National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for blows furling-a passive

  1. THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING IS BLOWING UP.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THIS IS A COPY OF THE EXECUTED DOCUMENT THIS IS A COPY OF THE EXECUTED DOCUMENT THIS IS A COPY OF THE EXECUTED DOCUMENT THIS IS A COPY OF THE EXECUTED DOCUMENT

    March 2016 THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING IS BLOWING UP. From the obvious-hand tools and chess pieces-to the less obvious-body parts and shelf-stable food-just about every item imaginable is being subjected to the two-step process of digitization and fabrication that is 3D printing. One of the factors fueling the

  2. Simulation of the Two Stages Stretch-Blow Molding Process: Infrared Heating and Blowing Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordival, M.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Velay, V. [CROMeP - Ecole des Mines d'Albi Carmaux - Campus Jarlard - 81013 Albi cedex 09 (France)

    2007-05-17

    In the Stretch-Blow Molding (SBM) process, the temperature distribution of the reheated perform affects drastically the blowing kinematic, the bottle thickness distribution, as well as the orientation induced by stretching. Consequently, mechanical and optical properties of the final bottle are closely related to heating conditions. In order to predict the 3D temperature distribution of a rotating preform, numerical software using control-volume method has been developed. Since PET behaves like a semi-transparent medium, the radiative flux absorption was computed using Beer Lambert law. In a second step, 2D axi-symmetric simulations of the SBM have been developed using the finite element package ABAQUS registered . Temperature profiles through the preform wall thickness and along its length were computed and applied as initial condition. Air pressure inside the preform was not considered as an input variable, but was automatically computed using a thermodynamic model. The heat transfer coefficient applied between the mold and the polymer was also measured. Finally, the G'sell law was used for modeling PET behavior. For both heating and blowing stage simulations, a good agreement has been observed with experimental measurements. This work is part of the European project ''APT{sub P}ACK'' (Advanced knowledge of Polymer deformation for Tomorrow's PACKaging)

  3. Blowing in the Wind ...Offshore | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blowing in the Wind ...Offshore Blowing in the Wind ...Offshore February 10, 2011 - 9:28am Addthis Cathy Zoi Former Assistant Secretary, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy What will this project do? The new offshore wind strategy lays out a path to potentially have 54 gigawatts of offshore wind capacity by 2030, enough to power more than 15 million homes with clean, renewable energy. Have you ever flown a kite at the beach? If you have, you know how breezy it can be. A few miles

  4. At DOE, body blows to Fusion, Nuclear Physics, and Particle Physics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    news.sciencemag.orgscienceinsider201202at-doe-body-blows-to-fusion-nucl.html Submitted: Monday, February 13...

  5. CR-39 track etching and blow-up method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hankins, Dale E. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    This invention is a method of etching tracks in CR-39 foil to obtain uniformly sized tracks. The invention comprises a step of electrochemically etching the foil at a low frequency and a "blow-up" step of electrochemically etching the foil at a high frequency.

  6. Multiscale Modeling of Sickle Anemia Blood Blow by Dissipative Partice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamics | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Sickle Anemia Blood Blow by Dissipative Partice Dynamics Authors: Huan, L., Caswell, B., Karniadakis, G A multi-scale model for sickle red blood cell is developed based on Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD). Different cell morphologies (sickle, granular, elongated shapes) typically observed in in vitro and in vivo are constructed and the deviations from the biconcave shape is quantified by the Asphericity and Elliptical shape factors. The

  7. Collegiate Wind Competition Set to Blow AWEA WINDPOWER 2016 Away |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy AWEA WINDPOWER 2016 Away Collegiate Wind Competition Set to Blow AWEA WINDPOWER 2016 Away May 11, 2016 - 1:12pm Addthis When you add passionate collegiate competitors and their pioneering wind turbine designs to America's largest wind industry event, you get a winning combination designed to spark excitement. Bringing together the next generation of wind energy professionals with today's industry leaders, the U.S. Department of Energy Collegiate Wind Competition 2016

  8. At DOE, body blows to Fusion, Nuclear Physics, and Particle Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Science) | Jefferson Lab At DOE, body blows to Fusion, Nuclear Physics, and Particle Physics (Science) External Link: http://news.sciencemag.org/scienceinsider/2012/02/at-doe-body-blows-to-fusion-nu... By jlab_admin on Mon, 2012-02-13

  9. Soot blower using fuel gas as blowing medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanca, Michael C. (Tariffville, CT)

    1982-01-01

    A soot blower assembly (10) for use in combination with a coal gasifier (14). The soot blower assembly is adapted for use in the hot combustible product gas generated in the gasifier as the blowing medium. The soot blower lance (20) and the drive means (30) by which it is moved into and out of the gasifier is housed in a gas tight enclosure (40) which completely surrounds the combination. The interior of the enclosure (40) is pressurized by an inert gas to a pressure level higher than that present in the gasifier so that any combustible product gas leaking from the soot blower lance (20) is forced into the gasifier rather than accumulating within the enclosure.

  10. [Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macdonald, D.D.

    1993-07-01

    We developed and experimentally tested physical models for growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models are ``point defect models,`` in which the growth and breakdown are described in terms of movement of anion and cation vacancies. The work during the past 5 years resulted in: theory of growth and breakdown of passive films, theory of corrosion-resistant alloys, electronic structure of passive films, and estimation of damage functions for energy systems. Proposals are give for the five ongoing tasks. 10 figs.

  11. Passive solar space heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of passive solar space heating is presented indicating trends in design, new developments, performance measures, analytical design aids, and monitored building results.

  12. On lower bounds for possible blow-up solutions to the periodic Navier-Stokes equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortissoz, Jean C. Montero, Julio A. Pinilla, Carlos E.

    2014-03-15

    We show a new lower bound on the H{sup .3/2} (T{sup 3}) norm of a possible blow-up solution to the Navier-Stokes equation, and also comment on the extension of this result to the whole space. This estimate can be seen as a natural limiting result for Leray's blow-up estimates in L{sup p}(R{sup 3}), 3 < p < ?. We also show a lower bound on the blow-up rate of a possible blow-up solution of the Navier-Stokes equation in H{sup .5/2} (T{sup 3}), and give the corresponding extension to the case of the whole space.

  13. NREL: Wind Research - Winds of Change Blowing for Wind Farm Research...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Winds of Change Blowing for Wind Farm Research with NREL's SOWFA Tool Simulation from SOWFA that shows a number of wind turbines and how the wind is flowing between them, with the ...

  14. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  15. Passive solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  16. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  17. Passive research and practice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Passive-solar applications in buildings are described and examples are given to illustrate how research in the field has been approached. The major emphasis of the research has been on devising mathematical models to characterize heat flow within buildings, on the validation of these models by comparison with test results, and on the subsequent use of the models to investigate the influence of both various design parameters and the weather on system performance. Results from both test modules and monitored buildings are given. Simulation analysis, the development of simplified methods, and systems analysis are outlined. Passive-solar practice is described and the key elements that have led to successful passive-solar applications are discussed.

  18. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  19. Passive solar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Passive solar applications in buildings are described. The major emphasis of the research has been on devising mathematical models to characterize heat flow within buildings, on the validation of these models by comparison with test results, and on the subsequent use of the models to investigate the influence of both various design parameters and the weather on system performance. Results from both test modules and monitored buildings are discussed. Simulation analysis, the development of simplified methods, and systems analysis are outlined. Passive solar potential in China is discussed.

