National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for boiler limits established

  1. Establishing an energy efficieny recommendation for commercial boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ware, Michelle J.

    2000-01-01

    Council of Industrial Boiler Owners). Personal communicationAssessment on Commercial Boilers. ” Consortium for Energyaccurate claims of boiler performance. Acknowledgements The

  2. Safe Use Limits for Advanced Ferritic Steels in Ultra-Supercritical Power Boilers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swindeman, RW

    2003-11-03

    In 2000, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Babcock & Wilcox Company to examine the databases for advanced ferritic steels and determine the safe limits for operation in supercritical steam power boilers. The materials of interest included the vanadium-modified 9-12% Cr steels with 1-2% Mo or W. The first task involved a review of pertinent information and the down-selection of a steel of special interest. The long-time database for 9Cr-1Mo-V steel was found to be most satisfactory for the examinations, and this steel was taken to be representative of the group. The second task involved the collection of aged and service exposed samples for metallurgical and mechanical testing. Here, aged samples to 75,000 hours, laboratory-tested samples to 83,000 hours, and service-exposed sample with up to 143,000 hours exposure were collected. The third task involved mechanical testing of exposed samples. Creep-rupture testing to long times was undertaken. Variable stress and temperature testing was included. Results were compared against the prediction of damage models. These models seemed to be adequate for life prediction. The fourth task involved the metallurgical examination of exposed specimens. Changes in microstructure were compared against published information on the evolution of microstructures in 9Cr-Mo-V steels and the results were found to be consistent with expectations. The fifth task involved a survey of steam and fireside corrosion. Data from the service-exposed tubing was examined, and a literature survey was undertaken as part of an activity in support of ultra-supercritical steam boiler technology. The corrosion study indicated some concerns about long-time fireside corrosion and suggested temperature limits were needed for corrosive coal ash conditions.

  3. Super Boiler Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-01

    This presentation from the 2007 American Boiler Manufacturers Association Manufacturers Conference provides an update of the First Generation Super Boiler.

  4. Small boiler uses waste coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  5. Alternate Materials for Recovery Boiler Superheater Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R [ORNL; Kish, Joseph [McMaster University; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations

    2009-01-01

    The ever escalating demands for increased efficiency of all types of boilers would most sensibly be realized by an increase in the steam parameters of temperature and pressure. However, materials and corrosion limitations in the steam generating components, particularly the superheater tubes, present major obstacles to boiler designers in achieving systems that can operate under the more severe conditions. This paper will address the issues associated with superheater tube selection for many types of boilers; particularly chemical recovery boilers, but also addressing the similarities in issues for biomass and coal fired boilers. It will also review our recent study of materials for recovery boiler superheaters. Additional, more extensive studies, both laboratory and field, are needed to gain a better understanding of the variables that affect superheater tube corrosion and to better determine the best means to control this corrosion to ultimately permit operation of recovery boilers at higher temperatures and pressures.

  6. A Methodology for Optimizing Boiler Operating Strategy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, K. C.

    1983-01-01

    Among the many ways by which an energy manager can conserve energy is the establishment of a strategy for operation of fired boilers. In particular, he can effect total fuel consumption by his decision on how much on-line boiler surplus is required...

  7. Furnaces and Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Most Americans heat their homes with a furnace or boiler, and high-efficiency models of all types of furnaces and boilers are available. Is it time for an upgrade?

  8. Recovery Boiler Corrosion Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    11/13/2014 1 Recovery Boiler Corrosion Chemistry Sandy Sharp and Honghi Tran Symposium on Corrosion of a recovery boiler each cause their own forms of corrosion and cracking Understanding the origin of the corrosive conditions enables us to operate a boiler so as to minimize corrosion and cracking select

  9. Boilers and Fired Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Steven A.; Scollon, R. B.

    2009-07-14

    This chapter examines how energy is consumed, how energy is wasted, and opportunities for reducing energy consumption and costs in the operation of boilers.

  10. Minimize Boiler Blowdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on minimizing boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  11. Second Generation Super Boiler Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    This factsheet describes a research project to develop a high-pressure watertube boiler system that incorporates and improves upon the capabilities of the firetube Super Boiler system.

  12. Detection and Control of Deposition on Pendant Tubes in Kraft Chemical Recovery Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The kraft chemical recovery boilers used for pulp processing are large and expensive and can be the limiting factor for mill capacity. Improvements in boiler efficiency with better control of...

  13. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing boilers achieve higher efficiencies than conventional boilers by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases.

  14. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and, in some cases, return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential.

  15. Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler Uses a Combination of Wood Waste and Tire-Derived Fuel In 2011, the...

  16. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  17. Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-06

    Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

  18. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  19. Specifying Waste Heat Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    1992-01-01

    HEAT BOILERS V.Ganapathy.ABCO Industries Abilene,Texas ABSTRACT Waste heat boilers or Heat Recovery Steam 'Generators(HRSGs) as they are often called are used to recover energy from waste gas streams in chemical plants, refineries... stream_source_info ESL-IE-92-04-42.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11937 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-92-04-42.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 SPECIFYING WASTE...

  20. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Heat can be recovered from boiler blowdown by using a heat exchanger to preheat boiler makeup water. Any boiler with continuous blowdown...

  1. RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) for Firetube Boilers PIER, industrial combined heat and power (CHP) boiler burner energy system technology ("BBEST"). Their research (unrecuperated) with an ultra- low nitrous oxide (NOx) boiler burner for firetube boilers. The project goals

  2. Recovery Boiler Modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdullah, Z.; Salcudean, M.; Nowak, P.

    1994-01-01

    wide range of scales and a complex interaction between the fuel and the air which are introduced separately. The interaction between the jets can often lead to unstea dyness. The flow is turbulent, and the jets have strong curvature. Physical flow... task. The flow is fully three dimensional as geometric symmetry even on one plane is not present in all designs. Even when the boiler is geometrically sym metric, flow instabilities and jet interactions can cause major asymmetries in the flow...

  3. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  4. Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact Sheet, April 2015 Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact...

  5. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy|Make6,Energy BlueBob AdamsBoiler MACT

  6. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  7. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering heat from boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  8. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses This tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial...

  9. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators When specifying a new boiler, consider a high-pressure boiler with a backpressure steam turbine-generator placed...

  10. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses Boiler "short cycling" occurs when an oversized boiler quickly satisfies process or space heating demands, and then shuts down until heat is...

  11. Return Condensate to the Boiler | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Return Condensate to the Boiler Return Condensate to the Boiler This tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems...

  12. Implementation of Boiler Best Practices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blake, N. R.

    2000-01-01

    return across the plant by 5% ($400K), improving feedwater and blowdown control through automation (dollar value varies in different plants), extending condensate polisher resin performance ($30K), and improving condensate sampling and monitoring... involved in each implementation. WHAT ARE BEST PRACTICES? Nalco Boiler Best Practices condenses Nalco's global collective experience into a single, consistent, supportable reference (the Boiler Best Practices Manual) to guide the field representative...

  13. Building America Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controllers, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PARR

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  14. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  15. Limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  16. Heat Recovery Boilers for Process Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.; Rentz, J.; Flanagan, D.

    1985-01-01

    Heat recovery boilers are widely used in process plants for recovering energy from various waste gas streams, either from the consideration of process or of economy. Sulfuric, as well as nitric, acid plant heat recovery boilers are examples...

  17. Steam Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines several cost-effective steam conservation and boiler plant efficiency advancements that were implemented during a recently completed central steam boiler plant replacement project at a very large semiconductor manufacturing...

  18. Biomass Boiler | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Boiler Home Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by Wayne31jan(150) Contributor 24 June, 2015 - 07:08 Biomass Boiler Market is Projected to Reach USD 8,907.0 Million by 2022...

  19. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  20. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  1. Limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Hosea, Joel C. (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  2. Covered Product Category: Commercial Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements for commercial boilers, which is a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  3. Boiler - tuning basics, part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leopold, T.

    2009-03-15

    Tuning power plant controls takes nerves of steel and an intimate knowledge of plant systems gained only by experience. Tuning controls also requires equal parts art and science, which probably is why there are so few tuning experts in the power industry. In part 1 of a two-part series, the author explores a mix of the theoretical and practical aspects of tuning boiler control. 5 figs.

  4. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  5. Composite tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers: A state-of-the-art review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R.; Keiser, J.R.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1997-07-01

    Beginning in the mid-1960s, increasing energy costs in Finland and Sweden made energy recovery more critical to the cost-effective operation of a kraft pulp mill. Boiler designers responded to this need by raising the steam operating pressure, but almost immediately the wall tubes in these new boilers began to corrode rapidly. Test panels installed in the walls of the most severely corroding boiler identified austenitic stainless steel as sufficiently resistant to the new corrosive conditions, and discussions with Sandvik AB, a Swedish tube manufacturer, led to the suggestion that coextruded tubes be used for water wall service in kraft recovery boilers. Replacement of carbon steel by coextruded tubes has solved most of the corrosion problems experienced by carbon steel wall tubes, however, these tubes have not been problem-free. Beginning in early 1995, a multidisciplinary research program funded by the US Department of Energy was established to investigate the cause of cracking in coextruded tubes and to develop improved materials for use in water walls and floors of kraft recovery boilers. One portion of that program, a state-of-the-art review of public- and private-domain documents related to coextruded tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers is reported here. Sources of information that were consulted for this review include the following: tube manufacturers, boiler manufacturers, public-domain literature, companies operating kraft recovery boilers, consultants and failure analysis laboratories, and failure analyses conducted specifically for this project. Much of the information contained in this report involves cracking problems experienced in recovery boiler floors and those aspects of spout and air-port-opening cracking not readily attributable to thermal fatigue. 61 refs.

  6. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1990-09-28

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program with the objective of demonstrating the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in industrial boilers designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in oil-designed industrial boilers without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of three phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, and (3) demonstration and evaluation. The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits. Progress is reported. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Metallurgical failures in fossil fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, D.N.

    1993-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive catalog of the types of metallurgical failures common to boilers. The author uses actual case histories of boiler shutdowns, and documents the full range of causes of boiler tube failure. A blueprint is provided for cutting maintenance costs and upgrading the efficiency and reliability of any power plant operation. Individual chapters are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  8. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  9. Minimize Boiler Blowdown - Steam Tip Sheet #9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  10. EPA may force scrubbers on industry boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hume, M.

    1985-05-13

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposal requiring scrubber standards for industrial energy users will force industry to invest in the costly pollution control equipment used mostly by utilities today. The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide emissions will require either scrubbing or fluidized-bed combustion regardless of the fuel's sulfur content. Protests from the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners that this is an unfair burden on non-utility boilers note that scrubbing is more costly for smaller boilers, and that it could impede air quality improvement by discouraging the replacement of old boilers. EPA contests these claims.

  11. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

    2011-05-11

    Coal-fired power plants are a significant part of the nation���¢��������s power generating capacity, currently accounting for more than 55% of the country���¢��������s total electricity production. Extending the reliable lifetimes of fossil fired boiler components and reducing the maintenance costs are essential for economic operation of power plants. Corrosion and erosion are leading causes of superheater and reheater boiler tube failures leading to unscheduled costly outages. Several types of coatings and weld overlays have been used to extend the service life of boiler tubes; however, the protection afforded by such materials was limited approximately one to eight years. Power companies are more recently focused in achieving greater plant efficiency by increasing steam temperature and pressure into the advanced-ultrasupercritical (A-USC) condition with steam temperatures approaching 760�������°C (1400�������°F) and operating pressures in excess of 35MPa (5075 psig). Unfortunately, laboratory and field testing suggests that the resultant fireside environment when operating under A-USC conditions can potentially cause significant corrosion to conventional and advanced boiler materials1-2. In order to improve reliability and availability of fossil fired A-USC boilers, it is essential to develop advanced nanostructured coatings that provide excellent corrosion and erosion resistance without adversely affecting the other properties such as toughness and thermal fatigue strength of the component material.

  12. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container...

  13. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with BackpressureTurbine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    high-pressure boilers with backpressure turbine-generators as part of optimized steam systems. STEAM TIP SHEET 22 Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure...

  14. An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification computations cannot happen. 1 Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been

  15. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency This tip sheet outlines how to improve boiler combustion efficiency as part of an optimized steam system. STEAM TIP SHEET 4 Improve...

  16. Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces The prevention of scale formation in firetube boilers can result in substantial energy savings. Scale deposits occur when...

  17. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency Combustion Efficiency Operating your boiler with an optimum amount of excess air will minimize heat loss up the stack and improve...

  18. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection The guide provides background information about various types...

  19. Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry,...

  20. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravi K. Srivastava; Robert E. Hall; Sikander Khan; Kevin Culligan; Bruce W. Lani

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at 150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/106 Btu. 106 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Winning the fight against boiler tube failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, J.; Dooley, B.

    1986-12-01

    Eliminating boiler tube failures could be worth $5 billion a year to the electric power industry. The causes and cures for the great majority of these ubiquitous failures are now known, with implications for change ranging from senior management to the maintenance crew. Methods for preventing boiler tube failure are discussed.

  2. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the project’s subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial operation and has achieved all the performance goals.

  3. A new blowdown compensation scheme for boiler leak detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    A new blowdown compensation scheme for boiler leak detection A. M. Pertew ,1 X. Sun ,1 R. Kent considers the blowdown effect in industrial boiler operation. This adds to the efficiency of recent advances in identification-based leak detection techniques of boiler steam- water systems. Keywords: Industrial Boilers, Tube

  4. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, Charles L. (Tullahoma, TN); Foote, John P. (Tullahoma, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  5. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  6. Wood fuel in fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of fluidized bed fire-tube and water-tube boilers for the burning of wood, gas, and refuse-derived fuel will be reviewed. Experience gained in already installed plants will be outlined. Research experiments results on the use of various forms of wood and other biomass fuels, such as wood chips, pellets, peach pits, nut shells and kernels and refuse-derived fuels, will be described for small and medium sized fire-tube boilers, and for larger water-tube boilers for co-generation. (Refs. 4).

  7. Furnace and Boiler Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2:50pm Addthis Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts; boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Furnaces...

  8. Practical Procedures for Auditing Industrial Boiler Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neil, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Industrial boiler plants are an area of opportunity in virtually every industry to save energy and reduce costs by using relatively simple, inexpensive auditing procedures. An energy audit consists of inspection, measurement, analysis...

  9. Boiler Efficiency--Consider All the Angles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blakeley, C. P.

    1981-01-01

    that only a small percentage of plant managers have an in-depth understanding of combustion processes and presents simple yet factual measurements for the determination of boiler combustion, operating and maintenance efficiencies....

  10. Industrial Boiler Optimization Utilizing CO Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruoff, C. W.; Reiter, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    boiler combustion and generate steam in the most cost effective manner. Significant reductions in the amount of excess air have resulted from the use of CO as a control parameter. Previously, combustion effectiveness was determined by the more typical 02...

  11. Flame Spectral Analysis for Boiler Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalfe, C. I.; Cole, W. E.; Batra, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    range from the flames and using these measurements to determine the burner operating conditions. Two prototype instruments have been installed on package boilers at a Con Edison powerplant and Polaroid facility, and their performance has been evaluated...

  12. Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Articles A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotoKingLouie Wood and Pellet Heating Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or...

  13. Boiler scale prevention employing an organic chelant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Steven L. (Lake Jackson, TX); Griffin, Jr., Freddie (Missouri City, TX); Tvedt, Jr., Thorwald J. (Angleton, TX)

    1984-01-01

    An improved method of treating boiler water which employs an oxygen scavenging compound and a compound to control pH together with a chelating agent, wherein the chelating agent is hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic acid.

  14. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

    2004-01-01

    1 FURNACE AND BOILER TECHNOLOGY19 Furnace and Boiler Lifetimes Used in the LCC Analysis (PBP RESULTS FOR GAS BOILERS USING ALTERNATIVE INSTALLATION

  15. Quantifying Energy Savings by Improving Boiler Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, K.; Kissock, J. K.

    2005-01-01

    of combustion temperature, calculation of the relationship between internal convection coefficient and gas flow rate, and calculation of overall heat transfer assuming a parallel-flow heat exchanger model. The method for estimating savings from changing... combustion air accounts for the increased combustion temperature, reduced internal convection coefficient and increased residence time of combustion gasses in the boiler. Measured boiler data are used to demonstrate the accuracy of the methods...

  16. Maximum Achievable Control Technology for New Industrial Boilers (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    As part of Clean Air Act 90 (CAAA90, the EPA on February 26, 2004, issued a final rulethe National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) to reduce emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters. The rule requires industrial boilers and process heaters to meet limits on HAP emissions to comply with a Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) floor level of control that is the minimum level such sources must meet to comply with the rule. The major HAPs to be reduced are hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, and nickel. The EPA predicts that the boiler MACT rule will reduce those HAP emissions from existing sources by about 59,000 tons per year in 2005.

  17. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Fact sheet describing the changes to Environmental Protection Act process standards. The DOE will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal and oil have information on cost-effective, clean energy strategies for compliance, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boiler burning to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expected to finalize the reconsideration process for its Clean Air Act pollution standards National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters (known as Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)), in Spring 2012. This rule applies to large and small boilers in a wide range of industrial facilities and institutions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal or oil have information on cost-effective clean energy strategies for compliance, including combined heat and power, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boilers to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs.

  18. Control Boiler Emissions through Work Practices and Energy Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    2014-01-01

    and convection waste heat boilers. Medium level waste heat leaving fixed bed type gasifiers can be recovered more economically by convection type boilers or shell and tube heat exchangers. An economic analysis for the steam generation and process heat exchanger...

  19. Modern Boiler Control and Why Digital Systems are Better 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughart, C. L.

    1983-01-01

    Steam generation in petrochemical plants and refineries is in a state of change. Expensive fuels have resulted in greater use of waste heat recovery boilers and other energy conservation measures. As a result, many conventional boilers have been...

  20. Introduction to the Boiler MACT Energy Assessment Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theising, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    and JJJJJJ - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers at Area Sources (also known as the Boiler GACT – Generally Available Control Technology), the energy assessment...

  1. Boiler MACT 35000FT: Maximum Achievable Control Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    2013-01-01

    burning coal, oil, biomass, natural gas, other solid, liquid, gaseous non-waste materials ? Boilers or Process Heaters Not Affected ? Electric Utility Generating Unit (EGU) ?Waste Heat, hot water heaters, NESHAP control devices, R&D, Recovery Boilers...

  2. Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The purpose of the burner is to mix molecules of fuel with molecules of air. A boiler will run only as well as the burner performs. A poorly designed boiler with an...

  3. Paducah Package Steam Boilers to Provide Efficiency, Environmental...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and operates to provide steam on demand. The boilers are most efficient when they run at full capacity. When a boiler is turned down, the efficiency drops. To maximize...

  4. Slag monitoring for utility boilers: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anson, D.; Barrett, R.E.; Litt, R.D.; Paisley, M.A.

    1988-04-01

    This report provides a detailed description of commercially available slag monitoring techniques and some developing concepts for slag monitoring. Slag monitoring is currently being evaluated by several organizations as a means of controlling and optimizing sootblowers. The potential benefits from slag monitoring can represent significant savings in utility operating costs. Six types of heat flux meters are described as they are presently being used in utility boilers. These direct monitoring techniques determine local conditions within the furnace. Each application is described with current results and future plans. Boiler heat balance models provide an indirect technique for monitoring the general cleanliness/fouling of major boiler sections. Each model is described with current results at a representative installation. Several developing concepts of slag monitoring are described and evaluated. Four promising concepts, acoustic attenuation, a simplified heat balance model, sonic pyrometry, and ultrasonic pulse reflection, are recommended for further development and evaluation. 16 refs., 34 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rapier, Pascal M. (Richmond, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  6. Simulation of Combustion and Thermal Flow in an Industrial Boiler 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saripalli, R.; Wang, T.; Day, B.

    2005-01-01

    tubes Boiler Outer Wall Boiler inner walls Flue Gases Saturated water tubes Burner Gases to chimney Gases to chimney Superheater tubes 6x19 array x four passes Boiler wall made of alternating superheater and saturator... tubes (see details in Figure 3.) (a) Top View PROBLEM SETUP AND MODELING The overall design of the studied boiler is shown in Fig. 1. The model basically consists of four sections, burner, combustion...

  7. Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This set of conference papers deals with the combustion of hazardous wastes in boilers and industrial furnaces. The majority of the papers pertain specifically to cement industry kiln incinerators and focus on environmental issues. In particular, stack emission requirements currently enforced or under consideration by the U.S. EPA are emphasized. The papers were drawn from seven areas: (1) proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology rule, (2) trial burn planning and experience, (3) management and beneficial use of materials, (4) inorganic emissions and continuous emission monitoring, (5) organic emissions, (6) boiler and industrial furnace operations, and (7) risk assessment and communication.

  8. Low Temperature Heat Recovery for Boiler Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shook, J. R.; Luttenberger, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-86-06-70.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 27871 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-86-06-70.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 LOW TEMPERATURE HEAT... RECOVERY FOR BOILER SYSTEMS James R. Shook & David B. Luttenberger FLUE GAS RESOURCES, INC. Toledo, Ohio ABSTRACT Low temperature corrosion proof heat exchangers desbgned to reduce boiler flue gas temperatures to 170 F or lower are now being...

  9. Improving Boiler Efficiency Modeling Based on Ambient Air Temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    significantly effects boiler efficiency. In the study reported here, the measured performance of a 300,000 lb/h steam boiler was found to show more dependence on ambient air temperature than on boiler load. It also showed an unexplained dependence on the month...

  10. Improving Boiler Efficiency Modeling Based On Ambient Air Temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    significantly effects boiler efficiency. In the study reported here, the measured performance of a 300,000 lb/h steam boiler was found to show more dependence on ambient air temperature than on boiler load. It also showed an unexplained dependence on the month...

  11. Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Finite Transitions #12;Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research;Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Goal

  12. Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henzinger, Thomas A.

    Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ?? Thomas A. Henzinger1 Howard model a steam-boiler control system using hybrid au- tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models of the nonlinear be- havior of the boiler. For each model, we de ne and verify a controller that maintains the safe

  13. Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merz, Stephan

    Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution Frank Le�ke and Stephan Merz Institut f of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed between the physi­ cal state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss

  14. An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba ()lveczky, Poland Abstract. In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for different

  15. An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification.In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification problem is presented computations cannot happen. 1 Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been

  16. Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henzinger, Thomas A.

    Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;?? Thomas A. Henzinger 1 Howard model a steam­boiler control system using hybrid au­ tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models of the nonlinear be­ havior of the boiler. For each model, we define and verify a controller that maintains

  17. Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cengarle, MarĂ­a Victoria

    Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution Frank Le ke and Stephan Merz Institut fur of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed between the physi- cal state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss

  18. An ObjectOriented Algebraic SteamBoiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object­Oriented Algebraic Steam­Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba Ë? Olveczky 1# , Piotr, Poland Abstract. In this paper an object­oriented algebraic solution of the steam­boiler specification Introduction The steam­boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for di

  19. Waterside Stress Assisted Corrosion (SAC) of Boiler Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Waterside Stress Assisted Corrosion (SAC) of Boiler Tubes School of Materials Science Boiler Areas Susceptible to SAC · Generally SAC initiates near weld joints on cold side of tubes · SAC cracks are difficult to detect inaccessibility · Failures Detected at Various Locations in Boilers

  20. 1 | P a g e Boiler Gold Rush

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    1 | P a g e Boiler Gold Rush VISION STATEMENT The vision of BGR is twofold: first, help all new by participating in the premiere orientation program in the nation, Boiler Gold Rush. Second, enhance upper leaders for the betterment of the university. PROGRAM GOALS Boiler Gold Rush will provide the following

  1. Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract--Controlled copper evaporation at attogram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract-- Controlled copper evaporation at attogram level from individual carbon nanotube (CNT) vessels, which we call nanotube boilers, is investigated experimentally, and ionization in these CNT boilers, which can serve as sources for mass transport and deposition in nanofluidic

  2. Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering ­ Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator Currently 70 biodiesel boiler system to drive a steam engine generator. This system is to provide electricity the customer needs, a boiler fueled by biodiesel and outputting to a steam engine was decided upon. The system

  3. Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

  4. FAQs Manhattanville Campus Central Energy Plant Boiler Stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Philip

    FAQs Manhattanville Campus Central Energy Plant Boiler Stacks Installation Frequently Asked Questions What is happening? Columbia University is installing two (2) boiler stacks on top of the Jerome L, a below-grade facility which will consist four (4) 45,000 lbs/hr steam boilers and related equipment

  5. Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

    2013-04-17

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Cleaver-Brooks developed a new gas-fired steam generation system���¢��������the Super Boiler���¢��������for increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, and reduced emissions. The system consists of a firetube boiler with a unique staged furnace design, a two-stage burner system with engineered internal recirculation and inter-stage cooling integral to the boiler, unique convective pass design with extended internal surfaces for enhanced heat transfer, and a novel integrated heat recovery system to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. With these combined innovations, the Super Boiler technical goals were set at 94% HHV fuel efficiency, operation on natural gas with <5 ppmv NOx (referenced to 3%O2), and 50% smaller than conventional boilers of similar steam output. To demonstrate these technical goals, the project culminated in the industrial demonstration of this new high-efficiency technology on a 300 HP boiler at Clement Pappas, a juice bottler located in Ontario, California. The Super Boiler combustion system is based on two stage combustion which combines air staging, internal flue gas recirculation, inter-stage cooling, and unique fuel-air mixing technology to achieve low emissions rather than external flue gas recirculation which is most commonly used today. The two-stage combustion provides lower emissions because of the integrated design of the boiler and combustion system which permit precise control of peak flame temperatures in both primary and secondary stages of combustion. To reduce equipment size, the Super Boiler's dual furnace design increases radiant heat transfer to the furnace walls, allowing shorter overall furnace length, and also employs convective tubes with extended surfaces that increase heat transfer by up to 18-fold compared to conventional bare tubes. In this way, a two-pass boiler can achieve the same efficiency as a traditional three or four-pass firetube boiler design. The Super Boiler is consequently up to 50% smaller in footprint, has a smaller diameter, and is up to 50% lower in weight, resulting in very compact design with reduced material cost and labor costs, while requiring less boiler room floor space. For enhanced energy efficiency, the heat recovery system uses a transport membrane condenser (TMC), a humidifying air heater (HAH), and a split-stage economizer to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. The TMC is a new innovation that pulls a major portion of water vapor produced by the combustion process from the flue gases along with its sensible and latent heat. This results in nearly 100% transfer of heat to the boiler feed water. The HAH improves the effectiveness of the TMC, particularly in steam systems that do not have a large amount of cold makeup water. In addition, the HAH humidifies the combustion air to reduce NOx formation. The split-stage economizer preheats boiler feed water in the same way as a conventional economizer, but extracts more heat by working in tandem with the TMC and HAH to reduce flue gas temperature. These components are designed to work synergistically to achieve energy efficiencies of 92-94% which is 10-15% higher than today���¢��������s typical firetube boilers.

  6. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  7. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, S. [EPRI, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  8. Waste Heat Boilers for Incineration Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    1998-01-01

    . The steam thus generated may be saturated or superheated and could be used for process applications or for power generation via a steam turbine. This paper describes the major component of any incineration system, namely the waste heat boiler, and describes...

