Areas since the early 1940`s. As part of Project L-017, ``Steam System Rehabilitation, Phase II``, the 200 West Area coal-fired boilers will be permanently shut down. The shut down will only occur after a proposed package backup boiler (50,000 pounds per hour (lb/hr) steam, firing No. 2 oil) is installed at the 200 West Area. The proposed backup boiler will provide back-up services when the 200 East Area steam line, which provides steam to the 200 West Area, is down for maintenance or, when the demand for steam exceeds the supply available from the 200 East Plant. This application is a request for approval to construct and operate the package backup boiler. This request is being made pursuant to Washington Administration Code (WAC) Chapter 173-400, ``General Regulations for Air Pollution Sources``, and Chapter 173-460, ``Controls for New Sources of Toxic Air Pollutants``.

  2. Guided wave acoustic monitoring of corrosion in recovery boiler tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quarry, M J; Chinn, D J

    2004-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion of tubing used in black-liquor recovery boilers is a major concern in all pulp and paper mills. Extensive corrosion in recovery boiler tubes can result in a significant safety and environmental hazard. Considerable plant resources are expended to inspect recovery boiler tubing. Currently, visual and ultrasonic inspections are primarily used during the annual maintenance shutdown to monitor corrosion rates and cracking of tubing. This Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies project is developing guided acoustic waves for use on recovery boiler tubing. The feature of this acoustic technique is its cost-effectiveness in inspecting long lengths of tubes from a single inspection point. A piezoelectric or electromagnetic transducer induces guided waves into the tubes. The transducer detects fireside defects from the coldside or fireside of the tube. Cracking and thinning on recovery boiler tubes have been detected with this technique in both laboratory and field applications. This technique appears very promising for recovery boiler tube application, potentially expediting annual inspection of tube integrity.

  3. Chemical Kinetic Models for HCCI and Diesel Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitz, W J; Westbook, C K; Mehl, M

    2008-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon fuels for advanced combustion engines consist of complex mixtures of hundreds or even thousands of different components. These components can be grouped into a number of chemically distinct classes, consisting of n-paraffins, branched paraffins, cyclic paraffins, olefins, oxygenates, and aromatics. Biodiesel contains its own unique chemical class called methyl esters. The fractional amounts of these chemical classes are quite different in gasoline, diesel fuel, oil-sand derived fuels and bio-derived fuels, which contributes to the very different combustion characteristics of each of these types of combustion systems. The objectives of this project are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for diesel and HCCI engines; (2) Develop surrogate fuel models to represent real fuels and model low temperature combustion strategies in HCCI and diesel engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency; and (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on low temperature combustion modes of advanced combustion engines.

  4. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor, Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuel performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

  5. Theoretical studies on hydrogen ignition and droplet combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Álamo, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2 Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . .Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lewis, B. and von Elbe, G. Combustion, Flames and Explosions

  6. Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuels and Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  7. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

  8. Computation of azimuthal combustion instabilities in an helicopter combustion chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicoud, Franck

    Computation of azimuthal combustion instabilities in an helicopter combustion chamber C. Sensiau to compute azimuthal combustion instabilities is presented. It requires a thermoacoustic model using a n - formulation for the coupling between acoutics and combustion. The parameters n and are computed from a LES

  9. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3, Industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, R.L.; Borio, R. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G. [Pennsylvania State, PA (United States); McGowan, J.G. [Massachusetts Univ. (United States)

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to retrofit the previously developed High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. During this reporting period, activities included completing the ``Task 3 Topical Report.`` The report is being reviewed internally by the ABB CE project team. Overall, all the program goals were met except carbon conversion efficiency. Based on all the results obtained to date the ABB CE/Penn State team believes that conducting the 1000 hr demonstration (Task 5) is warranted. Since, Penn State has planned to conduct long term combustion tests on micronized coal and coal-water fuels for other DOE-funded Projects during the first quarter of 1995, the demonstration phase (Task 5) of the subject program is tentatively scheduled to begin in June 1995, pending DOE approval. Work continued under Task 4.0 to complete the ``Commercialization Plan`` with ABB CE`s cognizant Business Unit. To address the lower combustion efficiency than the original project goal (95% vs 98%) during Task 3, the data were evaluated in-detail to understand which of the key parameters might be adjusted to achieve the desired burnout. To identify reasons for this lower combustion efficiency, and to evaluate which of the key parameters (i.e, coal fineness, residence time, coal reactivities etc.) are important for maximizing the combustion efficiency, ABB CE`s proprietary mathematical model known as the Lower Furnace Program-Slice Kinetic Model (LFP-SKM) was used for simulating the combustion process in the Penn State boiler (at full load firing rate). Fuel kinetic information for this study was selected on a surrogate basis from ABB CE`s extensive in-house data base.

  10. System design study to reduce capital and operating cost of a moving distributor, AFB advanced concept - comparison with an oil-fired boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mah, C.S.; West, L.K.; Anderson, R.E.; Berkheimer, I.L.; Cahill, D.V.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Aerojet Energy Conversion Company, under contract with the United States Department of Energy, has performed a comparative economic study of the Aerojet Universal Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (UAFBC) system and a coventional atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) system. The program title, ''System Design Study to Reduce Capital and Operating Cost and Bench Scale Testing of a Moving Distributor, AFB Concept,'' is a good description of the general objective of the program. The specific objective was to compare the UAFBC with the conventional AFBC in terms of normalized steam cost. The boilers were designed for 150,00 lb/hr of steam at 650 psig and 750/sup 0/F. The reference coal used in the analysis was Pittsburgh No. 8 coal with a sulfur content of 4.3% and a higher heating value of 12,919 Bru/lb. The analysis assumed a plant life of 20 years and a discount rate of 15%. The UAFBC systems included the usual elements of the conventional cola-fired AFBC steam plant, but the coal preparation sysbsystem for the UAFBC was considerably simpler because the system can use ''run-of-mine'' coal. The UAFBC boiler itself consisted of a staged-combustion fluidized-bed, superimposed over a static bed, the latter supported by a moving distributor. It incorporated a fines burnup combustor, an entrained reciculating gas cleanup bed, and conventional convection boiler. The key features of the UAFBC design were: High fuel flexibility; low NO/sub x/ emission; and superior turndown capability. 30 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Predictive modelling of boiler fouling. Final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatwani, A