  20. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1992-10-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970`s through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  1. Passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Developments in passive solar buildings that took place from the early 1970's through 1989 are described. Much of the work covered was federally sponsored during the period 1975 through 1986. About half the volume is devoted to quantitative methods for modeling, simulation, and design analysis of passive buildings; the other half summarizes the quantitative results of testing and monitoring of models and buildings. The following are covered: building solar gain modeling, simulation analysis, simplified methods, materials and components, analytical results for specific systems, test modules, building integration, performance monitoring and results, and design tools. (MHR)

  2. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    A method of passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  3. Method of passivating semiconductor surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A method is described for passivating Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound surfaces. The method includes selecting a passivating material having a lattice constant substantially mismatched to the lattice constant of the semiconductor compound. The passivating material is then grown as an ultrathin layer of passivating material on the surface of the Group III-V or II-VI semiconductor compound. The passivating material is grown to a thickness sufficient to maintain a coherent interface between the ultrathin passivating material and the semiconductor compound. In addition, a device formed from such method is also disclosed.

  4. Compressed Air System Modifications Improve Efficiency at a Plastics Blow Molding Plant (Southeastern Container Plant)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the plastics blow molding plant project.

  5. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hales, David

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  6. Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  7. Passive Solar Space Heat | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Passive Solar Space Heat Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titlePassiv...

  8. Passive Solar Home Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Design for Efficiency Passive Solar Home Design Passive Solar Home Design This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but ...

  9. Passivated niobium cavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Hjorvarsson, Bjorgvin; Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2006-12-19

    A niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided by treating a niobium cavity through a process comprising: 1) removing surface oxides by plasma etching or a similar process; 2) removing hydrogen or other gases absorbed in the bulk niobium by high temperature treatment of the cavity under ultra high vacuum to achieve hydrogen outgassing; and 3) assuring the long term chemical stability of the niobium cavity by applying a passivating layer of a superconducting material having a superconducting transition temperature higher than niobium thereby reducing losses from electron (cooper pair) scattering in the near surface region of the interior of the niobium cavity. According to a preferred embodiment, the passivating layer comprises niobium nitride (NbN) applied by reactive sputtering.

  10. Passive solar buildings research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    This chapter covers research advances in passive solar buildings research during the time span from 1982 through 1991. These advances fall within the following categories: (1) short-term energy monitoring, (2) heat transport by natural convection within buildings, and (3) design guidelines and design tools. In short-term energy monitoring, a simulation model of the building is calibrated, based on data taken in a 3-day test. The method accurately predicts performance over an extended period. Heat transport through doorways is characterized for complex situations that arise in passive solar buildings. Simple concepts and models adequately describe the energy transport in many situations of interest. In a new approach, design guidelines are automatically generated for any specific locality. Worksheets or an accompanying computer program allow the designer to quickly and accurately evaluate performance and investigate design alternatives. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Passively actuated valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Modro, S. Michael; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2005-09-20

    A passively actuated valve for isolating a high pressure zone from a low pressure zone and discontinuing the isolation when the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below a preset threshold. If the pressure in the high pressure zone drops below the preset threshold, the valve opens and allows flow from the high pressure zone to the low pressure zone. The valve remains open allowing pressure equalization and back-flow should a pressure inversion between the two pressure zone occur.

  12. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  13. Passive-solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  14. Passive containment cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  15. Passive containment cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  16. Passive magnetic bearing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  17. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  18. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  19. Collegiate Wind Competition Set to Blow into Vegas in May | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy into Vegas in May Collegiate Wind Competition Set to Blow into Vegas in May January 23, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The United States is among the world's largest and fastest growing wind energy markets. In fact, wind energy is now the number one source of new U.S. electricity generation capacity-representing 43% of all new electric additions in 2012 and accounting for $25 billion in U.S. investment. To help the nation's future scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs continue to advance

  20. Passive Solar Industries Council | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Passive Solar Industries Council Jump to: navigation, search Name: Passive Solar Industries Council Place: Ashland, OR Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL...

  1. Passive blast pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Michael J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.; Moss, William C.

    2013-03-19

    A passive blast pressure sensor for detecting blast overpressures of at least a predetermined minimum threshold pressure. The blast pressure sensor includes a piston-cylinder arrangement with one end of the piston having a detection surface exposed to a blast event monitored medium through one end of the cylinder and the other end of the piston having a striker surface positioned to impact a contact stress sensitive film that is positioned against a strike surface of a rigid body, such as a backing plate. The contact stress sensitive film is of a type which changes color in response to at least a predetermined minimum contact stress which is defined as a product of the predetermined minimum threshold pressure and an amplification factor of the piston. In this manner, a color change in the film arising from impact of the piston accelerated by a blast event provides visual indication that a blast overpressure encountered from the blast event was not less than the predetermined minimum threshold pressure.

  2. Propagation dynamics of laterally colliding plasma plumes in laser-blow-off of thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Singh, R. K.; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, P. K.; Kumar, Ajai, E-mail: ajai@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2014-08-15

    We report a systematic investigation of two plume interactions at different spatial separation (3-7?mm) in laser-blow-off. The plasmas plumes are created using Laser-blow-off (LBO) scheme of a thin film. The fast imaging technique is used to record the evolution of seed plasmas and the interaction zone which is formed as a result of interaction of the two seed plasmas. Time resolved optical emission spectroscopy is used to study evolution of optical emissions of the species present in the different regions of the plasmas. Neutral Li emissions (Li I 670.8?nm (2s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} ? 2p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,1/2}) and Li I 610.3?nm (2p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,1/2} ? 3d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2,5/2})) are dominant in the plasmas but significant differences are observed in the emission and estimated plasma parameters of the seed and the interaction zone. The transport of plasma species from the seed plasmas to the interaction zone is discussed in the terms of plume divergence, kinetic energy of particles, and ion acoustic speed. An attempt is made to understand the formation and dynamics of the interaction zone in the colliding LBO seed plasmas.

  3. Development of the Variable Atmosphere Testing Facility for Blow-Down Analysis of the Mars Hopper Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan D. Jerred; Robert C. O'Brien; Steven D. Howe; James E. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Recent developments at the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) on a Martian exploration probe have lead to the assembly of a multi-functional variable atmosphere testing facility (VATF). The VATF has been assembled to perform transient blow-down analysis of a radioisotope thermal rocket (RTR) concept that has been proposed for the Mars Hopper; a long-lived, long-ranged mobile platform for the Martian surface. This study discusses the current state of the VATF as well as recent blow-down testing performed on a laboratory-scale prototype of the Mars Hopper. The VATF allows for the simulation of Mars ambient conditions within the pressure vessel as well as to safely perform blow-down tests through the prototype using CO2 gas; the proposed propellant for the Mars Hopper. Empirical data gathered will lead to a better understanding of CO2 behavior and will provide validation of simulation models. Additionally, the potential of the VATF to test varying propulsion system designs has been recognized. In addition to being able to simulate varying atmospheres and blow-down gases for the RTR, it can be fitted to perform high temperature hydrogen testing of fuel elements for nuclear thermal propulsion.

  4. WIPP - Passive Institutional Controls (PICs)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed a program for the development of Passive Institutional Controls to alert future generations to the potential hazards of intersecting the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository. These controls are required by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [Title 40 CFR, Sections 191.14 and 194.43]. The purpose of a passive control, or a PIC, is to indicate the location of the repository and to convey the dangers associated with human exposure to the

  5. Passive Solar Home Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design for Efficiency » Passive Solar Home Design Passive Solar Home Design This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system (top of roof) supplies both domestic hot water and a secondary radiant floor heating system. | Photo courtesy of Jim Schmid Photography. This North Carolina home gets most of its space heating from the passive solar design, but the solar thermal system (top of roof) supplies both domestic hot water and a

  6. Passive solar design handbook. Volume III. Passive solar design analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Kosiewicz, C.E.; Lazarus, G.S.; McFarland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1982-07-01

    Simple analytical methods concerning the design of passive solar heating systems are presented with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Key terminology and methods are reviewed. The solar load ratio (SLR) is defined, and its relationship to analysis methods is reviewed. The annual calculation, or Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method, is outlined. Sensitivity data are discussed. Information is presented on balancing conservation and passive solar strategies in building design. Detailed analysis data are presented for direct gain and sunspace systems, and details of the systems are described. Key design parameters are discussed in terms of their impact on annual heating performance of the building. These are the sensitivity data. The SLR correlations for the respective system types are described. The monthly calculation, or SLR method, based on the SLR correlations, is reviewed. Performance data are given for 9 direct gain systems and 15 water wall and 42 Trombe wall systems. (LEW)

  7. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown. Final report, [September 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.