  9. The next generation of oxy-fuel boiler systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Gross, Alex; Patrick, Brian; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    Research in the area of oxy-fuel combustion which is being pioneered by Jupiter Oxygen Corporation combined with boiler research conducted by the USDOE/Albany Research Center has been applied to designing the next generation of oxy-fuel combustion systems. The new systems will enhance control of boiler systems during turn-down and improve response time while improving boiler efficiency. These next generation boiler systems produce a combustion product that has been shown to be well suited for integrated pollutant removal. These systems have the promise of reducing boiler foot-print and boiler construction costs. The modularity of the system opens the possibility of using this design for replacement of boilers for retrofit on existing systems.

  10. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

  11. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

  12. Recovery Boiler Superheater Ash Corrosion Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R [ORNL] [ORNL; Kish, Joseph [McMaster University] [McMaster University; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations] [FPInnovations

    2010-01-01

    With the trend towards increasing the energy efficiency of black liquor recovery boilers operated in North America, there is a need to utilize superheater tubes with increased corrosion resistance that will permit operation at higher temperatures and pressures. In an effort to identify alloys with improved corrosion resistance under more harsh operating conditions, a field exposure was conducted that involved the insertion of an air-cooled probe, containing six candidate alloys, into the superheater section of an operating recovery boiler. A metallographic examination, complete with corrosion scale characterization using EMPA, was conducted after a 1,000 hour exposure period. Based on the results, a ranking of alloys based on corrosion performance was obtained.

  13. Corporate Reporting of Boiler MACT Energy Assessments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClain, C.

    2013-01-01

    , but not recordkeeping and reporting costs. Estimating/projected number of affected units Summary of Total Capital and Annual Cost for the New and Existing Sources for the Final Amended Rule Federal Register Volume 78 No. 21 January 31, 2013 40 CFR Part 63 EPA... Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 What are the benefits of Corporate Management? Benefits of Corporate Management EMRS and Boiler MACT Implementation ? Scarce resource management ? Mill Scheduling ? Uniform implementation ? Uniform reporting ESL-IE-13...

  14. Cost-Effective Industrial Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.

    1997-01-01

    manufacturing complex. The "new" boiler plant began service in November, 1996 and consists of four 75,000 Ib/hr water-tube boilers burning natural gas and producing 210 psig saturated steam for heating and humidification. Efficiency advancements include...) in order to maintain cleanroom envirorunental conditions. Condensate losses are negligible and return condensate averages 200?F year-around. DESIGN CONCEPT A multiple-unit design incorporating four 75,000 lb/hr steam boilers was adopted in order...

  15. How to Evaluate Low Excess Air Controls for Packaged Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Londerville, S. B.; Kerler, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    at reduced excess air levels is ~e the one that best suits your particular boiler and stack loss method. Initial assumptions are t~at payback requirements. the burner will perform at LEA levels and that the flame is sized correctly for the furnace... charac ter istics of your boiler, you can estimate ef ficiency increases based on boiler(burner tuning and burner replacement; the full rewards of LEA firing, however, are unattainable without suit able controls. Unlike most equipment, LEA control...

  16. NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan; Jennifer L. Sivy

    2005-07-30

    Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and Fuel Tech, Inc. (Fuel Tech) teamed to evaluate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology, capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. In a previous project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), promising results were obtained with this technology from large-scale testing in B&W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) which simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. Under the most challenging boiler temperatures at full load conditions, NO{sub x} emissions of 0.19 lb/10{sup 6} Btu were achieved firing Powder River Basin coal while controlling ammonia slip to less than 5 ppm. At a 40 million Btu/hr firing rate, NO{sub x} emissions were as low as 0.09 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. Improved performance with this system was proposed for this new program with injection at full load via a convective pass multiple nozzle lance (MNL) in front of the superheater tubes or in the convective tube bank. Convective pass lances represent the current state-of-the-art in SNCR and needed to be evaluated in order to assess the full potential of the combined technologies. The objective of the program was to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign} System. Commercial installations of B&W's low-NO{sub x} burner, in combination with overfire air ports using PRB coal, have demonstrated a NO{sub x} level of 0.15 to 0.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu under staged combustion conditions. The proposed goal of the combustion system (no SNCR) for this project is a NO{sub x} level at 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. The NO{sub x} reduction goal for SNCR is 25% from the low-NO{sub x} combustion emission levels. Therefore, overall NO{sub x} emissions would approach a level of 0.11 lb/10{sup 6} Btu in commercial installation. The goals of the program were met. At 100% load, using the MNL for very low baseline NO{sub x} (0.094 to 0.162 lb/10{sup 6} Btu depending on burner stoichiometry), an approximately 25% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved (0.071 to 0.124 lb/10{sup 6} Btu) while maintaining NH{sub 3} slip less than 6.4 ppm. At 60% load, using MNL or only wall-injectors for very low baseline NO{sub x} levels, more than 30% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved. Although site specific economic evaluation is required for each unit, our economic evaluation of DRB-4Z{reg_sign} burner and SNCR for a 500 MW{sub e} plant firing PRB shows that the least cost strategy is low-NO{sub x} burner and OFA at a cost of $210 to $525 per ton of NO{sub x} removed. Installation of SNCR allows the utilities to sell more NO{sub x} credit and it becomes economical when NO{sub x} credit cost is more than $5,275 per ton of NO{sub x}.

  17. Return Condensate to the Boiler - Steam Tip Sheet #8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  18. Minimize Boiler Blowdown, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to identify energy- saving opportunities. Examine operating practices for boiler feedwater and blowdown rates developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers...

  19. Return Condensate to the Boiler, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Actions Reduce operating costs through maximizing the return of hot condensate to the boiler. Consider the following actions: If a condensate return system is absent,...

  20. Robust Output Feedback Stabilization of Nonlinear Interconnected Systems with Application to an Industrial Utility Boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    to an Industrial Utility Boiler Adarsha Swarnakar, Horacio Jose Marquez and Tongwen Chen Abstract-- This paper boiler (Utility boiler), where the nonlinear model describes the complicated dynamics of the drum

  1. A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward

    2007-01-01

    allow ultra-supercritical boilers to achieve still higherthat supercritical-coal boilers, at least in the 1970s, didGW/year) by type of boiler. Source: [25]. Net Efficiency (

  2. Modification of boiler operating conditions for mercury emissions reductions in coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ying

    Modification of boiler operating conditions for mercury emissions reductions in coal-fired utility's studies have determined that mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants pose significant hazards to public health and must be reduced. Coal-fired power plants represent a significant fraction

  3. Boiler Efficiency vs. Steam Quality- The Challenge of Creating Quality Steam Using Existing Boiler Efficiencies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, G.

    1998-01-01

    A boiler works under pressure and it is not possible to see what is happening inside of it. The terms "wet steam" and "carry over" are every day idioms in the steam industry, yet very few people have ever seen these phenomena and the actual water...

  4. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators This guide presents useful information for...

  5. Materials development for ultra-supercritical boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-09-30

    Progress is reported on a US Department of Energy project to develop high temperature, corrosion resistant alloys for use in ultra-supercritical steam cycles. The aim is to achieve boiler operation at 1,400{sup o}F/5,000 psi steam conditions with 47% net cycle efficiency. Most ferritic steel tested such as T92 and Save 12 showed severe corrosion. Nickel-based alloys, especially IN 740 and CCA 617, showed greatest resistance to oxidation with no evidence of exfoliation. Laboratory and in-plant tests have begun. 2 figs.

  6. Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, A.

    2000-01-01

    be achieved by Ultra Low NOx burners or FGR in boilers. ? Primary products of combustion ? Carbon dioxide ? Water vapors ? Oxygen ? Nitrogen ? Trace compounds NOx emissions ? NOx or Oxides of Nitrogen have an adverse effects of health and environment... NOx burners ? Flue gas recirculation ? Steam injection ? Staged combustion NOx reduction I eChnology IN U x ppm IN U x In Ibs/m m Btu L. oDventlona l.J as Burn e r lU 1?.16 Low N 0 x Burn e r 7:> ,U .1 Ultra LOw NUx Burn e r ,Z:> I U . U...

  7. Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farbstein, S. B.; Moreland, T.

    1984-01-01

    the bottom of the combustion chamber as bottom ash and from the baghouse as fly ash. A portion of the heat is absorbed in the combustion chamber, and the remaining heat is recovered in the convection section of the boiler. There are no tubes...-sulfur Illinois coal. Limestone use is projected at 11-14.000 tons per year. Solid residue (ash, spent limestone and calcium sulfate) to be disposed will be 15-22,000 tons per year. This projected use of limestone is based on the use of Illinois No. 6 coal...

  8. Why the Accuracy of Analytical Instrumentation Affects Boiler Combustion Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFadden, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Combustion trim control systems are utilized to maximize the combustion efficiency of a boiler. The type and cost of a fuel, as well as the size of a boiler, should be considered when selecting the type of combustion trim control system...

  9. Boiler Gold Rush Prof. Johnny Brown (MATH 700)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Johnny E.

    Boiler Gold Rush Prof. Johnny Brown (MATH 700) jeb@math.purdue.edu #12;#12;#12;David McCullough, Jr help Always be prepared #12;Boiler Gold Rush Prof. Johnny Brown (MATH 700) jeb@math.purdue.edu #12;

  10. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in coal-fired boilers resulting from the coexistence of sulfur and chlorine in the fuel. A new corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfidation Corrosion Mechanism,” has been proposed to account for the accelerated corrosion wastage observed on the furnace walls of utility boilers burning coals containing sulfur and chlorine. In addition, a second corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfide-to-Oxide Corrosion Mechanism,” has been identified to account for the rapid corrosion attack on superheaters and reheaters. Both of the newly discovered corrosion mechanisms involve the formation of iron chloride (FeCl2) vapor from iron sulfide (FeS) and HCl, followed by the decomposition of FeCl2 via self-sustaining cycling reactions. For higher alloys containing sufficient chromium, the attack on superheaters and reheaters is dominated by Hot Corrosion in the presence of a fused salt. Furthermore, two stages of the hot corrosion mechanism have been identified and characterized in detail. The initiation of hot corrosion attack induced by molten sulfate leads to Stage 1 “acidic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the protective scale formed initially on the deposit-covered alloy surfaces. Once the protective scale is penetrated, Stage 2 Hot Corrosion is initiated, which is dominated by “basic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the scale in the fused salt. Based on the extensive corrosion information generated from this project, corrosion modeling was performed using non-linear regression analysis. As a result of the modeling efforts, two predictive equations have been formulated, one for furnace walls and the other for superheaters and reheaters. These first-of-the-kind equations can be used to estimate the corrosion rates of boiler tubes based on coal chemistry, alloy compositions, and boiler operating conditions for advanced boiler systems.

  11. Chlorine in coal and boiler corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Liu, L. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Ho, K.K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Corrosion of superheaters in the United Kingdom has been attributed to the high level of chlorine (Cl) in British coals. On the other hand, similar high-Cl Illinois coals have not caused boiler corrosion. This suggests that the extent of boiler corrosion due to Cl may not be directly related to the amount of Cl in the coal but to how the Cl occurs in the coal or to other factors. In this study, both destructive temperature-programmed Thermogravimetry with Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR) and non-destructive X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) techniques were used to examine the thermal evolution characteristics and the forms of Cl in four Illinois and four British coals. The TGA-FTIR results indicate that under oxidizing conditions, both British and Illinois coals release hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas. Maximum evolution of HCl gas from Illinois coals occurs near 425 C, whereas, the temperature of maximum HCl release from British coals occurs between 210 and 280 C. The XANES results indicate that Cl in coal exists in ionic forms including a solid salt form. The HCl evolution profiles of the Illinois and British coals suggests that the way in which Cl ions are associated in Illinois coals is of different from the way they are associated in British coals.

  12. Decentralized robust PI controller design for an industrial boiler Batool Labibi a,*, Horacio Jose Marquez b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    Decentralized robust PI controller design for an industrial boiler Batool Labibi a,*, Horacio Jose in revised form 23 April 2008 Accepted 23 April 2008 Keywords: Industrial utility boiler Internal model boiler, a control oriented nonlinear model for the boiler is identified. The nonlinearity of the system

  13. Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  14. 2015-12-29 Consumer Furnaces and Boilers Test Procedures Final Rule

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Consumer Furnaces and Boilers

  15. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

  16. Chlorine in coal and its relationship with boiler corrosion. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M.; Ruch, R.R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Limited literature and use history data have suggested that some high-chlorine Illinois coals do not cause boiler corrosion while extensive data developed by the British correlate corrosion with chlorine content and other parameters related to the coal and boiler. The differences in corrosivity in coals may be due to the coal properties, to blending of coals, or to the boiler parameters in which they were burned. The goals of this study focus on coal properties. In this quarter, both destructive temperature-programmed Thermogravimetry with Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR) and non-destructive X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) techniques were used to examine the forms and the evolution characteristics of chlorine in coals. The TGA-FTIR results indicate that under oxidation condition, both British and Illinois coals release hydrogen chloride gas. Illinois coals release the gas at high temperature with maximum evolution temperature ranged between 210 and 280 C. The XANES results indicate that chlorine in coal exists in ionic forms including a solid salt form. The solid NaCl salt form, however, is observed only in some of the British coals and none of the Illinois coals. These results combined with TGA-FTIR results suggest that the chlorine ions in Illinois coals are different from the chlorine ions in British coals.

  17. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A residential natural gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the...

  18. Experience with boiler corrosion using an all polymer program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaffer, A.E.; AlMajnouni, A.D. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-10-01

    The reliability of the life expectancy of boilers and related equipment have been compromised due to severe chemical attack resulting in corroded tubes at different locations in the boilers. Although it seems that a chelant is responsible for the tinning, glassy, smooth, and featureless surfaces so characteristic of the chemical attack, ultimately, it is an all polymer program which has induced this corrosion. However, an all polymer program, if applied properly, would not create this corrosion. The severe corrosion experienced with the all polymer program resulted from misapplication, including high levels of residual polymer, low hydroxide alkalinity, and high cycles of concentration in conjunction with prior acid cleaning, which produced clean boiler tubes. This paper not only attempts to investigate this corrosion, but further, it recommends possible methods to mitigate polymer corrosion in the future and enhance the overall condition of the boilers.

  19. Best Practices: The Engineering Approach For Industrial Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blake, N. R.

    2001-01-01

    A plant's boilers represent a large capital investment, as well as a crucial portion of overall plant operations, regardless of the industry our customers are in. It is important to have systems and procedures in place to protect this investment...

  20. Application of Oxygen Trim Control to Small Packaged Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Small packaged boilers are used to generate steam or hot water for industrial, commercial and institutional power plants. Due to their small size and relatively small fuel capacity, they have not received the energy saving attention that larger...

  1. Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1983-01-01

    The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of ...

  2. Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to reduce corrosion and improve the life span of boiler superheater tubes operating at temperatures above the melting point of ash deposits.

  3. A Boiler Plant Energy Efficiency and Load Balancing Survey 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nutter, D. W.; Murphy, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Daily energy use data was used to perform an energy efficiency survey of a medium-sized university boiler plant. The physical plant operates centralized mechanical plants to provide both chilled water and steam for building conditioning. Steam...

  4. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown - Steam Tip Sheet #10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on recovering heat from boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  5. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses - Steam Tip Sheet #16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  6. Improved Boiler System Operation with Real-time Chemical Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, D.; Jenkins, B.

    2010-01-01

    The steam boiler system is a critical component of most manufacturing processes. Steam production reliability is often a key component in product quality and overall production efficiency. Hourly steam load demands can swing by as much as 500...

  7. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses - Steam Tip Sheet #16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  8. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    psig, but higher pressures are possible. 3 For example, boilers for certain pulp and paper industry applications are now designed for pressures as high as 1,500 psig....

  9. Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    New Replacement What is the deliverable fluid type? Water Steam What fuel is used? Gas Oil How many boilers will you purchase? unit(s) Performance Factors Existing What is...

  10. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown...

  11. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the energy efficiency of...

  12. Application of Multivariable Control to Oil and Coal Fired Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, K.

    1981-01-01

    Increased visibility provided by advanced measurement and control techniques has shown that control of oil and coal fired boilers is a complex problem involving simultaneous determination of flue gas carbon monoxide, ...

  13. Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

  14. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  15. Postcombustion and its influences in 135 MWe CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaohua Li; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Qing Liu; Junfu Lu; Guangxi Yue

    2009-09-15

    In the cyclone of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a noticeable increment of flue gas temperature, caused by combustion of combustible gas and unburnt carbon content, is often found. Such phenomenon is defined as post combustion, and it could introduce overheating of reheated and superheated steam and extra heat loss of exhaust flue gas. In this paper, mathematical modeling and field measurements on post combustion in 135MWe commercial CFB boilers were conducted. A novel one-dimensional combustion model taking post combustion into account was developed. With this model, the overall combustion performance, including size distribution of various ashes, temperature profile, and carbon content profiles along the furnace height, heat release fraction in the cyclone and furnace were predicted. Field measurements were conducted by sampling gas and solid at different positions in the boiler under different loads. The measured data and corresponding model-calculated results were compared. Both prediction and field measurements showed post combustion introduced a temperature increment of flue gas in the cyclone of the 135MWe CFB boiler in the range of 20-50{sup o}C when a low-volatile bituminous coal was fired. Although it had little influence on ash size distribution, post combustion had a remarkable influence on the carbon content profile and temperature profile in the furnace. Moreover, it introduced about 4-7% heat release in the cyclone over the total heat release in the boiler. This fraction slightly increased with total air flow rate and boiler load. Model calculations were also conducted on other two 135MWe CFB boilers burning lignite and anthracite coal, respectively. The results confirmed that post combustion was sensitive to coal type and became more severe as the volatile content of the coal decreased. 15 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  17. Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L

    2014-12-16

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boiler-Turbine-Generator (BTG) units and a 5.times.5 CFB combustion process of advanced boilers. Those boilers include Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  18. Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taler, J.; Taler, D.

    2009-07-01

    The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

  19. Fluid Bed Waste Heat Boiler Operating Experience in Dirty Gas Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreeger, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    BOILER OPERATING EXPERIENCE IN DIRTY GAS STREAMS Alan H. Kreeger. Aerojet Energy Conversion Company. Sacramento. California ABSTRACT The first industrial fluid bed waste heat boiler in the U. S. is operating on an aluminium melting furnace...

  20. Damage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    Damage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1 Donglin Li Tongwen Chen2 hierarchical LEC structure and apply it to a typ- ical boiler system. There are two damage models

  1. Characterization of the U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population- Final Report, May 2005

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. industrial and commercial sectors consume large quantities of energy. Much of this energy is used in boilers to generate steam and hot water. This 2005 report characterizes the boilers in...

  2. Characterization of the U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. IndustrialCommercial Boiler Population - Final Report, May 2005 Characterization of the U.S. IndustrialCommercial Boiler Population - Final Report, May 2005 The U.S....

  3. Modeling of a coal-fired natural circulation boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhambare, K.S.; Mitra, S.K.; Gaitonde, U.N.

    2007-06-15

    Modeling of a natural circulation boiler for a coal-fired thermal power station is presented here. The boiler system is divided into seven subcomponents, and for each section, models based on conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are formulated. The pressure drop at various sections and the heat transfer coefficients are computed using empirical correlations. Solutions are obtained by using SIMULINK. The model is validated by comparing its steady state and dynamic responses with the actual plant data. Open loop responses of the model to the step changes in the operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, steam flow, feed water flow, are also analyzed. The present model can be used for the development and design of effective boiler control systems.

  4. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  5. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers- Fact Sheet, April 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact sheet overviewing how this project will develop and integrate the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST)

  6. Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA Submitted to Dr. Bi By Bernard Chan Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas" By Bernard Chan, Brian Chan, and Christopher Young Abstract This report studies the feasibility of replacing natural gas with wood pellets for UBC boilers. A gasification

  7. Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" Correction Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 1 Correction Sheet After our paper "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" went already to print, Myla address http://theory.lcs.mit.edu/tds/boiler.html. Following are the corrections to these errors and some

  8. An Algebraic Speci cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bidoit, Michel

    An Algebraic Speci#12;cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System Michel Bidoit 1 , Claude Chevenier describe how to derive an algebraic speci#12;cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System starting from to specify the detection of the steam-boiler fail- ures. Finally we discuss validation and veri#12;cation

  9. Assertional Specification and Verification using PVS of the Steam Boiler Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooman, Jozef

    Assertional Specification and Verification using PVS of the Steam Boiler Control System Jan Vitt 1 of the steam boiler control system has been derived using a formal method based on assumption/commitment pairs Introduction The steam boiler control system, as described in chapter AS of this book, has been designed

  10. Aalborg Universitet A new air-fuel WSGGM for better utility boiler simulation, design and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Chungen

    Aalborg Universitet A new air-fuel WSGGM for better utility boiler simulation, design for better utility boiler simulation, design and optimization. Paper presented at International Conference utility boiler simulation, design & optimization Chungen Yin, Ph.D. Associate Prof, Aalborg University

  11. Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20 Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study system consisting of a continuous steam boiler and a discrete controller. Our model uses the Lynch

  12. Analysis and control of a nonlinear boiler-turbine unit Wen Tan a,*,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    using drum boilers and steam turbines: (1) A single boiler is used to generate steam that is directly is then distributed to several turbines through the header. The steam can be used to generate electric- ity as wellAnalysis and control of a nonlinear boiler-turbine unit Wen Tan a,*,1 , Horacio J. Marquez b

  13. Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" Correction Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 1 Correction Sheet After our paper "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" went already to print, Myla_steam_water_est(sr) = #12;Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 2 7. p.11, The initial

  14. Development and Application of Gas Sensing Technologies to Enable Boiler Balancing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    01/2004 Development and Application of Gas Sensing Technologies to Enable Boiler Balancing to monitor total NOx (0-1000 ppm), CO (0-1000 ppm) and O2 (1-15%) within the convective pass of the boiler of such sensor systems will dramatically alter how boilers are operated, since much of the emissions creation

  15. Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration Peter Meibom Juha of using electrical heat boilers and heat pumps as wind power integration measures relieving the link\\ZRUGV wind power, integration, heat pumps, electric heat boilers ,QWURGXFWLRQ 3UREOHP RYHUYLHZ The Danish

  16. Gain-scheduled `1 -optimal control for boiler-turbine dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamma, Jeff S.

    Gain-scheduled `1 -optimal control for boiler-turbine dynamics with actuator saturation Pang; accepted 2 June 2003 Abstract This paper presents a gain-scheduled approach for boiler-turbine controller the magnitude and rate saturation constraints on actuators. The nonlinear boiler-turbine dynamics is brought

  17. Boiler Kids Camp Parent Manual Division of Recreational Sports Mission Statement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Boiler Kids Camp Parent Manual Division of Recreational Sports Mission Statement The Division which fosters an appreciation for a healthy lifestyle and promotes lifelong learning. Boiler Kids Camp Mission Statement Boiler Kids Camp is an interactive, summer day camp designed for children ranging

  18. Optimal control of a multi-energy district boiler: a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Optimal control of a multi-energy district boiler: a case study J. Eynard S. Grieu M. Polit of a multi-energy district boiler (La Rochelle, France) which supplies domestic hot water and heats optimizing the use of both the tank and the wood boiler. As a result, fossil energy consumption and CO2

  19. welcome to university residences Boiler Gold Rush Check-In...........................Saturday, August 13 and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    welcome to university residences #12;Boiler Gold Rush Check-In...........................Saturday, August 13 and Sunday, August 14, 2011 Boiler Gold Rush residence hall systems in the United States. weLcomE! 1 #12;Boiler GoLD Rush ParticiPants Your regular

  20. Full-Scale Boiler Measurements Demonstrating Striated Flows during Biomass Co-Firing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACERC-2008 Full-Scale Boiler Measurements Demonstrating Striated Flows during Biomass Co based measurements methods #12;Objective Minor impact of biomass cofiring with coal on boiler operation) · Experimentally demonstrate the existence of stratified flows in boilers Indication: SO2, ash composition, straw

  1. Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation. In this paper, we apply this modeling principle to a well known case study, the steam boiler problem which has model and to assess the difficulty of such a process in a realistic case study. The steam boiler case

  2. Re ning Abstract Machine Speci cations of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Börger, Egon

    Re ning Abstract Machine Speci cations of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented Executable the steam boiler control speci cation problem to il- lustrate how the evolving algebra approach to the speci, in June 1995, to control the Karlsruhe steam boiler simulator satisfactorily. The abstract machines

  3. Climate Wise Boiler and Steam Efficiency Wise Rules 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milmoe, P. H.; Winkelman, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Climate Wise is an industrial energy efficiency program sponsored by the U.S. EPA, and supported by the U.S. DOE, working in partnership with more than 400 industrial companies. Many Climate Wise Partners are evaluating or implementing boiler...

  4. Choosing the right boiler air fans at Weston 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spring, N.

    2009-04-15

    When it came to choosing the three 'big' boiler air fans - forced draft, induced draft and primary air, the decision revolved around efficiency. The decision making process for fan selection for the Western 4 supercritical coal-fired plant is described in this article. 3 photos.

  5. Combined Heat and Power Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    This factsheet describes a project that will seamlessly integrate a gas-fired simple-cycle 100 kWe microturbine with a new ultra-low NOx gas-fired burner to develop a CHP assembly called the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology.

  6. Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted...

  7. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  8. Financing industrial boiler projects on a non-recourse basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, C.

    1995-09-01

    Techniques for the financing of industrial boiler projects on a non-recourse basis are outlined. The following topics are discussed: types of projects; why non-recourse (off-balance sheet) financing; the down side; construction lenders requirements; and term lender/subdebt requirements.

  9. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  10. ISSUANCE 2015-05-12: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers Comment Period Extension.

  11. Chlorine in coal and its relationship with boiler corrosion. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M.; Ruch, R.R.; Chou, C.L. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Limited literature and use history data have suggested that some high-chlorine Illinois coals do not cause boiler corrosion while extensive data developed by the British correlate corrosion with chlorine content and other parameters related to the coal and boiler. The differences in corrosivity in coals may be due to the coal properties, to blending of coals, or to the boiler parameters in which they were burned. The goals of this study focus on coal properties and are: (1) to characterize chlorine and other constituents in coals which have been reported to behave differently with respect to corrosion problems during combustion; (2) to determine the evolution profiles of chlorine-containing compounds in coals during pyrolysis and oxidation; and (3) to examine the behavior of Cl-, S-, N-, O-containing compounds in coal during pyrolysis. Proximate, ultimate, and ash composition analyses for all of the British and Illinois coal samples were completed in this quarter. Analysis of the acid-soluble sodium and potassium in coals is in progress. These data, along with ash composition data, will be used to assess a coal`s relative corrosion potential. The HCl evolution profiles obtained from oxidation of the five Illinois coal samples were examined. The results indicate that temperatures of maximum HCl evolution range were 430{degree}C to 450{degree}C.

  12. Design and performance requirements for a fluidized bed boiler firing municipal refuse derived fuel in Ravenna, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M.L.

