Sample records for bluestem andropogon gerardii

  1. Rangeland Ecol Manage 59:267274 | May 2006 Nutritive Quality of Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ditchkoff, Steve

    to rural areas important to agricultural and forestry practices. Reports regarding O3 effects have focused can be as important as quantity, we determined various effects on nutritive quality characteristics in addition to biomass yield. Big bluestem exhibited little response to O3 exposure. For eastern gamagrass, we

  2. Bluestem Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouthby 2022 |BleckleyMotion EnergyBluestem Electric Coop Inc

  3. Partitioning the effects of plant biomass and litter on Andropogon gerardi in old-field vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, Bryan L.; Gross, Katherine L.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examined the effects of living plant neighbors and litter on the performance of a native C4 grass, Andropogon gerardi, at five old-field sites that differ in community biomass and soil fertility. We used plant removal experiments in which both...

  4. Performance of selected clones of little bluestem, sand bluestem, switchgrass and sideoats grama on a mixedland site of the Rolling Plains of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duvall, Vinson Lamar

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    #507U.......... ................ 77 7* Photograph of switchgrass #5013.............. ........... 77 8. Photograph of switchgrass #5001;.*............ ............ 78 9* Photograph of switchgrass #5171........... ..... .......... 78 10* Photograph... to equal its 1955 yield by only h*9 grains, a figure which 28 29 Table 3* Flowering dates of little bluestem clones, 1955 Bate Clone Nos, 7/7 U57 7 /i i 1088 7/L6 1087 8/2 1022 8/h 1029 8/6 1097 8/8 1115 8M m )i 8A8 1162 9/5 1107 9/18 1059 9...

  5. Genome size variation of Gossypium hirsutum 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez, Martha I.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been found positively correlated with nuclear DNA content (Black and Bechmann, 1983). In Andropogon gerardii, 94% of the variation in DNA content could be explained on the basis of chromosome number (Keeler et al. , 1987). But variation in DNA...

  6. Effects of One Year of Intensive Clipping on Big Bluestem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owensby, Clenton E.

    to the lab, and cold-water washed, rhizomes only were retained. In 1969 the rhizome samples were analyzed mill (40 mesh screen), then stored in sealed glass bottles in the dark. Total nonstructural). Kjeldahl nitrogen also was run on each sample. In mid-July 1970, grams dry matter/1000 cm* and tiller

  7. A cytogenetical survey of the Andropogon ischaemum complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celarier, Robert Paul

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to U) O U3 o DOm sO 4> O O 4> O O 00- 4> O P DOc NO v/t vO VO vO A*52S O to Cd UJ ?8 OQ g H * CD ? *i CO ET O O ? 4>O S s o s ? to to O V-n CD ?U P...

  8. Bridging the Divide: Linking Genomics to Ecosystem Responses to Climate Change: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Melinda D.

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the project period, we have addressed the following objectives: 1) assess the effects of altered precipitation patterns (i.e., increased variability in growing season precipitation) on genetic diversity of the dominant C4 grass species, Andropogon gerardii, and 2) experimentally assess the impacts of extreme climatic events (heat wave, drought) on responses of the dominant C4 grasses, A. gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans, and the consequences of these response for community and ecosystem structure and function. Below is a summary of how we have addressed these objectives. Objective 1 After ten years of altered precipitation, we found the number of genotypes of A. gerardii was significantly reduced compared to the ambient precipitation treatments (Avolio et al., 2013a). Although genotype number was reduced, the remaining genotypes were less related to one another indicating that the altered precipitation treatment was selecting for increasingly dissimilar genomes (based on mean pairwise Dice distance among individuals). For the four key genotypes that displayed differential abundances depending on the precipitation treatment (G1, G4, and G11 in the altered plots and G2 in the ambient plots), we identified phenotypic differences in the field that could account for ecological sorting (Avolio & Smith, 2013a). The three altered rainfall genotypes also have very different phenotypic traits in the greenhouse in response to different soil moisture availabilities (Avolio and Smith, 2013c). Two of the genotypes that increased in abundance in the altered precipitation plots had greater allocation to root biomass (G4 and G11), while G1 allocated more biomass aboveground. These phenotypic differences among genotypes suggests that changes in genotypic structure between the altered and the ambient treatments has likely occurred via niche differentiation, driven by changes in soil moisture dynamics (reduced mean, increased variability and changes in the depth distribution of soil moisture) under a more variable precipitation regime, rather than reduced population numbers (A. gerardii tiller densities did not differ between altered and ambient treatments; p = 0.505) or a priori differences in genotype richness (Avolio et al.2013a). This ecological sorting of genotypes, which accounts for 40% of all sampled individuals in the altered plots, is an important legacy of the press chronic climate changes in the RaMPs experiment. Objective 2 In May 2010, we established the Climate Extremes Experiment at the Konza Prairie Biological Station. For the experiment, a gradient of temperatures, ranging from ambient to extreme, were imposed in 2010 and 2011 as a mid-season heat wave under well-watered or severe drought conditions. This study allowed us for the first time to examine species-specific thresholds of responses to climate extremes and assess how these phenotypic responses may impact selection of particular genotypes, with the ultimate goal of linking alterations in individual performance and genetic diversity to ecosystem structure and functioning. We found that tallgrass prairie was resistant to heat waves, but it was not resistant to extreme drought, which reduced aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) below the lowest level measured in this grassland in almost thirty years (Hoover et al. in press(a)). This extreme reduction in ecosystem function was a consequence of reduced productivity of both C4 grasses and C3 forbs. This reduction in biomass of the C4 grasses (Andropogon gerardii and Sorghastrum nutans) was, in part, due to significant reductions in photosynthesis, leaf water potential and productivity with drought in the dominant grasses species, with S. nutans was more sensitive than A. gerardii to drought (Hoover et al. in press(b)). However, the dominant forb was negatively impacted by the drought more than the dominant grasses, and this led to a reordering of species abundances within the plant community. Although this change in community composition persisted post-drought, ANPP recovered completely the year after drought