    1994-02-21

    Purpose is to understand the mechanisms for growth and breakdown of passive films on metal and alloy surfaces in aqueous medium; a secondary goal is to devise methods for predicting localized corrosion damage in industrial systems. Tasks currently being studied are: formation of bilayer structures in passive films on metals and alloys; passivity breakdown on solid vs. liquid gallium; roles of alloying elements in passivity breakdown; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; electronic structure of passive oxide films; photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy of passive films; and kinetics of localized attack.

  8. Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling July 27, 2014 - 4:18pm Addthis Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Using passive solar design to heat...

  9. Dynamics of laser-blow-off induced Li plume in confined geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Singh, R K; Kumar, Ajai [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)

    2013-08-15

    Dynamics of Li plasma plume created by laser-blow-off technique in air ambient is reported. Plasma plume dynamics and its optical emission are investigated in planar and confined geometries using time resolved shadowgraph imaging and optical emission spectroscopy. Significant differences in the plasma characteristics in confined geometry are quantitatively investigated by comparing the plasma parameters (temperature and density) in free expansion and confined geometry configurations. Dynamics and physical parameters of the primary as well as the reflected shock waves (in confined geometry) and their interactions with expanding plasma are briefly addressed. A large enhancement in the emission intensities of Li I 610.3 nm (2p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2}? 3d {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,5/2}) and 670.8 nm (2s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}? 2p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2}) is correlated with the shock wave dynamics in the two geometries. Strong self reversal in the neutral emission infers an increase in the population density of neutrals within the confined plasma plume.

  10. Evaluation of Alternate Surface Passivation Methods (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  11. Physics of passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Primary emphasis in the paper is on methods of characterizing and analyzing passive solar buildings. Simplifying assumptions are described which make this analysis tractable without compromising significant accuracy or loss of insight into the basic physics of the situation. The overall nature of the mathematical simulation approach is described. Validation procedures based on data from test rooms and monitored buildings are outlined. Issues of thermal comfort are discussed. Simplified methods of analysis based on correlation procedures are reported and the nature of the economic conservation-solar optimization process is explored. Future trends are predicted.

  12. Passive solar in China: traditional and new

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Balcomb, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    The authors' observations of a tradition of passive solar architecture in northern China are described. Tendencies for modern buildings to depart from this tradition are noted. Major passive solar research programs are discussed and experimental buildings are illustrated. It is concluded that the Chinese could realize a major advantage by combining their strong tradition of passive solar architecture with modern insulation methods and improved glazing systems.

  13. Gap between active and passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

  14. Category:Passive Sensors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Imaging L Long-Wave Infrared M Macrophotography Multispectral Imaging N Near Infrared Surveys O Oblique Aerial & Ground Visible Band & Thermographic Imaging P Passive...

  15. Rules of thumb for passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Rules of thumb are given for passive solar systems for: (1) sizing solar glazing for 219 cities, (2) sizing thermal storage mass, and (3) building orientation.

  16. Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    efficiency silicon solar cells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Authors: ...

  17. Passive House Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Darmstadt, Germany Sector: Buildings Product: Focused on researching and promoting highly energy-efficient buildings that incorporate principles of heat exchange, passive heating,...

  18. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorski, Anthony J.; Schertz, William W.

    1982-01-01

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  19. The technical viability of alternative blowing agents in polyisocyanurate roof insulation: A cooperative industry/government project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.; Courville, G.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Graves, R.S.; Linkous, R.L.; McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Wendt, R.L.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    This report is a summary of the cooperative industry/government program to establish the viability of alternative blowing agents to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The project was initiated in 1989 following two workshops that focused on needed research on thermal insulation blown with substitutes for CFC-11 and CFC-12. The project is directed by a steering committee of representatives of the sponsors and of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the project is to determine if the performance of polyisocyanurate (PIR) roof insulation foam boards blown with alternate agents differs from the performance of boards blown with CFC-1. This report describes apparent thermal conductivity (k) results obtained from field and laboratory tests from 1989 to 1992 on a set of experimental PIR laminate boardstock produced to evaluate the viability of alternative hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as blowing agents. All boardstock was manufactured from similar formulations that were not optimized for thermal performance. Commercial broadstock made in the future may differ in performance from this set. The PIR boards were prepared with CFC-11, HCFC-123, HCFC-141b, and 50/50 and 65/35 blends of HCFC-123/HCFC-141b.

  20. Yahoo! Compute Coop Next Generation Passive Cooling Design for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yahoo Compute Coop Next Generation Passive Cooling Design for Data Centers Yahoo Compute Coop Next Generation Passive Cooling Design for Data Centers yahoopassivecooling.pdf ...

  1. Integration of a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable DMFC Power Supply Integration of a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable DMFC Power Supply Download slides from the ...

  2. Optimization of an Advanced Passive/Active Diesel Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Advanced PassiveActive Diesel Emission Control System Optimization of an Advanced PassiveActive Diesel Emission Control System Evaluation of PM exhaust aftertreatment ...

  3. Passive Groundwater Cleanup Measures Save Savannah River Site...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Passive Groundwater Cleanup Measures Save Savannah River Site Millions of Dollars Passive Groundwater Cleanup Measures Save Savannah River Site Millions of Dollars November 25, ...

  4. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis activities. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 ...

  5. Non-contact passive temperature measuring system and method of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Non-contact passive temperature measuring system and method of operation using micro-mechanical sensors Title: Non-contact passive temperature measuring system and method of ...

  6. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. This report ...

  7. Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Part of a 100 million fuel cell ... Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM ...

  8. Category:Passive Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Passive Seismic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Passive Seismic Techniques page? For detailed...

  9. Passively damped vibration welding system and method (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Passively damped vibration welding system and method Title: Passively damped vibration welding system and method A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an ...

  10. Passive environmental temperature control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corliss, John M.; Stickford, George H.

    1981-01-01

    Passive environmental heating and cooling systems are described, which utilize heat pipes to transmit heat to or from a thermal reservoir. In a solar heating system, a heat pipe is utilized to carry heat from a solar heat absorber plate that receives sunlight, through a thermal insulation barrier, to a heat storage wall, with the outer end of the pipe which is in contact with the solar absorber being lower than the inner end. The inclining of the heat pipe assures that the portion of working fluid, such as Freon, which is in a liquid phase will fall by gravity to the outer end of the pipe, thereby assuring diode action that prevents the reverse transfer of heat from the reservoir to the outside on cool nights. In a cooling system, the outer end of the pipe which connects to a heat dissipator, is higher than the inner end that is coupled to a cold reservoir, to allow heat transfer only out of the reservoir to the heat dissipator, and not in the reverse direction.

  11. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  12. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

    1999-04-06

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

  13. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  14. Passive Solar Home Design | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    well-designed passive solar home first reduces heating and cooling loads through energy-efficiency strategies and then meets those reduced loads in whole or part with solar energy. ...

