National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for bod biochemical oxygen

  1. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  2. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  3. Evaluation of the accuracy of the EPA model for BOD5 prediction in various climatic regions of Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutny, Jessica Leigh

    2000-01-01

    model demonstrated removal rates for BOD?, TSS, fecal coliform, ammonium, and phosphorus of 80.0%, 70.9%, 87.1%, 34.7%, and 22.7%, respectively. These data provided the basis for evaluating the EPA model. A sensitivity analysis of the EPA model...

  4. Discriminating between west-side sources of nutrients and organiccarbon contributing to algal growth and oxygen demand in the San JoaquinRiver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wstringfellow@lbl.gov

    2002-07-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Salt and Mud Slough tributaries as sources of oxygen demanding materials entering the San Joaquin River (SJR). Mud Slough and Salt Slough are the main drainage arteries of the Grasslands Watershed, a 370,000-acre area west of the SJR, covering portions of Merced and Fresno Counties. Although these tributaries of the SJR are typically classified as agricultural, they are also heavily influenced by Federal, State and private wetlands. The majority of the surface water used for both irrigation and wetland management in the Grassland Watershed is imported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta through the Delta-Mendota Canal. In this study, they measured algal biomass (as chlorophyll a), organic carbon, ammonia, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and other measures of water quality in drainage from both agricultural and wetland sources at key points in the Salt Slough and Mud Slough tributaries. This report includes the data collected between June 16th and October 4th, 2001. The objective of the study was to compare agricultural and wetland drainage in the Grasslands Watershed and to determine the relative importance of each return flow source to the concentration and mass loading of oxygen demanding materials entering the SJR. Additionally, they compared the quality of water exiting our study area to water entering our study area. This study has demonstrated that Salt and Mud Sloughs both contribute significant amounts of oxygen demand to the SJR. Together, these tributaries could account for 35% of the oxygen demand observed below their confluence with the SJR. This study has characterized the sources of oxygen demanding materials entering Mud Slough and evaluated the oxygen demand conditions in Salt Slough. Salt Slough was found to be the dominant source of oxygen demand load in the study area, because of the higher flows in this tributary. The origins of oxygen demand in Salt Slough still remain largely uninvestigated and the seasonal oxygen demand loading pattern remains unexplained. An expanded investigation of the Salt Slough watershed is warranted, because of the importance of this watershed to the oxygen demand load entering the SJR.

  5. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  6. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  7. Jonathan Altamirano Biochem 118

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brutlag, Doug

    in Breast/Ovarian Cancer Mutation carriers= x3.5 chance 16% patients with 3+ relatives with germ Prostate Cancer: OR=1.45 Lymphoma: OR=2.83 Liver Cancer Colon Cancer Breast Cancer Ovarian CancerJonathan Altamirano Biochem 118 03/15/12 #12;Pancreatic Cancer Uncontrolled cell growth

  8. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  9. Modeling the effects of low flow augmentation by discharge from a wastewater treatment plant on dissolved oxygen concentration in Leon Creek, San Antonio, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gholkar, Tejal A

    2000-01-01

    ' d ) /= time (s) L'= mean stream velocity (m s ) 1 u = stream velocitv (md ') x = distance dosvnstream 1'rom ihc BOD point discharge (m) x *= stream distance (m) a, ? rate of oxygen production per unit of algal photosynthesis (mg-0/mg-A) rr... & = rate of oxygen uptake per unit of ammonia nitrogen oxidation (mg-0/mg-N) rr, = rate of oxygen uptake per unit of nitrite nitrogen (mg-0/mg-N) rr, = rate of oxygen uptake per unit of per unit of algae respired (mg-/mg-A) P& = ammonia oxidation rate...

  10. A Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cell as a Biochemical Oxygen Demand...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    emerged as a central technology in an attempt to produce electricity. In a BES, bacteria interact with electrodes using electrons, which are either removed or supplied...

  11. Technical Market Analysis for Biochemical Conversion Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Market Analysis for Biochemical Conversion March 23, 2015 Biochemical Conversion Jim Collett and Mark Butcher PNNL This presentation does not contain any proprietary,...

  12. Specificity and completion time distributions of biochemical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    order to produce specific complex structures from a large set of similar biochemical building blocks, many biochemical systems require high sensitivity to small molecular...

  13. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Biochemical Conversion Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-27

    This document details accomplishments of the Biomass Program Biochemical Conversion Platform accomplishments in 2007.

  14. Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant capabilities and resources at NREL.

  15. EFFICIENT OXYGEN SEPARATION MEMBRANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mucina, Ladislav

    EFFICIENT OXYGEN SEPARATION MEMBRANE Summary of technology Oxygen can be separated from air using a uniquely structured ceramic ion transport membrane for oxygen separation thatshowsremarkablyhighflux © Curtin University 2013 Gas diffusion in conventional membrane Gas diffusion in new membrane New membrane

  16. Financing Advanced Biofuels, Biochemicals And Biopower In Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Financing Advanced Biofuels, Biochemicals And Biopower In Integrated Biorefineries Financing Advanced Biofuels, Biochemicals And Biopower In Integrated Biorefineries Afternoon...

  17. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  18. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  19. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  20. Computing Resources at Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muzzio, Fernando J.

    Computing Resources at Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Note that use of all Rutgers University) consists of 18 Windows NT Workstations and is primarily reserved for classroom use for Chemical Engineering at Chemical and Biochemical Engineering. DSV Lab. The DSV lab consists of 60 Sun UltraSparc 10 computers. Each

  1. Biochemical transformation of solid carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    2001-09-25

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  2. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Santa Fe, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures.

  3. A structured approach for the engineering of biochemical network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breitling, Rainer

    . Keywords: systems biology; biochemical networks; modelling; signal transduction; Petri nets; ordinaryA structured approach for the engineering of biochemical network models, illustrated for signalling; Received (in revised form): 2nd May 2008 Abstract Quantitative models of biochemical networks (signal

  4. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  5. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  6. 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biochemical Conversion 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2015 Project Peer Review on March 23-27, 2015, at the...

  7. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellul...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Process Design and Economics for Biochemical...

  8. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biochemical Conversion 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent...

  9. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  10. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  11. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  12. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  13. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Brosha, E.L.

    1997-12-09

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures. 6 figs.

  14. Nonlinear Biochemical Signal Processing via Noise Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyung Hyuk Kim; Hong Qian; Herbert M. Sauro

    2013-09-10

    Single-cell studies often show significant phenotypic variability due to the stochastic nature of intra-cellular biochemical reactions. When the numbers of molecules, e.g., transcription factors and regulatory enzymes, are in low abundance, fluctuations in biochemical activities become significant and such "noise" can propagate through regulatory cascades in terms of biochemical reaction networks. Here we develop an intuitive, yet fully quantitative method for analyzing how noise affects cellular phenotypes based on identifying a system's nonlinearities and noise propagations. We observe that such noise can simultaneously enhance sensitivities in one behavioral region while reducing sensitivities in another. Employing this novel phenomenon we designed three biochemical signal processing modules: (a) A gene regulatory network that acts as a concentration detector with both enhanced amplitude and sensitivity. (b) A non-cooperative positive feedback system, with a graded dose-response in the deterministic case, that serves as a bistable switch due to noise-induced bimodality. (c) A noise-induced linear amplifier for gene regulation that requires no feedback. The methods developed in the present work allow one to understand and engineer nonlinear biochemical signal processors based on fluctuation-induced phenotypes.

  15. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  16. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, John

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  17. Kristin Ducrest Biochem 118-OSP Paris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brutlag, Doug

    Kristin Ducrest Biochem 118-OSP Paris Professor Doug Brutlag 11-15-02 Tackling Parkinson Disease with Bioinformatics and Genomics Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized most commonly to the genetics beneath the manifestation of the disease, the inheritance pattern of PD has been a subject

  18. Method and apparatus for energy efficient self-aeration in chemical, biochemical, and wastewater treatment processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-05-28

    The present invention is a pulse spilling self-aerator (PSSA) that has the potential to greatly lower the installation, operation, and maintenance cost associated with aerating and mixing aqueous solutions. Currently, large quantities of low-pressure air are required in aeration systems to support many biochemical production processes and wastewater treatment plants. Oxygen is traditionally supplied and mixed by a compressor or blower and a mechanical agitator. These systems have high-energy requirements and high installation and maintenance costs. The PSSA provides a mixing and aeration capability that can increase operational efficiency and reduce overall cost.

  19. A calcium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujare, N.U.; Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report preliminary work performed in their laboratory on a high-temperature electrochemically reversible calcium-oxygen cell. Following an analogous strategy to that recently discussed for the lithium-oxygen secondary system, this calcium-oxygen cell utilizes stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes to achieve effective separation between half-cell reactions.

  20. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1997-07-22

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

  1. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

    1997-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

  2. Development of an Improved Test for the Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District of Columbia, University of the

    consisting of 5 or 6 of the most successful strains compared favorably with a natural sewage sludge seed of Figures 1. Growth of a natural seed and selected pure bacterial cultures in Blue Plains primary sewage in sewage influent 4. Five day growth patterns of test organ-isms in sewage influent 5. Long term survival

  3. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray...

  4. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  5. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  6. Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leafphotosynthe...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reliable estimation of biochemical parameters from C3 leaf photosynthesis-intercellular carbon dioxide response curves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reliable...

  7. Modeling Tomorrow's Biorefinery--the NREL Biochemical Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01

    Brochure describing the capabilities of NREL's Biochemical Pilot Plant. In this facility, researchers test ideas for creating high-value products from cellulosic biomass.

  8. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Process Design and...

  9. Design and Optimization of a Biochemical Production Platform...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review Eric J. Steen, Ph.D. Lygos, Inc. DESIGN & OPTIMIZATION OF A BIOCHEMICAL PRODUCTION PLATFORM WITH BIOSENSOR-GUIDED SYNTHETIC EVOLUTION 2 CELLULOSIC SUGARS MALONYL-COA...

  10. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  11. Composite oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

    2014-08-05

    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

  12. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

  13. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  14. Oxygenates from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, W.; Keim, W.

    1994-12-31

    The direct synthesis of oxygenates starting from synthesis gas is feasible by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous Rh and Ru based catalysts yielding methyl formate and alcohols will be presented. Interestingly, modified heterogeneous catalysts based on {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysis, practized in Germany (BRD) up to 1952 and in the former DDR until recently, yield isobutanol in addition to methanol. These {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysts are obtained by adding a base such as Li < Na < K < Cs to a Zn-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol catalyst. Isobutanol is obtained in up to 15% yield. Our best catalyst a Zr-Zn-Mn-Li-Pd catalyst produced isobotanol up to 60% at a rate of 740g isobutanol per liter catalyst and hour.

  15. Journal Review: Biomolecular Engineering, Bioengineering, Biochemicals, and Food Directed Evolution: Past, Present, and Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Huimin

    Journal Review: Biomolecular Engineering, Bioengineering, Biochemicals, and Food Directed Evolution of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 59: 1432­1440, 2013 Keywords: biochemical engineering, bioengineering

  16. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Weenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  17. A hybrid DNA-templated gold nanocluster for enhanced enzymatic reduction of oxygen

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Babanova, Sofia; Rocha, Reginaldo C.; Desireddy, Anil; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Boncella, Amy E.; Atanassov, Plamen; Martinez, Jennifer S.

    2015-08-19

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a new DNA-templated gold nanocluster (AuNC) of ~1 nm in diameter and possessing ~7 Au atoms. When integrated with bilirubin oxidase (BOD) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), the AuNC acts as an enhancer of electron transfer (ET) and lowers the overpotential of electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by ~15 mV as compared to the enzyme alone. In addition, the presence of AuNC causes significant enhancements in the electrocatalytic current densities at the electrode. Control experiments show that such enhancement of ORR by the AuNC is specific to nanoclusters and not to plasmonicmore »gold particles. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) measurements confirm 4e– reduction of O2 to H2O with minimal production of H2O2, suggesting that the presence of AuNC does not perturb the mechanism of ORR catalyzed by the enzyme. This unique role of the AuNC as enhancer of ET at the enzyme-electrode interface makes it a potential candidate for the development of cathodes in enzymatic fuel cells, which often suffer from poor electronic communication between the electrode surface and the enzyme active site. In conclusion, the AuNC displays phosphorescence with large Stokes shift and microsecond lifetime.« less

  18. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dovichi, Norman J. (Edmonton, CA); Zhang, Jian Z. (Edmonton, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal to noise ratio.

  19. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer with barrier member

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1996-10-22

    A multiple capillary biochemical analyzer is disclosed for sequencing DNA and performing other analyses, in which a set of capillaries extends from wells in a microtiter plate into a cuvette. In the cuvette the capillaries are held on fixed closely spaced centers by passing through a sandwich construction having a pair of metal shims which squeeze between them a rubber gasket, forming a leak proof seal for an interior chamber in which the capillary ends are positioned. Sheath fluid enters the chamber and entrains filament sample streams from the capillaries. The filament sample streams, and sheath fluid, flow through aligned holes in a barrier member spaced close to the capillary ends, into a collection chamber having a lower glass window. The filament streams are illuminated above the barrier member by a laser, causing them to fluoresce. The fluorescence is viewed end-on by a CCD camera chip located below the glass window. The arrangement ensures an equal optical path length from all fluorescing spots to the CCD chip and also blocks scattered fluorescence illumination, providing more uniform results and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. 12 figs.

  20. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  1. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pezzullo, Leslie

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  2. Polycyclic Aromatic Triptycenes: Oxygen Substitution Cyclization Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanVeller, Brett

    The cyclization and planarization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with concomitant oxygen substitution was achieved through acid catalyzed transetherification and oxygen-radical reactions. The triptycene scaffold ...

  3. Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Authors: Guo,...

  4. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  5. EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

    2006-10-12

    Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

  6. Oxygen uptake of benthic systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priebe, William Franklin

    1972-01-01

    mg/hr/sq m between standard and maximum mixing. Hanes and Irvine (23) made a determination of the effects of temperature on quiescent oxygen uptake rates by covering sludge with aerated water and allowing the supernatant to be totally de- pleted.... ECTROLTSIS STSTDI FOA MEMURIRC BOO. FIGURE 2. SWITCH ELECTROQE IN CONTACT WITH ELECTROIYTE. OXYGEN GENERATOR OFF. FIGURE 3. SWIICH ELECI'RODE NOT IN CONTACT' WITH -' ECTROLYTE. 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 ~ O0 0 o 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 PIERRE A. HIGH SPEED NIXINC...

  7. Plant species as a significant factor in wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varvel, Tracey W

    2013-02-22

    point of many current studies. They are designed to mimic natural wetlands, leaving the majority of wastewater cleanup to wetlands plant life. The use of plant life to remove or reduce environmental contaminants is known as phytoremediation (Anderson..., 1996). The environmental contaminants present in wastewater include nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) levels, suspended solids, and pathogens. These constructed wetlands have many advantages such as; energy efficiency...

  8. BOD5 removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melton, Rebecca Hobbs

    2005-08-29

    advanced or secondary treatment of domestic wastewater. The pollutant removal efficiency in SFCW depends on design parameters. Many of these factors have been investigated while others such as aspect ratio, design of water inlet structure and method...

  9. Methods for separating oxygen from oxygen-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackay, Richard (Lafayette, CO); Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2000-01-01

    This invention provides mixed conducting metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes. The materials of this invention have the general formula: A.sub.x A'.sub.x A".sub.2-(x+x') B.sub.y B'.sub.y B".sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z ; where x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is less than or equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the f block lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides or Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; and B' and B" are different elements and are independently selected from the group of elements Mg or the d-block transition elements. The invention also provides methods for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula. Examples of the materials used for the preparation of the membrane include A.sub.x Sr.sub.x' B.sub.y Fe.sub.y' Co.sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z, where x is about 0.3 to about 0.5, x' is about 1.5 to about 1.7, y is 0.6, y' is between about 1.0 and 1.4 and B is Ga or Al.

  10. Biochemical Production of Endophytic Yeast Biofuel: what and why

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    , local production of crops, CO2 reincorporation Degrade lands due to oil sand mining, drilling, exBiochemical Production of Endophytic Yeast Biofuel: what and why In the U.S., the debate about because the farms are growing corns (first generation) for fuel production instead of for human and animal

  11. A modular microfluidic architecture for integrated biochemical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, Annelise E.

    A modular microfluidic architecture for integrated biochemical analysis Kashan A. Shaikh*, Kee Suk for review November 15, 2004) Microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip (LOC) systems based on a mod- ular (lead) at a sensitivity of 500 nM in microfluidic breadboard

  12. Mutual information in time-varying biochemical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filipe Tostevin; Pieter Rein ten Wolde

    2010-06-16

    Cells must continuously sense and respond to time-varying environmental stimuli. These signals are transmitted and processed by biochemical signalling networks. However, the biochemical reactions making up these networks are intrinsically noisy, which limits the reliability of intracellular signalling. Here we use information theory to characterise the reliability of transmission of time-varying signals through elementary biochemical reactions in the presence of noise. We calculate the mutual information for both instantaneous measurements and trajectories of biochemical systems for a Gaussian model. Our results indicate that the same network can have radically different characteristics for the transmission of instantaneous signals and trajectories. For trajectories, the ability of a network to respond to changes in the input signal is determined by the timing of reaction events, and is independent of the correlation time of the output of the network. We also study how reliably signals on different time-scales can be transmitted by considering the frequency-dependent coherence and gain-to-noise ratio. We find that a detector that does not consume the ligand molecule upon detection can more reliably transmit slowly varying signals, while an absorbing detector can more reliably transmit rapidly varying signals. Furthermore, we find that while one reaction may more reliably transmit information than another when considered in isolation, when placed within a signalling cascade the relative performance of the two reactions can be reversed. This means that optimising signal transmission at a single level of a signalling cascade can reduce signalling performance for the cascade as a whole.

  13. Multiplicative colored noise in linearized models of biochemical reaction networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingalls, Brian

    Multiplicative colored noise in linearized models of biochemical reaction networks Matthew Scott is often modeled by white noise, though results obtained in this fashion tend to overstate the effect to a model of bacterial chemotaxis with multiple explicit noise sources. The frequency response

  14. Author's personal copy Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 155 (2007) 167171

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Author's personal copy Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 155 (2007) 167­171 Short technical report An improved and secreted luciferase reporter for schistosomes Guofeng Cheng, Richard E. Davis in schistosomes. In the current study, we demonstrate that a Gaussia luciferase reporter leads to significantly

  15. Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

  16. The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

    1986-01-01

    of capital and energy. This paper examines the major factors in oxygen purity selection for typical coal gasifiers. Examples demonstrating the effect of oxygen purity on several processes are presented: production of synthetic natural gas (SNG), integrated...

  17. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandel, Navdeep S

    Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (mROS) as a natural by-product of electron transport chain activity. While initial studies focused on the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, a recent paradigm shift ...

  18. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulloa, Osvaldo

    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

  19. Oxygen addition to sulfur of metal thiolates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soma, Takako

    1996-01-01

    chemistry. The oxidation reactions of metal thiolates by hydrogen peroxide, molecular oxygen, dioxiranes, and peracids have been reviewed. The compounds resulting from oxidation and oxygenation of nickel thiolate complexes have been isolated, separated...

  20. Characterization and application of vortex flow adsorption for simplification of biochemical product downstream processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Junfen, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    One strategy to reduce costs in manufacturing a biochemical product is simplification of downstream processing. Biochemical product recovery often starts from fermentation broth or cell culture. In conventional downstream ...

  1. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  2. Biochemical, raw, and cooked color characteristics of individual bovine muscles in oxygen permeable and modified atmosphere packages 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mies, Patrick Daniel

    2004-09-30

    .07c 0.04d 0.20e 0.17fg 2 0.10d 0.19c 0.10cd 0.06e 0.21fg 3 0.06d 0.04c 0.09cd 0.10e 0.23fg 4 0.12d 0.09c 0.02d 0.23e 0.25fg 5 0.13d 0.05c 0.11cd 0.28de 0.24fg PVC a 0 0.04d 0.02c 0.03d 0.05e 0.02g 1 0.08d 0.03c 0.05d 0.10e 0....53def 1 0.55c 0.03c 0.29bcd 0.31de 1.59ab 2 1.01b 0.28bc 0.60b 0.19e 1.27bc 3 1.07b 0.67ab 0.64b 0.32de 2.00a 4 1.07b 1.05a 0.44bc 1.45a 1.65ab 5 1.67a 0.33bc 1.39a 1.68a 1.79a LOXDK a 0 0.08d 0.24c 0.06d 0.15e 0.22fg 1 0.11d 0...

  3. Engineering model reduction of bio-chemical kinetic David Csercsik, Katalin M. Hangos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorban, Alexander N.

    Engineering model reduction of bio-chemical kinetic models D´avid Csercsik, Katalin M. Hangos, Hungary Significance and Aim Bio-chemical kinetic models of enzyme kinetic processes, as well reaction kinetic scheme. Therefore it is of great importance to develop bio-chemically meaningful

  4. The free energy cost of accurate biochemical oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Yuansheng; Ouyang, Qi; Tu, Yuhai

    2015-01-01

    Oscillation is an important cellular process that regulates timing of different vital life cycles. However, in the noisy cellular environment, oscillations can be highly inaccurate due to phase fluctuations. It remains poorly understood how biochemical circuits suppress phase fluctuations and what is the incurred thermodynamic cost. Here, we study four different types of biochemical oscillations representing three basic oscillation motifs shared by all known oscillatory systems. We find that the phase diffusion constant follows the same inverse dependence on the free energy dissipation per period for all systems studied. This relationship between the phase diffusion and energy dissipation is shown analytically in a model of noisy oscillation. Microscopically, we find that the oscillation is driven by multiple irreversible cycles that hydrolyze the fuel molecules such as ATP; the number of phase coherent periods is proportional to the free energy consumed per period. Experimental evidence in support of this un...

  5. Control of Noise in Chemical and Biochemical Information Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Privman

    2010-10-09

    We review models and approaches for error-control in order to prevent the buildup of noise when gates for digital chemical and biomolecular computing based on (bio)chemical reaction processes are utilized to realize stable, scalable networks for information processing. Solvable rate-equation models illustrate several recently developed methodologies for gate-function optimization. We also survey future challenges and possible new research avenues.

  6. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets16 (next20, 20082008707Oxygenate

  7. Developments in ITM oxygen technology for IGCC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, V.E.E.; Richards, R.E.

    1999-07-01

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), an Air Products-led team (with Ceramatec, Eltron Research, McDermott Technology, NREC, Texaco, the Pennsylvania State University, and the University of Pennsylvania) is developing a new technology for air separation - Ion Transport Membrane Oxygen - based on the use of mixed-conducting ceramic membranes that have both electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity when operated at high temperature, typically 800 to 900 C. Under the influence of an oxygen partial-pressure driving force, the ITM Oxygen process achieves a high-purity, high-flux separation of oxygen from a compressed-air stream. By integrating the energy-rich, oxygen-depleted, non-permeate stream with a gas turbine system, the ITM Oxygen process becomes a co-producer of high-purity oxygen, power, and steam. Under a recent CRADA entitled ``Ion Transport Membranes (ITM) for Oxygen-Blown IGCC Systems and Indirect Coal Liquefaction,'' Air Products and DOE completed an initial quantification of the benefits of an ITM Oxygen-integrated IGCC facility. Compared to the cryogenic oxygen base case, the ITM Oxygen technology can potentially: reduce total installed costs by 7%; improve thermal efficiency for the integrated IGCC system by about 3%, leading to further decreases in carbon dioxide and sulfur emissions; and reduce the cost of generated electric power by more than 6%. The ITM Oxygen development project will proceed in three phases. Phase 1, which commenced under a DOE Cooperative Agreement in October 1998, is a 3-year effort focusing on construction of a technology development unit (TDU) for process concept validation tests at a capacity of 0.1 ton-per-day (TPD) oxygen. To accomplish this objective, the Air Products team will address relevant technical challenges in ITM Oxygen materials, engineering, membrane module development, and performance testing. During Phase 1 the team will also verify the economic prospects for integrating ITM Oxygen technology with IGCC and other advanced power generation systems. After at least one intermediate scaleup, Phase 2 and 3 activities will culminate with scaleup to a 25- to 50-TPD pre-commercial demonstration unit, fully integrated with a gas turbine. Meeting these challenges of developing cost-effective fabrication techniques for ITM Oxygen devices, and successfully integrating them with commercially available gas turbine engines, is key to bringing ITM Oxygen technology to the marketplace.

  8. Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Sander, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

  9. Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riding, Dr Robert E; Fralick, Dr Philip; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

  10. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.

    1991-08-20

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used. 5 figures.

  11. Transient oxygen consumption rate measurements with the BDT?M? oxygen biosensor system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Clarke Alan

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) is a reliable indicator of tissue health. Recently, the OCR of isolated human islets has been shown to predict transplant outcome in diabetic mice. The Oxygen Biosensor System (OBS) is a ...

  12. Oxygen-Reducing Biocathodes Operating with Passive Oxygen Transfer in Microbial Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxygen-Reducing Biocathodes Operating with Passive Oxygen Transfer in Microbial Fuel Cells Xue Xia.R. China Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Penn State University, 231Q Sackett Building of the catholyte. To avoid the need for aeration, the ability of biocathodes to function with passive oxygen

  13. New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies.

  14. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  15. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1996-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  16. Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

  17. Laboratory reproducibility of biochemical markers of bone turnover in clinical practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schafer, A. L.; Vittinghoff, E.; Ramachandran, R.; Mahmoudi, N.; Bauer, D. C.

    2010-01-01

    2 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Laboratory reproducibility of biochemicalSummary To determine the laboratory reproducibility of urinedinal and within-run laboratory reproducibility varied

  18. Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2008 State of Technology Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humbird, D.; Aden, A.

    2009-08-01

    An update to the FY 2007 assessment of the state of technical research progress toward biochemical process goals, quantified in terms of Minimum Ethanol Selling Price.

  19. Quantifying Stochastic Effects in Biochemical Reaction Networks using Partitioned Leaping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard A. Harris; Aaron M. Piccirilli; Emily R. Majusiak; Paulette Clancy

    2009-07-06

    "Leaping" methods show great promise for significantly accelerating stochastic simulations of complex biochemical reaction networks. However, few practical applications of leaping have appeared in the literature to date. Here, we address this issue using the "partitioned leaping algorithm" (PLA) [L.A. Harris and P. Clancy, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 144107 (2006)], a recently-introduced multiscale leaping approach. We use the PLA to investigate stochastic effects in two model biochemical reaction networks. The networks that we consider are simple enough so as to be accessible to our intuition but sufficiently complex so as to be generally representative of real biological systems. We demonstrate how the PLA allows us to quantify subtle effects of stochasticity in these systems that would be difficult to ascertain otherwise as well as not-so-subtle behaviors that would strain commonly-used "exact" stochastic methods. We also illustrate bottlenecks that can hinder the approach and exemplify and discuss possible strategies for overcoming them. Overall, our aim is to aid and motivate future applications of leaping by providing stark illustrations of the benefits of the method while at the same time elucidating obstacles that are often encountered in practice.

  20. Applications of biochemical processes in geothermal and other industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.

    1994-06-01

    Laboratory studies aimed at the development of economically and technically feasible, and environmentally acceptable technology for the disposal of geothermal sludges and wastes have led to the development of biochemical processes which meet the above conditions. A pilot-scale plant has been constructed and used to identify process variables and optimize processing conditions. The total process is flexible and can be used in several modes of operation which include (1) solubilization and removal of many metals, including radionuclides, from brines and sludges; (2) selective removal of a few metals; (3) concentration of metals; (4) recovery of metals; and (5) recovery of salts. The end product is a silica-type material which meets regulatory requirements, while the aqueous phase meets drinking water standards and can be reinjected and/or used for irrigation. Preliminary engineering studies of the metal and salt recovery technologies have indicated that significant cost benefits could be obtained by means of combined processing. Recent accomplishments in the development of new biochemical technologies will be discussed in this paper.

  1. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  2. On the oxygen abundance in our Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin; F. Ferrini; R. V. Shkvarun

    2003-02-03

    The compilation of published spectra of Galactic HII regions with available diagnostic [OIII]4363 line has been carried out. Our list contains 71 individual measurements of 13 HII regions in the range of galactocentric distances from 6.6 to 14.8 kpc. The oxygen abundances in all the HII regions were recomputed in the same way, using the classic Te - method. The oxygen abundance at the solar galactocentric distance traced by those HII regions is in agreement with the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium in the solar vicinity derived with high precision from the interstellar absorption lines towards stars. The derived radial oxygen abundance distribution was compared with that for HII regions from the Shaver et al. (1983) sample which is the basis of many models for the chemical evolution of our Galaxy. It was found that the original Shaver et al.'s oxygen abundances are overestimated by 0.2-0.3 dex. Oxygen abundances in HII regions from the Shaver et al. sample have been redetermined with the recently suggested P - method. The radial distribution of oxygen abundances from the Shaver et al. sample redetermined with the P - method is in agreement with our radial distribution of (O/H)_Te abundances.

