Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bluestem andropogon gerardii" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Bluestem Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bluestem Electric Coop Inc Bluestem Electric Coop Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Bluestem Electric Coop Inc Place Kansas Utility Id 23826 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Single-Phase General Service Demand Commercial Single-Phase Service Commercial Single-Phase Service Residential Single-Phase Time-of-Use Service Single-Phase Total Electric Service Single-phase Earth-Coupled Heat Pump Service Commercial Average Rates Residential: $0.1410/kWh Commercial: $0.1160/kWh Industrial: $0.2110/kWh

2

watchlist  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Watch List for Native Prairie Plants Watch List for Native Prairie Plants Common Name Scientific Name Date Found Grasses BIG BLUESTEM Andropogon gerardii * INDIAN GRASS Sorghastrum nutans * LITTLE BLUESTEM Andropogon scoparius * SWITCH GRASS Panicum virgatum * CORD GRASS Spartina pectinata * NEEDLEGRASS Stipa spartea **u PRAIRIE DROPSEED Sporobolus pectinata **u SIDE-OATS GRAMA Bouteloua curtipendula **u Forbs ROSINWEED Silphium integrifolium SAW-TOOTHED SUNFLOWER Helianthus grossesserratus * WILD BERGAMOT Monarda fistulosa * YELLOW CONEFLOWER Ratibida pinnata * BLACK-EYED SUSAN Rudbeckia hirta ** COMPASS PLANT Silphium lactiniatum ** CUP-PLANT Silphium perfoliatum **u NEW ENGLAND ASTER Aster novae-angilae ** PRAIRIE DOCK Silphium terebinthinaceum ** RATTLESNAKE MASTER Eryngium yuccifolium ** STIFF GOLDENROD Solidaga rigida **

3

prairie plant list  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

List of Native Prairie Plant Illustrations List of Native Prairie Plant Illustrations Select the common name of the plant you want to view. Common Name Scientific Name Grasses BIG BLUESTEM Andropogon gerardii INDIAN GRASS Sorghastrum nutans LITTLE BLUESTEM Andropogon scoparius SWITCH GRASS Panicum virgatum CORD GRASS Spartina pectinata NEEDLEGRASS Stipa spartea PRAIRIE DROPSEED Sporobolus pectinata SIDE-OATS GRAMA Bouteloua curtipendula FORBS ROSINWEED Silphium integrifolium SAW-TOOTHED SUNFLOWER Helianthus grossesserratus WILD BERGAMOT Monarda fistulosa YELLOW CONEFLOWER Ratibida pinnata BLACK-EYED SUSAN Rudbeckia hirta COMPASS PLANT Silphium lactiniatum CUP PLANT Silphium perfoliatum NEW ENGLAND ASTER Aster novae-angilae PRAIRIE DOCK Silphium terebinthinaceum RATTLESNAKE MASTER Eryngium yuccifolium STIFF GOLDENROD Solidaga rigida

4

Do yield and quality of big bluestem and switchgrass feedstock decline over winter?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerdardii Vitman) are potential perennial bioenergy feedstocks. Feedstock storage limitations, labor constraints for harvest, and environmental benefits provided by perennials are rationales for developing localized perennial feedstock as an alternative or in conjunction with annual feedstocks (i.e., crop residues). Little information is available on yield, mineral, and thermochemical properties of native species as related to harvest time. The studys objectives were to compare the feedstock quantity and quality between grasses harvested in the fall or the following spring. It was hypothesized that biomass yield may decline, but translocation and/or leaching of minerals from the feedstock would improve feedstock quality. Feedstock yield did not differ by crop, harvest time, or their interactions. Both grasses averaged 6.0 Mg ha-1 (fall) and 5.4 Mg ha-1 (spring) with similar high heating value (17.7 MJ kg-1). The K/(Ca + Mg) ratio, used as a quality indicator declined to below a 0.5 threshold, but energy yield (Megajoule per kilogram) decreased 13% by delaying harvest until spring. Only once during the four study-years were conditions ideal for early spring harvest, in contrast during another spring, very muddy conditions resulted in excessive soil contamination. Early spring harvest may be hampered by late snow, lodging, and muddy conditions that may delay or prevent harvest, and result in soil contamination of the feedstock. However, reducing slagging/fouling potential and the mass of mineral nutrients removed from the field without a dramatic loss in biomass or caloric content are reasons to delay harvest until spring.