    1999-07-01

    In early 1998, the City of Ravenna, Italy, commissioned a fluid bed boiler/waste-to-energy system to combust approximately 50,000 tonnes per year of processed municipal waste and generate electrical power. Much of the fuel preparation and processing equipment was already in place and the primary focus of this project was to implement an environmentally acceptable energy conversion process compatible with the 6.0 tonnes/hr of fuel being processed. The fluid bed boiler system being provided will incorporate state of the art environmental controls for abatement of all pollutants, including products of incomplete combustion (PICs), NO{sub x}, acid gases, and particulates. The project will deliver an average of 70,000 pounds per hour of steam to generate approximately 7 MW of electricity. The following is a description of the process and equipment being utilized for the energy conversion and boiler island, including the environmental abatement equipment. Design specifications for the plant including fuel and emission limits are presented herein. The facility is scheduled for startup in mid-1999.

  13. Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, C.

    2008-09-15

    Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on the quality of raw coal and output requirement. It should be sufficient to dry pulverized coal (PC). Drying capacity is also limited by utmost PA fan power to supply air. The PA temperature is limited by air preheater (APH) inlet flue gas temperature; an increase in this will result in efficiency loss of the boiler. The higher PA inlet temperature can be attained through the economizer gas bypass, the steam coiled APH, and the partial flue gas recirculation. The PS/coal ratioincreases with a decrease in grindability or pulverizer output and decreases with a decrease in VM. The flammability of mixture has to be monitored on explosion limit. Through calibration, the PA flow and efficiency of conveyance can be verified. The velocities of coal/air mixture to prevent fallout or to avoid erosion in the coal carrier pipe are dependent on the PC particle size distribution. Metal loss of grinding elements inversely depends on the YGP index of coal. Variations of dynamic loading and wearing of grinding elements affect the available milling capacity and percentage rejects. Therefore, capacity mapping in necessary to ensure the available pulverizer capacity to avoid overcapacity or undercapacity running of the pulverizing system, optimizing auxiliary power consumption. This will provide a guideline on the distribution of raw coal feeding in different pulverizers of a boiler to maximize system efficiency and control, resulting in a more cost effective heat rate.

  14. Superheater Corrosion In Biomass Boilers: Today's Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, William

    2011-12-01

    This report broadens a previous review of published literature on corrosion of recovery boiler superheater tube materials to consider the performance of candidate materials at temperatures near the deposit melting temperature in advanced boilers firing coal, wood-based fuels, and waste materials as well as in gas turbine environments. Discussions of corrosion mechanisms focus on the reactions in fly ash deposits and combustion gases that can give corrosive materials access to the surface of a superheater tube. Setting the steam temperature of a biomass boiler is a compromise between wasting fuel energy, risking pluggage that will shut the unit down, and creating conditions that will cause rapid corrosion on the superheater tubes and replacement expenses. The most important corrosive species in biomass superheater corrosion are chlorine compounds and the most corrosion resistant alloys are typically FeCrNi alloys containing 20-28% Cr. Although most of these materials contain many other additional additions, there is no coherent theory of the alloying required to resist the combination of high temperature salt deposits and flue gases that are found in biomass boiler superheaters that may cause degradation of superheater tubes. After depletion of chromium by chromate formation or chromic acid volatilization exceeds a critical amount, the protective scale gives way to a thick layer of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} over an unprotective (FeCrNi){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel. This oxide is not protective and can be penetrated by chlorine species that cause further acceleration of the corrosion rate by a mechanism called active oxidation. Active oxidation, cited as the cause of most biomass superheater corrosion under chloride ash deposits, does not occur in the absence of these alkali salts when the chloride is present as HCl gas. Although a deposit is more corrosive at temperatures where it is molten than at temperatures where it is frozen, increasing superheater tube temperatures through the measured first melting point of fly ash deposits does not necessarily produce a step increase in corrosion rate. Corrosion rate typically accelerates at temperatures below the first melting temperature and mixed deposits may have a broad melting temperature range. Although the environment at a superheater tube surface is initially that of the ash deposits, this chemistry typically changes as the deposits mature. The corrosion rate is controlled by the environment and temperature at the tube surface, which can only be measured indirectly. Some results are counter-intuitive. Two boiler manufacturers and a consortium have developed models to predict fouling and corrosion in biomass boilers in order to specify tube materials for particular operating conditions. It would be very useful to compare the predictions of these models regarding corrosion rates and recommended alloys in the boiler environments where field tests will be performed in the current program. Manufacturers of biomass boilers have concluded that it is more cost-effective to restrict steam temperatures, to co-fire biofuels with high sulfur fuels and/or to use fuel additives rather than try to increase fuel efficiency by operating with superheater tube temperatures above melting temperature of fly ash deposits. Similar strategies have been developed for coal fired and waste-fired boilers. Additives are primarily used to replace alkali metal chloride deposits with higher melting temperature and less corrosive alkali metal sulfate or alkali aluminum silicate deposits. Design modifications that have been shown to control superheater corrosion include adding a radiant pass (empty chamber) between the furnace and the superheater, installing cool tubes immediately upstream of the superheater to trap high chloride deposits, designing superheater banks for quick replacement, using an external superheater that burns a less corrosive biomass fuel, moving circulating fluidized bed (CFB) superheaters from the convective pass into the hot recirculated fluidizing medium and adding an insulating layer to superh

  15. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babcock/Wilcox; Illinois State Geological; Worley Parsons; Parsons Infrastructure/Technology Group

    2007-06-30

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, B&W and Air Liquide are developing and optimizing the oxy-combustion process for retrofitting existing boilers as well as new plants. The main objectives of the project is to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of the oxy-combustion technology with flue gas recycle in a 5-million Btu/hr coal-fired pilot boiler, (2) measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection and flue gas recycle strategies, and (3) perform technical and economic feasibility studies for application of the technology in demonstration and commercial scale boilers. This document summarizes the work performed during the period of performance of the project (Oct 2002 to June 2007). Detailed technical results are reported in corresponding topical reports that are attached as an appendix to this report. Task 1 (Site Preparation) has been completed in 2003. The experimental pilot-scale O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion tests of Task 2 (experimental test performance) has been completed in Q2 2004. Process simulation and cost assessment of Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has been completed in Q1 2005. The topical report on Task 3 has been finalized and submitted to DOE in Q3 2005. The calculations of Task 4 (Retrofit Recommendation and Preliminary Design of a New Generation Boiler) has been completed in 2004. In Task 6 (engineering study on retrofit applications), the engineering study on 25MW{sub e} unit has been completed in Q2, 2008 along with the corresponding cost assessment. In Task 7 (evaluation of new oxy-fuel power plants concepts), based on the design basis document prepared in 2005, the design and cost estimate of the Air Separation Units, the boiler islands and the CO{sub 2} compression and trains have been completed, for both super and ultra-supercritical case study. Final report of Task-7 is published by DOE in Oct 2007.

  16. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2005-03-31

    This is the nineteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Refurbished corrosion probes were installed at Plant Gavin and operated for approximately 1,300 hours. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ lab, and includes the first results from a model suitable for comprehensive simulation codes for describing catalyst performance. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden operated for approximately 100 hours during the quarter because of ash blockage in the inlet probe.

  17. Build, Own, Operate and Maintain (BOOM) Boiler Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry, T.

    2003-01-01

    . Issues: To remain competitive and provide for growth, corporations and not-for-profit (NFP) organizations have changed the way they look at their energy systems: ? They are only allocating capital to "core" assets. In most cases, thennal, electric... and air energy systems are not considered "core" assets resulting in the need to find "other" solutions to providing the needed energy. ? Reduced staffing has resulted in fewer experienced and knowledgeable boiler operating and maintenance personnel...

  18. Protecting the Investment in Heat Recovery with Boiler Economizers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roethe, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    THE INVESTMENT IN HEAT RECOVERY WITH BOILER ECONOMIZERS Lester A. Roethe, Consultant Kentube Division Tulsa, Oklahoma ABSTRACT Many people consider energy to be a crlS1S in re mission -- even with continuing high fuel costs. Some voice concern over... the long term security of an investment in flue gas heat recovery equipment. The concern generally involves the ability of an economizer or air heater to continue to perform efficiently without corrosion. The recognized economic advantages of an econo...

  19. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-01-01

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  20. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Boiler

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, IncBioPredicting Envelope Leakage inBoilerControl

  1. Mercury control challenge for industrial boiler MACT affected facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-15

    An industrial coal-fired boiler facility conducted a test program to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbent injection on mercury removal ahead of a fabric filter with an inlet flue gas temperature of 375{sup o}F. The results of the sorbent injection testing are essentially inconclusive relative to providing the facility with enough data upon which to base the design and implementation of permanent sorbent injection system(s). The mercury removal performance of the sorbents was significantly less than expected. The data suggests that 50 percent mercury removal across a baghouse with flue gas temperatures at or above 375{sup o}F and containing moderate levels of SO{sub 3} may be very difficult to achieve with activated carbon sorbent injection alone. The challenge many coal-fired industrial facilities may face is the implementation of additional measures beyond sorbent injection to achieve high levels of mercury removal that will likely be required by the upcoming new Industrial Boiler MACT rule. To counter the negative effects of high flue gas temperature on mercury removal with sorbents, it may be necessary to retrofit additional boiler heat transfer surface or spray cooling of the flue gas upstream of the baghouse. Furthermore, to counter the negative effect of moderate or high SO{sub 3} levels in the flue gas on mercury removal, it may be necessary to also inject sorbents, such as trona or hydrated lime, to reduce the SO{sub 3} concentrations in the flue gas. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Pool boiler reflux solar receiver for Stirling dish-electric systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of competitive, modular bulk electric power from the sun may be greatly enhanced by the use of a reflux heat pipe receiver to combine a heat engine such as Stirling with a paraboloidal dish concentrator. This combination represents a potential improvement over previous successful demonstrations of dish-electric technology in terms of enhanced performance, lower cost, longer life, and greater flexibility in engine design. There are, however, important issues and unknowns which must be addressed to determine engineering feasibility of these devices. In the pool boiler reflux receiver, concentrated solar radiation causes liquid metal (sodium or potassium) to boil. The vapor flows to the engine heater heads, where it condenses and releases the latent heat. The condensate is returned to the receiver absorber pool by gravity (refluxing). This is essentially an adaptation of heat pipe technology to the peculiar requirements of concentrated solar flux, and provides many advantages over conventional heated tube receiver technology. Boiling theory indicates that long-term stable boiling of liquid metal may be difficult to achieve. Laboratory scale experiments have been performed. Initial tests confirmed that boiling is unstable in a baseline boiler. Boiling stability was established after the addition of ''artificial cavities'' to the heated surface, and successful boiling of sodium was demonstrated for 100 hours. Other stabilizing influences may have been present, and will be discussed. The flux and geometry closely simulated a real receiver. The results of these tests are presented, along with the design of a full scale receiver for on-sun testing and considerations for long term operation. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

    2011-04-11

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability in conventional coal-fired fossil power plants is most often caused by fireside corrosion of boiler waterwalls. Industry-wide, the rate of wall thickness corrosion wastage of fireside waterwalls in fossil-fired boilers has been of concern for many years. It is significant that the introduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls with staged burners systems has increased reported waterwall wastage rates to as much as 120 mils (3 mm) per year. Moreover, the reducing environment produced by the low-NOx combustion process is the primary cause of accelerated corrosion rates of waterwall tubes made of carbon and low alloy steels. Improved coatings, such as the MCrAl nanocoatings evaluated here (where M is Fe, Ni, and Co), are needed to reduce/eliminate waterwall damage in subcritical, supercritical, and ultra-supercritical (USC) boilers. The first two tasks of this six-task project-jointly sponsored by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)-have focused on computational modeling of an advanced MCrAl nanocoating system and evaluation of two nanocrystalline (iron and nickel base) coatings, which will significantly improve the corrosion and erosion performance of tubing used in USC boilers. The computational model results showed that about 40 wt.% is required in Fe based nanocrystalline coatings for long-term durability, leading to a coating composition of Fe-25Cr-40Ni-10 wt.% Al. In addition, the long term thermal exposure test results further showed accelerated inward diffusion of Al from the nanocrystalline coatings into the substrate. In order to enhance the durability of these coatings, it is necessary to develop a diffusion barrier interlayer coating such TiN and/or AlN. The third task 'Process Advanced MCrAl Nanocoating Systems' of the six-task project jointly sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)- has focused on processing of advanced nanocrystalline coating systems and development of diffusion barrier interlayer coatings. Among the diffusion interlayer coatings evaluated, the TiN interlayer coating was found to be the optimum one. This report describes the research conducted under the Task 3 workscope.

  4. Development and Demonstration of a Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, in collaboration with Frito-Lay, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, CPL Systems, Inc., Alpha Boilers, and Kansas State University will demonstrate use of a biomass boiler in the food processing industry. The 60,000 lb/hr innovative biomass boiler system utilizing a combination of wood waste and tire-derived fuel (TDF) waste will offset all natural gas consumption at Frito-Lay's Topeka, Kansas, processing facility.

  5. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

  6. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Appendix, Book 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Based on the industry need for a pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, Babcock Wilcox (B&W) designed, fabricated, and installed such a facility at its Alliance Research Center (ARC) in 1985. The project involved conversion of an existing pulverized coal-fired facility to be cyclone-firing capable. Additionally, convective section tube banks were installed in the upper furnace in order to simulate a typical boiler convection pass. The small boiler simulator (SBS) is designed to simulate most fireside aspects of full-size utility boilers such as combustion and flue gas emissions characteristics, fireside deposition, etc. Prior to the design of the pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, the various cyclone boiler types were reviewed in order to identify the inherent cyclone boiler design characteristics which are applicable to the majority of these boilers. The cyclone boiler characteristics that were reviewed include NO{sub x} emissions, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) carbon loss, and total furnace residence time. Previous pilot-scale cyclone-fired furnace experience identified the following concerns: (1) Operability of a small cyclone furnace (e.g., continuous slag tapping capability). (2) The optimum cyclone(s) configuration for the pilot-scale unit. (3) Compatibility of NO{sub x} levels, carbon burnout, cyclone ash carryover to the convection pass, cyclone temperature, furnace residence time, and FEGT.

  7. Predictive control and thermal energy storage for optimizing a multi-energy district boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Predictive control and thermal energy storage for optimizing a multi- energy district boiler Julien energy storage. 1. Introduction Managing energy demand, promoting renewable energy and finding ways

  8. Consider Installing Turbulators on Two- and Three-Pass Firetube Boilers - Steam Tip Sheet #25

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on installing turbulators on firetube boilers provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  9. Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #7 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    A steam energy tip sheet for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO). The prevention of scale formation in firetube boilers can result in substantial energy savings. Scale deposits occur when calcium, magnesium, and silica, commonly found in most water supplies, react to form a continuous layer of material on the waterside of the boiler heat exchange tubes. Scale creates a problem because it typically possesses a thermal conductivity, an order of magnitude less than the corresponding value for bare steel. Even thin layers of scale serve as an effective insulator and retard heat transfer. The result is overheating of boiler tube metal, tube failures, and loss of energy efficiency. Fuel consumption may increase by up to 5% in firetube boilers because of scale. The boilers steam production may be reduced if the firing rate cannot be increased to compensate for the decrease in combustion efficiency. Energy losses as a function of scale thickness and composition are given. Any scale in a boiler is undesirable. The best way to deal with scale is not to let it form in the first place. Prevent scale formation by: (1) Pretreating of boiler makeup water (using water softeners, demineralizers, and reverse osmosis to remove scale-forming minerals); (2) Injecting chemicals into the boiler feedwater; and (3) Adopting proper boiler blowdown practices.

  10. Biomass Boiler Market is Projected to Reach USD 8,907.0 Million...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Naval SpA, Hurst Boiler & Welding Co, Inc., Jernforsen Energi System AB, Justsen Energiteknik AS, Kohlbach Group, LAMBION Energy Solutions GmbH, Leroux & Lotz Technologies,...

  11. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a CHP project and focuses on technical subjects associated with the integration of cogeneration technology into new and existing ICI boiler installations. chpboilersguide.pdf...

  12. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    useful information for evaluating the viability of cogeneration for new or existing industrial, commercial, or institutional (ICI) boiler installations. It is part of a suite of...

  13. Continuous Measurement of Carbon Monoxide Improves Combustion Efficiency of CO Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilmour, W. A.; Pregler, D. N.; Branham, R. L.; Prichard, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes the application of in-situ flue gas CO measurement in the operation of CO Boilers and details the steps needed to optimize combustion efficiency....

  14. Financial Incentives Available for Facilities Affected by the US EPA Boiler MACT Proposed Rule, December 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of incentives for which larger boilers and then CHP systems qualify; Federal incentive programs are discussed and state, utility and local?level programs.

  15. Consider Installing Turbulators on Two- and Three-Pass Firetube Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on installing turbulators on firetube boilers provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. Consider Installing Turbulators on Two- and Three-Pass Firetube Boilers - Steam Tip Sheet #25

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on installing turbulators on firetube boilers provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  17. CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROTARY COMBUSTOR FOR REFIRING PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray F. Abbott; Jamal B. Mereb; Simon P. Hanson; Michael J. Virr

    2000-11-01

    The Rotary Combustor is a novel concept for burning coal with low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. It burns crushed coal in a fluid bed where the bed is maintained in a rotating drum by centripetal force. Since this force may be varied, the combustor may be very compact, and thus be a direct replacement for a p.c. burner on existing boilers. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate that a typical industrial boiler can be refired with the modified prototype Rotary Combustor to burn Ohio high-sulfur coal with low emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The primary problem that must be resolved to demonstrate sustained operations with coal is temperature control in the rotating fluid bed. The prototype Rotary Combustor was assembled and installed on the T-850P CNB boiler at the CONSOL Energy site in South Park, Pennsylvania. Several design improvements were investigated and implemented during the assembly to improve the prototype Rotary Combustor operations compared to prior tests at Detroit Stoker in Monroe, Michigan. An Operating Manual and Safety Review were completed. The shakedown test phase was initiated. Two major problems were initially encountered: binding of the rotating drum at operating temperatures, and reduced fluid-bed pressure drop after short periods of operation. Plating the brush seal rotary land ring with a chrome carbide plasma spray and lubricating the seal prior to each test sufficiently resolved these problems to permit a limited number of operations tests. Unlike previous tests at Detroit Stoker, sustained operation of the prototype Rotary Combustor was accomplished burning a high-Btu fuel, metallurgical coke. The prototype Rotary Combustor was operated with coke in gasifier mode on two occasions. Fluid-bed temperature spiking was minimized with manual control of the feeds (coke, air and steam), and no clinker formation problems were encountered in either test. Emission levels of NO{sub x} were measured at about 270 ppmv which were higher those targeted for the device which were 100 ppmv. This was assumed to be because of the aforementioned temperature spiking. The primary operating problem remains control of the fluid-bed temperature. Although improvements were made, steam flow control was manual, and very coarse. To accomplish this will require finer control of the steam flow to the rotary drum air plenum, and development of an algorithm for automatic control using the Moore APACS{trademark}. This is the recommended succeeding step in the development of the Rotary Combustor for industrial or utility use.

  18. Strain-Based Acceptance Criteria for Energy-Limited Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer D. Snow; Dana K. Morton

    2009-07-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code was primarily written with stress-based acceptance criteria. These criteria are applicable to force, displacement, and energy-controlled loadings and ensure a factor of safety against failure. However, stress-based acceptance criteria are often quite conservative for one time energy-limited events such as accidental drops and impacts. For several years, the ASME Working Group on Design of Division 3 Containments has been developing the Design Articles for Section III, Division 3, “Containments for Transportation and Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Material and Waste,” and has wanted to establish strain-based acceptance criteria for accidental drops of containments. This Division 3 working group asked the Working Group on Design Methodology (WGDM) to assist in developing these strain-based acceptance criteria. This paper discusses the current proposed strain-based acceptance criteria, associated limitations of use, its background development, and the current status.

  19. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30

    This report summarizes Year 1 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Through the course of Year 1 activities, great progress was made toward understanding the issues associated with oxy-combustion retrofit of coal-fired boilers. All four Year 1 milestones and objectives have been, or will be, completed on schedule and within budget. Progress in the four milestone areas may be summarized as follows: • University of Utah has performed size segregated ash composition measurements in the Oxy-Fuel Combustor (OFC). These experiments indicate that oxy-combustion retrofit may impact ash aerosol mineral matter composition. Both flame temperature and flue gas composition have been observed to influence the concentration of calcium, magnesium and iron in the fine particulate. This could in turn impact boiler fouling and slagging. • Sandia National Labs has shown that char oxidation rate is dependent on particle size (for sizes between 60 and 100 microns) by performing fundamental simulations of reacting char particles. These predictions will be verified by making time-resolved optical measurements of char particle temperature, velocity and size in bench-scale experiments before the end of Year 1. • REI and Siemens have completed the design of an oxy-research burner that will be mounted on University of Utah’s pilot-scale furnace, the L1500. This burner will accommodate a wide range of O2, FGR and mixing strategies under conditions relevant for utility boiler operation. Through CFD modeling of the different burner designs, it was determined that the key factor influencing flame stabilization location is particle heat-up rate. The new oxy-research burner and associated equipment is scheduled for delivery before the end of Year 1. • REI has completed a literature survey of slagging and fouling mechanisms in coal-fired power plants to understand key issues influencing these deposition regimes and infer their behavior under oxy-fired conditions. Based on the results of this survey, an algorithm for integrating slagging predictions into CFD models was outlined. This method accounts for ash formation, particle impaction and sticking, deposit growth and physical properties and impact of the deposit on system flow and heat transfer. A model for fouling in the back pass has also been identified which includes vaporization of sodium, deposition of sodium sulfate on fly ash particles and tube surfaces, and deposit growth rate on tubes. In Year 1, REI has also performed a review of the literature describing corrosion in order to understand the behavior of oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation, and carburization mechanisms in air-fired and oxy-combustion systems. REI and Vattenfall have met and exchanged information concerning oxy-coal combustion mechanisms for CFD simulations currently used by Vattenfall. In preparation for Year 2 of this program, two coals (North Antelope PRB, Western bituminous) have been ordered, pulverized and delivered to the University of Utah and Sandia National Labs. Materials for the corrosion experiments have been identified, suppliers located, and a schedule for equipment fabrication and shakedown has been established. Finally, a flue gas recycle system has been designed and is being constructed for the OFC.

  20. METHANE DE-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2001-10-30

    The project seeks to develop and validate a new pulverized coal combustion system to reduce utility PC boiler NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less without post-combustion flue gas cleaning. Work during the quarter included completion of the equipment fabrication and installation efforts for the 3-million Btu/h pilot system at BBP's Pilot-Scale Combustion Facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA. Final selection of the first two test coals and preliminary selection of the final two test coals were also completed.

  1. Standby cooling system for a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crispin, Larry G. (Akron, OH); Weitzel, Paul S. (Canal Fulton, OH)

    1990-01-01

    A system for protecting components including the heat exchangers of a fluidized bed boiler against thermal mismatch. The system includes an injection tank containing an emergency supply of heated and pressurized feedwater. A heater is associated with the injection tank to maintain the temperature of the feedwater in the tank at or about the same temperature as that of the feedwater in the heat exchangers. A pressurized gas is supplied to the injection tank to cause feedwater to flow from the injection tank to the heat exchangers during thermal mismatch.

  2. A New Scheme on Robust Observer Based Control Design for Nonlinear Interconnected Systems with Application to an Industrial Utility Boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    with Application to an Industrial Utility Boiler Adarsha Swarnakar, Horacio Jose Marquez and Tongwen Chen Abstract. The controller design is evaluated on a natural circulation drum boiler, where the nonlinear model describes

  3. A Assertional verification using PVS Vitt & Hooman We present details of the PVS specification of the steam boiler control system.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooman, Jozef

    of the steam boiler control system. In general, a PVS specification consists of a number of theories where each­time systems. These theories are imported in Section A.2 where the steam boiler system is designed, assuming

  4. New 90,000 PPH Coal Fired Boiler Plant at Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, Durham North Carolina 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaskey, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company in Durham, North Carolina is installing a future cogeneration, coal fired boiler system designed and built by Energy Systems (ESI) of Chattanooga, Tennessee. The complete boiler plant is comprised of a 90,000 pph Dorr...

  5. Performance of a small scale boiler burner in the firing of fuel blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frazzitta, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    of the feedlot manure. A small scale boiler burner facility has been constructed to simulate a utility class boiler. Experiments were conducted with coal only and then for coal/feedlot manure. Three types of feedlot manure are examined; raw feedlot manure...

  6. Analysis of Heating Systems and Scale of Natural Gas-Condensing Water Boilers in Northern Zones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Y.; Wang, S.; Pan, S.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, various heating systems and scale of the natural gas-condensing water boiler in northern zones are discussed, based on a technical-economic analysis of the heating systems of natural gas condensing water boilers in northern zones...

  7. Effects of installing economizers in boilers used in space heating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Medina, M.A.; Schruben, D.L.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses how the performance of a boiler can be improved by adding an economizer to preheat the boiler's feedwater. An energy analysis was applied to a boiler and then to both a boiler and an economizer (water pre-heater) to evaluate the benefits of heat recovery. Exergy rates calculated for both the boiler and the economizer determined that the temperature of the stack gases had primary effects on the performance of a boiler. The results from this study showed that 57% of the heat rejected at the boiler's stack could be recovered by installing an economizer to preheat the feedwater. As a result, the average cost savings that would be realized for a 36,400 kg/h (80,000 lbm/h) boiler averages US$8 per hour. The cost savings to steam production averaged US$0.20 per 455 kg (1,000 lbm) of steam and the ration between the cost savings to stack temperature averaged $0.02 per C (1.8 F). For this case, the fuel and the cost savings realized from using an economizer were averaged at 3.8% and 3.7%, respectively. These results translated to total cost savings, for an eight-day period considered, of US$940.

  8. Compliance testing of hot-water and steam boilers, Shaw Afb, South Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.A.

    1989-02-01

    At the request of HQ TAC/DEEV, personnel of the USAFOEHL Air Quality Function conducted source testing of eighteen small hot water and steam boilers to determine stack-gas moisture content and velocity. The data obtained during the survey was necessary for boiler operating application.

  9. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of fuels, oxy-process variables and boiler design parameters. Significant improvement of CFD modeling tools and validation against 15 MWth experimental data has been completed. Oxy-boiler demonstration and large reference designs have been developed, supported with the information and knowledge gained from the 15 MWth testing. This report addresses the results from the 15 MWth testing in the BSF.

