National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for blows furling-a passive

  1. THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING IS BLOWING UP.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THIS IS A COPY OF THE EXECUTED DOCUMENT THIS IS A COPY OF THE EXECUTED DOCUMENT THIS IS A COPY OF THE EXECUTED DOCUMENT THIS IS A COPY OF THE EXECUTED DOCUMENT

    March 2016 THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING IS BLOWING UP. From the obvious-hand tools and chess pieces-to the less obvious-body parts and shelf-stable food-just about every item imaginable is being subjected to the two-step process of digitization and fabrication that is 3D printing. One of the factors fueling the

  2. Simulation of the Two Stages Stretch-Blow Molding Process: Infrared Heating and Blowing Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordival, M.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Velay, V. [CROMeP - Ecole des Mines d'Albi Carmaux - Campus Jarlard - 81013 Albi cedex 09 (France)

    2007-05-17

    In the Stretch-Blow Molding (SBM) process, the temperature distribution of the reheated perform affects drastically the blowing kinematic, the bottle thickness distribution, as well as the orientation induced by stretching. Consequently, mechanical and optical properties of the final bottle are closely related to heating conditions. In order to predict the 3D temperature distribution of a rotating preform, numerical software using control-volume method has been developed. Since PET behaves like a semi-transparent medium, the radiative flux absorption was computed using Beer Lambert law. In a second step, 2D axi-symmetric simulations of the SBM have been developed using the finite element package ABAQUS registered . Temperature profiles through the preform wall thickness and along its length were computed and applied as initial condition. Air pressure inside the preform was not considered as an input variable, but was automatically computed using a thermodynamic model. The heat transfer coefficient applied between the mold and the polymer was also measured. Finally, the G'sell law was used for modeling PET behavior. For both heating and blowing stage simulations, a good agreement has been observed with experimental measurements. This work is part of the European project ''APT{sub P}ACK'' (Advanced knowledge of Polymer deformation for Tomorrow's PACKaging)

  3. Blowing in the Wind ...Offshore | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blowing in the Wind ...Offshore Blowing in the Wind ...Offshore February 10, 2011 - 9:28am Addthis Cathy Zoi Former Assistant Secretary, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy What will this project do? The new offshore wind strategy lays out a path to potentially have 54 gigawatts of offshore wind capacity by 2030, enough to power more than 15 million homes with clean, renewable energy. Have you ever flown a kite at the beach? If you have, you know how breezy it can be. A few miles

  4. At DOE, body blows to Fusion, Nuclear Physics, and Particle Physics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    news.sciencemag.orgscienceinsider201202at-doe-body-blows-to-fusion-nucl.html Submitted: Monday, February 13...

  5. CR-39 track etching and blow-up method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hankins, Dale E. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    This invention is a method of etching tracks in CR-39 foil to obtain uniformly sized tracks. The invention comprises a step of electrochemically etching the foil at a low frequency and a "blow-up" step of electrochemically etching the foil at a high frequency.

  6. Multiscale Modeling of Sickle Anemia Blood Blow by Dissipative Partice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamics | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Sickle Anemia Blood Blow by Dissipative Partice Dynamics Authors: Huan, L., Caswell, B., Karniadakis, G A multi-scale model for sickle red blood cell is developed based on Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD). Different cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes) typically observed in in vitro and in vivo are constructed and the deviations from the biconcave shape is quantified by the Asphericity and Elliptical shape factors. The

  7. Collegiate Wind Competition Set to Blow AWEA WINDPOWER 2016 Away |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy AWEA WINDPOWER 2016 Away Collegiate Wind Competition Set to Blow AWEA WINDPOWER 2016 Away May 11, 2016 - 1:12pm Addthis When you add passionate collegiate competitors and their pioneering wind turbine designs to America's largest wind industry event, you get a winning combination designed to spark excitement. Bringing together the next generation of wind energy professionals with today's industry leaders, the U.S. Department of Energy Collegiate Wind Competition 2016

  8. At DOE, body blows to Fusion, Nuclear Physics, and Particle Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Science) | Jefferson Lab At DOE, body blows to Fusion, Nuclear Physics, and Particle Physics (Science) External Link: http://news.sciencemag.org/scienceinsider/2012/02/at-doe-body-blows-to-fusion-nu... By jlab_admin on Mon, 2012-02-13

  9. Soot blower using fuel gas as blowing medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanca, Michael C. (Tariffville, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A soot blower assembly (10) for use in combination with a coal gasifier (14). The soot blower assembly is adapted for use in the hot combustible product gas generated in the gasifier as the blowing medium. The soot blower lance (20) and the drive means (30) by which it is moved into and out of the gasifier is housed in a gas tight enclosure (40) which completely surrounds the combination. The interior of the enclosure (40) is pressurized by an inert gas to a pressure level higher than that present in the gasifier so that any combustible product gas leaking from the soot blower lance (20) is forced into the gasifier rather than accumulating within the enclosure.

  10. [Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-07-01

    We developed and experimentally tested physical models for growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models are ``point defect models,`` in which the growth and breakdown are described in terms of movement of anion and cation vacancies. The work during the past 5 years resulted in: theory of growth and breakdown of passive films, theory of corrosion-resistant alloys, electronic structure of passive films, and estimation of damage functions for energy systems. Proposals are give for the five ongoing tasks. 10 figs.

  11. Passive solar space heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of passive solar space heating is presented indicating trends in design, new developments, performance measures, analytical design aids, and monitored building results.

  12. NREL: Wind Research - Winds of Change Blowing for Wind Farm Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Winds of Change Blowing for Wind Farm Research with NREL's SOWFA Tool Simulation from SOWFA that shows a number of wind turbines and how the wind is flowing between them, with the ...

  13. On lower bounds for possible blow-up solutions to the periodic Navier-Stokes equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortissoz, Jean C. Montero, Julio A. Pinilla, Carlos E.

    2014-03-15

    We show a new lower bound on the H{sup .3/2} (T{sup 3}) norm of a possible blow-up solution to the Navier-Stokes equation, and also comment on the extension of this result to the whole space. This estimate can be seen as a natural limiting result for Leray's blow-up estimates in L{sup p}(R{sup 3}), 3 < p < ?. We also show a lower bound on the blow-up rate of a possible blow-up solution of the Navier-Stokes equation in H{sup .5/2} (T{sup 3}), and give the corresponding extension to the case of the whole space.

  14. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  15. Passive solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  16. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  17. Passive research and practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Passive-solar applications in buildings are described and examples are given to illustrate how research in the field has been approached. The major emphasis of the research has been on devising mathematical models to characterize heat flow within buildings, on the validation of these models by comparison with test results, and on the subsequent use of the models to investigate the influence of both various design parameters and the weather on system performance. Results from both test modules and monitored buildings are given. Simulation analysis, the development of simplified methods, and systems analysis are outlined. Passive-solar practice is described and the key elements that have led to successful passive-solar applications are discussed.

  18. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  19. Passive solar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Passive solar applications in buildings are described. The major emphasis of the research has been on devising mathematical models to characterize heat flow within buildings, on the validation of these models by comparison with test results, and on the subsequent use of the models to investigate the influence of both various design parameters and the weather on system performance. Results from both test modules and monitored buildings are discussed. Simulation analysis, the development of simplified methods, and systems analysis are outlined. Passive solar potential in China is discussed.

  20. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1992-10-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970`s through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  1. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970's through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  2. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  3. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  4. Compressed Air System Modifications Improve Efficiency at a Plastics Blow Molding Plant (Southeastern Container Plant)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the plastics blow molding plant project.

  5. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hales, David

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  6. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  7. Passive Solar Home Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Design for Efficiency Passive Solar Home Design Passive Solar Home Design This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but ...

  8. Passive Solar Space Heat | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Passive Solar Space Heat Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titlePassiv...

  9. Passivated niobium cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  10. Passive solar buildings research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    This chapter covers research advances in passive solar buildings research during the time span from 1982 through 1991. These advances fall within the following categories: (1) short-term energy monitoring, (2) heat transport by natural convection within buildings, and (3) design guidelines and design tools. In short-term energy monitoring, a simulation model of the building is calibrated, based on data taken in a 3-day test. The method accurately predicts performance over an extended period. Heat transport through doorways is characterized for complex situations that arise in passive solar buildings. Simple concepts and models adequately describe the energy transport in many situations of interest. In a new approach, design guidelines are automatically generated for any specific locality. Worksheets or an accompanying computer program allow the designer to quickly and accurately evaluate performance and investigate design alternatives. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Passively actuated valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Modro, S. Michael; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2005-09-20

    A passively actuated valve for isolating a high pressure zone from a low pressure zone and discontinuing the isolation when the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below a preset threshold. If the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below the preset threshold, the valve opens and allows flow from the high pressure zone to the low pressure zone. The valve remains open allowing pressure equalization and back-flow should a pressure inversion between the two pressure zone occur.

  12. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  13. Passive-solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  14. Passive magnetic bearing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  15. Passive containment cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  16. Passive containment cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  17. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  18. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  19. Collegiate Wind Competition Set to Blow into Vegas in May | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy into Vegas in May Collegiate Wind Competition Set to Blow into Vegas in May January 23, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The United States is among the world's largest and fastest growing wind energy markets. In fact, wind energy is now the number one source of new U.S. electricity generation capacity-representing 43% of all new electric additions in 2012 and accounting for $25 billion in U.S. investment. To help the nation's future scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs continue to advance

  20. Passive Solar Industries Council | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Passive Solar Industries Council Jump to: navigation, search Name: Passive Solar Industries Council Place: Ashland, OR Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL...

  1. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  2. Propagation dynamics of laterally colliding plasma plumes in laser-blow-off of thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Singh, R. K.; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, P. K.; Kumar, Ajai, E-mail: ajai@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2014-08-15

    We report a systematic investigation of two plume interactions at different spatial separation (3-7?mm) in laser-blow-off. The plasmas plumes are created using Laser-blow-off (LBO) scheme of a thin film. The fast imaging technique is used to record the evolution of seed plasmas and the interaction zone which is formed as a result of interaction of the two seed plasmas. Time resolved optical emission spectroscopy is used to study evolution of optical emissions of the species present in the different regions of the plasmas. Neutral Li emissions (Li I 670.8?nm (2s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} ? 2p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,1/2}) and Li I 610.3?nm (2p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,1/2} ? 3d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2,5/2})) are dominant in the plasmas but significant differences are observed in the emission and estimated plasma parameters of the seed and the interaction zone. The transport of plasma species from the seed plasmas to the interaction zone is discussed in the terms of plume divergence, kinetic energy of particles, and ion acoustic speed. An attempt is made to understand the formation and dynamics of the interaction zone in the colliding LBO seed plasmas.

  3. Development of the Variable Atmosphere Testing Facility for Blow-Down Analysis of the Mars Hopper Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan D. Jerred; Robert C. O'Brien; Steven D. Howe; James E. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Recent developments at the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) on a Martian exploration probe have lead to the assembly of a multi-functional variable atmosphere testing facility (VATF). The VATF has been assembled to perform transient blow-down analysis of a radioisotope thermal rocket (RTR) concept that has been proposed for the Mars Hopper; a long-lived, long-ranged mobile platform for the Martian surface. This study discusses the current state of the VATF as well as recent blow-down testing performed on a laboratory-scale prototype of the Mars Hopper. The VATF allows for the simulation of Mars ambient conditions within the pressure vessel as well as to safely perform blow-down tests through the prototype using CO2 gas; the proposed propellant for the Mars Hopper. Empirical data gathered will lead to a better understanding of CO2 behavior and will provide validation of simulation models. Additionally, the potential of the VATF to test varying propulsion system designs has been recognized. In addition to being able to simulate varying atmospheres and blow-down gases for the RTR, it can be fitted to perform high temperature hydrogen testing of fuel elements for nuclear thermal propulsion.