Jane M.F. Johnson; Garold L. Gresham

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjacent great plains Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vegetation Andropogon gerardii - Sorghastrum nutans Western Great Plains... curtipendula Western Great ... Source: Colorado State University, Center for Environmental Management...

6

Nutritive value of eastern little bluestem and sweetgum as influenced by canopy condition and soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Advisory Committee: Dr. Jerry Stuth A study was conducted in the Angelina National Forest, located with- in the loblolly-shortleaf pine region of central east Texas, to examine the I crude protein and B IVDOM content of eastern little bluestem (~SI.... Seasonal variation of forage quality was also evaluated on both forage species. Overall, canopy condition influenced the I crude protein and B IVDOM of both plant species more than soils. Crude protein of eastern little bluestem was significantly higher...

Howell, Joe Wynn

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

7

Partitioning the effects of plant biomass and litter on Andropogon gerardi in old-field vegetation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examined the effects of living plant neighbors and litter on the performance of a native C4 grass, Andropogon gerardi, at five old-field sites that differ in community biomass and soil fertility. We used plant removal experiments in which both...

Foster, Bryan L.; Gross, Katherine L.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Microsoft Word - S08266_App_A-2.doc  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

2 2 2011 Vegetation Index of Biotic Integrity Results This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Fernald Preserve, Ohio, Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report Appendix A-2, 2011 Vegetation Index of Biotic Integrity Results Doc. No. S08266 May 2012 Page A-2-1 Table A-2-1. BAPW2 Wetland Vegetation Monitoring Data Summary Total Species 34 Native Species 30 Non-Native (Adventive) Species 4 Average CC b 2.78 Species Common Name Type CC b Nativity Wetland Indicator c Relative Cover Alisma subcordatum SOUTHERN WATER- PLANTAIN forb 2 native OBL 0.296% Ambrosia artemisiifolia COMMON RAGWEED forb 0 native FACU 0.075% Ammannia robusta SESSILE TOOTH-CUP forb 7 native OBL 0.296% Andropogon gerardii BIG BLUESTEM grass 5 native FAC 1.035% Asclepias incarnata SWAMP MILKWEED forb 4 native OBL 0.739%

9

Effect of clipping at several stages of growth of first year plants of cane Bluesteam (Andropogon barbinodis Lag.) on subsequent development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1965 Major Subject: Range Management EFFECT OF CLIPPING AT SEVERAL STAGES OF GROWTH OF FIRST YEAR PLANTS OF CANE BLUESTEM (~Ad P S S d I S. ) ON SUBSEQUENT DEVELDPMENT... L. Leinweber. Also, thanks to Mr. Paul Ohlenbusch, graduate student of Range Management, for his help and suggestions during the study. Appreciation is extended to Dr. Eldred E. Dayhoff, staff member of the Institute of Statistics, and Mr...

Bernardon, Abel Eduardo

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

WESTERN GREAT PLAINS RIPARIAN WOODLAND, SHRUBLAND AND HERBACEOUS extent exaggerated for display  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WESTERN GREAT PLAINS RIPARIAN WOODLAND, SHRUBLAND AND HERBACEOUS S.Kettler extent exaggerated ALLIANCE Andropogon gerardii - Sorghastrum nutans Western Great Plains Herbaceous Vegetation CAREX Plains Herbaceous Vegetation TYPHA (ANGUSTIFOLIA, LATIFOLIA) - (SCHOENOPLECTUS SPP.) SEMIPERMANENTLY

11

Competition and coexistence in grassland codominants: responses to neighbour removal and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the outcome, we included a fertilizer addition treatment (10 g N·m­2 ) fully crossed with the removalCompetition and coexistence in grassland codominants: responses to neighbour removal and resource prairie using a removal experiment with Andropogon gerardii Vitman and Sorghastrum nutans L. Nash, two