  10. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kychakoff, George; Afromowitz, Martin A; Hugle, Richard E

    2005-06-21

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions and about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler. An image pre-processing circuit (95) in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. An image segmentation module (105) for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. An image-understanding unit (115) matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system (130) for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, VOL. 3, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2007 73 Constraint-Based Control of Boiler Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    -Based Control of Boiler Efficiency: A Data-Mining Approach Zhe Song and Andrew Kusiak, Member, IEEE Abstract-utility boiler subject to operating constraints. Selection of process vari- ables to optimize combustion- fired boiler in the presence of operating constraints. Two schemes of generating control settings

  12. Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio J. Marquez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio detection in boiler steam-water systems. The algorithm has been tested using real industrial data from Syncrude Canada, and has proven to be effective in detection of boiler tube or steam leaks; proper

  13. Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle, Alexander Romanovsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    1 Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle employing an OTS (Off-The-Shelf) item. The case study used a Simulink model of a steam boiler system, employing software models of the PID controller and the steam boiler system rather than conducting

  14. Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle, Alexander Romanovsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle-The-Shelf) item. The case study used a Simulink model of a steam boiler system together with an OTS PID in practice, employing software models of the PID controller and the steam boiler system rather than

  15. Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Study of Biomass Combustion in a Thermal 108 MW Grate-Fired Boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosendahl, Lasse

    -Fired Boiler Chungen Yin,*, Lasse Rosendahl, Sřren K. Kćr, Sřnnik Clausen, Sřren L. Hvid,§ and Torben Hille, Denmark ReceiVed NoVember 16, 2007. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed January 4, 2008 Grate boilers are widely) model for an industrial biomass-fired grate boiler, which can be used for diagnosis and optimization

  16. Modular approach for modelling a multi-energy district boiler Julien Eynard, Stphane Grieu1 and Monique Polit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modular approach for modelling a multi-energy district boiler Julien Eynard, Stéphane Grieu1 with the modelling of a district boiler (city of La Rochelle, west coast of France), as part of the OptiEnR research project. This "multi- energy" boiler supplies domestic hot water and heats residential and public

  17. To be published in Waste Management (2010) Bodnan et al. MINERALOGY AND PORE WATER CHEMISTRY OF A BOILER ASH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2010-01-01

    OF A BOILER ASH FROM A MSW FLUIDIZED-BED INCINERATOR F. Bodénan* , D. Guyonnet, P. Piantone, P. Blanc BRGM presents an investigation of the mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash sampled from to as "boiler ash", is analogous to what Abbas et al. (2003) refer to as "hopper ash" (see Fig. 1 of Abbas et al

  18. Speci cation and Veri cation of a Steam-Boiler with Signal-Coq Micka l Kerb uf1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Speci cation and Veri cation of a Steam-Boiler with Signal-Coq Micka l Kerb uf1 , David Nowak2 assistant, Coq, for the speci cation and the veri cation of co-inductive properties of the well-known steam-boiler cation tools. Keywords: synchronous programming, theorem proving, the steam- boiler problem. 1

  19. MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University of Tennessee Georgia Tech SURF 2010 Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University Goodman Introduction In the papermaking industry, black liquor recovery boilers burn black liquor into the superheater region of the boiler, where the salt-deposit, or smelt, forms a scale on the superheater tubes.1

  20. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-12-31

    This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

  1. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-09-30

    This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

  2. Circulating fluidized-bed boiler makes inroads for waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boilers have ben used for years in Scandinavia to burn refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Now, Foster Wheeler Power Systems, Inc., (Clinton, N.J.) is bringing the technology to the US. Touted as the world`s largest waste-to-energy plant to use CFB technology, the Robbins (III.) Resource Recovery Facility will have the capacity to process 1,600 tons/d of municipal solid waste (MSW) when it begins operation in early 1997. The facility will have two materials-separation and RDF-processing trains, each with dual trommel screens, magnetic and eddy current separators, and shredders. About 25% of the incoming MSW will be sorted and removed for recycling, while 75% of it will be turned into fuel, with a heat value of roughly 6,170 btu/lb. Once burned in the twin CFB boilers the resulting steam will be routed through a single turbine generator to produce 50,000 mW of electric power.

  3. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Steve; Knapp, David

    2012-03-31

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a â??biomass-firedâ?ť boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using â??carbon neutralâ?ť fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO{sub 2}. The boiler does require auxiliary â??functions,â?ť however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO{sub 2} emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO{sub 2} per year.

  4. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable to minimize the need for overfire air by maximizing NO{sub x} reduction in the burner. The proposed combustion concept aims to greatly reduce NO{sub x} emissions by incorporating a novel modification to conventional or low-NO{sub x} PC burners using gas-fired coal preheating to destroy NO{sub x} precursors and prevent NO{sub x} formation. A concentrated PC stream enters the burner, where flue gas from natural gas combustion is used to heat the PC up to about 1500 F prior to coal combustion. Secondary fuel consumption for preheating is estimated to be 3 to 5% of the boiler heat input. This thermal pretreatment releases coal volatiles, including fuel-bound nitrogen compounds into oxygen-deficient atmosphere, which converts the coal-derived nitrogen compounds to molecular N{sub 2} rather than NO. Design, installation, shakedown, and testing on Powder River Basin (PRB) coal at a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at RPI's (Riley Power, Inc.) pilot-scale combustion facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA demonstrated that the PC PREHEAT process has a significant effect on final O{sub x} formation in the coal burner. Modifications to both the pilot system gas-fired combustor and the PC burner led to NO{sub x} reduction with PRB coal to levels below 0.15 lb/million Btu with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

  5. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Preto, F.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  6. Design and development for a low emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy initiated the Combustion 2000 program to develop the next generation of coal-fired power plants. Sargent & Lundy (S&L) is working on the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) portion of the program led by Riley Stoker Corporation, with support from Textron Defense Systems, Tecogen, and Reaction Engineering International. Together these organizations form {open_quotes}the Riley Team.{close_quotes} There are four phases of the LEBS development program. Currently, we are working in Phase I, which involves the design of a 400 MWe unit. Phase II through IV will involve pilot scale component testing and a Proof-of-Concept facility ({approximately}40MWe) design, construction, and operation. This document comprises the Design and Development Report for the LEBS. The report describes the design basis, design uncertainties and development plan for each of the major LEBS subsystems.

  7. Computation Modeling and Assessment of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Shingledecker; D. Gandy; N. Cheruvu; R. Wei; K. Chan

    2011-06-21

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability of coal-fired fossil plants is most often caused by fire-side corrosion of boiler waterwalls and tubing. Reliable coatings are required for Ultrasupercritical (USC) application to mitigate corrosion since these boilers will operate at a much higher temperatures and pressures than in supercritical (565 C {at} 24 MPa) boilers. Computational modeling efforts have been undertaken to design and assess potential Fe-Cr-Ni-Al systems to produce stable nanocrystalline coatings that form a protective, continuous scale of either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The computational modeling results identified a new series of Fe-25Cr-40Ni with or without 10 wt.% Al nanocrystalline coatings that maintain long-term stability by forming a diffusion barrier layer at the coating/substrate interface. The computational modeling predictions of microstructure, formation of continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. Advanced coatings, such as MCrAl (where M is Fe, Ni, or Co) nanocrystalline coatings, have been processed using different magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. Several coating trials were performed and among the processing methods evaluated, the DC pulsed magnetron sputtering technique produced the best quality coating with a minimum number of shallow defects and the results of multiple deposition trials showed that the process is repeatable. scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. The cyclic oxidation test results revealed that the nanocrystalline coatings offer better oxidation resistance, in terms of weight loss, localized oxidation, and formation of mixed oxides in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, than widely used MCrAlY coatings. However, the ultra-fine grain structure in these coatings, consistent with the computational model predictions, resulted in accelerated Al diffusion from the coating into the substrate. An effective diffusion barrier interlayer coating was developed to prevent inward Al diffusion. The fire-side corrosion test results showed that the nanocrystalline coatings with a minimum number of defects have a great potential in providing corrosion protection. The coating tested in the most aggressive environment showed no evidence of coating spallation and/or corrosion attack after 1050 hours exposure. In contrast, evidence of coating spallation in isolated areas and corrosion attack of the base metal in the spalled areas were observed after 500 hours. These contrasting results after 500 and 1050 hours exposure suggest that the premature coating spallation in isolated areas may be related to the variation of defects in the coating between the samples. It is suspected that the cauliflower-type defects in the coating were presumably responsible for coating spallation in isolated areas. Thus, a defect free good quality coating is the key for the long-term durability of nanocrystalline coatings in corrosive environments. Thus, additional process optimization work is required to produce defect-free coatings prior to development of a coating application method for production parts.

  8. Task 2: Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcolm, Gordon R.; McGhee, Barry

    2009-05-01

    The PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the tasks for the project: Characterize advanced boiler (oxy-fuel combustion, biomass co-fired) gas compositions and ash deposits; Generate critical data on the effects of environmental conditions; develop a unified test method with a view to future standardization; Generate critical data for coating systems for use in advanced boiler systems; Generate critical data for flue gas recycle piping materials for oxy-fuel systems; and, Compile materials performance data from laboratory and pilot plant exposures of candidate alloys for use in advanced boiler systems.

  9. Benefits of Industrial Boiler Control and Economic Load Allocation at AMOCO Chemicals, Decatur, Alabama 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, J.

    1998-01-01

    , it is considered by this solution. The global solution makes recommendations to advise the operator as to what the optimum loading is for all the boilers, including recommending adding or removing boilers from service, and changing the load on any base-loaded... as long as the soluti os remain valid, as defmed above. To achieve savings from the local soluti n optimization, the boiler loads must be altered fr~m the traditional, non-optimized loading strategy 0 a common plant master signal cascaded to all boil...

  10. The reapplication of energetic materials as boiler fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, S.G.; Sclippa, G.C.; Ross, J.R.

    1997-02-01

    Decommissioning of weapons stockpiles, off-specification production, and upgrading of weapons systems results in a large amount of energetic materials (EM) such as rocket propellant and primary explosives that need to be recycled or disposed of each year. Presently, large quantities of EM are disposed of in a process known as open-burn/open-detonation (OB/OD), which not only wastes their energy content, but may release large quantities of hazardous material into the environment. Here the authors investigate the combustion properties of several types of EM to determine the feasibility of reapplication of these materials as boiler fuels, a process that could salvage the energy content of the EM as well as mitigate any potential adverse environmental impact. Reapplication requires pretreatment of the fuels to make them safe to handle and to feed. Double-base nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin, trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitroguanidine, and a rocket propellant binder primarily composed of polybutidiene impregnated with aluminum flakes have been burned in a 100-kW downfired flow reactor. Most of these fuels have high levels of fuel-bound nitrogen, much of it bound in the form of nitrate groups, resulting in high NO{sub x} emissions during combustion. The authors have measured fuel-bound nitrate conversion efficiencies to NO{sub x} of up to 80%, suggesting that the nitrate groups do not follow the typical path of fuel nitrogen through HCN leading to NO{sub x}, but rather form NO{sub x} directly. They show that staged combustion is effective in reducing NO{sub x} concentrations in the postcombustion gases by nearly a factor of 3. In the rocket binder, measured aluminum particle temperatures in excess of 1700{degrees}C create high levels of thermal NO{sub x}, and also generate concern that molten aluminum particles could potentially damage boiler equipment. Judicious selection of the firing method is thus required for aluminum-containing materials.

  11. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency - Steam Tip Sheet #4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet helps plants establish a program for the regular inspection, testing and repair of stream traps.

  12. System Modeling of ORNL s 20 MW(t) Wood-fired Gasifying Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Wiggins, Gavin [ORNL; Hao, Ye [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the new 20 MW(t) wood-fired steam plant currently under construction by Johnson Controls, Inc. at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. The new plant will utilize a low-temperature air-blown gasifier system developed by the Nexterra Systems Corporation to generate low-heating value syngas (producer gas), which will then be burned in a staged combustion chamber to produce heat for the boiler. This is considered a showcase project for demonstrating the benefits of clean, bio-based energy, and thus there is considerable interest in monitoring and modeling the energy efficiency and environmental footprint of this technology relative to conventional steam generation with petroleum-based fuels. In preparation for system startup in 2012, we are developing steady-state and dynamic models of the major process components, including the gasifiers and combustor. These tools are intended to assist in tracking and optimizing system performance and for carrying out future conceptual studies of process changes that might improve the overall energy efficiency and sustainability. In this paper we describe the status of our steady-state gasifier and combustor models and illustrate preliminary results from limited parametric studies.

  13. A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.

    2007-01-01

    reason is that supercritical-coal boilers, at least in thenot operate well on U.S. coal with high sulfur and active32 (2007) 1996–2005 Pulverized Coal Installed Capacity (GW)

  14. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators - Steam Tip Sheet #22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  15. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.

    2007-01-01

    change; Steam plant; Steam turbine; Electricity 1.housed ?ve 10,000 kW steam turbines and typically requiredAdvances in boiler and steam turbine technology, materials

  17. A methodology for in-situ calibration of steam boiler instrumentation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Guanghua

    1997-01-01

    This thesis presents a broadly useful diagnostic methodology to engineers and plant managers for finding the in-situ operating characteristics of power plant boilers when metered data is either missing or obviously erroneous. The methodology is able...

  18. Clean Boiler Water-side Heat Transfer Surfaces - Steam Tip Sheet #7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on cleaning boiler water-side heat transfer surfaces provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  19. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The...

  20. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct laboratory experiments to clarify the mechanism of boiler corrosion, which may lead to solving the corrosion problem associated with the utilization of Illinois' high-sulfur and high-chlorine coal. The kinetics of the release of sulfur and chlorine species during coal combustion is being determined in the laboratories using temperature-programmed pyrolysis coupled with quadrupole gas analysis (QGA) and thermogravimetric analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Samples of boiler deposits and ashes from different locations in boilers using Illinois coal will be analyzed for mineralogical and chemical compositions to understand the relations among deposit compositions, coal compositions, and the gaseous species in combustion gases. The relationship between the level of chlorine in Illinois coal and boiler corrosion will be studied by experiments with simulated combustion gases under combustion conditions. Reduction of sulfur and chloride concentrations in the flue gas using additives will also be evaluated.

  1. CHP Integrated with Packaged Boilers- Presentation by CMCE, Inc., June 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation on CHP Integrated with Packaged Boilers, given by Carlo Castaldini of CMCE, Inc., at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

  2. Measure Guideline. Condensing Boilers - Control Strategies for Optimizing Performance and Comfort in Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2013-05-01

    This guide is intended for designers and installers of hydronic heating systems interested in maximizing the overall system efficiency of condensing boilers when coupled with baseboard convectors. It is applicable to new and retrofit projects.

  3. 2014-01-31 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers; Notice of Data Availability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of data availability regarding energy conservation standards for residential boilers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on January 31, 2014.

  4. 2014-02-07 Issuance: Test Procedure for Commercial Packaged Boilers; Request for Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register request for information regarding test procedures for commercial packaged boilers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 7, 2014.

  5. Gas turbines for coal-fired turbocharged PFBC boiler power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenglarz, R.; Drenker, S.

    1984-11-01

    A coal-fired turbocharged boiler using fluidized bed combustion at high pressure would be more compact than a pulverized coal fired boiler. The smaller boiler size could permit the utility industry to adopt efficient modular construction methods now widely used in other industries. A commercial turbocharger of the capacity needed to run a 250 MW /SUB e/ power plant does not exist; commercial gas turbines of the correct capacity exist, but they are not matched to this cycle's gas temperature of less than 538/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). In order to avoid impeding the development of the technology, it will probably be desirable to use existing machines to the maximum extent possible. This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of applying either standard gas turbines or modified standard gas turbines to the turbocharged boiler.

  6. Maintaining Low Oxygen (O2) in Coal Fueled Utility Boilers Using CO Instrumentation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, D.; Downing, T.

    1986-01-01

    Following evaluation of various CO monitors and close attention to the boiler operating conditions, Southwestern Public Service Company has been successful in reducing the operating level of oxygen in Unit #1 at Tolk ...

  7. A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.

    2010-10-01

    Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions are measured with the blends. Again, consistent with our past experience with biodiesel blends, significant reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions nearing 50% with 100% Jatropha oil, were also measured. This is in contrast with the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, where the NOx has a tendency to increase. In addition to the gaseous emission measurements, particulate emissions were measured using an EPA CTM-39 system to obtain both particulates, of sizes below 2.5 microns, so-called PM2.5, and of sizes larger than 2.5 microns. The results show that the particulate emissions are lower with the blending of Jatropha oil. Overall, one can conclude that the blending of Jatropha oil with residual oil is a feasible approach to using non-edible plant oil to provide a renewable content to residual oil, with significant benefits in the reduction of pollutant emissions such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates.

  8. Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 37

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    and the sensors read and the user can shut down the system with the emergency stop button. #12;Proving Safety with a new setting for the pumps (pr_new) or decides to shut-down the boiler system (stop). There are two_new) or emergency stop (stop) ControllerPumps (pr) M2 M1 Steam Boiler W P active pumps (pr) Figure 1: The steam

  9. The Enbridge "Steam Saver" Program: Steam Boiler Plant Efficiency-Update to Year End 2005 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, B.; Johnson, D.

    2006-01-01

    ” PROGRAM STEAM BOILER PLANT EFFICIENCY-UPDATE TO YEAR END, 2005 March 1, 2006 Bob Griffin, P.Eng., Energy Solutions Manager, Enbridge Gas Distribution Inc., Toronto, Ontario Daniel Johnson, B.A.Sc., Industrial Energy Engineer, Enbridge Gas Distribution... of Enbridge’s “Steam Saver” program first introduced in 1997. The goal of this program is to reduce fuel consumption in industrial steam plants and distribution systems. We have now completed 92 detailed boiler plant performance tests and audits...

  10. Upgrade of Multiple Boiler/Turbine Plant to Microprocessor Control- A Case History 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenk, J. R.; Sommer, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    workstation which allows generation updating of drawings and configuration from an expanded IBM PCXT. o Energy optimization of the plant air compressor system wh,ich includes 4 reciprocating and 1 centrifugal chiller. o Boiler water treatment system. o... The Utilities Operation of the General Electric - Erie Plant is responsible for providing all energy for the Plant. The primary source is coal, which is used in four boilers to pro duce steam for the generation of electricity, as well as heat...

  11. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  12. Development of the first demonstration CFB boiler for gas and steam cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, M; Luo, Z.; Li, X.; Wang, Q.; Shi, Z.; Ni, M.; Cen, K.

    1997-12-31

    To solve the shortage of gas and steam supply in the small towns of the country, a new gas steam cogeneration system has been developed. On the basis of the fundamental research on the system, a demonstration gas steam cogeneration system has been designed. As the phase 1 of the project, a 75t/h demonstration CFB boiler for gas steam cogeneration has been erected and operated at Yangzhong Thermal Power Plant of China. This paper introduces the first 75t/h demonstration CFB boiler for gas steam cogeneration. Due to the need of gas steam cogeneration process, the boiler has the features of high temperature cyclone separation, high solid recycle ratio, staged combustion and an external heat exchanger adjusting bed temperature and heat load. The operation results show that the boiler has wide fuel adaptability and the heating value of the coal changes from 14MJ/Kg to 25MJ/Kg. The heat load changes from 85t/h to 28t/h while steam parameter is maintained at the normal conditions. The combustion efficiency of the boiler attain 98%. The boiler design and operation experiences may be a guide to the design and operation of larger CFB units in the future.

  13. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers - Control Strategies for Optimizing Performance and Comfort in Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2013-05-01

    The combination of a gas-fired condensing boiler with baseboard convectors and an indirect water heater has become a common option for high-efficiency residential space heating in cold climates. While there are many condensing boilers available on the market with rated efficiencies in the low to mid 90% efficient range, it is imperative to understand that if the control systems are not properly configured, these heaters will perform no better than their non-condensing counterparts. Based on previous research efforts, it is apparent that these types of systems are typically not designed and installed to achieve maximum efficiency (Arena 2010). It was found that there is a significant lack of information for contractors on how to configure the control systems to optimize overall efficiency. For example, there is little advice on selecting the best settings for the boiler reset curve or how to measure and set flow rates in the system to ensure that the return temperatures are low enough to promote condensing. It has also been observed that recovery from setback can be extremely slow and, at times, not achieved. Recovery can be affected by the outdoor reset control, the differential setting on the boiler and over-sizing of the boiler itself. This guide is intended for designers and installers of hydronic heating systems interested in maximizing the overall system efficiency of condensing boilers when coupled with baseboard convectors. It is applicable to new and retrofit applications.

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controls, Chicago, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    Most of Chicago’s older multifamily housing stock is heated by centrally metered steam or hydronic systems. The cost of heat is typically absorbed into the owner’s operating cost and is then passed to tenants. Central boilers typically have long service lifetimes; the incentive for retrofit system efficiency upgrades is greater than equipment replacement for the efficiency-minded owner. System improvements as the “low-hanging fruit” are familiar, from improved pipe insulation to aftermarket controls such as outdoor temperature reset (OTR) or lead/lag controllers for sites with multiple boilers. Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. In this project, the Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) installed and monitored an ALM aftermarket controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at two Chicago area multifamily buildings with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are oversized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also, savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, oversized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less oversized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  15. PFBC (pressurized fluidized bed combustion) turbocharged boiler design and economic study: Volume 1, Executive summary: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    A coal combustion technology that promises to reduce the cost of electrical power is pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC). Since a PFBC boiler is physically smaller than a conventional pulverized coal fired boiler with a flue gas desulfurization system (PC/FGD) and the same power rating shop assembly and modularized shipment to the power plant site can be considered. Modular construction can substantially reduce the overall design/construction time. Emission controls are equivalent to, or better than, conventional PC/FGD units, and the PFBC combustor can tolerate coals with a wider range of characteristics. Two PFBC plants and the reference PC/FGD plant were each to have four nominal 250 MW(e) units to be completed for start-up at one year intervals. To establish a well defined consistent design basis for all units, the turbine-generator and steam cycle of a recently constructed 250 MW(e) unit (designed by Fluor and built under Fluor construction management) was selected and made the common element in both of the PFBC plants and the reference PC/FGD plant. Steam conditions of 2400 psia, 1000/sup 0/F were to be identical for all units as were the steam flows for the design load range of 50% to steam turbine valves-wide-open with inlet steam pressure 5% over design pressure (VWO 5% OP). The study produced three plant designs - a 4-unit turbocharged PFBC using bubbling bed technology, a 4-unit turbocharged PFBC using circulating bed technology, and a 4-unit PC/FGD reference plant using conventional pulverized coal technology coupled with wet limestone scrubber technology. The hot gas clean-up system, operating at these more modest temperatures, is capable of reducing the particulate in the gas to a level which meets EPA/NSPS standards without further cleanup. With this level of cleanup, service conditions for the turbocharger turbine are tolerable in commercially available designs and materials. 48 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, Thomas; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Wei, George; Worek, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  17. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  18. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-03

    This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

  19. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kychakoff, George (Maple Valley, WA); Afromowitz, Martin A. (Mercer Island, WA); Hogle, Richard E. (Olympia, WA)

    2008-10-14

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions of about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler, or producing feeding signals to a data processing system for information to enable a distributed control system by which the boilers are operated to operate said boilers more efficiently. The data processing system includes an image pre-processing circuit in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. It also includes an image compensation system for array compensation to correct for pixel variation and dead cells, etc., and for correcting geometric distortion. An image segmentation module receives a cleaned image from the image pre-processing circuit for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. It also accomplishes thresholding/clustering on gray scale/texture and makes morphological transforms to smooth regions, and identifies regions by connected components. An image-understanding unit receives a segmented image sent from the image segmentation module and matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  20. Effect of bed pressure drop on performance of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Shi Yang; Guangxi Yue; Jun Su; Zhiping Fu

    2009-05-15

    The effect of bed pressure drop and bed inventory on the performances of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was studied. By using the state specification design theory, the fluidization state of the gas-solids flow in the furnace of conventional CFB boilers was reconstructed to operate at a much lower bed pressure drop by reducing bed inventory and control bed quality. Through theoretical analysis, it was suggested that there would exist a theoretical optimal value of bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan energy consumption. The analysis was validated by field tests carried out in a 75 t/h CFB boiler. At full boiler load, when bed pressure drop was reduced from 7.3 to 3.2 kPa, the height of the dense zone in the lower furnace decreased, but the solid suspension density profile in the upper furnace and solid flow rate were barely influenced. Consequently, the average heat transfer coefficient in the furnace was kept nearly the same and the furnace temperature increment was less than 17{sup o}C. It was also found that the carbon content in the fly ash decreased first with decreasing bed pressure drop and then increased with further increasing bed pressure drop. The turning point with minimal carbon content was referred to as the point with optimal bed pressure drop. For this boiler, at the optimum point the bed pressure was around 5.7 kPa with the overall excess air ratio of 1.06. When the boiler was operated around this optimal point, not only the combustion efficiency was improved, but also fan energy consumption and wear of heating surface were reduced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Applications of risk management to waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrostowski, P.C.; Foster, S.A.; Kimball, H.J.

    1996-12-31

    Human health and ecological risk assessments have become routine for waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs) as a result of USEPA`s Combustion Strategy, questions raised by citizens about the health effects of incineration, and the desire for the regulated community to have a level playing field regarding emissions regulations. The USEPA, National Academy of Sciences, various trade organizations, and individual researchers have published widely regarding methods for facility-specific risk assessments. Often these risk assessments are highly complex, site-specific documents that use advanced techniques such as Monte Carlo simulation. However, the risks that are calculated in these risk assessments are usually only used to compare to criteria for health effects and, thereby, develop permit conditions that are protective of health and the environment. Thus, the risk assessment is only used to derive a simple set of numbers and most of the information derived in the complex risk computations is lost. The object of this paper is to demonstrate how to derive more information from risk assessments that can be used in making management decisions. This paper will discuss the theory of risk management and present applications to combustion of waste in BIFs. For example, a permit applicant needed to make a decision among alternative air pollution control (APC) equipment sequences including scrubbers, fabric filters, and electrostatic precipitators. Limited life cycle analysis was used to determine the amount of direct and total waste produced by each of the alternatives. Monte Carlo risk assessment was used to determine the health risks associated with each of the alternatives and reliability analysis was employed to minimize both waste production and health risk.

  2. Optimal life-extending control of a boiler system D. Li, H.J. Marquez, T. Chen and R.K. Gooden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    Optimal life-extending control of a boiler system D. Li, H.J. Marquez, T. Chen and R.K. Gooden hierarchical LEC structure and apply it to a typical boiler system. There are two damage models

  3. A bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barlaz, Morton A.

    costs depend, in part, on a complex combination of coal type, coal composition, boiler design, plantA bottom-up method to develop pollution abatement cost curves for coal-fired utility boilers. The Coal Utility Environmental Cost (CUECost) model is used to estimate retrofit costs for five different

  4. National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 11-12, 2005 1 Quantifying Savings From Improved Boiler Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    estimates of savings are vital to efforts to improve energy efficiency. This paper describes methods for estimating the expected savings from these measures in natural gas fired boilers. The methods described here energy supplied. A method for calculating boiler efficiency from easily measured input variables

  5. ISSUANCE: 2014-11-13 Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers: Public Meeting and Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers: Public Meeting and Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document

  6. Air toxics evaluation of ABB Combustion Engineering Low-Emission Boiler Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesnor, J.D.

    1993-10-26

    The specific goals of the program are to identify air toxic compounds that might be emmitted from the new boiler with its various Air Pollution Control device for APCD alternatives in levels of regulatory concern. For the compounds thought to be of concern, potential air toxic control methodologies will be suggested and a Test Protocol will be written to be used in the Proof of Concept and full scale tests. The following task was defined: Define Replations and Standards; Identify Air Toxic Pollutants of Interest to Interest to Utility Boilers; Assesment of Air Toxic By-Products; State of the Art Assessment of Toxic By-Product Control Technologies; and Test Protocol Definition.

  7. Corrosion of boiler tube alloys in refuse firing: Shredded vs bulk refuse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, H.H. ); Daniel, P.L.; Blue, J.D. )

    1994-08-01

    Results of corrosion probe exposures at two mass burning incinerators were compared with those conducted in a unit burning refuse-derived fuel. Tests were conducted with carbon steel, low-alloy steels, stainless steels, and high nickel-chromium alloys. Corrosion rates at similar metal and gas temperatures were essentially the same for both types of fuel. Boiler tube performance in the waterwalls of other incinerators confirmed these results. Boiler design and operating conditions appear to be more important factors in tube wastage than the extent of refuse processing.