  9. The use of regression equations to determine utilization of little bluestem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McArthur, James Andrew Bell

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of stubble-height at 50 percent utilization for sites I, III, IV and V in 1950................... . 37 X. Analysis of variance of stubble-height at 50 percent utilization for site I in 1949 and 1950 ........................... 37 XI. Correlation... artificially-grazed little blue? st ejk plants at three different times by two different methods................ 69 V 1. Map of Texas showing location of study areas and adjacent weather stations .............. 8 2 . Aspect of site I showing the widely...

  10. Leaf dynamics of little bluestem and brownseed paspalum in response to herbivory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Joel Raymond

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of differences in parameters of interest be- tween treatments, locations, and replications were tested using the General Linear Model proceduce of :. ati sti cal Analysis System (He)wig and Council 1979). Duncans's New Multiple Range Test (Snedecor...

  11. Nutritive value of eastern little bluestem and sweetgum as influenced by canopy condition and soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howell, Joe Wynn

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?'* ) ' ~ . ~d' ) ) d () (~L' 'd ) ~(f ) ) ' () d )y ) (QX) d ) d ( 70() canopy cover condition and four major soil series: Tenaha loamy fine sand, Cuthbert fine sandy loam, Woodtell very fine sandy loam, and Lacerda clay loam found in the National Forest..., Lufkin, Texas. . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Mean soil moisture (%), on a dry weight basis, of the top 30. 5 cm of a Tanaha loamy fine sand (l. f. s. ), Cuthbert fine sandy loam (f. s. l. ), Woodtell very fine sandy loam (v. f. s. l. ), and Lacerda clay...

  12. Leaf dynamics of little bluestem and brownseed paspalum in response to herbivory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Joel Raymond

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and nongrazed periods in a short- duration grazing system stocked at four levels. LITERATURE REVIEW Otqt f Id' ir i L Leaf growth in grasses originates at the apical meri stem or growing point. In the vegetative stage of plant growth the apical meristem...- dividual leaves may be determined by their position on the ti11er. Leaf primordia and axillary bud structures are produced in a continual se- quence at the apical meri stem. Initiation of leaf primordi a is commonly thought to occur in response...

  13. Use of tristimulus colorimetry to measure ornamental color in little bluestem grass (Schizachyrium scoparium [Michx.] Nash) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snowden, John Seward

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    color within the light range perceived by the human eye (Francis and Clydesdale, 1975). The basic machinery uses a light source, three filters to imitate the responses of the human eye, and photocells. Several systems of quantification of color... using tristimulus colorimetry have been developed 11 (Francis and Clydesdale, 1975). The Hunterlab Labscan Spectro Colorimeter LS 5100 with videoscreen monitor has the capability of measuring color in four systems. Concentration here...