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A spectral element method embodying Large Eddy Simulation based on Re- Normalization Group theory for simulating Sub Grid Scale viscosity was chosen for this work. This method is embodied in a computer code called NEKTON. NEKTON solves the unsteady, 2D or 3D,incompressible Navier Stokes equations by a spectral element method. The code was later extended to include the variable density and multiple reactive species effects at low Mach numbers, and to compute transport of large particles governed by inertia. Transport of small particles is computed by treating them as trace species. Code computations were performed for a number of test conditions typical of flow past a deep tube bank in a boiler. Results indicate qualitatively correct behavior. Predictions of deposition rates and deposit shape evolution also show correct qualitative behavior. These simulations are the first attempts to compute flow field results at realistic flow Reynolds numbers of the order of 10{sup 4}. Code validation was not done; comparison with experiment also could not be made as many phenomenological model parameters, e.g., sticking or erosion probabilities and their dependence on experimental conditions were not known. The predictions however demonstrate the capability to predict fouling from first principles. Further work is needed: use of large or massively parallel machine; code validation; parametric studies, etc.

  12. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  13. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  14. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  15. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  16. Four Lectures on Turbulent Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Norbert

    Four Lectures on Turbulent Combustion N. Peters Institut f¨ur Technische Mechanik RWTH Aachen Turbulent Combustion: Introduction and Overview 1 1.1 Moment Methods in Modeling Turbulence with Combustion and Velocity Scales . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.4 Regimes in Premixed Turbulent Combustion

  17. Long term performance of boilers using landfill gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulledge, J.; Cosulich, J.; Ahmed, S.L.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US EPA estimates that approximately 600 to 700 landfills produce sufficient gas for profitable energy production in the United States. The gas from these landfills could provide enough electricity for about 3 million homes. Yet, there are only about 120 operating landfill gas to energy facilities. A lack of information on successful projects may cause part of this shortfall. This paper provides information on 4 successful projects using landfill gas fired boilers, some of which have operated over a decade. Natural gas fired boilers can be easily converted to bum landfill gas. Several modifications to Districts` boilers, described in this paper, have resulted in many years of safe and corrosion free operation. Most of the modifications are minor. Conversion can be accomplished for under $100,000 in many cases. Information on the reliability and longevity of landfill gas supplies is also provided. Gas from a given landfill is generally available over 99.5% of the time with about 5 brief flow interruptions annually. Actual data from 3 landfills document the high availability of landfill gas. To show the longevity of landfill gas flows, data from the Palos Verdes Landfill are provided. The Palos Verdes Landfill closed in 1980. The Palos Verdes. Landfill Gas to Energy Facility is currently producing over 8 megawatts. Landfill gas pretreatment is not required for boilers. In cases where the landfill gas is being piped offsite, it is usually cost effective to dehydrate the landfill gas. Landfill gas bums cleaner than natural gas. NO{sub x} emissions from landfill gas fired boilers are lower because of the carbon dioxide in the landfill gas. Trace organic destruction efficiency is usually over 99% in landfill gas fired boilers. In addition, flare emissions are eliminated when landfill gas is used to displace fossil fuels in boilers.

  18. Performance of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor. Task 2, Pilot scale combustion tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toqan, M.A.; Paloposki, T.; Yu, T.; Teare, J.D.; Beer, J.M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under contract from DOE-PETC, Combustion Engineering, Inc. undertook the lead-role in a multi-task R&D program aimed at development of a new burner system for coal-based fuels; the goal was that this burner system should be capable of being retrofitted in oil- or gas-fired industrial boilers, or usable in new units. In the first phase of this program a high efficiency advanced coal combustor was designed jointly by CE and MIT. Its burner is of the multiannular design with a fixed shrouded swirler in the center immediately surrounding the atomizer gun to provide the ``primary act,`` and three further annuli for the supply of the ``secondary air.`` The degree of rotation (swirl) in the secondary air is variable. The split of the combustion air into primary and secondary air flows serves the purpose of flame stabilization and combustion staging, the latter to reduce NO{sub x} formation.

  19. HYDRONIC BASEBOARD THERMAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WITH OUTDOOR RESET CONTROL TO ENABLE THE USE OF A CONDENSING BOILER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of condensing boilers in residential heating systems offers the potential for significant improvements in efficiency. For these to operate in a condensing mode the return water temperature needs to be about 10 degrees below the saturation temperature for the flue gas water vapor. This saturation temperature depends on fuel type and excess air and ranges from about 110 F to 135 F. Conventional baseboard hydronic distribution systems are most common and these are designed for water temperatures in the 180 F range, well above the saturation temperature. Operating strategies which may allow these systems to operate in a condensing mode have been considered in the past. In this study an approach to achieving this for a significant part of the heating season has been tested in an instrumented home. The approach involves use of an outdoor reset control which reduces the temperature of the water circulating in the hydronic loop when the outdoor temperature is higher than the design point for the region. Results showed that this strategy allows the boiler to operate in the condensing region for 80% of the winter heating season with oil, 90% with propane, and 95% with gas, based on cumulative degree days. The heating system as tested combines space heating and domestic hot water loads using an indirect, 40 gallon tank with an internal heat exchanger. Tests conducted during the summer months showed that the return water temperature from the domestic hot water tank heat exchanger is always below a temperature which will provide condensing operation of the boiler. In the field tests both the condensing boiler and the conventional, non-condensing boiler were in the test home and each was operated periodically to provide a direct performance comparison.