  3. Modulating tissue mechanics to increase oxygen delivery to tumors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, John Daniel, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    Solid tumors have low oxygen tension - hypoxia - that fuels disease progression and treatment resistance. Thus, strategies for alleviating hypoxia are needed. Two factors affect tissue oxygen levels: oxygen supply via blood ...

  4. Characterization of an oxygen suspension used for intravenous infusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peña, Kristen Helen

    2012-01-01

    Oxygenated fluid mixture can be used to treat critically ill patients suffering from asphyxia, lung injury, and cardiac arrest. This oxygenated fluid delivered intravenously re-oxygenates the bloodstream, allowing for more ...

  5. 155:427 CHEMICAL & BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN AND ECONOMICS I FALL 2015 (3 credits)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muzzio, Fernando J.

    155:427 CHEMICAL & BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN AND ECONOMICS I FALL 2015 (3 credits) Professor, 3-5PM (Subodh), C-137 Class representative: Brian Schendt Course description Chemical engineering task during the Spring semester design course (155:428 Chemical & Biochemical Engineering Design

  6. 155:427 CHEMICAL & BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN AND ECONOMICS I FALL 2014 (3 credits)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muzzio, Fernando J.

    155:427 CHEMICAL & BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN AND ECONOMICS I FALL 2014 (3 credits) Professor (Ms. Chaudhury), C-137 Course description Chemical engineering fundamentals are integrated:428 Chemical & Biochemical Engineering Design & Economics II). Course objectives · This is the first of two

  7. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments...

  8. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for...

  9. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and...

  10. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

  11. Biochemical physics modeling of biological nano-motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santamaría-Holek, I.; López-Alamilla, N. J.

    2014-01-14

    We present a biochemical physics model accounting for the dynamics and energetics of both translational and rotational protein motors. A modified version of the hand-over-hand mechanism considering competitive inhibition by ADP is presented. Transition state-like theory is used to reconstruct the time dependent free-energy landscape of the cycle catalyst process that allows to predicting the number of steps or rotations that a single motor can perform. In addition, following the usual approach of chemical kinetics, we calculate the average translational velocity and also the stopping time of processes involving a collectivity of motors, such as exocytosis and endocytosis processes. Finally, we formulate a stochastic model reproducing very well single realizations of kinesin and rotary ATPases.

  12. Final Technical Report "Multiscale Simulation Algorithms for Biochemical Systems"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petzold, Linda R.

    2012-10-25

    Biochemical systems are inherently multiscale and stochastic. In microscopic systems formed by living cells, the small numbers of reactant molecules can result in dynamical behavior that is discrete and stochastic rather than continuous and deterministic. An analysis tool that respects these dynamical characteristics is the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA, Gillespie, 1976), a numerical simulation procedure that is essentially exact for chemical systems that are spatially homogeneous or well stirred. Despite recent improvements, as a procedure that simulates every reaction event, the SSA is necessarily inefficient for most realistic problems. There are two main reasons for this, both arising from the multiscale nature of the underlying problem: (1) stiffness, i.e. the presence of multiple timescales, the fastest of which are stable; and (2) the need to include in the simulation both species that are present in relatively small quantities and should be modeled by a discrete stochastic process, and species that are present in larger quantities and are more efficiently modeled by a deterministic differential equation (or at some scale in between). This project has focused on the development of fast and adaptive algorithms, and the fun- damental theory upon which they must be based, for the multiscale simulation of biochemical systems. Areas addressed by this project include: (1) Theoretical and practical foundations for ac- celerated discrete stochastic simulation (tau-leaping); (2) Dealing with stiffness (fast reactions) in an efficient and well-justified manner in discrete stochastic simulation; (3) Development of adaptive multiscale algorithms for spatially homogeneous discrete stochastic simulation; (4) Development of high-performance SSA algorithms.

  13. Design optimization of oxygenated fluid pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piazzarolo, Bruno Aiala

    2012-01-01

    In medical emergencies, an oxygen-starved brain quickly suffers irreparable damage. In many cases, patients who stop breathing can be resuscitated but suffer from brain damage. Dr. John Kheir from Boston Children's Hospital ...

  14. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of Oxygen-17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michaelis, Vladimir K.

    Oxygen-17-detected DNP NMR of a water/glycerol glass enabled an 80-fold enhancement of signal intensity at 82 K, using the biradical TOTAPOL. The >6000-fold savings in acquisition time enable [superscript 17]O–[superscript ...

  15. OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kee Chul

    2010-01-01

    IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE Kee Chul Kim Ph.D.727-366; Figure 1. Oxygen-uranium phase-equilibrium _ystem [18]. uranium dioxide powders and 18 0 enriched carbon

  16. Oxygen Enriched Combustion System Performance Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, S. L.; Kwan, Y.; Abele, A. R.; Silver, L. S.; Kobayashi, H.

    1987-01-01

    i ndustri al furnaces, such as gl ass melting furnaces, appear to be the most promising appli cations for oxygen enriched combustion. In these applications, the principal energy savings results from minimizing the fuel energy required to heat... with non-water cooled refractory burner til es. The Oxytherm Burner was developed jointly by Maxon and Corning Glass for application of oxygen/fuel combustion in glass furnaces. This burner is also a non-water cooled refractory design with a specially...

  17. Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

  18. Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  19. Atomic Oxygen in the Comae of Comets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anita L. Cochran

    2008-07-03

    We report on the detection of atomic oxygen lines in the spectra of 8 comets. These forbidden lines are a result of the photodissociation of the parent oxygen-bearing species directly into an excited state. We used high resolution spectra obtained at the McDonald Observatory 2.7m telescope to resolve the cometary oxygen lines from the telluric oxygen lines and from other cometary emissions. We find that the relative intensities of the two red lines (6300.304 and 6363.776A) are consistent with theory. The green line (5577.339A) has an intensity which is about 10% of the sum of the intensities of the two red lines. We show that collisional quenching may be important in the inner coma. If we assume the relative excitation rates of potential parents which have appeared in the literature, then H2O would be the parent of the cometary green oxygen line. However, those rates have been questioned. We measured the width of the three oxygen lines and find that the green line is wider than either of the two red lines. The finding of a wider line could imply a different parent for the green and red lines. However, the constancy of the green to red line flux ratio suggests the parent is the same for these lines but that the exciting photons have different energies.

  20. Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staiger, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

  1. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

  2. High energy density lithium-oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1989-02-07

    A high energy density lithium-oxygen secondary cell is described comprising a lithium-containing negative electrode; a lithium ion conducting molten salt electrolyte contacting the negative electrode; an oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte contacting and containing the molten salt electrolyte; and an oxygen redox positive electrode contacting the oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte.

  3. Oxygen abundance of open cluster dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. -X. Shen; X. -W. Liu; H. -W. Zhang; B. Jones; D. N. C. Lin

    2007-03-30

    We present oxygen abundances of dwarfs in the young open cluster IC 4665 deduced from the OI $\\lambda$7774 triplet lines and of dwarfs in the open cluster Pleiades derived from the [OI] $\\lambda$6300 forbidden line. Stellar parameters and oxygen abundances were derived using the spectroscopic synthesis tool SME (Spectroscopy Made Easy). We find a dramatic increase in the upper boundary of the OI triplet abundances with decreasing temperature in the dwarfs of IC 4665, consistent with the trend found by Schuler et al. in the open clusters Pleiades and M 34, and to a less extent in the cool dwarfs of Hyades (Schuler et al. 2006a) and UMa (King & Schuler 2005). By contrast, oxygen abundances derived from the [OI] $\\lambda$6300 forbidden line for stars in Pleiades and Hyades (Schuler et al. 2006b) are constant within the errors. Possible mechanisms that may lead a varying oxygen triplet line abundance are examined, including systematic errors in the stellar parameter determinations, the NLTE effects, surface activities and granulation. The age-related effects stellar surface activities (especially the chromospheric activities) are suggested by our analysis to blame for the large spreads of oxygen triplet line abundances.

  4. Oxygen isotopes in crystalline silicates of comet Wild 2: A comparison of oxygen isotope systematics between Wild 2 particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    Oxygen isotopes in crystalline silicates of comet Wild 2: A comparison of oxygen isotope 2012 Keywords: oxygen isotope ratios crystalline silicate comet 81P/Wild 2 solar system formation Stardust Abstract: Oxygen three-isotope ratios of nine crystalline silicate particles from comet Wild 2

  5. Biochemical Conversion: Using Enzymes, Microbes, and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-07-26

    This fact sheet describes the Bioenergy Technologies Office's biochemical conversion work and processes. BETO conducts collaborative research, development, and demonstration projects to improve several processing routes for the conversion of cellulosic biomass.

  6. Biochemical markers of bone modeling and remodeling in juvenile racehorses at varying mineral intakes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eller, Elena Maria

    2007-09-17

    greater than current NRC recommendations provided a protective effect on the developing skeleton of the young racehorse. Additionally, the biochemical markers used in this study were sensitive enough to track daily changes in bone activity resulting from...

  7. BIOENERGY/BIOFUELS/BIOCHEMICALS Chromatographic determination of 1, 4-b-xylooligosaccharides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    BIOENERGY/BIOFUELS/BIOCHEMICALS Chromatographic determination of 1, 4-b For the majority of lignocellulosic feedstocks for produc- tion of bioethanol and other biofuels, heteroxylans activity [22] or further hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars as platform molecules for biofuels [23

  8. Soy Isoflavone Supplementation and Biochemical Recurrence After Curative Treatment for Localized Prostate Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camey, Sarah

    2013-08-31

    beam radiation include cystitis, hematuria, incontinence, erectile dysfunction, and secondary malignancies (24). Brachytherapy involves the placement of radioactive seeds directly in the prostate (23,24). The seeds contain iodine or cesium..., non-toxic approach to help prevent or delay biochemical recurrence. Soy and soy isoflavones One novel approach to delaying or preventing biochemical recurrence is the use of soy and soy isoflavones. Soy foods contain a class of phytochemicals known...

  9. Mechanism of singlet oxygen deactivation in an electric discharge oxygen – iodine laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azyazov, V N; Mikheyev, P A; Torbin, A P; Pershin, A A; Heaven, M C

    2014-12-31

    We have determined the influence of the reaction of molecular singlet oxygen with a vibrationally excited ozone molecule O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) + O{sub 3}(?) ? 2O{sub 2} + O on the removal rate of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) in an electric-discharge-driven oxygen – iodine laser. This reaction has been shown to be a major channel of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) loss at the output of an electric-discharge singlet oxygen generator. In addition, it can also contribute significantly to the loss of O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}?) in the discharge region of the generator. (lasers)

  10. An Advanced Oxygen Trim Control System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    problems that can cause errors. First, the output of the cell is determined by the Nernst equation (B). (B) E RT 4r logn Pl P2 where E e.m.f. (potential) R Gas Co nstant T Absolute Temperature F Faraday Constant P2 Oxygen Partial Pressure...

  11. Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Haiqing

    2011-11-15

    The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

  12. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pal, Uday B

    2014-02-25

    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  13. Design, measurement, and analysis of oxygenated fluid pump system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Alexander M., IV (Alexander Martin)

    2012-01-01

    The author sought out the opportunity to design and implement a system for pumping oxygenated fluid and mixing it with saline, for the purpose of providing sufficient levels of oxygen for patients undergoing forms of ...

  14. Oxygen levels in thermoplastic microfluidic devices during cell culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ochs, Christopher J.

    We developed a computational model to predict oxygen levels in microfluidic plastic devices during cell culture. This model is based on experimental evaluation of oxygen levels. Conditions are determined that provide ...

  15. On the reduction of oxygen from dispersed media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roushdy, Omar H., 1977-

    2007-01-01

    The reduction of oxygen from an organic phase dispersed in a concentrated electrolyte is investigated. Dispersed organic phases are used to enhance oxygen transport in fermenters and artificial blood substitutes. This work ...

  16. Phase-based regional oxygen metabolism (PROM) using MRI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Audrey Peiwen

    Venous oxygen saturation (Yv) in cerebral veins and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) are important indicators for brain function and disease. Although MRI has been used for global measurements of these parameters, ...

  17. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, Roland R. (Lansdale, PA); Bond, James A. (Exton, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A high-voltage electrical insulator (21) for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module (17) in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall (11) of a heat exchanger (13) filled with liquid lithium (16) while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator (21) has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl.sub.2 O.sub.3, sapphire) with a niobium foil layer (32) bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal (26) facing the heat exchanger wall (11), and a molybdenum layer (31) bonded to the niobium layer (32) to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface.

  18. Electrical insulator assembly with oxygen permeation barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Beck, R.R.; Bond, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A high-voltage electrical insulator for electrically insulating a thermoelectric module in a spacecraft from a niobium-1% zirconium alloy wall of a heat exchanger filled with liquid lithium while providing good thermal conductivity between the heat exchanger and the thermoelectric module. The insulator has a single crystal alumina layer (SxAl[sub 2]O[sub 3], sapphire) with a niobium foil layer bonded thereto on the surface of the alumina crystal facing the heat exchanger wall, and a molybdenum layer bonded to the niobium layer to act as an oxygen permeation barrier to preclude the oxygen depleting effects of the lithium from causing undesirable niobium-aluminum intermetallic layers near the alumina-niobium interface. 3 figures.

  19. Which oxygenates is right for you?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, E.J. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Recent announcements of additional sources of oxygenates have generated considerable interest. Increasing demand for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) worldwide, especially in the United States for oxygenated fuel and reformulated gasoline (RFG), provides the primary incentive for technologies that produce additional raw material (namely isobutene) and/or alternative oxygenate compounds. Normal butene isomerization and diisopropyl ether (DIPE) are two new processes introduced in 1992 to meet the oxygenate demand. The U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) have created a huge demand for capital. Between 1991 and 2000, the U.S. refining industry will need to make capital expenditures of about $37 billion (1990 dollars) to meet refinery regulatory requirements, and to manufacture reformulated gasoline and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. To obtain financing, whether internally or from external sources, projects must provide sound economics and pose minimal technological risks. These concerns have prevented several large MTBE projects, involving both established and new technologies, from going forward. The introduction of normal butene isomerization and DIPE processes has generated a great deal of enthusiasm, but neither process had been licensed by the third quarter of 1993. Technology risk is a major barrier to obtaining financing inasmuch as lenders arc unlikely to finance the first commercial application of any technology. Currently, Texas Olefins/Phillips Petroleum and Lyondell have demonstrated normal butene isomerization on a commercial scale in their plants. However, Mobil has not demonstrated the DIPE process beyond the pilot plant stage. In this paper, we assess the technological aspects of normal butene isomerization and DIPE processes, and compare their economics with existing etherification processes.

  20. VARIATIONS IN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ^402: VARIATIONS IN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN FOUR SPAWNING STREAMS IN THE DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTENT OF INTRAGRAVEL WATER IN FOUR SPAWNING STREAMS OF SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA by William J Introduction 1 Sampling intragravel water for dissolved oxygen content 2 Obtaining water samples from

  1. The oxygen abundance distribution in M101

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin

    2001-05-07

    The well-observed spiral galaxy M101 was considered. The radial distributions of oxygen abundances determined in three different ways (with the classic Te - method, with the R23 - method, and with the P -- method) were compared. It was found that the parameters (the central oxygen abundance and the gradient) of the radial O/H(P) abundance distribution are close to those of the O/H(Te) abundance distribution. The parameters of the O/H(R23) abundance distribution differ significantly from those of the O/H(Te) abundance distribution: the central O/H(R23) oxygen abundance is higher by around 0.4dex and the gradient is steeper by a factor of around 1.5 as compared to those values in the O/H(Te) abundance distribution. The dispersion in O/H(P) abundance at fixed radius is rather small, around 0.08 dex, and is equal to that in O/H(Te) abundance. The dispersion in O/H(R23) abundance at fixed radius is appreciably larger, around 0.16 dex, compared to that in O/H(Te) abundance. It has been shown that the extra dispersion in O/H(R23) abundances is an artifact and reflects scatter in excitation parameter P at fixed radius.

  2. DME-to-oxygenates process studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tartamella, T.L.; Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    The feasibility of the production of hydrocarbons from dimethyl ether (DNM) has been illustrated in a fixed bed micro-reactor as well as a bench scale fluidized bed reactor by the University of Akron/EPRI DME-to-Hydrocarbon (DTG) Process. The DTG process has distinct advantages over its methanol based counterpart. Specifically, the DTG process excels in the area of higher productivity, higher per-pass conversion, and lower heat duties than the MTG process. Also of special importance is the production of oxygenates -- including MTBE, ETBE, and TAME. DME may be reacted with isobutylene to produce a mixture of MTBE and ETBE. The properties of ETBE excel over MTBE in the areas of lower RVP and higher RON. According to industrial reports, MTBE is the fastest growing chemical (1992 US capacity 135,350 BPD, with expected growth of 34%/year to 1997). Also, recent renewed interest as an octane-enhancer and as a source of oxygen has spurred a growing interest in nonrefinery synthesis routes to ETBE. TAME, with its lower RVP and higher RON has proven useful as a gasoline blending agent and octane enhancer and may also be produced directly from DME. DME, therefore, serves as a valuable feedstock in the conversion of may oxygenates with wide-scale industrial importance. It should be also noted that the interest in the utilization of DME as process feedstock is based on the favorable process economics of EPRI/UA`s liquid phase DME process.

  3. Magnetic interaction in oxygenated alpha Fe-phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmann, Ern?, E-mail: kuzmann@caesar.elte.hu; Homonnay, Zoltán; Horváth, Attila [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O. Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Pechousek, Jiri; Cuda, Jan; Machala, Libor; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zboril, Radek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Experimental Physics and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Yin, Houping; Wei, Yen [Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Klencsár, Zoltán [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Kubuki, Shiro [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nath, Amar [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Alpha iron phthalocyanines (?-FePc) oxygenated at low temperatures were investigated with the help of {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements (SQUID) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that upon oxygenation of ?-FePc, new species were formed which could be associated with Fe{sup III}Pc oxygen adducts. Unexpectedly, magnetically split spectrum of oxygenated ?-FePc was observed below 20 K. In-field Mössbauer spectra in a 5 T external magnetic field at 5K and magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic coupling in oxygenated ?-FePc.

  4. Structure and biochemical characterization of proliferating cellular nuclear antigen from a parasitic protozoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardona-Felix, Cesar S.; Lara-Gonzalez, Samuel; Brieba, Luis G.

    2012-02-08

    Proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a toroidal-shaped protein that is involved in cell-cycle control, DNA replication and DNA repair. Parasitic protozoa are early-diverged eukaryotes that are responsible for neglected diseases. In this work, a PCNA from a parasitic protozoon was identified, cloned and biochemically characterized and its crystal structure was determined. Structural and biochemical studies demonstrate that PCNA from Entamoeba histolytica assembles as a homotrimer that is able to interact with and stimulate the activity of a PCNA-interacting peptide-motif protein from E. histolytica, EhDNAligI. The data indicate a conservation of the biochemical mechanisms of PCNA-mediated interactions between metazoa, yeast and parasitic protozoa.

  5. Thermodynamic stability of oxygen point defects in cubic Zirconia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samanta, Amit; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) is an important material with technological applications which are affected by point defect physics. Ab-initio calculations are performed to understand the structural and electronic properties of oxygen vacancies and interstitials in different charge states in cubic zirconia. We find oxygen interstitials in cubic ZrO2 can have five different configurations - dumbbell, dumbbell, crowd-ion, octahedral, and distorted dumbbell. For a neutral and singly charged oxygen interstitial, the lowest energy configuration is the dumbbell, while for a doubly charged oxygen interstitial the octahedral site is energetically the most favorable. Both the oxygen interstitial and the oxygen vacancy are negative-U, so that the singly charged defects are unstable at any Fermi level. The thermodynamic stability of these defects are studied in terms of Fermi level, oxygen partial pressure and temperature. A method to determine the chemical potential of the system as a function of temperature and pressure is propo...

  6. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithium–oxygen batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Xuran; Qu, Deyu; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Lee, Hung -Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2015-04-21

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were examined on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2•- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently andmore »a new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.« less

  7. Investigation of the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction and evolution reactions in lithium–oxygen batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Collece of Engineering and Applied Science; Zhang, Xuran [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Wuhan (China). School of Science; Qu, Deyu [Wuhan Univ. of Technology, Wuhan (China). School of Science; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Lee, Hung-Sui [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Qu, Deyang [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Collece of Engineering and Applied Science

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions were studied on graphite electrodes with different crystal orientations. The kinetics for the redox couple O2/O2•- are very fast, therefore no catalyst seems necessary to assist the charge transfer process. Apparently, the main source of the overpotential for the O2 reduction reaction is from mass diffusion. Li2O2 becomes soluble in non-aqueous electrolytes in the presence of the tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate additive. The soluble B-O22- ions can be oxidized electro-catalytically. The edge orientation of graphite demonstrates superior catalytic activity for the oxidation over basal orientation. The findings reveal an opportunity for recharging Li-air batteries efficiently and a new strategy of developing the catalyst for oxygen evolution reaction.

  8. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ruiguo; Walter, Eric D.; Xu, Wu; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-09-01

    The oxygen reduction/evolution reaction (ORR/OER) mechanisms in nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries have been investigated by using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in this work. We identified the superoxide radical anion (O2•-) as an intermediate in the ORR process using 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline N-oxide as a spin trap, while no O2•- in OER was detected during the charge process. These findings provide insightful understanding on the fundamental oxygen reaction mechanisms in rechargeable nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries.

  9. Oxygen stabilized zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1982-01-01

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula (Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.2-u (V.sub.1-y Fe.sub.y)O.sub.z where x=0.0 to 0.9, y=0.01 to 0.9, z=0.25 to 0.5 and u=0 to 1. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 200.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

  10. Jupiter Oxygen Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder atHills,New York: EnergyUnlimitedEnergyJuniata,JupiterOxygen

  11. Biochem. J. (2009) 421, 201210 (Printed in Great Britain) doi:10.1042/BJ20090356 201 NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species production alters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, James

    2009-01-01

    -methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a redox-cycling quinine that is widely distributed in nature, and is ofte

  12. Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830°C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable oxygen standards and practices for minimum safety requirements. A summary of operational hazards, along with oxygen safety and emergency procedures, are provided.

  13. US EPA Regional Laboratory Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LABORATORY NETWORK List of Acronyms AMD ............Acid Mine Drainage BNA..............Base/Neutrals and Acids Extractable Organics BMP.............Best Management Practice BOD .............Biological Oxygen

  14. 0305-0491(95)00119-0 Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Vol. l12B, No. 4, pp. 667-672, 1995

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Pergamon 0305-0491(95)00119-0 Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Vol. l12B, No. 4, pp. 667-672, 1995 Copyright © 1995Elsevier Science Inc. Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved 0305-0491/95$9.50+ 0; Lipid interactions; Phase transitions; Unsaturation. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. l12B, 667-672, 1995

  15. 3USDA Forest Service Gen.Tech.Rep. PSW-GTR-166. 1998. Biochemical Reactions of Ozone in Plants1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3USDA Forest Service Gen.Tech.Rep. PSW-GTR-166. 1998. Biochemical Reactions of Ozone in Plants1 Abstract Plants react biochemically to ozone in three phases: with constitutive chemicals in the apoplastic, plant reactions with ozone result in constitutive molecules such as the ozonolysis of ethylene

  16. Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

    2009-10-01

    All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

  17. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  18. Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NO{sub x} emissions below 5{times}10{sup -3} g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O{sub 2} dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300{degree}F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in- furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, with increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, requires additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  19. Apparatus and method for converting biomass to feedstock for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kania, John; Qiao, Ming; Woods, Elizabeth M.; Cortright, Randy D.; Myren, Paul

    2015-12-15

    The present invention includes improved systems and methods for producing biomass-derived feedstocks for biofuel and biochemical manufacturing processes. The systems and methods use components that are capable of transferring relatively high concentrations of solid biomass utilizing pressure variations between vessels, and allows for the recovery and recycling of heterogeneous catalyst materials.

  20. Molecular C dynamics downstream: The biochemical decomposition sequence and its impact on soil organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    Decomposition Carbon Pyrolysis-GC/MS Disturbance 1. Introduction Soil organic matter (SOM) is an importantMolecular C dynamics downstream: The biochemical decomposition sequence and its impact on soil in spectroscopic and other chemical methods have greatly enhanced our ability to characterize soil organic matter

  1. Frontiers, Opportunities, and Challenges in Biochemical and Chemical Catalysis of CO2 Fixation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, United States Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Departments of Crop Sciences and Plant Complexes That Catalyze CO2 Reduction to Formate via Hydride Transfer 6632 4.3.3. Catalysts with Redox

  2. Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 136 (2004) 1123 The LPG1 gene family of Leishmania major

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverley, Stephen M.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular & Biochemical Parasitology 136 (2004) 11­23 The LPG1 gene family of Leishmania major Kai lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is structurally related to that of the smaller glyco- sylinositolphospholipids (GIPLs Galf -transferase (Galf T) LPG1 affected Galf incorporation in LPG but not GIPLs. We hypothesized

  3. Biochemical Engineering Journal 36 (2007) 239249 Dynamic simulation of benzene vapor treatment by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Biochemical Engineering Journal 36 (2007) 239­249 Dynamic simulation of benzene vapor treatment microorganisms. The system being considered involves the treatment of benzene vapors by Achro- mobacter biotechnology developed to treat waste gases that has shown promise for removing toxic VOCs, such as benzene

  4. Biochemical Engineering Journal 36 (2007) 250261 Dynamic simulation of benzene vapor treatment by a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Biochemical Engineering Journal 36 (2007) 250­261 Dynamic simulation of benzene vapor treatment for the treatment of benzene waste gases by Achromobacter xylosoxidans Y234 with n-hexadecane as an immiscible, organic phase. Model calibration was performed to account for observed enhancements of benzene

  5. 1438 Biochemical Society Transactions (2012) Volume 40, part 6 Resistance is futile: the bacteriocin model for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riley, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    , Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063, U.S.A. Abstract Pathogenic bacteria resistant to many or all1438 Biochemical Society Transactions (2012) Volume 40, part 6 Resistance is futile: the bacteriocin model for addressing the antibiotic resistance challenge Margaret A. Riley*1 , Sandra M. Robinson

  6. 538 Biochemical Society Transactions (2013) Volume 41, part 2 Knot localization in proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    538 Biochemical Society Transactions (2013) Volume 41, part 2 Knot localization in proteins Eric J Genomics, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne-Dorigny, Switzerland Abstract The backbones of proteins form linear chains. In the case of some proteins, these chains can be characterized as forming linear

  7. The Energy Costs of Insulators in Biochemical Networks John P. Barton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sontag, Eduardo

    that consume energy, typically in the form of ATP. We hypothesize that better insulation neces- sarily requiresThe Energy Costs of Insulators in Biochemical Networks John P. Barton and Eduardo D. Sontag higher energy consumption. We test this hypothesis through a combined theoretical and computational

  8. Biobased Chemicals Landscape in 2015: What’s the Role of Biochemicals in the Bioeconomy?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout 3-B: The Changing Landscapes for Biobased Chemicals: A Decade After the Top Value Added Chemicals from Biomass Biobased Chemicals Landscape in 2015: What’s the Role of Biochemicals in the Bioeconomy? Ken Williams, Program Leader/Principal Chemical Engineer, Nature Works, LLC

  9. J. theor. Biol. (1989) 136, 365-377 Metabolic Control Theory and Biochemical Systems Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1989-01-01

    J. theor. Biol. (1989) 136, 365-377 Metabolic Control Theory and Biochemical Systems Theory of the objectives and assumptions of metabolic control theory. In particular, the control and elasticity coefficients that play a central role in metabolic control theory are not constants and cannot be treated

  10. Sequencing the Human Genome http://biochem118.stanford.edu/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brutlag, Doug

    Human Genome Project: Should we do it? · Service, R. F. (2001). The human genome: Objection #1: big Human Genome Project: How should we do it? · Weber, J. L., & Myers, E. W. (1Sequencing the Human Genome http://biochem118.stanford.edu/ Doug Brutlag, Professor Emeritus

  11. Finishing the Human Genome http://biochem118.stanford.edu/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brutlag, Doug

    ;Public Human Genome Project Strategy http://www.nhgri.nih.gov/ #12;Celera Scaffolds #12;Chromosome 8Finishing the Human Genome http://biochem118.stanford.edu/ Doug Brutlag, Professor Emeritus:Public vs. Celera #12;Finishing Strategy for the Public Genome Project #12;Finished Sequence in 2004

  12. Accurate hybrid stochastic simulation of a system of coupled chemical or biochemical reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Accurate hybrid stochastic simulation of a system of coupled chemical or biochemical reactions reactions, approximates the fast reactions as a continuous Markov process, using a chemical Langevin multiple slow reactions may occur within a time step of the numerical integration of the chemical Langevin

  13. Biochemical characterization of Cdc6/Orc1 binding to the replication origin of the euryarchaeon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, James M.

    Biochemical characterization of Cdc6/Orc1 binding to the replication origin of the euryarchaeon (Cdc6)/Origin Replication Complex subunit 1 (Orc1) proteins share sequence homology with eukaryotic DNA under- stand whether Cdc6/Orc1 functions in an eukaryotic or bacterial-like manner, we have

  14. National Bioenergy Center - Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Winter 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schell, D.