Blair, John

12

1  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

LANDFILL COVER REVEGETATION AT THE LANDFILL COVER REVEGETATION AT THE ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE Jody K. Nelson Exponent, 4940 Pearl East Circle, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80020 ABSTRACT In 1998, a revegetation project was begun on a landfill cover at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site near Golden, Colorado. After final contouring of the landfill cover, the area was broadcast seeded with native species including: Agropyron smithii, Bouteloua gracilis, Buchloe dactlyoides, Andropogon gerardii, Andropogon scoparius, and Linum perenne. In May 1999, the cover was treated by helicopter with Tordon22K ® to control the noxious weed, Centaurea diffusa. During 2001, vegetation cover and species richness was measured along five 50-m transects. A total of 25

13

A cytogenetical survey of the Andropogon ischaemum complex  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

*il M\\J1 VjO M ro .? 00 vn % 1?p- wN> -t? o * N) to U i 8 oto a * 1 s r o ? o X ^5L i ^ to V-0 00 ? e to VJ7I s o ^15 ^5; e o M 0) to e o CD PHj O vn ? I vji U) O 00 1 4>4> O O nU) U) \\-Tl O ? I... O UJ O 00 IV^> VjJ ay3 vn ? Ivn 4> O H *St*t I195 195 a6A 5 ? I S o >i i U) Vjj vO cx> k^-O VjO I**-P- U3 _t oo ? ? QQ D T O O l i ? S 8 4 ? Ssa m CD ? c+ 00 CDH CDO c+ CD CD Oc+ O ht CD Q c*? CDhi CDQc+ 0?J CDOc...

Celarier, Robert Paul

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

14

The use of regression equations to determine utilization of little bluestem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

directly east of the Catholic Church along Farm Highway 60 in College Station. Site III is located in a horse trap at the Sonora Range Experiment Station (Substation 14) about 30 miles south of Sonora. Site IV is located on the Goodnight ranch 1 1... populations were sampled varies from about 33 inches at site III (Substation 14) in the west to about 39 inches at sites I and II (College Station) in the east. Site VI (Kerrville) 1. The data on climate from Cllmatological Data, Texas. U. S. Department...

McArthur, James Andrew Bell

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

15

Reseeding trials with seedhay material of little bluestem in western Williamson County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

total for the plot. This total was used as a '~e to compute the percentage composition of each speoiss for t. &e plot, The number of weed and forb plants per acre was recorded by actual stem count on a three inch belt on one ide of each line...?f established seedlings of little blusstem found within the three inch belt transsot wss recorded in the fall readings. To arrive at an indication of vigor in the established seedlings& biseote were made of average siaed seedlings. T? obtaining a bisect a...

Yarlett, Lewis L

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Use of tristimulus colorimetry to measure ornamental color in little bluestem grass (Schizachyrium scoparium [Michx.] Nash)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

performance of a plant species. Knowledge of color response to horticultural media is important for efficient production and public appeal at sale. This is especially important with grasses, where the color performance is manifested in the entire visible... subjective numerical scale. Cool season and native grasses exhibited the best winter survival in Nebraska. Ornamental qualities for these species were stated as inferior to those of imported species. Another publication (Meyer, 1975) dealt primarily...

Snowden, John Seward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

17

Studies in the physiology of phanerogamic parasitism with special reference toStriga lutea Lour. andS. Densiflora Benth. onAndropogon sorghum Hack.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1. The relation of temperature to the germination ofS. lutea andS. densiflora seeds was determined. The temperat...

S. Solomon

1952-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

The effect of burning, under proper grazing, on bluestem pastures in the Flint Hills of Kansas in relation to the botanical, chemical, and nutritional composition of the vegetation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

s ........................................ M+ Steer G r a d e s ...................................... 52 S U M M A R Y .................................................. 56 LITERATURE CITED ........................................ ..60 Page I. Precipitation by month and year...-soil relationships on the pastures Anderson and F l y (1955) delineated six range sites. Plate 1 shows these sites. Site 1 presented the largest comparable grass sampling area among all the pastures. All other sites with the possible exception of Site 2 make up...

Smith, Edgar F.

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

19

Seeding Rangeland.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

top (Digitaria ca/i(ornica) Caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica) Common reed9 (Phragmites australis) Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) Gordo bluestem (Dichanthium aristatum) ,___,.__ ~reen sp,ra_n~}.~~~!'- Variety1 Saltalk...