  15. Passive Solar Home Design | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Passive solar design takes advantage of a building's site, climate, and materials to ... south-facing windows and retains it in materials that store heat, known as thermal mass. ...

  16. Guide to Passive Solar Home Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    Passive solar design incorporates features in your home and its natural surroundings that harness the sun's low rays in winter and deflect the sun's high rays in the summer.

  17. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Graham S.; Klingenberg, Katrin

    2015-07-29

    In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the value of performance-based passive building standards when it joined with Passive House Institute US (PHIUS) to promote DOE’s Challenge Home program in tandem with the PHIUS+ Certification program. Since then, the number of passive building projects that have been certified under the partnership has grown exponentially because of some synergy. Passive building represents a well-developed approach to arrive at the envelope basis for zero energy and energy-positive projects by employing performance-based criteria and maximizing cost-effective savings from conservation before implementing renewable energy technologies. The Challenge Home program evolved into the Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program in a move toward 1) attaining zero energy and 2) including active renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics (PV)—toward the zero energy goal.

  18. Method and structure for passivating semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pankove, Jacques I.

    1981-01-01

    A structure for passivating semiconductor material comprises a substrate of crystalline semiconductor material, a relatively thin film of carbon disposed on a surface of the crystalline material, and a layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon deposited on the carbon film.

  19. Passive Energy Building Design Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-11-01

    SOLAR5 is a computer aided design tool to help architects design better, more energy efficient buildings. It is intended for use at the beginning of the design process. To get started, only four pieces of information are necessary to compute the energy needed: the square footage, the number of stories, the kind of building (such as school, home, hotel, or any one of 20 types), and its location (the program stores the temperature ranges formore » fourty major cities). Additional information may be given later to fine tune the design. An expert system using heuristics from a wide range of sources, automatically creates a passive solar baseline building from the four facts specified for that project. By modifying and adapting prior designs the user can create and work upon as many as nine schemes simultaneously. SOLAR5 can analyze the buildings thermal performance for each hour of each month and plot its total heat gain or loss as a three-dimensional surface. After reading the plot, the user can immediately redesign the building and rerun the analysis. Separate heat gain/loss surfaces can be plotted for each of the different parts of the building or schemes that add together to make up the total, including walls, roof, windows, skylights, floor, slab on grade, people, lights, equipment, and infiltration. Two different schemes can be instantly compared by asking for a three-dimensional plot showing only the difference in their performances. The objective of SOLAR5 is to allow the designer to make changes easily and quickly with detailed instantaneous pictorial feedback of the implications of the change.« less

  20. Compressed Air System Modifications Improve Efficiency at a Plastics Blow Molding Plant (Southeastern Container Plant): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-06-18

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the plastics blow molding plant project.

  1. Energy savings obtainable through passive solar techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A passive solar energy system is one in which the thermal energy flow is by natural means, that is by radiation, conduction, or natural convection. The purpose of the paper is to provide a survey of passive solar heating experience, especially in the US. Design approaches are reviewed and examples shown. Misconceptions are discussed. Advantages are listed. The Los Alamos program of performance simulation and evaluation is described and a simplified method of performance estimation is outlined.

  2. Convective Cooling and Passive Stack Improvements in Motors (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses current research at NREL in convective cooling and passive stack improvements in motors.

  3. Discreet passive explosive detection through 2-sided waveguided fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harper, Ross James; la Grone, Marcus; Fisher, Mark

    2011-10-18

    The current invention provides a passive sampling device suitable for collecting and detecting the presence of target analytes. In particular, the passive sampling device is suitable for detecting nitro-aromatic compounds. The current invention further provides a passive sampling device reader suitable for determining the collection of target analytes. Additionally, the current invention provides methods for detecting target analytes using the passive sampling device and the passive sampling device reader.

  4. Discreet passive explosive detection through 2-sided wave guided fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harper, Ross James; la Grone, Marcus; Fisher, Mark

    2012-10-16

    The current invention provides a passive sampling device suitable for collecting and detecting the presence of target analytes. In particular, the passive sampling device is suitable for detecting nitro-aromatic compounds. The current invention further provides a passive sampling device reader suitable for determining the collection of target analytes. Additionally, the current invention provides methods for detecting target analytes using the passive sampling device and the passive sampling device reader.

  5. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, T.J.

    1997-01-21

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile. 9 figs.

  6. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

  7. Passive Cooling System for a Vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, T. J.; Thoensen, T.

    2005-11-15

    A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

  8. Passive cooling system for a vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Terry Joseph; Thoensen, Thomas

    2005-11-15

    A passive cooling system for a vehicle (114) transfers heat from an overheated internal component, for example, an instrument panel (100), to an external portion (116) of the vehicle (114), for example, a side body panel (126). The passive cooling system includes one or more heat pipes (112) having an evaporator section (118) embedded in the overheated internal component and a condenser section (120) at the external portion (116) of the vehicle (114). The evaporator (118) and condenser (120) sections are in fluid communication. The passive cooling system may also include a thermally conductive film (140) for thermally connecting the evaporator sections (118) of the heat pipes (112) to each other and to the instrument panel (100).

  9. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  10. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  11. Passive absolute age and temperature history sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Alex; Vianco, Paul T.

    2015-11-10

    A passive sensor for historic age and temperature sensing, including a first member formed of a first material, the first material being either a metal or a semiconductor material and a second member formed of a second material, the second material being either a metal or a semiconductor material. A surface of the second member is in contact with a surface of the first member such that, over time, the second material of the second member diffuses into the first material of the first member. The rate of diffusion for the second material to diffuse into the first material depends on a temperature of the passive sensor. One of the electrical conductance, the electrical capacitance, the electrical inductance, the optical transmission, the optical reflectance, or the crystalline structure of the passive sensor depends on the amount of the second material that has diffused into the first member.

  12. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Graham S.; Klingenberg, Katrin

    2015-07-01

    Passive design principles (super insulation, airtight envelopes, elimination of thermal bridges, etc.) - pioneered in North America in the 70s and 80s and refined in Europe in the 90s have proven to be universally effective to significantly reduce heating and cooling loads. However, a single, rigid performance metric developed in Germany has led to limited uptake of passive building principles in many regions of the United States. It has also, in many cases, promoted some design decisions that had negative effects on economic feasibility and thermal comfort. This study's main objective is to validate (in a theoretical sense) verifiable, climate-specific passive standards and space conditioning criteria that retain ambitious, environmentally-necessary energy reduction targets and are economically feasible, such standards provide designers an ambitious but achievable performance target on the path to zero.

  13. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1994-05-31

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer. 1 fig.

  14. Heterojunction solar cell with passivated emitter surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    1994-01-01

    A high-efficiency heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. A passivating window layer of defined composition is disposed over the emitter layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the window layer.

  15. Passive solar design handbook. Volume two of two volumes: passive solar design analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Barley, D.; McFarland, R.; Perry, J. Jr.; Wray, W.; Noll, S.