  4. WIPP - Passive Institutional Controls (PICs)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed a program for the development of Passive Institutional Controls to alert future generations to the potential hazards of intersecting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository. These controls are required by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [Title 40 CFR, Sections 191.14 and 194.43]. The purpose of a passive control, or a PIC, is to indicate the location of the repository and to convey the dangers associated with human exposure to the

  5. Passive Solar Home Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design for Efficiency » Passive Solar Home Design Passive Solar Home Design This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system (top of roof) supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary radiant floor heating system. | Photo courtesy of Jim Schmid Photography. This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system (top of roof) supplies both domestic hot water and a

  6. Passive solar design handbook. Volume III. Passive solar design analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Kosiewicz, C.E.; Lazarus, G.S.; McFarland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1982-07-01

    Simple analytical methods concerning the design of passive solar heating systems are presented with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Key terminology and methods are reviewed. The solar load ratio (SLR) is defined, and its relationship to analysis methods is reviewed. The annual calculation, or Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method, is outlined. Sensitivity data are discussed. Information is presented on balancing conservation and passive solar strategies in building design. Detailed analysis data are presented for direct gain and sunspace systems, and details of the systems are described. Key design parameters are discussed in terms of their impact on annual heating performance of the building. These are the sensitivity data. The SLR correlations for the respective system types are described. The monthly calculation, or SLR method, based on the SLR correlations, is reviewed. Performance data are given for 9 direct gain systems and 15 water wall and 42 Trombe wall systems. (LEW)

  7. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown. Final report, [September 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.

    1994-02-21

    Purpose is to understand the mechanisms for growth and breakdown of passive films on metal and alloy surfaces in aqueous medium; a secondary goal is to devise methods for predicting localized corrosion damage in industrial systems. Tasks currently being studied are: formation of bilayer structures in passive films on metals and alloys; passivity breakdown on solid vs. liquid gallium; roles of alloying elements in passivity breakdown; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; electronic structure of passive oxide films; photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; and kinetics of localized attack.

  8. Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling July 27, 2014 - 4:18pm Addthis Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Using passive solar design to heat...

  9. Dynamics of laser-blow-off induced Li plume in confined geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Singh, R K; Kumar, Ajai [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)

    2013-08-15

    Dynamics of Li plasma plume created by laser-blow-off technique in air ambient is reported. Plasma plume dynamics and its optical emission are investigated in planar and confined geometries using time resolved shadowgraph imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. Significant differences in the plasma characteristics in confined geometry are quantitatively investigated by comparing the plasma parameters (temperature and density) in free expansion and confined geometry configurations. Dynamics and physical parameters of the primary as well as the reflected shock waves (in confined geometry) and their interactions with expanding plasma are briefly addressed. A large enhancement in the emission intensities of Li I 610.3 nm (2p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2}? 3d {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,5/2}) and 670.8 nm (2s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}? 2p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2}) is correlated with the shock wave dynamics in the two geometries. Strong self reversal in the neutral emission infers an increase in the population density of neutrals within the confined plasma plume.

  10. Evaluation of Alternate Surface Passivation Methods (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  11. Physics of passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Primary emphasis in the paper is on methods of characterizing and analyzing passive solar buildings. Simplifying assumptions are described which make this analysis tractable without compromising significant accuracy or loss of insight into the basic physics of the situation. The overall nature of the mathematical simulation approach is described. Validation procedures based on data from test rooms and monitored buildings are outlined. Issues of thermal comfort are discussed. Simplified methods of analysis based on correlation procedures are reported and the nature of the economic conservation-solar optimization process is explored. Future trends are predicted.

  12. Passive solar in China: traditional and new

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Balcomb, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    The authors' observations of a tradition of passive solar architecture in northern China are described. Tendencies for modern buildings to depart from this tradition are noted. Major passive solar research programs are discussed and experimental buildings are illustrated. It is concluded that the Chinese could realize a major advantage by combining their strong tradition of passive solar architecture with modern insulation methods and improved glazing systems.

  13. Gap between active and passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

  14. Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    efficiency silicon solar cells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Authors: ...

  15. Passive House Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Darmstadt, Germany Sector: Buildings Product: Focused on researching and promoting highly energy-efficient buildings that incorporate principles of heat exchange, passive heating,...

  16. Category:Passive Sensors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Imaging L Long-Wave Infrared M Macrophotography Multispectral Imaging N Near Infrared Surveys O Oblique Aerial & Ground Visible Band & Thermographic Imaging P Passive...

  17. Rules of thumb for passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Rules of thumb are given for passive solar systems for: (1) sizing solar glazing for 219 cities, (2) sizing thermal storage mass, and (3) building orientation.

  18. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorski, Anthony J.; Schertz, William W.

    1982-01-01

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  19. The technical viability of alternative blowing agents in polyisocyanurate roof insulation: A cooperative industry/government project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.; Courville, G.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Graves, R.S.; Linkous, R.L.; McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Wendt, R.L.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    This report is a summary of the cooperative industry/government program to establish the viability of alternative blowing agents to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The project was initiated in 1989 following two workshops that focused on needed research on thermal insulation blown with substitutes for CFC-11 and CFC-12. The project is directed by a steering committee of representatives of the sponsors and of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the project is to determine if the performance of polyisocyanurate (PIR) roof insulation foam boards blown with alternate agents differs from the performance of boards blown with CFC-1. This report describes apparent thermal conductivity (k) results obtained from field and laboratory tests from 1989 to 1992 on a set of experimental PIR laminate boardstock produced to evaluate the viability of alternative hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as blowing agents. All boardstock was manufactured from similar formulations that were not optimized for thermal performance. Commercial broadstock made in the future may differ in performance from this set. The PIR boards were prepared with CFC-11, HCFC-123, HCFC-141b, and 50/50 and 65/35 blends of HCFC-123/HCFC-141b.

  20. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis activities. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 ...

  1. Non-contact passive temperature measuring system and method of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Non-contact passive temperature measuring system and method of operation using micro-mechanical sensors Title: Non-contact passive temperature measuring system and method of ...

  2. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. This report ...

  3. Passively damped vibration welding system and method (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Passively damped vibration welding system and method Title: Passively damped vibration welding system and method A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an ...

  4. Yahoo! Compute Coop Next Generation Passive Cooling Design for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yahoo Compute Coop Next Generation Passive Cooling Design for Data Centers Yahoo Compute Coop Next Generation Passive Cooling Design for Data Centers yahoopassivecooling.pdf ...

  5. Integration of a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable DMFC Power Supply Integration of a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable DMFC Power Supply Download slides from the ...

  6. Optimization of an Advanced Passive/Active Diesel Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Advanced PassiveActive Diesel Emission Control System Optimization of an Advanced PassiveActive Diesel Emission Control System Evaluation of PM exhaust aftertreatment ...

  7. Passive Groundwater Cleanup Measures Save Savannah River Site...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Passive Groundwater Cleanup Measures Save Savannah River Site Millions of Dollars Passive Groundwater Cleanup Measures Save Savannah River Site Millions of Dollars November 25, ...

  8. Category:Passive Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Passive Seismic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Passive Seismic Techniques page? For detailed...

  9. Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Part of a 100 million fuel cell ... Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM ...

  10. Passive environmental temperature control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corliss, John M.; Stickford, George H.

    1981-01-01

    Passive environmental heating and cooling systems are described, which utilize heat pipes to transmit heat to or from a thermal reservoir. In a solar heating system, a heat pipe is utilized to carry heat from a solar heat absorber plate that receives sunlight, through a thermal insulation barrier, to a heat storage wall, with the outer end of the pipe which is in contact with the solar absorber being lower than the inner end. The inclining of the heat pipe assures that the portion of working fluid, such as Freon, which is in a liquid phase will fall by gravity to the outer end of the pipe, thereby assuring diode action that prevents the reverse transfer of heat from the reservoir to the outside on cool nights. In a cooling system, the outer end of the pipe which connects to a heat dissipator, is higher than the inner end that is coupled to a cold reservoir, to allow heat transfer only out of the reservoir to the heat dissipator, and not in the reverse direction.

  11. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

    1999-04-06

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

  12. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  13. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  14. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Graham S.; Klingenberg, Katrin

    2015-07-29

    In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the value of performance-based passive building standards when it joined with Passive House Institute US (PHIUS) to promote DOE’s Challenge Home program in tandem with the PHIUS+ Certification program. Since then, the number of passive building projects that have been certified under the partnership has grown exponentially because of some synergy. Passive building represents a well-developed approach to arrive at the envelope basis for zero energy and energy-positive projects by employing performance-based criteria and maximizing cost-effective savings from conservation before implementing renewable energy technologies. The Challenge Home program evolved into the Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program in a move toward 1) attaining zero energy and 2) including active renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics (PV)—toward the zero energy goal.

  15. Passive Solar Home Design | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    well-designed passive solar home first reduces heating and cooling loads through energy-efficiency strategies and then meets those reduced loads in whole or part with solar energy. ...

  16. Passive Solar Home Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Passive solar design takes advantage of a building's site, climate, and materials to ... south-facing windows and retains it in materials that store heat, known as thermal mass. ...

  17. Guide to Passive Solar Home Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    Passive solar design incorporates features in your home and its natural surroundings that harness the sun's low rays in winter and deflect the sun's high rays in the summer.

  18. Method and structure for passivating semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pankove, Jacques I.

    1981-01-01

    A structure for passivating semiconductor material comprises a substrate of crystalline semiconductor material, a relatively thin film of carbon disposed on a surface of the crystalline material, and a layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited on the carbon film.

  19. Passive Energy Building Design Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-11-01

    SOLAR5 is a computer aided design tool to help architects design better, more energy efficient buildings. It is intended for use at the beginning of the design process. To get started, only four pieces of information are necessary to compute the energy needed: the square footage, the number of stories, the kind of building (such as school, home, hotel, or any one of 20 types), and its location (the program stores the temperature ranges formore » fourty major cities). Additional information may be given later to fine tune the design. An expert system using heuristics from a wide range of sources, automatically creates a passive solar baseline building from the four facts specified for that project. By modifying and adapting prior designs the user can create and work upon as many as nine schemes simultaneously. SOLAR5 can analyze the buildings thermal performance for each hour of each month and plot its total heat gain or loss as a three-dimensional surface. After reading the plot, the user can immediately redesign the building and rerun the analysis. Separate heat gain/loss surfaces can be plotted for each of the different parts of the building or schemes that add together to make up the total, including walls, roof, windows, skylights, floor, slab on grade, people, lights, equipment, and infiltration. Two different schemes can be instantly compared by asking for a three-dimensional plot showing only the difference in their performances. The objective of SOLAR5 is to allow the designer to make changes easily and quickly with detailed instantaneous pictorial feedback of the implications of the change.« less

  20. Energy savings obtainable through passive solar techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A passive solar energy system is one in which the thermal energy flow is by natural means, that is by radiation, conduction, or natural convection. The purpose of the paper is to provide a survey of passive solar heating experience, especially in the US. Design approaches are reviewed and examples shown. Misconceptions are discussed. Advantages are listed. The Los Alamos program of performance simulation and evaluation is described and a simplified method of performance estimation is outlined.

  1. Compressed Air System Modifications Improve Efficiency at a Plastics Blow Molding Plant (Southeastern Container Plant): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-06-18

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the plastics blow molding plant project.

  2. Convective Cooling and Passive Stack Improvements in Motors (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses current research at NREL in convective cooling and passive stack improvements in motors.

  3. Discreet passive explosive detection through 2-sided waveguided fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harper, Ross James; la Grone, Marcus; Fisher, Mark

    2011-10-18

    The current invention provides a passive sampling device suitable for collecting and detecting the presence of target analytes. In particular, the passive sampling device is suitable for detecting nitro-aromatic compounds. The current invention further provides a passive sampling device reader suitable for determining the collection of target analytes. Additionally, the current invention provides methods for detecting target analytes using the passive sampling device and the passive sampling device reader.

  4. Discreet passive explosive detection through 2-sided wave guided fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harper, Ross James; la Grone, Marcus; Fisher, Mark

    2012-10-16

    The current invention provides a passive sampling device suitable for collecting and detecting the presence of target analytes. In particular, the passive sampling device is suitable for detecting nitro-aromatic compounds. The current invention further provides a passive sampling device reader suitable for determining the collection of target analytes. Additionally, the current invention provides methods for detecting target analytes using the passive sampling device and the passive sampling device reader.

  5. Passive Cooling System for a Vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, T. J.; Thoensen, T.

    2005-11-15

    A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

  6. Passive cooling system for a vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Terry Joseph; Thoensen, Thomas

    2005-11-15

    A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

  7. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  8. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  9. Passive absolute age and temperature history sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Alex; Vianco, Paul T.