  8. 202 IEEE TRANS.4CTIONS Oh'AUTOMATIC CONTROL, VOL. AC-18,NO. 3, J U K E 1973 Design and Analysis of Boiler-Turbine-Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwatny, Harry G.

    of Boiler-Turbine-Generator Controls Using Optimal Linear Regulator Theory JOHN P. McDOKALD AND HARRY G of a nonlinear mathematical model of a drum-type, twin furnace, reheat boiler-turbine-generator (RBTG) system- tiveoperatingandcontrolstrategies for boiler-t.urbine- generator systems to meet different, system operating ob- jectives. Among

  9. To connect to Boiler Television, you will need to provide a coaxial cable to connect your television set to the cable wall outlet. In connecting the coaxial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    To connect to Boiler Television, you will need to provide a coaxial cable to connect your? By providing this initial information, you help Boiler Television staff assess and resolve this issue as soon for use with any University Residences work request -- not just for the Boiler Television system. Set

  10. The Energy Cost of Cryptographic Key Establishment in Wireless Sensor Networks #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    The Energy Cost of Cryptographic Key Establishment in Wireless Sensor Networks # Johann Großsch, Security. Keywords Wireless networking, security protocols, cryptography, key establishment, energy Inffeldgasse 16a, A--8010 Graz, Austria ABSTRACT Wireless sensor nodes generally face serious limitations

  11. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; Price, Lynn; Xu, Mingchao

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out of 14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.

  12. Low Carbon Footprint and Ultra Low NOx Boilers through Efficiency Gain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benz, R,; Staedter, M.

    2008-01-01

    -1 Low Carbon Footprint and Ultra Low NOx Boilers through Efficiency Gain Robert Benz Marcel Staedter President Project Manager... / Low Carbon, Ultra Low NOx through Efficiency Gain where y denotes the mole fraction of excess oxygen. The presence of nitrogen and excess oxygen radicals in this hot combustion environment promotes the formation...

  13. Development of Cost Effective Oxy-Combustion Retrofitting for Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan

    2010-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to further develop the oxy-combustion technology for commercial retrofit in existing wall-fired and Cyclone boilers by 2012. To meet this goal, a research project was conducted that included pilot-scale testing and a full-scale engineering and economic analysis.

  14. Low No sub x /SO sub x burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative's (SIPC's) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC's Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner's SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  15. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency, which faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68°F) than day (73° F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  17. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Henderson, H.; Varshney, K.

    2014-09-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  18. DETECTION OF EVENTS CAUSING PLUGGAGE OF A COAL-FIRED BOILER: A DATA MINING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    DETECTION OF EVENTS CAUSING PLUGGAGE OF A COAL-FIRED BOILER: A DATA MINING APPROACH ANDREW KUSIAK partitioning, parameter reduction, and data mining. Two inde- pendent data mining algorithms have been applied to detect both static and dynamic relationships among the process parameters. The multi-angle data mining

  19. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; Price, Lynn; Xu, Mingchao

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out ofmore »14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.« less

  20. Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldajani, Mansour A.

    Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler M.A. Habib a,*, M; accepted 14 April 2007 Available online 24 June 2007 Abstract NOx formation during the combustion process occurs mainly through the oxidation of nitrogen in the combustion air (thermal NOx) and through oxidation

  1. Decentralized robust control of a class of nonlinear systems and application to a boiler system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    be maintained at the desired level to prevent overheating of drum components or flooding of steam lines [11 facility lo- cated in Mildred Lake, Alberta, utility boilers are used to regulate the steam pressure of steam at the desired pressure conditions. In addi- tion, the amount of water in the steam drum must

  2. Use of Low-Frequency Sonic Devices for Control of Deposits in Boilers and Precipitators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, D. A.; Schwartz, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Acousticlean Sonic Sootblowers, or 'horns' are low frequency, high energy acoustical devices which offer a low-cost approach to cleaning many areas of the boiler and its associated equipment. The horns are presently in use and/or are being...

  3. Unusual refinery boiler tube failures due to corrosion by sulfuric acid induced by steam leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Lopez, D.; Wong-Moreno, A.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion by sulfuric acid in boilers is a low probability event because gas temperature and metal temperature of boiler tubes are high enough to avoid the condensation of sulfuric acid from flue gases. This degradation mechanism is frequently considered as an important cause of air preheaters materials degradation, where flue gases are cooled by heat transfer to the combustion air. Corrosion is associated to the presence of sulfuric acid, which condensates if metal temperature (or gas temperature) is below of the acid dew point. In economizer tubes, sulfuric acid corrosion is an unlikely event because flue gas and tube temperatures are normally over the acid dewpoint. In this paper, the failure analysis of generator tubes (similar to the economizer of bigger boilers) of two small oil-fired subcritical boilers is reported. It is concluded that sulfuric acid corrosion was the cause of the failure. The sulfuric acid condensation was due to the contact of flue gases containing SO{sub 3} with water-steam spray coming from leaks at the interface of rolled tube to the drum. Considering the information gathered from these two cases studied, an analysis of this failure mechanism is presented including a description of the thermodynamics condition of water leaking from the drum, and an analysis of the factors favoring it.

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl; Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Dr. Anthony

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl; Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Dr. Anthony

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  6. Compliance testing of Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant coal-fired boilers 3, 4, and 5, Grissom AFB, Indiana. Final report, 29 January-15 February 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.A.

    1989-06-01

    At the request of HQ, SAC/SGPB source compliance testing (particulate and visible emissions) of boilers 3, 4, and 5 in the Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant was accomplished 29 Jan-15 Feb 89. The survey was conducted to determine compliance with regards to Indiana Administrative Code, Title 325 - Air Pollution Control Board, Article 5, Opacity Regulations, and Article 6, Particulate Regulations. Boiler 3 was tested through scrubber B, Boiler 4 through scrubber A, and Boiler 5 through scrubber B and the bypass stack. Results indicate that each boiler met applicable visible and particulate emission standards.

  7. A Novel Low-Temperature Fiffusion Aluminide Coating for Ultrasupercritical Coal-Fried Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ying

    2009-12-31

    An ultrasupercritical (USC) boiler with higher steam temperature and pressure is expected to increase the efficiency of the coal-fired power plant and also decrease emissions of air pollutants. Ferritic/martensitic alloys have been developed with good creep strength for the key components in coal-fired USC plants. However, they typically suffer excessive steam-side oxidation, which contributes to one of main degradation mechanisms along with the fire-side corrosion in coal-fired boilers. As the steam temperature further increases in USC boilers, oxidation of the tube internals becomes an increasing concern, and protective coatings such as aluminide-based diffusion coatings need to be considered. However, conventional aluminizing processes via pack cementation or chemical vapor deposition are typically carried out at elevated temperatures (1000-1150 C). Thermochemical treatment of ferritic/martensitic alloys at such high temperatures could severely degrade their mechanical properties, particularly the alloy's creep resistance. The research focus of this project was to develop an aluminide coating with good oxidation resistance at temperatures {le} 700 C so that the coating processing would not detrimentally alter the creep performance of the ferritic/martensitic alloys. Nevertheless, when the aluminizing temperature is lowered, brittle Al-rich intermetallic phases, such as Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and FeAl{sub 3}, tend to form in the coating, which may reduce the resistance to fatigue cracking. Al-containing binary masteralloys were selected based on thermodynamic calculations to reduce the Al activity in the pack cementation process and thus to prevent the formation of brittle Al-rich intermetallic phases. Thermodynamic computations were carried out using commercial software HSC 5.0 for a series of packs containing various Cr-Al binary masteralloys. The calculation results indicate that the equilibrium partial pressures of Al halides at 700 C were a function of Al content in the Cr-Al alloys. Cr-25Al and Cr-15Al were chosen as the masteralloys in the pack cementation process. In contrast to pure Al masteralloy which led to the formation of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} coatings at 650 C, a coating consisting of a thin Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} outer layer and an FeAl inner layer was formed at 700 C with the Cr-25Al masteralloy. By switching to the Cr-15Al masteralloy, thin FeAl coatings ({approx}12 {micro}m) containing < 50 at.% Al were achieved at 700 C. The effect of the amount of masteralloys on coating growth was also studied by employing packs containing 2NH{sub 4}Cl-x(Cr-15Al)-(98-x)Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where x = 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 wt.%. It was noticed that when the Cr-15Al masteralloy was increased from 10 to 40 wt.% in the pack, both coating thickness and surface Al content increased, suggesting that gas phase kinetics played an important role in Al deposition. However, with further increase of the masteralloy, solid state diffusion became the rate-limiting factor. The long-term oxidation performance of the aluminide coatings synthesized at 700 C with Cr-25Al and Cr-15Al masteralloys was evaluated in the water vapor environment at 650-700 C. The low-temperature pack coatings demonstrated excellent oxidation resistance at 650 C in humid air after {approx}1.2 yr testing. Longer lifetimes can be expected for these thin coatings due to minimal interdiffusion at this testing temperature. Exposure at 700 C was conducted to accelerate coating failure via increased interdiffusion of Al with the substrate alloy. The coatings also exhibited good oxidation protection up to 6,000-8,000 h at 700 C, with longer testing needed for coating failure to occur. Furthermore, the oxidation results indicate that in addition to the Al reservoir (as determined by the Al content and coating thickness), the initial coating surface quality had a significant impact on the oxidation behavior. In addition, the effect of various pack aluminide coatings on the creep resistance of coated T91 was investigated. Three representative types of coatings with diff

  8. FINAL REPORT ESTABLISHMENT AND MAINTENANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    #12;FINAL REPORT ESTABLISHMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF A MANNED LUNAR BASE IN THE TIME PERIOD 1970. Phase One: Presupply ......... . 1 2. Phase Two: Manned Lunar Landings . 6 3. Phase Three: Logistic Base Class Vehicles ...... . Competing Rendezvous Modes. Concepts: Manned Lunar Landings Logistic Base

  9. Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

    2010-03-20

    The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated the ability to improve control of an olefins furnace (via CO-trim) that resulted in significant energy savings and lower emissions such as NOx and other greenhouse gases. The cost to retrofit measurements on an existing olefins furnace was found to be very attractive, with an estimated payback achieved in 4 months or less.

  10. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. This quarterly report summarizes project activity for the period April-June, 2003. In this period there was limited activity and no active field trials. Results of ash analysis from the AEP Conesville demonstration were received. In addition, a site visit was made to We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant and a proposal extended for a flue gas conditioning trial with the ADA-51 cohesivity additive. It is expected that this will be the final full-scale evaluation on the project.

  11. Influence of Transfer Efficiency of the Outdoor Pipe Network and Boiler Operating Efficiency on the Building Heat Consumption Index 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, X.; Wang, Z.; Liu, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of transfer efficiency of the outdoor pipe network and operating efficiency of the boiler on the building heat consumption index, on the premise of saving up to 65 percent energy in different climates. The results...

  12. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. Technical report, September 1--November 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to conduct laboratory experiments to clarify the mechanism of boiler corrosion, which may lead to solving the corrosion problem associated with the utilization of Illinois` high-sulfur and high-chlorine coal. The kinetics of the release of sulfur and chlorine species during coal combustion is being determined in the laboratories using temperature-programmed pyrolysis coupled with quadrupole gas analysis (QGA) and thermogravimetric analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Samples of boiler deposits and ashes from different locations in boilers using Illinois coal will be analyzed for mineralogical and chemical compositions to understand the relations among deposit compositions, coal compositions, and the gaseous species in combustion gases. The relationship between the level of chlorine in Illinois coal and boiler corrosion will be studied by experiments with simulated combustion gases under combustion conditions. Reduction of sulfur and chloride concentrations in the flue gas using additives will also be evaluated.

  13. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  14. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  15. Life assessment product catalog for boilers, steam pipes, and steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, S. , Santa Clara, CA )

    1992-07-01

    Aging fossil power plants, escalating costs of new plant construction, and load growth rate uncertainties are motivating utilities to make the most effective use of critical components in existing power plants. To help meet this need, EPRI has refined existing methods and developed new methods of predicting the remaining life of key fossil plant components with greater accuracy and confidence. This report describes 16 EPRI products (guidelines, computer programs, and other tools) that apply these techniques to boiler tubes, boiler headers, steam lines, and turbine rotors, blades, and casings. Utility personnel, including plant engineers, maintenance supervisor, engineering department staff, plant operating staff, and performance engineers, can use these products to assess remaining component life, as well as to set cost-effective maintenance procedures, inspection schedules, and operating procedures.

  16. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4) Assessment of oxy-combustion impacts in two full-scale coal-fired utility boiler retrofits based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air-fired and oxygen-fired operation. This research determined that it is technically feasible to retrofit the combustion system in an air-fired boiler for oxy-fired operation. The impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) were minimal, with the exception of high sulfur levels resulting from untreated flue gas recycle with medium and high-sulfur coals. This work focused on combustion in the radiant and convective sections of the boiler and did not address boiler system integration issues, plant efficiencies, impacts on downstream air pollution control devices, or CO{sub 2} capture and compression. The experimental data, oxy-firing system principles and oxy-combustion process mechanisms provided by this work can be used by electric utilities, boiler OEMs, equipment suppliers, design firms, software vendors, consultants and government agencies to assess retrofit applications of oxy-combustion technologies to existing boilers and to guide development of new designs.

  17. Improvement of the process of fuel firing on BKZ-210-140F boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Osintsev; M.P. Sukharev; E.V. Toropov; K.V. Osintsev

    2007-01-15

    The existing flame processes of dual firing of gas and solid fuel are updated with reconstruction of the burners at the Chelyabinsk TETs-2. This is connected with marked worsening of the quality of local coal supplied to the cogeneration plant. Comparative tests of boilers with burners subjected to different degrees of updating have shown that replacement of the now used swirled method of introduction of reagents into the furnace by a uniflow one lowers the heat flows to the metal structures and to the settling of the burner throats making them more reliable. The emission of nitrogen oxides is minimized in the mode of gas firing and the activity of slagging of the furnace and of the platens is reduced in the mode of coal firing, which makes it possible to raise the steam rate of the boiler. Ways for further improvement of burner design with respect to nitrogen oxide emissions in the polydisperse flame are outlined.

  18. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  19. Expert Meeting: Optimized Heating Systems Using Condensing Boilers and Baseboard Convectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2013-01-01

    On August 11, 2011, in Denver, CO, a Building America Expert Meeting was held in conjunction with the Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting, to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors. A meeting objective was to provide an opportunity for other Building America teams and industry experts to provide feedback and specific suggestions for the planned research.

  20. Performance of composite coatings in a coal-fired boiler environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nava, J.C.

    2009-09-15

    Four samples of thermal spray coatings, each made from different core wire consumables by twin wire arc spray, were exposed for 18 months in a coal-fired boiler environment. The tests are described and the performance of each coating is evaluated. Results indicated that the four consumable wire alloys showed remarkable resistance to fly ash erosion and corrosion over the period of the test.

  1. Expert Meeting. Optimized Heating Systems Using Condensing Boilers and Baseboard Convectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2013-01-01

    On August 11, 2011, in Denver, CO, a Building America Expert Meeting was held in conjunction with the Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting, to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors. A meeting objective was to provide an opportunity for other Building America teams and industry experts to provide feedback and specific suggestions for the planned research.

  2. CONDENSING ECONOMIZERS FOR SMALL COAL-FIRED BOILERS AND FURNACES PROJECT REPORT - JANUARY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1994-01-04

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impacts are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  3. Electricity rate effects of 150 MW shop assembled turbocharged boiler generating units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drenker, S.; Fancher, R.

    1984-08-01

    Major upheavals in the environment in which electric utilities operate began in the 1960's. Modular construction, developed and perfected by process industry engineering firms, in conjuction with small turbocharged boiler power plants (currently under development), can respond to these forces by shortening construction time. Benefits from this approach, resulting from better matching of load growth and reducing planning horizon, can equal 15% to 60% of the capital cost of large pulverized coal plants.

  4. Advanced Oxyfuel Boilers and Process Heaters for Cost Effective CO2 Capture and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max Christie; Rick Victor; Bart van Hassel; Nagendra Nagabushana; Juan Li; Joseph Corpus; Jamie Wilson

    2007-03-31

    The purpose of the advanced boilers and process heaters program is to assess the feasibility of integrating Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) into combustion processes for cost effective CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Introducing CO{sub 2} capture into traditional combustion processes can be expensive, and the pursuit of alternative methods, like the advanced boiler/process heater system, may yield a simple and cost effective solution. In order to assess the integration of an advanced boiler/process heater process, this program addressed the following tasks: Task 1--Conceptual Design; Task 2--Laboratory Scale Evaluation; Task 3--OTM Development; Task 4--Economic Evaluation and Commercialization Planning; and Task 5--Program Management. This Final report documents and summarizes all of the work performed for the DOE award DE-FC26-01NT41147 during the period from January 2002-March 2007. This report outlines accomplishments for the following tasks: conceptual design and economic analysis, oxygen transport membrane (OTM) development, laboratory scale evaluations, and program management.

  5. Characteristics and sources of intermediate size particles in recovery boilers : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Verrill, Christopher L.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2005-02-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, a collaborative investigation was conducted on the sources, characteristics, and deposition of particles intermediate in size between submicron fume and carryover in recovery boilers. Laboratory experiments on suspended-drop combustion of black liquor and on black liquor char bed combustion demonstrated that both processes generate intermediate size particles (ISP), amounting to 0.5-2% of the black liquor dry solids mass (BLS). Measurements in two U.S. recovery boilers show variable loadings of ISP in the upper furnace, typically between 0.6-3 g/Nm{sup 3}, or 0.3-1.5% of BLS. The measurements show that the ISP mass size distribution increases with size from 5-100 {micro}m, implying that a substantial amount of ISP inertially deposits on steam tubes. ISP particles are depleted in potassium, chlorine, and sulfur relative to the fuel composition. Comprehensive boiler modeling demonstrates that ISP concentrations are substantially overpredicted when using a previously developed algorithm for ISP generation. Equilibrium calculations suggest that alkali carbonate decomposition occurs at intermediate heights in the furnace and may lead to partial destruction of ISP particles formed lower in the furnace. ISP deposition is predicted to occur in the superheater sections, at temperatures greater than 750 C, when the particles are at least partially molten.

  6. Results from Alloy 600 And Alloy 690 Caustic SCC Model Boiler Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Frederick D.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2009-08-03

    A versatile model boiler test methodology was developed and used to compare caustic stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of mill annealed Alloy 600 and thermally treated Alloy 690. The model boiler included simulated crevice devices that efficiently and consistently concentrated Na2CO3, resulting in volatilization of CO2 with the steam and concentration of NaOH at the tube surfaces. The test methodology also included variation in tube stress, either produced by the primary to secondary side pressure differential, or by a novel method that reproducibly yields a higher stress condition on the tube. The significant effect of residual stress on tube SCC was also considered. SCC of both Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 were evaluated as a function of temperature and stress. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) evaluations of the cracks and the grain boundaries ahead of the cracks were performed, providing insight into the SCC mechanism. This model boiler test methodology may be applicable to a range of bulkwater secondary chemistries that concentrate to produce aggressive crevice environments.

  7. Technical and economic feasibility of alternative fuel use in process heaters and small boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using alternate fuels - fuels other than oil and natural gas - in combustors not regulated by the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA) was evaluated. FUA requires coal or alternate fuel use in most large new boilers and in some existing boilers. Section 747 of FUA authorizes a study of the potential for reduced oil and gas use in combustors not subject to the act: small industrial boilers with capacities less than 100 MMBtu/hr, and process heat applications. Alternative fuel use in combustors not regulated by FUA was examined and the impact of several measures to encourage the substitution of alternative fuels in these combustors was analyzed. The primary processes in which significant fuel savings can be achieved are identified. Since feedstock uses of oil and natural gas are considered raw materials, not fuels, feedstock applications are not examined in this analysis. The combustors evaluated in this study comprise approximately 45% of the fuel demand projected in 1990. These uses would account for more than 3.5 million barrels per day equivalent fuel demand in 1990.

  8. Minimum separation distances for natural gas pipeline and boilers in the 300 area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Graham, T.M.

    1997-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing actions to reduce energy expenditures and improve energy system reliability at the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. These actions include replacing the centralized heating system with heating units for individual buildings or groups of buildings, constructing a new natural gas distribution system to provide a fuel source for many of these units, and constructing a central control building to operate and maintain the system. The individual heating units will include steam boilers that are to be housed in individual annex buildings located at some distance away from nearby 300 Area nuclear facilities. This analysis develops the basis for siting the package boilers and natural gas distribution systems to be used to supply steam to 300 Area nuclear facilities. The effects of four potential fire and explosion scenarios involving the boiler and natural gas pipeline were quantified to determine minimum separation distances that would reduce the risks to nearby nuclear facilities. The resulting minimum separation distances are shown in Table ES.1.

  9. A Mechanism for Establishing Policies for Electronic Commerce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minsky, Naftaly

    a mechanism for establishing policies for electronic commerce in a unified and se­ cure manner. A commercial policy can be viewed as the embodiment of a contract between the principals involved in a certain type activities are \\Lambda Work supported in part by NSF grants No. CCR­9626577 not limited to simple exchange

  10. A Mechanism for Establishing Policies for Electronic Commerce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minsky, Naftaly

    for establishing policies for electronic commerce in a uni ed and se- cure manner. A commercial policy can be viewed as the embodiment of a contract between the principals involved in a certain type of commercial activities are Work supported in part by NSF grants No. CCR-9626577 not limited to simple exchange of funds

  11. A summary of SNCR applications to two coal-fired wet bottom boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himes, R.; Hubbard, D.; West, Z.

    1996-01-01

    In response to NO{sub x} reductions mandated under Title I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Public Service Electric & Gas and Atlantic Electric of New Jersey evaluated Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for NO{sub x} control under separate programs at Mercer Station and B.L. England Station, respectively. Mercer Station is comprised of twin 321 MW Foster Wheeler coal-fired wet bottom boilers, with natural gas capability up to 100% load. B.L. England Station has three units, two of which are cyclone boilers of 136 MW and 163 MW. These furnace designs are of particular interest in that nominally 23,000 MW of cyclone boiler capacity and 6,900 MW of wall- or turbo-fired wet bottom boiler capacity will be faced with NO{sub x} reductions to be mandated under Title IV - Phase II for Group II boilers. Both stations evaluated Nalco Fuel Tech`s SNCR system using a portable test skid, with urea as the reducing chemical. The Mercer Unit 2 demonstration was performed with a low sulfur coal (nominally 0.8%), while the B.L. England Unit 1 demonstration utilized a medium sulfur coal (nominally 2.4%), and also re-injects fly ash back into the cyclones for ultimate collection and removal as slag. To address concerns over potential Ljungstrom air heater fouling, due to reactions between ammonia and SO{sub 3} in the air heater, and fly ash salability at Mercer Station, both sites targeted no greater than 5-10 ppmv ammonia emissions at the economizer exit. At Mercer Unit 2, air heater fouling was only experienced during system start-up when the ammonia emissions at the economizer exit were estimated at levels approaching 60 ppmv. B.L. England Unit 1, however, experienced frequent fouling of the air heater. NO{sub x} reductions achieved at both sites ranged between 30%-40% from nominal baseline NO{sub x} levels of 1.1-1.6 lb/MMBtu. Each site is currently undergoing installation of commercial SNCR systems.

  12. Proposal for the Purchase, Without a Call for Tenders, of a Medium-Temperature Hot Water Boiler for the 300 GeV Accelerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1976-01-01

    Proposal for the Purchase, Without a Call for Tenders, of a Medium-Temperature Hot Water Boiler for the 300 GeV Accelerator

  13. Feasible experimental study on the utilization of a 300 MW CFB boiler desulfurizating bottom ash for construction applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, X.F.; Amano, R.S. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-12-15

    CFB boiler ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. The disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed boiler power plants. However for a 300 MW CFB boiler power plant, there will be 600,000 tons of ash discharged per year and will result in great volumes and disposal cost of ash byproduct. It was very necessary to solve the utilization of CFB ash and to decrease the disposal cost of CFB ash. The feasible experimental study results on the utilization of the bottom ashes of a 300 MW CFB boiler in Baima power plant in China were reported in this paper. The bottom ashes used for test came from the discharged bottom ashes in a 100 MW CFB boiler in which the anthracite and limestone designed for the 300 MW CFB project was burned. The results of this study showed that the bottom ash could be used for cementitious material, road concrete, and road base material. The masonry cements, road concrete with 30 MPa compressive strength and 4.0 MPa flexural strength, and the road base material used for base courses of the expressway, the main road and the minor lane were all prepared with milled CFB bottom ashes in the lab. The better methods of utilization of the bottom ashes were discussed in this paper.

  14. Results of heat tests of the TGE-435 main boiler in the PGU-190/220 combined-cycle plant of the Tyumen' TETs-2 cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.V. Kurochkin; A.L. Kovalenko; V.G. Kozlov; A.I. Krivobok

    2007-01-15

    Special features of operation of a boiler operating as a combined-cycle plant and having its own furnace and burner unit are descried. The flow of flue gases on the boiler is increased due to feeding of exhaust gases of the GTU into the furnace, which intensifies the convective heat exchange. In addition, it is not necessary to preheat air in the convective heating surfaces (the boiler has no air preheater). The convective heating surfaces of the boiler are used for heating the feed water, thus replacing the regeneration extractions of the steam turbine (HPP are absent in the circuit) and partially replacing the preheating of condensate (the LPP in the circuit of the unit are combined with preheaters of delivery water). Regeneration of the steam turbine is primarily used for the district cogeneration heating purposes. The furnace and burner unit of the exhaust-heat boiler (which is a new engineering solution for the given project) ensures utilization of not only the heat of the exhaust gases of the GTU but also of their excess volume, because the latter contains up to 15% oxygen that oxidizes the combustion process in the boiler. Thus, the gas temperature at the inlet to the boiler amounts to 580{sup o}C at an excess air factor a = 3.50; at the outlet these parameters are utilized to T{sub out} = 139{sup o}C and a{sub out} = 1.17. The proportions of the GTU/boiler loads that can actually be organized at the generating unit (and have been checked by testing) are presented and the proportions of loads recommended for the most efficient operation of the boiler are determined. The performance characteristics of the boiler are presented for various proportions of GTU/boiler loads. The operating conditions of the superheater and of the convective trailing heating surfaces are presented as well as the ecological parameters of the generating unit.

  15. MANAGING OXIDE SCALE EXFOLIATION IN BOILERS WITH TP347H SUPERHEATER TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Wright, Ian G.; Shingledecker, John P.; Tortorelli, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    A model based on a concept of fraction of exfoliated area as a function of oxide scale strain energy was developed to predict the extent of exfoliation of steam-side scale from boiler tube superheater loops. As compared with the Armitt diagram, which can be used to predict when scale damage and exfoliation would be likely to occur, a fraction of exfoliated area approach provides an estimation of mass of scale released and the fraction of tube likely to be blocked by the exfoliation. This paper show results for the extent of blockage expected in a single bend of a superheater loop was predicted as a function of operating time, bend geometry, and outlet steam temperature under realistic service conditions that include outages. The deposits of exfoliated scale were assumed to be distributed horizontally the tubes bends. Three types of bends were considered: regular bends, short bends, and hairpin bends. The progressive increase in steam and tube temperatures along a single loop of superheater tubing and the ensuing variation of oxide scale thickness are considered. Numerical simulation results for a superheater loop made of TP347H austenitic steel indicated that tube blockage fractions larger than 50% are likely to occur within the first two years of boiler operation (with regularly scheduled outages) for outlet tube temperatures of 540-570oC, which is consistent with practical experience. Higher blockage fractions were predicted for tubes with short bends and hairpin bends than for tubes with regular bends, of length that are larger than five internal tube diameters. Finally, the blockage model presented can be used with some confidence to devise operating schedules for managing the consequences of oxide scale exfoliation based on projections of time to some critical blockage fraction for specific boiler operating conditions.