    1980-01-01

    A manual for the design and performance evaluation and analysis of passive solar heating systems is presented. Two passive solar building types are analyzed: direct gain and thermal storage walls. Rules of thumb for the schematic design phase and simplified procedures for the design development phase are described. Analysis methods for the construction documents phase are given. The design procedure for fan-forced rock beds for hybrid systems is presented. Economic analysis methods for passive solar buildings are described. Tables of monthly average solar radiation, temperature, and degree-days for various locations in the US and southern Canada are included. (WHK)

  16. Evaluation of passive solar retrofit options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-David, S.; Kirchemen, C.; Martin, S.; Noll, S.; Roach, F.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation framework has been developed which allows for the assessment of the role of passive solar retrofit in the nationwide reduction of conventional fuel use. Three types of analysis are proposed within this framework: the physical/technical capability of the present housing stock to incorporate passive solar retrofit; the economic feasibility of the application of retrofit designs; and the actual market potential or acceptance of these alternative retrofit options. Each type of analysis has specific data requirements and a series of evaluation procedures to help establish estimates of the potential for passive solar retrofit in the present housing stock. The data requirements with their respective sources and evaluation procedures for the first two types of analysis-physical/technical setting and economic feasibility, are examined. A distinction is drawn between community specific case studies and more generalized national assessments. Information derived from these three types of analysis, whether case specific or national in scope, can then be used in an evaluation of potential economic impacts. The establishment of regional economic benefits and costs werve as a measure of the merit or attractiveness of the implementation of a passive solar retrofit program.

  17. Design tools for passive solar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1986-04-01

    Examples of passive solar design tools are given, categorized as either evaluation tools or guidance tools. A trend toward microcomputer-based tools is noted; however, these are usually developed for use by engineers rather than architects. The need for more instructive tools targeted specifically to designers is emphasized.

  18. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herring, J.S.

    1993-09-21

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process. 8 figures.

  19. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herring, J. Stephen

    1993-01-01

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  20. Submerged passively-safe power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, J.S.

    1991-12-31

    The invention as presented consists of a submerged passively-safe power station including a pressurized water reactor capable of generating at least 600 MW of electricity, encased in a double hull vessel, and provides fresh water by using the spent thermal energy in a multistage flash desalination process.

  1. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  2. Photodetectors with passive thermal radiation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Dodson, Brian W.

    2001-10-02

    A new class of photodetectors which include means for passive shielding against undesired thermal radiation is disclosed. Such devices can substitute in applications currently requiring cooled optical sensors, such as IR detection and imaging. This description is included for purposes of searching, and is not intended to limit or otherwise influence the interpretation of the present invention.

  3. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harto, Andang Widi

    2012-06-06

    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  4. The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. ...

  5. Tips: Passive Solar Heating and Cooling | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Using passive solar design to heat and cool your home can be both environmentally friendly and cost effective. In many cases, your heating costs...

  6. 10th Annual North American Passive House Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the Passive House Institute US, this five-day conference will target both multifamily and single family housing design, engineering, and development along with Passive House certification.

  7. Surface passivation process of compound semiconductor material using UV photosulfidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    1995-01-01

    A method for passivating compound semiconductor surfaces by photolytically disrupting molecular sulfur vapor with ultraviolet radiation to form reactive sulfur which then reacts with and passivates the surface of compound semiconductors.

  8. Passive background correction method for spatially resolved detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Randal L.; Hargis, Jr., Philip J.

    2011-05-10

    A method for passive background correction during spatially or angularly resolved detection of emission that is based on the simultaneous acquisition of both the passive background spectrum and the spectrum of the target of interest.

  9. Passivation Effects in Copper Thin Films (Journal Article) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    passivation on the stress-temperature behavior of 100 nm and 1 mum thick Cu films. At low temperatures, the passivation induces a large tensile stress increase in the 100 nm ...

  10. Tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by ion implantation for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Excellent passivation quality is achieved for n-type passivated contacts by P implantations into either intrinsic (undoped) or in-situ B-doped a-Si layers with implied open-circuit ...

  11. Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of Passive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vents in New-Construction Multifamily Buildings | Department of Energy Evaluation of Passive Vents in New-Construction Multifamily Buildings Building America Technology Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of Passive Vents in New-Construction Multifamily Buildings The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) conducted research to gain more insight into passive vents. Because passive vents are meant to operate in a general environment of negative apartment pressure, the research

  12. Method For Passivating Crystal Silicon Surfaces - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Method For Passivating Crystal Silicon Surfaces National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Silicon Surface and Heterojunction Interface Passivation Studies by Lifetime Measurements (395 KB) PDF Document Publication High-Throughput Approaches to Optimization of Crystal Silicon Surface Passivation and Heterojunction Solar Cells (837 KB) Technology Marketing

  13. Germanium detector passivated with hydrogenated amorphous germanium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, William L.; Haller, Eugene E.

    1986-01-01

    Passivation of predominantly crystalline semiconductor devices (12) is provided for by a surface coating (21) of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor material. Passivation of a radiation detector germanium diode, for example, is realized by sputtering a coating (21) of amorphous germanium onto the etched and quenched diode surface (11) in a low pressure atmosphere of hydrogen and argon. Unlike prior germanium diode semiconductor devices (12), which must be maintained in vacuum at cryogenic temperatures to avoid deterioration, a diode processed in the described manner may be stored in air at room temperature or otherwise exposed to a variety of environmental conditions. The coating (21) compensates for pre-existing undesirable surface states as well as protecting the semiconductor device (12) against future impregnation with impurities.

  14. Passive heat transfer means for nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burelbach, James P.

    1984-01-01

    An improved passive cooling arrangement is disclosed for maintaining adjacent or related components of a nuclear reactor within specified temperature differences. Specifically, heat pipes are operatively interposed between the components, with the vaporizing section of the heat pipe proximate the hot component operable to cool it and the primary condensing section of the heat pipe proximate the other and cooler component operable to heat it. Each heat pipe further has a secondary condensing section that is located outwardly beyond the reactor confinement and in a secondary heat sink, such as air ambient the containment, that is cooler than the other reactor component. Means such as shrouding normally isolated the secondary condensing section from effective heat transfer with the heat sink, but a sensor responds to overheat conditions of the reactor to open the shrouding, which thereby increases the cooling capacity of the heat pipe. By having many such heat pipes, an emergency passive cooling system is defined that is operative without electrical power.

  15. Passively damped vibration welding system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Chin-An; Kang, Bongsu; Cai, Wayne W.; Wu, Tao

    2013-04-02

    A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an anvil, and a passive damping mechanism (PDM). The controller generates an input signal having a calibrated frequency. The horn vibrates in a desirable first direction at the calibrated frequency in response to the input signal to form a weld in a work piece. The PDM is positioned with respect to the system, and substantially damps or attenuates vibration in an undesirable second direction. A method includes connecting the PDM having calibrated properties and a natural frequency to an anvil of an ultrasonic welding system. Then, an input signal is generated using a weld controller. The method includes vibrating a welding horn in a desirable direction in response to the input signal, and passively damping vibration in an undesirable direction using the PDM.

  16. Passive load control for large wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwill, Thomas D.

    2010-05-01

    Wind energy research activities at Sandia National Laboratories focus on developing large rotors that are lighter and more cost-effective than those designed with current technologies. Because gravity scales as the cube of the blade length, gravity loads become a constraining design factor for very large blades. Efforts to passively reduce turbulent loading has shown significant potential to reduce blade weight and capture more energy. Research in passive load reduction for wind turbines began at Sandia in the late 1990's and has moved from analytical studies to blade applications. This paper discusses the test results of two Sandia prototype research blades that incorporate load reduction techniques. The TX-100 is a 9-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling with the use of off-axis carbon in the skin. The STAR blade is a 27-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling by sweeping the blade in a geometric fashion.

  17. Passive energy dump for superconducting coil protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luton, J.N. Jr.

    1973-01-16

    The patent describes a passive resistance type energy dump for the protection of the coils of a superconducting magnet. Insertion heaters are immersed in a rigid container filled with a fusible alloy. The energy dump is connected across the coils of the superconducting magnet wherein individual heater elements are connected singly to the windings or otherwise according to the energy dumping requirements upon transition of the magnet to a normal state.