    2015-11-10

    A passive sensor for historic age and temperature sensing, including a first member formed of a first material, the first material being either a metal or a semiconductor material and a second member formed of a second material, the second material being either a metal or a semiconductor material. A surface of the second member is in contact with a surface of the first member such that, over time, the second material of the second member diffuses into the first material of the first member. The rate of diffusion for the second material to diffuse into the first material depends on a temperature of the passive sensor. One of the electrical conductance, the electrical capacitance, the electrical inductance, the optical transmission, the optical reflectance, or the crystalline structure of the passive sensor depends on the amount of the second material that has diffused into the first member.

  10. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, T.J.

    1997-01-21

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile. 9 figs.

  11. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

  12. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Graham S.; Klingenberg, Katrin

    2015-07-01

    Passive design principles (super insulation, airtight envelopes, elimination of thermal bridges, etc.) - pioneered in North America in the 70s and 80s and refined in Europe in the 90s have proven to be universally effective to significantly reduce heating and cooling loads. However, a single, rigid performance metric developed in Germany has led to limited uptake of passive building principles in many regions of the United States. It has also, in many cases, promoted some design decisions that had negative effects on economic feasibility and thermal comfort. This study's main objective is to validate (in a theoretical sense) verifiable, climate-specific passive standards and space conditioning criteria that retain ambitious, environmentally-necessary energy reduction targets and are economically feasible, such standards provide designers an ambitious but achievable performance target on the path to zero.

  13. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1994-05-31

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer. 1 fig.

  14. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer.

  15. Passive solar design handbook. Volume two of two volumes: passive solar design analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Barley, D.; McFarland, R.; Perry, J. Jr.; Wray, W.; Noll, S.

    1980-01-01

    A manual for the design and performance evaluation and analysis of passive solar heating systems is presented. Two passive solar building types are analyzed: direct gain and thermal storage walls. Rules of thumb for the schematic design phase and simplified procedures for the design development phase are described. Analysis methods for the construction documents phase are given. The design procedure for fan-forced rock beds for hybrid systems is presented. Economic analysis methods for passive solar buildings are described. Tables of monthly average solar radiation, temperature, and degree-days for various locations in the US and southern Canada are included. (WHK)

  16. Design tools for passive solar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1986-04-01

    Examples of passive solar design tools are given, categorized as either evaluation tools or guidance tools. A trend toward microcomputer-based tools is noted; however, these are usually developed for use by engineers rather than architects. The need for more instructive tools targeted specifically to designers is emphasized.

  17. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herring, J.S.

    1993-09-21

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process. 8 figures.

  18. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herring, J. Stephen

    1993-01-01

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  19. Evaluation of passive solar retrofit options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-David, S.; Kirchemen, C.; Martin, S.; Noll, S.; Roach, F.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation framework has been developed which allows for the assessment of the role of passive solar retrofit in the nationwide reduction of conventional fuel use. Three types of analysis are proposed within this framework: the physical/technical capability of the present housing stock to incorporate passive solar retrofit; the economic feasibility of the application of retrofit designs; and the actual market potential or acceptance of these alternative retrofit options. Each type of analysis has specific data requirements and a series of evaluation procedures to help establish estimates of the potential for passive solar retrofit in the present housing stock. The data requirements with their respective sources and evaluation procedures for the first two types of analysis-physical/technical setting and economic feasibility, are examined. A distinction is drawn between community specific case studies and more generalized national assessments. Information derived from these three types of analysis, whether case specific or national in scope, can then be used in an evaluation of potential economic impacts. The establishment of regional economic benefits and costs werve as a measure of the merit or attractiveness of the implementation of a passive solar retrofit program.

  20. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  1. Photodetectors with passive thermal radiation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Dodson, Brian W.

    2001-10-02

    A new class of photodetectors which include means for passive shielding against undesired thermal radiation is disclosed. Such devices can substitute in applications currently requiring cooled optical sensors, such as IR detection and imaging. This description is included for purposes of searching, and is not intended to limit or otherwise influence the interpretation of the present invention.

  2. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  3. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harto, Andang Widi

    2012-06-06

    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  4. Tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by ion implantation for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Excellent passivation quality is achieved for n-type passivated contacts by P implantations into either intrinsic (undoped) or in-situ B-doped a-Si layers with implied open-circuit ...

  5. Surface passivation process of compound semiconductor material using UV photosulfidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method for passivating compound semiconductor surfaces by photolytically disrupting molecular sulfur vapor with ultraviolet radiation to form reactive sulfur which then reacts with and passivates the surface of compound semiconductors.

  6. The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. ...

  7. Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Using passive solar design to heat and cool your home can be both environmentally friendly and cost effective. In many cases, your heating costs...

  8. 10th Annual North American Passive House Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the Passive House Institute US, this five-day conference will target both multifamily and single family housing design, engineering, and development along with Passive House certification.

  9. Passive background correction method for spatially resolved detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Randal L.; Hargis, Jr., Philip J.

    2011-05-10

    A method for passive background correction during spatially or angularly resolved detection of emission that is based on the simultaneous acquisition of both the passive background spectrum and the spectrum of the target of interest.

  10. Passivation Effects in Copper Thin Films (Journal Article) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    passivation on the stress-temperature behavior of 100 nm and 1 mum thick Cu films. At low temperatures, the passivation induces a large tensile stress increase in the 100 nm ...

  11. Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of Passive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vents in New-Construction Multifamily Buildings | Department of Energy Evaluation of Passive Vents in New-Construction Multifamily Buildings Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of Passive Vents in New-Construction Multifamily Buildings The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) conducted research to gain more insight into passive vents. Because passive vents are meant to operate in a general environment of negative apartment pressure, the research

  12. Method For Passivating Crystal Silicon Surfaces - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Method For Passivating Crystal Silicon Surfaces National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Silicon Surface and Heterojunction Interface Passivation Studies by Lifetime Measurements (395 KB) PDF Document Publication High-Throughput Approaches to Optimization of Crystal Silicon Surface Passivation and Heterojunction Solar Cells (837 KB) Technology Marketing

  13. Germanium detector passivated with hydrogenated amorphous germanium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, William L.; Haller, Eugene E.

    1986-01-01

    Passivation of predominantly crystalline semiconductor devices (12) is provided for by a surface coating (21) of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor material. Passivation of a radiation detector germanium diode, for example, is realized by sputtering a coating (21) of amorphous germanium onto the etched and quenched diode surface (11) in a low pressure atmosphere of hydrogen and argon. Unlike prior germanium diode semiconductor devices (12), which must be maintained in vacuum at cryogenic temperatures to avoid deterioration, a diode processed in the described manner may be stored in air at room temperature or otherwise exposed to a variety of environmental conditions. The coating (21) compensates for pre-existing undesirable surface states as well as protecting the semiconductor device (12) against future impregnation with impurities.

  14. Passively damped vibration welding system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Chin-An; Kang, Bongsu; Cai, Wayne W.; Wu, Tao

    2013-04-02

    A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an anvil, and a passive damping mechanism (PDM). The controller generates an input signal having a calibrated frequency. The horn vibrates in a desirable first direction at the calibrated frequency in response to the input signal to form a weld in a work piece. The PDM is positioned with respect to the system, and substantially damps or attenuates vibration in an undesirable second direction. A method includes connecting the PDM having calibrated properties and a natural frequency to an anvil of an ultrasonic welding system. Then, an input signal is generated using a weld controller. The method includes vibrating a welding horn in a desirable direction in response to the input signal, and passively damping vibration in an undesirable direction using the PDM.

  15. Passive load control for large wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.

    2010-05-01

    Wind energy research activities at Sandia National Laboratories focus on developing large rotors that are lighter and more cost-effective than those designed with current technologies. Because gravity scales as the cube of the blade length, gravity loads become a constraining design factor for very large blades. Efforts to passively reduce turbulent loading has shown significant potential to reduce blade weight and capture more energy. Research in passive load reduction for wind turbines began at Sandia in the late 1990's and has moved from analytical studies to blade applications. This paper discusses the test results of two Sandia prototype research blades that incorporate load reduction techniques. The TX-100 is a 9-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling with the use of off-axis carbon in the skin. The STAR blade is a 27-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling by sweeping the blade in a geometric fashion.

  16. Passive heat transfer means for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burelbach, James P.

    1984-01-01

    An improved passive cooling arrangement is disclosed for maintaining adjacent or related components of a nuclear reactor within specified temperature differences. Specifically, heat pipes are operatively interposed between the components, with the vaporizing section of the heat pipe proximate the hot component operable to cool it and the primary condensing section of the heat pipe proximate the other and cooler component operable to heat it. Each heat pipe further has a secondary condensing section that is located outwardly beyond the reactor confinement and in a secondary heat sink, such as air ambient the containment, that is cooler than the other reactor component. Means such as shrouding normally isolated the secondary condensing section from effective heat transfer with the heat sink, but a sensor responds to overheat conditions of the reactor to open the shrouding, which thereby increases the cooling capacity of the heat pipe. By having many such heat pipes, an emergency passive cooling system is defined that is operative without electrical power.

  17. WIPP - Passive Institutional Controls (PICs) Images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PICs Images Passive Institutional Controls PICs Images Permanent Markers | Images from Monument Survey Permanent Markers Earthen Berm The "big picture" Repository footprint Buried room Information center (surface center of berm) Small subsurface marker Large surface marker Marker at the Gnome Site (1/6 the size of a WIPP large surface marker) Early Concepts Back to top Images from Monument Survey Back to top

  18. Passively cooled direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2008-03-18

    A wind turbine is provided that passively cools an electrical generator. The wind turbine includes a plurality of fins arranged peripherally around a generator house. Each of the fins being oriented at an angle greater than zero degrees to allow parallel flow of air over the fin. The fin is further tapered to allow a constant portion of the fin to extend beyond the air stream boundary layer. Turbulence initiators on the nose cone further enhance heat transfer at the fins.

  19. Passive energy dump for superconducting coil protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luton, J.N. Jr.

    1973-01-16

    The patent describes a passive resistance type energy dump for the protection of the coils of a superconducting magnet. Insertion heaters are immersed in a rigid container filled with a fusible alloy. The energy dump is connected across the coils of the superconducting magnet wherein individual heater elements are connected singly to the windings or otherwise according to the energy dumping requirements upon transition of the magnet to a normal state.

  20. Hydrogenation of Passivated Contacts - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Hydrogenation of Passivated Contacts National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Silicon solar cells have advantages over other solar cells materials in that they are generally less expensive and require fewer steps to manufacture than III-V solar cells, yet are more efficient than today's thin film materials. Nevertheless, the efficiency of Si solar cells has historically been limited by carrier

  1. Passive Solar Building Design Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homes & Buildings » Passive Solar Building Design Basics Passive Solar Building Design Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:20pm Addthis The difference between a passive solar home and a conventional home is design. Passive solar homes and other buildings are designed to take advantage of the local climate. Passive solar design-also known as climatic design-involves using a building's windows, walls, and floors to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject

  2. Stable surface passivation process for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    2001-01-01

    A passivation process for a previously sulfided, selenided or tellurated III-V compound semiconductor surface. The concentration of undesired mid-gap surface states on a compound semiconductor surface is reduced by the formation of a near-monolayer of metal-(sulfur and/or selenium and/or tellurium)-semiconductor that is effective for long term passivation of the underlying semiconductor surface. Starting with the III-V compound semiconductor surface, any oxidation present thereon is substantially removed and the surface is then treated with sulfur, selenium or tellurium to form a near-monolayer of chalcogen-semiconductor of the surface in an oxygen-free atmosphere. This chalcogenated surface is then contacted with a solution of a metal that will form a low solubility chalcogenide to form a near-monolayer of metal-chalcogen-semiconductor. The resulting passivating layer provides long term protection for the underlying surface at or above the level achieved by a freshly chalcogenated compound semiconductor surface in an oxygen free atmosphere.

  3. Natural fracture characterization using passive seismic illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihei, K.T.

    2003-01-08

    The presence of natural fractures in reservoir rock can significantly enhance gas production, especially in tight gas formations. Any general knowledge of the existence, location, orientation, spatial density, and connectivity of natural fractures, as well as general reservoir structure, that can be obtained prior to active seismic acquisition and drilling can be exploited to identify key areas for subsequent higher resolution active seismic imaging. Current practices for estimating fracture properties before the acquisition of surface seismic data are usually based on the assumed geology and tectonics of the region, and empirical or fracture mechanics-based relationships between stratigraphic curvature and fracturing. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of multicomponent surface sensor arrays, and passive seismic sources in the form of local earthquakes to identify and characterize potential fractured gas reservoirs located near seismically active regions. To assess the feasibility of passive seismic fracture detection and characterization, we have developed numerical codes for modeling elastic wave propagation in reservoir structures containing multiple, finite-length fractures. This article describes our efforts to determine the conditions for favorable excitation of fracture converted waves, and to develop an imaging method that can be used to locate and characterize fractures using multicomponent, passive seismic data recorded on a surface array.