  20. Biomass Boiler and Furnace Emissions and Safety Regulations in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Air Use Management (NESCAUM) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, Economic Development...

  1. Improved Combustion System for Energy Conservation in Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thekdi, A. C.; Hemsath, K. H.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into the furnace. This paper describes various types of burners, their applications, and field test results which illustrate that a properly designed and applied combustion system can reduce the energy consumption and improve the productivity by reducing...

  2. Project Sponsors: UCI Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    of a Commercial Microturbine Generator". 8th U. S. National Combustion Meeting. · R. Hack and V. McDonell. (2008 Microturbine Generator." Journal of Eng. Gas Turb. & Power 130 (1). OVERVIEW Fluid dynamics and chemical

  3. Maintain Combustion Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, R. J.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the lowest excess air possible, for example, can produce big savings. Maintaining combustion equipment - from fuel preparation equipment through burners and controls in optimum operating condition also can save large amounts of energy, and keep a plant...

  4. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Yin, Hongxi [Southeast University, Nanjing, China

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  5. A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions are measured with the blends. Again, consistent with our past experience with biodiesel blends, significant reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions nearing 50% with 100% Jatropha oil, were also measured. This is in contrast with the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, where the NOx has a tendency to increase. In addition to the gaseous emission measurements, particulate emissions were measured using an EPA CTM-39 system to obtain both particulates, of sizes below 2.5 microns, so-called PM2.5, and of sizes larger than 2.5 microns. The results show that the particulate emissions are lower with the blending of Jatropha oil. Overall, one can conclude that the blending of Jatropha oil with residual oil is a feasible approach to using non-edible plant oil to provide a renewable content to residual oil, with significant benefits in the reduction of pollutant emissions such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates.

  6. Coal combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  7. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A. (eds.)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  8. From Basic Control to Optimized Systems-Applying Digital Control Systems to Steam Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hockenbury, W. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation examines the application of Distributed Digital Controls in order to review the application of this recent control technology towards Steam Boilers in a step-by-step manner. The main purpose of a steam generating boiler...

  9. Re ning Abstract Machine Speci cations of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Börger, Egon

    Re ning Abstract Machine Speci cations of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented Executable the steam boiler control speci cation problem to il- lustrate how the evolving algebra approach to the speci

  10. Characterization of the U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. IndustrialCommercial Boiler Population - Final Report, May 2005 Characterization of the U.S. IndustrialCommercial Boiler Population - Final Report, May 2005 The U.S....

  11. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators, July 2004 Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators, July 2004 Many owners and...

  12. Combustion Engineering IGCC Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H.E.; Thibeault, P.R.; Gibson, C.R.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C-E gasification process uses an entrained-flow, two-stage, slagging bottom gasifier. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the gasifier concept. Some of the coal and all of the char is fed to the combustor section, while the remaining coal is fed to the reducter section of the gasifier. The coal and char in the combustor is mixed with air and the fuel-rich mixture is burned creating the high temperature necessary to gasify the coal and melt the mineral matter in the coal. The slag flows through a slag tap at the bottom of the combustor into a water-filled slag tank where it is quenched and transformed into an inert, glassy, granular material. This vitrified slag is non-leaching, making it easy to dispose of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The hot gas leaving the combustor enters the second stage called the reductor. In the reducter, the char gasification occurs along the length of the reductor zone until the temperature falls to a point where the gasification kinetics become too slow. Once the gas temperature reaches this level, essentially no further gasification takes place and the gases subsequently are cooled with convective surface to a temperature low enough to enter the cleanup system. Nearly all of the liberated energy from the coal that does not produce fuel gas is collected and recovered with steam generating surface either in the walls of the vessel or by conventional boiler convective surfaces in the backpass of the gasifier. A mixture of unburned carbon and ash (called char) is carried out of the gasifier with the product gas strewn. The char is collected and recycled back to the gasifier where it is consumed. Thus, there is no net production of char which results in negligible carbon loss. The product gas enters a desulfurization system where it is cleaned of sulfur compounds present in the fuel gas. The clean fuel gas is now available for use in the gas turbine combuster for an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) application.

  13. Combustion Engineering IGCC Repowering Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H.E.; Thibeault, P.R.; Gibson, C.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C-E gasification process uses an entrained-flow, two-stage, slagging bottom gasifier. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the gasifier concept. Some of the coal and all of the char is fed to the combustor section, while the remaining coal is fed to the reducter section of the gasifier. The coal and char in the combustor is mixed with air and the fuel-rich mixture is burned creating the high temperature necessary to gasify the coal and melt the mineral matter in the coal. The slag flows through a slag tap at the bottom of the combustor into a water-filled slag tank where it is quenched and transformed into an inert, glassy, granular material. This vitrified slag is non-leaching, making it easy to dispose of in an environmentally acceptable manner. The hot gas leaving the combustor enters the second stage called the reductor. In the reducter, the char gasification occurs along the length of the reductor zone until the temperature falls to a point where the gasification kinetics become too slow. Once the gas temperature reaches this level, essentially no further gasification takes place and the gases subsequently are cooled with convective surface to a temperature low enough to enter the cleanup system. Nearly all of the liberated energy from the coal that does not produce fuel gas is collected and recovered with steam generating surface either in the walls of the vessel or by conventional boiler convective surfaces in the backpass of the gasifier. A mixture of unburned carbon and ash (called char) is carried out of the gasifier with the product gas strewn. The char is collected and recycled back to the gasifier where it is consumed. Thus, there is no net production of char which results in negligible carbon loss. The product gas enters a desulfurization system where it is cleaned of sulfur compounds present in the fuel gas. The clean fuel gas is now available for use in the gas turbine combuster for an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) application.