  14. NUTRITIVE QUALITY OF EASTERN GAMAGRASS, BIG BLUESTEM, AND HIGHBUSH BLACKBERRY EXPOSED TO TROPOSPHERIC OZONE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ditchkoff, Steve

    metropolitan areas to rural areas important to agricultural and forestry practices. Many studies regarding O3) the ambient concentration of O3. Because forage quality can be just as important as quantity, I chose to investigate effects on nutritive quality parameters in addition to biomass yield. Mean 12-hr daytime (0900

  15. Fertilization of yellow beardgrass, Andropogon Ischaemum L., with special reference to forage yield, seed yield, and seed quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bates, Richard P

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    February 28, lq/+Q. Ths fertilizers vere partly covered by running a plow lightly through the middles. The Zertilizers vere applied at random to the plots in ecch reps. cation, The seed IBateriai was ~sted Nay @, and October 8 by cLLpping the psduncles...

  16. The effect of burning, under proper grazing, on bluestem pastures in the Flint Hills of Kansas in relation to the botanical, chemical, and nutritional composition of the vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Edgar F.

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ^ O CM O O O O O O O H O O O O O O O O H O O O O O r r ) EtEt r r r ) E t r r ) ) ) E ? r r r r r r ?. sfcR o j - ? o o O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O H O H H 1?I 1?I C\\J 1?I OJ O O O Un 1?I 1?11?l 1?( 1?I O O U...

  17. UTILITIES -STOKER BOILER REPLACEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayfield, John

    HUGHESAVE COUNTRY CL UBBLVD GRAEBER ST BIG BLU ESTEMCOURT LI TTLE BLUESTEM COURT CO LLEGE MAPLE, WILLOW

  18. Evaluation of four grasses for seeding on South Texas rangeland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polk, David Beck

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    annulatus Forsk cv. "Pretoria 90"), Gordo bluestem (Dicanthium aristatum (Poir. ) C. E. Hubb. cv. "Gordo"), King Ranch bluestem (Bothriochloa ishchaemum L. var. songaricus Rupr. ), Kleberg bluestem (Bothriochloa annulatus Forsk. ), Medio bluestem... (Dicanthium aristatum (Poir. ) C. E. Hubb. cv. "Medio" ), Higgins buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv. "Higgins"), Wintergreen h dihgas kehlais~steet h k. ca. "ah t g e), d E 1 1 g (~Ett 1 lg h d. ) N NErmeloN). Selection cri teria included initial...

  19. Some effects of different kinds, rates, and depth of fertilization on germination and growth of five species of native grass in the field and greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grumbles, Jim Bob

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in decreasing order of prefexence were sideosts grams, swftcbgxass& silver bluestem, snd csx&e bluestem. Only the most succulent leaves of cane bluestem were taken, but the s1deosts grams& switchgxsss& snd silver biuastem were utilized sn estimated QO& (5...

  20. The Chemical Composition of Forage Grasses from the Gulf Coast Prairie as Related to Soils and to Requirements for Range Cattle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

    1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    grass or sacahuiste (Spartina spartinae) occurs only along the coast where the soils contain considerable salt. Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon), Dallis (Papsalurn dilatatum) , and carpet (Axonopxs affinis) grasses occur usually on more fertile soils which... saccharoides Cynodon dactylon Poa annua Andropogon provincialis Andropogon rcoparius Setaria viridir Setaria ~utescens Andropogon virginicus Medicago lupulzna Buchloe dactyloides Phalaris caroliniana Phalaris minor Axonopur affinis Medicago spp...

  1. Utilization and composition of forage in a longleaf-pine-hardwood forest of Newton County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, William B

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bluostem from s'tc 1& open& of forage clipped to simlulate grating as observed on site A Data on little bluestem from site B, intermediate ~ of fox age olipped to sgsulate graain" as observed on s" te B ~ ~ ~ o ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Data... on little bluestam from site C, intermediate& of forage clipped to simulate grasing as observed on site ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Cl IV ~ Vie Data on little bluestem fro= site D& heavy& of forage clipped to s+ulate grasping as observed on site...

  2. Seeding Rangeland.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Tommy G.; Rector, Barron S.; Alderson, James S.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    top (Digitaria ca/i(ornica) Caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica) Common reed9 (Phragmites australis) Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) Gordo bluestem (Dichanthium aristatum) ,___,.__ ~reen sp,ra_n~}.~~~!'- Variety1 Saltalk... to clay soil than other varieties. Nueces and Llano are more cold tolerant than Common and Higgins. 9Common reed is used at waterline on farm ponds and watershed dams for stabilization. When used at waterline, use anywhere in the state regardless...

  3. Brush Control and Range Improvement: In the Post Oak-Blackjack Oak Area of Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darrow, Robert A.; McCully, Wayne G.