  4. Evaluation of Alternate Stainless Steel Surface Passivation Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  5. Passive solar progress: a simplified guide to the 3rd national passive solar conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, H.; Howell, Y.; Richards, D.

    1980-10-01

    Some of the concepts and practices that have come to be known as passive solar heating and cooling are introduced, and a current picture of the field is presented. Much of the material presented is derived from papers given at the 3rd National Passive Solar Conference held in San Jose, California in January 1979 and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Extracts and data from these papers have been integrated in the text with explanatory and descriptive material. In this way, it is attempted to present technical information in an introductory context. Topics include design considerations, passive and hybrid systems and applications, sizing methods and performance prediction, and implementation issues. A glossary is included. (WHK)

  6. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

    1998-06-16

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

  7. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  8. Passive injection control for microfluidic systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.; Neyer, David W.

    2004-12-21

    Apparatus for eliminating siphoning, "dead" regions, and fluid concentration gradients in microscale analytical devices. In its most basic embodiment, the present invention affords passive injection control for both electric field-driven and pressure-driven systems by providing additional fluid flow channels or auxiliary channels disposed on either side of a sample separation column. The auxiliary channels are sized such that volumetric fluid flow rate through these channels, while sufficient to move the sample away from the sample injection region in a timely fashion, is less than that through the sample separation channel or chromatograph.

  9. Passive solar concepts for multistory buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Multistory buildings long in the east-west direction and short in the north-south direction offer good opportunity for passive solar application. If each unit within the building is designed so that the Solar Savings Fraction is the same, each will respond to the weather the same way and no unit-to-unit heat distribution is needed. A numerical example for Denver is given indicating excellent thermal performance and a several-day thermal response time. Solutions involving distribution of heat from unit to unit are also discussed as well as top-floor and south-wall variations.

  10. Passive solar concepts for multistory buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Multistory buildings long in the east-west direction and short in the north-south direction offer good opportunity for passive solar application. If each unit within the building is designed so that the solar Savings Fraction is the same, each will respond to the weather the same way and no unit-to-unit heat distribution is needed. A numerical example for Denver is given indicating excellent thermal performance and a several-day thermal response time. Solutions involving distribution of heat from unit to unit are also discussed as well as top-floor and south-wall variations.

  11. Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemberton, B.E.; May, C.P.; Rossabi, J.

    1997-06-24

    An apparatus is provided which passively removes contaminated gases from a subsurface. The apparatus includes a riser pipe extending into a subsurface which has an exterior end in fluid communication with a valve. When well pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure, the valve opens to release contaminants into the atmosphere, and when well pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, the valve closes to prevent flow of air into the well. The valve assembly of the invention comprises a lightweight ball which is lifted from its valve seat with a slight pressure drop between the well and the atmosphere. 7 figs.

  12. Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemberton, Bradley E. (Aiken, SC); May, Christopher P. (Fairfax, VA); Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus is provided which passively removes contaminated gases from a subsurface. The apparatus includes a riser pipe extending into a subsurface which has an exterior end in fluid communication with a valve. When well pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure, the valve opens to release contaminants into the atmosphere, and when well pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, the valve closes to prevent flow of air into the well. The valve assembly of the invention comprises a lightweight ball which is lifted from its valve seat with a slight pressure drop between the well and the atmosphere.

  13. Passive containment cooling water distribution device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Fanto, Susan V.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using a series of radial guide elements and cascading weir boxes to collect and then distribute the cooling water into a series of distribution areas through a plurality of cascading weirs. The cooling water is then uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weir notches in the face plate of the weir box.

  14. Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar Watch a recording of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Andy Walker's Nov. 30, 2010, presentation about passive solar building design, and solar thermal space heating technologies and applications. It's one in a series of Webinars to support state and local projects funded by Sustainable Energy Resources for

  15. Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management | Department of Energy Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. 5_pnnl.pdf (20.48 KB) More Documents & Publications Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Fuel Cells For Transportation - 2001 Annual Progress Report Fuel Cells For

  16. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. This report presents the results of an aging experiment that was established in FY09 and completed in FY10 for the Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor. A total of 37 packages were aged at different temperatures and times, and were then tested after aging to determine functionality. Aging temperatures were

  17. Effects of passivation on synthesis, structure and composition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects of passivation on synthesis, structure and composition of molybdenum carbide supported platinum water-gas shift catalysts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects ...

  18. Passive and active plasma deceleration for the compact disposal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Passive and active plasma deceleration for the compact disposal of electron beams Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on August 11, 2016...

  19. Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Passive...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air Transfer, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Passive Room-to-Room Air Transfer, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet) In this ...

  20. Wireless, Passive Ceramic Strain Sensors for Turbine Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, Linan

    2015-03-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a high-temperature wireless passive ceramic strain sensor for online, real-time monitoring turbine blade.

  1. List of Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Space Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 282 Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 282) Incentive Incentive Type...

  2. 16.06.20 Self-Passivation - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Copper Vanadate Photoanodes under Chemical, Electrochemical, and Photoelectrochemical Operation Zhou, L. et al. Stability and Self-passivation of Copper Vanadate ...

  3. Integration of Full Tensor Gravity and ZTEM Passive Low Frequency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data Acquisition Integration of Full Tensor Gravity and ZTEM Passive Low Frequency EM Instruments for Simultaneous Data Acquisition Integration of Full Tensor Gravity and ...

  4. Active and Passive Remote Sensing Diagram | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Active and Passive Remote Sensing Diagram Author National Aeronautics and Space Administration Published Nasa.gov, 2013 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:...

  5. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed ...

  6. Update on the Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor. (Conference)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on the Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor. Abstract not provided. Authors: Mitchell, John Anthony ; Gustafson, Carl Publication Date: 2008-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1145847 Report...

  7. Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Fuel Cells For Transportation - 2001 Annual Progress Report Fuel Cell Systems Annual Progress Report

  8. A Revealing Look Inside Passive and Active DPF Regeneration:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Ash Formation and Transport A Revealing Look Inside Passive and Active DPF Regeneration: In-Situ Optical Analysis of Ash Formation and Transport Presents results from ...

  9. Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

    2011-08-08

    The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan

  10. Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2003-12-02

    A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

  11. Passive runaway electron suppression in tokamak disruptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, H. M.; Helander, P.

    2013-07-15

    Runaway electrons created in disruptions pose a serious problem for tokamaks with large current. It would be desirable to have a runaway electron suppression method which is passive, i.e., a method that does not rely on an uncertain disruption prediction system. One option is to let the large electric field inherent in the disruption drive helical currents in the wall. This would create ergodic regions in the plasma and increase the runaway losses. Whether these regions appear at a suitable time and place to affect the formation of the runaway beam depends on disruption parameters, such as electron temperature and density. We find that it is difficult to ergodize the central plasma before a beam of runaway current has formed. However, the ergodic outer region will make the Ohmic current profile contract, which can lead to instabilities that yield large runaway electron losses.

  12. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-03

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  13. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-05

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  14. All fiber passively Q-switched laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Bisson, Scott E

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments relate to an all fiber passively Q-switched laser. The laser includes a large core doped gain fiber having a first end. The large core doped gain fiber has a first core diameter. The laser includes a doped single mode fiber (saturable absorber) having a second core diameter that is smaller than the first core diameter. The laser includes a mode transformer positioned between a second end of the large core doped gain fiber and a first end of the single mode fiber. The mode transformer has a core diameter that transitions from the first core diameter to the second core diameter and filters out light modes not supported by the doped single mode fiber. The laser includes a laser cavity formed between a first reflector positioned adjacent the large core doped gain fiber and a second reflector positioned adjacent the doped single mode fiber.

  15. Energy Signatures: A passive solar design tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Lekov, A.B.

    1987-12-01

    Energy signatures is a new technique for aiding a designer in selecting and sizing passive solar elements in a building. Hourly heat flux profiles for each candidate design element are determined. These profiles are then matched to the hourly energy requirement of the space accounting for weather conditions, internal heat profiles of the space, and the mass characteristics of the building. Simulation analysis techniques are used to determine the energy signatures and the building load profile, and to check the final result. Least-squares techniques are used to determine the optimum mix of strategies. Examples are given to illustrate development of the method up to the present time. In addition, future directions and possibilities are outlined. 5 refs., 28 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Fanning, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  17. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorski, A.J.; Schertz, W.W.

    1980-09-29

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  18. Development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabatiuk, P.A.; Cassel, D.E.; McCabe, M.; Scarbrough, C.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings, thermal design characteristics and anticipated performance for 266 projects in the HUD Passive Residential Design Competition and the HUD Cycle 5 Demonstration Program were analyzed. These passive residences are located in all regions of the United States requiring space heating, and they represent a variety of passive solar system types including direct gain, indirect gain, and solarium (isolated gain) systems. The results of this statistical analysis are being used to develop proposed minimum acceptable levels of thermal performance for passive solar buildings for the residential performance criteria. A number of performance measures were examined, including net solar contribution, solar fraction, and auxiliary energy use. These and other design and climate-related parameters were statistically correlated using the DATAPLOT computer program and standard statistical analysis techniques.

  19. DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: Pumpkin Ridge Passive House by Hammer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pumpkin Ridge Passive House by Hammer and Hand DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: Pumpkin Ridge Passive House by Hammer and Hand DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: Pumpkin Ridge Passive House ...

  20. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE

  1. Condensation model for the ESBWR passive condensers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revankar, S. T.; Zhou, W.; Wolf, B.; Oh, S.

    2012-07-01

    In the General Electric's Economic simplified boiling water reactor (GE-ESBWR) the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) plays a major role in containment pressure control in case of an loss of coolant accident. The PCCS condenser must be able to remove sufficient energy from the reactor containment to prevent containment from exceeding its design pressure following a design basis accident. There are three PCCS condensation modes depending on the containment pressurization due to coolant discharge; complete condensation, cyclic venting and flow through mode. The present work reviews the models and presents model predictive capability along with comparison with existing data from separate effects test. The condensation models in thermal hydraulics code RELAP5 are also assessed to examine its application to various flow modes of condensation. The default model in the code predicts complete condensation well, and basically is Nusselt solution. The UCB model predicts through flow well. None of condensation model in RELAP5 predict complete condensation, cyclic venting, and through flow condensation consistently. New condensation correlations are given that accurately predict all three modes of PCCS condensation. (authors)

  2. Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  3. Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.; Hui, Marvin M.; Berglund, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  4. Passive solar systems performance under conditions in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, A.B.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1989-12-01

    This paper presents energy performance of 12 passive solar systems for three climatically different zones of Bulgaria. The results are compared with a base-case residential house that has a design typical for these areas. The different passive solar systems are compared on the basis of the percentage of solar savings and the yield, which is the annual net benefit of adding the passive solar system. The analyses are provided based on monthly meteorological data, and the method used for calculations is the Solar Load Ratio. Recommendations for Bulgarian conditions are given. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY07 maturation activities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, Jack E.; Blecke, Jill; Mitchell, John Anthony; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Crowson, Douglas A.; Clemens, Rebecca C.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Epp, David S.; Baker, Michael Sean

    2008-08-01

    This report describes activities conducted in FY07 to mature the MEMS passive shock sensor. The first chapter of the report provides motivation and background on activities that are described in detail in later chapters. The second chapter discusses concepts that are important for integrating the MEMS passive shock sensor into a system. Following these two introductory chapters, the report details modeling and design efforts, packaging, failure analysis and testing and validation. At the end of FY07, the MEMS passive shock sensor was at TRL 4.

  6. The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. Citation ... Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text View Full ...

  7. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis activities. ... Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text View Full ...

  8. Two earth sheltered passive solar residences with photovoltaic electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strong, S.J.; Osten, R.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The design and construction of two earth sheltered passive solar residence with photovoltaic electricity are described. The sizing and design of the P.V. system as well as the module fabrication and array integration are also discussed.