  16. Sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver on-sun test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andraka, C E; Moreno, J B; Diver, R B; Moss, T A

    1992-06-01

    The efficient operation of a Stirling engine requires the application of a high heat flux to the relatively small area occupied by the heater head tubes. Previous attempts to couple solar energy to Stirling engines generally involved directly illuminating the heater head tubes with concentrated sunlight. In this study, operation of a 75-kW{sub t} sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been demonstrated and its performance characterized on Sandia's nominal 75-kW{sub t} parabolic-dish concentrator, using a cold-water gas-gap calorimeter to simulate Stirling engine operation. The pool boiler (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) supplies heat to the engine in the form of latent heat released from condensation of the metal vapor on the heater head tubes. The advantages of the pool boiler include uniform tube temperature, leading to longer life and higher temperature available to the engine, and decoupling of the design of the solar absorber from the engine heater head. The two-phase system allows high input thermal flux, reducing the receiver size and losses, therefore improving system efficiency. The receiver thermal efficiency was about 90% when operated at full power and 800{degree}C. Stable sodium boiling was promoted by the addition of 35 equally spaced artificial cavities in the wetted absorber surface. High incipient boiling superheats following cloud transients were suppressed passively by the addition of small amounts of xenon gas to the receiver volume. Stable boiling without excessive incipient boiling superheats was observed under all operating conditions. The receiver developed a leak during performance evaluation, terminating the testing after accumulating about 50 hours on sun. The receiver design is reported here along with test results including transient operations, steady-state performance evaluation, operation at various temperatures, infrared thermography, x-ray studies of the boiling behavior, and a postmortem analysis.

  17. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low emission boiler systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Riley Stoker Corporation is leading an R&D program for the expedited development of a new generation of pulverized coal-fired boiler systems. The overall objective is to develop relatively near term technologies to produce Low-Emission coal-fired Boiler Systems (LEBS) ready for full scale commercial generating plants by the end of the decade. The specific goal is to develop a LEBS incorporating an advanced slagging system for improved ash management in addition to meeting the emission and performance goals. This Concept Selection Report documents an evaluation of subsystems and LEBS concepts. Priority was given to the evaluation of the boiler system, steam cycle, and advanced slagging combustor. Some findings are as follows: An ultra supercritical steam cycle is required to meet project efficiency goals. The cost of electricity (COE) for this cycle, at today`s fuel prices, and without externality costs, is slightly higher than a conventional subcritical cycle. The supercritical cycle includes a substantial contingency. Reduction of contingency, escalation of fuel cost, or inclusion of externalities all lead to a lower COE for the supercritical cycle compared to the subcritical cycle. The advanced cycle is selected for inclusion in the LEBS. The advanced slagging combustor (TVC), should it meet the projected performance goals, yields a lower COE than either a dry firing system or a more conventional slagger fitted with post combustion NO{sub x} controls. Verification and development of the advanced slagger performance is the primary focus of this project. A commercial slagging configuration know as U-firing is selected for parallel development and as a platform for adaptation to the TVC.

  18. Fuel Cost Savings Through Computer Control of a Boiler Complex - - Two Case Histories 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worthley, C. M.

    1979-01-01

    meet the steam demand, the boiler must be able to respond SlIDOthly to load changes. '!his can be acxxxrplished by integrating steam pro duction control with air-to-fuel ratio, steam drum level and furnace draft control, as indicated in Fig. 1. When... to regulate steam prcx:1uction, not the base fuel flow. Since -chan~s in .oornbustion and steam prcx:1uction affect drum balance and indicated level measurement, the drum level control is coordinated with the steam production control. Feedwater flow...

  19. Super low NO.sub.x, high efficiency, compact firetube boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chojnacki, Dennis A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Knight, Richard A.; Cygan, David F.; Korenberg, Jacob

    2005-12-06

    A firetube boiler furnace having two combustion sections and an in-line intermediate tubular heat transfer section between the two combustion sections and integral to the pressure vessel. This design provides a staged oxidant combustion apparatus with separate in-line combustion chambers for fuel-rich primary combustion and fuel-lean secondary combustion and sufficient cooling of the combustion products from the primary combustion such that when the secondary combustion oxidant is added in the secondary combustion stage, the NO.sub.x formation is less than 5 ppmv at 3% O.sub.2.

  20. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  1. Optimization of burners for firing solid fuel and natural gas for boilers with impact pulverizers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.T. Levit; V.Ya. Itskovich; A.K. Solov'ev (and others) [ORGRES Company (Russian Federation)

    2003-01-15

    The design of a burner with preliminary mixing of fuel and air for alternate or joint firing of coal and natural gas on a boiler is described. The burner provides steady ignition and economical combustion of coal, low emission of NOx in both operating modes, and possesses an ejecting effect sufficient for operation of pulverizing systems with a shaft mill under pressure. The downward inclination of the burners makes it possible to control the position of the flame in the furnace and the temperature of the superheated steam.

  2. File:Boiler permit packet s-20.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New Pages Recent Changes AllApschem.pdf Jump to: navigation,Boiler permit packet s-20.pdf Jump

  3. Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy|Make6,Energy BlueBob AdamsBoilerLocation

  4. Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

  5. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources. Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Anthony; Cox, Daryl

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., Subpart DDDDD of CFR Part 63).

  6. Operational Performance Evaluation of Boiler 9 at the TAMU Power Plant at College Station, Submitted to the Power Plant of Texas A&M University 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Veteto, B.; Liu, M.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the engineering assistance project, the ESL staff worked with operating staff at the power plant: (1) to evaluate the boiler efficiency of boiler 9 by using combustion analysis; (2) to evaluate gas and steam meters by using measured air...

  7. Combustion of liquid paint wastes in fluidized bed boiler as element of waste management system in the paint factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soko, W.A.; Biaecka, B.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the solution to waste problems in the paint industry is presented by describing their combustion in a fluidized bed boiler as a part of the waste management system in the paint factory. Based on the Cleaner Production idea and concept of integration of design process with a future exploitation of equipment, some modifications of the waste management scheme in the factory are discussed to reduce the quantity of toxic wastes. To verify this concept combustion tests of paint production wastes and cocombustion of paint wastes with coal in an adopted industrial boiler were done. Results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  8. A. Kusiak and A. Burns, Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case Study, Proceedings of International Conference, KES 2005, Melbourne, Australia, September 14-16, 2005, in R.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    A. Kusiak and A. Burns, Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case Study, Proceedings of the 9 3683, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2005, pp. 953-958. Mining Temporal Data: A Coal-Fired Boiler Case. This paper presents an approach to control pluggage of a coal-fired boiler. The proposed approach involves

  9. Wood Pellet-Fired Biomass Boiler Project at the Ketchikan Federal Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomberlin, G.

    2014-06-01

    Biomass boiler systems have existed for many years, but the technology has advanced in recent decades and can now provide automated and efficient operation for a relatively modest investment. Key advances in system monitoring and control allow for lower operating costs, since the control systems run all aspects of the boiler, including feed, load reduction and even tube cleaning. These advances have made such systems economical on a small scale in situations where inexpensive fuels like natural gas are not available. This creates an opportunity for building operators in remote, cold-climate locations to reduce the use of expensive fuels for heating buildings. GSA Region 10 installed the system at the federal building in Ketchikan, Alaska and submitted the project to the Green Proving Ground (GPG) program. GSA's GPG program contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess the installation and the technology. The system serves as a demonstration to assess actual system efficiencies, as well as operating characteristics and financial benefits. In addition to installation and operational issues, the project team/researchers examined other issues, including fuel transportation costs, building energy savings, and overall economics.

  10. Rehabilitation of a 410-MW utility boiler at Costa Sur, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosado, R.; Salmeron, M.

    1995-12-31

    To increase unit reliability and availability and to meet the current and future electric power demands in Puerto Rico, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) recently performed a scheduled outage rehabilitation of Costa Sur Power Station Unit 5. This major rehabilitation of a 23-year-old, 410 MW, oil-fired boiler was accompanied by the upgrading of the low-pressure turbine with new rotors. The boiler rehabilitation included the replacement of all waterwall floor panels from just below the burner windbox, down to the lower drum. Temporary support was provided for the lower drum and its structural system during the panel replacement. The steam drum internals were completely rehabilitated, with the installation of a new liner and cleaning and repair of other internals as required. The superheater and reheater desuperheater liners were also replaced. In addition, all major components of both the firing system and the air preheaters were replaced. The gas recirculation fan was rehabilitated, and its discharge duct was replaced.

  11. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers - Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has told us a couple of things consistently for several years now: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step by step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  12. Combine waste-to-energy, recycling with fluid-bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M.L.

    1995-04-01

    This article describes a plant that will be the first to incorporate a fluidized-bed boiler to burn refuse-derived fuel exclusively. An effective long-term solid-waste management program will soon be a reality for Bladen, Cumberland, and Hoke counties, North Carolina. The key element of the program is a 600-ton/day waste-to-energy (WTE) facility, scheduled to begin commercial operation later this year. The BCH Energy project, which gets its name from the initials of the three counties it serves, will become the first fluidized-bed boiler in the US designed to be fueled solely by refuse-derived fuel (RDF). As such, it provides an innovative and efficient approach to solid-waste management in several ways: (1) Maximizes community participation in a recovery and recycling effort. (2) Maximizes additional waste handling and hauling efforts. (3) Significantly reducing waste flow into landfill. (4) Eliminating use of fossil fuel for a nearby chemical plant`s energy load. (5) Substantially improves air quality through use of the latest combustion and emissions control technology.

  13. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers—Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has consistently stated two things: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. The first step is to determine the appropriateness of setback for a particular project. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  14. Investigation of Fly Ash and Activated Carbon Obtained from Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely; Zheng Yao

    2006-08-31

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addressed the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addressed the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project has determined the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed have also been determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control have been analyzed in an effort to determine the effects of SCR on the ash.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2004-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash. These analyses will also determine the properties of ash which are important for Hg capture.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2005-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash.

  17. NO{sub x} CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-04-29

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, FTIR experiments for SCR catalyst sulfation were finished at BYU and indicated no vanadium/vanadyl sulfate formation at reactor conditions. Poisoned catalysts were prepared and tested in the CCS. Poisoning with sodium produced a noticeable drop in activity, which was larger at higher space velocity. A computer code was written at BYU to predict conversion along a cylindrical monolithic reactor. This code may be useful for monolith samples that will be tested in the laboratory. Shakedown of the slipstream reactor was completed at AEP's Rockport plant. Ammonia was connected to the reactor. The measurement of O{sub 2} and NO{sub x} made by the CEMs corresponded to values measured by the plant at the economizer outlet. Excellent NO{sub x} reduction was observed in preliminary tests of the reactor. Some operational problems were noted and these will be addressed next quarter.

  18. Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 2, Limited...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Temporary Limited Areas This chapter covers the establishment, maintenance, and termination of areas within HQ buildings where classified activities take place. It covers the...

  19. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  20. California - Establishing Transmission Project Review Streamlining...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California - Establishing Transmission Project Review Streamlining Directives Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance -...

  1. New Presidential Memorandum on establishing Quadrennial Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Presidential Memorandum on establishing Quadrennial Energy Review Home > Blogs > Graham7781's blog Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2017) Super contributor 16...

  2. Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from the Energy Performance Requirements of Section 543 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act as Amended by the Energy Policy...

  3. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diego Paiva Pires; Marco Cianciaruso; Lucas C. Céleri; Gerardo Adesso; Diogo O. Soares-Pinto

    2015-09-30

    The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the non uniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits, and provides instances of novel bounds which are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, clarifying the role of classical populations versus quantum coherences in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  4. Low No{sub x}/SO{sub x} burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Baseline test report: Issue A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC`s) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC`s Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner`s SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  5. Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun

    2011-02-15

    This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

  6. Common Excess Air Trends in Industrial Boilers with Single-Point Positioning Control and Strategies to Optimize Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    to Optimize Efficiency Kevin Carpenter, Energy & Resource Solutions Kelly Kissock, University of Dayton Mark D'Antonio, Energy & Resource Solutions ABSTRACT Industrial boilers are among the most common pieces of energy. Methods to calculate energy savings are also presented. 2-36© 2007 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency

  7. Dover Textiles - A Case History on Retrofitting Factories with a Boiler System Fueled on Coal, Wood and Waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The shortage of affordable gas and oil boiler fuels and the recent Iran/Iraq war underscores the urgent need for the American industrial system to convert to domestically controlled fuels and particularly coal, wood, and waste. More talk than action...

  8. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1998-03-01

    Economics and/or political intervention may one day dictate the conversion from oil or natural gas to coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technical Center (DOE-FETC) supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories with support from the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University with the goal of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall goal the following specific objectives were targeted: develop a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical and operational requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintain boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieve combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and determine economic payback periods as a function of key variables.

  9. Toxecon Retrofit for Mercury and Mulit-Pollutant Control on Three 90-MW Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Derenne; Robin Stewart

    2009-09-30

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) project was based on a cooperative agreement between We Energies and the DOE Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to design, install, evaluate, and demonstrate the EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} air pollution control process. Project partners included Cummins & Barnard, ADA-ES, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The primary goal of this project was to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Michigan. Additional goals were to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter emissions; allow reuse and sale of fly ash; advance commercialization of the technology; demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use at power plants; and demonstrate recovery of mercury from the sorbent. Mercury was controlled by injection of activated carbon upstream of the TOXECON{trademark} baghouse, which achieved more than 90% removal on average over a 44-month period. During a two-week test involving trona injection, SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by 70%, although no coincident removal of NOx was achieved. The TOXECON{trademark} baghouse also provided enhanced particulate control, particularly during startup of the boilers. On this project, mercury CEMs were developed and tested in collaboration with Thermo Fisher Scientific, resulting in a reliable CEM that could be used in the power plant environment and that could measure mercury as low as 0.1 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Sorbents were injected downstream of the primary particulate collection device, allowing for continued sale and beneficial use of captured fly ash. Two methods for recovering mercury using thermal desorption on the TOXECON{trademark} PAC/ash mixture were successfully tested during this program. Two methods for using the TOXECON{trademark} PAC/ash mixture in structural concrete were also successfully developed and tested. This project demonstrated a significant reduction in the rate of emissions from Presque Isle Units 7, 8, and 9, and substantial progress toward establishing the design criteria for one of the most promising mercury control retrofit technologies currently available. The Levelized Cost for 90% mercury removal at this site was calculated at $77,031 per pound of mercury removed with a capital cost of $63,189 per pound of mercury removed. Mercury removal at the Presque Isle Power Plant averages approximately 97 pounds per year.

  10. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of the boiler. When combined with SNCR, a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.12-0.14 lb/MBtu can be expected when implementing a full ALTA system on this unit. Cost effectiveness of the full ALTA system was estimated at $2,152/ton NO{sub x} removed; this was less than 75% of the cost estimated for an SCR system on a unit of this size.

  11. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, CB

    2004-08-19

    Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is the sequential production of two forms of useful energy from a single fuel source. In most CHP applications, chemical energy in fuel is converted to both mechanical and thermal energy. The mechanical energy is generally used to generate electricity, while the thermal energy or heat is used to produce steam, hot water, or hot air. Depending on the application, CHP is referred to by various names including Building Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP); Cooling, Heating, and Power for Buildings (CHPB); Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP); Integrated Energy Systems (IES), or Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The principal technical advantage of a CHP system is its ability to extract more useful energy from fuel compared to traditional energy systems such as conventional power plants that only generate electricity and industrial boiler systems that only produce steam or hot water for process applications. By using fuel energy for both power and heat production, CHP systems can be very energy efficient and have the potential to produce electricity below the price charged by the local power provider. Another important incentive for applying cogeneration technology is to reduce or eliminate dependency on the electrical grid. For some industrial processes, the consequences of losing power for even a short period of time are unacceptable. The primary objective of the guide is to present information needed to evaluate the viability of cogeneration for new or existing industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boiler installations and to make informed CHP equipment selection decisions. Information presented is meant to help boiler owners and operators understand the potential benefits derived from implementing a CHP project and recognize opportunities for successful application of cogeneration technology. Topics covered in the guide follow: (1) an overview of cogeneration technology with discussions about benefits of applying cogeneration technology and barriers to implementing cogeneration technology; (2) applicable federal regulations and permitting issues; (3) descriptions of prime movers commonly used in CHP applications, including discussions about design characteristics, heat-recovery options and equipment, fuels and emissions, efficiency, maintenance, availability, and capital cost; (4) electrical generators and electrical interconnection equipment; (5) cooling and dehumidification equipment; (6) thermodynamic cycle options and configurations; (7) steps for evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of applying cogeneration technology; and (8) information sources.

  12. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

  13. Alkali metal Rankine cycle boiler technology challenges and some potential solutions for space nuclear power and propulsion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, J.R.

    1994-07-01

    Alkali metal boilers are of interest for application to future space Rankine cycle power conversion systems. Significant progress on such boilers was accomplished in the 1960's and early 1970's, but development was not continued to operational systems since NASA's plans for future space missions were drastically curtailed in the early 1970's. In particular, piloted Mars missions were indefinitely deferred. With the announcement of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) in July 1989 by President Bush, interest was rekindled in challenging space missions and, consequently in space nuclear power and propulsion. Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) were proposed for interplanetary space vehicles, particularly for Mars missions. The potassium Rankine power conversion cycle became of interest to provide electric power for NEP vehicles and for 'dual-mode' NTP vehicles, where the same reactor could be used directly for propulsion and (with an additional coolant loop) for power. Although the boiler is not a major contributor to system mass, it is of critical importance because of its interaction with the rest of the power conversion system; it can cause problems for other components such as excess liquid droplets entering the turbine, thereby reducing its life, or more critically, it can drive instabilities-some severe enough to cause system failure. Funding for the SEI and its associated technology program from 1990 to 1993 was not sufficient to support significant new work on Rankine cycle boilers for space applications. In Fiscal Year 1994, funding for these challenging missions and technologies has again been curtailed, and planning for the future is very uncertain. The purpose of this paper is to review the technologies developed in the 1960's and 1970's in the light of the recent SEI applications. In this way, future Rankine cycle boiler programs may be conducted most efficiently.

  14. Resilient Monitoring Systems: Architecture, Design, and Application to Boiler/Turbine Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Humberto E.; Lin, Wen-Chiao; Meerkov, Semyon M.; Ravichandran, Maruthi T.

    2014-11-01

    Resilient monitoring systems, considered in this paper, are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this work is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools. The performance of the overall system is evaluated using a simplified boiler/turbine plant. The measure of resiliency is quantified using Kullback-Leibler divergence, and is shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered.

  15. Integrated process and apparatus for control of pollutants in coal-fired boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, T.G.; Offen, G.R.

    1992-11-24

    A method and apparatus are described for reducing SO[sub x] and NO[sub x] levels in flue gases generated by the combustion of coal in a boiler in which low NO[sub x] burners and air staging ports are utilized to inhibit the amount of NO[sub x] initially produced in the combustion of the coal. A selected concentration of urea is introduced downstream of the combustion zone after the temperature has been reduced to the range of 1300 F to 2000 F, and a sodium-based reagent is introduced into the flue gas stream after further reducing the temperature of the stream to the range of 200 F to 900 F. Under certain conditions, calcium injection may be employed along with humidification of the flue gas stream for selective reduction of the pollutants. 7 figs.

  16. Combine waste-to-energy, recycling with fluid-bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    An effective long-term solid-waste management program will soon be a reality for Bladen, Cumberland, and Hoke counties, North Carolina. The key element of the program is a 600-ton/day waste-to-energy (WTE) facility, scheduled to begin commercial operation later this year. The BCH Energy project, which gets its name from the initials of the three counties it serves, will become the first fluidized-bed boiler in the US designed to be fueled solely by refuse-derived fuel (RDF). As such, it provides an innovative and efficient approach to solid-waste management in several ways: (1) maximimizes community participation in a recovery and recycling effort; (2) maximizes additional waste handling and hauling efforts; (3) significantly reducing waste flow into landfill; (4) eliminating use of fossil fuel for a nearby chemical plant`s energy load; and (5) substantially improves air quality through use of the latest combustoin and emissions control technology.

  17. Integrated process and apparatus for control of pollutants in coal-fired boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Terry G. (Aurora, CO); Offen, George R. (Woodside, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing SO.sub.x and NO.sub.x levels in flue gases generated by the combustion of coal in a boiler in which low NO.sub.x burners and air staging ports are utilized to inhibit the amount of NO.sub.x initially produced in the combustion of the coal, a selected concentration of urea is introduced downstream of the combustion zone after the temperature has been reduced to the range of 1300.degree. F. to 2000.degree. F., and a sodium-based reagent is introduced into the flue gas stream after further reducing the temperature of the stream to the range of 200.degree. F. to 900.degree. F. Under certain conditions, calcium injection may be employed along with humidification of the flue gas stream for selective reduction of the pollutants.

  18. Compliance testing of Grissom AFB central-heating-plant coal-fired boilers 3 and 4, Grissom AFB Indiana. Final report, 18-23 November 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    At the request of HQ SAC/SGPB, compliance testing (particulate emissions) of coal-fired boilers 3 and 4 in the Grissom AFB central heating plant was performed on 18-23 Nov 1987. The survey was conducted to determine compliance with Indiana Administrative Code, Title 325--Air Pollution Control Board, Articles 5 and 6. Results indicate Boiler 3 met particulate standards while exhausting through the bypass stack, but failed to meet standards when exhausting through the scrubber stack. Boiler 4 met particulate standards when exhausting through both the bypass the scrubber stacks.

  19. Development of advanced NO[sub x] control concepts for coal-fired utility boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-02-11

    Hybrid technologies for the reduction of NO[sub x] emissions from coal-fired utility boilers have shown the potential to offer greater levels of NO[sub x] control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has developed a hybrid NO[sub x] control strategy involving two proprietary concepts which has the potential to meet the US Department of Energy's NO[sub x] reduction goal at a significant reduction in cost compared to existing technology. The process has been named CombiNO[sub x]. CombiNO[sub x] is an integration of three technologies: modified reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection. These technologies are combined to achieve high levels of NO[sub x] emission reduction from coal-fired power plants equipped with S0[sub x] scrubbers. The first two steps, modified reburning and promoted SNCR are linked. It has been shown that performance of the SNCR agent is dependent upon local oxidation of CO. Reburning is used to generate the optimum amount of CO to promote the SNCR agent. Approximately 10 percent reburning is required, this represents half of that required for conventional reburning. If the reburn fuel is natural gas, the combination of reburning and SNCR may result in a significant cost savings over conventional reburning. The third step, injection of methanol into the flue gas, is used to oxidize NO to N0[sub 2] which may subsequently be removed in a wet scrubber. Pilot-scale tests performed at EER's 1 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) have demonstrated NO[sub x] reductions up to 92%. The program's next phase entails process scale-up to a 10 MMBtu/hr furnace also located at EER's Santa Anna test site.

  20. Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

    2006-06-30

    A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

  1. Establishment of Small Wind Regional Test Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez, T.; Forsyth, T.; Huskey, A.; Mendoza, I.; Sinclair, K.; Smith, J.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growth of the small wind turbine (SWT) market is attracting numerous entrants. Small wind turbine purchasers now have many options, but often lack information (such as third-party certification) to select a quality turbine. Most SWTs do not have third-party certification due to the expense and difficulty of the certification process. Until recently, the only SWT certification bodies were in Europe. In North America, testing has been limited to a small number of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) subsidized tests conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) under the ongoing Independent Testing Project. During the past few years, DOE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and some states have worked with the North American SWT industry to create a SWT certification infrastructure. The goal is to increase the number of certified turbines and gain greater consumer confidence in SWT technology. The American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) released the AWEA Small Wind Turbine Performance and Safety Standard, AWEA Standard 9.1 - 2009, in December 2009. The Small Wind Certification Council (SWCC) and Intertek, North American SWT certification bodies, began accepting applications for certification to the AWEA standard in 2010. To reduce certification testing costs, DOE and NREL are providing financial and technical assistance for an initial round of tests at four SWT test sites, which were selected through a competitive solicitation. The four organizations selected are Windward Engineering (Utah), The Alternative Energy Institute at West Texas A and M (Texas), a consortium consisting of Kansas State University and Colby Community College (Kansas), and Intertek (New York). Each organization will test two small wind turbines as part of their respective subcontracts with DOE and NREL. The testing results will be made publically available. The goal is to establish a lower-cost U.S. small wind testing capability that will lead to increased SWT certification. Turbine installation is ongoing. Testing began in early 2011 and is scheduled to conclude in mid-late 2012.

  2. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 2, Appendices: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Volume 2 contains appendices for: process data log sheets from Nile boiler 2; auditing; sampling protocol; field sampling data sheets; quality assurance/quality control; analytical protocol; and uncertainty analysis.

  3. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  4. Compliance testing of Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant coal-fired boilers 3 and 5, Grissom AFB, Indiana. Final report, 4-14 March 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    At the request of HQ SAC/SGPB, compliance testing (particulate emissions) of coal-fired boilers 3 and 5 in the Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant was performed on 4-14 Mar 1988. The survey was conducted to determine compliance with Indiana Administrative Code, Title 325--Air Pollution Control Board, Articles 5 and 6. Results indicate that boilers 3 and 5 to met particulate standards while exhausting through the bypass stack.

  5. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, June--September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  6. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; Rhett McLaren; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz; Joseph J. Battista

    2003-03-26

    The Pennsylvania State University, utilizing funds furnished by the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, investigated the installation of a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The study was performed using a team that included personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. The activities included assessing potential feedstocks at the University Park campus and surrounding region with an emphasis on biomass materials, collecting and analyzing potential feedstocks, assessing agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion tendencies, identifying the optimum location for the boiler system through an internal site selection process, performing a three circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler design and a 15-year boiler plant transition plan, determining the costs associated with installing the boiler system, developing a preliminary test program, determining the associated costs for the test program, and exploring potential emissions credits when using the biomass CFB boiler.

  7. Performance analysis of cofiring densified refuse derived fuel in a military boiler. Final report Aug 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This report provides an overview of existing densified refuse-derived fuel (dRDF) receiving, storage, handling and combustion equipment at Wright-Patterson Air Foce Base. DRDF is being burned as part of a long term alternative fuel evaluation program to develop design and procurement criteria for multiple fuel boilers. Recommendations are offered for specific equipment, procedural changes, and studies to improve the efficacy of the present configurations of dRDF as a fuel. A discussion of the fuel use criteria is presented. The options for continuing the present dRDF supply arrangement vs. the feasibility of local production of dRDF are presented. Research needs are summarized. A preemptive, integrated local synthetic solid fuel production facility and boiler performance test is recommended as a continuation of the program.