    2011-02-01

    Winter 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program topic areas; results from reactive membrane extraction of inhibitors from dilute-acid pretreated corn stover; list of 2010 task publications.

  15. AN INTEGRATED LUNG-ON-A-CHIP MICROFLUIDIC PLATFORM WITH REAL-TIME BIOCHEMICAL SENSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

    AN INTEGRATED LUNG-ON-A-CHIP MICROFLUIDIC PLATFORM WITH REAL-TIME BIOCHEMICAL SENSING, without finding it. ­ Lucius Annaeus Seneca #12;v ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS An Integrated Lung for detection. In this research, we replicate the Lung-on- a-Chip platform with a cystic fibrosis cell line

  16. National Bioenergy Center, Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Summer 2011 (Newsletter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    Summer 2011 issue of the National Bioenergy Center Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly update. Issue topics: evaluating new analytical techniques for measuring soluble sugars in the liquid portion of biomass hydrolysates, and measurement of the fraction of insoluble solids in biomass slurries.

  17. A Biochemical Ocean State Estimate in the Southern1 Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haine, Thomas W. N.

    of the oceanic31 carbon pool. It influences light penetration with consequences for primary productivity1 A Biochemical Ocean State Estimate in the Southern1 Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment2 S. Dwivedi1 , T. W. N. Haine2 and C. E. Del Castillo3 3 1 Department of Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences, University

  18. Final Technical Report Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -EE0003638 Prepared For THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE): MARINE AND HYDROKINETIC INITIATIVE Prepared By MAKAI of the global OTEC resource dwarfs that of other other marine renewable energy technologies, and OTEC powerFinal Technical Report Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy

  19. Probing Iron Accumulation in Sacchromyces cerevisiae Using Integrative Biophysical and Biochemical Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miao, Ren

    2012-02-14

    ) was studied. Various biophysical (e.g. Mössbauer, EPR, UV-vis spectroscopy) and biochemical (e.g. Western blots, PCR, enzyme activity assay, etc.) techniques were used to characterize the iron content in yeast mitochondria isolated from several mutants strains...

  20. Preliminary Study of Oxygen-Enhanced Longitudinal Relaxation in MRI: A Potential Novel Biomarker of Oxygenation Changes in Solid Tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, James P.B.; Naish, Josephine H.; Parker, Geoff J.M.; Waterton, John C.; Watson, Yvonne; Jayson, Gordon C.; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A.; Cheung, Sue; Buckley, David L.; McGrath, Deirdre M.; West, Catharine M.L.; Davidson, Susan E.; Roberts, Caleb; Mills, Samantha J.; Mitchell, Claire L.; Hope, Lynn; Ton, N. Chan; Jackson, Alan

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: There is considerable interest in developing non-invasive methods of mapping tumor hypoxia. Changes in tissue oxygen concentration produce proportional changes in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) longitudinal relaxation rate (R{sub 1}). This technique has been used previously to evaluate oxygen delivery to healthy tissues and is distinct from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging. Here we report application of this method to detect alteration in tumor oxygenation status. Methods and materials: Ten patients with advanced cancer of the abdomen and pelvis underwent serial measurement of tumor R{sub 1} while breathing medical air (21% oxygen) followed by 100% oxygen (oxygen-enhanced MRI). Gadolinium-based dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was then performed to compare the spatial distribution of perfusion with that of oxygen-induced DELTAR{sub 1}. Results: DELTAR{sub 1} showed significant increases of 0.021 to 0.058 s{sup -1} in eight patients with either locally recurrent tumor from cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas or metastases from ovarian and colorectal carcinomas. In general, there was congruency between perfusion and oxygen concentration. However, regional mismatch was observed in some tumor cores. Here, moderate gadolinium uptake (consistent with moderate perfusion) was associated with low area under the DELTAR{sub 1} curve (consistent with minimal increase in oxygen concentration). Conclusions: These results provide evidence that oxygen-enhanced longitudinal relaxation can monitor changes in tumor oxygen concentration. The technique shows promise in identifying hypoxic regions within tumors and may enable spatial mapping of change in tumor oxygen concentration.

  1. Heat release analysis of oxygen-enriched diesel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assanis, D.; Karvounis, E. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)); Sekar, R.; Marr, W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1993-10-01

    A heat release correlation for oxygen-enriched diesel combustion is being developed through heat release analysis of cylinder pressure data from a single-cylinder diesel engine operating under various levels of oxygen enrichment. Results show that standard combustion correlations available in the literature do not accurately describe oxygen-enriched diesel combustion. A novel functional form is therefore proposed, which is shown to reproduce measured heat release profiles closely, under different operating conditions and levels of oxygen enrichment. The mathematical complexity of the associated curve-fitting problem is maintained at the same level of difficulty as for standard correlations. When the novel correlation is incorporated into a computer simulation of diesel engine operation with oxygen enrichment, the latter predicts pressure traces in excellent agreement with measured pressure data. This demonstrates the potential of the proposed combustion simulation to guide the application of oxygen-enriched technology successfully to a variety of multicylinder diesel systems.

  2. A fiber optic probe for oxygen partial pressure sensing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlain, Leslie Ariel

    1986-01-01

    of the electronic circuitry, and Steve Spar for software development. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION Purpose Current Status of Conventional Oxygen Sensors Optical Sensors Technical Obj ect ives 1 5 10 MATERIAL AND METHODS 14 Transducer Design... the partial pressure of oxygen (p02) in solutions. The research effort was specifically aimed at the development of an oxygen sensor suitable for physiological applications. The sensor described in this thesis is an application of a generic fiber optic...

  3. Strongly enhanced oxygen ion transport through samarium-doped...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Strongly enhanced oxygen ion transport through samarium-doped CeO2 nanopillars in nanocomposite films Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor Bosch Powertrain Technologies Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency...

  6. Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures Estimated from the Oxygen Isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Reservoir Temperatures Estimated from the Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Dissolved Sulfate and Water from Hot Springs and Shallow Drillholes Jump to: navigation, search...

  7. Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal reservoir temperatures estimated from the oxygen isotope compositions of dissolved sulfate and water from hot springs and shallow drillholes Jump to: navigation, search...

  8. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  9. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to...

  10. SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy L. Ward

    2002-07-01

    Mixed-conducting ceramics have the ability to conduct oxygen with perfect selectivity at elevated temperatures, making them extremely attractive as membrane materials for oxygen separation and membrane reactor applications. While the conductivity of these materials can be quite high at elevated temperatures (typically 800-1000 C), much higher oxygen fluxes, or, alternatively, equivalent fluxes at lower temperatures, could be provided by supported thin or thick film membrane layers. Based on that motivation, the objective of this project was to explore the use of ultrafine aerosol-derived powder of a mixed-conducting ceramic material for fabrication of supported thick-film dense membranes. The project focused on the mixed-conducting ceramic composition SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} (SCFO) because of the desirable permeability and stability of that material, as reported in the literature. Appropriate conditions to produce the submicron SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} powder using aerosol pyrolysis were determined. Porous supports of the same composition were produced by partial sintering of a commercially obtained powder that possessed significantly larger particle size than the aerosol-derived powder. The effects of sintering conditions (temperature, atmosphere) on the porosity and microstructure of the porous discs were studied, and a standard support fabrication procedure was adopted. Subsequently, a variety of paste and slurry formulations were explored utilizing the aerosol-derived SCFO powder. These formulations were applied to the porous SCFO support by a doctor blade or spin coating procedure. Sintering of the supported membrane layer was then conducted, and additional layers were deposited and sintered in some cases. The primary characterization methods were X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and room-temperature nitrogen permeation was used to assess defect status of the membranes.We found that non-aqueous paste/slurry formulations incorporating dispersant, plasticizer and binder provided superior cracking resistance compared to simple water, alcohol, or polyethylene glycol (PEG) based formulations. With a formulation employing castor oil as dispersant, isopropyl alcohol/mineral spirits as solvent, polyvinyl butyral as binder, and dibutyl phthalate/PEG as plasticizer, sintered SCFO membrane layers approximately 5 {micro}m thick with no apparent cracks were prepared using spin coating with several coats and sintering cycles. A similar but more viscous formulation applied by doctor blade gave a {approx} 10 {micro}m thick membrane layer in one coat, but with some apparent cracking. We demonstrated that the membrane layer could be densified while retaining porosity in the chemically identical support. This was accomplished by pre-sintering the support in air (1050 C), which coarsened the grain size and provided a relatively stable plate-shaped granular microstructure, followed by membrane layer fabrication with the highly-sinterable aerosol powder. Final densification was conducted by sintering in nitrogen ({approx}1100 C), which provided accelerated sintering rates and led to the desired layered perovskite phase content. In spite of these successes, low-temperature pressure-driven permeation testing with N2 showed that even the best membranes were not sufficiently defect free for high-temperature oxygen permeation testing. The source of these defects were not readily apparent from scanning electron microscopy, though incomplete or nonuniform membrane layer coverage from edge to edge of the support was probably one important factor.

  11. Biochemical Journal Immediate Publication. Published on 03 Oct 2014 as manuscript BJ20140809THISISNOTTHEVERSIONOFRECORD-seedoi:10.1042/BJ20140809 AcceptedManuscript

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craik, Charles S.

    Biochemical Journal Immediate Publication. Published on 03 Oct 2014 as manuscript BJ20140809 with prior permission and as allowed by law. © 2014 The Authors Journal compilation © 2014 Biochemical Society #12;Biochemical Journal Immediate Publication. Published on 03 Oct 2014 as manuscript BJ20140809

  12. In vivo effect of inosine, pyruvate, and phosphate on the oxygen hemoglobin equilibrium curve and tissue oxygenation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Joe Nevill

    1974-01-01

    and Mixed Venous Blood Samples 2, 3-Diphosphoglycerate Determination M asurement of Mean Capillary Oxygen Tersion ( P-0 ) c 2 Measurement of P O Results 10 13 13 16 Discussion 25 Conclusion References Appendix I . Appendix II Appendix III... equilibrium curve pkI The r, egative log o. the hydrogen ion concentratior PO PCO P 02 a 2 P-0 a v 2 Partial pressure oi' oxygen Partial pressure of carbon dioxide Partial pressure of oxygen ir' arteria. l blood The oxygen partial pressure...

  13. On the oxygen abundance determination in HII regions: the problem of the line intensities -- oxygen abundance calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin

    2000-04-04

    The problem of the line intensities -- oxygen abundance calibration has been considered. We confirm the idea of McGaugh (1991) that the strong oxygen lines ([OII] 3727, 3729 and [OIII] 4959, 5007) contain the necessary information for determination of accurate abundances in low-metallicity (and may be also in high-metallicity) HII regions. It has been found that the excitation parameters p3 or p2 (which are defined here as contributions of the radiation in [OIII] 4959, 5007 lines and in [OII] 3727, 3729 lines to the "total" oxygen radiation respectively) allow to take into account the variations in R23 values among HII regions with a given oxygen abundance. Based on this fact a new way of the oxygen abundance determination in HII regions has been constructed and corresponding relations between line intensities and the oxygen abundance have been derived empirically using the available oxygen abundances determined via measurement of temperature-sensitive line ratios. In parallel a new R23 calibration has been derived on the base of recent data and compared to previous calibrations. For oxygen-rich HII regions the present R23 calibration is close to that of Edmunds and Pagel (1984): their calibration has the same slope but is shifted towards higher oxygen abundances by around 0.07 dex as compared to the present calibration.

  14. Oxygen diffusion of anodic surface oxide film on titanium studied by Auger electron spectroscopy. [Oxygen diffusivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, P.S.; Wittberg, T.N.; Keil, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    TiO/sub 2/ films of about 1000 A were grown onto titanium foils anodically under galvanostatic conditions at 20 mA/cm/sup 2/ in saturated aqueous solutions of ammonium tetraborate. The samples were then aged at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, and oxygen diffusion was observed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) profilings. The oxygen diffusivities were calculated by Fick's Second Law, using the Boltzmann-Matano solution, to be 9.4 x 10/sup -17/, 2.6 x 10/sup -16/, and 1.2 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2//sec at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, respectively. The diffusivities obtained by this method were also compared with those obtained using an exact solution to Fick's Second Law. The activation energy was calculated to be 30 kcal/mole.

  15. Effects of oxygen and catalyst on tetraphenylborate decomposition rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-12-15

    Previous studies indicate that palladium catalyzes rapid decomposition of alkaline tetraphenylborate slurries. Oxygen inhibits the reaction at low temperature (25 C), presumably by preventing activation of the catalyst. The present study investigated oxygen's inhibiting effectiveness at higher temperature (45 C) and catalyst concentrations.

  16. Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fibre-coupled superconducting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenaway, Alan

    Singlet oxygen luminescence detection with a fibre-coupled superconducting nanowire single luminescence detection Fibre-based singlet oxygen luminescence detection References Superconducting Detector, is an intermediate in many biological processes. We employ a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD

  17. Modeling In situ sediment oxygen demand in the Arroyo Colorado 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasprzak, Kevin Ray

    2001-01-01

    and are targeted for rehabilitation under the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. In some rivers, sediment oxygen demand (SOD) accounts for as much as 50% of the total oxygen depletion, making SOD a critical element in water quality modeling studies. SOD...

  18. 14. CARBON AND OXYGEN ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF LAKE SEDIMENT CELLULOSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Thomas W.D.

    14. CARBON AND OXYGEN ISOTOPE ANALYSIS OF LAKE SEDIMENT CELLULOSE: METHODS AND APPLICATIONS BRENT B and Environmental Sciences Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT USA 06459 Keywords: cellulose, lake sediment, oxygen of lake sediment cellulose is a recently developed paleolimnological approach that is gaining increasing

  19. Palladium-cobalt particles as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Huang, Tao (Manorville, NY)

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates to palladium-cobalt particles useful as oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts. The invention also relates to oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells containing these palladium-cobalt particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for the production of electrical energy by using the palladium-cobalt particles of the invention.

  20. Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, as the products of normal metabolism and those that have altered owing to disease, and are transported via

  1. E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    E.L. Grossman Chapter 10 Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy Abstract:Variations in the 18 O/16 O ratios isotope stratigraphy, however, is hampered by the lack of unaltered authigenic marine sediments. Chapter.6. Oxygen Isotope Stratigraphy 188 10.6.1. Cenozoic 188 10.6.2. Mesozoic 191 10.6.3. Paleozoic 193

  2. Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen minimum zone (7001100 m)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Lisa

    Oxygen and organic matter thresholds for benthic faunal activity on the Pakistan margin oxygen) on the bathyal Pakistan margin, where sediments grade from fully laminated sediment at 700 m (0.12 mL LÀ1 O2 [5 m matter to generate abrupt faunal transitions on the Pakistan margin. & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Exploring the Pinhole: Biochemical and Genetic Studies on the Prototype Pinholin, S21 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Ting

    2011-08-08

    and advice, and great help and support on my writing skills. I would like to thank Dr. Christos Savva for his contribution on the EM analysis of S2168. I would also like to thank Dr. Taehyun Park, for building a great foundation on this project... with opposing functions .................... 12 Genetic and biochemical analysis of the lambda holin S105 .......................................... 15 T4 T, a large-hole holin with a single TMD ................ 18 The mechanism...

  4. Nanoparticulate-catalyzed oxygen transfer processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew T. (Atlanta, GA); Breitkopf, Richard C. (Dunwoody, GA)

    2009-12-01

    Nanoparticulates of oxygen transfer materials that are oxides of rare earth metals, combinations of rare earth metals, and combinations of transition metals and rare earth metals are used as catalysts in a variety of processes. Unexpectedly large thermal efficiencies are achieved relative to micron sized particulates. Processes that use these catalysts are exemplified in a multistage reactor. The exemplified reactor cracks C6 to C20 hydrocarbons, desulfurizes the hydrocarbon stream and reforms the hydrocarbons in the stream to produce hydrogen. In a first reactor stage the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate mixed rare earth metal oxide to crack larger hydrocarbon molecules. In a second stage, the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate material that desulfurizes the hydrocarbon. In a third stage, the hydrocarbon and steam are passed through a heated, mixed transition metal/rare earth metal oxide to reform the lower hydrocarbons and thereby produce hydrogen. Stages can be alone or combined. Parallel reactors can provide continuous reactant flow. Each of the processes can be carried out individually.

  5. A Model Incorporating Some of the Mechanical and Biochemical Factors Underlying Clot Formation and Dissolution in Flowing Blood

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Anand, M.; Rajagopal, K.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple interacting mechanisms control the formation and dissolution of clots to maintain blood in a state of delicate balance. In addition to a myriad of biochemical reactions, rheological factors also play a crucial role in modulating the response of blood to external stimuli. To date, a comprehensive model for clot formation and dissolution, that takes into account the biochemical, medical and rheological factors, has not been put into place, the existing models emphasizing either one or the other of the factors. In this paper, after discussing the various biochemical, physiologic and rheological factors at some length, we develop a modelmore »for clot formation and dissolution that incorporates many of the relevant crucial factors that have a bearing on the problem. The model, though just a first step towards understanding a complex phenomenon, goes further than previous models in integrating the biochemical, physiologic and rheological factors that come into play.« less

  6. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two aromatic hydrocarbons, 17 nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and 8 oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) were carried out during hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  7. Boron nitride nanosheets as oxygen-atom corrosion protective coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhao, Xiaohu; Liang, Shuaishuai; Liu, Lei

    2014-04-07

    The research of two-dimensional nanomaterials for anticorrosion applications is just recently burgeoning. Herein, we demonstrate the boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) coatings for protecting polymer from oxygen-atom corrosion. High-quality BNNSs, which are produced by an effective fluid dynamics method with multiple exfoliation mechanisms, can be assembled into coatings with controlled thickness by vacuum filtration. After exposed in atom oxygen, the naked polymer is severely corroded with remarkable mass loss, while the BNNSs-coated polymer remains intact. Barrier and bonding effects of the BNNSs are responsible for the coating's protective performance. These preliminary yet reproducible results pave a way for resisting oxygen-atom corrosion.

  8. Solid phases of spatially nanoconfined oxygen: A neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojda, Danny [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany) [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Wallacher, Dirk; Hofmann, Tommy, E-mail: tommy.hofmann@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Baudoin, Simon; Hansen, Thomas [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Huber, Patrick [Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)] [Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, 21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-14

    We present a comprehensive neutron scattering study on solid oxygen spatially confined in 12 nm wide alumina nanochannels. Elastic scattering experiments reveal a structural phase sequence known from bulk oxygen. With decreasing temperature cubic ?-, orthorhombic ?- and monoclinic ?-phases are unambiguously identified in confinement. Weak antiferromagnetic ordering is observed in the confined monoclinic ?-phase. Rocking scans reveal that oxygen nanocrystals inside the tubular channels do not form an isotropic powder. Rather, they exhibit preferred orientations depending on thermal history and the very mechanisms, which guide the structural transitions.

  9. Oxygen Enrichment in the Process and Chemical Industries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milne, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    the efficiency of combustion processes. In a conventional ai r-fuel flame, combustion results from the collision of oxygen molecules wi th those 0f the fuel. The use 0f oxygen enrichment to increase the oxygen concentration in the fuel-air mixture... (Figure 3), which leads to improved heat transfer in the combustion zone. This results in a number of potential advantages: i. Fuel Savings At constant output the fuel firing rate may be reduced to compensate for the improved heat utilization...

  10. Hydrogen production using hydrogenase-containing oxygenic photosynthetic organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, Anastasios; Zhang, Liping; Benemann, John R.; Forestier, Marc; Ghirardi, Maria; Seibert, Michael

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  11. Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  12. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  13. Production of Ultra-Cold-Neutrons in Solid ?-Oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Gutsmiedl; A. Frei; F. Boehle; A. Maier; S. Paul; H. Schober; A. Orecchini

    2010-07-30

    Our recent neutron scattering measurements of phonons and magnons in solid \\alpha-oxygen have led us to a new understanding of the production mechanismen of ultra-cold-neutrons (UCN) in this super-thermal converter. The UCN production in solid \\alpha-oxygen is dominated by the excitation of phonons. The contribution of magnons to UCN production becomes only slightly important above E >10 meV and at E >4 meV. Solid \\alpha-oxygen is in comparison to solid deuterium less effcient in the down-scattering of thermal or cold neutrons into the UCN energy regime.

  14. 15-2400 (Reference) 1501686 BOD OOM OOO OPM.PDF

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProvedTravel Travel The Office of Travel Management servesof EnergyEnergy 14 Exciting

  15. Seasonal and interannual oxygen variability on the Washington and Oregon continental shelves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    oxygen variability on the Washington and Oregon continentalin Juan de Fuca Canyon, Washington, Geophys. Res. Lett. ,oxygen ?uxes on the Washington shelf and slope: A comparison

  16. Microfluidic advantage : novel techniques for protein folding and oxygen control in cell cultures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polinkovsky, Mark E.; Polinkovsky, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Novel Techniques for Protein Folding and Oxygen Control inTemperature Jump System to Study Fast Protein FoldingNovel Techniques for Protein Folding and Oxygen Control in

  17. High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

  18. Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI engine efficiency and emissions using steady-state and transient test procedures Impact of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates on SIDI...

  19. Holocene hydrologic balance of tropical South America from oxygen isotopes of lake sediment opal, Venezuelan Andes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Alexander P.

    Holocene hydrologic balance of tropical South America from oxygen isotopes of lake sediment opal.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: oxygen isotopes; biogenic opal; hydrologic balance; Holocene; Venezuela

  20. Reactive Oxygen Species Driven Angiogenesis by Inorganic Nanorods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    The exact mechanism of angiogenesis by europium hydroxide nanorods was unclear. In this study we have showed that formation of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2·?) is involved in redox signaling pathways during angiogenesis, ...

  1. Phosphorescent semiconductor nanocrystals and proteins for biological oxygen sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaurin, Emily J. (Emily Jane)

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen is required for cellular respiration by all complex life making it a key metabolic profiling factor in biological systems. Tumors are defined by hypoxia (low pO2), which has been shown to influence response to ...

  2. Deciphering brain oxygenation and its change with age using phosphorescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meunier, Michel

    for energy metabolism in every cell in the body. · The functioning of the brain is critically dependent #12;Oxygenation biomarkers · Average tissue pO2 · Spatial heterogeneity in tissue pO2 · pO2 gradient

  3. Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Wu, Kuang Tsai; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2004-03-09

    NOx emissions from combustion are reduced, NOx reduction efficiency by SNCR is improved, and other efficiencies are realized, by injecting oxygen into a fuel-rich combustion zone under controlled conditions.

  4. In-situ generation of oxygen-releasing metal peroxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Denham, Miles E. (Aiken, SC)

    2007-01-09

    A method for remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater is disclosed. The method generates oxygen releasing solids in groundwater or soil by injecting an aqueous energetic oxidant solution containing free radicals, oxidative conditions can be created within or ahead of a contaminant plume. Some contaminants may be remediated directly by reaction with the free radicals. Additionally and more importantly, the free radicals create an oxidative condition whereby native or injected materials, especially metals, are converted to peroxides. These peroxides provide a long-term oxygen reservoir, releasing oxygen relatively slowly over time. The oxygen can enhance microbial metabolism to remediate contaminants, can react with contaminant metals either to form immobile precipitants or to mobilize other metals to permit remediation through leaching techniques. Various injection strategies for injecting the energetic oxidant solution are also disclosed.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensors.

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensor.

  7. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

    2011-01-25

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  8. COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF sup 26Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR...

  9. Titania may produce abiotic oxygen atmospheres on habitable exoplanets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narita, Norio; Masaoka, Shigeyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The search for habitable exoplanets in the Universe is actively ongoing in the field of astronomy. The biggest future milestone is to determine whether life exists on such habitable exoplanets. In that context, oxygen in the atmosphere has been considered strong evidence for the presence of photosynthetic organisms. In this paper, we show that a previously unconsidered photochemical mechanism by titanium(IV) oxide (titania) can produce abiotic oxygen from liquid water under near ultraviolet (NUV) lights on the surface of exoplanets. Titania works as a photocatalyst to dissociate liquid water in this process. This mechanism offers a different source of a possibility of abiotic oxygen in atmospheres of exoplanets from previously considered photodissociation of water vapor in upper atmospheres by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light. Our order-of-magnitude estimation shows that possible amounts of oxygen produced by this abiotic mechanism can be comparable with or even more than that in the atmosphere of the current ...

  10. Ultrafast kinetics subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    subsequent to shock in an unreacted, oxygen balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide Armstrong, M R; Zaug, J M; Grant, C D; Crowhurst, J C; Bastea, S 75...

  11. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

    2004-03-02

    A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

  12. Method for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; O'Neill, David G.

    2010-06-22

    Methods are provided for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers, which include simultaneous or sequential stops of physical vapor depositing an oxygen-reducing catalytic material onto a substrate, the catalytic material comprising a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum; and thermally treating the catalytic material. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  13. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    1981-01-01

    DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

  14. Oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes for gas separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Picciolo, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Mixed-conducting oxides have a wide range of applications, including fuel cells, gas separation systems, sensors, and electrocatalytic equipment. Dense ceramic membranes made of mixed-conducting oxides are particularly attractive for gas separation and methane conversion processes. Membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide, which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used to selectively transport oxygen during the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, i.e., CO + H{sub 2}). The authors have fabricated tubular Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes and tested them (some for more than 1,000 h) in a methane conversion reactor that was operating at 850--950 C. An oxygen permeation flux of {approx} 10 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained at 900 C in a tubular membrane with a wall thickness of 0.75 mm. Using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors have also measured the steady-state oxygen permeability of flat Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure(pO{sub 2}). Steady-state oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature and with the difference in pO{sub 2} on the two sides of the membrane. At 900 C, an oxygen permeability of {approx} 2.5 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained in a 2.9-mm-thick membrane. This value agrees with that obtained in methane conversion reactor experiments. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics determined in the gas-tight cell indicate that bulk effect, rather than surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation of {approx} 1-mm-thick Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes at elevated temperatures (> 650 C).

  15. Strain effects on oxygen transport in tetragonal zirconium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xian-Ming Bai; Yongfeng Zhang; Michael R. Tonks

    2013-11-01

    Temperature accelerated dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the strain effects on oxygen interstitial and vacancy migration in tetragonal zirconium dioxide. At zero external strain, the anisotropic migration mechanisms of oxygen defects are characterized. At non-zero strains, both the crystal structure and defect migration barriers are modified by strain. Under compressive strains, the defect migration barrier increases with the increasing strain for both interstitials and vacancies. The crystal structure transforms from a tetragonal to a nearly cubic fluorite structure. Accordingly, the defect migration becomes nearly isotropic. Under dilative strains, the migration barrier first decreases then increases with increasing strain for both types of defects. The tetragonal phase transforms to a lower symmetry structure that is close to the orthorhombic phase. In turn, the defect migration becomes highly anisotropic. Under both compressive and dilative strains, interstitials respond to strain more strongly than vacancies. At small dilative strains, an oxygen interstitial has comparable diffusivity to a vacancy, suggesting that both types of defects can contribute to oxygen transport, if they are present. Although currently no previous result is available to validate oxygen interstitial diffusion behavior, the trend of strain effects on oxygen vacancy diffusion is in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical studies in the literature.

  16. Interaction of light with the ZnO surface: Photon induced oxygen “breathing,” oxygen vacancies, persistent photoconductivity, and persistent photovoltage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurwitz, Ron; Cohen, Rotem; Shalish, Ilan

    2014-01-21

    ZnO surfaces adsorb oxygen in the dark and emit CO{sub 2} when exposed to white light, reminiscent of the lungs of living creatures. We find that this exchange of oxygen with the ambient affects the integrity of the ZnO surface. Thus, it forms a basis for several interesting surface phenomena in ZnO, such as photoconductivity, photovoltage, and gas sensing, and has a role in ZnO electrical conduction. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on ZnO nanowires, we observed a decomposition of ZnO under white light and formation of oxygen-depleted surface, which explains photoconductivity by the electron donation of oxygen vacancies. Our findings suggest that the observed decomposition of the ZnO lattice may only take place due to photon-induced reduction of ZnO by carbon containing molecules (or carbo-photonic reduction), possibly from the ambient gas, accounting in a consistent way for both the reduced demands on the energy required for decomposition and for the observed emission of lattice oxygen in the form of CO{sub 2}. The formation of oxygen-vacancy rich surface is suggested to induce surface delta doping, causing accumulation of electrons at the surface, which accounts for both the increase in conductivity and the flattening of the energy bands. Using surface photovoltage spectroscopy in ultra high vacuum, we monitored changes in the deep level spectrum. We observe a wide optical transition from a deep acceptor to the conduction band, which energy position coincides with the position of the so called “green luminescence” in ZnO. This green transition disappears with the formation of surface oxygen vacancies. Since the oxygen vacancies are donors, while the green transition involves surface acceptors, the results suggest that the initial emission of oxygen originates at the defect sites of the latter, thereby eliminating each other. This suggests that the green transition originates at surface Zn vacancy acceptors. Removing an oxygen atom from a Zn vacancy completes the vacancy to become a full ZnO molecule vacancy, which does not produce deep levels. Our results explain why ZnO finds use as an electrical detector for oxygen and for carbon containing gas molecules. They may also shed new light on photocatalytic uses of ZnO. It is suggested that similar surface phenomena may affect other semiconducting oxides.