  9. Building America Case Study - Evaluation of Passive Vents in...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Typical apartments will need 20-45 CFM of outdoor air to meet ASHRAE 62.2-2010 whole-house ... The average airfow through the passive vents fell short of providing the ASHRAE 62.2-2010 ...

  10. State of the art in passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The state of the art is outlined according to four major categories: passive solar practice, evaluation, design air, and products and materials. Needed future research activities and joint industry/government activities are listed. (MHR)

  11. Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    system and passive PEM water management system Specific Targets Addressed for 3.4.2 Automotive-Scale: 80 kWe Integrated Transportation Fuel Cell Power Systems Operating on ...

  12. Passive solar in the United States: 1976-1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    A decade of experience in passive solar development in the United States is reviewed. The evolution of the program through its peak in 1980 to the present is described. Methods of performance prediction and evaluation are discussed including analysis methods, design tools, test modules, and monitored buildings. Results of the monitoring show excellent performance, generally in agreement with the analysis. Passive practice is analyzed and problems are discussed. The current research program is described and potential savings are estimated.

  13. Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    silicon solar cells (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Authors: Nemeth, Bill ; Young, David L. ; Page, Matthew R. ; LaSalvia, Vincenzo ; Johnston, Steve ; Reedy, Robert ; Stradins, Paul Publication Date: 2016-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1247961 Report

  14. Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Passive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Room-to-Room Air Transfer, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Passive Room-to-Room Air Transfer, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Passive Room-to-Room Air Transfer, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet) In this project, IBACOS, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, assessed a strategy for providing conditioned air to bedrooms when the bedroom doors

  15. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed state-of-the-art passive catalytic technology designed to reduce NOx released during vehicle cold start portion of the FTP-75 cycle deer11_henry.pdf (1.27 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Technology Light Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System Cummins' Next Generation Tier 2, Bin 2 Light

  16. Passive Groundwater Cleanup Measures Save Savannah River Site Millions of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dollars | Department of Energy Passive Groundwater Cleanup Measures Save Savannah River Site Millions of Dollars Passive Groundwater Cleanup Measures Save Savannah River Site Millions of Dollars November 25, 2015 - 12:20pm Addthis SRNS operators Stanley Creech (left) and Paul Dobson monitor the injection of silver chloride into an aquifer at SRS. SRNS operators Stanley Creech (left) and Paul Dobson monitor the injection of silver chloride into an aquifer at SRS. AIKEN, S.C. - The EM program

  17. Preservation of FFTF Data Related to Passive Safety Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.

    2010-10-01

    One of the goals of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). A key area deserving special attention for preservation is the data relating to passive safety testing that was conducted in FFTF and EBR-II during the 1980’s. Accidents at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Station and Unit 2 at Three Mile Island changed the safety paradigm of the nuclear power industry. New emphasis was placed on assured safety based on intrinsic plant characteristics that protect not only the public, but the significant investment in the plant as well. Plants designated to perform in this manner are considered to be passively safe since no active sensor/alarm system or human intervention is required to bring the reactor to a safe shutdown condition. The liquid metal reactor (LMR) has several key characteristics needed for a passively safe reactor: reactor coolant with superior heat transfer capability and very high boiling point, low (atmospheric) system pressures, and reliable negative reactivity feedback. The credibility of the design for a passively safe LMR rests on two issues: the validity of analytic methods used to predict passive safety performance and the availability of relevant test data to calibrate design tools. Safety analysis methods used to analyze LMRs under the old safety paradigm were focused on calculating the source term for the Core Disruptive Accident. Passive safety design requires refined analysis methods for transient events because treatment of the detailed reactivity feedbacks is important in predicting the response of the reactor. Similarly, analytic tools should be calibrated against actual test experience in existing LMR facilities. The principal objectives of the combined FFTF natural circulation and Passive Safety Testing program were: 1) to verify natural circulation as a reliable means to safely remove decay heat, 2) to extend passive safety

  18. Passive solar design handbooks: Vol III: passive solar design analysis and supplement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Jones, R.W.; Kosciewicz, C.E.; Lazarus, G.S.; McFarland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    This book applies the Los Alamos Solar Load Ratio (SLR) method to the design of passive solar heating systems, with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Recommendations are given on minimizing heating energy consumption by appropriate choices of conservation level and solar system parameters. Analytical methods and supporting tables are presented which enable simple, fast estimates of the heating energy consumption as part of the design process. Topics considered include SLR correlations, the load collector ratio (LCR) method, sensitivity data, cooling considerations, conservation formulas, design procedure, life-cycle costs, high-mass direct gain buildings, low-mass sun-tempered buildings, sunspaces, off-reference night insulation, correlation equations, and mixed systems.

  19. Remote detection of chemicals with passive millimeter waves.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Elmer, T. W.; Raptis, A. C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-01-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (mmW) systems have been used in the past to remotely map solid targets and to measure low-pressure spectral lines of stratospheric and interstellar gases; however, its application to pressure-broadened spectral detection of terrestrial gases is new. A radiative transfer model was developed to determine the detection feasibility and system requirements for passive mmW spectral detection. A Dicke-switched multispectral radiometer that operates at 146-154 GHz was designed and built for remote detection of stack gases. The radiometer was tested in the laboratory using a gas cell; the spectra of acetonitrile were detected passively against a cold background, which mimicked typical remote detection scenarios in the field. With Dicke-switched integration of radiometric signals, on-line calibration, and novel signal processing to minimize atmospheric fluctuation, spectral line detection of polar molecules is possible from chemical plumes a few kilometers away.

  20. Passive magnetic bearing element with minimal power losses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    Systems employing passive magnetic bearing elements having minimal power losses are provided. Improved stabilizing elements are shown, employing periodic magnet arrays and inductively loaded circuits, but with improved characteristics compared to the elements disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 5,495,221 entitled "Dynamically Stable Magnetic Suspension/Bearing System." The improvements relate to increasing the magnitude of the force derivative, while at the same time reducing the power dissipated during the normal operation of the bearing system, to provide a passive bearing system that has virtually no losses under equilibrium conditions, that is, when the supported system is not subject to any accelerations except those of gravity.

  1. Verifying TRU Passive DPF Cold Ambient Performance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TRU Passive DPF Cold Ambient Performance Verifying TRU Passive DPF Cold Ambient Performance Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_lucht.pdf (151.1 KB) More Documents & Publications ADEC II Universal SCR Retrofit System for On-road and Off-road Diesel Engines Emissions

  2. Passive magnetic bearing element with minimal power losses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1998-12-08

    Systems employing passive magnetic bearing elements having minimal power losses are provided. Improved stabilizing elements are shown, employing periodic magnet arrays and inductively loaded circuits, but with improved characteristics compared to the elements disclosed in US Patent No. 5,495,221 entitled ``Dynamically Stable Magnetic Suspension/Bearing System.`` The improvements relate to increasing the magnitude of the force derivative, while at the same time reducing the power dissipated during the normal operation of the bearing system, to provide a passive bearing system that has virtually no losses under equilibrium conditions, that is, when the supported system is not subject to any accelerations except those of gravity. 8 figs.

  3. Hood River Passive House, Hood River, Oregon (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50%" (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  4. Thermal-hydraulic modeling needs for passive reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, J.M.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has received an application for design certification from the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for an Advanced Light Water Reactor design known as the AP600. As part of the design certification process, the USNRC uses its thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes to independently audit the vendor calculations. The focus of this effort has been the small break LOCA transients that rely upon the passive safety features of the design to depressurize the primary system sufficiently so that gravity driven injection can provide a stable source for long term cooling. Of course, large break LOCAs have also been considered, but as the involved phenomena do not appear to be appreciably different from those of current plants, they were not discussed in this paper. Although the SBLOCA scenario does not appear to threaten core coolability - indeed, heatup is not even expected to occur - there have been concerns as to the performance of the passive safety systems. For example, the passive systems drive flows with small heads, consequently requiring more precision in the analysis compared to active systems methods for passive plants as compared to current plants with active systems. For the analysis of SBLOCAs and operating transients, the USNRC uses the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic system analysis code. To assure the applicability of RELAP5 to the analysis of these transients for the AP600 design, a four year long program of code development and assessment has been undertaken.

  5. Thermal performance of an earth-sheltered passive solar residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaVigne, A.B. (Puget Sound Power and Light Co., Bellevue, WA); Schuldt, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of the measured thermal performance of a direct gain, passive solar residence in the Pacific Northwest. The east, west, and north exterior walls of the house are bermed to within 12 inches (30 cm) of the ceiling; sliding interior insulated panels cover the double glazed, south facing windows when appropriate. The cost of the house construction was kept modest.

  6. Passive-Solar-Heating Analysis: a new ASHRAE manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The forthcoming ASHRAE book, Passive Solar Heating Analysis, is described. ASHRAE approval procedures are discussed. An overview of the contents is given. The development of the solar load ratio correlations is described, and the applicability of the analysis method is discussed.

  7. Passivation of quartz for halogen-containing light sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falkenstein, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    Lifetime of halogen containing VUV, UV, visible or IR light sources can be extended by passivating the quartz or glass gas containers with halogens prior to filling the quartz with the halogen and rare gas mixtures used to produce the light.

  8. Simple procedure for schematic design of passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, W.O.; Kosiewicz, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple procedure for use during the schematic phase of passive solar building design is presented in this article. The procedure is quantitative and accurate enough to insure that designs based on the provided starting point values of the primary building parameters will be cost effective.

  9. Entirely passive heat pipe apparatus capable of operating against gravity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koenig, Daniel R.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an entirely passive heat pipe apparatus capable of operating against gravity for vertical distances in the order of 3 to 7 meters and more. A return conduit into which an inert gas is introduced is used to lower the specific density of the working fluid so that it may be returned a greater vertical distance from condenser to evaporator.

  10. Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1989-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  11. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  12. Passive Imaging of Warhead-Like Configurations Using Cosmic-Ray Muons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwellenbach, D.

    2012-07-17

    Cosmic-Muon-Based Interrogation has untapped potential for national security. This presentation describes muons-based passive interrogation techniques.

  13. Light-Induced Passivation of Si by Iodine Ethanol Solution: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.; Rupnowski, P.; Appel, J.; Guhaabiswas, D.; Anderson-Jackson, L.

    2009-02-01

    We report on our observations of light-activated passivation of silicon surfaces by iodine-ethanol solution.

  14. Yahoo! Compute Coop Next Generation Passive Cooling Design for Data Centers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Yahoo! Compute Coop Next Generation Passive Cooling Design for Data Centers Yahoo! Compute Coop Next Generation Passive Cooling Design for Data Centers yahoo_passive_cooling.pdf (541.13 KB) More Documents & Publications Award Selections for Industrial Technologies Program Recovery Act Funding ITP_Data_Centers.xls SeaMicro Volume Server Power Reduction

  15. The role of surface passivation in controlling Ge nanowire faceting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gamalski, A. D.; Tersoff, J.; Kodambaka, S.; Zakharov, D. N.; Ross, F. M.; Stach, E. A.

    2015-11-05

    In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of nanowire morphologies indicate that during Au-catalyzed Ge nanowire growth, Ge facets can rapidly form along the nanowire sidewalls when the source gas (here, digermane) flux is decreased or the temperature is increased. This sidewall faceting is accompanied by continuous catalyst loss as Au diffuses from the droplet to the wire surface. We suggest that high digermane flux and low temperatures promote effective surface passivation of Ge nanowires with H or other digermane fragments inhibiting diffusion and attachment of Au and Ge on the sidewalls. Furthermore, these results illustrate the essential roles of themore » precursor gas and substrate temperature in maintaining nanowire sidewall passivation, necessary to ensure the growth of straight, untapered, <111>-oriented nanowires.« less

  16. The role of surface passivation in controlling Ge nanowire faceting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamalski, A. D.; Tersoff, J.; Kodambaka, S.; Zakharov, D. N.; Ross, F. M.; Stach, E. A.

    2015-11-05

    In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of nanowire morphologies indicate that during Au-catalyzed Ge nanowire growth, Ge facets can rapidly form along the nanowire sidewalls when the source gas (here, digermane) flux is decreased or the temperature is increased. This sidewall faceting is accompanied by continuous catalyst loss as Au diffuses from the droplet to the wire surface. We suggest that high digermane flux and low temperatures promote effective surface passivation of Ge nanowires with H or other digermane fragments inhibiting diffusion and attachment of Au and Ge on the sidewalls. Furthermore, these results illustrate the essential roles of the precursor gas and substrate temperature in maintaining nanowire sidewall passivation, necessary to ensure the growth of straight, untapered, <111>-oriented nanowires.