Welch, Tommy G.; Rector, Barron S.; Alderson, James S.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Evaluation of four grasses for seeding on South Texas rangeland  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

annulatus Forsk cv. "Pretoria 90"), Gordo bluestem (Dicanthium aristatum (Poir. ) C. E. Hubb. cv. "Gordo"), King Ranch bluestem (Bothriochloa ishchaemum L. var. songaricus Rupr. ), Kleberg bluestem (Bothriochloa annulatus Forsk. ), Medio bluestem... (Dicanthium aristatum (Poir. ) C. E. Hubb. cv. "Medio" ), Higgins buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. cv. "Higgins"), Wintergreen h dihgas kehlais~steet h k. ca. "ah t g e), d E 1 1 g (~Ett 1 lg h d. ) N NErmeloN). Selection cri teria included initial...

Polk, David Beck

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "bluestem andropogon gerardii" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Studies in the physiology of phanerogamic parasitism with special reference toStriga lutea, Lour. andS. Densiflora, Benth. onAndropogom sorghum, Hack  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While studying the influence of nutrition of the host on the susceptibility ofAndropogon sorghum to attack by the phanerogamic root-parasitesStriga lutea andS. densiflora, the host along with the parasites were g...

S. Solomon

1952-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Biological Invasions 3: 5168, 2001. 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, invertebrates, Juncus gerardii, New England, Phragmites australis, Spartina patens, tidal marsh Abstract. On the eastern seaboard of the USA, Phragmites australis has invaded both brackish and salt marsh habitats. Phragmites australis influence on sediments and fauna was investigated along a salinity and invasion

Levin, Lisa

23

Potential effects of hydrogen sulfide gas from geothermal energy conversion on two plant species native to northern New Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dry weight of topgrowth, water content of topgrowth, leaf nitrogen content, and leaf chlorophyll content were measured in well-watered, field-exposed little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium Nash.) and mountain brome (Bromus marginatus Nees.) plants fumigated with various mean levels of H/sub 2/S ranging from 0.05 to 3.58 ppM. The youngest fully expanded leaves were sampled for chlorophyll content after 60, 80, 100, and 140 and 60, 80, 120, and 140 h total of fumigation for little bluestem and mountain brome, respectively. All other responses were measured after 140 h total of fumigation. The plants received a 7-day fumigation-free period prior to the seventh week (140 h) of fumigations. Dry weight of little bluestem plants which received low concentrations of H/sub 2/S (0.11 ppM) increased by 94% of the control. Dry weight of little bluestem plants which received higher concentrations of H/sub 2/S (0.12 to 0.48 ppM) was reduced to the control level. At the highest H/sub 2/S concentration (2.39 ppM) dry weight of little bluestem was reduced by 44% of the control. Mountain brome was relatively unaffected at the different concentrations of H/sub 2/S until 3.58 ppM H/sub 2/S was received where dry weight was reduced by 37% of the control.

Gonzales, G.J.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Perennials, Grasses & Shrubs Colorado State Forest Service Nursery is proud to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

maintenance evergreen is a must for your landscape. CALL TODAY! 970-491-8429 #12; sales season** Grasses Little Bluestem · Low maintenance cover plant · Prefers well drained soils is a great addition to your landscape. Mountain Mahogany This species provides attractive color year around

25

Impact of prescribed burning on Gulf Coast tick populations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

included upland prairies consisting of lush and moderately tall little bluestem (~ski* h 1 ~i (Mt h . ] M h . ~f f. t. M bb bkbhbl kby(~sh(b(1t MhdRbp h btt t fth 1 h b; (Rh s ~)li L. ) h bft t fth d t1yd d t y; p ( (~oi y ~ii 1 L. ) habitat which...

Oldham, Thomas Walter

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

The influence of drought, fertilization and clipping on native range vegetation in South Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

during drought on Nueces fine s a n d ....................................... 6l Plant communities....................................... 6l Bluestem-Paspalum community. . . . ................ 61 Sandhill grass-Shrub mesquite communities. . . . 66... Page Sandhill grass communities .................. . . 66 Annual plant communities .................. . . . 69 Characteristics of soils in plant communities. . . ?0 DISCUSSION........................................... 7 ? 5* SUMMARY...