  14. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pollutants from Indoor Combustion Sources: I. Field Measure-Characteristics in Two Stage Combustion, paper presented atInternational) on Combustion, August, 1974, Tokyo, Japan. 8

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Advanced Combustion Engine Annual Progress Report The Advanced Combustion Engine research and...

  16. The Combustion Institute 5001 Baum Boulevard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    as applied to fuel cells and fuel processing, and combustion control including artificial neural networks. Fundamentals of micro-combustors, mesoscale combustion modeling and diagnostics, catalytic combustion

  17. Low-Temperature Automotive Diesel Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Automotive Diesel Combustion Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Paul Miles Sandia National Laboratories Light-Duty Combustion Modeling Rolf Reitz University of Wisconsin June 8,...

  18. Characterization of fuels for atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Rowley, D.R.; Perna, M.A. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (USA). Research Center); Stallings, J.W. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Divilio, R.J. (Combustion Systems, Inc., Silver Spring, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has sponsored a fuels characterization program for the past several years with the intention of assisting utilities and boiler manufacturers in evaluating fuel quality impact on atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) performance. The goal has been to provide an improved framework for making fuel switching decisions and consolidating operating experience. Results from this program include a set of bench-scale testing procedures, a fuel characterization data base, and a performance simulation model that links fuel characteristics to combustion performance. This paper reviews the major results of the fuels characterization program. The testing procedures, data base, and performance simulation models are briefly described and their application illustrated with examples. Performance predictions for the B W 1-ft{sup 2} bench-scale AFBC and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) 20 MW(e) AFBC Pilot Plant are compared with actual test data. The relationship of coal rank to combustion is discussed. 11 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lachowicz, Y.V.; LaFlesh, R.C.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This five-year research project was established to provide sufficient data on coal-water fuel (CWF) chemical, physical, and combustion properties to assess the potential for commercial firing in furnaces designed for gas or oil firing. Extensive laboratory testing was performed at bench-scale, pilot-scale (4 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) and commercial-scale (25 {times} 10{sup 6} to 50 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) on a cross-section of CWFs. Fuel performance characteristics were assessed with respect to coal properties, level of coal beneficiation, and slurry formulation. The performance of four generic burner designs was also assessed. Boiler performance design models were applied to analyze the impacts associated with conversion of seven different generic unit designs to CWF firing. Equipment modifications, operating limitations, and retrofit costs were determined for each design when utilizing several CWFs. This report summarizes studies conducted under Task 4. The objective was to quantify CWF atomization and combustion properties utilizing industrial/utility scale equipment. Burners were evaluated and combustion performance differences identified for various CWF formulations. 12 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waryasz, Richard E. (Longmeadow, MA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

  1. Corrosion in coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vausher, A.L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosive effect of the flue gas and the fly ash from burning coal on combustion and pollution control equipment has led to extensive research efforts aimed at solving this problem. A wide variety of chemical additives are offered by suppliers to perform corrosion reduction functions when added to the solid or liquid fuel. Protection of equipment by the use of corrosion resistant coatings and improved designs to prevent or reduce slag formation are also well known corrosion reduction techniques. However, the problem facing management is to evaluate the many different alternatives and to define the most effective one for their particular facility. Information gained from previous corrosion reduction attempts, and knowledge of factors which increase the SO/sub 3//SO/sub 2/ ratio in the flue gas have resulted in the investigation of methods of controlling the dew point and therefore, reducing the condensation of sulfuric acid. Various methods of avoiding the formation of acid are being evaluated.

  2. Full-Scale Boiler Measurements Demonstrating Striated Flows during Biomass Co-Firing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    based measurements methods #12;Objective Minor impact of biomass cofiring with coal on boiler operation and performance at biomass shares below 20% on an energy basis. Dilution of biomass ash stream reduce potential;06-02-2008 Coal burner side: 1.5 m inside boiler thermal load 433 MW boiler thermal load 440-471 MW #12

  3. Assertional Specification and Verification using PVS of the Steam Boiler Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooman, Jozef

    Assertional Specification and Verification using PVS of the Steam Boiler Control System Jan Vitt 1 of the steam boiler control system has been derived using a formal method based on assumption/commitment pairs Introduction The steam boiler control system, as described in chapter AS of this book, has been designed

  4. Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20 Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study problem is the Steam Boiler Controller problem discussed in this paper. Another representative

  5. Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" Correction Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 1 Correction Sheet After our paper "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" went already to print, Myla_steam_water_est(sr) = #12;Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 2 7. p.11, The initial

  6. Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" Correction Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 1 Correction Sheet After our paper "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" went already to print, Myla of the Steam Boiler Controller" 2 9. p.15, In the activate action error should be error' 10.p.16, Lemma 3

  7. An Algebraic Speci cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bidoit, Michel

    An Algebraic Speci#12;cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System Michel Bidoit 1 , Claude Chevenier describe how to derive an algebraic speci#12;cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System starting from Introduction Our aim is to explain how one can solve the \\Steam-boiler control speci#12;cation problem

  8. Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 37

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 37 Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study problem is the Steam Boiler Controller problem discussed in this paper. Another representative

  9. Analysis and control of a nonlinear boiler-turbine unit Wen Tan a,*,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    using drum boilers and steam turbines: (1) A single boiler is used to generate steam that is directly is then distributed to several turbines through the header. The steam can be used to generate electric- ity as wellAnalysis and control of a nonlinear boiler-turbine unit Wen Tan a,*,1 , Horacio J. Marquez b

  10. Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration Peter Meibom Juha of using electrical heat boilers and heat pumps as wind power integration measures relieving the link\\ZRUGV wind power, integration, heat pumps, electric heat boilers ,QWURGXFWLRQ 3UREOHP RYHUYLHZ The Danish

  11. Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA Submitted to Dr. Bi By Bernard Chan Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas" By Bernard Chan, Brian Chan, and Christopher Young Abstract This report studies the feasibility of replacing natural gas with wood pellets for UBC boilers. A gasification

  12. Gain-scheduled `1 -optimal control for boiler-turbine dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamma, Jeff S.