  17. Aspirin and Statin Nonuse Associated With Early Biochemical Failure After Prostate Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Li, Tianyu; Horwitz, Eric M.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To present the largest retrospective series investigating the effect of aspirin and statins, which are hypothesized to have antineoplastic properties, on biochemical failure (nadir plus 2 ng/mL) after prostate radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2006, 2051 men with clinically localized prostate cancer received definitive RT alone (median dose, 76 Gy). The rates of aspirin use and statin use (defined as any use at the time of RT or during follow-up) were 36% and 34%, respectively. The primary endpoint of the study was an interval to biochemical failure (IBF) of less than 18 months, which has been shown to be the single strongest predictor of distant metastasis, prostate cancer survival, and overall survival after RT. Patient demographic characteristics and tumor staging factors were assessed with regard to associations with the endpoint. Univariate analysis was performed with the {chi}{sup 2} test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon test for continuous variables. Multivariable analysis was performed with a multiple logistic regression. Results: The median follow-up was 75 months. Univariate analysis showed that an IBF of less than 18 months was associated with aspirin nonuse (P<.0001), statin nonuse (P<.0001), anticoagulant nonuse (P=.0006), cardiovascular disease (P=.0008), and prostate-specific antigen (continuous) (P=.008) but not with Gleason score, age, RT dose, or T stage. On multivariate analysis, only aspirin nonuse (P=.0012; odds ratio, 2.052 [95% confidence interval, 1.328-3.172]) and statin nonuse (P=.0002; odds ratio, 2.465 [95% confidence interval, 1.529-3.974]) were associated with an IBF of less than 18 months. Conclusions: In patients who received RT for prostate cancer, aspirin or statin nonuse was associated with early biochemical failure, a harbinger of distant metastasis and death. Further study is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the optimal dosing and schedule, as well as the relative benefits and risks, of both therapies in combination with RT.

  18. Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioconversion of Methane into Biofuel and Biochemical (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei, Q.; Tao, L.; Pienkos, P .T.; Guarnieri, M.; Palou-Rivera, I.

    2014-10-01

    In light of the relatively low price of natural gas and increasing demands of liquid transportation fuels and high-value chemicals, attention has begun to turn to novel biocatalyst for conversion of methane (CH4) into biofuels and biochemicals [1]. A techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed for an integrated biorefinery process using biological conversion of methane, such as carbon yield, process efficiency, productivity (both lipid and acid), natural gas and other raw material prices, etc. This analysis is aimed to identify research challenges as well provide guidance for technology development.

  19. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  20. The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor – A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor – A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems

  1. "Monitoring the Effectiveness of Best Management Practice in Removing Pollutants from Urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District of Columbia, University of the

    ..............................................................................................................81 ii #12;Acronyms Heavy Metals: As: Arsenic; Cd: Cadmium; Cr: Chromium; Cu: Copper; Hg: Mercury; Pb- 4-P: Phosphorus as phosphate DO: Dissolved Oxygen BOD: Biological Oxygen Demand FC: Fecal Coliform

  2. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  3. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

  4. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  5. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

  6. Impact of chronic lead poisoning on the hematological and biochemical profiles of a fish, Barbus conchonius (Ham)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, H.; Gill, S.T.; Pant, J.

    1987-05-01

    The contamination of natural waters by lead is mostly caused by a variety of anthropogenic activities related to increased mining operations and industrial uses of this metal. Adverse effects of lead poisoning in the fishes have been reported with references to both hematological and biochemical variables. The aim of present investigation was to study the effects of chronically administered sublethal levels of inorganic lead on the hematological and biochemical profiles of widely distributed freshwater fish, Barbus conchonius. The variables such as erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, blood glucose, glycogen in liver, skeletal muscles, and myocardium, and cholesterol in blood, liver, ovary, and testes were evaluated.

  7. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zen, Andrea; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-07

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N{sup 3} ? N{sup 4}, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  8. Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    or liquefaction. Gasification of coal is a partial oxidation process in which steam and oxygen are reacted with coal to produce a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide plus a number of other components. This mixture has a heating value of about 300 Btu..., or hydrocarbon liquids. The synthesis gas mixture can also be converted by means of the water gas shift reaction to produce hydrogen Which, in turn, can be reacted with coal to form hydrocarbon liquids by direct liquefaction techniques. Oxygen is required...

  9. Biochemical Journal Immediate Publication. Published on 23 Nov 2010 as manuscript BJ20101691THISISNOTTHEVERSIONOFRECORD-seedoi:10.1042/BJ20101691 AcceptedManuscript

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Biochemical Journal Immediate Publication. Published on 23 Nov 2010 as manuscript BJ20101691 with prior permission and as allowed by law. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 Portland Press Limited #12;Biochemical Journal Immediate Publication. Published on 23 Nov 2010 as manuscript BJ20101691

  10. Identification of Catalysts and Materials for a High-Energy Density Biochemical Fuel Cell: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-345

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghirardi, M.; Svedruzic, D.

    2013-07-01

    The proposed research attempted to identify novel biochemical catalysts, catalyst support materials, high-efficiency electron transfer agents between catalyst active sites and electrodes, and solid-phase electrolytes in order to maximize the current density of biochemical fuel cells that utilize various alcohols as substrates.

  11. Fiber-optic oxygen sensor using molybdenum chloride cluster luminescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    been obtained, a range suitable for biological and automotive applications. The luminescence signal. S0003-6951 99 01445-X The quantitative detection of oxygen is important for industrial, automotive constant of 10 4 cm2 /s or a diffusion time of 1 s. PTMSP's mechanical properties, environmental stability

  12. Materials and methods for the separation of oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2003-07-15

    Metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes having the formula: O.sub.5+z where: x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof and B" is Co or Mg, with the exception that when B" is Mg, A' and A" are not Mg. The metal oxides are useful for preparation of dense membranes which may be formed from dense thin films of the mixed metal oxide on a porous metal oxide element. The invention also provides methods and catalytic reactors for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula.

  13. Methane Activation with Rhenium Catalysts. 1. Bidentate Oxygenated Ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Methane Activation with Rhenium Catalysts. 1. Bidentate Oxygenated Ligands Jason M. Gonzales, Jonas, California 90089 ReceiVed July 31, 2006 Trends in methane activation have been explored for rhenium complexes proceeds with methane activation through a barrier of less than 35 kcal mol-1 . Study

  14. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-09

    A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

  15. Characteristics of Knock in Hydrogen-Oxygen-Argon SI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killingsworth, N; Rapp, V; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Chen, J; Dibble, R

    2010-02-23

    A promising approach for improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines is to employ a working fluid with a high specific heat ratio such as the noble gas argon. Moreover, all harmful emissions are eliminated when the intake charge is composed of oxygen, nonreactive argon, and hydrogen fuel. Previous research demonstrated indicated thermal efficiencies greater than 45% at 5.5 compression ratio in engines operating with hydrogen, oxygen, and argon. However, knock limits spark advance and increasing the efficiency further. Conditions under which knock occurs in such engines differs from typical gasoline fueled engines. In-cylinder temperatures using hydrogen-oxygen-argon are higher due to the high specific heat ratio and pressures are lower because of the low compression ratio. Better understanding of knock under these conditions can lead to operating strategies that inhibit knock and allow operation closer to the knock limit. In this work we compare knock with a hydrogen, oxygen, and argon mixture to that of air-gasoline mixtures in a variable compression ratio cooperative fuels research (CFR) engine. The focus is on stability of knocking phenomena, as well as, amplitude and frequency of the resulting pressure waves.

  16. Utilization of Renewable Oxygenates as Gasoline Blending Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Christensen, E.; McCormick, R. L.

    2011-08-01

    This report reviews the use of higher alcohols and several cellulose-derived oxygenates as blend components in gasoline. Material compatibility issues are expected to be less severe for neat higher alcohols than for fuel-grade ethanol. Very little data exist on how blending higher alcohols or other oxygenates with gasoline affects ASTM Standard D4814 properties. Under the Clean Air Act, fuels used in the United States must be 'substantially similar' to fuels used in certification of cars for emission compliance. Waivers for the addition of higher alcohols at concentrations up to 3.7 wt% oxygen have been granted. Limited emission testing on pre-Tier 1 vehicles and research engines suggests that higher alcohols will reduce emissions of CO and organics, while NOx emissions will stay the same or increase. Most oxygenates can be used as octane improvers for standard gasoline stocks. The properties of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, methyl pentanoate and ethyl pentanoate suggest that they may function well as low-concentration blends with gasoline in standard vehicles and in higher concentrations in flex fuel vehicles.

  17. Atomic oxygen patterning from a biomedical needle-plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Seán; Turner, Miles M.

    2013-09-28

    A “plasma needle” is a cold plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. Such sources interact strongly with living cells, but experimental studies on bacterial samples show that this interaction has a surprising pattern resulting in circular or annular killing structures. This paper presents numerical simulations showing that this pattern occurs because biologically active reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced dominantly where effluent from the plasma needle interacts with ambient air. A novel solution strategy is utilised coupling plasma produced neutral (uncharged) reactive species to the gas dynamics solving for steady state profiles at the treated biological surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental reports corroborating evidence for atomic oxygen as a key bactericidal species. Surface losses are considered for interaction of plasma produced reactants with reactive solid and liquid interfaces. Atomic oxygen surface reactions on a reactive solid surface with adsorption probabilities above 0.1 are shown to be limited by the flux of atomic oxygen from the plasma. Interaction of the source with an aqueous surface showed hydrogen peroxide as the dominant species at this interface.

  18. Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System Rainer Nitsche Matthias Bitzer control problem of a Diesel engine air system having a jammed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve of the air system. Keywords: Fault tolerant control, Diesel engine, Air system, Model-based trajectory

  19. Characterizing the Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Phosphate Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    phosphorite ore, particulate aerosols, detergents, leachates of vegetation, soil, animal feces, and wastewater treatment plant effluent. We found a considerable range of 18 Op values (from +8.4 to +24.9) for the various to the phosphorus (P) in phosphate (PO4) (4-7). The primary goal of this study is to characterize the oxygen

  20. An oxygen reduction electrocatalyst based on carbon nanotubegraphene complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    such as platinum or its alloys are routinely used in fuel cells because of their high activity. Carbon alloys) for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells1, and designing catalysts with both optimal activity and stability for ORR in acidic solutions all remain

  1. Reaction Pathways for Oxygen Evolution Promoted by Cobalt Giuseppe Mattioli,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidoni, Leonardo

    by such natural processes, the goal of artificial photosynthesis is to develop simplified but still efficient models in explicit water solution, we provide insight into the pathways for oxygen evolution of a cobalt routes to generate chemical fuels (e.g., H2) directly from sunlight by means of "artificial leafs",3,4 i

  2. High-temperature potentiometric oxygen sensor with internal reference

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routbort, Jules L. (Hinsdale, IL); Singh, Dileep (Naperville, IL); Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy (North Royalton, OH); Spirig, John V. (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    A compact oxygen sensor is provided, comprising a mixture of metal and metal oxide an enclosure containing said mixture, said enclosure capable of isolating said mixture from an environment external of said enclosure, and a first wire having a first end residing within the enclosure and having a second end exposed to the environment. Also provided is a method for the fabrication of an oxygen sensor, the method comprising confining a metal-metal oxide solid mixture to a container which consists of a single material permeable to oxygen ions, supplying an electrical conductor having a first end and a second end, whereby the first end resides inside the container as a reference (PO.sub.2).sup.ref, and the second end resides outside the container in the atmosphere where oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2).sup.ext is to be measured, and sealing the container with additional single material such that grain boundary sliding occurs between grains of the single material and grains of the additional single material.

  3. OXYGEN BLOCK IN THE MAIN -STEM WILLAMETTE RIVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ^hly publicized run of spring-chinook salmon. Pollution of the Willamette River is a problem that has receivedOXYGEN BLOCK IN THE MAIN -STEM WILLAMETTE RIVER i.iiit' I'.iological Labordtory B R A tl Y OCT 9-STEM WILIA^TETTE RIVER By Frederic F. Fish In Charge, Western Fish-Cultural Investigations and Richard A

  4. IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Scott A.

    . Wells** *Technical University of Gdansk, Department of Environmental Engineering, ul. Narutowicza 11 the impact of reactor hydraulics and variable oxygen mass transfer on a predicted DO profile along the longitudinal axis of the activated sludge reactor. Many important parameters are influenced by the hydraulic

  5. INVESTIGATION OF OXYGEN REDUCTION MECHANISMS USING CATHODE MICROELECTRODES, PART II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    and alternatives are proposed for further investigation. INTRODUCTION The power of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC. Although oxygen re- duction at SOFC cathodes has been studied in the literature, a comprehensive and clear resistances and capacitances in the SOFC behavior. All implications presented in Refs. 2-7 have been based

  6. Oxygen adsorption on graphite and nanotubes P. Giannozzi,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannozzi, Paolo

    Oxygen adsorption on graphite and nanotubes P. Giannozzi,a) R. Car, and G. Scoles Chemistry Department and Princeton Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Received 29 in molecular form,6 with an estimated binding energy E 0.19 eV. This would be consistent with the well

  7. 210 Biochemical Society Transactions (2012) Volume 40, part 1 PKA phosphorylation of the small heat-shock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, John D.

    2012-01-01

    , are less frequently induced by heat stress, and several family members, such as Hsp27 and B210 Biochemical Society Transactions (2012) Volume 40, part 1 PKA phosphorylation of the small heat The small heat-shock protein Hsp20 (heat-shock protein 20), also known as HspB6, has been shown to protect

  8. Biochemical Characterization and Mass Spectrometric Disulfide Bond Mapping of Periplasmic -Amylase MalS of Escherichia coli*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rippe, Karsten

    Biochemical Characterization and Mass Spectrometric Disulfide Bond Mapping of Periplasmic -Amylase Republic of Germany Periplasmic -amylase of Escherichia coli, the malS gene product, hydrolyzes linear-nitrophenylhexaoside hydrolyzed per min per mg of protein. Amylase activity was optimal at pH 8 and was dependent on divalent

  9. Eur. J. Biochem. 85, 529-534 (1978) X-Ray and Neutron Small-Angle Scattering Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1978-01-01

    Eur. J. Biochem. 85, 529-534 (1978) X-Ray and Neutron Small-Angle Scattering Studies of the Complex-ray and neutron scattering techniques. In this work, we concentrated mainly on radius of gyration analyses and a neutron scattering experiment is performed in 21-Iz0 solvent. This decrease simply reflects the fact

  10. Neutral Lipid Extraction by the Method of Bligh-Dyer (Bligh and Dyer, Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37, 922 (1959))

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Linda J.

    1959-01-01

    Neutral Lipid Extraction by the Method of Bligh-Dyer (Bligh and Dyer, Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37 for 1 min at low speed. 5. Remove top layer and transfer to a new glass tube. Add 1 ml CHCl3 and re-extract as above by vortexing and phase separation. 6. Aspirate the top layer from this second extraction

  11. Metal-ion rescue revisited: Biochemical detection of site-bound metal ions important for RNA folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Rhiju

    Metal-ion rescue revisited: Biochemical detection of site-bound metal ions important for RNA-dimensional architectures of RNA molecules, divalent metal ions populate specific locations, shedding their water molecules make essential contributions to function. Defining the locations of these site-bound metal ions remains

  12. Biochemical Control With Radiotherapy Improves Overall Survival in Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Who Have an Estimated 10-Year Overall Survival of >90%

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert, Christopher; Liu, Mitchell; Tyldesley, Scott; Morris, W. James; Joffres, Michel; Khaira, Mandip; Kwan, Winkle; Moiseenko, Vitali; Pickles, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To identify subgroups of patients with carcinoma of the prostate treated with radical radiotherapy that have improved overall survival when disease is biochemically controlled. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 1,060 prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy was divided into nine subgroups based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk category and estimated 10-year overall survival (eOS 10y) derived from the age adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients with and without biochemical control were compared with respect to overall survival. Actuarial estimates of overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of overall survival. Results: Median follow-up was 125 months (range, 51-176 months). Only the subgroups with high or intermediate risk disease and an eOS 10y of >90% had a statistically significantly improved overall survival when prostate cancer was biochemically controlled. In all other groups, biochemical control made no significant difference to overall survival. In the subgroup with high-risk disease and eOS 10y >90%, actuarial overall survival was 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.5%-94.1%) and 62.1% (95% CI 52.9%-71.3%) for patients with biochemical control and biochemical relapse respectively (p = 0.002). In the intermediate risk group with eOS >90%, actuarial overall survival was 95.3% (95% CI 89.0%-100%) and 79.8% (95% CI 68.0%-91.6%) for biochemically controlled and biochemically relapsed patients (p = 0.033). On multivariate analysis, National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (p = 0.005), biochemical control (p = 0.033) and eOS 10y (p < 0.001) were statistically significant. Conclusion: Biochemical control translates into improved overall survival in patients with high or intermediate risk disease and an estimated 10-year overall survival of >90%.

  13. Oxygen: From Environment to Genes. The periodic occurrence of oxygen minima can powerfully influence organisms living in near

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ Humans and Hypoxia in the Ocean, spread and recovery of dead zones. 20. Martini Arostegui - Oxygen terrestrial use flows into nearshore ocean waters. These high-nutrient inputs fuel phytoplankton blooms increasingly anoxic, zones are not directly human-induced, but occur with variations in the winds that drive

  14. Interaction of light with the ZnO surface: Photon induced oxygen "breathing," oxygen vacancies, persistent photoconductivity,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shalish, Ilan

    , which energy position coincides with the position of the so called "green luminescence" in Zn on the energy required for decomposition and for the observed emission of lattice oxygen in the form of CO2 of the energy bands. Using surface photovoltage spectroscopy in ultra high vacuum, we monitored changes

  15. Summary -Procedure For Shutting Off The Oxygen Zone Valve 1. Implement RACE Call the Emergency Operator at 4-2012.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    Summary - Procedure For Shutting Off The Oxygen Zone Valve 1. Implement RACE ­ Call the Emergency-cylinders for low oxygen needs and bag ventilated patients using E-cylinders. 4. Identify oxygen zone valve for the affected rooms/areas. 5. Turn off the flow of oxygen at the zone valve if the oxygen cannot be turned off

  16. Development, testing, and application of quantitative oxygenation imaging from magnetic susceptibility by MRI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Audrey Peiwen

    2014-01-01

    The healthy brain consumes 20% of total oxygen used by the body under normal conditions. Continuous oxygen delivery to neural tissue is needed to maintain normal brain function and viability. Reliable measurements of brain ...

  17. In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies of Lithium-Oxygen Redox Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Yi-chun

    The lack of fundamental understanding of the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution in nonaqueous electrolytes significantly hinders the development of rechargeable lithium-air batteries. Here we employ a solid-state ...

  18. Electronic structure of perovskite oxide surfaces at elevated temperatures and its correlation with oxygen reduction reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to understand the origin of the local oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity on the basis of the local electronic structure at the surface of transition metal oxides at elevated temperatures and in oxygen ...

  19. Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nitrated and oxygenated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of two;2 Abstract The size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH derivatives of compounds. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated

  20. Direct Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirk, Aislinn H.

    The feasibility of producing oxygen by direct electrolysis of the molten lunar regolith at 1600 C was investigated and the generation of usable oxygen gas at the anode and concomitant production of iron and silicon at the ...

  1. A finite difference model for predicting sediment oxygen demand in streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charbonnet, Danielle Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) is a significant part of the dissolved oxygen budget in waterways, comprising up to 50% in some systems. It, therefore, has the potential of having a significant impact on the environment. ...

  2. Phase-based regional oxygen metabolism in magnetic resonance imaging at high field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Audrey Peiwen

    2010-01-01

    Venous oxygen saturation (Yv) in cerebral veins and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO?) are important indicators for brain function and disease. Phase-susceptibility measurements in magnetic resonance imaging ...

  3. Effects of oxygenate concentration on species mole fractions in premixed n-heptane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    -heptane/oxygenate mixtures were 2.7 and 3.4. Three different fuel oxygenates (i.e. MTBE, methanol, and ethanol) were tested in these emissions is the improvement in motor vehicle fuel properties. Fuel oxygenates were first used as an octane.e. oxygenates) such as alcohols (e.g. methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol) and ethers (e.g. methyl

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes. Unraveling the Relationship Between Structure, Surface Chemistry and Oxygen Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalan, Srikanth

    2013-03-31

    In this work we have considered oxygen reduction reaction on LSM and LSCF cathode materials. In particular we have used various spectroscopic techniques to explore the surface composition, transition metal oxidation state, and the bonding environment of oxygen to understand the changes that occur to the surface during the oxygen reduction process. In a parallel study we have employed patterned cathodes of both LSM and LSCF cathodes to extract transport and kinetic parameters associated with the oxygen reduction process.

  5. Bimetallic Fe-Ni Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz

    2013-11-06

    The relative abundance, low cost, and low toxicity of iron make Fe-based oxygen carriers of great interest for chemical looping combustion (CLC), an emerging technology for clean and efficient combustion of fossil and renewable fuels. However, Fe also shows much lower reactivity than other metals (such as Ni and Cu). Here, we demonstrate strong improvement of Fe-based carriers by alloying the metal phase with Ni. Through a combination of carrier synthesis and characterization with thermogravimetric and fixed-bed reactor studies, we demonstrate that the addition of Ni results in a significant enhancement in activity as well as an increase in selectivity for total oxidation. Furthermore, comparing alumina and ceria as support materials highlights the fact that reducible supports can result in a strong increase in oxygen carrier utilization.

  6. Defining biochemical failure after radiotherapy with and without androgen deprivation for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu; Hanlon, Alexandra L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Eisenberg, Debra F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Feigenberg, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Uzzo, Robert G. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To compare several characteristics of alternative definitions of biochemical failure (BF) in men with extended follow-up after radiotherapy (RT) with or with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: From December 1, 1991, to April 30, 1998, 688 men with Stage T1c-T3NX-N0M0 prostate cancer received RT alone (n = 586) or RT plus ADT (n = 102) with a minimal follow-up of 4 years and five or more 'ADT-free' posttreatment prostate-specific antigen levels. BF was defined by three methods: (1) the ASTRO definition (three consecutive rises in prostate-specific antigen level); (2) a modified American Society for Therapeutic Radiology Oncology (ASTRO) definition requiring two additional consecutive rises when a decline immediately subsequent to three consecutive rises occurred; and (3) the 'Houston' or nadir plus 2-ng/mL definition (a rise of at least 2 ng/mL greater than the nadir). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall accuracy were determined for each using clinical progression as the endpoint. Furthermore, the misclassification rates for a steadily rising prostate-specific antigen level, ability to satisfy the proportional hazards (RT with or without ADT), effects of short follow-up, and intervals to the diagnosis of BF were compared. Results: The misclassification rate for BF using the nadir plus 2-ng/mL definition was 2% for RT alone and 0% for RT plus ADT compared with 0% and 0% for the modified ASTRO definition, and 5% and 23% for the ASTRO definition, respectively. The hazard rates for RT alone and RT plus ADT were proportional only for the nadir plus 2 ng/mL definition and seemingly unaffected by the length of follow-up. For RT with or without ADT, the nadir plus 2 ng/mL definition was the most specific (RT, 80% vs. RT plus ADT, 75%) with the greatest positive predictive value (RT, 36% vs. RT plus ADT, 25%) and overall accuracy (RT, 81% vs. RT plus ADT, 77%). A greater proportion of BF was diagnosed in the first 2 years of follow-up with the nadir plus 2 ng/mL definition compared with the ASTRO definition (13% vs. 5%, p = 0.0138, chi-square test). Conclusion: The nadir plus 2 ng/mL definition was the best predictor of sustained, true, biochemical, and clinical failure, and was not affected by the use of ADT or follow-up length.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard reference material 1649a (urban dust) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Simultaneous analysis of oxygenated and nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons on standard nitrated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) and 9 oxygenated polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs aromatic hydrocarbons; Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic

  8. Beryllium, Lithium and Oxygen Abundances in F-type Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Garcia Lopez; M. C. Dominguez Herrera; M. R. Perez de Taoro; C. Casares; J. L. Rasilla; R. Rebolo; C. Allende Prieto

    1997-10-07

    Beryllium and oxygen abundances have been derived in a sample of F-type field stars for which lithium abundances had been measured previously, with the aim of obtaining observational constraints to discriminate between the different mixing mechanisms proposed. Mixing associated with the transport of angular momentum in the stellar interior and internal gravity waves within the framework of rotating evolutionary models, appear to be promising ways to explain the observations.

  9. Diurnal patterns of denitrification, oxygen consumption and nitrous oxide production in rivers measured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzinger, Sybil

    Diurnal patterns of denitrification, oxygen consumption and nitrous oxide production in rivers Dame, Notre Dame, IN, U.S.A. SUMMARY 1. Denitrification, net oxygen consumption and net nitrous oxide. Denitrification, oxygen consumption and N2O flux were measured based on net changes in dissolved gas

  10. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cassano, A.A.

    1985-07-02

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

  11. Explosion Hazard from a Propellant-Tank Breach in Liquid Hydrogen-Oxygen Rockets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muratov, Cyrill

    Explosion Hazard from a Propellant-Tank Breach in Liquid Hydrogen-Oxygen Rockets Viatcheslav Osipov liquid hydrogen-oxygen rockets during launch accidents is presented.The assessmentis based on the analysis of the data of purposefulrupture experiments with liquid oxygen and hydrogen tanks

  12. Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans, macrofauna and megafauna

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Lisa

    Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans Oxygen minimum zone Benthos Arabian Sea Biodiversity Deep sea a b s t r a c t The Pakistan Margin where oxygen levels were lowest. The rarity of larger animals between 300 and 700 m on the Pakistan

  13. The Role of Silicon Interstitials in the Formation of Boron-Oxygen Defects in Crystalline Silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Role of Silicon Interstitials in the Formation of Boron-Oxygen Defects in Crystalline Silicon@ise.fhg.de Keywords: crystalline silicon, Czochralski, boron-oxygen defect, silicon interstitial Abstract. Oxygen-rich crystalline silicon materials doped with boron are plagued by the presence of a well-known carrier

  14. Supplemental Oxygen and Mountaineer Death Rates on Everest and K2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huey, Raymond B.

    Supplemental Oxygen and Mountaineer Death Rates on Everest and K2 To the Editor: The use of supplemental oxygen by Hima- layan mountaineers has been debated for more than 8 de- cades.1 Although sometimes- veal an impact of supplemental oxygen on survival because de- scending mountaineers are often near

  15. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

  16. Wireless Harsh-Environment Oxygen Sensors D.W. Greve,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greve, David.W.

    pollution. In oxy-fuel combustion of coal, separated oxygen is used so that the exhaust is nearly pure. INTRODUCTION Oxygen sensors are used in many combustion processes is order to improve efficiency and reduce the development of wireless oxygen sensors suitable for placement in the harsh environment of the combustion

  17. Kinetic fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes during hydration of carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeebe, Richard E.

    Kinetic fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes during hydration of carbon dioxide Richard E the inorganic hydration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in aqueous solution cause reduced stable carbon and oxygen of the carbon and oxygen kinetic isotope fractionation (KIF) during hydration of CO2. Here I use transition

  18. Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal Burke Hales,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin Burke Hales,1 Lee Karp), Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20 of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved O2 during the upwelling season off the Oregon coast. Oxygen

  19. Doped Graphene as a Material for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A Computational Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    Doped Graphene as a Material for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A Computational fuel cells for oxygen reduction at the cathode. In an attempt to find a cheap yet efficient catalyst in graphene are promising candidates for the use in fuel cell cathodes for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). We

  20. Degradation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria by neutral oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cvelbar, U.; Mozetic, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hauptman, N.; Klanjsek-Gunde, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-11-15

    The degradation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria during treatment with neutral oxygen atoms was monitored by scanning electron microscopy. Experiments were performed in an afterglow chamber made from borosilicate glass. The source of oxygen atoms was remote inductively coupled radiofrequency oxygen plasma. The density of atoms at the samples was 8x10{sup 20} m{sup -3}. The treatment was performed at room temperature. The first effect was the removal of dried capsule. Capsule on exposed parts of bacteria was removed after receiving the dose of 6x10{sup 23} at./m{sup 2}, while the parts of capsule filling the gaps between bacteria were removed after receiving the dose of 2.4x10{sup 24} m{sup -2}. After removing the capsule, degradation continued as etching of bacterial cell wall. The etching was rather nonuniform as holes with diameter of several 10 nm were observed. The cell wall was removed after receiving the dose of about 7x10{sup 24} m{sup -2}. The etching probabilities were about 2x10{sup -5} for the capsule and 2x10{sup -6} for the cell wall. The results were explained by different compositions of capsule and the cell wall.