  18. WIPP - Passive Institutional Controls (PICs) Images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PICs Images Passive Institutional Controls PICs Images Permanent Markers | Images from Monument Survey Permanent Markers Earthen Berm The "big picture" Repository footprint Buried room Information center (surface center of berm) Small subsurface marker Large surface marker Marker at the Gnome Site (1/6 the size of a WIPP large surface marker) Early Concepts Back to top Images from Monument Survey Back to top

  19. Passively cooled direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2008-03-18

    A wind turbine is provided that passively cools an electrical generator. The wind turbine includes a plurality of fins arranged peripherally around a generator house. Each of the fins being oriented at an angle greater than zero degrees to allow parallel flow of air over the fin. The fin is further tapered to allow a constant portion of the fin to extend beyond the air stream boundary layer. Turbulence initiators on the nose cone further enhance heat transfer at the fins.

  20. Hydrogenation of Passivated Contacts - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Hydrogenation of Passivated Contacts National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Silicon solar cells have advantages over other solar cells materials in that they are generally less expensive and require fewer steps to manufacture than III-V solar cells, yet are more efficient than today's thin film materials. Nevertheless, the efficiency of Si solar cells has historically been limited by carrier

  1. Passive Solar Building Design Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homes & Buildings » Passive Solar Building Design Basics Passive Solar Building Design Basics July 30, 2013 - 3:20pm Addthis The difference between a passive solar home and a conventional home is design. Passive solar homes and other buildings are designed to take advantage of the local climate. Passive solar design-also known as climatic design-involves using a building's windows, walls, and floors to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject

  2. Stable surface passivation process for compound semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H.

    2001-01-01

    A passivation process for a previously sulfided, selenided or tellurated III-V compound semiconductor surface. The concentration of undesired mid-gap surface states on a compound semiconductor surface is reduced by the formation of a near-monolayer of metal-(sulfur and/or selenium and/or tellurium)-semiconductor that is effective for long term passivation of the underlying semiconductor surface. Starting with the III-V compound semiconductor surface, any oxidation present thereon is substantially removed and the surface is then treated with sulfur, selenium or tellurium to form a near-monolayer of chalcogen-semiconductor of the surface in an oxygen-free atmosphere. This chalcogenated surface is then contacted with a solution of a metal that will form a low solubility chalcogenide to form a near-monolayer of metal-chalcogen-semiconductor. The resulting passivating layer provides long term protection for the underlying surface at or above the level achieved by a freshly chalcogenated compound semiconductor surface in an oxygen free atmosphere.

  3. Natural fracture characterization using passive seismic illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihei, K.T.

    2003-01-08

    The presence of natural fractures in reservoir rock can significantly enhance gas production, especially in tight gas formations. Any general knowledge of the existence, location, orientation, spatial density, and connectivity of natural fractures, as well as general reservoir structure, that can be obtained prior to active seismic acquisition and drilling can be exploited to identify key areas for subsequent higher resolution active seismic imaging. Current practices for estimating fracture properties before the acquisition of surface seismic data are usually based on the assumed geology and tectonics of the region, and empirical or fracture mechanics-based relationships between stratigraphic curvature and fracturing. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of multicomponent surface sensor arrays, and passive seismic sources in the form of local earthquakes to identify and characterize potential fractured gas reservoirs located near seismically active regions. To assess the feasibility of passive seismic fracture detection and characterization, we have developed numerical codes for modeling elastic wave propagation in reservoir structures containing multiple, finite-length fractures. This article describes our efforts to determine the conditions for favorable excitation of fracture converted waves, and to develop an imaging method that can be used to locate and characterize fractures using multicomponent, passive seismic data recorded on a surface array.

  4. Evaluation of Alternate Stainless Steel Surface Passivation Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2005-05-31

    Stainless steel containers were assembled from parts passivated by four commercial vendors using three passivation methods. The performance of these containers in storing hydrogen isotope mixtures was evaluated by monitoring the composition of initially 50% H{sub 2} 50% D{sub 2} gas with time using mass spectroscopy. Commercial passivation by electropolishing appears to result in surfaces that do not catalyze hydrogen isotope exchange. This method of surface passivation shows promise for tritium service, and should be studied further and considered for use. On the other hand, nitric acid passivation and citric acid passivation may not result in surfaces that do not catalyze the isotope exchange reaction H{sub 2} + D{sub 2} {yields} 2HD. These methods should not be considered to replace the proprietary passivation processes of the two current vendors used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facility.

  5. Passive solar progress: a simplified guide to the 3rd national passive solar conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, H.; Howell, Y.; Richards, D.

    1980-10-01

    Some of the concepts and practices that have come to be known as passive solar heating and cooling are introduced, and a current picture of the field is presented. Much of the material presented is derived from papers given at the 3rd National Passive Solar Conference held in San Jose, California in January 1979 and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Extracts and data from these papers have been integrated in the text with explanatory and descriptive material. In this way, it is attempted to present technical information in an introductory context. Topics include design considerations, passive and hybrid systems and applications, sizing methods and performance prediction, and implementation issues. A glossary is included. (WHK)

  6. Passive injection control for microfluidic systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.; Neyer, David W.

    2004-12-21

    Apparatus for eliminating siphoning, "dead" regions, and fluid concentration gradients in microscale analytical devices. In its most basic embodiment, the present invention affords passive injection control for both electric field-driven and pressure-driven systems by providing additional fluid flow channels or auxiliary channels disposed on either side of a sample separation column. The auxiliary channels are sized such that volumetric fluid flow rate through these channels, while sufficient to move the sample away from the sample injection region in a timely fashion, is less than that through the sample separation channel or chromatograph.

  7. Passive solar concepts for multistory buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Multistory buildings long in the east-west direction and short in the north-south direction offer good opportunity for passive solar application. If each unit within the building is designed so that the Solar Savings Fraction is the same, each will respond to the weather the same way and no unit-to-unit heat distribution is needed. A numerical example for Denver is given indicating excellent thermal performance and a several-day thermal response time. Solutions involving distribution of heat from unit to unit are also discussed as well as top-floor and south-wall variations.

  8. Passive solar concepts for multistory buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Multistory buildings long in the east-west direction and short in the north-south direction offer good opportunity for passive solar application. If each unit within the building is designed so that the solar Savings Fraction is the same, each will respond to the weather the same way and no unit-to-unit heat distribution is needed. A numerical example for Denver is given indicating excellent thermal performance and a several-day thermal response time. Solutions involving distribution of heat from unit to unit are also discussed as well as top-floor and south-wall variations.

  9. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

    1998-06-16

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

  10. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  11. Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemberton, B.E.; May, C.P.; Rossabi, J.

    1997-06-24

    An apparatus is provided which passively removes contaminated gases from a subsurface. The apparatus includes a riser pipe extending into a subsurface which has an exterior end in fluid communication with a valve. When well pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure, the valve opens to release contaminants into the atmosphere, and when well pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, the valve closes to prevent flow of air into the well. The valve assembly of the invention comprises a lightweight ball which is lifted from its valve seat with a slight pressure drop between the well and the atmosphere. 7 figs.

  12. Apparatus for passive removal of subsurface contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemberton, Bradley E. (Aiken, SC); May, Christopher P. (Fairfax, VA); Rossabi, Joseph (Aiken, SC)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus is provided which passively removes contaminated gases from a subsurface. The apparatus includes a riser pipe extending into a subsurface which has an exterior end in fluid communication with a valve. When well pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure, the valve opens to release contaminants into the atmosphere, and when well pressure is less than atmospheric pressure, the valve closes to prevent flow of air into the well. The valve assembly of the invention comprises a lightweight ball which is lifted from its valve seat with a slight pressure drop between the well and the atmosphere.