  17. Passive hybrid sensing tag with flexible substrate saw device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Jack L.; Chu, Eric Y.; Ho, Harvey

    2012-12-25

    The integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters, microfabricated transmission lines, and sensors onto polymer substrates in order to enable a passive wireless sensor platform is described herein. Incident microwave pulses on an integrated antenna are converted to an acoustic wave via a SAW filter and transmitted to an impedance based sensor, which for this work is a photodiode. Changes in the sensor state induce a corresponding change in the impedance of the sensor resulting in a reflectance profile. Data collected at a calibrated receiver is used to infer the state of the sensor. Based on this principal, light levels were passively and wirelessly demonstrated to be sensed at distances of up to about 12 feet.

  18. Solution-processed amorphous silicon surface passivation layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mews, Mathias Sontheimer, Tobias; Korte, Lars; Rech, Bernd; Mader, Christoph; Traut, Stephan; Wunnicke, Odo

    2014-09-22

    Amorphous silicon thin films, fabricated by thermal conversion of neopentasilane, were used to passivate crystalline silicon surfaces. The conversion is investigated using X-ray and constant-final-state-yield photoelectron spectroscopy, and minority charge carrier lifetime spectroscopy. Liquid processed amorphous silicon exhibits high Urbach energies from 90 to 120?meV and 200?meV lower optical band gaps than material prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Applying a hydrogen plasma treatment, a minority charge carrier lifetime of 1.37?ms at an injection level of 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3} enabling an implied open circuit voltage of 724?mV was achieved, demonstrating excellent silicon surface passivation.

  19. Integration of quantum cascade lasers and passive waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoya, Juan Wang, Christine; Goyal, Anish; Creedon, Kevin; Connors, Michael; Daulton, Jeffrey; Donnelly, Joseph; Missaggia, Leo; Aleshire, Chris; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio; Herzog, William

    2015-07-20

    We report on monolithic integration of active quantum cascade laser (QCL) materials with passive waveguides formed by using proton implantation. Proton implantation reduces the electron concentration in the QCL layers by creating deep levels that trap carriers. This strongly reduces the intersubband absorption and the free-carrier absorption in the gain region and surrounding layers, thus significantly reducing optical loss. We have measured loss as low as α = 0.33 cm{sup −1} in λ = 9.6 μm wavelength proton-implanted QCL material. We have also demonstrated lasing in active-passive integrated waveguides. This simple integration technique is anticipated to enable low-cost fabrication in infrared photonic integrated circuits in the mid-infrared (λ ∼ 3–16 μm)

  20. Passive heat-transfer means for nuclear reactors. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burelbach, J.P.

    1982-06-10

    An improved passive cooling arrangement is disclosed for maintaining adjacent or related components of a nuclear reactor within specified temperature differences. Specifically, heat pipes are operatively interposed between the components, with the vaporizing section of the heat pipe proximate the hot component operable to cool it and the primary condensing section of the heat pipe proximate the other and cooler component operable to heat it. Each heat pipe further has a secondary condensing section that is located outwardly beyond the reactor confinement and in a secondary heat sink, such as air ambient the containment, that is cooler than the other reactor component. By having many such heat pipes, an emergency passive cooling system is defined that is operative without electrical power.

  1. Evaluating the performance of passive-solar-heated buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of evaluating the thermal performance of passive-solar buildings are reviewed. Instrumentation and data logging requirements are outlined. Various methodologies that have been used to develop an energy balance for the building and various performance measures are discussed. Methods for quantifying comfort are described. Subsystem and other special-purpose monitoring are briefly reviewed. Summary results are given for 38 buildings that have been monitored.

  2. Heat storage and distribution inside passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    Passive solar buildings are investigated from the viewpoint of the storage of solar heat in materials of the building: walls, floors, ceilings, and furniture. The effects of the location, material, thickness, and orientation of each internal building surface are investigated. The concept of diurnal heat capacity is introduced and a method of using this parameter to estimate clear-day temperature swings is developed. Convective coupling to remote rooms within a building is discussed. Design guidelines are given.

  3. Passive Tamper Indicating Enclosures Incorporating Embedded Optical Fibre

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wynn, Paul; White, Helen; Allen, Keir; Simmons, Kevin L.; Sliva, Paul; Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.

    2011-08-14

    AWE and PNNL are engaged in a technical collaboration investigating techniques to enhance continuity of knowledge over Accountable Items within a verified nuclear weapons dismantlement process. Tamper Indicating Enclosures (TIE) will likely be deployed as part of a chain of custody regime to indicate an unauthorised attempt to access an Accountable Item. This paper looks at the use of passive TIEs incorporating embedded optical fibre; concepts relating to deployment, tamper indication and unique identification will be discussed.

  4. Advances in passive neutron instruments for safeguards use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C.; Stewart, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    Passive neutron and other nondestructive assay techniques have been used extensively by the International Atomic Energy Agency to verify plutonium metal, powder, mixed oxide, pellets, rods, assemblies, scrap, and liquids. Normally, the coincidence counting rate is used to measure the {sup 240}Pu-effective mass and gamma-ray spectrometry or mass spectrometry is used to verify the plutonium isotopic ratios. During the past few years, the passive neutron detectors have been installed in plants and operated in the unattended/continuous mode. These radiation data with time continuity have made it possible to use the totals counting rate to monitor the movement of nuclear material. Monte Carlo computer codes have been used to optimize the detector designs for specific applications. The inventory sample counter (INVS-III) has been designed to have a higher efficiency (43%) and a larger uniform counting volume than the original INVS. Data analyses techniques have been developed, including the ``known alpha`` and ``known multiplication`` methods that depend on the sample. For scrap and other impure or poorly characterized samples, we have developed multiplicity counting, initially implemented in the plutonium scrap multiplicity counter. For large waste containers such as 200-L drums, we have developed the add-a-source technique to give accurate corrections for the waste-matrix materials. This paper summarizes recent developments in the design and application of passive neutron assay systems.

  5. Passive solar heated energy conserving biosphere home. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekarski, R.

    1985-01-01

    ''Warm Gold'' is an original design of a passive solar heated energy conserving biosphere home. It has been owner-built with financial help from the US Department of Energy through its Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program of 1980. The home incorporates the six major components of passive solar design: appropriate geometry and orientation, glazing, light levels and reflective surfaces, ventilation, thermal storage, and insulation. Warm Gold is an earth-sheltered home with earth cover on the roof as well as on the two opaque north leg walls. It is of durable and efficient masonry construction which included stone masonry with on-site materials and cement block and ready mix concrete. Excavation, backfill, and drainage were necessary aspects of earth sheltered construction together with the all-important Bentonite waterproofing system. Warm Gold is a house which meets all the national building code standards of HUD. The home has two bedrooms, one bathroom, living room, dining room-kitchen, greenhouse, and utility annex, all of which are incorporated with the earth-sheltered, passive solar systems to be a comfortable, energy-efficient living environment.

  6. Performance of fuel cell for energy supply of passive house

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A. Mureşan, D.; Naghiu, G.; Răboacă, S. M.; Aşchilean, I.

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen technology and passive house represent two concepts with a remarkable role for the efficiency and decarbonisation of energy systems in the residential buildings area. Through design and functionality, the passive house can make maximum use of all available energy resources. One of the solutions to supply energy of these types of buildings is the fuel cell, using this technology integrated into a system for generating electricity from renewable primary sources, which take the function of backup power (energy reserve) to cover peak load and meteorological intermittents. In this paper is presented the results of the case study that provide an analysis of the energy, environmental and financial performances regarding energy supply of passive house by power generation systems with fuel cell fed with electrolytic hydrogen produced by harnessing renewable energy sources available. Hybrid systems have been configured and operate in various conditions of use for five differentiated locations according to the main areas of solar irradiation from the Romanian map. Global performance of hybrid systems is directly influenced by the availability of renewable primary energy sources - particular geo-climatic characteristics of the building emplacement.

  7. Passive and low energy research and development: a global view

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Passive and low energy applications in buildings have become a topic of worldwide interest within the last few years. It has now been demonstrated very clearly that indoor comfort can be maintained with an expenditure of only 10 to 20% of the energy often required by modern buildings. This is accomplished through a combination of conservation measures to minimize the load, passive use of solar energy for heating, natural cooling, and daylighting. The major research emphasis has been on devising mathematical models to characterize heat flow within buildings, on the validation of these models by comparison with test results, and on the subsequent use of the models to investigate the influence of both design parameters and weather on system performance. Design guidelines have been developed, and simplified methods of analysis have been promulgated. Performance has been monitored in test modules, test buildings, and many residential and commercial buildings. The results both confirm good performance and establish the accuracy of model predictions. A significant change in the research picture has been seen in the last 4 years; whereas the major effort was originally in the United States, research is now being conducted in many countries throughout the world as many people have realized that passive and low energy methods are appropriate in virtually every climate and are well suited to economic, convenient, and reliable building construction and operation.

  8. Passive film formation on 316L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1981-10-01

    The polarization behavior of 316L stainless steel has been studied in deaerated sodium sulfate solutions of various pH values. Potentiodynamic, potentiostatic and galvanostatic methods were used for a kinetic study of the formation and growth of passive films. For the film composition analysis, Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and ESCA techniques were also employed. Anodic polarization curves show that current increases as pH decreases and temperature increases. The activation energy for the reaction in the active region was determined to be 10.8 Kcal/mole. From potentiostatic experiments, three stages for passive film formation were observed: the initial active-passive transition, the logarithmic growth of the film and the parabolic growth of the film. The logarithmic relation is expressed and the parabolic relation written. The depth profile concentration of elements in the film by AES showed chromium enrichment at the surface except for the specimen treated at 0.9V (SCE), where iron was the dominant element in the film. The relative amount of Fe/sup 2 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ on the film surface analyzed by ESCA was not different for specimens anodized at 0.18V and 0.58V.

  9. Passivation layers for reduced total dose effects and ELDRS in linear bipolar devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodd, Paul Emerson; Riewe, Leonard Charles; Pease, Ronald L.; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Gupta, Sunny; Maher, Michael C.; Schwank, James Ralph

    2003-07-01

    It is shown that final chip passivation layers can have a significant impact on total dose hardness. A number of final chip passivation layers are evaluated to identify films that mitigate enhanced low-dose-rate sensitivity (ELDRS) in National Semiconductor Corporation's linear bipolar technologies. It is shown that devices fabricated with either a low temperature oxide or a tetraethyl ortho silicate passivation do not exhibit significant ELDRS effects up to 100 krad(SiO{sub 2}). Passivation studies on CMOS SRAMs suggest that it is unlikely that the passivation layers (or processing tools) are acting as a new source of hydrogen, which could drift or diffuse into the oxide and increase ELDRS sensitivity. Instead, it is possible that the passivation layers affect the mechanical stress in the oxide, which may affect oxide trap properties and possibly the release and mobility of hydrogen. Correlations between mechanical stress induced by the passivation layers and radiation degradation are discussed.

  10. Effect of Hydrogen Passivation on the Electronic Structure of Ionic Semiconductor Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, H. X.; Li, S. S.; Li, J. B.; Wei, S. H.

    2012-05-15

    In theoretical studies of thin film and nanostructured semiconductors, pseudohydrogen (PH) is widely used to passivate the surface dangling bonds. Based on these calculations, it is often believed that nanostructured semiconductors, due to quantum confinement, have a larger band gap than their bulk counterparts. Using first-principles band structure theory calculation and comparing systematically the differences between PH-passivated and real-hydrogen-passivated (RH-passivated) semiconductor surfaces and nanocrystals, we show that, unlike PH passivation that always increases the band gap with respect to the bulk value, RH passivation of the nanostructured semiconductors can either increase or decrease the band gap, depending on the ionicity of the nanocompounds. The differences between PH and RH passivations decreases when the covalency of the semiconductor increases and can be explained using a band coupling model. This observation greatly increases the tunability of nanostructured semiconductor properties, especially for wide-gap ionic semiconductors.