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    limited amount of underbrush and such associated species as greenbrier, live oak and mesquite. A distinguishing feature of the fringe area is the abundance of buffalograss. Early settlers in the area report little bluestem as the principal species... produce little palatable forage. Productive bottom- land sites support stands of oaks, elm, pecan and bois d'arc with a forage cover of bluestems, Indiangrass, Canada wildrye and other climax species. EAST CROSS TIMBERS The oak belt characteristic...

  4. Establishment of grass mixtures on roadsides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpkins, Cynthia Lynne

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the mulch. Evaporabon of soil moisture from the seed zone can be reduced with a surface inulch for 6 days to 2 weeks, an advantage which can be crucial in the emergence and development of young plants. A hectare with 0. 9 tons of sorghum residue.../ha Buffalograss Green sprangletop Little bluestem Sideoats grama cv. Haskell Yellow Indiangrass cv. Cheyenne 5. 9 0. 7 1. 2 2. 0 1. 7 Lufkin Bermudagrass (Common) Green sprangletop Little bluestem Switchgrass Yellow Indiangrass 1. 0 0. 8 1. 6 1...

  5. Seed Production Characteristics of Some Introduced Warm-Season Grasses.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holt, Ethan C.

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -63 Forage production1 Ssed production2 1961 1962 1963 Accession or variety Species 1961 1962 1963 Percent Percent ~eave.' pounds Pounds seed Pounds Pretoria 90 Dicanthium annulatum 3.4 1.5 2.6 27.1 90 8 4 2 11.7 70 Medio Dicanthium caricosum .9 .6 1... production characteristics, ;Ire numerous members of the introtluced bluestems, ey)e(i;~lly members of the Dicnnthizlm complex. Some nl (llcse include Medio, Pretoria 90, Angleton and li1ebe1.g bluestems. Kleingrass, Panicum coloratum, i5 anotller...

  6. An internship review of the Criswell and Wagon Creek-Spade Ranches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Copeland, Lanny C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the late Mr. J, S. Crlswell of Seymour. When Mr. Crlswell was alive, he managed a registered Hereford operation on the ranch. In 1985. all cattle were taken off of the ranch to allow the entire ranch to rest . I believe that this decision was very... (~m g~D)) and Arizona cottontop (~t~ ~~). Increasers include 'buffalograss (iiiigIIJJ)S. /~~ST), silver bluestem, meadow dropseed (QRgCg~ ~ var. fICiigZigrgflJ. ) and Texas cupgrass (~gbJJ)S, ~~). As range condition deteriorates, annual broomweed...

  7. The establishment, growth, and forage production of five grass species during their first growing season on an upland postoak site in Brazos County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adcock, Willie Leroy

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    showing good growth and its erect culms on July 16, 1953 King Ranch bluestem on July 16, 1953, showing its sprawling culms and slow initial growth 31 32 32 14. Silver beardgrass on July 16, 1953. Growth compares favorably with that of RF472... and isolation strips. When plantings were made and when readings were taken of the plots, the inside plots A I' ) Replications V Poi Poi Pci Bou 4sa RF472 Asa RF472 Asa Asa 4is N Bou Poi Cheek Asa RF472 Asa Ais Cheok Pci 1. 9 ' Cheek Bou Asa RF...

  8. Bluewater Wind LLC | Open Energy Information

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass ConversionsSouthby 2022 |BleckleyMotion EnergyBluestem Electric Coop IncWind

  9. Blum, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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  10. Blumau GEPP | Open Energy Information

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  11. Blundell 2 Power Plant Details | Open Energy Information

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  12. Blythe, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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  13. Blytheville, Arkansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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  14. Boalsburg, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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  15. Boardman to Hemingway | Open Energy Information

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  16. Boardman, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

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  17. Bob Lawrence Associates Inc | Open Energy Information

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  18. Seeding Rangeland.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Tommy G.; Haferkamp, Marshall R.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 2 1 2 N W X X X X X X X X X 15 (Digitaria cali/omica) Caucasian bluestem 860.000 0.5 l.2 2 2 2 2 1 1 I W X X X X X X X X X X 18 (Bothriochloa caucasica) Common reed9 Shoreline Rhizomes 1 to 11/2 3 1 2 1 lIN W X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X... to clay soil than other varieties Nueces and Llano are' more cold tolerant than Common and Higgins 9Common reed is used at waterline on farm ponds and watershed dams for stabilization When used at waterline . use anywhere In the state regardless...