  13. Passive containment cooling water distribution device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Fanto, Susan V.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using a series of radial guide elements and cascading weir boxes to collect and then distribute the cooling water into a series of distribution areas through a plurality of cascading weirs. The cooling water is then uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weir notches in the face plate of the weir box.

  14. Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management | Department of Energy Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. 5_pnnl.pdf (20.48 KB) More Documents & Publications Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Fuel Cells For Transportation - 2001 Annual Progress Report Fuel Cells For

  15. Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar Passive Solar Building Design and Solar Thermal Space Heating Webinar Watch a recording of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Senior Engineer Andy Walker's Nov. 30, 2010, presentation about passive solar building design, and solar thermal space heating technologies and applications. It's one in a series of Webinars to support state and local projects funded by Sustainable Energy Resources for

  16. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : dormancy and aging. This report presents the results of an aging experiment that was established in FY09 and completed in FY10 for the Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor. A total of 37 packages were aged at different temperatures and times, and were then tested after aging to determine functionality. Aging temperatures were

  17. Active and Passive Remote Sensing Diagram | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Active and Passive Remote Sensing Diagram Author National Aeronautics and Space Administration Published Nasa.gov, 2013 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:...

  18. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed ...

  19. Passive and active plasma deceleration for the compact disposal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Passive and active plasma deceleration for the compact disposal of electron beams Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on August 11, 2016...

  20. Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Passive...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Air Transfer, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Passive Room-to-Room Air Transfer, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet) In this ...

  1. Wireless, Passive Ceramic Strain Sensors for Turbine Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, Linan

    2015-03-31

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a high-temperature wireless passive ceramic strain sensor for online, real-time monitoring turbine blade.

  2. List of Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Space Heat Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 282 Passive Solar Space Heat Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 282) Incentive Incentive Type...

  3. 16.06.20 Self-Passivation - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Copper Vanadate Photoanodes under Chemical, Electrochemical, and Photoelectrochemical Operation Zhou, L. et al. Stability and Self-passivation of Copper Vanadate ...

  4. Integration of Full Tensor Gravity and ZTEM Passive Low Frequency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data Acquisition Integration of Full Tensor Gravity and ZTEM Passive Low Frequency EM Instruments for Simultaneous Data Acquisition Integration of Full Tensor Gravity and ...

  5. Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management Fuel Cells For Transportation - 2001 Annual Progress Report Fuel Cell Systems Annual Progress Report

  6. Update on the Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor. (Conference)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on the Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor. Abstract not provided. Authors: Mitchell, John Anthony ; Gustafson, Carl Publication Date: 2008-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1145847 Report...

  7. Effects of passivation on synthesis, structure and composition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects of passivation on synthesis, structure and composition of molybdenum carbide supported platinum water-gas shift catalysts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects ...

  8. A Revealing Look Inside Passive and Active DPF Regeneration:...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Ash Formation and Transport A Revealing Look Inside Passive and Active DPF Regeneration: In-Situ Optical Analysis of Ash Formation and Transport Presents results from ...

  9. Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

    2011-08-08

    The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan

  10. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-03

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  11. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-05

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  12. All fiber passively Q-switched laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Bisson, Scott E

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments relate to an all fiber passively Q-switched laser. The laser includes a large core doped gain fiber having a first end. The large core doped gain fiber has a first core diameter. The laser includes a doped single mode fiber (saturable absorber) having a second core diameter that is smaller than the first core diameter. The laser includes a mode transformer positioned between a second end of the large core doped gain fiber and a first end of the single mode fiber. The mode transformer has a core diameter that transitions from the first core diameter to the second core diameter and filters out light modes not supported by the doped single mode fiber. The laser includes a laser cavity formed between a first reflector positioned adjacent the large core doped gain fiber and a second reflector positioned adjacent the doped single mode fiber.

  13. Energy Signatures: A passive solar design tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Lekov, A.B.

    1987-12-01

    Energy signatures is a new technique for aiding a designer in selecting and sizing passive solar elements in a building. Hourly heat flux profiles for each candidate design element are determined. These profiles are then matched to the hourly energy requirement of the space accounting for weather conditions, internal heat profiles of the space, and the mass characteristics of the building. Simulation analysis techniques are used to determine the energy signatures and the building load profile, and to check the final result. Least-squares techniques are used to determine the optimum mix of strategies. Examples are given to illustrate development of the method up to the present time. In addition, future directions and possibilities are outlined. 5 refs., 28 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Passive runaway electron suppression in tokamak disruptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, H. M.; Helander, P.

    2013-07-15

    Runaway electrons created in disruptions pose a serious problem for tokamaks with large current. It would be desirable to have a runaway electron suppression method which is passive, i.e., a method that does not rely on an uncertain disruption prediction system. One option is to let the large electric field inherent in the disruption drive helical currents in the wall. This would create ergodic regions in the plasma and increase the runaway losses. Whether these regions appear at a suitable time and place to affect the formation of the runaway beam depends on disruption parameters, such as electron temperature and density. We find that it is difficult to ergodize the central plasma before a beam of runaway current has formed. However, the ergodic outer region will make the Ohmic current profile contract, which can lead to instabilities that yield large runaway electron losses.

  15. Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2003-12-02

    A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

  16. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Fanning, Alan W.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

  17. Passive ice freezing-releasing heat pipe. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorski, A.J.; Schertz, W.W.

    1980-09-29

    A heat pipe device has been developed which permits completely passive ice formation and periodic release of ice without requiring the ambient temperature to rise above the melting point of water. This passive design enables the maximum amount of cooling capacity to be stored in the tank.

  18. Development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabatiuk, P.A.; Cassel, D.E.; McCabe, M.; Scarbrough, C.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings, thermal design characteristics and anticipated performance for 266 projects in the HUD Passive Residential Design Competition and the HUD Cycle 5 Demonstration Program were analyzed. These passive residences are located in all regions of the United States requiring space heating, and they represent a variety of passive solar system types including direct gain, indirect gain, and solarium (isolated gain) systems. The results of this statistical analysis are being used to develop proposed minimum acceptable levels of thermal performance for passive solar buildings for the residential performance criteria. A number of performance measures were examined, including net solar contribution, solar fraction, and auxiliary energy use. These and other design and climate-related parameters were statistically correlated using the DATAPLOT computer program and standard statistical analysis techniques.

  19. DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: Pumpkin Ridge Passive House by Hammer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pumpkin Ridge Passive House by Hammer and Hand DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: Pumpkin Ridge Passive House by Hammer and Hand DOE Tour of Zero Floorplans: Pumpkin Ridge Passive House ...

  20. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE

  1. Condensation model for the ESBWR passive condensers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revankar, S. T.; Zhou, W.; Wolf, B.; Oh, S.

    2012-07-01

    In the General Electric's Economic simplified boiling water reactor (GE-ESBWR) the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) plays a major role in containment pressure control in case of an loss of coolant accident. The PCCS condenser must be able to remove sufficient energy from the reactor containment to prevent containment from exceeding its design pressure following a design basis accident. There are three PCCS condensation modes depending on the containment pressurization due to coolant discharge; complete condensation, cyclic venting and flow through mode. The present work reviews the models and presents model predictive capability along with comparison with existing data from separate effects test. The condensation models in thermal hydraulics code RELAP5 are also assessed to examine its application to various flow modes of condensation. The default model in the code predicts complete condensation well, and basically is Nusselt solution. The UCB model predicts through flow well. None of condensation model in RELAP5 predict complete condensation, cyclic venting, and through flow condensation consistently. New condensation correlations are given that accurately predict all three modes of PCCS condensation. (authors)

  2. Indirect passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  3. Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.; Hui, Marvin M.; Berglund, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  4. Passive solar systems performance under conditions in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, A.B.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1989-12-01

    This paper presents energy performance of 12 passive solar systems for three climatically different zones of Bulgaria. The results are compared with a base-case residential house that has a design typical for these areas. The different passive solar systems are compared on the basis of the percentage of solar savings and the yield, which is the annual net benefit of adding the passive solar system. The analyses are provided based on monthly meteorological data, and the method used for calculations is the Solar Load Ratio. Recommendations for Bulgarian conditions are given. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY07 maturation activities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, Jack E.; Blecke, Jill; Mitchell, John Anthony; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Crowson, Douglas A.; Clemens, Rebecca C.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Epp, David S.; Baker, Michael Sean

    2008-08-01

    This report describes activities conducted in FY07 to mature the MEMS passive shock sensor. The first chapter of the report provides motivation and background on activities that are described in detail in later chapters. The second chapter discusses concepts that are important for integrating the MEMS passive shock sensor into a system. Following these two introductory chapters, the report details modeling and design efforts, packaging, failure analysis and testing and validation. At the end of FY07, the MEMS passive shock sensor was at TRL 4.