  1. The solar oxygen crisis: Probably not the last word

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Socas-Navarro A. A. Norton

    2007-03-26

    In this work we present support for recent claims that advocate a downward revision of the solar oxygen abundance. Our analysis employs spatially-resolved spectro-polarimetric observations including the \\FeI lines at 6302 \\AA and the \\OI infrared triplet around 7774 \\AA in the quiet Sun. We used the \\FeI lines to reconstruct the three-dimensional thermal and magnetic structure of the atmosphere. The simultaneous \\OI observations were then employed to determine the abundance of oxygen at each pixel, using both LTE and non-LTE (NLTE) approaches to the radiative transfer. In this manner, we obtain values of \\lgEO=8.63 (NLTE) and 8.93 (LTE) dex. We find an unsettling fluctuation of the oxygen abundance over the field of view. This is likely an artifact indicating that, even with this relatively refined strategy, important physical ingredients are still missing in the picture. By examining the spatial distribution of the abundance, we estimate realistic confidence limits of approximately 0.1 dex.

  2. Method for detection of long-lived radioisotopes in small biochemical samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turteltaub, Kenneth W. (Livermore, CA); Vogel, John S. (Union City, CA); Felton, James S. (Danville, CA); Gledhill, Barton L. (Alamo, CA); Davis, Jay C. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for detection of long-lived radioisotopes in small bio-chemical samples, comprising: a. selecting a biological host in which radioisotopes are present in concentrations equal to or less than those in the ambient biosphere, b. preparing a long-lived radioisotope labeled reactive chemical specie, c. administering said chemical specie to said biologist host in doses sufficiently low to avoid significant overt damage to the biological system thereof, d. allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and interaction of said chemical specie with said host throughout said biological system of said host, e. isolating a reacted fraction of the biological substance from said host in a manner sufficient to avoid contamination of said substance from extraneous sources, f. converting said fraction of biological substance by suitable means to a material which efficiently produces charged ions in at least one of several possible ion sources without introduction of significant isotopic fractionation, and, g. measuring the radioisotope concentration in said material by means of direct isotopic counting.

  3. Monolithic piezoelectric sensor (MPS) for sensing chemical, biochemical and physical measurands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andle, Jeffrey C. (Bangor, ME); Lec, Ryszard M. (Orono, ME)

    2000-01-01

    A piezoelectric sensor and assembly for measuring chemical, biochemical and physical measurands is disclosed. The piezoelectric sensor comprises a piezoelectric material, preferably a crystal, a common metal layer attached to the top surface of the piezoelectric crystal, and a pair of independent resonators placed in close proximity on the piezoelectric crystal such that an efficacious portion of acoustic energy couples between the resonators. The first independent resonator serves as an input port through which an input signal is converted into mechanical energy within the sensor and the second independent resonator serves an output port through which a filtered replica of the input signal is detected as an electrical signal. Both a time delay and an attenuation at a given frequency between the input signal and the filtered replica may be measured as a sensor output. The sensor may be integrated into an assembly with a series feedback oscillator and a radio frequency amplifier to process the desired sensor output. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, a selective film is disposed upon the grounded metal layer of the sensor and the resonators are encapsulated to isolate them from the measuring environment. In an alternative embodiment of the invention, more than two resonators are used in order to increase the resolution of the sensor.

  4. Method and apparatus for producing oxygen and nitrogen and membrane therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

    1985-09-17

    Process and apparatus for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen as well as a novel membrane useful therein are disclosed. The process utilizes novel facilitated transport membranes to selectively transport oxygen from one gaseous stream to another, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the method, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a polar organic membrane which separates a gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. In an alternate mode of operation, the feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane and the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. Under such conditions, the carrier acts as a shuttle, picking up oxygen at the feed side of the membrane, diffusing across the membrane as the oxygenated complex, releasing oxygen to the product stream, and then diffusing back to the feed side to repeat the process. Exceptionally and unexpectedly high O[sub 2]/N[sub 2] selectivity, on the order of 10 to 30, is obtained, as well as exceptionally high oxygen permeability, on the order of 6 to 15 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] cm[sup 3]-cm/cm[sup 2]-sec-cmHg, as well as a long membrane life of in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 2 figs.

  5. Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated Nanocrystalline Cubic Zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, P. D.; Weber, William J.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen

    2011-07-13

    The oxygen ion conductivity, attributed to an oxygen vacancy mechanism, of yttria-stabilized zirconia membranes used in solid oxide fuel cells is restricted due to trapping limitations. In this work, a high concentration of oxygen vacancies has been deliberately introduced into nanocrystalline stabilizer-free zirconia through ion-irradiation. Oxygen vacancies with different charge states can be produced by varying irradiation temperatures. Due to the reduced trapping sites and high oxygen vacancy concentration, this work suggests that the efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells can be improved.

  6. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  7. Effect of surface strain on oxygen adsorption on Zr (0001) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xing [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Khafizov, Marat [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Szlufarska, Izabela [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2014-02-01

    The effect of surface strain on oxygen adsorption on Zr (0 0 0 1) surface is investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is demonstrated that both surface strain and interactions between oxygen adsorbates influence the adsorption process. Oxygen binding to zirconium becomes stronger as the strain changes from compressive to tensile. When oxygen coverage is low and the oxygen interactions are negligible, surface face-centered cubic sites are the most stable for O binding. At high coverage and under compression, octahedral sites between second and third Zr layers become most favorable because the interactions between adsorbates are weakened by positive charge screening. Calculations with both single-layer adsorption model and multiple-layer adsorption model demonstrate that compressive strain at the Zr/oxide interface will provide a thermodynamic driving force for oxygen to incorporate from the surface into the bulk of Zr, while binding oxygen to the Zr surface will be easier when tensile strain is applied.

  8. Oxygen vacancy ordering within anion-deficient Ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, S.; Norberg, S.T.; Ahmed, I.; Eriksson, S.G.; Marrocchelli, D.; Madden, P.A.

    2009-10-15

    The structural properties of anion deficient ceria, CeO{sub 2-{delta}}, have been studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure, p(O{sub 2}), over the range 0>=log{sub 10p}(O{sub 2})>=-18.9 at 1273(2) K using the neutron powder diffraction technique. Rietveld refinement of the diffraction data collected on decreasing p(O{sub 2}) showed increases in the cubic lattice parameter, a, the oxygen nonstoichiometry, delta, and the isotropic thermal vibration parameters, u{sub Ce} and u{sub O}, starting at log{sub 10p}(O{sub 2}){approx}-11. The increases are continuous, but show a distinct kink at log{sub 10p}(O{sub 2}){approx}-14.5. Analysis of the total scattering (Bragg plus diffuse components) using reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling indicates that the O{sup 2-} vacancies preferentially align as pairs in the <111> cubic directions as the degree of nonstoichiometry increases. This behaviour is discussed with reference to the chemical crystallography of the CeO{sub 2}-Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} system at ambient temperature and, in particular, to the nature of the long-range ordering of O{sup 2-} vacancies within the crystal structure of Ce{sub 7}O{sub 12}. - Graphical abstract: Partial radial distribution function for oxygen vacancies within CeO{sub 1.710} at 1273 K (solid line) showing the increased tendency for local ordering in <111> directions compared to a random distribution (dashed line).

  9. Method for providing oxygen ion vacancies in lanthanide oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kay, D. Alan R. (4305 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, CA); Wilson, William G. (820 Harden Dr., Pittsburgh, PA 15229)

    1989-12-05

    A method for desulfurization of fuel gases resulting from the incomplete combustion of sulfur containing hydrocarbons whereby the gases are treated with lanthanide oxides containing large numbers of oxygen-ion vacancies providing ionic porosity which enhances the ability of the lanthanide oxides to react more rapidly and completely with the sulfur in the fuel gases whereby the sulfur in such gases is reduced to low levels suitable for fuels for firing into boilers of power plants generating electricity with steam turbine driven generators, gas turbines, fuel cells and precursors for liquid fuels such as methanol and the like.

  10. Hydrogen and oxygen concentrations in IXCs: A compilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liljegren, L.M.; Terrones, G.T.; Melethil, P.K.

    1996-06-01

    This paper contains four reports and two internal letters that address the estimation of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations in ion exchange columns that treat the water of the K-East and K-West Basins at Hanford. The concern is the flammability of this mixture of gases and planning for safe transport during decommissioning. A transient will occur when the hydrogen filter is temporarily blocked by a sandbag. Analyses are provided for steady-state, transients, and for both wet and dry resins.

  11. Recent advances in the kinetics of oxygen reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, R.

    1996-07-01

    Oxygen reduction is considered an important electrocatalytic reaction; the most notable need remains improvement of the catalytic activity of existing metal electrocatalysts and development of new ones. A review is given of new advances in the understanding of reaction kinetics and improvements of the electrocatalytic properties of some surfaces, with focus on recent studies of relationship of the surface properties to its activity and reaction kinetics. The urgent need is to improve catalytic activity of Pt and synthesize new, possibly non- noble metal catalysts. New experimental techniques for obtaining new level of information include various {ital in situ} spectroscopies and scanning probes, some involving synchrotron radiation. 138 refs, 18 figs, 2 tabs.

  12. Evaluation and comparison of biochemical markers of anthropogenic stress in the sheepshead minnow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuck, K.; Furst, H.; Boyd, C.; Walker, W.; Watts, S.; Mayer, F.

    1995-12-31

    The utility of bioenergetic and growth-rate indices for assessing chemically induced stress in larval and juvenile sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) was investigated. Viable embryos were exposed to zinc chloride at concentrations of 0.6, 1.5 and 3.8 ppm over a period of 28 days. Samples were collected from each exposure group and a unexposed control group on days 7, 14 and 28 of the study. Individual fish were measured and weighed wet. Triacylglycerol (TAG) and sterol content of exposed and control fish was determined using a FID/TLC latroscan system, polyamines were quantified by HPLC, nucleic acids levels were determined using an ethidium bromide fluorescence technique, and % tissue solids were estimated by dry weight analysis. A significant reduction in the TAG:sterol ratio was observed among fish exposed to 3.8 ppm ZnCl for 28 days. TAG:sterol was significantly correlated with growth-rate, % tissue solids, and concentration of ZnCl. RNA:DNA and polyamine (putrescine: spermine) ratios were significantly higher among day 7 control and exposed fish than those obtained from fish collected on days 14 and 28. RNA:DNA ratios of fish exposed to 3.8 ppm ZnCl for 28 days were significantly lower than those of fish in the control group. Polyamine ratios from fish exposed to 3.8 ppm ZnCl were significantly lower than control fish after 14 days of exposure. There was a significant correlation between polyamine ratios and concentration of ZnCl. TAG:sterol, RNA:DNA, and polyamine ratios can be used to biochemically assess anthropogenic stress; however, due to ontogenetic changes, these indicators are applicable only after endogenous yolk reserves have been depleted.

  13. COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF EQUIPMENT FOR BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSING OF GEOTHERMAL RESIDUES: PROGRESS REPORT FY 97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALLAN,M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Thermal sprayed ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), spray-and-bake ETFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and brushable ceramic-epoxy coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection in a biochemical process to treat geothermal residues. The findings are also relevant to other moderate temperature brine environments where corrosion is a problem. Coupon, Atlas cell, peel strength, cathodic disbondment and abrasion tests were performed in aggressive environments including geothermal sludge, hypersaline brine and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobadus ferrooxidans) to determine suitability for protecting storage tanks and reaction vessels. It was found that all of the coatings were resistant to chemical attack and biodegradation at the test temperature of 55 C. The EMAA coatings protected 316L stainless steel from corrosion in coupon tests. However, corrosion of mild steel substrates thermal sprayed with EMAA and ETFE occurred in Atlas cell tests that simulated a lined reactor operating environment and this resulted in decreased adhesive strength. Peel tests to measure residual adhesion revealed that failure mode was dependent on exposure conditions. Long-term tests on the durability of ceramic-epoxy coatings in brine and bacteria are ongoing. Initial indications are that this coating has suitable characteristics. Abrasion tests showed that the ceramic-epoxy had good resistance to the abrasive effects of sludge. Thermal sprayed EMAA coatings also displayed abrasion resistance. Cathodic disbondment tests in brine at room temperature indicated that EMAA coatings are resistant to disbondment at applied potentials of {minus}780 to {minus}1,070 mV SCE for the test conditions and duration. Slight disbondment of one specimen occurred at a potential of {minus}1,500 mV SCE. The EMAA may be suited to use in conjunction with cathodic protection although further long-term, higher temperature testing would be needed.

  14. Coatings for protection of equipment for biochemical processing of geothermal residues: Progress report FY`97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan, M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Thermal sprayed ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), spray-and-bake ETFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and brushable ceramic-epoxy coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection in a biochemical process to treat geothermal residues. Coupon, Atlas cell, peel strength, cathodic disbondment and abrasion tests were performed in aggressive environments including geothermal sludge, hypersaline brine and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) to determine suitability for protecting storage tanks and reaction vessels. It was found that all of the coatings were resistant to chemical attack and biodegradation at the test temperature of 55 C. The EMAA coatings protected 316L stainless steel from corrosion in coupon tests. However, corrosion of mild steel substrates thermal sprayed with EMAA and ETFE occurred in Atlas cell tests that simulated a lined reactor operating environment and this resulted in decreased adhesive strength. Peel tests to measure residual adhesion revealed that failure mode was dependent on exposure conditions. Abrasion tests showed that the ceramic-epoxy had good resistance to the abrasive effects of sludge. Thermal sprayed EMAA coatings also displayed abrasion resistance. Cathodic disbondment tests in brine at room temperature indicated that EMAA coatings are resistant to disbondment at applied potentials of {minus}780 to {minus}1,070 mV SCE for the test conditions and duration. Slight disbondment of one specimen occurred at a potential of {minus}1,500 mV SCE. The EMAA may be suited to use in conjunction with cathodic protection although further long-term, higher temperature testing would be needed.

  15. OXYGEN ISOTOPE MEASUREMENTS OF A RARE MURCHISON TYPE A CAI AND ITS RIM. J. E. P. , J. I. Simon2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to oxygen isotope zoning profiles measured from CAIs in other chondrites. MUM-1 Petrography: The petrography

  16. Type Ia supernovae from exploding oxygen-neon white dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquardt, Kai S; Ruiter, Ashley J; Seitenzahl, Ivo R; Ohlmann, Sebastian T; Kromer, Markus; Pakmor, Ruediger; Roepke, Friedrich K

    2015-01-01

    The progenitor problem of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still unsolved. Most of these events are thought to be explosions of carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs), but for many of the explosion scenarios, particularly those involving the externally triggered detonation of a sub-Chandrasekhar mass WD (sub-M Ch WD), there is also a possibility of having an oxygen-neon (ONe) WD as progenitor. We simulate detonations of ONe WDs and calculate synthetic observables from these models. The results are compared with detonations in CO WDs of similar mass and observational data of SNe Ia. We perform hydrodynamic explosion simulations of detonations in initially hydrostatic ONe WDs for a range of masses below the Chandrasekhar mass (M Ch), followed by detailed nucleosynthetic postprocessing with a 384-isotope nuclear reaction network. The results are used to calculate synthetic spectra and light curves, which are then compared with observations of SNe Ia. We also perform binary evolution calculations to determine the nu...

  17. Sputtering of Oxygen Ice by Low Energy Ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muntean, E A; Field, T A; Fitzsimmons, A; Hunniford, C A; McCullough, R W

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring ices lie on both interstellar dust grains and on celestial objects, such as those in the outer solar system. These ices are continu- ously subjected to irradiation by ions from the solar wind and/or cosmic rays, which modify their surfaces. As a result, new molecular species may form which can be sputtered off into space or planetary atmospheres. We determined the experimental values of sputtering yields for irradiation of oxygen ice at 10 K by singly (He+, C+, N+, O+ and Ar+) and doubly (C2+, N2+ and O2+) charged ions with 4 keV kinetic energy. In these laboratory experiments, oxygen ice was deposited and irradiated by ions in an ultra high vacuum chamber at low temperature to simulate the environment of space. The number of molecules removed by sputtering was observed by measurement of the ice thickness using laser interferometry. Preliminary mass spectra were taken of sputtered species and of molecules formed in the ice by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). We find that the experi...

  18. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

  19. Nickel-hydrogen battery with oxygen and electrolyte management features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sindorf, John F. (Pewaukee, WI)

    1991-10-22

    A nickel-hydrogen battery or cell having one or more pressure vessels containing hydrogen gas and a plurality of cell-modules therein. Each cell-module includes a configuration of cooperatively associated oxygen and electrolyte mangement and component alignment features. A cell-module having electrolyte includes a negative electrode, a positive electrode adapted to facilitate oxygen diffusion, a separator disposed between the positive and negative electrodes for separating them and holding electrolyte for ionic conductivity, an absorber engaging the surface of the positive electrode facing away from the separator for providing electrolyte to the positive electrode, and a pair of surface-channeled diffusion screens for enclosing the positive and negative electrodes, absorber, and separator and for maintaining proper alignment of these components. The screens, formed in the shape of a pocket by intermittently sealing the edges together along as many as three sides, permit hydrogen gas to diffuse therethrough to the negative electrodes, and prevent the edges of the separator from swelling. Electrolyte is contained in the cell-module, absorbhed by the electrodes, the separator and the absorber.

  20. Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S.; Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A.; Quackenbush, N. F.; Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J.; Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C.; White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2014-06-09

    The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

  1. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, D.C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

  2. Molecular Siganture and Sources of Biochemical Recalcitrance of Organic C in Amozonian Dark Earths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon,D.; Lehmann, J.; Thies, J.; Schafer, T.; Liang, B.; Kinyangi, J.; Neves, E.; Peterson, J.; Liuzao, F.; Skjemstad, J.

    2007-01-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) are a unique type of soils developed through intense anthropogenic activities that transformed the original soils into Anthrosols throughout the Brazilian Amazon Basin. We conducted a comparative molecular-level investigation of soil organic C (SOC) speciation in ADE (ages between 600 and 8700 years B.P.) and adjacent soils using ultraviolet photo-oxidation coupled with {sup 13}C cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS NMR), synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (Sr-FTIR-ATR) and C (1s) near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to obtain deeper insights into the structural chemistry and sources of refractory organic C compounds in ADE. Our results show that the functional group chemistry of SOC in ADE was considerably different from adjacent soils. The SOC in ADE was enriched with: (i) aromatic-C structures mostly from H- and C-substituted aryl-C, (ii) O-rich organic C forms from carboxylic-C, aldehyde-C, ketonic-C and quinine-C, and (iii) diverse group of refractory aliphatic-C moieties. The SOC in adjacent soils was predominantly composed of O-alkyl-C and methoxyl-C/N-alkyl-C structures and elements of labile aliphatic-C functionalities. Our study suggests that the inherent molecular structures of organic C due to selective accumulation of highly refractory aryl-C structures seems to be the key factor for the biochemical recalcitrance and stability of SOC in ADE. Anthropogenic enrichment with charred carbonaceous residues from biomass-derived black C (BC) is presumed to be the precursor of these recalcitrant polyaromatic structures. Our results also highlight the complementary role that might be played by organic C compounds composed of O-containing organic C moieties and aliphatic-C structures that persisted for millennia in these anthropic soils as additional or secondary sources of chemical recalcitrance of SOC in ADE. These organic C compounds could be the products of: (i) primary recalcitrant biomolecules from non-BC sources or (ii) secondary processes involving microbial mediated oxidative or extracellular neoformation reactions of SOC from BC and non-BC sources; and stabilized through physical inaccessibility to decomposers due to sorption onto the surface or into porous structures of BC particles, selective preservation or through intermolecular interactions involving clay and BC particles.

  3. Structural And Biochemical Characterization of the Therapeutic A. Variabilis Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L.; Gamez, A.; Archer, H.; Abola, E.E.; Sarkissian, C.N.; Fitzpatrick, P.; Wendt, D.; Zhang, Y.; Vellard, M.; Bliesath, J.; Bell, S.; Lemont, J.; Scriver, C.R.; Stevens, R.C.

    2009-05-26

    We have recently observed promising success in a mouse model for treating the metabolic disorder phenylketonuria with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Rhodosporidium toruloides and Anabaena variabilis. Both molecules, however, required further optimization in order to overcome problems with protease susceptibility, thermal stability, and aggregation. Previously, we optimized PAL from R. toruloides, and in this case we reduced aggregation of the A. variabilis PAL by mutating two surface cysteine residues (C503 and C565) to serines. Additionally, we report the structural and biochemical characterization of the A. variabilis PAL C503S/C565S double mutant and carefully compare this molecule with the R. toruloides engineered PAL molecule. Unlike previously published PAL structures, significant electron density is observed for the two active-site loops in the A. variabilis C503S/C565S double mutant, yielding a complete view of the active site. Docking studies and N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin binding studies support a proposed mechanism in which the amino group of the phenylalanine substrate is attacked directly by the 4-methylidene-imidazole-5-one prosthetic group. We propose a helix-to-loop conformational switch in the helices flanking the inner active-site loop that regulates accessibility of the active site. Differences in loop stability among PAL homologs may explain the observed variation in enzyme efficiency, despite the highly conserved structure of the active site. A. variabilis C503S/C565S PAL is shown to be both more thermally stable and more resistant to proteolytic cleavage than R. toruloides PAL. Additional increases in thermal stability and protease resistance upon ligand binding may be due to enhanced interactions among the residues of the active site, possibly locking the active-site structure in place and stabilizing the tetramer. Examination of the A. variabilis C503S/C565S PAL structure, combined with analysis of its physical properties, provides a structural basis for further engineering of residues that could result in a better therapeutic molecule.

  4. Blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal with enriched air or pure oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponghis, N.; Dufresne, P.; Vidal, R.; Poos, A. (Center de Recherches Metallurgiques, Liege (Belgium))

    1993-01-01

    An extensive study of the phenomena associated with the blast furnace injection of massive quantities of coal is described. Trials with conventional lances or oxy-coal injectors and hot blast at different oxygen contents - up to 40% - or with cold pure oxygen were realized at coal to oxygen ratios corresponding to a range of 150 to 440 kg. Pilot scale rigs, empty or filled with coke, as well as industrial blast furnaces were utilized.

  5. Lattice distortions and oxygen vacancies produced in Au+ irradiated nano-crystalline cubic zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, Philip D; Weber, William J; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen

    2011-01-01

    The structural impact of oxygen vacancies in nanocrystalline cubic zirconia is investigated. A non-equilibrium number of oxygen vacancies in introduced to the lattice by ion irradiation. The lattice is observed to be initially compressed, undergoes a relaxation at 0.7 displacements per atom (dpa), and experiences a contraction before reaching a temperature dependent steady state value at above 7 dpa. The level of lattice distortion is related to the charge state of the accumulating oxygen vacancies.

  6. Interval to Biochemical Failure Highly Prognostic for Distant Metastasis and Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality After Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)], E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Few biochemical parameters have been related to mortality. The present study examined the clinical utility of the interval to biochemical failure (IBF) as a prognostic factor for distant metastasis (DM) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study group consisted of 211 T1c-T3Nx-N0M0 patients who had experienced BF among 1,174 men treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy alone. Biochemical failure was defined as a post-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of at, or greater than, the PSA nadir plus 2 ng/mL. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify independent predictors of DM and PCSM on multivariate analysis. Results: An IBF of <18 months was independently predictive for DM (p = 0.008), as was a Gleason score of 7-10 (p = 0.0005), PSA nadir {>=}2 ng/mL (p = 0.04), and decreasing radiation dose (p = 0.02) on multivariate analysis, including increasing pretreatment PSA level, PSA nadir {>=}2.5 ng/mL, PSA doubling time of <3 months, and Stage T3 disease. An IBF of <18 months was the only predictor of PCSM (p = 0.0003) in the same model. The actuarial 5-year DM rate for an IBF of <18 vs. {>=}18 months was 52% vs. 20% (p < 0.0001), and the actuarial PCSM rate was 36% vs. 6%, respectively (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: The IBF is an important descriptor of the PSA kinetics after radiotherapy to identify men at high risk of clinical failure and death. A IBF of <18 months could aid in selecting men for early, aggressive salvage therapy or participation in a clinical trial.

  7. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Year Month...

  8. Oxygen-resistant hydrogenases and methods for designing and making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Paul; Ghirardi, Maria Lucia; Seibert, Michael

    2014-03-04

    The invention provides oxygen-resistant iron-hydrogenases ([Fe]-hydrogenases) for use in the production of H.sub.2. Methods used in the design and engineering of the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases are disclosed, as are the methods of transforming and culturing appropriate host cells with the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases. Finally, the invention provides methods for utilizing the transformed, oxygen insensitive, host cells in the bulk production of H.sub.2 in a light catalyzed reaction having water as the reactant.

  9. Modeling and Control of High-Velocity Oxygen-Fuel (HVOF) Thermal Spray: A Tutorial Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mingheng; Christofides, Panagiotis D.

    2009-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Analysis of a Wire- Feed, High-Velocity Oxygen Fuel (Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Gas Flow Charac- teristics in a High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel

  10. Oxygen-resistant hydrogenases and methods for designing and making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Paul (Golden, CO); Ghirardi, Maria L (Lakewood, CO); Seibert, Michael (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-03-10

    The invention provides oxygen- resistant iron-hydrogenases ([Fe]-hydrogenases) for use in the production of H2. Methods used in the design and engineering of the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases are disclosed, as are the methods of transforming and culturing appropriate host cells with the oxygen-resistant [Fe]-hydrogenases. Finally, the invention provides methods for utilizing the transformed, oxygen insensitive, host cells in the bulk production of H.sub.2 in a light catalyzed reaction having water as the reactant.

  11. Anomalous expansion of the copper-apical-oxygen distance in supercondu...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Anomalous expansion of the copper-apical-oxygen distance in superconducting cuprate bilayers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anomalous expansion of the...

  12. Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique, originally presented on March 12, 2013.

  13. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  14. Processing Argo OXYGEN data at the DAC level Version 1.3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lherminier, Pascale

    that all countries deploying floats equipped with oxygen sensors document the data and metadata related............................................................................... 4 3.2 "SENSOR" metadata............................................................................. 14 4.2 "SENSOR" metadata

  15. Task Technical Plan for Studies of Oxygen Consumption in the Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Tetraphenylborate Ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, S.D.

    1996-12-20

    This document presents the plan for studies of how dissolved oxygen affects the catalytic decomposition of the tetraphenylborate ion in alkaline aqueous solution.

  16. Constraining bubble dynamics and mixing with dissolved gases: Implications for productivity measurements by oxygen mass balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamme, Roberta C

    2006-01-01

    Implications for productivity measurements by oxygen masszone. Because the productivity measurement in the mixedproductivity estimates from continuous O 2 /Ar ratio measurements

  17. Computer Simulation of Defects and Oxygen Transport in Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.; Singhal, Subhash C.; Gale, Julian D.

    2006-06-15

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations and energy minimization calculations to examine defect energetics and oxygen diffusion in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Oxygen vacancies prefer to be second nearest neighbors to yttrium dopants. The oxygen diffusion coefficient shows a peak at 8 mole % yttria consistent with experimental findings. The activation energy for oxygen diffusion varies from 0.6 to 1.0 eV depending on the yttria content. The Y-Vo-Y complex with a binding energy of -0.85 eV may play an important role in any conductivity degradation of YSZ.

  18. Oxygen-Dependent Morphogenesis of Modern Clumped Photosynthetic Mats and Implications for the Archean Stromatolite Record

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Min Sub

    Some modern filamentous oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) form macroscopic tufts, laminated cones and ridges that are very similar to some Archean and Proterozoic stromatolites. However, it remains unclear ...

  19. The effect of an evaporation suppressant upon the liquid film oxygen transfer coefficient 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amad, Mohamad Towfic

    1967-01-01

    by organisms in a lake and the quantity of oxygen diffusion through the air-water interface were determined and the results were verified by field measurements. It was shown that the oxygen uptake rate of organisms in a body of water can be measured... diffusion. 3. To derive an expression to predict the minimum dissolved oxygen concentration during the critical night period for a lake o" pond treated with "Aquasave". The ~sco e of this research has been to determine the oxygen transfer coefficient...

  20. Increased reactive oxygen species production during reductive stress: The roles of mitochondrial glutathione and thioredoxin reductases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korge, P; Calmettes, G; Weiss, JN

    2015-01-01

    hydrogen peroxide production as determined by the pyridinereactive oxygen production, J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005) 25305–NADPH fuels superoxide production in the failing heart, J.

  1. Complexes of self-interstitials with oxygen atoms in Ge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khirunenko, L. I.; Pomozov, Yu. V.; Sosnin, M. G.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.

    2014-02-21

    Interactions of germanium self-interstitials with interstitial oxygen atoms in Ge subjected to irradiation at ?80 K and subsequently to annealing have been studied. To distinguish the processes involving vacancies and self-interstitials the doping with tin was used. It was shown that absorption lines with maximum at 602, 674, 713 and 803 cm{sup ?1} are self-interstitials-related. Two lines at 602 and 674, which develop upon annealing in the temperature range 180–240 K, belong to IO complexes, while the bands at 713 and 803 cm{sup ?1}, which emerge after annealing at T>220 K, are associated with I{sub 2}O. It is argued that the annealing of IO occurs by two mechanisms: by dissociation and by diffusion.