Nord, Eamor Carroll

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Springview II Wind Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Springview II Wind Project Springview II Wind Project Jump to: navigation, search Name Springview II Wind Project Facility Springview II Wind Project Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Bluestem LLC Developer Bluestem LLC Energy Purchaser NPPD Location Springview NE Coordinates 42.82578163°, -99.77630854° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.82578163,"lon":-99.77630854,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

28

Effect of Brush Vegetation on Deep Drainage Using Chloride Mass Balance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is comparable to that by herbaceous vegetation (Wilcox, 2005). The canopy of an average-size, mature redberry and ashe juniper can intercept 26% and 37% of the annual precipitation, respectively. Redberry and ashe juniper litter can intercept 40% and 43..., superactive, thermic Pachic Paleustolls. Dominant woody-shrub vegetation cover includes juniper (Juniperus ashei) with other existing vegetation such as little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium) and threeawn (Aristida). Site G4 The soil at site G4...

Navarrete Ganchozo, Ronald J.

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

29

Seeding Rangeland.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

30 (Phragmites australis) 12 to 18 rhizomes in long per foot of row ( I" ~ (Enge m..,." nia pinnatifida) \\-:- ~-: . Engel laisy ( Eldorado 58.500 5.0 15.0 1 3 2 1 3 N C I X X X X X X X X X X X X X ~ ... Gordo bluestem 500.000 0.5 l.2 2 2 2 3 2...

Welch, Tommy G.; Haferkamp, Marshall R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Plant mixtures and monocultures on topsoiled and nontopsoiled lignite spoil in the Post Oak Savannah of Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SG SC IB LB SW SG BG IG SG CB IB SC TOPSOIL 6m TEST PIT . Figure 2. Plot diagram and side view of Dow Chemical lignite test pit. BG - Bahiagrass CB ? Coastal bermudagrass , IB - Illinois Bundleflower IG ? Indiangrass LB ? Little bluestem.... Brown, whose assistance and insight on this research proved invaluable. I gratefully acknowledge Northwestern Resources Co. for providing the financial support, and Dow Chemical Co, for providing the study site for this project. Special thanks...

Van Hook, Kevin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

31

Hydrologic impacts of a herbicide/fire brush management system on Post Oak Savannah soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in h 1 b1 p 11tt1 b1 ta (~sebi ch 1 ~sc ~ 1 (iMichx. ) Nash. Gould), silver bluestem (Hothriochloa saccharoides (1? t. ) Rydb. ), id t g (B t 1 ~ti d 1 (tli h t?. ) d P1 id p p 1 (~gt f1 id ni h. ) th g it p 1 lyd 1 tdbyb s dp P1 (~at p11 ti Michx.... ) Hitch. ), vaseyg ass (~Pas alu u villei Steud. ), plains loveg ass (~Era ostis intermedia Hitch. ) and Dicanthelium spp, . The forb cover consists primarily of sneezeweed (Helenium amarum (Raf. ) H, Rock), goldaster (Heterotheca pilosa (Nutt...

Reilley, John Joseph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

32

Screening level model for ecological risk assessment at EF-Site Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to a paucity of data on the chemical toxicity of uranium to plants, a factorial experiment employing five uranium concentrations (0, 50, 500, 5000, 25000 ppm) and three moisture regimes (low, medium, high) was performed using three native grasses. Buchloe dactyloides (buffalograss-mid/late seral), Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem-late seral), and Aristida longiseta (purple threeawn-early/mid seral) were grown in monocultures and every mixture of two species under all combinations of uranium and moisture levels. This design allows for the analysis of uranium effects, as well as possible compound effects due to moisture stress. Several measures of plant health and viability were made, including: percent emergence, survivability of seedlings and mature plants, root and shoot biomass, and the number and mass of inflorescences. No significant differences between uranium levels were observed in terms of emergence and seedling survival. Effects are evident for plant biomass, fecundity, and long-term survivability.