  19. The initial phase of a Longleaf Pine-Wiregrass Savanna restoration: species establishment and community responses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aschenbach, Todd, A; Foster, Bryan, L.; Imm, Donald, W.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AbstractAbstract The significant loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem in the southeastern United States has serious implications for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. In response to this loss, we have initiated a long-term and landscape-scale restoration experiment at the 80,125 ha (310 mi2) Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. Aristida beyrichiana (wiregrass), an important and dominant grass (i.e., a “matrix” species) of the longleaf pine savanna understory, and 31 other herbaceous “non-matrix” species were planted at six locations throughout SRS in 2002 and 2003. Of the 36,056 transplanted seedlings, 75% were still alive in June 2004, while mean 1–2 year survival across all planted species was 48%. Lespedeza hirta (hairy lespedeza) exhibited the greatest overall survival per 3 ×3 m cell at 95%, whereas Schizachyrium spp. (little bluestem) exhibited the greatest mean cover among individual species at 5.9%. Wiregrass survival and cover were significantly reduced when planted with non-matrix species. Aggregate cover of all planted species in restored cells averaged 25.9% in 2006. High rates of survival and growth of the planted species resulted in greater species richness (SR), diversity, and vegetative cover in restored cells. Results suggest that the loss of the longleaf pine-wiregrass ecosystem may be ameliorated through restoration efforts and illustrate the positive impact of restoration plantings on biodiversity and vegetative cover.

  20. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sara Bergan, Executive Director; Brendan Jordan, Program Manager; Subcontractors as listed on the report.

    2007-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The following report contributes to our knowledge of how to economically produce wildlife-friendly grass mixtures for future fuel feedstocks in the northern plains. It investigates northern-adapted cultivars; management and harvest regimes that are good for yields, soils and wildlife; comparative analysis of monocultures and simple mixtures of native grasses; economic implications of growing grasses for fuel feedstocks in specific locations in the northern plains; and conversion options for turning the grasses into useful chemicals and fuels. The core results of this study suggest the following: ? Native grasses, even simple grass mixtures, can be produced profitably in the northern plains as far west as the 100th meridian with yields ranging from 2 to 6 tons per acre. ? Northern adapted cultivars may yield less in good years, but have much greater long-term sustainable yield potential than higher-yielding southern varieties. ? Grasses require very little inputs and stop economically responding to N applications above 56kg/hectare. ? Harvesting after a killing frost may reduce the yield available in that given year but will increase overall yields averaged throughout multiple years. ? Harvesting after a killing frost or even in early spring reduces the level of ash and undesirable molecules like K which cause adverse reactions in pyrolysis processing. Grasses can be managed for biomass harvest and maintain or improve overall soil-health and carbon sequestration benefits of idled grassland ? The carbon sequestration activity of the grasses seems to follow the above ground health of the biomass. In other words plots where the above ground biomass is regularly removed can continue to sequester carbon at the rate of 2 tons/acre/year if the stand health is strong and yielding significant amounts of biomass. ? Managing grasses for feedstock quality in a biomass system requires some of the same management strategies as managing for wildlife benefit. We believe that biomass development can be done in such a way that also maximizes or improves upon conservation and other environmental goals (in some cases even when compared to idled land). ? Switchgrass and big bluestem work well together in simple mixture plots where big bluestem fills in around the switchgrass which alone grows in bunches and leaves patches of bare soil open and susceptible to erosion. ? Longer-term studies in the northern plains may also find that every other year harvest schemes produce as much biomass averaged over the years as annual harvests ? Grasses can be grown for between $23 and $54/ton in the northern plains at production rates between 3 and 5 tons/acre. ? Land costs, yields, and harvest frequency are the largest determining factors in the farm scale economics. Without any land rent offset or incentive for production, and with annual harvesting, grass production is likely to be around $35/ton in the northern plains (farm gate). ? Average transportation costs range from $3 to $10/ton delivered to the plant gate. Average distance from the plant is the biggest factor - $3/ton at 10 miles, $10/ton at 50 miles. ? There is a substantial penalty paid on a per unit of energy produced basis when one converts grasses to bio-oil, but the bio-oil can then compete in higher priced fuel markets whereas grasses alone compete directly with relatively cheap coal. ? Bio oil or modified bio-oil (without the HA or other chemical fraction) is a suitable fuel for boiler and combustion turbines that would otherwise use residual fuel oil or number 2 diesel. ? Ensyn has already commercialized the use of HA in smokey flavorants for the food industry but that market is rather small. HA, however, is also found to be a suitable replacement for the much larger US market for ethanolamines and ethalyne oxides that are used as dispersants. ? Unless crude oil prices rise, the highest and best use of grass based bio-oil is primarily as a direct fuel. As prices rise, HA, phenol and other chemical fractions may become more attractive ? Although we were