  2. Orbital reconstruction in a self-assembled oxygen vacancy nanostructure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jang, H.; Kerr, G.; Lim, J. S.; Yang, C. -H.; Kao, C. -C.; Lee, J. -S.

    2015-07-27

    We demonstrate the microscopic role of oxygen vacancies spatially confined within nanometer inter-spacing (about 1nm) in BiFeO?, using resonant soft X-ray scattering techniques and soft X-ray spectroscopy measurements. Such vacancy confinements and total number of vacancy are controlled by substitution of Ca²? for Bi³? cation. We found that by increasing the substitution, the in-plane orbital bands of Fe³? cations are reconstructed without any redox reaction. It leads to a reduction of the hopping between Fe atoms, forming a localized valence band, in particular Fe 3d-electronic structure, around the Fermi level. This band localization causes to decrease the conductivity of themore »doped BiFeO? system.« less

  3. Oxygen-stabilized zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Gruen, D.M.

    1981-06-16

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound is described which has the formula (Zr/sub 1-x/Ti/sub x/)/sub 2-u/(V/sub 1-y/Fe/sub y/)O/sub z/ where x = 0.0 to 0.9, y = 0.01 to 0.9, z = 0.25 to 0.5 and u = 0 to 1. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196/sup 0/C to 200/sup 0/C at pressures down to 10/sup -6/ torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

  4. Lithium-Beryllium-Boron and Oxygen in the early Galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse

    2000-11-24

    Oxygen is a much better evolutionary index than iron to follow the history of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron (LiBeB) since it is the main producer of these light elements at least in the early Galaxy. The O-Fe relation is crucial to the determination of the exact physical process responsible for the LiBeB production. Calculated nucleosynthetic yields of massive stars, estimates of the energy cost of Be production, and above all recent observations reported in this meeting seem to favor a mechanism in which fast nuclei enriched into He, C and O arising from supernovae are accelerated in superbubbles and fragment on H and He in the interstellar medium.

  5. Metallicity of the intergalactic medium using pixel statistics: IV. Oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anthony Aguirre; Corey Dow-Hygelund; Joop Schaye; Tom Theuns

    2008-07-21

    We have studied the abundance of oxygen in the IGM by analyzing OVI, CIV, SiIV, and HI pixel optical depths derived from a set of high-quality VLT and Keck spectra of 17 QSOs at 2.1 ~ 0.2. Consistent results are obtained by similarly comparing OVI to HI or OVI to SiIV optical depth ratios to simulation values, and also by directly ionization-correcting OVI optical depths as function of HI optical depths into [O/H] as a function of density. Subdividing the sample reveals no evidence for evolution, but low- and high-density samples are inconsistent, suggesting either density-dependence of [O/C] or -- more likely -- prevalence of collisionally-ionized gas at high density.

  6. Book Chapter Microbial Fuel Cells: Electricity Generation from Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Tingyue

    oxygen demand (BOD) sensors, bioremediation, hydrogen production and electricity generation (Logan Book Chapter Microbial Fuel Cells: Electricity Generation from Organic Wastes by Microbes Kun) are bioreactors that convert chemical energy stored in the bonds of organic matters into electricity through

  7. Generation of highly reactive oxygen species by co-adsorption of oxygen and water on metal-supported MgO(100) thinfilms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Zhenjun

    2015-01-01

    The formation of highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) on metal oxide surfaces have attracted considerable interest due to their diverse applications. In this work, we have performed densi-ty-functional theory calculations to investigate the co-adsorption of oxygen and water on ul-trathin MgO(100) films deposited on Mo(100) substrate. We reveal that the molecular oxygen can be stepwise decomposed completely with the assistance of water. Consequently, a series of highly ROS including superoxide, hydroperoxide, hydroxyl and single oxygen adatom are formed on Mo(100) supported MgO(100) thinfilms. The reaction barriers accompanied by the generation of ROS are reported, and the influence of the thickness of MgO(100) films is also discussed. The most promising routes to produce these fascinating species provide valuable information to understand the importance of synergistic effect, namely the substrate, the co-adorbed species, and the film thickness, in multiphase catalyst design.

  8. Modification of Gold Catalysis withModification of Gold Catalysis with Aluminum Phosphate for OxygenAluminum Phosphate for Oxygen--Reduction ReactionReduction Reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    (PEMFC + DMFC) General MotorsPanasonic Power Source * PEMFC: proton exchange membrane fuel cell DMFC) H+ Oxygen or Air Ecat Hydrogen (PEMFC) (DMFC) Carbon Dioxide Water CatalystsCatalysts Membrane

  9. Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minasian, Stefan G.; Keith, Jason M.; Batista, Enrique R.; Boland, Kevin S.; Bradley, Joseph A.; Daly, Scott R.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Martin, Richard L.; Nordlund, Dennis; Seidler, Gerald T.; Shuh, David K.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wagner, Gregory L.; Weng, Tsu-Chein; Yang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Advancing theories of how metal oxygen bonding influences metal oxo properties can expose new avenues for innovation in materials science, catalysis, and biochemistry. Historically, spectroscopic analyses of the transition metal peroxyanions, MO4x-, have formed the basis for new M O bonding theories. Herein, relative changes in M O orbital mixing in MO42- (M = Cr, Mo, W) and MO41- (M = Mn, Tc, Re) are evaluated for the first time by non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray absorption spectroscopy using fluorescence and transmission (via a scanning transmission X-ray microscope), and linear-response density functional theory. The results suggest that moving from Group 6 to Group 7 or down the triads increases M O e () mixing. Meanwhile, t2 mixing ( + ) remains relatively constant within the same Group. These unexpected changes in frontier orbital energy and composition are evaluated in terms of periodic trends in d orbital energy and radial extension.

  10. A solvent replenishment solution for managing evaporation of biochemical reactions in air-matrix digital microfluidics devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jebrail, Mais J.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Sinha, Anupama; Van De Vreugde, Jim; Gondhalekar, Carmen; Ambriz, Cesar; Meagher, Robert J.; Branda, Steven S.

    2014-10-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a powerful technique for sample preparation and analysis for a broad range of biological and chemical applications. In many cases, it is desirable to carry out DMF on an open surface, such that the matrix surrounding the droplets is ambient air. However, the utility of the air-matrix DMF format has been severely limited by problems with droplet evaporation, especially when the droplet-based biochemical reactions require high temperatures for long periods of time. We present a simple solution for managing evaporation in air-matrix DMF: just-in-time replenishment of the reaction volume using droplets of solvent. We demonstrate thatmore »this solution enables DMF-mediated execution of several different biochemical reactions (RNA fragmentation, first-strand cDNA synthesis, and PCR) over a range of temperatures (4–95 °C) and incubation times (up to 1 h or more) without use of oil, humidifying chambers, or off-chip heating modules. Reaction volumes and temperatures were maintained roughly constant over the course of each experiment, such that the reaction kinetics and products generated by the air-matrix DMF device were comparable to those of conventional benchscale reactions. As a result, this simple yet effective solution for evaporation management is an important advance in developing air-matrix DMF for a wide variety of new, high-impact applications, particularly in the biomedical sciences.« less

  11. A solvent replenishment solution for managing evaporation of biochemical reactions in air-matrix digital microfluidics devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jebrail, Mais J.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Sinha, Anupama; Van De Vreugde, Jim; Gondhalekar, Carmen; Ambriz, Cesar; Meagher, Robert J.; Branda, Steven S.

    2014-10-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a powerful technique for sample preparation and analysis for a broad range of biological and chemical applications. In many cases, it is desirable to carry out DMF on an open surface, such that the matrix surrounding the droplets is ambient air. However, the utility of the air-matrix DMF format has been severely limited by problems with droplet evaporation, especially when the droplet-based biochemical reactions require high temperatures for long periods of time. We present a simple solution for managing evaporation in air-matrix DMF: just-in-time replenishment of the reaction volume using droplets of solvent. We demonstrate that this solution enables DMF-mediated execution of several different biochemical reactions (RNA fragmentation, first-strand cDNA synthesis, and PCR) over a range of temperatures (4–95 °C) and incubation times (up to 1 h or more) without use of oil, humidifying chambers, or off-chip heating modules. Reaction volumes and temperatures were maintained roughly constant over the course of each experiment, such that the reaction kinetics and products generated by the air-matrix DMF device were comparable to those of conventional benchscale reactions. As a result, this simple yet effective solution for evaporation management is an important advance in developing air-matrix DMF for a wide variety of new, high-impact applications, particularly in the biomedical sciences.

  12. Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jujasz, Albert J. (North Olmsted, OH); Burkhart, James A. (Olmsted Falls, OH); Greenberg, Ralph (New York, NY)

    1988-01-01

    A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

  13. Ascorbate dynamics and oxygen consumption during arousal from hibernation in Arctic ground squirrels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drew, Kelly L.

    at the time of peak O2 consumption and peak plasma urate production. The ascor- bate decrease didAscorbate dynamics and oxygen consumption during arousal from hibernation in Arctic ground and oxygen consumption during arousal from hibernation in Arctic ground squirrels. Am J Physiol Regulatory

  14. Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2003 Fiber Optic Oxygen Sensor for Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    807 Proceedings of IEEE Sensors 2003 Paper 22-2 Fiber Optic Oxygen Sensor for Power Plant for power plant applications. The sensor utilizes quenching of the bright red fluorescence from inorganic. Motivation Combustion processes in power plants require the correct mix of fuel and oxygen to maximize

  15. Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated by 1Hydroxyphenazine, a Virulence Factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated by 1Hydroxyphenazine, a Virulence Factor tool for the detection of ROS generation mediated by 1-HP. These assays provided evidence that 1-HP evidence that 1-HP mediates the generation of intracellular oxidants. Generation of reactive oxygen species

  16. Boundaries of the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone shaped by coherent mesoscale dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bettencourt, João H; García, Emilio Hernández; Montes, Ivonne; Sudre, Joël; Dewitte, Boris; Paulmier, Aurélien; Garçon, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen in sea water is a major factor affecting marine habitats and biogeochemical cycles. Oceanic zones with oxygen deficits represent significant portions of the area and volume of the oceans and are thought to be expanding. The Peruvian oxygen minimum zone is one of the most pronounced and lies in a region of strong mesoscale activity in the form of vortices and frontal regions, whose effect in the dynamics of the oxygen minimum zone is largely unknown. Here, we study this issue from a modeling approach and a Lagrangian point of view, using a coupled physical-biogeochemical simulation of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone and finite-size Lyapunov exponent fields to understand the link between mesoscale dynamics and oxygen variations. Our results show that, at depths between 380 and 600 meters, mesoscale structures have a relevant dual role. First, their mean positions and paths delimit and maintain the oxygen minimum zone boundaries. Second, their high frequency fluctuations entrain oxygen across t...

  17. The obligation to surface periodically and replenish oxygen stores limits the underwater foraging capacity of marine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Jennifer M.

    , but also aids in conserving water and energy during terrestrial fasts (Ortiz et al., 1978; Costa and Ortiz with animal size and age. In adults, total body oxygen stores are proportional to body mass (Mb; Kooyman, 1989 animals have higher mass-specific metabolic rates and lower mass-specific total body oxygen stores

  18. Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of interannual variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of interannual variability A) to highlight the importance of convective mixing in inducing anomalous air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (2007), Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean: Mechanisms of interannual variability

  19. The performance of PEM fuel cells fed with oxygen through the free-convection mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The performance of PEM fuel cells fed with oxygen through the free-convection mode Pei-Wen Li; accepted 27 September 2002 Abstract The feasibility and restrictions of feeding oxygen to a PEM fuel cell at the cathode surface, which can be viewed in terms of the relationship of the fuel cell current density

  20. A reactor for high-temperature pyrolysis and oxygen isotopic analysis of cellulose via induction heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Michael N.

    A reactor for high-temperature pyrolysis and oxygen isotopic analysis of cellulose via induction and theory to recommend pyrolysis at temperatures above 14508C to minimize memory and fractionation effects of producing pyrolysis conditions for the analysis of oxygen and deuterium isotopic compositions of organic

  1. Hydrogen passivation and activation of oxygen complexes in silicon S. N. Rashkeev,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    Hydrogen passivation and activation of oxygen complexes in silicon S. N. Rashkeev,a) M. Di Ventra-principles calculations in terms of which we describe the role of hydrogen in passivating or activating oxygen complexes activity of the cluster. Furthermore, the addition of a hydrogen atom in the core structure of thermal

  2. Oxygen isotope records of goethite from ferricrete deposits indicate regionally varying Holocene climate change in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hren, Michael

    Oxygen isotope records of goethite from ferricrete deposits indicate regionally varying Holocene isotopes of goethite from ferricrete deposits were measured from both northern and southern Rocky Mountain in oxygen isotope values of 14 C-dated goethites in the northern Rocky Mountains suggests a regional

  3. Hydrogen absorption characteristics of oxygen-stabilized rare-earth iron intermetallic compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hydrogen absorption characteristics of oxygen-stabilized rare-earth iron intermetallic compounds M Abstract. -- The thermal behavior of oxygen-stabilized RjFegO^-hydrogen (R = Y, Dy, Ho) systems was studied decade to the study of the hydrogenation characte- ristics of a variety of intermetallic compounds, our

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in ambient air of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in ambient air + particle phases) of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 17 nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and 9 oxygenated when (before or during the sampling) the OPAHs are formed. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

  5. Production of Organic Oxygenates in the Partial Oxidation of Methane in a Silent Electric Discharge Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard

    Production of Organic Oxygenates in the Partial Oxidation of Methane in a Silent Electric Discharge to convert methane into useful products such as higher hydrocarbons, synthesis gas, and organic oxygenate is important for a process to have commercial potential. Thus, this study examines the effect methane

  6. Metallic filament formation by aligned oxygen vacancies in ZnO-based resistive switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Tingkun

    2014-05-28

    The electronic structure of ZnO with defects of oxygen vacancies were investigated by using first-principles methods. Some structure models were constructed in order to investigate the effects of the distribution of oxygen vacancies on the electronic properties of ZnO. By analyzing the calculated results, we found that only the aligned oxygen vacancies can form the conducting channel in ZnO, and the transformation of the oxygen vacancy from charged state to neutral state is consistent with the energetics rule of the forming aligned oxygen vacancies. As for the heterojunction of Pt/ZnO/Pt, the oxygen vacancies near the interface of Pt/ZnO depress the local Schottky barrier effectively, and the aligned oxygen vacancies in ZnO form a conducting filament connecting two Pt electrodes. The metallic filament formation in Pt/ZnO/Pt resistive switching cells should be closely related to the carrier injection from Pt electrode into ZnO and the arrangement of oxygen vacancies in ZnO slab.

  7. A climatology-based quality control procedure for profiling float oxygen data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riser, Stephen C.

    A climatology-based quality control procedure for profiling float oxygen data Yuichiro Takeshita,1 to a climatology derived from ship-based bottle and CTD data [Wong et al., 2003; Bohme and Send, 2005; Owens for profiling float oxygen data based on comparing float data to a monthly climatology and therefore driving

  8. Uranium in iron formations and the rise of atmospheric oxygen C.A. Partin a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konhauser, Kurt

    Uranium in iron formations and the rise of atmospheric oxygen C.A. Partin a, , S.V. Lalonde b , N Paleoproterozoic Geochemical uranium cycle The concept of the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), during which atmospheric oxygenation through the record of uranium (U) concentrations in iron formations (IF). Just as IF are important

  9. Lung deflation and oxygen pulse in COPD: Results from the NETT randomized trial*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lung deflation and oxygen pulse in COPD: Results from the NETT randomized trial* Carolyn E. Come a July 2011 Available online 16 August 2011 KEYWORDS Cardiac function; Hyperinflation; Lung volume function. We examined whether lung deflation improves oxygen pulse, a surrogate marker of stroke volume

  10. Unified picture of the oxygen isotope effect in cuprate superconductors Ho-kwang Mao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    Unified picture of the oxygen isotope effect in cuprate superconductors Ho-kwang Mao Xiao-Jia Chen, see: Reprints www.pnas.org/misc/reprints.shtml To order reprints, see: Notes: #12;Unified picture present a unified picture of the oxygen isotope effect in cuprate superconductors based on a phonon

  11. SHORT COMMUNICATION Metabolic oxygen consumption measurement with a single-cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    SHORT COMMUNICATION Metabolic oxygen consumption measurement with a single-cell biosensor after Ó Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014 Abstract A noninvasive, self-referencing biosensor Microbeam II end station. A single-cell oxygen consumption measurement has been conducted with this type

  12. Alkaline Microfluidic Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell as a Cathode Characterization Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Alkaline Microfluidic Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell as a Cathode Characterization Platform Fikile R on an alkaline microfluidic fuel cell for catalyst and electrode characterization. Its constantly refreshing investigated and the dual effects of enhanced oxygen reduction reaction activity and improved ionic

  13. Study of using oxygen-enriched combustion air for locomotive diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Assanis, D.N.; Cataldi, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power output of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure can improve power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment with its attendant higher combustion temperatures, reduces emissions of particulates and visible smoke but increases NO emissions (by up to three times at 26% oxygen content). Therefore, exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required if the full potential of oxygen enrichment for improving the performance of locomotive diesel engines is to be realized.

  14. Stress-Induced Nitrogen and Oxygen Segregation and Complexing Investigated by High Resolution Synchrotron FTIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Ciszek4 1 . Dept. of Materials Science & Eng., North Carolina State University, NC 2 . Dept. of Materials, CA 4 : National Renewable Energy Laboratory, CO Abstract: Nitrogen doped Czochralski (N-CZ) and Float variations and the defect distributions revealed by an Oxygen Precipitate Profiler (OPP), and oxygen

  15. Triple oxygen isotope variations in sedimentary rocks Naomi E. Levin a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . However, recent oxygen isotope measurements of terrestrial rocks, minerals and waters also reveal common for various equilibrium and kinetic mechanisms. Here we pres- ent triple oxygen isotope data on sedimentary; Pack and Herwartz, 2014), but they are gener- ally overlooked in analysis of terrestrial rocks

  16. Holocene precipitation seasonality captured by a dual hydrogen and oxygen isotope approach at Steel Lake, Minnesota

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Feng Sheng

    Holocene precipitation seasonality captured by a dual hydrogen and oxygen isotope approach at SteelMenocal Keywords: seasonal precipitation middle Holocene oxygen isotopes hydrogen isotopes forest­prairie boundary midcontinental North America. However, neither the climatic driver nor the seasonal character of precipitation

  17. Impact on biochemical research of the discovery of stable isotopes: the outcome of the serendipic meeting of a refugee with the discoverer of heavy isotopes at Columbia University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shemin, D.

    1987-03-01

    As late as the 1930s, approaches to biochemical research not only were rather primitive, but a certain amount of mysticism still surrounded the biochemical events that occur in the living cell. To a great extent, this was due to the lack of techniques needed to uncover the subtle reactions in the living cell. In the early 1930s, an accidental meeting of two scientists revolutionized approaches in biochemical studies and led to the scientific explosion in molecular biology that has occurred during the last few decades. The dark political storm in Germany deposited Dr. Rudolf Schoenheimer on the New York shore, where he met Professor Urey, who recently had discovered ''heavy'' hydrogen. Schoenheimer suggested that biological compounds tagged with heavy atoms of hydrogen would enable investigators to follow their metabolic pathways. This intellectual leap revolutionized the thinking and design of experiments and made it possible to uncover the myriad reactions that occur in the living cell.

  18. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1998-08-04

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials. 8 figs.

  19. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, Mark W. (Boston, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

    1998-01-01

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials.

  20. On the relationship between auroral and nebular oxygen line intensities in spectra of HII regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin

    2005-04-18

    We investigate relationships between observed auroral and nebular oxygen line fluxes in spectra of HII regions. We find a relation that is metallicity-dependent at low metallicities, but becomes independent of metallicity (within the uncertainties of the available data) above 12+logO/H ~ 8.25, i.e. there is one-to-one correspondance (the ff - relation) between auroral and nebular oxygen line fluxes in spectra of high-metallicity HII regions. The ff - relation allows one to estimate the flux in the auroral line from strong oxygen line measurements. This solves the problem of the electron temperature (and, consequently, abundance) determination in high-metallicity HII regions. The ff - relation confirms the basic idea of the empirical method, proposed by Pagel et al. (1979) a qurter of a century ago, that the oxygen abundance in HII region can be estimated from the strong oxygen lines measurements only.

  1. Oxygen abundances in dwarf irregular galaxies and the metallicity - luminosity relationship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin

    2001-05-21

    The low-luminosity dwarf irregular galaxies are considered. The oxygen abundances in HII regions of dwarf irregular galaxies were recalculated from published spectra through the recently suggested P - method. It has been found that the metallicity of low-luminosity dwarf irregular galaxies, with a few exceptions, correlates well with galaxy luminosity. The dispersion of oxygen abundances around the metallicity - luminosity relationship increases with decreasing of galaxy luminosity, as was found by Richer and McCall (1995). No relationship between the oxygen abundance and the absolute magnitude in the blue band for irregular galaxies obtained by Hidalgo-Gamez and Olofsson (1998) can be explained by the large uncertainties in the oxygen abundances derived through the Te - method, that in turn can be explained by the large uncertainties in the measurements of the strengths of the weak oxygen line [OIII]4363 used in the Te - method.

  2. Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

  3. Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Vijayakumar, M.

    2014-07-03

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the interface between graphene and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (BMIM OTf) were carried out to gain molecular-level insights into the performance of graphene-based supercapacitors and, in particular, determine the effects of the presence of oxygen-containing defects at the graphene surface on their integral capacitance. The MD simulations predict that increasing the surface coverage of hydroxyl groups negatively affects the integral capacitance, whereas the effect of the presence of epoxy groups is much less significant. The calculated variations in capacitance are found to be directly correlated to the interfacial structure. Indeed, hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups and SO3 anion moieties prevents BMIM+ and OTf- molecules from interacting favorably in the dense interfacial layer and restrains the orientation and mobility of OTf- ions, thereby reducing the permittivity of the ionic liquid at the interface. The results of the molecular simulations can facilitate the rational design of electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  4. Oxygen enrichment in carbon-rich planetary nebulae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado-Inglada, Gloria; Peimbert, Manuel; Stasi?ska, Gra?yna; Morisset, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    We study the relation between the chemical composition and the type of dust present in a group of 20 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) that have high quality optical and infrared spectra. The optical spectra are used, together with the best available ionization correction factors, to calculate the abundances of Ar, C, Cl, He, N, Ne, and O relative to H. The infrared spectra are used to classify the PNe in two groups depending on whether the observed dust features are representative of oxygen-rich or carbon-rich environments. The sample contains one object from the halo, eight from the bulge, and eleven from the local disc. We compare their chemical abundances with nucleosynthesis model predictions and with the ones obtained in seven Galactic H II regions of the solar neighbourhood. We find evidence of O enrichment (by $\\sim$ 0.3 dex) in all but one of the PNe with carbon-rich dust (CRD). Our analysis shows that Ar, and especially Cl, are the best metallicity indicators of the progenitors of PNe. There is a tig...

  5. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-03-12

    A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

  6. Porous platinum-based catalysts for oxygen reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlebacher, Jonah D; Snyder, Joshua D

    2014-11-25

    A porous metal that comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A fuel cell includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and an electrolyte arranged between the first and the second electrodes. At least one of the first and second electrodes is coated with a porous metal catalyst for oxygen reduction, and the porous metal catalyst comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A method of producing a porous metal according to an embodiment of the current invention includes producing an alloy consisting essentially of platinum and nickel according to the formula Pt.sub.xNi.sub.1-x, where x is at least 0.01 and less than 0.3; and dealloying the alloy in a substantially pH neutral solution to reduce an amount of nickel in the alloy to produce the porous metal.

  7. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

  8. Thickness Dependence of Oxygen Reduction Reaction Kinetics on Strontium-Substituted Lanthanum Manganese Perovskite Thin-Film Microelectrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    la O’, G. J.

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics was investigated on dense La?.?Sr?.?MnO? microelectrodes as a function of temperature and microelectrode thickness using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The surface oxygen ...

  9. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 84, 245206 (2011) First-principles study of band gap engineering via oxygen vacancy doping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    vacancies can play a beneficial role. For example, in solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen vacancies enable for photovoltaic applications.6­8 Despite the technological relevance of oxygen vacancies in ferroelectric solutions are fundamentally interesting and technologically important. However, experimental

  10. On the oxygen abundance determination in HII regions: High - metallicity regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin

    2001-01-25

    This is our second paper devoted to the problem of line intensity - oxygen abundance calibration starting from the idea of McGaugh (1991) that the strong oxygen lines contain the necessary information to determine accurate abundances in HII regions. The high-metallicity HII regions are considered. A relation of the type O/H=f(P,R23) between oxygen abundance and the value of abundance index R23 introduced by Pagel et al. (1979) and the excitation parameter P (which is defined here as the contribution of the radiation in [OIII]4959,5007 lines to the "total" oxygen radiation) has been derived empirically using the available oxygen abundances determined via measurement of a temperature-sensitive line ratio [OIII]4959,5007/[OIII]4363 (Te - method). By comparing oxygen abundances derived with the Te - method and those derived with the suggested relations (P - method), it was found that the precision of oxygen abundance determination with the P - method is around 0.1 dex and is comparable to that of the Te - method. A relation of the type Te=f(P,R23) between electron temperature and the values of abundance index R23 and the excitation parameter P was derived empirically using the available electron temperatures determined via measurement of temperature-sensitive line ratios. The mean difference between electron temperatures derived through the Te=f(P,23 relation and determined via measurement of the temperature-sensitive line ratio is around 500K.

  11. Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minasian, Stefan G.; Keith, Jason M.; Batista, Enrique R.; Boland, Kevin S.; Bradley, Joseph A.; Daly, Scott R.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Martin, Richard L.; Nordlund, Dennis; Seidler, Gerald T.; Shuh, David K.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wagner, Gregory L.; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Yang, Ping

    2013-01-28

    Advancing theories of how metal-oxygen bonding influences metal oxo properties can expose new avenues for innovation in materials science, catalysis, and biochemistry. Historically, spectroscopic analyses of the transition metal MO4x- anions have formed the basis for new M-O bonding theories. Herein, relative changes in M-O orbital mixing in MO42- (M = Cr, Mo, W) and MO4- (M = Mn, Tc, Re) are evaluated for the first time by nonresonant inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray absorption spectroscopy using fluorescence and transmission (via a scanning transmission X-ray microscope), and time-dependent density functional theory. The results suggest that moving from Group 6 to Group 7 or down the triads increases M-O e* (pi*) mixing; for example, it more than doubles in ReO4- relative to CrO42-. Mixing in the t(2)* orbitals (sigma* + pi*) remains relatively constant within the same Group, but increases on moving from Group 6 to Group 7. These unexpected changes in orbital energy and composition for formally isoelectronic tetraoxometalates are evaluated in terms of periodic trends in d orbital energy and radial extension.

  12. Biochemical Response to Androgen Deprivation Therapy Before External Beam Radiation Therapy Predicts Long-term Prostate Cancer Survival Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelefsky, Michael J.; Gomez, Daniel R.; Polkinghorn, William R.; Pei, Xin; Kollmeier, Marisa

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the response to neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) defined by a decline in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to nadir values is associated with improved survival outcomes after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: One thousand forty-five patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with definitive EBRT in conjunction with neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT. A 6-month course of ADT was used (3 months during the neoadjuvant phase and 2 to 3 months concurrently with EBRT). The median EBRT prescription dose was 81 Gy using a conformal-based technique. The median follow-up time was 8.5 years. Results: The 10-year PSA relapse-free survival outcome among patients with pre-radiation therapy PSA nadirs of ?0.3 ng/mL was 74.3%, compared with 57.7% for patients with higher PSA nadir values (P<.001). The 10-year distant metastases-free survival outcome among patients with pre-radiation therapy PSA nadirs of ?0.3 ng/mL was 86.1%, compared with 78.6% for patients with higher PSA nadir values (P=.004). In a competing-risk analysis, prostate cancer-related deaths were also significantly reduced among patients with pre-radiation therapy PSA nadirs of <0.3 ng/mL compared with higher values (7.8% compared with 13.7%; P=.009). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the pre-EBRT PSA nadir value was a significant predictor of long-term biochemical tumor control, distant metastases-free survival, and cause-specific survival outcomes. Conclusions: Pre-radiation therapy nadir PSA values of ?0.3 ng/mL after neoadjuvant ADT were associated with improved long-term biochemical tumor control, reduction in distant metastases, and prostate cancer-related death. Patients with higher nadir values may require alternative adjuvant therapies to improve outcomes.

  13. Intragrain oxygen isotope zoning in titanite by SIMS: Cooling rates and fluid infiltration along the Carthage-Colton Mylonite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen R.