Alldredge, A.W.; Kirchner, T.B.; McLendon, T. [and others

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Property:EIA/861/NercSpp | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NercSpp NercSpp Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Boolean. Description: Nerc Spp Entity conducts business operations within the SPP region (Y or N) [1] References ↑ EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2008 - F861 File Layout-2008.doc Pages using the property "EIA/861/NercSpp" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) A Alfalfa Electric Coop, Inc + true + Anadarko Public Works Auth + true + Arkansas Electric Coop Corp + true + Ashley Chicot Elec Coop, Inc + true + Auburn Board of Public Works + true + B Bailey County Elec Coop Assn + true + Basin Electric Power Coop + true + Big Country Electric Coop, Inc + true + Bluestem Electric Coop Inc + true + Bowie-Cass Electric Coop, Inc + true + Brown-Atchison E C A Inc + true +

34

Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following report contributes to our knowledge of how to economically produce wildlife-friendly grass mixtures for future fuel feedstocks in the northern plains. It investigates northern-adapted cultivars; management and harvest regimes that are good for yields, soils and wildlife; comparative analysis of monocultures and simple mixtures of native grasses; economic implications of growing grasses for fuel feedstocks in specific locations in the northern plains; and conversion options for turning the grasses into useful chemicals and fuels. The core results of this study suggest the following: ? Native grasses, even simple grass mixtures, can be produced profitably in the northern plains as far west as the 100th meridian with yields ranging from 2 to 6 tons per acre. ? Northern adapted cultivars may yield less in good years, but have much greater long-term sustainable yield potential than higher-yielding southern varieties. ? Grasses require very little inputs and stop economically responding to N applications above 56kg/hectare. ? Harvesting after a killing frost may reduce the yield available in that given year but will increase overall yields averaged throughout multiple years. ? Harvesting after a killing frost or even in early spring reduces the level of ash and undesirable molecules like K which cause adverse reactions in pyrolysis processing. Grasses can be managed for biomass harvest and maintain or improve overall soil-health and carbon sequestration benefits of idled grassland ? The carbon sequestration activity of the grasses seems to follow the above ground health of the biomass. In other words plots where the above ground biomass is regularly removed can continue to sequester carbon at the rate of 2 tons/acre/year if the stand health is strong and yielding significant amounts of biomass. ? Managing grasses for feedstock quality in a biomass system requires some of the same management strategies as managing for wildlife benefit. We believe that biomass development can be done in such a way that also maximizes or improves upon conservation and other environmental goals (in some cases even when compared to idled land). ? Switchgrass and big bluestem work well together in simple mixture plots where big bluestem fills in around the switchgrass which alone grows in bunches and leaves patches of bare soil open and susceptible to erosion. ? Longer-term studies in the northern plains may also find that every other year harvest schemes produce as much biomass averaged over the years as annual harvests ? Grasses can be grown for between $23 and $54/ton in the northern plains at production rates between 3 and 5 tons/acre. ? Land costs, yields, and harvest frequency are the largest determining factors in the farm scale economics. Without any land rent offset or incentive for production, and with annual harvesting, grass production is likely to be around $35/ton in the northern plains (farm gate). ? Average transportation costs range from $3 to $10/ton delivered to the plant gate. Average distance from the plant is the biggest factor - $3/ton at 10 miles, $10/ton at 50 miles. ? There is a substantial penalty paid on a per unit of energy produced basis when one converts grasses to bio-oil, but the bio-oil can then compete in higher priced fuel markets whereas grasses alone compete directly with relatively cheap coal. ? Bio oil or modified bio-oil (without the HA or other chemical fraction) is a suitable fuel for boiler and combustion turbines that would otherwise use residual fuel oil or number 2 diesel. ? Ensyn has already commercialized the use of HA in smokey flavorants for the food industry but that market is rather small. HA, however, is also found to be a suitable replacement for the much larger US market for ethanolamines and ethalyne oxides that are used as dispersants. ? Unless crude oil prices rise, the highest and best use of grass based bio-oil is primarily as a direct fuel. As prices rise, HA, phenol and other chemical fractions may become more attractive ? Although we were

Sara Bergan, Executive Director; Brendan Jordan, Program Manager; Subcontractors as listed on the report.

2007-06-06T23:59:59.000Z