  11. Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove

  12. Electrostatic stabilizer for a passive magnetic bearing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2015-11-24

    Electrostatic stabilizers are provided for passive bearing systems composed of annular magnets having a net positive stiffness against radial displacements and that have a negative stiffness for vertical displacements, resulting in a vertical instability. Further embodiments are shown of a radial electrostatic stabilizer geometry (using circuitry similar to that employed in the vertical stabilizer). This version is suitable for stabilizing radial (lateral) displacements of a rotor that is levitated by annular permanent magnets that are stable against vertical displacements but are unstable against radial displacements.

  13. Electrostatic stabilizer for a passive magnetic bearing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2015-12-01

    Electrostatic stabilizers are provided for passive bearing systems composed of annular magnets having a net positive stiffness against radial displacements and that have a negative stiffness for vertical displacements, resulting in a vertical instability. Further embodiments are shown of a radial electrostatic stabilizer geometry (using circuitry similar to that employed in the vertical stabilizer). This version is suitable for stabilizing radial (lateral) displacements of a rotor that is levitated by annular permanent magnets that are stable against vertical displacements but are unstable against radial displacements.

  14. Natural air motion and stratification in passive buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Jones, G.F.; Yamaguchi, Kenjiro

    1984-01-01

    Natural convection is a major mechanism for heat distribution in many passive solar buildings, especially those with sunspaces. To better understand this mechanism, observations of air velocities and temperatures have been made in 13 different houses that encompass a wide variety of one- and two-story geometries. This paper extends previous reports. Results from one house are described in detail, and some generalizations are drawn from the large additional mass of data taken. A simple mathematical model is presented that describes the general nature of airflow and energy flow through an aperture.

  15. Heat storage and distribution inside passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Passive-solar buildings are investigated from the viewpoint of the storage of solar heat in materials of the building: walls, floors, ceilings, and furniture. The effects of the location, material, thickness, and orientation of each internal building surface are investigated. The concept of diurnal heat capacity is introduced and a method of using this parameter to estimate clear-day temperature swings is developed. Convective coupling to remote rooms within a building is discussed, including both convection through single doorways and convective loops that may exist involving a sunspace. Design guidelines are given.

  16. Erbium-based magnetic refrigerant (regenerator) for passive cryocooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    1996-07-23

    A two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler is disclosed having a low temperature stage for reaching approximately 10K, wherein the low temperature stage includes a passive magnetic heat regenerator selected from the group consisting of Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Sn, Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Pb, Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}(Sn{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}), and Er{sub 9}Ni{sub 3}Sn comprising a mixture of Er{sub 3}Ni and Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Sn in the microstructure. 14 figs.

  17. Erbium-based magnetic refrigerant (regenerator) for passive cryocooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    1996-07-23

    A two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler having a low temperature stage for reaching approximately 10K, wherein the low temperature stage includes a passive magnetic heat regenerator selected from the group consisting of Er.sub.6 Ni.sub.2 Sn, Er.sub.6 Ni.sub.2 Pb, Er.sub.6 Ni.sub.2 (Sn.sub.0.75 Ga.sub.0.25), and Er.sub.9 Ni.sub.3 Sn comprising a mixture of Er.sub.3 Ni and Er.sub.6 Ni.sub.2 Sn in the microstructure.

  18. Characteristics, design implications, and applicability of passive solar heating systems for buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Givoni, B. )

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews the performance characteristics of various passive solar heating systems for buildings, the main design factors affecting their performance, the relative advantages and main problems associated with them, and their applicability to different building types and climatic regions. Emphasis is placed on the architectural design issues associated with the different passive solar heating systems and to the problems that may be encountered when passive solar heating is applied in regions with hot summers.

  19. Integration of Full Tensor Gravity and ZTEM Passive Low Frequency EM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Instruments for Simultaneous Data Acquisition | Department of Energy Full Tensor Gravity and ZTEM Passive Low Frequency EM Instruments for Simultaneous Data Acquisition Integration of Full Tensor Gravity and ZTEM Passive Low Frequency EM Instruments for Simultaneous Data Acquisition Integration of Full Tensor Gravity and ZTEM Passive Low Frequency EM Instruments for Simultaneous Data Acquisition presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  20. Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary system when rendered inoperable.

  1. Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boardman, Charles E.; Hunsbedt, Anstein; Hui, Marvin M.

    1992-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a top entry loop joined satellite assembly with a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This satellite type reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary cooling system when rendered inoperative.

  2. The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. This report summarizes design and modeling activities for the MEMS passive shock sensor. It provides a description of past design revisions, including the purposes and major differences between design revisions but with a focus on Revisions 4 through 7 and the work performed in fiscal

  3. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Hood River Passive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    House - Hood River, Oregon (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Hood River Passive House - Hood River, Oregon (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Hood River Passive House - Hood River, Oregon (Fact Sheet) The Hood River Passive Project incorporates high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters

  4. Use of passive sampling devices to determine soil contaminant concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, K.A. |; Hooper, M.J.; Weisskopf, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    The effective remediation of contaminated sites requires accurate identification of chemical distributions. A rapid sampling method using passive sampling devices (PSDs) can provide a thorough site assessment. We have been pursuing their application in terrestrial systems and have found that they increase the ease and speed of analysis, decrease solvent usage and overall cost, and minimize the transport of contaminated soils. Time and cost savings allow a higher sampling frequency than is generally the case using traditional methods. PSDs have been used in the field in soils of varying physical properties and have been successful in estimating soil concentrations ranging from 1 {mu}g/kg (parts per billion) to greater than 200 mg/kg (parts per million). They were also helpful in identifying hot spots within the sites. Passive sampling devices show extreme promise as an analytical tool to rapidly characterize contaminant distributions in soil. There are substantial time and cost savings in laboratory personnel and supplies. By selectively excluding common interferences that require sample cleanup, PSDs can be retrieved from the field and processed rapidly (one technician can process approximately 90 PSDs in an 8-h work day). The results of our studies indicate that PSDs can be used to accurately estimate soil contaminant concentrations and provide lower detection limits. Further, time and cost savings will allow a more thorough and detailed characterization of contaminant distributions. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Remotely Interrogated Passive Polarizing Dosimeter (RIPPeD).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Buller, Daniel L.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Boye, Robert R.; Samora, Sally; Washburn, Cody M.; Wheeler, David Roger

    2008-09-01

    Conductive polymers have become an extremely useful class of materials for many optical applications. We have developed an electrochemical growth method for depositing highly conductive ({approx}100 S/cm) polypyrrole. Additionally, we have adapted advanced fabrication methods for use with the polypyrrole resulting in gratings with submicron features. This conductive polymer micro-wire grid provides an optical polarizer with unique properties. When the polymer is exposed to ionizing radiation, its conductivity is affected and the polarization properties of the device, specifically the extinction ratio, change in a corresponding manner. This change in polarization properties can be determined by optically interrogating the device, possibly from a remote location. The result is a passive radiation-sensitive sensor with very low optical visibility. The ability to interrogate the device from a safe standoff distance provides a device useful in potentially dangerous environments. Also, the passive nature of the device make it applicable in applications where external power is not available. We will review the polymer deposition, fabrication methods and device design and modeling. The characterization of the polymer's sensitivity to ionizing radiation and optical testing of infrared polarizers before and after irradiation will also be presented. These experimental results will highlight the usefulness of the conductive infrared polarizer to many security and monitoring applications.

  6. Plasma etching, texturing, and passivation of silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruby, D.S.; Yang, P.; Zaidi, S.; Brueck, S.; Roy, M.; Narayanan, S.

    1998-11-01

    The authors improved a self-aligned emitter etchback technique that requires only a single emitter diffusion and no alignments to form self-aligned, patterned-emitter profiles. Standard commercial screen-printed gridlines mask a plasma-etchback of the emitter. A subsequent PECVD-nitride deposition provides good surface and bulk passivation and an antireflection coating. The authors used full-size multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells processed in a commercial production line and performed a statistically designed multiparameter experiment to optimize the use of a hydrogenation treatment to increase performance. They obtained an improvement of almost a full percentage point in cell efficiency when the self-aligned emitter etchback was combined with an optimized 3-step PECVD-nitride surface passivation and hydrogenation treatment. They also investigated the inclusion of a plasma-etching process that results in a low-reflectance, textured surface on multicrystalline silicon cells. Preliminary results indicate reflectance can be significantly reduced without etching away the emitter diffusion.

  7. Plasma etching, texturing, and passivation of silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruby, D.S.; Yang, P.; Brueck, S.; Narayanan, S.

    1999-03-01

    We improved a self-aligned emitter etchback technique that requires only a single emitter diffusion and no alignments to form self-aligned, patterned-emitter profiles. Standard commercial screen-printed gridlines mask a plasma-etchback of the emitter. A subsequent PECVD-nitride deposition provides good surface and bulk passivation and an antireflection coating. We used full-size multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells processed in a commercial production line and performed a statistically designed multiparameter experiment to optimize the use of a hydrogenation treatment to increase performance. We obtained an improvement of almost a full percentage point in cell efficiency when the self-aligned emitter etchback was combined with an optimized 3-step PECVD-nitride surface passivation and hydrogenation treatment. We also investigated the inclusion of a plasma-etching process that results in a low-reflectance, textured surface on multicrystalline silicon cells. Preliminary results indicate reflectance can be significantly reduced without etching away the emitter diffusion. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Plasma texturing, etching and passivation of multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruby, D.S.; Yang, P.; Zaidi, S.; Roy, M.; Narayanan, S.

    1999-07-01

    The authors improved a self-aligned emitter etchback technique that requires only a single emitter diffusion and no alignments to form self-aligned, patterned-emitter profiles. Standard commercial screen-printed gridlines mask a plasma-etchback of the emitter. A subsequent PECVD-nitride deposition provides good surface and bulk passivation and an antireflection coating. The authors used full-size multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells processed in a commercial production line and performed a statistically designed multiparameter experiment to optimize the use of a hydrogenation treatment to increase performance. They obtained an improvement of almost a full percentage point in cell efficiency when the self-aligned emitter etchback was combined with an optimized 3-step PECVD-nitride surface passivation and hydrogenation treatment. They also investigated the inclusion of a plasma-etching process that results in a low-reflectance, textured surface on multicrystalline silicon cells. Preliminary results indicate reflectance can be significantly reduced without etching away the emitter diffusion.

  9. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 testing for functionality...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shock Sensor : FY08 testing for functionality, model validation, and technology readiness. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 ...

  10. Disruption Analysis and Response Implicattions of Passive Plates for the NSTX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuhu Zhai, Peter Titus, Art Brooks, and Ron Hatcher

    2012-08-27

    The NSTX upgrade project requires analysis qualifications of existing vacuum vessel and passive stabilizing plates for increased plasma performance. Vertical stability is critically dependent on the passive conducting structure that surrounds the plasma. In this paper, the passive conducting structure is analyzed for the upgrade condition during plasma disruption to ensure the level of stress in the stabilizing plates and the fastener is within its design limits. The counter-bore of the passive plates for bolting is evaluated in details and counter-bore bushing is redesigned to prevent shear failure during disruptions as a result of high pulling and pushing forces, particularly for support at the corner bolts

  11. Passive tire pressure sensor and method (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Passive tire pressure sensor and method A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured ...

  12. Using Passive Solar Design to Save Money and Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Passive Solar Design to Save Money and Energy Using Passive Solar Design to Save Money and Energy October 17, 2014 - 9:45am Q&A What do you want to know about solar energy at home? Tell Us Addthis Passive solar design uses carefully designed overhangs and reflective coatings on windows, exterior walls, and roofs to provide comfort during the cooling season. | Photo courtesy of Jason Flakes, U.S. Department of Energy Passive solar design uses carefully designed overhangs and reflective

  13. Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on passive PEM water management, was given by Susie Stenkamp of PNNL at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

  14. Apparatus and process for passivating an SRF cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Wallace, John P

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus and process for the production of a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided. The apparatus comprises a first chamber positioned within a second chamber, an RF generator and vacuum pumping systems. The process comprises placing the niobium cavity in a first chamber of the apparatus; thermally treating the cavity by high temperature in the first chamber while maintaining high vacuum in the first and second chambers; and applying a passivating thin film layer to a surface of the cavity in the presence of a gaseous mixture and an RF field. Further a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients produced by the method of the invention is provided.