    Intragrain oxygen isotope zoning in titanite by SIMS: Cooling rates and fluid infiltration along studies because of the ubiquity of oxygen- bearing minerals and the dependence of mineral 18 O/16 O ratios on temperature and fluid composi- tion. In this study, subtle intragrain oxygen isotope zoning in titanite

  14. PII S0016-7037(98)00212-9 Measurement of oxygen fugacities under reducing conditions: Non-Nernstian behavior of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Nernstian behavior of Y2O3-doped zirconia oxygen sensors R. A. MENDYBAEV,1 J. R. BECKETT,2, * E. STOLPER,2 and L procedure is presented for the use of a Y2O3-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) oxygen sensor in 1 atm gas involved are adequately char- acterized. Yttrium oxide- (YSZ) and calcium oxide-doped (CSZ) zirconia oxygen

  15. The principal function of the cardiopulmonary system is the matching of oxygen and carbon dioxide transport to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Albert F.

    The principal function of the cardiopulmonary system is the matching of oxygen and carbon dioxide (fH), systemic blood flow (Q . sys), rate of oxygen consumption (V . O) and rate of carbon dioxide transport to the metabolic requirements of different tissues. Increased oxygen demands (V . O), for example

  16. Removing oxygen from a solvent extractant in an uranium recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, Fred J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN); Posey, Franz A. (Concord, TN)

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in effecting uranium recovery from phosphoric acid solutions is provided by sparging dissolved oxygen contained in solutions and solvents used in a reductive stripping stage with an effective volume of a nonoxidizing gas before the introduction of the solutions and solvents into the stage. Effective volumes of nonoxidizing gases, selected from the group consisting of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and mixtures thereof, displace oxygen from the solutions and solvents thereby reduce deleterious effects of oxygen such as excessive consumption of elemental or ferrous and accumulation of complex iron phosphates or cruds.

  17. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2005-09-27

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  18. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Sammels, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  19. Method for oxygen reduction in a uranium-recovery process. [US DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, F.J.; Brown, G.M.; Posey, F.A.

    1981-11-04

    An improvement in effecting uranium recovery from phosphoric acid solutions is provided by sparging dissolved oxygen contained in solutions and solvents used in a reductive stripping stage with an effective volume of a nonoxidizing gas before the introduction of the solutions and solvents into the stage. Effective volumes of nonoxidizing gases, selected from the group consisting of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and mixtures thereof, displace oxygen from the solutions and solvents thereby reduce deleterious effects of oxygen such as excessive consumption of elemental or ferrous iron and accumulation of complex iron phosphates or cruds.

  20. Roles of Oxygen and Water Vapor in the Oxidation of Halogen Terminated Ge(111) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Shiyu; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Sun, Yun; Liu, Zhi; Lee, Dong-Ick; Pianette, Piero; /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-12-18

    The initial stage of the oxidation of Cl and Br terminated Ge(111) surfaces is studied using photoelectron spectroscopy. The authors perform controlled experiments to differentiate the effects of different factors in oxidation, and find that water vapor and oxygen play different roles. Water vapor effectively replaces the halogen termination layers with the hydroxyl group, but does not oxidize the surfaces further. In contrast, little oxidation is observed for Cl and Br terminated surfaces with dry oxygen alone. However, with the help of water vapor, oxygen oxidizes the surface by breaking the Ge-Ge back bonds instead of changing the termination layer.

  1. Abiotic ozone and oxygen in atmospheres similar to prebiotic Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Segura, Antígona; Claire, Mark W.; Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2014-09-10

    The search for life on planets outside our solar system will use spectroscopic identification of atmospheric biosignatures. The most robust remotely detectable potential biosignature is considered to be the detection of oxygen (O{sub 2}) or ozone (O{sub 3}) simultaneous to methane (CH{sub 4}) at levels indicating fluxes from the planetary surface in excess of those that could be produced abiotically. Here we use an altitude-dependent photochemical model with the enhanced lower boundary conditions necessary to carefully explore abiotic O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} production on lifeless planets with a wide variety of volcanic gas fluxes and stellar energy distributions. On some of these worlds, we predict limited O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} buildup, caused by fast chemical production of these gases. This results in detectable abiotic O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} features in the UV-visible, but no detectable abiotic O{sub 2} features. Thus, simultaneous detection of O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} by a UV-visible mission is not a strong biosignature without proper contextual information. Discrimination between biological and abiotic sources of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} is possible through analysis of the stellar and atmospheric context—particularly redox state and O atom inventory—of the planet in question. Specifically, understanding the spectral characteristics of the star and obtaining a broad wavelength range for planetary spectra should allow more robust identification of false positives for life. This highlights the importance of wide spectral coverage for future exoplanet characterization missions. Specifically, discrimination between true and false positives may require spectral observations that extend into infrared wavelengths and provide contextual information on the planet's atmospheric chemistry.

  2. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Mark J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Sale, Michael J.; Eddlemon, Gerald K.

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nation’s waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in other

  3. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

  4. Biochem. J. (2008) 414, 375381 (Printed in Great Britain) doi:10.1042/BJ20080889 375 Structural and mechanistic insights into type II trypanosomatid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnaufer, Achim

    2008-01-01

    conformational change in the secondary- structure architecture, as reported for certain plant GPXs. A modelBiochem. J. (2008) 414, 375­381 (Printed in Great Britain) doi:10.1042/BJ20080889 375 Structural. Despite its similarity to members of the GPX (glutathione peroxidase) family, TbTDPX2 is functional

  5. Congress on Evolutionary Computation 2003, Canberra, 812 Dec 2003, pp807814, IEEE press Predicting Biochemical Interactions Human P450 2D6 Enzyme Inhibition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Predicting Biochemical Interactions ­ Human P450 2D6 Enzyme Inhibition W. B. Langdon Computer Science. Barrett Data Exploration Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Research and Development, Greenford, Middlesex, UK B. F. Buxton Computer Science, University College, London. Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK http

  6. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Please cite this article in press as: Ramos JW, The regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in mammalian cells, Int J Biochem Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramos, Joe W.

    signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in mammalian cells, Int J Biochem Cell Biol (2008), doi:10.1016/j of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in mammalian cells 2 3 Joe W. Ramos 2 Department of Natural Products Received in revised form 18 April 20089 Accepted 25 April 200810 Available online xxx11 12 Keywords:13 ERK

  7. Interannual variability of summer biochemical enhancement in relation to mesoscale eddies at the shelf break in the vicinity of the Pribilof Islands,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Interannual variability of summer biochemical enhancement in relation to mesoscale eddies the 1300-km-long eastern shelf break accompanied by a mesoscale eddy field (Okkonen, 2001a). Eddies occur., 2002). Mesoscale eddies, which penetrate to depths of at least 1000 m (Roden, 1995; Mizobata et al

  8. Development and Testing of a Portable Multi-Channel Depth-Resolved Near Infrared Spectroscopy System for Lower Leg Tissue Oxygenation Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Marko N.

    2013-01-01

    The level of oxygen saturation in the reservoir should bereservoir for porcine or bovine blood storage, ex vivo porcine tissue sample, oxygen saturation

  9. Dynamic Monte Carlo Simulations of the Oxygen Electroreduction Reaction on a Bimetallic Surface 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Adam; Balbuena, Perla

    2006-07-11

    Platinum and platinum alloy surfaces are used as catalysts to promote the reduction of oxygen, one of the reactions used to generate electrical energy in low temperature fuel cells, which are sought as promissory clean power sources...

  10. Defect analysis and excitons diffusion in undoped homoepitaxial diamond films after polishing and oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and oxygen plasma etching Pierre-Nicolas Volpe*1 , Pierre Muret1 , Franck Omnes1 , Jocelyn Achard2 , François) growth sectors. Meanwhile, it * Corresponding author; e-mail: pierre

  11. Theoretical studies of transition metal surfaces as electrocatalysts for oxygen electroreduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamas, Eduardo J.

    2007-09-17

    In the last few years the quest towards a hydrogen based economy has intensified interest for effective and less expensive catalysts for fuel cell applications. Due to its slow kinetics, alternative catalysts for the oxygen ...

  12. Biologically enhanced cathode design for improved capacity and cycle life for lithium-oxygen batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Dahyun

    Lithium-oxygen batteries have a great potential to enhance the gravimetric energy density of fully packaged batteries by two to three times that of lithium ion cells. Recent studies have focused on finding stable electrolytes ...

  13. Control of Fuel Cell Breathing: Initial Results on the Oxygen Starvation Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Hydrogen Water Gas Difusion Layers Flow Fields & Current Collectors H2 Proton Electron Water Oxygen from wind, water, and sun, or reformed hydrocarbon fuel will help reduce our dependency on fossil fuels

  14. Effects of low oxygen culture on pluripotent stem cell differentiation and teratoma formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millman, Jeffrey Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSC) hold promise for the study of embryonic development and the treatment of many diseases. Most pluripotent cell research is performed in incubators with a gas-phase oxygen partial pressure (p02) ...

  15. Potential hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures in legacy plutonium oxide packages at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veirs, Douglas K.

    2014-07-07

    An approach to estimate the maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures within sealed containers is described and applied to a set of packages containing high-purity plutonium dioxide. The approach uses experimentally determined maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures and scales the experimentally determined pressures to the relevant packaged material properties. The important material properties are the specific wattage and specific surface area (SSA). Important results from the experimental determination of maximum partial pressures are (1) the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is stoichiometric, and (2) the maximum pressures increase with increasing initial rates of production. The material properties that influence the rates are the material specific wattage and the SSA. The unusual properties of these materials, high specific wattage and high SSA, result in higher predicted maximum pressures than typical plutonium dioxide in storage. The pressures are well within the deflagration range for mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  16. Microprocessor Based Combustion Monitoring and Control Systems Utilizing in Situ Opacity, Oxygen and CO Measurement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molloy, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    , self-diagnostics, field programmable memory, and improved operator interface. By measuring the products of combustion utilizing the latest In Situ Opacity, Oxygen, and CO Monitoring technology, the fuel air mixture ratio of industrial fuel burning...

  17. Oxygen and Opacity Stack Emission Monitoring Systems To Optimize Combustion Efficiency and Meet EPA Requirements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molloy, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    The combustion efficiency of industrial fuel burning equipment can be optimized through the use of oxygen and opacity stack emission monitoring systems. By providing the operator with the means to obtain accurate, continuous, dynamic feedback...

  18. Comparison between different oxygen adsorption mechanisms for the catalytic oxidation of CO on a surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojeda, C

    2011-01-01

    We study by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations the dynamic behavior of a Ziff-Gulari-Barshad (ZGB) model for the catalytic oxidation of CO on a surface. It is well known that the ZGB model presents a continuous transition between an oxygen poisoned state and a reactive state that it is not observed in nature. Based on some experimental results that indicate that the oxygen atoms move away from each other upon dissociation at the surface, we modify the standard ZGB model by changing the entrance mechanism of the oxygen molecule. We study three different ways in which the oxygen atoms can be adsorbed at the surface such that the nonphysical continuous phase transition disappears. We calculate the phase diagram for the three cases and study the effects of including a CO desorption mechanism.

  19. Ion implantation method for preparing polymers having oxygen erosion resistant surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.; Heatherly, L. Jr.

    1995-04-18

    Hard surfaced polymers and the method for making them are generally described. Polymers are subjected to simultaneous multiple ion beam bombardment, that results in a hardening of the surface, improved wear resistance, and improved oxygen erosion resistance. 8 figs.

  20. Alkbh8 Regulates Selenocysteine-Protein Expression to Protect against Reactive Oxygen Species Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endres, Lauren

    Environmental and metabolic sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage DNA, proteins and lipids to promote disease. Regulation of gene expression can prevent this damage and can include increased transcription, ...

  1. Computational mass transfer moduling of flow through a photocatalytic oxygen generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Köksal, Erin (Erin Sevim)

    2008-01-01

    A self-contained, portable oxygen generator would be extraordinarily useful across a broad spectrum of industries. Both safety and energy-efficiency could be enhanced tremendously in fields such as coal mining, commercial ...

  2. Seasonal and interannual oxygen variability on the Washington and Oregon continental shelves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    nutrient-rich, low-oxygen offshore water is upwelled ontothe majority of the offshore casts were taken during theon the Washington coast, offshore of Grays Harbor (46 N–47

  3. Seasonal and interannual oxygen variability on the Washington and Oregon continental shelves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    nutrient-rich, low-oxygen offshore water is upwelled ontothe majority of the offshore casts were taken during theon the Washington coast, offshore of Grays Harbor (46 N–47

  4. Testing the ancient marine redox record from oxygenic photosynthesis to photic zone euxina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    French, Katherine L. (Katherine Louise)

    2015-01-01

    Tracing the evolution of Earth's redox history is one of the great challenges of geobiology and geochemistry. The accumulation of photosynthetically derived oxygen transformed the redox state of Earth's surface environments, ...

  5. MECHANISM OF OXYGEN ACTIVATION AND HYDROXYLATION BY THE AROMATIC AMINO ACID HYDROXYLASES 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavon, Jorge A.

    2010-07-14

    The aromatic amino acid hydroxylases phenylalanine hydroxylase (PheH), tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TrpH) utilize tetrahydropterin and molecular oxygen to catalyze aromatic hydroxylation. All three enzymes have similar...

  6. Turbulent Oxygen Flames in Type Ia Supernovae A. J. Aspden1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, John B.

    distance behind the carbon flame. However, for Da16 > 1, turbulence enhances heat transfer and drives layer, which we shall refer to as an oxygen "flame", is broadened and islands of nearly isothermal

  7. Sulfur and Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Sulfate at Micromole Levels Using a Pyrolysis Technique in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Becky

    Sulfur and Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Sulfate at Micromole Levels Using a Pyrolysis Technique sample. The technique takes advantage of the easy pyrolysis of Ag2SO4 to SO2, O2, and Ag metal

  8. CROSSED BEAM REACTIVE SCATTERING OF OXYGEN ATOMS AND SURFACE SCATTERING STUDIES OF GASEOUS CONDENSATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    F. 0( D,) Production When dilute oxygen-helium gas mixturesoxygen-helium mixture for maximizing Of D ) production. D Ihelium mixtures (12S torr total pressure, 145 watts I The genera­ and have observed atomic hydrogen production.

  9. From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hallam, Steven

    2011-04-26

    Steven Hallam of the University of British Columbia talks "From Fjords to Open Seas: Ecological Genomics of Expanding Oxygen Minimum Zones" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  10. Oceanic nutrient and oxygen transports and bounds on export production during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunsch, Carl

    Oceanic nutrient and oxygen transports and bounds on export production during the World Ocean about 100 m). Because of correlations between errors, the export production becomes significant when cycling; 4863 Oceanography: Biological and Chemical: Sedimentation; KEYWORDS: export production, nutrient

  11. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, M.M.; Campbell, J.A.

    1998-07-07

    A method is described for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase. 6 figs.

  12. Inhibition of Pyruvate Kinase M2 by Reactive Oxygen Species Contributes to Cellular Antioxidant Responses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vander Heiden, Matthew G.

    Control of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations is critical for cancer cell survival. We show that, in human lung cancer cells, acute increases in intracellular concentrations of ROS caused inhibition ...

  13. In Situ CO, Oxygen, and Opacity Measurement for Optimizing Combustion Control System Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molloy, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    detailed review of the latest state-of-the-art In Situ measurement techniques is provided, including: gas filter correlation spectroscopy (CO), zirconium oxide fuel cell (oxygen), and glass fiber optics based transmissometers (opacity). Recent...

  14. Improving the System Life of Basic Oxygen and Electric Arc Furnace Hoods, Roofs, and Side Vents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes the benefits of a high-performance aluminum bronze alloy to basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace components such as hoods, roofs, and side vents.

  15. Effect of oxygen potential on high temperature crack growth in alloy 617

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benz, Julian K

    2009-01-01

    The effect of oxygen partial pressure on crack growth rates in Alloy 617 has been studied using both static and fatigue loading at 650°C. Tests were conducted at a constant stress intensity factor, K, for static loading ...

  16. Structural design of a lunar lander spacecraft for the Texas space grant regolith oxygen production experiment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baccus, Ronald Kregg

    1996-01-01

    The focus of this research is the determination of a structural design for the lunar lander spacecraft currently being developed by the Texas Space Grant Consortium to transport a regolith oxygen production experiment to the surface of the moon...

  17. Size Influence on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity and Instability of Supported Pt Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Wenchao

    Size-dependent oxygen reduction reaction activity (ORR) and instability of Pt nanoparticles is of great importance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. In this study, the size-dependence of ORR activity on ...

  18. RESPIRATION RATES AND LOW-OXYGEN TOLERANCE LIMITS IN SKIPJACK TUNA, KATSUWONUS PELAMIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RESPIRATION RATES AND LOW-OXYGEN TOLERANCE LIMITS IN SKIPJACK TUNA, KATSUWONUS PELAMIS REGINALD M of voluntarily active skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, at 23°_24° C were measured in the laboratory from

  19. Fundamental understanding and materials design approaches for lithium-oxygen electrochemical energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallant, Betar M. (Betar Maurkah)

    2013-01-01

    New strategies and materials are needed to increase the energy and power capabilities of lithium storage devices for electric vehicle and grid-scale applications. Systems based on oxygen electrochemistry are promising due ...

  20. The influence of organic carbon on oxygen dynamics and bacterial sulfate reduction in inland shrimp ponds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suplee, Michael Wayne

    1995-01-01

    Experiments conducted in saline aquaculture ponds demonstrated that organic matter was the primary factor influencing sediment sulfate reduction rates. Changes in sediment oxygen demand (SOD), sulfate reduction rates, and ...

  1. Behavior of alloy 617 at 650°C in low oxygen pressure environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mas, Fanny (Fanny P.)

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of alloy 617 at 650°C in low oxygen partial pressure environments has been studied under static loading. Of particular interest was the crack growth rate in these conditions. For that, tests were conducted at ...

  2. New cofacial binuclear complexes for the oxygen reduction reaction and selective anion binding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devoille, Aline M. J.

    2011-11-23

    This thesis describes the design, synthesis and reactivity of bimetallic complexes of doubly-pillared Schiff-base calixpyrrole ligands. Chapter One introduces the oxygen reduction reaction in light of the global ...

  3. Negative pressure effects in high-pressure oxygen-intercalated C{sub 60}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schirber, J.E.; Assink, R.A.; Samara, G.A.; Morosin, B.; Loy, D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    1995-06-01

    We have observed unexpected and as yet unexplained negative pressure effects in high-oxygen-pressure-treated C{sub 60} in which the orientational ordering temperature is greatly depressed. Such effects are not observed in identical studies with nitrogen.

  4. Oxygen Reduction Reaction on Dispersed and Core-Shell Metal Alloy Catalysts: Density Functional Theory Studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirunsit, Pussana

    2011-10-21

    stability against dissolution, surface Pourbaix diagrams, and reaction mechanisms provide useful predictions on catalyst durability, onset potential for water oxidation, surface atomic distribution, coverage of oxygenated species, and activity. The roles...

  5. Oxygen-induced Y surface segregation in a CuPdY ternary alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tafen, D. N.; Miller, J. B.; Dogan, O. N.; Baltrus, J. P.; Kondratyuk, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of the segregation behavior of the ternary alloy CuPdY in vacuum (i.e., the clean surface) and in the presence of oxygen. Theoretical prediction shows that for clean surface, yttrium will substitute first for Cu and then for Pd at the subsurface lattice site before segregating to the surface where it substitutes for Cu. XRD characterization of the surface of CuPdY indicates the presence of two major phases, B2 CuPd and Pd{sub 3}Y. In the presence of adsorbed oxygen, theory predicts that Y preferentially occupies surface sites due to its stronger oxygen affinity compared to Cu and Pd. XPS experiments confirm the computational results in the adsorbed oxygen case, showing that surface segregation of yttrium is induced by the formation of Y-oxides at the top-surface of the alloy.

  6. Protection by Isoprene against Singlet Oxygen in Leaves Hagit P. Affek and Dan Yakir*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -methyl-1,3-butadiene) protection against effects of singlet oxygen was investigated in Myrtus communis conditions. Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is emitted by a variety of plant species (Harley et al., 1999

  7. Maintaining Low Oxygen (O2) in Coal Fueled Utility Boilers Using CO Instrumentation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, D.; Downing, T.

    1986-01-01

    Following evaluation of various CO monitors and close attention to the boiler operating conditions, Southwestern Public Service Company has been successful in reducing the operating level of oxygen in Unit #1 at Tolk ...

  8. Physical properties and band structure of reactive molecular beam epitaxy grown oxygen engineered HfO{sub 2{+-}x}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hildebrandt, Erwin; Kurian, Jose; Alff, Lambert [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-12-01

    We have conducted a detailed thin film growth structure of oxygen engineered monoclinic HfO{sub 2{+-}x} grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. The oxidation conditions induce a switching between (111) and (002) texture of hafnium oxide. The band gap of oxygen deficient hafnia decreases with increasing amount of oxygen vacancies by more than 1 eV. For high oxygen vacancy concentrations, defect bands form inside the band gap that induce optical transitions and p-type conductivity. The resistivity changes by several orders of magnitude as a function of oxidation conditions. Oxygen vacancies do not give rise to ferromagnetic behavior.

  9. Mass spectral characterization of oxygen-containing aromatics with methanol chemical ionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, M.V.

    1984-03-01

    Chemical ionization mass spectrometry with methanol and deuterated methanol as ionization reagents is used to differentiate oxygen-containing aromatics, including phenols, aromatic ethers, and aromatic substituted alcohols, as well as compounds containing more than one oxygen atom. The analogous sulfur-containing aromatics may be similarly differentiated. Methanol chemical ionization is used to characterize a neutral aromatic polar subfraction of a coal-derived liquid by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 16 references, 2 tables, 1 figure.

  10. An investigation of the relationship between blood flow and maximal oxygen intake 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riggs, Charles Elmer

    1973-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLOOD FLOW AND MAXIMAL OXYGEN INTAKE A Thesis by CHARLES ELMER RIGGS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1973 Major Subject: Health and Physical Education AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLOOD FLOW AND MAXIMAL OXYGEN INTAKE A Thesis by CHARLES ELMER RIGGS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Chairman...

  11. Effect of bacterium Oceanospirillum on the corrosion potential and oxygen reduction of AISI 4340 steel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popova, Snezana N.

    1992-01-01

    EFFECT OF BACTERIUM OCEANOSPIRILLUM ON THE CORROSION POTENTIAL AND OXYGEN REDUCI1ON OF AISI 4340 STEEL A Thesis by SNEZANA N. POPOVA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering EFFECT OF BACTERIUM OCEANOSPIRILLUM ON THE CORROSION POTENTIAL AND OXYGEN REDUCTION OF AISI 4340 STEEL A Thesis by SNEZANA N. POPOVA Appmved as to style...

  12. Process for the conversion of alcohols and oxygenates to hydrocarbons in a turbulent fluid bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avidan, A. A.; Kam, A. Y.

    1985-04-23

    Improvements in converting C/sub 1/-C/sub 3/ monohydric alcohols, particularly methanol, related oxygenates of said alcohols and/or oxygenates produced by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to light olefins, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons and/or distillate boiling range hydrocarbons are obtained in a fluidized bed of ZSM-5 type zeolite catalyst operating under conditions effective to provide fluidization in the turbulent regime.

  13. Device and method for determining oxygen concentration and pressure in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, M.R.; Hunt, A.J.

    1999-03-23

    Disclosed are oxygen concentration and/or pressure sensing devices and methods which incorporate photoluminescent silica aerogels. Disclosed sensors include a light proof housing for holding the photoluminescent aerogel, a source of excitation radiation (e.g., a UV source), a detector for detecting radiation emitted by the aerogel, a system for delivering a sample gas to the aerogel, and a thermocouple. Also disclosed are water resistant oxygen sensors having a photoluminescent aerogel coated with a hydrophobic material. 6 figs.

  14. Device and method for determining oxygen concentration and pressure in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayers, Michael R. (El Cerrito, CA); Hunt, Arlon J. (Kensington, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are oxygen concentration and/or pressure sensing devices and methods which incorporate photoluminescent silica aerogels. Disclosed sensors include a light proof housing for holding the photoluminescent aerogel, a source of excitation radiation (e.g., a UV source), a detector for detecting radiation emitted by the aerogel, a system for delivering a sample gas to the aerogel, and a thermocouple. Also disclosed are water resistant oxygen sensors having a photoluminescent aerogel coated with a hydrophobic material.

  15. Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Zhang, Junliang (Stony Brook, NY); Vukmirovic, Miomir (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

    2011-11-22

    The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen.

  16. Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Vukmirovic, Miomir

    2012-11-13

    The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen.

  17. Application of oxygen-enriched combustion for locomotive diesel engines. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Assanis, D.N.

    1996-09-01

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power outputs of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure improves power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment reduces particulate and visible smoke emissions but increases NO emissions. However, a combination of retarded fuel injection timing and post-treatment of exhaust gases may be adequate to meet the locomotive diesel engine NO{sub x} standards. Exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required to realize the full potential of oxygen enrichment. Economic analysis shows that oxygen-enrichment technology is economically feasible and provides high returns on investment. The study also indicates the strong influence of membrane parasitic requirements and exhaust energy recovery on economic benefits. To obtain an economic advantage while using a membrane with higher parasitic power requirements, it is necessary to recover a part of the exhaust energy.

  18. Oxygen Transport Kinetics in Infiltrated SOFCs Cathode by Electrical Conductivity Relaxation Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yihong; Gerdes, Kirk; Liu, Xingbo

    2013-07-01

    Infiltration has attracted increasing attention as an effective technique to modify SOFC cathodes to improve cell electrochemical performance while maintaining material compatibility and long-term stability. However, the infiltrated material's effect on oxygen transport is still not clear and detailed knowledge of the oxygen reduction reaction in infiltrated cathodes is lacking. In this work, the technique of electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) is used to evaluate oxygen exchange in two common infiltrated materials, Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-?}. The ECR technique is also used to examine the transport processes in a composite material formed with a backbone of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-?} and possessing a thin, dense surface layer composed of the representative infiltrate material. Both the surface oxygen exchange process and the oxygen exchange coefficient at infiltrate/LSCF interface are reported. ECR testing results indicate that the application of infiltrate under certain oxygen partial pressure conditions produces a measureable increase in the fitted oxygen exchange parameter. It is presently only possible to generate hypotheses to explain the observation. However the correlation between improved electrochemical performance and increased oxygen transport measured by ECR is reliably demonstrated. The simple and inexpensive ECR technique is utilized as a direct method to optimize the selection of specific infiltrate/backbone material systems for superior performance.

  19. Oxygen Atom Adsorption on and Diffusion into Nb(110) and Nb(100) from First Principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tafen, De Nyago; Gao, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    In order to understand the dynamics of oxidation of Nb, we examine the adsorption, absorption, and diffusion of an oxygen atom on, in, and into Nb(110) and Nb(100) surfaces, respectively, using density functional theory. Our calculations predict that the oxygen atom adsorbs on the threefold site on Nb(110) and the fourfold hollow site on Nb(100), and the adsorption energy is -5.08 and -5.18 eV respectively. We find the long and short bridge sites to be transition states for O diffusion on Nb(110), while the on top site is a rank-2 saddle point. In the subsurface region, the oxygen atom prefers the octahedral site, as in bulk niobium. Our results also show that the O atom is more stable on Nb(110) subsurface than on Nb(100) subsurface. The diffusion of oxygen atoms into niobium surfaces passes through transition states where the oxygen atom is coordinated to four niobium atoms. The diffusion barriers of the oxygen atom into Nb(110) and Nb(100) are 1.81 and 2.05 eV, respectively. Analysis of the electronic density of states reveals the emergence of well localized electronic states below the lowest states of clean Nb surfaces due to d-p orbital hybridization.

  20. Effect of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy diffusion pathways in double perovskites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Pilania, Ghanshyam

    2015-07-08

    Perovskite structured oxides (ABO3) are attractive for a number of technological applications, including as superionics because of the high oxygen conductivities they exhibit. Double perovskites (AA’BB’O6) provide even more flexibility for tailoring properties. Using accelerated molecular dynamics, we examine the role of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy mobility in one model double perovskite SrLaTiAlO6. We find that the mobility of the vacancy is very sensitive to the cation ordering, with a migration energy that varies from 0.6 to 2.7 eV. In the extreme cases, the mobility is both higher and lower than either of the two end member single perovskites.more »Further, the nature of oxygen vacancy diffusion, whether one-dimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional, also varies with cation ordering. We correlate the dependence of oxygen mobility on cation structure to the distribution of Ti4+ cations, which provide unfavorable environments for the positively charged oxygen vacancy. The results demonstrate the potential of using tailored double perovskite structures to precisely control the behavior of oxygen vacancies in these materials.« less

  1. Differentiating the role of lithium and oxygen in retaining deuterium on lithiated graphite plasma-facing components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.N. Taylor; J. P. Allain; P. S. Krstic; J. Dadras; C. H. Skinner; K. E. Luitjohan

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory experiments have been used to investigate the fundamental interactions responsible for deuterium retention in lithiated graphite. Oxygen was found to be present and play a key role in experiments that simulated NSTX lithium conditioning, where the atomic surface concentration can increase to >40% when deuterium retention chemistry is observed. Quantum-classical molecular dynamic simulations elucidated this oxygen-deuterium effect and showed that oxygen retains significantly more deuterium than lithium in a simulated matrix with 20% lithium, 20% oxygen, and 60% carbon. Simulations further show that deuterium retention is even higher when lithium is removed from the matrix. Experiments artificially increased the oxygen content in graphite to approximately 16% and then bombarded with deuterium. XPS showed depletion of the oxygen and no enhanced deuterium retention, thus demonstrating that lithium is essential in retaining the oxygen that thereby retains deuterium.