    , into the mechanical energy acting on the turbine and generator. The steam generated in the boiler system servesGain-scheduled `1 -optimal control for boiler-turbine dynamics with actuator saturation Pang; accepted 2 June 2003 Abstract This paper presents a gain-scheduled approach for boiler-turbine controller

  13. Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation. In this paper, we apply this modeling principle to a well known case study, the steam boiler problem which has model and to assess the difficulty of such a process in a realistic case study. The steam boiler case

  14. Georgetown University atmospheric fluidized bed boiler cogeneration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podbielski, V.; Shaff, D.P.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of one year of operation of the cogeneration system capability of the Georgetown University coal- fired, atmospheric fluidized-bed (AFB) boiler. The AFB was designed and installed under a separate contract with the US Department of Energy. The AFB project funded by DOE to demonstrate that high sulfur coal could be burned in an environmentally acceptable manner in a urban environment such as Georgetown. In addition, operational data from the unit would assist the industry in moving directly into design and construction of commercially warranted industrial size AFB boilers. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan (Gas Technology Institute); R. Glickert (ESA Environmental Solutions)

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX® (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

  16. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Heaps, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Steffler, Eric D (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  17. Combustible structural composites and methods of forming combustible structural composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Steffler, Eric D.; Swank, W. David

    2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustible structural composites and methods of forming same are disclosed. In an embodiment, a combustible structural composite includes combustible material comprising a fuel metal and a metal oxide. The fuel metal is present in the combustible material at a weight ratio from 1:9 to 1:1 of the fuel metal to the metal oxide. The fuel metal and the metal oxide are capable of exothermically reacting upon application of energy at or above a threshold value to support self-sustaining combustion of the combustible material within the combustible structural composite. Structural-reinforcing fibers are present in the composite at a weight ratio from 1:20 to 10:1 of the structural-reinforcing fibers to the combustible material. Other embodiments and aspects are disclosed.

  18. MANAGING OXIDE SCALE EXFOLIATION IN BOILERS WITH TP347H SUPERHEATER TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL] [ORNL; Wright, Ian G. [WrightHT, Inc.] [WrightHT, Inc.; Shingledecker, John P. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)] [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Tortorelli, Peter F [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model based on a concept of fraction of exfoliated area as a function of oxide scale strain energy was developed to predict the extent of exfoliation of steam-side scale from boiler tube superheater loops. As compared with the Armitt diagram, which can be used to predict when scale damage and exfoliation would be likely to occur, a fraction of exfoliated area approach provides an estimation of mass of scale released and the fraction of tube likely to be blocked by the exfoliation. This paper show results for the extent of blockage expected in a single bend of a superheater loop was predicted as a function of operating time, bend geometry, and outlet steam temperature under realistic service conditions that include outages. The deposits of exfoliated scale were assumed to be distributed horizontally the tubes bends. Three types of bends were considered: regular bends, short bends, and hairpin bends. The progressive increase in steam and tube temperatures along a single loop of superheater tubing and the ensuing variation of oxide scale thickness are considered. Numerical simulation results for a superheater loop made of TP347H austenitic steel indicated that tube blockage fractions larger than 50% are likely to occur within the first two years of boiler operation (with regularly scheduled outages) for outlet tube temperatures of 540-570oC, which is consistent with practical experience. Higher blockage fractions were predicted for tubes with short bends and hairpin bends than for tubes with regular bends, of length that are larger than five internal tube diameters. Finally, the blockage model presented can be used with some confidence to devise operating schedules for managing the consequences of oxide scale exfoliation based on projections of time to some critical blockage fraction for specific boiler operating conditions.

  19. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

  20. Internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Quentin A. (P.O. Box 6477, San Antonio, TX 78209); Mecredy, Henry E. (1630-C W. 6th, Austin, TX 78703); O'Neal, Glenn B. (6503 Wagner Way, San Antonio, TX 78256)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved engine is provided that more efficiently consumes difficult fuels such as coal slurries or powdered coal. The engine includes a precombustion chamber having a portion thereof formed by an ignition plug. The precombustion chamber is arranged so that when the piston is proximate the head, the precombustion chamber is sealed from the main cylinder or the main combustion chamber and when the piston is remote from the head, the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication. The time for burning of fuel in the precombustion chamber can be regulated by the distance required to move the piston from the top dead center position to the position wherein the precombustion chamber and main combustion chamber are in communication.

  1. Development of Advanced Combustion Technologies for Increased...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Technologies for Increased Thermal Efficiency Development of Advanced Combustion Technologies for Increased Thermal Efficiency Investigation of fuel effects on...

  2. Stretch Efficiency - Thermodynamic Analysis of New Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stretch Efficiency - Thermodynamic Analysis of New Combustion Regimes (Agreement 10037) Stretch Efficiency - Thermodynamic Analysis of New Combustion Regimes (Agreement 10037)...