  15. The corrosivity and passivity of sputtered Mg-Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Guang -Ling; Unocic, Kinga A.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Cakmak, Ercan; Brady, Michael P.; Gannon, Paul E.; Himmer, Phil; Andrews, Quinn

    2015-11-30

    Our study explored the possibility of forming a “stainless” Mg–Ti alloy. The electrochemical behavior of magnetron-sputtered Mg–Ti alloys was measured in a NaCl solution, and the surface films on the alloys were examined by XPS, SEM and TEM. Increased corrosion resistance was observed with increased Ti content in the sputtered Mg–Ti alloys, but passive-like behavior was not reached until the Ti level (atomic %) was higher than the Mg level. Moreover, the surface film that formed on sputtered Mg–Ti based alloys in NaCl solution was thick, discontinuous and non-protective, whereas a thin, continuous and protective Mg and Ti oxide film was formed on a sputtered Ti–Mg based alloy.

  16. Segmented saddle-shaped passive stabilization conductors for toroidal plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leuer, J.A.

    1990-05-01

    A large toroidal vacuum chamber for plasma generation and confinement is lined with a toroidal blanket for shielding using modules segmented in the toroidal direction. To provide passive stabilization in the same manner as a conductive vacuum chamber wall, saddle-shaped conductor loops are provided on blanket modules centered on a midplane of the toroidal chamber with horizontal conductive bars above and below the midplane, and vertical conductive legs on opposite sides of each module to provide return current paths between the upper and lower horizontal conductive bars. The close proximity of the vertical legs provided on adjacent modules without making physical contact cancel the electromagnetic field of adjacent vertical legs. The conductive bars spaced equally above and below the midplane simulate toroidal conductive loops or hoops that are continuous, for vertical stabilization of the plasma even though they are actually segmented. 5 figs.

  17. Active/passive mode-locked laser oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fountain, William D.; Johnson, Bertram C.

    1977-01-01

    A Q-switched/mode-locked Nd:YAG laser oscillator employing simultaneous active (electro-optic) and passive (saturable absorber) loss modulation within the optical cavity is described. This "dual modulation" oscillator can produce transform-limited pulses of duration ranging from about 30 psec to about 5 nsec with greatly improved stability compared to other mode-locked systems. The pulses produced by this system lack intrapulse frequency or amplitude modulation, and hence are idealy suited for amplification to high energies and for other applications where well-defined pulses are required. Also, the pulses of this system have excellent interpulse characteristics, wherein the optical noise between the individual pulses of the pulse train has a power level well below the power of the peak pulse of the train.

  18. Capacitance of a passive iron electrode in acidic solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grilikhes, M.S.; Berezin, M.Yu.; Gorlin, A.V.; Sapelova, E.V.; Sokolov, M.A.; Sukhotin, A.M.

    1985-12-01

    In the present work the authors measured the capacitance of the electrical double layer on passive Armco iron in acidic solutions with the simultaneous recording of the potentiodynamic curves. The measurements were carried out on an apparatus which is based on the double-pulse variant of the galvanostatic method with a pulse lifetime of 2 microseconds, in which the influence of the faradic processes on the capacitance curves is negligibly small in the case of electrochemical systems with small exchange currents. The experiments were carried out at room temperature in 0.5 M sulfuric acid (pH 0.25) and 0.5 M tartaric acid H/sub 2/C/sub 4/H/sub 4/O/sub 6/ (pH 1.6).

  19. The corrosivity and passivity of sputtered Mg-Ti alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Song, Guang -Ling; Unocic, Kinga A.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Cakmak, Ercan; Brady, Michael P.; Gannon, Paul E.; Himmer, Phil; Andrews, Quinn

    2015-11-30

    Our study explored the possibility of forming a “stainless” Mg–Ti alloy. The electrochemical behavior of magnetron-sputtered Mg–Ti alloys was measured in a NaCl solution, and the surface films on the alloys were examined by XPS, SEM and TEM. Increased corrosion resistance was observed with increased Ti content in the sputtered Mg–Ti alloys, but passive-like behavior was not reached until the Ti level (atomic %) was higher than the Mg level. Moreover, the surface film that formed on sputtered Mg–Ti based alloys in NaCl solution was thick, discontinuous and non-protective, whereas a thin, continuous and protective Mg and Ti oxide filmmore » was formed on a sputtered Ti–Mg based alloy.« less

  20. System and method for floating-substrate passive voltage contrast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Mark W.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Soden, Jerry M.; Walraven, Jeremy A.; Pimentel, Alejandro A.

    2009-04-28

    A passive voltage contrast (PVC) system and method are disclosed for analyzing ICs to locate defects and failure mechanisms. During analysis a device side of a semiconductor die containing the IC is maintained in an electrically-floating condition without any ground electrical connection while a charged particle beam is scanned over the device side. Secondary particle emission from the device side of the IC is detected to form an image of device features, including electrical vias connected to transistor gates or to other structures in the IC. A difference in image contrast allows the defects or failure mechanisms be pinpointed. Varying the scan rate can, in some instances, produce an image reversal to facilitate precisely locating the defects or failure mechanisms in the IC. The system and method are useful for failure analysis of ICs formed on substrates (e.g. bulk semiconductor substrates and SOI substrates) and other types of structures.

  1. Experimental and analytical studies of passive shutdown heat removal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedersen, D.; Tessier, J.; Heineman, J.; Stewart, R.; Anderson, T.; August, C.; Chawla, T.; Cheung, F.B.; Despe, O.; Haupt, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Using a naturally circulating air stream to remove shutdown decay heat from a nuclear reactor vessel is a key feature of advanced liquid metal reactor (LMR) concepts developed by potential vendors selected by the Department of Energy. General Electric and Rockwell International continue to develop innovative design concepts aimed at improving safety, lowering plant costs, simplifying plant operation, reducing construction times, and most of all, enhancing plant licensability. The reactor program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical support to both organizations. The method of shutdown heat removal proposed employs a totally passive cooling system that rejects heat from the reactor by radiation and natural convection to air. The system is inherently reliable since it is not subject failure modes associated with active decay cooling systems. The system is designed to assure adequate cooling of the reactor under abnormal operating conditions associated with loss of heat removal through other heat transport paths.

  2. NATURAL CONVECTION IN PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS: EXPERIMENTS, ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, A.; Bauman, F.; Kammerud, R.

    1981-04-01

    Computer programs have been developed to numerically simulate natural convection in two- and three-dimensional room geometries. The programs have been validated using published data from the literature, results from a full-scale experiment performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and results from a small-scale experiment performed at LBL. One of the computer programs has been used to study the influence of natural convection on the thermal performance of a single zone in a direct-gain passive solar building. It is found that the convective heat transfer coefficients between the air and the enclosure surfaces can be substantially different from the values assumed in the standard building energy analysis methods, and can exhibit significant variations across a given surface. This study implies that the building heating loads calculated by standard building energy analysis methods may have substantial errors as a result of their use of common assumptions regarding the convection processes which occur in an enclosure.

  3. Passive Spectroscopic Diagnostics for Magnetically-confined Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, B. C.; Biter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hillis, D. L.; Hogan, J. T.

    2007-07-18

    Spectroscopy of radiation emitted by impurities and hydrogen isotopes plays an important role in the study of magnetically-confined fusion plasmas, both in determining the effects of impurities on plasma behavior and in measurements of plasma parameters such as electron and ion temperatures and densities, particle transport, and particle influx rates. This paper reviews spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma radiation that are excited by collisional processes in the plasma, which are termed 'passive' spectroscopic diagnostics to distinguish them from 'active' spectroscopic diagnostics involving injected particle and laser beams. A brief overview of the ionization balance in hot plasmas and the relevant line and continuum radiation excitation mechanisms is given. Instrumentation in the soft X-ray, vacuum ultraviolet, ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum is described and examples of measurements are given. Paths for further development of these measurements and issues for their implementation in a burning plasma environment are discussed.

  4. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  5. Optimal gate-width setting for passive neutrons multiplicity counting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G; Schear, Melissa A

    2010-01-01

    When setting up a passive neutron coincidence counter it is natural to ask what coincidence gate settings should be used to optimize the counting precision. If the gate width is too short then signal is lost and the precision is compromised because in a given period only a few coincidence events will be observed. On the other hand if the gate is too large the signal will be maximized but it will also be compromised by the high level of random pile-up or Accidental coincidence events which must be subtracted. In the case of shift register electronics connected to an assay chamber with an exponential dieaway profile operating in the regime where the Accidentals rate dominates the Reals coincidence rate but where dead-time is not a concern, simple arguments allow one to show that the relative precision on the net Reals rate is minimized when the coincidence gate is set to about 1.2 times the lie dieaway time of the system. In this work we show that making the same assumptions it is easy to show that the relative precision on the Triples rates is also at a minimum when the relative precision of the Doubles (or Reals) is at a minimum. Although the analysis is straightforward to our knowledge such a discussion has not been documented in the literature before. Actual measurement systems do not always behave in the ideal we choose to model them. Fortunately however the variation in the relative precision as a function of gate width is rather flat for traditional safeguards counters and so the performance is somewhat forgiving of the exact choice. The derivation further serves to delineate the important parameters which determine the relative counting precision of the Doubles and Triples rates under the regime considered. To illustrate the similarities and differences we consider the relative standard deviation that might be anticipated for a passive correlation count of an axial section of a spent nuclear fuel assembly under practically achievable conditions.

  6. Method to grow group III-nitrides on copper using passivation layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Qiming; Wang, George T; Figiel, Jeffrey T

    2014-06-03

    Group III-nitride epilayers can be grown directly on copper substrates using intermediate passivation layers. For example, single crystalline c-plane GaN can be grown on Cu (110) substrates with MOCVD. The growth relies on a low temperature AlN passivation layer to isolate any alloying reaction between Ga and Cu.

  7. Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Busboom, Herbert J.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

  8. Silicon surface and bulk defect passivation by low temperature PECVD oxides and nitrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Z.; Rohatgi, A.; Ruby, D.

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of PECVD passivation of surface and bulk defects in Si, as well as phosphorous diffused emitters, Is investigated and quantified. Significant hydrogen incorporation coupled with high positive charge density in the PECVD SiN layer is found to play an important role in bulk and surface passivation. It is shown that photo-assisted anneal in a forming gas ambient after PECVD depositions significantly improves the passivation of emitter and bulk defects. PECVD passivation of phosphorous doped emitters and boron doped bare Si surfaces is found to be a strong function of doping concentration. Surface recombination velocity of less than 200 cm/s for 0.2 Ohm-cm and less than 1 cm/s for high resistivity substrates ({approximately} Ohm-cm) were achieved. PECVD passivation improved bulk lifetime in the range of 30% to 70% in multicrystalline Si materials. However, the degree of the passivation was found to be highly material specific. Depending upon the passivation scheme, emitter saturation current density (J{sub oe}) can be reduced by a factor of 3 to 9. Finally, the stability of PECVD oxide/nitride passivation under prolonged UV exposure is established.

  9. Technology Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of Passive Vents in New-Construction Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Puttagunta, S. Maxwell, D. Berger, and M. Zuluaga

    2015-10-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) conducted research to gain more insight into passive vents. Because passive vents are meant to operate in a general environment of negative apartment pressure, the research assessed whether these negative pressures prevail through a variety of environmental conditions.

  10. Sidewall passivation for InGaN/GaN nanopillar light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Won Hyuck; Abraham, Michael; Yu, Shih-Ying [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); You, Guanjun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Li; Xu, Jian, E-mail: jianxu@engr.psu.edu [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Mohney, Suzanne E., E-mail: mohney@ems.psu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    We studied the effect of sidewall passivation on InGaN/GaN multiquantum well-based nanopillar light emitting diode (LED) performance. In this research, the effects of varying etch rate, KOH treatment, and sulfur passivation were studied for reducing nanopillar sidewall damage and improving device efficiency. Nanopillars prepared under optimal etching conditions showed higher photoluminescence intensity compared with starting planar epilayers. Furthermore, nanopillar LEDs with and without sulfur passivation were compared through electrical and optical characterization. Suppressed leakage current under reverse bias and four times higher electroluminescence (EL) intensity were observed for passivated nanopillar LEDs compared with unpassivated nanopillar LEDs. The suppressed leakage current and EL intensity enhancement reflect the reduction of non-radiative recombination at the nanopillar sidewalls. In addition, the effect of sulfur passivation was found to be very stable, and further insight into its mechanism was gained through transmission electron microscopy.