  2. Differentiating the role of lithium and oxygen in retaining deuterium on lithiated graphite plasma-facing components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, C. N. [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625-7113, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States) [Fusion Safety Program, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625-7113, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Allain, J. P. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States) [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Luitjohan, K. E. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Krstic, P. S. [Institute for Advanced Computational Science, Stony Brook University, New York 11794 (United States) [Institute for Advanced Computational Science, Stony Brook University, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); TheoretiK, Knoxville, Tennessee 379XX (United States); Dadras, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Skinner, C. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Laboratory experiments have been used to investigate the fundamental interactions responsible for deuterium retention in lithiated graphite. Oxygen was found to be present and play a key role in experiments that simulated NSTX lithium conditioning, where the atomic surface concentration can increase to >40% when deuterium retention chemistry is observed. Quantum-classical molecular dynamic simulations elucidated this oxygen-deuterium effect and showed that oxygen retains significantly more deuterium than lithium in a simulated matrix with 20% lithium, 20% oxygen, and 60% carbon. Simulations further show that deuterium retention is even higher when lithium is removed from the matrix. Experiments artificially increased the oxygen content in graphite to ?16% and then bombarded with deuterium. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed depletion of the oxygen and no enhanced deuterium retention, thus demonstrating that lithium is essential in retaining the oxygen that thereby retains deuterium.

  3. Biochemical failure and the temporal kinetics of prostate-specific antigen after radiation therapy with androgen deprivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra L. [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Uzzo, Robert G. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)]. E-mail: alan.pollack@fccc.edu

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: The accuracy of the American Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology consensus definition of biochemical failure (BF) after radiation therapy (RT) and androgen deprivation (AD) has been questioned, because posttreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels typically rise after release from AD, and misclassification of BF may be made. The temporal kinetics of posttreatment PSA levels was examined to define the error in the classification of BF. Methods and Materials: Between December 1, 1991 and April 30, 1998, 688 men with T1c-T3 NX/0 M0 prostate cancer received three-dimensional conformal RT alone (n = 586) or in combination with either short-term (STAD: 3 to 12 months, n = 82) or long-term (LTAD: 12 to 36 months, n = 20) AD. Follow-up, calculated from the end of all treatment, was {>=}48 months. The mean posttreatment PSA was calculated in 3-month intervals. Results: The median posttreatment clinical follow-up period was 76 months (range, 48-152 months). The posttreatment PSA values from the end of all treatment for the RT+STAD-BF group showed an initial period of rise followed by a period of decline at 30 months and then a continued rise again. The decline in the mean posttreatment PSA is explained in part by stabilization in PSA level after 3 consecutive rises. Nonbiochemical failures (NBF) after RT+STAD had a relatively constant mean PSA over time of approximately 0.5 ng/mL. Unlike the RT+STAD-NBF profile, the RT+LTAD-NBF profile rose continuously and steadily to a level approaching 1 ng/mL. The RT+LTAD-BF profile rose continuously but at a slower rate over time. Nine RT+STAD-NBF patients (22%) and 2 RT+LTAD-BF (29%) patients experienced 3 consecutive rises followed by a subsequent decline and stabilization of PSA compared to 10 RT-BF patients (5%). Redistributing these misclassified patients to their respective NBF groups changed the mean posttreatment PSA profiles as follows: The RT+LTAD-BF profile rose constantly and steadily with a doubling time of approximately 16 months, and the RT+LAD-NF initially rose to a value of approximately 0.5 ng/mL, then at 36 months began to decline. Conclusions: The temporal kinetics of posttreatment PSA after RT+AD and RT alone are different. The American Society of Therapeutic Radiation Oncology definition for biochemical failure overestimates BF in 20-30% after RT+AD compared to 5% after RT alone.

  4. Economic feasibility of biochemical processes for the upgrading of crudes and the removal of sulfur, nitrogen, and trace metals from crude oil -- Benchmark cost establishment of biochemical processes on the basis of conventional downstream technologies. Final report FY95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1996-08-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; and (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between biodegraded and biotreated oils. The downstream biotechnological crude oil processing research performed thus far is of laboratory scale and has focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of downstream processing with different types of biocatalysts under a variety of processing conditions. Quantitative economic analysis is the topic of the present project which investigates the economic feasibility of the various biochemical downstream processes which hold promise in upgrading of heavy crudes, such as those found in California, e.g., Monterey-type, Midway Sunset, Honda crudes, and others.

  5. Conversion of Mixed Oxygenates Generated from Synthesis Gas to Fuel Range Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Lilga, Michael A.; Flake, Matthew D.

    2012-08-19

    The growing dependence in the U.S. on foreign crude oil supplies and increased concerns regarding greenhouse gas emission has generated considerable interest in research to develop renewable and environmentally friendly liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels. One of the strategies for achieving this is to produce intermediate compounds such as alcohols and other simple oxygenates from biomass generated synthesis gas (mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and further convert them into liquid hydrocarbons. The focus of this research is to investigate the effects of mixed oxygenates intermediate product compositions on the conversion step to produce hydrocarbon liquids. A typical mixed oxygenate stream is expected to contain water (around 50%), alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol (around 35%), and smaller quantities of oxygenates such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. However the ratio and the composition of the mixed oxygenate stream generated from synthesis gas vary significantly depending on the catalyst used and the process conditions. Zeolite catalyzed deoxygenation of methanol accompanied by chain growth is well understood under Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) like reaction conditions using an H-ZSM-5 zeolite as the catalyst6-8. Research has also been conducted to a limited extent in the past with higher alcohols, but not with other oxygenates present9-11. Also there has been little experimental investigation into mixtures containing substantial amounts of water. The latter is of particular interest because water separation from the hydrocarbon product would be less energy intensive than first removing it from the oxygenate intermediate stream prior to hydrocarbon synthesis, potentially reducing overall processing costs.

  6. Oxygen transport in the internal xenon plasma of a dispenser hollow cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capece, Angela M. Shepherd, Joseph E.; Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2014-04-21

    Reactive gases such as oxygen and water vapor modify the surface morphology of BaO dispenser cathodes and degrade the electron emission properties. For vacuum cathodes operating at fixed temperature, the emission current drops rapidly when oxygen adsorbs on top of the low work function surface. Previous experiments have shown that plasma cathodes are more resistant to oxygen poisoning and can operate with O{sub 2} partial pressures one to two orders of magnitude higher than vacuum cathodes before the onset of poisoning occurs. Plasma cathodes used for electric thrusters are typically operated with xenon; however, gas phase barium, oxygen, and tungsten species may be found in small concentrations. The densities of these minor species are small compared with the plasma density, and thus, their presence in the discharge does not significantly alter the xenon plasma parameters. It is important, however, to consider the transport of these minor species as they may deposit on the emitter surface and affect the electron emission properties. In this work, we present the results of a material transport model used to predict oxygen fluxes to the cathode surface by solving the species conservation equations in a cathode with a 2.25?mm diameter orifice operated at a discharge current of 15?A, a Xe flow rate of 3.7 sccm, and 100?ppm of O{sub 2}. The dominant ionization process for O{sub 2} is resonant charge exchange with xenon ions. Ba is effectively recycled in the plasma; however, BaO and O{sub 2} are not. The model shows that the oxygen flux to the surface is not diffusion-limited; therefore, the high resistance to oxygen poisoning observed in plasma cathodes likely results from surface processes not considered here.

  7. Measuring Time to Biochemical Failure in the TROG 96.01 Trial: When Should the Clock Start Ticking?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denham, James W.; Steigler, Allison; Kumar, Mahesh; Lamb, David S.; Joseph, David; Spry, Nigel A.; Tai, Keen-Hun; Atkinson, Chris; Turner, Sandra FRANZCR; Greer, Peter B.; Gleeson, Paul S.; D'Este, Catherine

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: We sought to determine whether short-term neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (STAD) duration influences the optimal time point from which Phoenix fail (time to biochemical failure; TTBF) should be measured. Methods and Materials: In the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96.01 trial, men with locally advanced prostate cancer were randomized to 3 or 6 months STAD before and during prostatic irradiation (XRT) or to XRT alone. The prognostic value of TTBF measured from the end of radiation (ERT) and randomization were compared using Cox models. Results: Between 1996 and 2000, 802 eligible patients were randomized. In 436 men with Phoenix failure, TTBF measured from randomization was a powerful predictor of prostate cancer-specific survival and marginally more accurate than TTBF measured from ERT in Cox models. Insufficient data were available to confirm that TTBF measured from testosterone recovery may also be a suitable option. Conclusions: TTBF measured from randomization (commencement of therapy) performed well in this trial dataset and will be a convenient option if this finding holds in other datasets that include long-term androgen deprivation data.

  8. Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

    2011-10-06

    Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (<260 C boiling point). Carboxylic acid content of all of the high oxygen content fractions was likely too high for these materials to be considered as fuel blendstocks although potential for blending with crude oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.

  9. Process for selection of Oxygen-tolerant algal mutants that produce H.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghirardi, Maria L. (Lakewood, CO); Seibert, Michael (Lakewood, CO)

    1999-01-01

    A process for selection of oxygen-tolerant, H.sub.2 -producing algal mutant cells comprising: (a) growing algal cells photoautotrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase; (b) inducing algal cells grown photoautrophically under fluorescent light to mid log phase in step (a) anaerobically by (1) resuspending the cells in a buffer solution and making said suspension anaerobic with an inert gas; (2) incubating the suspension in the absence of light at ambient temperature; (c) treating the cells from step (b) with metronidazole, sodium azide, and added oxygen to controlled concentrations in the presence of white light. (d) washing off metronidazole and sodium azide to obtain final cell suspension; (e) plating said final cell suspension on a minimal medium and incubating in light at a temperature sufficient to enable colonies to appear; (f) counting the number of colonies to determine the percent of mutant survivors; and (g) testing survivors to identify oxygen-tolerant H.sub.2 -producing mutants.

  10. Regenerable MgO promoted metal oxide oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Miller, Duane D.

    2014-08-19

    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier comprised of a plurality of metal oxide particles in contact with a plurality of MgO promoter particles. The MgO promoter particles increase the reaction rate and oxygen utilization of the metal oxide when contacting with a gaseous hydrocarbon at a temperature greater than about 725.degree. C. The promoted oxide solid is generally comprised of less than about 25 wt. % MgO, and may be prepared by physical mixing, incipient wetness impregnation, or other methods known in the art. The oxygen carrier exhibits a crystalline structure of the metal oxide and a crystalline structure of MgO under XRD crystallography, and retains these crystalline structures over subsequent redox cycles. In an embodiment, the metal oxide is Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and the gaseous hydrocarbon is comprised of methane.

  11. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  12. Theoretical Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity of Ultrathin Platinum Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matanovic, Ivana; Kent, Paul; Garzon, Fernando; Henson, Neil J.

    2012-10-10

    We use density functional theory to study the difference in the structure, stability and catalytic reactivity between ultrathin, 0.5- 1.0 nm diameter, platinum nanotubes and nanowires. Model nanowires were formed by inserting an inner chain of platinum atoms in small diameter nanotubes. In this way more stable, nonhollow structures were formed. The difference in the electronic structure of platinum nanotubes and nanowires was examined by inspecting the density of surface states and band structure. Furthermore, reactivity towards the oxygen reduction reaction of platinum nanowires was addressed by studying the change in the chemisorption energies of oxygen and hydroxyl groups, induced by inserting the inner chain of platinum atoms into the hollow nanotubes. Both ultrathin platinum nanotubes and nanowires show distinct properties compared to bulk platinum. Nanotubes with diameters larger than 1 nm show promise for use as oxygen reduction catalysts.

  13. Density Functional Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity of Ultrathin Platinum Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matanovic, Ivana; Kent, Paul; Garzon, Fernando; Henson, Neil J.

    2013-03-14

    We used density functional theory to study the difference in the structure, stability and catalytic reactivity between ultrathin, 0.5–1.0 nm diameter, platinum nanotubes and nanowires. Model nanowires were formed by inserting an inner chain of platinum atoms in small diameter nanotubes. In this way more stable, non-hollow structures were formed. The difference in the electronic structure of platinum nanotubes and nanowires was examined by inspecting the density of surface states and band structure. Furthermore, reactivity toward the oxygen reduction reaction of platinum nanowires was assessed by studying the change in the chemisorption energies of oxygen, hydroxyl, and hydroperoxyl groups, induced by converting the nanotube models to nanowires. Both ultrathin platinum nanotubes and nanowires show distinct properties compared to bulk platinum. Single-wall nanotubes and platinum nanowires with diameters larger than 1 nm show promise for use as oxygen reduction catalysts.

  14. Influence of oxygen traces on an atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency capacitive argon plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Shouzhe; Wu Qi; Yan Wen; Wang Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, Electron Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China) and School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Uhm, Han S. [Kwangwoon Academy of Advanced Studies, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    An atmospheric-pressure capacitive discharge source driven by radio-frequency power supply at 13.56 MHz has been developed experimentally that is capable of producing a homogeneous and cold glow discharge in O{sub 2}/Ar. With respect to the influence of oxygen component when diluted into argon plasma discharge on the discharge characteristics, the measurements of the electrical parameters (impedance, phase angle, resistance, and reactance) are made systematically and the densities of the metastable and resonant state of argon are determined by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES). It is shown that the admixture of oxygen into argon plasma not only changes the electric characteristics but also alters the optical emission spectra greatly due to strong interaction between the oxygen content and the argon in the plasma environment.

  15. Energy and materials flows in the production of liquid and gaseous oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, S.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1980-08-01

    Liquid and gaseous oxygen is produced in an energy-intensive air separation processo that also generates nitrogen. More than 65% of the cost of oxygen is attributable to energy costs. Energy use and materials flows are analyzed for various air separation methods. Effective approaches to energy and material conservation in air separation plants include efficient removal of contaminants (carbon dioxide and water), centralization of air products user-industries so that large air separation plants are cost-effective and the energy use in transportation is minimized, and increased production of nitrogen. Air separation plants can produce more than three times more nitrogen than oxygen, but present markets demand, at most, only 1.5 times more. Full utlization of liquid and gaseous nitrogen should be encouraged, so that the wasted separation energy is minimized. There are potential markets for nitrogen in, for example, cryogenic separation of metallic and plastic wastes, cryogenic particle size reduction, and production of ammonia for fertilizer.

  16. The Molecular Oxygen Tetramer: Intermolecular Interactions and Implications for the $\\epsilon$ Solid Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartolomei, Massimiliano; Hernández, Marta I; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Campos-Martínez, José; Hernández-Lamoneda, Ramón

    2011-01-01

    Recent data have determined that the structure of the high pressure $\\epsilon$ phase of solid oxygen consists of clusters composed of four O$_2$ molecules. This finding has opened the question about the nature of the intermolecular interactions within the molecular oxygen tetramer. We use multiconfigurational ab initio calculations to obtain an adequate characterization of the ground singlet state of (O$_2$)$_4$ which is compatible with the non magnetic character of the $\\epsilon$ phase. In contrast to previous suggestions implying chemical bonding, we show that (O$_2$)$_4$ is a van der Waals like cluster where exchange interactions preferentially stabilize the singlet state. However, as the cluster shrinks, there is an extra stabilization due to many-body interactions that yields a significant softening of the repulsive wall. We show that this short range behavior is a key issue for the understanding of the structure of $\\epsilon$-oxygen.

  17. Lance for fuel and oxygen injection into smelting or refining furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-12-20

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figures.

  18. Method and device for the determination of low concentrations of oxygen in carbonaceous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Hyman (Jefferson Boro, PA)

    1992-01-01

    Oxygen in carbonaceous materials is converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by pyrolyzing the material in a stream of oxygen-free helium. The CO is reacted with Ni.sup.63, a readioactive isotope of nickel, to form nickel tetracarbonyl (Ni.sup.63 (CO).sub.4) which is carried by the helium stream into a flow-through gas proportional counter. The quantity of Ni(CO).sub.4 is determined by the radioactivity of the gas as measured by the gas proportional counter. After exiting the flow through counter the Ni.sup.63 (CO).sub.4 is destroyed by exposing it to high temperatures. The Ni.sup.63 is retained within the apparatus while the CO is flushed from the system after being oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2). The detection limit is estimated to be less than 1 part per billion oxygen for a 10 mg sample.

  19. Non-linear response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygen availability in a drained histosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNicol, Gavin; Silver, Whendee L

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Soil respiration; methane; carbon dioxide; oxygen;response of carbon dioxide and methane emissions to oxygenof carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) greenhouse gas

  20. Controlled oxygen vacancy induced p-type conductivity in HfO{sub 2-x} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hildebrandt, Erwin; Kurian, Jose; Mueller, Mathis M.; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Alff, Lambert [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Schroeder, Thomas [IHP, 15236 Frankfurt/Oder (Germany)

    2011-09-12

    We have synthesized highly oxygen deficient HfO{sub 2-x} thin films by controlled oxygen engineering using reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Above a threshold value of oxygen vacancies, p-type conductivity sets in with up to 6 times 10{sup 21} charge carriers per cm{sup 3}. At the same time, the band-gap is reduced continuously by more than 1 eV. We suggest an oxygen vacancy induced p-type defect band as origin of the observed behavior.

  1. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

  2. Microfluidic Technology Platforms for Synthesizing, Labeling and Measuring the Kinetics of Transport and Biochemical Reactions for Developing Molecular Imaging Probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelps, Michael E.

    2009-09-01

    Radiotracer techniques are used in environmental sciences, geology, biology and medicine. Radiotracers with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) provided biological examinations of ~3 million patients 2008. Despite the success of positron labeled tracers in many sciences, there is limited access in an affordable and convenient manner to develop and use new tracers. Integrated microfluidic chips are a new technology well matched to the concentrations of tracers. Our goal is to develop microfluidic chips and new synthesis approaches to enable wide dissemination of diverse types of tracers at low cost, and to produce new generations of radiochemists for which there are many unfilled jobs. The program objectives are to: 1. Develop an integrated microfluidic platform technology for synthesizing and 18F-labeling diverse arrays of different classes of molecules. 2. Incorporate microfluidic chips into small PC controlled devices (“Synthesizer”) with a platform interfaced to PC for electronic and fluid input/out control. 3. Establish a de-centralized model with Synthesizers for discovering and producing molecular imaging probes, only requiring delivery of inexpensive [18F]fluoride ion from commercial PET radiopharmacies vs the centralized approach of cyclotron facilities synthesizing and shipping a few different types of 18F-probes. 4. Develop a position sensitive avalanche photo diode (PSAPD) camera for beta particles embedded in a microfluidic chip for imaging and measuring transport and biochemical reaction rates to valid new 18F-labeled probes in an array of cell cultures. These objectives are met within a research and educational program integrating radio-chemistry, synthetic chemistry, biochemistry, engineering and biology in the Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging. The Radiochemistry Training Program exposes PhD and post doctoral students to molecular imaging in vitro in cells and microorganisms in microfluidic chips and in vivo with PET, from new technologies for radiochemistry (macro to micro levels), biochemistry and biology to imaging principles, tracer kinetics, pharmacokinetics and biochemical assays. New generations of radiochemists will be immersed in the biochemistry and biology for which their labeled probes are being developed for assays of these processes. In this program engineers and radio-chemists integrate the principles of microfluidics and radiolabeling along with proper system design and chemistry rule sets to yield Synthesizers enabling biological and pharmaceutical scientists to develop diverse arrays of probes to pursue their interests. This progression would allow also radiochemists to focus on the further evolution of rapid, high yield synthetic reactions with new enabling technologies, rather than everyday production of radiotracers that should be done by technologists. The invention of integrated circuits in electronics established a platform technology that allowed an evolution of ideas and applications far beyond what could have been imagined at the beginning. Rather than provide a technology for the solution to a single problem, it is hoped that microfluidic radiochemistry will be an enabling platform technology for others to solve many problems. As part of this objective, another program goal is to commercialize the technologies that come from this work so that they can be provided to others who wish to use it.

  3. Cobalt complexes: correlation of redox potential with effectivity as oxygenation catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanzlik, Robert P.; Smith, Dale F.

    1974-01-01

    (I) by Co(acac), (I) was not affected by lOOmM tetra-ethylammonium perchlorate (TEAP) but 50 mM LiC10, completely inhibited the cata- lysis. We propose that in this case the lithium ion becomes chelateds by the ligand donor oxygens of the cobalt... com- plex. By acting as a Lewis acid, the bound lithium ion decreases the availability of electron density on the com- plex thus reducing the likelihood of a cobalt-oxygen inter- action. This is substantiated by the sharp increase in the redox...

  4. Synergetic effects of mixed copper-iron oxides oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-06-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean energy production from fuels. CLC produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}-streams without a significant energy penalty. Development of efficient oxygen carriers is essential to successfully operate a CLC system. Copper and iron oxides are promising candidates for CLC. Copper oxide possesses high reactivity but it has issues with particle agglomeration due to its low melting point. Even though iron oxide is an inexpensive oxygen carrier it has a slower reactivity. In this study, mixed metal oxide carriers containing iron and copper oxides were evaluated for coal and methane CLC. The components of CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were optimized to obtain good reactivity while maintaining physical and chemical stability during cyclic reactions for methane-CLC and solid-fuel CLC. Compared with single metal oxygen carriers, the optimized Cu–Fe mixed oxide oxygen carriers demonstrated high reaction rate, better combustion conversion, greater oxygen usage and improved physical stability. Thermodynamic calculations, XRD, TGA, flow reactor studies and TPR experiments suggested that there is a strong interaction between CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contributing to a synergistic effect during CLC reactions. The amount of oxygen release of the mixed oxide carrier in the absence of a fuel was similar to that of the single metal oxides. However, in the presence of fuels, the oxygen consumption and the reaction profiles of the mixed oxide carriers were significantly better than that of the single metal oxides. The nature of the fuel not only influenced the reactivity, but also the final reduction status of the oxygen carriers during chemical looping combustion. Cu oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced metallic copper with both coal and methane. Fe oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced Fe metal with methane but it was reduced to only FeO with coal. Possible mechanisms of how the presence of CuO enhances the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are discussed.

  5. Areas Participating in the Oxygenated Gasoline Program (Released in the STEO July 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    Section 211(m) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q) requires that gasoline containing at least 2.7% oxygen by weight is to be used in the wintertime in those areas of the county that exceed the carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The winter oxygenated gasoline program applies to all gasoline sold in the larger of the Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) or Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) in which the nonattainment area is located.

  6. Method for making photovoltaic devices using oxygenated semiconductor thin film layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James Neil; Albin, David Scott; Feldman-Peabody, Scott; Pavol, Mark Jeffrey; Gossman, Robert Dwayne

    2014-12-16

    A method for making a photovoltaic device is presented. The method includes steps of disposing a window layer on a substrate and disposing an absorber layer on the window layer. Disposing the window layer, the absorber layer, or both layers includes introducing a source material into a deposition zone, wherein the source material comprises oxygen and a constituent of the window layer, of the absorber layer or of both layers. The method further includes step of depositing a film that comprises the constituent and oxygen.

  7. Effect of Oxygen Adsorption on the Local Properties of Epitaxial Graphene on SiC (0001)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, C; Mentes, T O; Pallecchi, E; Locatelli, A; Latil, S; Belkhou, R; Ouerghi, A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of oxygen adsorption on the local structure and electronic properties of monolayer graphene grown on SiC(0001) has been studied by means of Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM), microprobe Low Energy Electron Diffraction (\\muLEED) and microprobe Angle Resolved Photoemission (\\muARPES). We show that the buffer layer of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) is partially decoupled after oxidation. The monitoring of the oxidation process demonstrates that the oxygen saturates the Si dangling bonds, breaks some Si-C bonds at the interface and intercalates the graphene layer. Accurate control over the oxidation parameters enables us to tune the charge density modulation in the layer.

  8. Photochemical oxygenation of a technetium fluoride using F{sub 2} and O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W.

    1996-10-01

    Photochemical conversion of technetium fluorides and oxyfluorides is largely uninvestigated. Because technetium was introduced into U.S. uranium enrichment plants, decommissioning and decontamination of these plants will involve technetium fluorides and oxyfluorides. Photochemical conversion of such compounds may facilitate waste minimization and cost avoidance goals during plant clean-up. Photochemical fluorination using ultraviolet photolysis of a mixture of fluorine and oxygen gases is an effective means of converting solid, nonvolatile fluorides of fight actinides, such as U, Np, and Pu, into volatile hexafluorides thereby removing surface radioactive contamination. Our studies involved the interaction of ultraviolet light, oxygen, and fluorine with technetium fluoride.

  9. Evaluation of Advanced PSA and Oxygen Combustion System for Industrial Furnace Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delano, M. A.; Lagree, D.; Kwan, Y.

    1988-01-01

    and a low NO x oxygen burner was evaluated for industrial furnace applications. The PSA system employs a two-bed vacuum cycle design with a capacity of 1.3 TPD at 90% O 2 purity. The oxygen generated from the PSA system was directly fed to a... Linde "A" Burner with a nominal capacity of 1 MMBTU/hr. The PSA system has shown an excellent reliability, a low power consumption, and good turndown characteristics. The burner produced a uniform temperature profile in a test furnace operated...

  10. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

  11. Reactivity and stability of platinum and platinum alloy catalysts toward the oxygen reduction reaction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvo, Sergio Rafael

    2009-05-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the reactivity of Pt and Pt-M (M: Pd, Co, Ni, V, and Rh) alloy catalysts towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as a function of the alloy overall composition and surface atomic distribution...

  12. Revision of the global carbon budget due to changing air-sea oxygen fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    -derived relationship between changes in atmospheric O2/N2 due to oceanic outgassing and heat fluxes to estimate ocean O2 outgassing. The inferred terrestrial carbon sink for the 1990s is reduced by a factor of two: global carbon budget, changes in ocean heat content, oceanic oxygen outgassing, ocean and land sinks

  13. ACARYOCHLORIS EXPLAINING THE RIDDLE OF CHLOROPHYLL D IN RED ALGAE AND EXPANDING PAR FOR OXYGENIC PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    ACARYOCHLORIS ­ EXPLAINING THE RIDDLE OF CHLOROPHYLL D IN RED ALGAE AND EXPANDING PAR FOR OXYGENIC strain is shown to live epi- phytically on the red alga Gelidium caulacantheum, which itself is harvested by the red alga. Availability of far red light, however, is relatively unaffected by DOM or red

  14. CLIMATICALLY-ACTIVE GASES IN THE EASTERN BOUNDARY UPWELLING AND OXYGEN MINIMUM ZONE (OMZ) SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbe, Christoph S.

    . In this contribution we introduce Index Terms-- Air-Sea Interactions, Fluxes, Green House Gases, Satellite Retrieval) contribute very significantly to the gas exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, notably with respect (Oxygen Minimum Zone) contribute very significantly to the gas exchange between the ocean

  15. The effect of phosphomonoesterases on the oxygen isotope composition of phosphate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    October 2013; available online 29 October 2013 Abstract Plants and microorganisms under phosphorus (P prepared in order to determine the oxygen isotope frac- tionation caused by these enzymes. Adenosine 50). In terrestrial systems, plants and soil microorganisms take up P as orthophosphate (Pi) from the soil solution

  16. Structure-Activity Correlations in a Nickel-Borate Oxygen Evolution D. Kwabena Bediako,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -to-fuels conversion nec- essary to meet the growing global energy demand by renewable sources.1-5 Central- plementation of solar energy will benefit from the continued development of highly active oxygen evolution motivated numerous in situ structural and spectroscopic studies of these materials in concentrated alkali21

  17. Microvascular oxygen tension and flow measurements in rodent cerebral cortex during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Vivek J.

    for interpreting macroscopic functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and identifying pathological changes removing carbon dioxide, heat, and other by- products (Sokoloff, 1992). Although it has long been presumed consists of increases in CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2

  18. Microbial oxygen uptake in sludge as influenced by compost physical parameters1 Ardavan Mohajer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Microbial oxygen uptake in sludge as influenced by compost physical parameters1 Ardavan Mohajer1 The wide range of optimal values reported for the physical parameters of compost2 mixtures suggest: compost, biodegradability, respirometry, moisture content, bulking agent to waste22 ratio, particle size

  19. Wastewater Discharge, Nutrient Loading, and Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in a Shallow Texas Bay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroer, Lee Allen

    2014-05-07

    In Oso Bay, a wastewater treatment plant acts as a source of eutrophication and may have measureable impact on the health of the bay. The objectives of this study were to create a model for modeling dissolved oxygen concentrations over time...

  20. Analysis of the atmospheric distribution, sources, and sinks of oxygenated volatile organic chemicals based on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    chemicals based on measurements over the Pacific during TRACE-P H. B. Singh,1 L. J. Salas,1 R. B. Chatfield measurements of a large number of oxygenated volatile organic chemicals (OVOC) were carried out in the Pacific of OVOC is comparable to that of methane and far exceeds that of NMHC. A comparison of these data