  3. Transonic Combustion ? - Injection Strategy Development for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy Development for Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy...

  4. Enhancing Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion and Fuels Technologies Enhancing Transportation Energy Security through Advanced Combustion and Fuels Technologies 2005...

  5. Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling & experimental testing Improving alternative fuel utilization: detailed kinetic combustion modeling &...

  6. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  7. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koszykowski, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  8. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology program: Evaluation of gas reburning and low-NO sub x burners on a wall-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report briefly describes the Gas Reburning and Low-NO{sub x} Burners technology which is a low-cost technology that can be applied in both retrofit and new applications. This demonstration will be conducted on a utility boiler in Colorado at Cherokee Station {number sign}3; however, the technology is applicable to industrial boilers and other combustion systems. Although this technology is primarily a NO{sub x} reduction technology, some reductions in other emissions will take place. Since 15--20% of the coal is replaced with natural gas, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions are reduced commensurately. Also the lower carbon-to-hydrogen ratio of natural gas compared to coal reduces CO{sub 2} emissions. The formation of NO{sub x} is controlled by several factors: (1) the amount of nitrogen that is chemically bound in the fuel; (2) the flame temperature; (3) the residence time that combustion products remain at very high temperatures; and (4) the amount of excess oxygen available, especially at the hottest parts of the flame. Decreasing any of these parameters, tends to reduce NO{sub x} formation. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Choosing the right boiler air fans at Weston 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spring, N.

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    When it came to choosing the three 'big' boiler air fans - forced draft, induced draft and primary air, the decision revolved around efficiency. The decision making process for fan selection for the Western 4 supercritical coal-fired plant is described in this article. 3 photos.

  10. Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted...

  11. A Boiler Plant Energy Efficiency and Load Balancing Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nutter, D. W.; Murphy, D. R.

    is used for heating buildings and to operate a 4000-ton steam-driven chiller. There are five natural gas-fired steam boilers that have rated capacities ranging from 40,000 lb/hr to 100,000 lb/hr at an operating pressure of 125 psig. This paper discusses...

  12. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Bockelie

    2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the research that has been performed by Reaction Engineering International (REI) during the last three months on demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The focus of our efforts during the last six months have been on: (1) Field Tests for RRI at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1, a 130 MW cyclone fired boiler; (2) Extending our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based NOx model to accommodate the chemistry for Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) in cyclone fired boilers; (3) Applying the NOx model to evaluate RRI systems integrated into a boiler with Over Fired Air (OFA) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR); (4) Field Tests of the REI Corrosion Probe at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1; (5) Commence engineering study of ammonia adsorption mechanisms for Fly Ash; (6) Presentation of current program accomplishments and plans for future work to DoE staff members at NETL-FE (Pittsburgh); and (7) Presentation of preliminary field test results for RRI to EPRI CNCIG.

  13. advanced oxyfuel boilers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Steam Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements Texas A&M University - TxSpace...

  14. Best Management Practice #8: Boiler and Steam Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  15. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu (Fairfax, VA); Mei, Joseph S. (Morgantown, WV); Wilson, John S. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  16. Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallett, William L.H.

    Packed Bed Combustion: An Overview William Hallett Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Université d'Ottawa - University of Ottawa #12;Packed Bed Combustion - University of Ottawa - CICS 2005 Introduction air fuel feedproducts xbed grate Packed Bed Combustion: fairly large particles of solid fuel on a grate, air supplied

  17. System Modeling of ORNL s 20 MW(t) Wood-fired Gasifying Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Wiggins, Gavin [ORNL; Hao, Ye [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of the new 20 MW(t) wood-fired steam plant currently under construction by Johnson Controls, Inc. at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. The new plant will utilize a low-temperature air-blown gasifier system developed by the Nexterra Systems Corporation to generate low-heating value syngas (producer gas), which will then be burned in a staged combustion chamber to produce heat for the boiler. This is considered a showcase project for demonstrating the benefits of clean, bio-based energy, and thus there is considerable interest in monitoring and modeling the energy efficiency and environmental footprint of this technology relative to conventional steam generation with petroleum-based fuels. In preparation for system startup in 2012, we are developing steady-state and dynamic models of the major process components, including the gasifiers and combustor. These tools are intended to assist in tracking and optimizing system performance and for carrying out future conceptual studies of process changes that might improve the overall energy efficiency and sustainability. In this paper we describe the status of our steady-state gasifier and combustor models and illustrate preliminary results from limited parametric studies.

  18. Dynamic air deposited coatings for power and black liquor recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verstak, A.A.; Baranovski, V.E. [Advanced Surface Technologies Inc., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic Air Deposition (DyAir) is a novel coating method designed to protect the tubing of power and black liquor recovery boilers against corrosion attack at elevated temperatures. The method utilizes the energy of combustion of gaseous fuel and air to heat the powder material to a temperature just below its melting point and accelerate it over 600 m/s to form a coating. The Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr-Mo DyAir coatings revealed no gas permeability and extremely low oxygen content. Compared to the electric arc and HVOF-sprayed coatings, the DyAir coatings exhibited higher hardness and better crack resistance. During aging at 400 and 700 C the bond strength and crack resistance of the DyAir coatings increased dramatically due to intensive diffusion processes in absence of internal corrosion attack. The DyAir coatings revealed outstanding resistance to corrosion, such as sulfidation attack in presence of hydrochloric acid gas at 400 C, oxidation attack at 700 C and oxidation attack in presence of chlorine at 400 C.