  8. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  9. INFLUENCE OF OXIDE GROWTH AND METAL CREEP ON STRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN THE STEAM-SIDE OXIDE IN BOILER TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This effort is concerned with developing a quantitative description of the exfoliation behavior of oxide scales grown inside steam tubes in a pressure boiler. Consideration of the development of stress/strain in growing oxides has included expansion mismatch-induced strains during thermal cycling as well as inelastic mechanical effects from oxide/alloy creep phenomena and volume change from oxide growth. The magnitude of the parameters used has been closely matched to actual boiler operating practice. The creep model used was validated against published data. Representation of oxide growth-induced strain was found to be a difficult challenge because the processes involved are not fully understood. In addition to the traditional uniaxial (radial) and dilatational models, lateral growth models are discussed in the context of experimentally-derived criteria, such as the level of elastic strains involved in oxide exfoliation. It was found that strain variation in the oxide cannot be neglected.

  10. Assessment of factors affecting boiler tube lifetime in waste-fired generators: New opportunities for research and technology development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, I.; Krause, H.H.

    1996-07-01

    The disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major problem in numerous communities in the United States. In this country, approximately 195.7 million tons of MSW were produced in 1990 of which 17 percent was recovered for recycling or composting, 16 percent was combusted, and about 67 percent was disposed of in landfills. This paper discusses the combustion of refuse derived fuels and municipal wastes. The corrosion of the alloys used in boilers is described.

  11. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures. Firing rates in the pilot test facility ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 MM-Btu/hr. Pilot-scale testing was performed at ALSTOM's Multi-use Test Facility (MTF), located in Windsor, Connecticut.

  12. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 1. Integrated report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    This burn test program was conducted during the period of August 1982 to February 1983 to demonstrate that Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) products can displace petroleum as a boiler fuel in oil- and gas-designed boilers. The test program was performed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Three forms of SRC (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) and No. 6 Fuel Oil were evaluated in the 700-hp (30 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hour) watertube, oil-designed boiler facility at PETC. The test program was managed by the International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) and sponsored by the Department of Energy. Other organizations were involved as necessary to provide the expertise required to execute the test program. This final report represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at PETC. More detailed information with preliminary data can be obtained from separate reports prepared by PETC, Southern Research Institute, Wheelabrator-Frye, Babcock and Wilcox, and Combustion Engineering. These are presented as Annex Volumes A-F. 25 references, 41 figures, 15 tables.

  13. Experimental investigation on heat transfer and frictional characteristics of vertical upward rifled tube in supercritical CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xiaojing; Bi, Qincheng; Chen, Tingkuan; Zhou, Chenn Q.

    2011-02-15

    Water wall design is a key issue for supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. On account of the good heat transfer performance, rifled tube is applied in the water wall design of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler in China. In order to investigate the heat transfer and frictional characteristics of the rifled tube with vertical upward flow, an in-depth experiment was conducted in the range of pressure from 12 to 30 MPa, mass flux from 230 to 1200 kg/(m{sup 2} s), and inner wall heat flux from 130 to 720 kW/m{sup 2}. The wall temperature distribution and pressure drop in the rifled tube were obtained in the experiment. The normal, enhanced and deteriorated heat transfer characteristics were also captured. In this paper, the effects of pressure, inner wall heat flux and mass flux on heat transfer characteristics are analyzed, the heat transfer mechanism and the frictional resistance performance are discussed, and the corresponding empirical correlations are presented. The experimental results show that the rifled tube can effectively prevent the occurrence of departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and keep the tube wall temperature in a permissible range under the operating condition of supercritical CFB boiler. (author)

  14. Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL); Feldman, Earl E. (Willowbrook, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL); Glickert, Roger W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2003-01-01

    The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

  15. Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

  16. Reflux pool-boiler as a heat-transport device for Stirling engines: On-sun test program results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.; Diver, R.B.; Ginn, W.C.; Dudley, V.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    The efficient operation of a Stirling engine requires the application of a high heat flux to the relatively small area occupied by the heater head tubes. Previous attempts to couple solar energy to Stirling engines generally involved directly illuminating the heater head tubes with concentrated sunlight. In this study, operation of 75-kW, sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been demonstrated and its performance characterized on Sandia's nominal 75-kW parabolic-dish concentrator, using a cold-water gas-gap calorimeter to simulate Stirling engine operation. The pool boiler (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) supplies heat to the engine in the form of latent heat released from condensation of the metal vapor on the heater head tubes. The advantages of the pool boiler include uniform tube temperature, leading to longer life and higher temperature available to the engine, and decoupling of the design of the solar absorber from the engine heater head. The two-phase system allows high input thermal flux, reducing the receiver size and losses, therefore improving system efficiency. The receiver design is reported here along with test results including transient operations, steady-state performance evaluation, operation at various temperatures, and x-ray studies of the boiling behavior. Also reported are a fist-order cost analysis, plans for future studies, and the integration of the receiver with a Stirling Thermal Motors STM4-120 Stirling engine. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  17. An optical boiler generating singlet oxygen O{sub 2} (a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipatov, N I; Gulyamova, E S [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Biryukov, A S [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-12-31

    An ecologically perfect generator of singlet oxygen O{sub 2} (a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g}) is proposed which fundamentally differs from existing singlet-oxygen generators. Excited O{sub 2} (a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g}) molecules are generated due to interaction of the O{sub 2} (X{sup 3}{Sigma}{sup -}{sub g}) molecules with a quasi-monochromatic field, which is supplied from an external source to a closed volume - an optical boiler containing oxygen. It is shown that, by pumping continuously the optical boiler by the light field of power {approx}3x10{sup 5} W, it is possible to accumulate up to 40% of singlet oxygen (O{sub 2}(b{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub g})) + (O{sub 2} (a{sup 1}{Delta}{sub g})) in the boiler volume during {approx}10{sup -2} s. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  18. Establishing a Comprehensive Wind Energy Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleeter, Sanford

    2012-09-30

    This project was directed at establishing a comprehensive wind energy program in Indiana, including both educational and research components. A graduate/undergraduate course ME-514 - Fundamentals of Wind Energy has been established and offered and an interactive prediction of VAWT performance developed. Vertical axis wind turbines for education and research have been acquired, instrumented and installed on the roof top of a building on the Calumet campus and at West Lafayette (Kepner Lab). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have been performed to simulate these urban wind environments. Also, modal dynamic testing of the West Lafayette VAWT has been performed and a novel horizontal axis design initiated. The 50-meter meteorological tower data obtained at the Purdue Beck Agricultural Research Center have been analyzed and the Purdue Reconfigurable Micro Wind Farm established and simulations directed at the investigation of wind farm configurations initiated. The virtual wind turbine and wind turbine farm simulation in the Visualization Lab has been initiated.

  19. Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1985-01-01

    In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850.degree. F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850.degree. F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400.degree. F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

  20. The structural design of air and gas ducts for power stations and industrial boiler applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, R.L.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the new American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) book entitled, The Structural Design of Air and Gas Ducts for Power Stations and Industrial Boiler Applications. This 312 page book was published by the ASCE in August of 1995. This ASCE publication was created to assist structural engineers in performing the structural analysis and design of air and flue-gas ducts. The structural behavior of steel ductwork can be difficult to understand for structural engineers inexperienced in ductwork analysis and design. Because of this needed expertise, the ASCE committee that created this document highly recommends that the structural analysis and design of ducts be performed by qualified structural engineers, not be technicians, designers or drafters. There is a history within the power industry of failures and major degradation of flue-gas ductwork. There are many reasons for these failures or degradation, but in many cases, the problems may have been voided by a better initial design. This book attempts to help the structural engineer with this task. This book is not intended to be used to size or configure ductwork for flow and pressure drop considerations. But it does recommend that the ductwork system arrangement consider the structural supports and the structural behavior of the duct system.

  1. BIRCK NANOTECHNOLOGY CENTER ESTABLISHED MARCH, 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    BIRCK NANOTECHNOLOGY CENTER ESTABLISHED MARCH, 2001 As one of the first academic nanotechnology research centers in the US, the Birck Nanotechnology Center provides solutions to challenges in healthcare nanotechnology centers in the US; the 187,000 sq.ft. building includes a 25,000 sq. ft. cleanroom that is 45

  2. Software Engineering, an established Accreditable Engineering Discipline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szabados, Barna

    Software Engineering, an established Accreditable Engineering Discipline By B.Szabados, P.Eng, Mc of the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB), as well as at a workshop at the NCDEAS meeting in September 1997. 1. INTRODUCTION In the late seventies, the discipline of Computer Engineering has evolved

  3. Putative Pharmacologic BM Establish biological validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentley, Katie

    Screening BM Identify BM method/technique & parameter Imaging Biomarker Roadmap for Cancer Studies Achieve Establish SOP for trial use #12;Roadmap Stage Research Disciplines Roadmap Question Settings Sub tests each Roadmap Stage? Key question to be addressed in order to proceed along Roadmap Aim of each

  4. 2014 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan- Chapter 2, Limited Areas, Vault-Type Rooms and Temporary Limited Areas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2014 Headquarters Facilities Master Security Plan - Chapter 2, Limited Areas, Vault-Type Rooms and Temporary Limited Areas Describes DOE Headquarters procedures for establishing, maintaining, and deactivating Limited Areas and Vault-Type Rooms and protecting the classified information handled within those Areas.

  5. Quantum Entanglement Establishment between two Strangers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tzonelih Hwang; Tzu-Han Lin; Shih-Hung Kao

    2015-06-28

    This paper presents the first quantum entanglement establishment scheme for strangers who neither pre-share any secret nor have any authenticated classical channel between them. The proposed protocol requires only the help of two almost dishonest third parties (TPs) to achieve the goal. The security analyses show that the proposed protocol is secure against not only an external eavesdropper's attack, but also the TP's attack.

  6. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  7. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  8. Visualization of information with an established order

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Chung (Richland, WA); Foote, Harlan P. (Richmond, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Sugar Land, TX)

    2007-02-13

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is a system including one or more processors operable to access data representative of a biopolymer sequence of monomer units. The one or more processors are further operable to establish a pattern corresponding to at least one fractal curve and generate one or more output signals corresponding to a number of image elements each representative of one of the monomer units. Also included is a display device responsive to the one or more output signals to visualize the biopolymer sequence by displaying the image elements in accordance with the pattern.

  9. Analysing ZigBee Key Establishment Protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yüksel, Ender

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we present our approach for protocol analysis together with a real example where we find an important flow in a contemporary wireless sensor network security protocol. We start by modelling protocols using a specific process algebraic formalism called LySa process calculus. We then apply an analysis based on a special program analysis technique called control flow analysis. We apply this technique to the ZigBee-2007 End-to-End Application Key Establishment Protocol and with the help of the analysis discover an unknown flaw. Finally we suggest a fix for the protocol, and verify that the fix works by using the same technique.

  10. Method of regulating the amount of underfire air for combustion of wood fuels in spreader-stroke boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, Kenneth L. (Federal Way, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A method of metering underfire air for increasing efficiency and reducing particulate emissions from wood-fire, spreader-stoker boilers is disclosed. A portion of the combustion air, approximately one pound of air per pound of wood, is fed through the grate into the fuel bed, while the remainder of the combustion air is distributed above the fuel in the furnace, and the fuel bed is maintained at a depth sufficient to consume all oxygen admitted under fire and to insure a continuous layer of fresh fuel thereover to entrap charred particles inside the fuel bed.

  11. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  12. 2014-03-31 Issuance: Test Procedure for Commercial Packaged Boilers; Request for Information, Reopening of the Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice reopening the comment period for the request for information regarding the commercial packaged boiler test procedure rulemaking, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 31, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  13. The Premack principle, response deprivation, and establishing operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klatt, Kevin P.; Morris, Edward K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes response deprivation as an establishing operation. In this context, the authors review the concept of establishing operation, in particular, its reinforcer-establishing and evocative effects; response ...

  14. Guidance for Federal Departments and Agencies on Establishing...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    on Establishing, Applying, and Revising Categorical Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act Guidance for Federal Departments and Agencies on Establishing,...

  15. EO 13690: Establishing a Federal Flood Risk Management Standard...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    690: Establishing a Federal Flood Risk Management Standard and a Process for Further Soliciting and Considering Stakeholder Input EO 13690: Establishing a Federal Flood Risk...

  16. Steps to Establish a Real-Time Transmission Monitoring System...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Steps to Establish a Real-Time Transmission Monitoring System for Transmission Owners and Operators within the Eastern and Western Interconnections Steps to Establish a Real-Time...

  17. Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy Case study that...

  18. Bush Administration Establishes Program to Reduce Foreign Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Bush Administration Establishes Program to Reduce Foreign Oil Dependency, Greenhouse Gases Bush Administration Establishes Program to Reduce Foreign Oil Dependency, Greenhouse...

  19. New Executive Order Establishes a Federal Flood Risk Management...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Executive Order Establishes a Federal Flood Risk Management Standard New Executive Order Establishes a Federal Flood Risk Management Standard February 5, 2015 - 10:55am Addthis...

  20. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #14 Establishing a Residence for a...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    4 Establishing a Residence for a Relocation Incentive POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 14 Establishing a Residence for a Relocation Incentive An employee who is relocating to a new...

  1. Fundamental studies of the mechanisms of slag deposit formation: Studies on initiation, growth and sintering in the formation of utility boiler deposits: Topical technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tangsathitkulchai, M.; Austin, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    Three laboratory-scale devices were utilized to investigate the mechanisms of the initiation, growth and sintering process involved in the formation of boiler deposits. Sticking apparatus investigations were conducted to study deposit initiation by comparing the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on four types of steel-based heat exchanger materials under the conditions found in a utility boiler and an entrained slagging gasifier. In addition, the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on a reduced steel surface were investigated. All the ash drops studied in this investigation were produced from bituminous coals.

  2. Advanced In-Furnace NOx Control for Wall and Cyclone-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Sarv

    2009-02-28

    A NO{sub x} minimization strategy for coal-burning wall-fired and cyclone boilers was developed that included deep air staging, innovative oxygen use, reburning, and advanced combustion control enhancements. Computational fluid dynamics modeling was applied to refine and select the best arrangements. Pilot-scale tests were conducted by firing an eastern high-volatile bituminous Pittsburgh No.8 coal at 5 million Btu/hr in a facility that was set up with two-level overfire air (OFA) ports. In the wall-fired mode, pulverized coal was burned in a geometrically scaled down version of the B and W DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} burner. At a fixed overall excess air level of 17%, NO{sub x} emissions with single-level OFA ports were around 0.32 lb/million Btu at 0.80 burner stoichiometry. Two-level OFA operation lowered the NO{sub x} levels to 0.25 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment in the staged burner reduced the NO{sub x} values to 0.21 lb/million Btu. Oxygen enrichment plus reburning and 2-level OFA operation further curbed the NO{sub x} emissions to 0.19 lb/million Btu or by 41% from conventional air-staged operation with single-level OFA ports. In the cyclone firing arrangement, oxygen enrichment of the cyclone combustor enabled high-temperature and deeply staged operation while maintaining good slag tapping. Firing the Pittsburgh No.8 coal in the optimum arrangement generated 112 ppmv NO{sub x} (0.15 lb/million Btu) and 59 ppmv CO. The optimum emissions results represent 88% NO{sub x} reduction from the uncontrolled operation. Levelized costs for additional NO{sub x} removal by various in-furnace control methods in reference wall-fired or cyclone-fired units already equipped with single-level OFA ports were estimated and compared with figures for SCR systems achieving 0.1 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. Two-level OFA ports could offer the most economical approach for moderate NO{sub x} control, especially for smaller units. O{sub 2} enrichment in combination with 2-level OFA was not cost effective for wall-firing. For cyclone units, NO{sub x} removal by two-level OFA plus O{sub 2} enrichment but without coal reburning was economically attractive.

  3. The Energy Cost of Cryptographic Key Establishment in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    The Energy Cost of Cryptographic Key Establishment in Wireless Sensor Networks Johann Großsch, energy evaluation. 1. INTRODUCTION Wireless sensor networks are, in general, more vulnerable to attacks Inffeldgasse 16a, A­8010 Graz, Austria ABSTRACT Wireless sensor nodes generally face serious limitations

  4. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Cao, J.; Moore, D.M.; Xu, J.; Ruch, R.R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Upchurch, M.L.; Cao, H.B. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The evolution of HCl during coal pyrolysis and its relation to chlorine forms in raw coal were studied using a temperature-programmed pyrolysis and gas combustion in conjunction with a quadrupole gas analyzer (QGA). Using a new filament source in the QGA significantly improved the sensitivity of HCl detection. The major peak at 445{degrees}C showed an increased intensity and a new HCl evolution peak at 600{degrees}C was observed during pyrolysis of Illinois coal IBC-109. Pyrolysis of coal IBC-109 spiked with NaCl solution showed a strong peak of HCl evolution above 700{degrees}C. In the study of boiler deposits, several sample preparation procedures for X-ray diffraction analysis were developed and six minerals were unambiguously determined in superheater and heater deposits from a power plant in Illinois. Effects of composite gases containing 0.2% HCl on six metals were tested at 600{degrees}C and 200{degrees}C, and at 100{degrees}C with moisture for 400 hours. Similar tests were conducted with a composite gas containing no HCl at 600{degrees}C and 200{degrees}C. The results allow us to assess the factors controlling the corrosion rate: Boiler materials, temperature, concentration of HCl in combustion gases, and chloride condensate on metal surfaces.

  5. Limited Sectoral Trading between the EU ETS and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limited Sectoral Trading between the EU ETS and China Claire Gavard, Niven Winchester and Sergey established research centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Limited Sectoral Trading between the EU ETS and China Claire Gavard

  6. Establishment of the International Power Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Julius E.

    2000-04-29

    Building on the two previous trips to Central America last year, International Power Institute (IPI) and its partner Tennessee Valley Infrastructure Group (TVIG) have focused their attention this quarter on project sites in Honduras. TVIG's unit--an Integrated Infrastructure Platform or IIP--combines water and electricity production in a single integrated unit, thereby providing both products at a lower cost than could be attained for each one separately. Because of the unmet demand for clean drinking water and electricity in remote towns throughout the developing world, the need for such units is widespread. Previous visits to Honduras have resulted in strong in-country commercial interest, support in the form of memorandums of understanding by key government agencies, and identification of four prospective project sites for IIP installations. From March 5 to March 15 and with IPI support and participation, representatives from the TVIG, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), IPI, and market research firm International Business Initiatives (IBI) conducted an intensive survey of project opportunities in the four communities, to establish how IIPs might help these four communities enhance their economic development, A key aspect of the projects examined is the need to make them economically self-supporting so that they will be viable in the private sector. Summary of specific project site studies follow here, and feasibility studies for the four sites are included as attachments.

  7. Flue Gas Conditioning to Reduce Particulate Emissions in Industrial Coal-Fired Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, B.; Keon, E.

    1980-01-01

    create the EPA as a separate agency reporting dir ectly to the President, but it established schedules and a regulatory mechanism to treat air quality on a national basis. Although the initial reaction to this law by coal burners was the switch...

  8. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 10, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2002 735 Multivariable Robust Controller Design for a Boiler System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    is then distributed through the header system to several steam turbines to generate electricity. The overall plant) integrated energy facility located in Mil- dred Lake, Alberta, utilizes a complex header system for steam). The 6.306-MPa header receives steam from three utility-type (UB) boilers burning refinery gas, three CO

  9. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Work on process design and LNS Burner design was deferred during this period, pending a reassessment of the project by TransAlta prior to commencement of Budget Period II, and only limited Balance of Plant engineering work was done.

  10. Quantum Limits of Thermometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas M. Stace

    2010-06-08

    The precision of typical thermometers consisting of $N$ particles is shot noise limited, improving as $\\sim1/\\sqrt{N}$. For high precision thermometry and thermometric standards this presents an important theoretical noise floor. Here it is demonstrated that thermometry may be mapped onto the problem of phase estimation, and using techniques from optimal phase estimation, it follows that the scaling of the precision of a thermometer may in principle be improved to $\\sim1/N$, representing a Heisenberg limit to thermometry.

  11. From Basic Control to Optimized Systems-Applying Digital Control Systems to Steam Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hockenbury, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    less sensitive). Also digital filtering (available in many modern controllers) can be used in the level controller to lessen the effects of lead changes on drum level. Adding Computer Power Combining the combustion and feedwater controls just... modern controllers) to serve as the low fuel limit. Tilis will allow stable firing at very low rates. The high signal selector (HS in Fig. 3) determines the air flow low limit. Fig. 2: Instrument diagram of basic control loops. sl.,m S1eam [),n drum...

  12. Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy Wind Turbine Towers Establish New Height Standards and Reduce Cost of Wind Energy Case study that...

  13. Departments of State and Energy Establish Global Partnership...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State and Energy Establish Global Partnership to Green U.S. Embassies and Consulates Departments of State and Energy Establish Global Partnership to Green U.S. Embassies and...

  14. North American Energy Ministers Establish a Working Group on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Establish a Working Group on Climate Change and Energy North American Energy Ministers Establish a Working Group on Climate Change and Energy May 25, 2015 - 2:25pm Addthis NEWS...

  15. Recommendation 198: Establish a site transition process | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    8: Establish a site transition process Recommendation 198: Establish a site transition process The recommendation asks that DOE EM develop a fact sheet, similar to one done by the...

  16. HYBRID SELECTIVE NON-CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SNCR)/SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) DEMONSTRATION FOR THE REMOVAL OF NOx FROM BOILER FLUE GASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry B. Urbas

    1999-05-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Pennsylvania Electric Energy Research Council, (PEERC), New York State Electric and Gas and GPU Generation, Inc. jointly funded a demonstration to determine the capabilities for Hybrid SNCR/SCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction/Selective Catalytic Reduction) technology. The demonstration site was GPU Generation's Seward Unit No.5 (147MW) located in Seward Pennsylvania. The demonstration began in October of 1997 and ended in December 1998. DOE funding was provided through Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96256 with T. J. Feeley as the Project Manager. EPRI funding was provided through agreements TC4599-001-26999 and TC4599-002-26999 with E. Hughes as the Project Manager. This project demonstrated the operation of the Hybrid SNCR/SCR NO{sub x} control process on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The hybrid technology was expected to provide a cost-effective method of reducing NO{sub x} while balancing capital and operation costs. An existing urea based SNCR system was modified with an expanded-duct catalyst to provide increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency from the SNCR while producing increased ammonia slip levels to the catalyst. The catalyst was sized to reduce the ammonia slip to the air heaters to less than 2 ppm while providing equivalent NO{sub x} reductions. The project goals were to demonstrate hybrid technology is capable of achieving at least a 55% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining less than 2ppm ammonia slip to the air heaters, maintain flyash marketability, verify the cost benefit and applicability of Hybrid post combustion technology, and reduce forced outages due to ammonium bisulfate (ABS) fouling of the air heaters. Early system limitations, due to gas temperature stratification, restricted the Hybrid NO{sub x} reduction capabilities to 48% with an ammonia slip of 6.1 mg/Nm{sup 3} (8 ppm) at the catalyst inlet. After resolving the stratification problem, the catalyst did not have sufficient activity in order to continue the planned test program. Arsenic poisoning was found to be the cause of premature catalyst deactivation.

  17. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

  18. External pressure limitations for 0--15 psi storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dib, M.W. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Shrivastava, H.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Large cylindrical storage tanks are designed in accordance with design rules of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section 3, Subsection NC, Article NC-3900 or American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 620. Both of these Codes have identical requirements. These Codes provide a limit on the partial vacuum in the gas or vapor space not to exceed 1 oz/in{sup 2} to ensure stability of cylindrical walls against collapse. This criterion seems to be too conservative for the underground double shell storage tanks to be built at Hanford for the Department of Energy. The analysis presented herein shows that the bottom plate of the Hanford tank is the most critical component when an empty tank is subjected to partial vacuum. However, the allowable external pressures for both cylindrical walls and the bottom plate are significantly higher than 1 oz/in{sup 2}. The allowable external pressure for the bottom plate is largely dependent upon the plate uplift considerations which in turns depends on the plate thickness. The large displacement non-linear elastic analyses and the eigenvalue buckling solutions indicate that considerable wrinkling can occur before a snap-through buckling failure occurs.

  19. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-10

    The 100-D-9 site is the former location of an underground storage tank used for holding fuel for the 184-DA Boiler House. Results of soil-gas samples taken from six soil-gas probes in a rectangle around the site the tank had been removed from concluded that there were no volatile organic compounds at detectable levels in the area. The 100-D-9 Boiler Fuel Oil Tank Site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  20. Establishment of Small Wind Regional Test Centers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez, T.; Forsyth, T.; Huskey, A.; Mendoza, I.; Sinclair, K.; Smith, J.

    2011-03-01

    The rapid growth of the small wind turbine (SWT) market is attracting numerous entrants. Small wind turbine purchasers now have many options but often lack information (such as third-party certification) to select a quality turbine. Most SWTs do not have third-party certification due to the expense and difficulty of the certification process. Until recently, the only SWT certification bodies were in Europe. In North America, testing has been limited to a small number of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) subsidized tests conducted at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) under the ongoing Independent Testing Project. Within the past few years, the DOE, National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), and some states have worked with the North American SWT industry to create a SWT certification infrastructure. The goal is to increase the number of certified turbines and gain greater consumer confidence in SWT technology. The American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) released the AWEA Small Wind Turbine Performance and Safety Standard (AWEA Standard 9.1 - 2009) in December 2009. The Small Wind Certification Council (SWCC), a North American certification body, began accepting applications for certification to the AWEA standard in February 2010. To reduce certification testing costs, DOE/NREL is providing financial and technical assistance for an initial round of tests at four SWT test sites which were selected via a competitive solicitation. The four organizations selected are Windward Engineering (Utah), The Alternative Energy Institute at West Texas A&M (Texas), a consortium consisting of Kansas State University and Colby Community College (Kansas), and Intertek (New York). Each organization will test two small wind turbines as part of their respective subcontract with DOE/NREL. The testing results will be made publically available. The goal is to establish a lower-cost U.S. small wind testing capability that will lead to increased SWT certification.

  1. Updated experience of the first CFB boilers in Spain: HUNOSA`S {open_quotes}La PEREDA{close_quotes} power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivero, R.N. [Foster Wheeler Energia, S.A., Madrid (Spain); Garcia, J.P. [HUNOSA, Mieres, Asturias (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    HUNOSA`s {open_quotes}La Pereda{close_quotes} cogeneration facility is equipped with a Foster Wheeler circulating fluidized bed boiler designed to produce 185000 Kg/h (407850 lb/hr) of superheated steam to generate 50 MW of electricity, HUNOSA, a Spanish public mining company, uses a fuel mixture of 65% culm waste and 35% run off mine coal with a High Heating Value as low as 8700 Kj/Kg (3740 BTU/lb), and an ash content as high as 65%. The efficient and clean use of such a waste fuel, which is a subproduct of the company`s mining activity, is attempted by the first time in Spain, and was possible by using a circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler which takes advantage of Foster Wheeler previous experience firing waste fuels of this type. This paper summarizes La Pereda`s CFB boiler main design characteristics and describes the results attained during its first year and a half of operation. This project was partially financed by the European Community, as well as by another Spanish official entities. It is the first industrial installation in operation with a circulating fluidized bed boiler in Spain and will serve as a basis to develop an important program of waste fuel valorization and environmental regeneration by using low grade energy resources which were not susceptible of being used up to now. The authors believe that the case described might be of interest to other mining companies and in general, to all those considering the potential use of waste fuels of this type for steam and electricity generation.