  19. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION-A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.L. Senior; F. Huggins; G.P. Huffman; N. Shah; N. Yap; J.O.L. Wendt; W. Seames; M.R. Ames; A.F. Sarofim; S. Swenson; J.S. Lighty; A. Kolker; R. Finkelman; C.A. Palmer; S.J. Mroczkowski; J.J. Helble; R. Mamani-Paco; R. Sterling; G. Dunham; S. Miller

    2001-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the Electric Power Research Institute, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NOx combustion systems, and new power generation plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). The work discussed in this report covers the Phase II program. Five coals were studied (three in Phase I and two new ones in Phase II). In this work UK has used XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopies to characterize elements in project coals. For coals, the principal use was to supply direct information about certain hazardous and other key elements (iron) to complement the more complete indirect investigation of elemental modes of occurrence being carried out by colleagues at USGS. Iterative selective leaching using ammonium acetate, HCl, HF, and HNO3, used in conjunction with mineral identification/quantification, and microanalysis of individual mineral grains, has allowed USGS to delineate modes of occurrence for 44 elements. The Phase II coals show rank-dependent systematic differences in trace-element modes of occurrence. The work at UU focused on the behavior of trace metals in the combustion zone by studying vaporization from single coal particles. The coals were burned at 1700 K under a series of fuel-rich and oxygen-rich conditions. The data collected in this study will be applied to a model that accounts for the full equilibrium between carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The model also considers many other reactions taking place in the combustion zone, and involves the diffusion of gases into the particle and combustion products away from the particle. A comprehensive study has been conducted at UA to investigate the post-combustion partitioning of trace elements during large-scale combustion of pulverized coal combustion. For many coals, there are three distinct particle regions developed by three separate mechanisms: (1) a submicron fume, (2) a micron-sized fragmentation region, and (3) a bulk (>3 {micro}m) fly ash region. The controlling partitioning mechanisms for trace elements may be different in each of the three particle regions. A substantial majority of semi-volatile trace elements (e.g., As, Se, Sb, Cd, Zn, Pb) volatilize during combustion. The most common partitioning mechanism for semi-volatile elements is reaction with active fly ash surface sites. Experiments conducted under this program at UC focused on measuring mercury oxidation under cooling rates representative of the convective section of a coal-fired boiler to determine the extent of homogeneous mercury oxidation under these conditions. In fixed bed studies at EERC, five different test series were planned to evaluate the effects of temperature, mercury concentration, mercury species, stoichiometric ratio of combustion air, and ash source. Ash samples generated at UA and collected from full-scale power plants were evaluated. Extensive work was carried out at UK during this program to develop new methods for identification of mercury species in fly ash and sorbents. We demonstrated the usefulness of XAFS spectroscopy for the speciation of mercury captured on low-temperature sorbents from combustion flue gases and dev

  20. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2001-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

  1. Combustion characterization of beneficiated coal-based fuels. Quarterly report No. 18, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, O.K.; Hargrove, M.J.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (CE) to perform a five-year project on ``Combustion Characterization of Beneficiated Coal-Based Fuels.`` The beneficiated coals are produced by other contractors under the DOE Coal Preparation Program. Several contractor-developed advanced coal cleaning processes are run at pilot-scale cleaning facilities to produce 20-ton batches of fuels for shipment to CE`s laboratory in Windsor, Connecticut. CE then processes the products into either a coal-water fuel (CWF) or a dry microfine pulverized coal (DMPC) form for combustion testing. The objectives of this project include: (1) the development of an engineering data base which will provide detailed information on the properties of BCFs influencing combustion, ash deposition, ash erosion, particulate collection, and emissions; and (2) the application of this technical data base to predict the performance and economic impacts of firing the BCFs in various commercial boiler designs. The technical approach used to develop the technical data includes: bench-scale fuel property, combustion, and ash deposition tests; pilot-scale combustion and ash effects tests; and full-scale combustion tests. During the third quarter of 1993, the following technical progress was made: Continued with data and sample analysis from the pilot-scale tests of Upper Freeport feed coal, air-dried and mulled microagglomerate products; air-dried Pittsburgh No. 8 as-is and mulled products for upcoming Task 3 combustion testing; and prepared two abstracts for presentation for the March 1 994 Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems Conference.

  2. Combustion Models in Finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Tannous; A. Fessant

    2001-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion reaction kinetics models are used for the description of a special class of bursty Financial Time Series. The small number of parameters they depend upon enable financial analysts to predict the time as well as the magnitude of the jump of the value of the portfolio. Several Financial Time Series are analysed within this framework and applications are given.

  3. Combined Cycle Combustion Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combined Cycle Combustion Turbines Steven Simmons February 27 2014 1 #12;CCCT Today's Discussion 1 Meeting Pricing of 4 advanced units using information from Gas Turbine World Other cost estimates from E E3 EIA Gas Turbine World California Energy Commission Date 2010 Oct 2012, Dec 2013 Apr 2013 2013 Apr

  4. Fragments, Combustion and Earthquakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar Sotolongo-Costa; Antonio Posadas

    2005-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to show the advantages of introducing a geometric viewpoint and a non extensive formulation in the description of apparently unrelated phenomena: combustion and earthquakes. Here, it is shown how the introduction of a fragmentation analysis based on that formulation leads to find a common point for description of these phenomena

  5. Oxy-Combustion Burner and Integrated Pollutant Removal Research and Development Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Schoenfield; Manny Menendez; Thomas Ochs; Rigel Woodside; Danylo Oryshchyn

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A high flame temperature oxy-combustion test facility consisting of a 5 MWe equivalent test boiler facility and 20 KWe equivalent IPR® was constructed at the Hammond, Indiana manufacturing site. The test facility was operated natural gas and coal fuels and parametric studies were performed to determine the optimal performance conditions and generated the necessary technical data required to demonstrate the technologies are viable for technical and economic scale-up. Flame temperatures between 4930-6120F were achieved with high flame temperature oxy-natural gas combustion depending on whether additional recirculated flue gases are added to balance the heat transfer. For high flame temperature oxy-coal combustion, flame temperatures in excess of 4500F were achieved and demonstrated to be consistent with computational fluid dynamic modeling of the burner system. The project demonstrated feasibility and effectiveness of the Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process with Integrated Pollutant Removal process for CCS and CCUS. With these technologies total parasitic power requirements for both oxygen production and carbon capture currently are in the range of 20% of the gross power output. The Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process has been demonstrated at a Technology Readiness Level of 6 and is ready for commencement of a demonstration project.

  6. Waste Heat Boilers for Incineration Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    Incineration is a widely used process for disposing of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes generated in various types of industries. In addition to destroying pollutants, energy may also be recovered from the waste gas streams in the form of steam...

  7. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Institute of Gas Technology

    2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the attributes of oscillating combustion and on the results of an earlier project at GTI and Air Liquide, to determine which applications for oscillating combustion would show the greatest probability for technical success and greatest probability for market acceptability. The market study indicated that furnaces in the steel, glass, and metal melting industries would perform well in both categories. These findings guided the selection of burners for laboratory testing and, with the results of the laboratory testing, guided the selection of field test sites.

  8. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Wagner

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the attributes of oscillating combustion and on the results of an earlier project at GTI and Air Liquide, to determine which applications for oscillating combustion would show the greatest probability for technical success and greatest probability for market acceptability. The market study indicated that furnaces in the steel, glass, and metal melting industries would perform well in both categories. These findings guided the selection of burners for laboratory testing and, with the results of the laboratory testing, guided the selection of field test sites.

  9. Retrofitting a 240 MWe front fired boiler for low-NOx and low UBC firing[UnBurned Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santis, R. de; Mainini, G.; Pasini, S.; Ligasacchi, S.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENEL Sulcis No.3 is a 240 MWe coal fired unit located in southern Sardinia (Italy) and originally based on a combustion system of 24 circular, radial blade burners arranged in 4 rows on the boiler front wall, fed by 6 mills. In 1992--93 a first NOx reduction project was developed, involving the burners replacement with new XCL Low-NOx burners and the installation of OFA ports; this project was subsequently canceled, mainly due to strong expected problems in UBC control. As a result of the joint Ansaldo/ENEL effort in the development of a new coal fired Low-NOx burner (TEA-C), a new project was developed and implemented in 1996--97, involving the simple replacement of the existing burners with TEA-C, the removal of Y-splitters on coal pipes and the installation of rotary classifiers on the existing mills. The unit was brought back to service, after the burners' retrofit, in late summer 1997 and the progressive installation of rotary classifiers is still ongoing; Sulcis 3 is presently operating with 3 (out of 6) rotary classifiers installed, with outstanding results (NOx {lt} 0.53 lb/MBtu, UBC {le} 7% burning South American, low ash coals). The paper provides an overview on the design choices and describes the results obtained by field testing the newly installed Low-NOx combustions system.

  10. Development of a Novel Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with an Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    BOC, the world's second largest industrial gas company, has developed a novel high temperature sorption based technology referred to as CAR (Cyclic Autothermal Recovery) for oxygen production and supply to oxy-fuel boilers with flue gas recycle. This technology is based on sorption and storage of oxygen in a fixed bed containing mixed ionic and electronic conductor materials. The objective of the proposed work was to construct a CAR PDU that was capable of producing 10-scfm of oxygen, using steam or recycled flue gas as the sweep gas, and install it in the Combustion Test Facility. The unit was designed and fabricated at BOC/The Linde Group, Murray Hill, New Jersey. The unit was then shipped to WRI where the site had been prepared for the unit by installation of air, carbon dioxide, natural gas, nitrogen, computer, electrical and infrastructure systems. Initial experiments with the PDU consisted of flowing air into both sides of the absorption systems and using the air heaters to ramp up the bed temperatures. The two beds were tested individually to operational temperatures up to 900 C in air. The cycling process was tested where gases are flowed alternatively from the top then bottom of the beds. The PDU unit behaved properly with respect to flow, pressure and heat during tests. The PDU was advanced to the point where oxygen production testing could begin and integration to the combustion test facility could occur.

  11. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Presentation from the U.S....

  12. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Applied low temperature combustion to the Navistar...

  13. Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Low-Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High-Efficiency Clean Combustion 2010 DOE Vehicle...

  14. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

  15. Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion...

  16. Assessment of Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation of Combustion Processes in a DI Diesel Engine Assessment of Combustion and Turbulence Models for the Simulation of Combustion...

  17. Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Advanced Combustion Technology to Enable High Efficiency Clean Combustion Summary of advanced combustion research at Cummins...

  18. COMBUSTION RESEARCH PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1977

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Combustion in Internal Combustion Engines," Paper 750890,clean burning internal combustion engines. Another importantthat occur in an internal combustion engine. Our goal is the

  19. Internal combustion engine using premixed combustion of stratified charges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marriott, Craig D. (Rochester Hills, MI); Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    During a combustion cycle, a first stoichiometrically lean fuel charge is injected well prior to top dead center, preferably during the intake stroke. This first fuel charge is substantially mixed with the combustion chamber air during subsequent motion of the piston towards top dead center. A subsequent fuel charge is then injected prior to top dead center to create a stratified, locally richer mixture (but still leaner than stoichiometric) within the combustion chamber. The locally rich region within the combustion chamber has sufficient fuel density to autoignite, and its self-ignition serves to activate ignition for the lean mixture existing within the remainder of the combustion chamber. Because the mixture within the combustion chamber is overall premixed and relatively lean, NO.sub.x and soot production are significantly diminished.

  20. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.