  2. Cyclone Boiler Reburn NOx Control Improvements via Cyclone Design Improvements and Advanced Air Staging 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morabito, B.; Nee, B.; Goff, V.; Maringo, G.

    2008-01-01

    is the practice of reducing the stoichiometry in the burner zone to near or less than 1.0 and adding the remaining air needed to complete combustion through Over Fire Air (OFA) ports above the burners. Limiting the oxygen available to the fuel as it begins... of the combustion air allowing for equal or better operation with less excess air would in theory, reduce NOx and decrease the natural gas required for control. Babcock & Wilcox Burnout Zone Cyclone Burners Reburn Zone Main Combustion Zone Reburn...

  3. Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid Omar

    2008-04-30

    Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature proved to be effective in the oxidation of both NOx and elemental mercury, and (3) higher residence time, lower temperature, and higher molar ratio of O{sub 3}/NOx contributed to the highest elemental mercury and NOx reductions.

  4. Linear regression analysis of emissions factors when firing fossil fuels and biofuels in a commercial water-tube boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Falcone Miller; Bruce G. Miller

    2007-12-15

    This paper compares the emissions factors for a suite of liquid biofuels (three animal fats, waste restaurant grease, pressed soybean oil, and a biodiesel produced from soybean oil) and four fossil fuels (i.e., natural gas, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, and pulverized coal) in Penn State's commercial water-tube boiler to assess their viability as fuels for green heat applications. The data were broken into two subsets, i.e., fossil fuels and biofuels. The regression model for the liquid biofuels (as a subset) did not perform well for all of the gases. In addition, the coefficient in the models showed the EPA method underestimating CO and NOx emissions. No relation could be studied for SO{sub 2} for the liquid biofuels as they contain no sulfur; however, the model showed a good relationship between the two methods for SO{sub 2} in the fossil fuels. AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels were also compared to the mass balance emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Overall, the AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels did not compare well with the mass balance emissions factors or the EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Regression analysis of the AP-42, EPA, and mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels showed a significant relationship only for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. However, the regression models underestimate the SO{sub 2} emissions by 33%. These tests illustrate the importance in performing material balances around boilers to obtain the most accurate emissions levels, especially when dealing with biofuels. The EPA emissions factors were very good at predicting the mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels and to a lesser degree the biofuels. While the AP-42 emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors are easier to perform, especially in large, full-scale systems, this study illustrated the shortcomings of estimation techniques. 23 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Defining coiled tubing limits -- A new approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, K.R.; Sathuvalli, U.B.; Stone, L.R.; Wolhart, S.

    1996-12-31

    The burst, collapse and axial load operating limits for Coiled Tubing (CT) are currently established using the Von Mises incipient yield criterion. This criterion has historically been used to calculate the limits for oil country tubular goods (OCTG). The limits according to this criterion are based on the point at which the pipe material reaches a load state in which it begins to yield. Because of the bending that occurs when the CT is spooled on and off the reel, and when it is bent over the guide arch, the CT is already far beyond the yield point before it enters a well. Thus, this criterion does not really apply to CT. This paper describes a research project currently in progress. The purpose of this project is to define a new set of CT limits based on criteria other than incipient yield. This new approach to setting CT operating limits takes into account the internal residual stresses in the CT which are a consequence of repeated bending cycles and the accompanying change in material properties.

  6. Combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of two kinds of swirl burners in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z.Q.; Jing, J.P.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F.; Xu, B.; Wei, H.D.; Ge, Z.H.

    2008-07-01

    Measurements were performed in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler. Enhanced ignition-dual register (EI-DR) burners and centrally fuel rich (CFR) swirl coal combustion burners were installed in the bottom row of the furnace during experiments. Local mean concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx gas species, gas temperatures, and char burnout were determined in the region of the two types of burners. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners, local mean CO concentrations, gas temperatures and the temperature gradient are higher and mean concentrations of O{sub 2} and NOx along the jet flow direction in the burner region are lower than for the enhanced ignition-dual register burners. Moreover, the mean O{sub 2} concentration is higher and the gas temperature and mean CO concentration are lower in the side wall region. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners in the bottom row, the combustion efficiency of the boiler increases from 96.73% to 97.09%, and NOx emission decreases from 411.5 to 355 ppm at 6% O{sub 2} compared to enhanced ignition-dual register burners and the boiler operates stably at 110 MWe without auxiliary fuel oil.

  7. Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan L. Szymanski; R. Glickert

    2007-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX® (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

  8. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke; Joseph J. Battista

    2001-03-31

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives.

  9. New Executive Order Establishes a Federal Flood Risk Management...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    President Obama signed Executive Order (E.O.) 13690, Establishing a Federal Flood Risk Management Standard and a Process for Further Soliciting and Considering Stakeholder Input,...

  10. Recommendation 169: Establishment of an Oak Ridge Oral History Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ORSSAB recommends DOE-ORO fully endorse the establishment of an Oak Ridge Oral History Program and provide necessary assistance.

  11. WAC - 173-225 Federal Water Pollution Control Act - Establishment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WAC - 173-225 Federal Water Pollution Control Act - Establishment of Implementation Procedures of Application for Certification Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  12. Reasearch Activities for the Establishment of The Center for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Report: Reasearch Activities for the Establishment of The Center for Sustainable Energy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reasearch Activities for the...

  13. Joint Venture Established Between Russian Weapons Plant And the...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Weapons Plant And the Largest Dialysis Provider in the U.S. Press Release Sep 20, 2001 Joint Venture Established Between Russian Weapons Plant And the Largest Dialysis...

  14. Establishing & Maintaining a Strategic Partnership with the Chief...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Chief Financial Officer Neal Elliot of the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy shares insights on how to establish and maintain a partnership with the Chief...

  15. Update on Establishing the Feasibility of Lead Slowing Down Spectrosco...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Lead Slowing Down Spectroscopy for Direct Measurement of Plutonium in Used Fuel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Update on Establishing the Feasibility of...

  16. The Limit of Mental Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandler, George

    2013-01-01

    of constructing such structures. References A cautionaryTHE LIMIT OF MENTAL STRUCTURES Asch, S. E. , & Ebenholtz, S.100. THE LIMIT OF MENTAL STRUCTURES Halford, G. S. , Cowan,

  17. Bed-inventory Overturn Mechanism for Pant-leg Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhe; Yang, Zhiwei; West, Logan; Li, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    A numerical model was established to investigate the lateral mass transfer as well as the mechanism of bed-inventory overturn inside a pant-leg circulating fluidized bed (CFB), which are of great importance to maintain safe and efficient operation of the CFB. Results show that the special flow structure in which the solid particle volume fraction along the central line of the pant-leg CFB is relative high enlarges the lateral mass transfer rate and make it more possible for bed inventory overturn. Although the lateral pressure difference generated from lateral mass transfer inhibits continuing lateral mass transfer, providing the pant-leg CFB with self-balancing ability to some extent, the primary flow rate change due to the outlet pressure change often disable the self-balancing ability by continually enhancing the flow rate difference. As the flow rate of the primary air fan is more sensitive to its outlet pressure, it is easier to lead to bed inventory overturn. While when the solid particle is easier to c...

  18. SUPPLEMENTAL REPORT 1 Steps to establishing an effective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    SUPPLEMENTAL REPORT 1 Steps to establishing an effective system of student ratings Academic Affairs Committee Supplemental Report ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY March 21, 2013 Authored by: AAC at RIT #12;SUPPLEMENTAL REPORT 2 STEPS TO ESTABLISHING AN EFFECTIVE SYSTEM OF STUDENT RATINGS In order to maximize

  19. Quantum Limits of Measurements and Uncertainty Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanao Ozawa

    2015-05-19

    In this paper, we show how the Robertson uncertainty relation gives certain intrinsic quantum limits of measurements in the most general and rigorous mathematical treatment. A general lower bound for the product of the root-mean-square measurement errors arising in joint measurements of noncommuting observables is established. We give a rigorous condition for holding of the standard quantum limit (SQL) for repeated measurements, and prove that if a measuring instrument has no larger root-mean-square preparational error than the root-mean-square measurement errors then it obeys the SQL. As shown previously, we can even construct many linear models of position measurement which circumvent this condition for the SQL.

  20. Fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  1. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  2. Cermet composite thermal spray coatings for erosion and corrosion protection in combustion environments of advanced coal-fired boilers. Semi-annual technical progress report, February 1996--July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banovic, S.W.; Levin, B.F.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1996-08-01

    Present coal-fired boiler environments remain hostile to the materials of choice since corrosion and erosion can be a serious problem in certain regions of the boiler. Recently, the Clean Air Act Amendment is requiring electric power plants to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions to the environment. To reduce NO{sub x}, emissions, new low NO{sub x}, combustors are utilized which burn fuel with a substoichiometric amount of oxygen (i.e., low oxygen partial pressure). In these low NO{sub x} environments, H{sub 2}S gas is a major source of sulfur. Due to the sulfidation process, corrosion rates in reducing parts of boilers have increased significantly and existing boiler tube materials do not always provide adequate corrosion resistance. Combined attack due to corrosion and erosion is a concern because of the significantly increased operating costs which result in material failures. One method to combat corrosion and erosion in coal-fired boilers is to apply coatings to the components subjected to aggressive environments. Thermal spray coatings, a cermet composite comprised of hard ceramic phases of oxide and/or carbide in a metal binder, have been used with some success as a solution to the corrosion and erosion problems in boilers. However, little is known on the effect of the volume fraction, size, and shape of the hard ceramic phase on the erosion and corrosion resistance of the thermally sprayed coatings. It is the objective of this research to investigate metal matrix composite (cermet) coatings in order to determine the optimum ceramic/metal combination that will give the best erosion and corrosion resistance in new advanced coal-fired boilers.

  3. NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY -OFFICE OF RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT Limited Submission Funding Opportunity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    , including areas as cognitive science and neuroscience, clean energy, and food security, as well as other information to support policy-making decisions and establishing spinoff companies, license agreements or other. LIMIT ON NUMBER OF PROPOSALS PER ORGANIZATION A single organization may submit a maximum of three

  4. S Ris Report No. 365 oc Researdi Establishment Ris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Sřlvfad«, DK-1307 Copcohagcn K, Denmark Atolltblt en exchangefrom: Rise Library, Research Establishment. Spectral Structure 14 4.1. Classification of Spectral Subranges 14 4.1.1. The Production Subrange 14 4

  5. Variation of Treeline Mountain Birch Establishment Under Herbivory Pressure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granberg, Tynan

    2012-10-19

    be attributable to the impacts of herbivores. This study investigates the interacting effects of herbivory, climate, and understory vegetation on mountain birch establishment at treeline in the Scandes Mountains of northern Sweden. An extensive...

  6. Non-traditional growth in large, established firms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunderrajan, Suresh, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Firms must continuously strive to grow through the creation of new sources of competitive advantage. The challenges to growth are more severe for large, established firms that derive a predominant amount of their present ...

  7. Experimental approaches to establish rat embryonic stem cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meek, Stephen Earl

    2011-06-27

    The rat has been an established experimental animal model within many areas of biological investigation for over one hundred years due to its size, breeding characteristics, and knowledge of its physiology and behaviour. ...

  8. Food service establishment wastewater characterization and management practice evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garza, Octavio Armando

    2006-04-12

    Food service establishments that use onsite wastewater treatment systems are experiencing hydraulic and organic overloading of pretreatment systems and/or drain fields. Design guidelines for these systems are typically provided in State regulations...

  9. Establishment of Management Decisions on Office of Inspector General Reports

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-12-17

    To establish the responsibilities and requirements for Department of Energy (DOE) action required to make management decisions on Office of Inspector General (OIG) audit and public inspection reports. Cancels DOE 2320.2B

  10. Establishment of Management Decisions on Office of Inspector General Reports

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-04-19

    The order establishes the responsibilities and requirements for Department of Energy elements to make management decisions on Office of Inspector General audits and public inspection reports. Supersedes DOE O 221.3.

  11. Mind Your Manners: Socially Appropriate Wireless Key Establishment for Groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Wenyuan

    Mind Your Manners: Socially Appropriate Wireless Key Establishment for Groups Cynthia Kuo Ahren students may want to (quietly) opt out of their friends' illicit file trading activities, but academics

  12. Radical and open innovation : the challenge for established firms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leroy, Charlotte, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Past research has shown that breakthrough innovations are often prevalent in the context of entrants rather than incumbents. There are many challenges associated with radical and open innovation initiatives for established ...

  13. Application of hybrid coal reburning/SNCR processes for NOx reduction in a coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W.J.; Zhou, Z.J.; Zhou, J.H.; Hongkun, L.V.; Liu, J.Z.; Cen, K.F.

    2009-07-01

    Boilers in Beijing Thermal Power Plant of Zhongdian Guohua Co. in China are coal-fired with natural circulation and tangential fired method, and the economical continuous rate is 410 ton per hour of steam. Hybrid coal reburning/SNCR technology was applied and it successfully reduced NOx to about 170 mg/Nm{sup 3} from about 540 mg/Nm{sup 3}, meanwhile ammonia slip was lower than 10 ppm at 450-210 t/h load and the total reduction efficiency was about 70%. Normal fineness pulverized coal from the bin was chosen as the reburning fuel and the nozzles of the upper primary air were retrofitted to be used as the reburning fuel nozzles. The reducing agent of SNCR was an urea solution, and it was injected by the four layer injectors after online dilution. At 410 t/h load, NOx emission was about 300 mg/Nm{sup 3} when the ratio of reburning fuel to the total fuel was 25.9%-33.4%. Controlling the oxygen content of the gas in the reversal chamber to less than 3.4% resulted in not only low NOx emission but also high combustion efficiency. Ammonia slip distribution in the down gas pass was uneven and ammonia slip was higher in the front of the down gas pass than in the rear of the down gas pass. NSR and NOx reduction were proportional to each other and usually resulted in more ammonia slip with reduction in NOx. About 100 mg/Nm{sup 3} NOx emission could be achieved with about 40 ppm NH{sub 3} slip at 300-450 t/h, and ammonia slip from the SNCR reactions could be used as reducing agent of SCR, which was favorable for the future SCR retrofit.

  14. Behavior of sulfur and chlorine in coal during combustion and boiler corrosion. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Donnals, G.L.; Cao, J.; Ruch, R.R. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Shao, D. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The goal of this project is to study the evolution of gaseous sulfur and chlorine species during temperature-controlled pyrolysis and combustion and their effect on boiler corrosion. We have been developing two techniques for determining the gas evolution profiles of sulfur and chlorine during coal pyrolysis and combustion. First, using a pyrolysis-combustion system in combination with a quadrupole gas analyzer, the evolution of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in combustion gas during temperature-programmed coal pyrolysis-combustion was monitored. When the atmosphere of the combustion chamber was changed to a reducing condition, gaseous COS and H{sub 2}S were also detected in the combustion gas. Detection of hydrogen chloride by QGA has been improved by using a larger-diameter (75 {mu}m) capillary tubing. The HC1 evolution profile during the pyrolysis of coal IBC-109 was determined by QGA and by a chloride ion selective electrode for quantitative purposes. Second, the technique of thermogravimetry (TG) in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to characterize gaseous species during coal pyrolysis. Gas evolution profiles of sulfur (SO{sub 2} and COS), chlorine (HC1), and nitrogen (NH{sub 3} and HCN) species were determined for coal IBC-109. Similar release profiles of HCI and NH{sub 3} supported an interpretation that chlorine gnd nitrogen are closely associated in coal. COS may be formed by reaction of CO with H{sub 2}S in the gas phase. A mass balance study of chlorine evolution from coal IBC-109 in a TG-FTIR experiment was completed; the chloride dissolved in solutions was determined by an ion chromatographic technique.

  15. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  16. Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F.

    2009-07-01

    The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

  17. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Investigation of the relationship between particulate-bound mercury and properties of fly ash in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen Li; Chin-Min Cheng; Bobby Chen; Yan Cao; Jacob Vervynckt; Amanda Adebambo; Wei-Ping Pan

    2007-12-15

    The properties of fly ash in coal-fired boilers influence the emission of mercury from power plants into the environment. In this study, seven different bituminous coals were burned in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler and the derived fly ash samples were collected from a mechanical hopper (MH) and an electrostatic precipitator hopper (ESP). The mercury content, specific surface area (SSA), unburned carbon, and elemental composition of the fly ash samples were analyzed to evaluate the correlation between the concentration of particulate-bound mercury and the properties of coal and fly ash. For a given coal, it was found that the mercury content in the fly ash collected from the ESP was greater than in the fly ash samples collected from the MHP. This phenomenon may be due to a lower temperature of flue gas at the ESP (about 135{sup o}C) compared to the temperature at the air preheater (about 350{sup o}C). Also, a significantly lower SSA observed in MH ash might also contribute to the observation. A comparison of the fly ash samples generated from seven different coals using statistical methods indicates that the mercury adsorbed on ESP fly ashes has a highly positive correlation with the unburned carbon content, manganese content, and SSA of the fly ash. Sulfur content in coal showed a significant negative correlation with the Hg adsorption. Manganese in fly ash is believed to participate in oxidizing volatile elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) to ionic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}). The oxidized mercury in flue gas can form a complex with the fly ash and then get removed before the flue gas leaves the stack of the boiler.

  19. COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2013-01-01

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.

  20. Decreased PCDD/F formation when co-firing a waste fuel and biomass in a CFB boiler by addition of sulphates or municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ĺmand, Lars-Erik; Kassman, Hĺkan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Two strategies to reduce PCDD/F formation when co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and biomass. • They were co-combustion with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and addition of ammonium sulphate. • PCDD/Fs were significantly reduced for a biomass rich in chlorine when adding ammonium sulphate. • MSS had a suppressing effect on PCDD/F formation during co-combustion with SRF. • A link is presented between gaseous alkali chlorides, chlorine in deposits and PCDD/F formation. - Abstract: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are formed during waste incineration and in waste-to-energy boilers. Incomplete combustion, too short residence times at low combustion temperatures (<700 °C), incineration of electronic waste and plastic waste containing chlorine are all factors influencing the formation of PCDD/Fs in boilers. The impact of chlorine and catalysing metals (such as copper and iron) in the fuel on PCDD/F formation was studied in a 12 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The PCDD/F concentrations in the raw gas after the convection pass of the boiler and in the fly ashes were compared. The fuel types were a so-called clean biomass with low content of chlorine, biomass with enhanced content of chlorine from supply of PVC, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) which is a waste fuel containing higher concentrations of both chlorine, and catalysing metals. The PCDD/F formation increased for the biomass with enhanced chlorine content and it was significantly reduced in the raw gas as well as in the fly ashes by injection of ammonium sulphate. A link, the alkali chloride track, is demonstrated between the level of alkali chlorides in the gas phase, the chlorine content in the deposits in the convection pass and finally the PCDD/F formation. The formation of PCDD/Fs was also significantly reduced during co-combustion of SRF with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) compared to when SRF was fired without MSS as additional fuel.

  1. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O&M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO{sub x} removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system.

  2. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

  3. A Comparison of Creep-Rupture Tested Cast Alloys HR282, IN740 and 263 for Possible Application in Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbine and Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, P D; Evens, N; Yamamoto, Y; Maziasz, P

    2011-02-27

    Cast forms of traditionally wrought Ni-base precipitation-strengthened superalloys are being considered for service in the ultra-supercritical conditions (760°C, 35MPa) of next-generation steam boilers and turbines. After casting and homogenization, these alloys were given heat-treatments typical for each in the wrought condition to develop the gamma-prime phase. Specimens machined from castings were creep-rupture tested in air at 800°C. In their wrought forms, alloy 282 is expected to precipitate M23C6 within grain boundaries, alloy 740 is expected to precipitate several grain boundary phases including M23C6, G Phase, and ? phase, and alloy 263 has M23C6 and MC within its grain boundaries. This presentation will correlate the observed creep-life of these cast alloys with the microstructures developed during creep-rupture tests, with an emphasis on the phase identification and chemistry of precipitated grain boundary phases. The suitability of these cast forms of traditionally wrought alloys for turbine and boiler components will also be discussed.

  4. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems: Technical progress report No. 16, July-September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barcikowski, G.F.; Borio, R.W.; Bozzuto, C.R.; Burr, D.H.; Cellilli, L.; Fox, J.D.; Gibbons, T.B.; Hargrove, M.J.; Jukkola, G.D.; King, A.M.

    1996-11-27

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The Project is under budget and generally on schedule. The current status is shown in the Milestone Schedule Status Report included as Appendix A. Under Task 7--Component development and optimization, the CeraMem filter testing was completed. Due to an unacceptably high flue gas draft loss, which will not be resolved in the POCTF timeframe, a decision was made to change the design of the flue gas cleaning system from Hot SNO{sub x}{sup {trademark}} to an advanced dry scrubber called New Integrated Desulfurization (NID). However, it is recognized that the CeraMem filter still has the potential to be viable in pulverized coal systems. In Task 8-- Preliminary POCTF design, integrating and optimizing the performance and design of the boiler, turbine/generator and heat exchangers of the Kalina cycle as well as the balance of plant design were completed. Licensing activities continued. A NID system was substituted for the SNO{sub x} Hot Process.

  5. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology program: Evaluation of gas reburning and low-NO sub x burners on a wall-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report briefly describes the Gas Reburning and Low-NO{sub x} Burners technology which is a low-cost technology that can be applied in both retrofit and new applications. This demonstration will be conducted on a utility boiler in Colorado at Cherokee Station {number sign}3; however, the technology is applicable to industrial boilers and other combustion systems. Although this technology is primarily a NO{sub x} reduction technology, some reductions in other emissions will take place. Since 15--20% of the coal is replaced with natural gas, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions are reduced commensurately. Also the lower carbon-to-hydrogen ratio of natural gas compared to coal reduces CO{sub 2} emissions. The formation of NO{sub x} is controlled by several factors: (1) the amount of nitrogen that is chemically bound in the fuel; (2) the flame temperature; (3) the residence time that combustion products remain at very high temperatures; and (4) the amount of excess oxygen available, especially at the hottest parts of the flame. Decreasing any of these parameters, tends to reduce NO{sub x} formation. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Faculty Taskforce to Establish a Framework for Identifying Teaching Excellence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    employed; · providing resources for promoting evidence-based measures of educational practice in seven of lead scholars in education will be convened to establish a framework to define scholarly teaching and educational practice. This framework will provide explicit guidance on the expectations for educational

  7. Defining and Establishing the Role of a Sustainability Manager

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar covered guidance to help EECBG and SEP recipients establish an energy resource or sustainability program by outlining a range of options for staffing and funding a program, understanding how an energy manager's role can work with other departments and partners, and long-term program sustainability.

  8. Outcomes/Impacts Our Ag Agent established a monitoring system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Outcomes/Impacts · Our Ag Agent established a monitoring system and educational outreach to area farms to track and manage an emerging insect threat to county berry crops. · As a result of County preservation, nutrition and wellness as well as energy and housing and specific programs to meet the needs

  9. Method for establishing the presence of salmonella bacteria in eggs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of the acoustical resonances in eggs is shown to provide a rapid, noninvasive technique for establishing the presence of Salmonella bacteria. The technique is also sensitive to yolk puncture, shell cracks, and may be sensitive to other yolk properties and to egg freshness. Remote characterization, potentially useful for characterizing large numbers of eggs, has been demonstrated.

  10. Original Article The establishment of communication systems depends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rankin, Daniel

    Original Article The establishment of communication systems depends on the scale of competition competition; whereas under local competition, fewer signals were sent and no effective communication system and how new communication systems could emerge de novo in the laboratory (Galantucci, 2005; Garrod, Fay

  11. Establishing an In-House Wind Maintenance Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    Update to the 2008 guidebook titled “Establishing an In-house Wind Maintenance Program”, which was developed to support utilities in developing O&M strategies. This update includes significant contributions from utilities and other stakeholders around the country, representing all perspectives and regardless of whether or not they own wind turbines or projects.

  12. Publications in Bhutan Since the Establishment of the ISBN Agency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinga, Sonam

    2001-01-01

    in existence for hundred of years in dzong and lhakhang. There, indigenous printing presses were established. Some of them still exist today. The National Library has a mini xylographic printing press and has about 10,000 wooden blocks covering about 20...

  13. Current developments in genomics challenge the established framework of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, George M.

    Current developments in genomics challenge the established framework of biomedical ethics because the empirical facts of the genomic science change too fast for the reflections of ethics to keep pace with for pragmatic moral guidance1 . Recent revelations about the human genome, such as the abundance of copy

  14. POLICY FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF ENDOWED AND TERM CHAIRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    of Senate Effective Date: February, 2011 Supersedes: January, 2008 Last Editorial Change: Mandated Review: The establishment of an endowed Chair implies a continuing commitment to the position and the discipline. A Chair should bring distinction to an academic unit and a Chair-holder will be a distinguished scholar

  15. Guide for Establishment of a Contingency Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-03-27

    The Guide was developed to provide assistance in ensuring continued safe and secure operation of DOE sites and facilities, protection of Departmental employees, and the public in the event of emergency situations involving the establishment and deployment of a contingency protective force and the conduct of sustained operations. Canceled by DOE N 251.80.

  16. Establishing a Eucalyptus Energy Plantation on the Central Coast of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Establishing a Eucalyptus Energy Plantation on the Central Coast of California1 Norman H. Pillsbury examined in trial plantings in the United States include Alnus, Eucalyptus, Platanus, and Populus. 1 Presented at the Workshop on Eucalyptus in California, June 14-16, 1983, Sacramento, California 2

  17. Source: MIUR, data collected oct 2011 Established in 1810

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Legendre, Stéphane

    Institutes 1.500 researchers Established in 1987 103 Faculty staff 800 students National Institute of Nuclear 29 PhD Students Management 14 Professors 8 Researchers 72 PhD Students Law, Politics and Development programs 3 Adv. ed. course 54 Students Law, Politics and Development 1 Master programs 53 Adv. ed. courses

  18. A Proposal for Data Collection: Establishing Pedestrian Walking Speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    A Proposal for Data Collection: Establishing Pedestrian Walking Speeds Submitted to: Karen Aspelin on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) currently recommends that a normal pedestrian walking speed of 4 ft/sec be used to set the pedestrian clearance interval for a signalized intersection. The MUTCD

  19. Establishment Heterogeneity, Exporter Dynamics, and the Effects of Trade Liberalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrova, Ivana

    to free trade equivalent to 1.03 percent of steady state consumption. Con- sidering the transitionEstablishment Heterogeneity, Exporter Dynamics, and the Effects of Trade Liberalization George the effect of reducing tariffs on welfare, trade, and export participation. We find sizeable gains to moving

  20. ESTABLISHMENT OF CLOUD REGIMES FOR SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION OF CLOUD MODELING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ESTABLISHMENT OF CLOUD REGIMES FOR SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION OF CLOUD MODELING Wuyin Lin1 , Yangang Liu Distinct cloud regimes can exist locally and globally. Such cloud regimes usually have close association, the classification of cloud regimes may be based on cloud properties and/or meteorological conditions. This study