  6. Two earth sheltered passive solar residences with photovoltaic electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strong, S.J.; Osten, R.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The design and construction of two earth sheltered passive solar residence with photovoltaic electricity are described. The sizing and design of the P.V. system as well as the module fabrication and array integration are also discussed.

  7. Building America Case Study - Evaluation of Passive Vents in...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Typical apartments will need 20-45 CFM of outdoor air to meet ASHRAE 62.2-2010 whole-house ... The average airfow through the passive vents fell short of providing the ASHRAE 62.2-2010 ...

  8. State of the art in passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The state of the art is outlined according to four major categories: passive solar practice, evaluation, design air, and products and materials. Needed future research activities and joint industry/government activities are listed. (MHR)

  9. The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. Citation ... Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text View Full ...

  10. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 failure analysis activities. ... Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text View Full ...

  11. Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    system and passive PEM water management system Specific Targets Addressed for 3.4.2 Automotive-Scale: 80 kWe Integrated Transportation Fuel Cell Power Systems Operating on ...

  12. Passive solar in the United States: 1976-1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    A decade of experience in passive solar development in the United States is reviewed. The evolution of the program through its peak in 1980 to the present is described. Methods of performance prediction and evaluation are discussed including analysis methods, design tools, test modules, and monitored buildings. Results of the monitoring show excellent performance, generally in agreement with the analysis. Passive practice is analyzed and problems are discussed. The current research program is described and potential savings are estimated.

  13. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed state-of-the-art passive catalytic technology designed to reduce NOx released during vehicle cold start portion of the FTP-75 cycle deer11_henry.pdf (1.27 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Technology Light Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System Cummins' Next Generation Tier 2, Bin 2 Light

  14. Passive Groundwater Cleanup Measures Save Savannah River Site Millions of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dollars | Department of Energy Passive Groundwater Cleanup Measures Save Savannah River Site Millions of Dollars Passive Groundwater Cleanup Measures Save Savannah River Site Millions of Dollars November 25, 2015 - 12:20pm Addthis SRNS operators Stanley Creech (left) and Paul Dobson monitor the injection of silver chloride into an aquifer at SRS. SRNS operators Stanley Creech (left) and Paul Dobson monitor the injection of silver chloride into an aquifer at SRS. AIKEN, S.C. - The EM program

  15. Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    silicon solar cells (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polycrystalline silicon passivated tunneling contacts for high efficiency silicon solar cells Authors: Nemeth, Bill ; Young, David L. ; Page, Matthew R. ; LaSalvia, Vincenzo ; Johnston, Steve ; Reedy, Robert ; Stradins, Paul Publication Date: 2016-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1247961 Report

  16. Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Passive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Room-to-Room Air Transfer, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Passive Room-to-Room Air Transfer, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Passive Room-to-Room Air Transfer, Fresno, California (Fact Sheet) In this project, IBACOS, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, assessed a strategy for providing conditioned air to bedrooms when the bedroom doors

  17. Preservation of FFTF Data Related to Passive Safety Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Butner, R. Scott; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.

    2010-10-01

    One of the goals of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). A key area deserving special attention for preservation is the data relating to passive safety testing that was conducted in FFTF and EBR-II during the 1980’s. Accidents at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Station and Unit 2 at Three Mile Island changed the safety paradigm of the nuclear power industry. New emphasis was placed on assured safety based on intrinsic plant characteristics that protect not only the public, but the significant investment in the plant as well. Plants designated to perform in this manner are considered to be passively safe since no active sensor/alarm system or human intervention is required to bring the reactor to a safe shutdown condition. The liquid metal reactor (LMR) has several key characteristics needed for a passively safe reactor: reactor coolant with superior heat transfer capability and very high boiling point, low (atmospheric) system pressures, and reliable negative reactivity feedback. The credibility of the design for a passively safe LMR rests on two issues: the validity of analytic methods used to predict passive safety performance and the availability of relevant test data to calibrate design tools. Safety analysis methods used to analyze LMRs under the old safety paradigm were focused on calculating the source term for the Core Disruptive Accident. Passive safety design requires refined analysis methods for transient events because treatment of the detailed reactivity feedbacks is important in predicting the response of the reactor. Similarly, analytic tools should be calibrated against actual test experience in existing LMR facilities. The principal objectives of the combined FFTF natural circulation and Passive Safety Testing program were: 1) to verify natural circulation as a reliable means to safely remove decay heat, 2) to extend passive safety

  18. Passive solar design handbooks: Vol III: passive solar design analysis and supplement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Jones, R.W.; Kosciewicz, C.E.; Lazarus, G.S.; McFarland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1983-01-01

    This book applies the Los Alamos Solar Load Ratio (SLR) method to the design of passive solar heating systems, with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Recommendations are given on minimizing heating energy consumption by appropriate choices of conservation level and solar system parameters. Analytical methods and supporting tables are presented which enable simple, fast estimates of the heating energy consumption as part of the design process. Topics considered include SLR correlations, the load collector ratio (LCR) method, sensitivity data, cooling considerations, conservation formulas, design procedure, life-cycle costs, high-mass direct gain buildings, low-mass sun-tempered buildings, sunspaces, off-reference night insulation, correlation equations, and mixed systems.

  19. Remote detection of chemicals with passive millimeter waves.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Elmer, T. W.; Raptis, A. C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-01-01

    Passive millimeter-wave (mmW) systems have been used in the past to remotely map solid targets and to measure low-pressure spectral lines of stratospheric and interstellar gases; however, its application to pressure-broadened spectral detection of terrestrial gases is new. A radiative transfer model was developed to determine the detection feasibility and system requirements for passive mmW spectral detection. A Dicke-switched multispectral radiometer that operates at 146-154 GHz was designed and built for remote detection of stack gases. The radiometer was tested in the laboratory using a gas cell; the spectra of acetonitrile were detected passively against a cold background, which mimicked typical remote detection scenarios in the field. With Dicke-switched integration of radiometric signals, on-line calibration, and novel signal processing to minimize atmospheric fluctuation, spectral line detection of polar molecules is possible from chemical plumes a few kilometers away.

  20. Passive magnetic bearing element with minimal power losses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1998-12-08

    Systems employing passive magnetic bearing elements having minimal power losses are provided. Improved stabilizing elements are shown, employing periodic magnet arrays and inductively loaded circuits, but with improved characteristics compared to the elements disclosed in US Patent No. 5,495,221 entitled ``Dynamically Stable Magnetic Suspension/Bearing System.`` The improvements relate to increasing the magnitude of the force derivative, while at the same time reducing the power dissipated during the normal operation of the bearing system, to provide a passive bearing system that has virtually no losses under equilibrium conditions, that is, when the supported system is not subject to any accelerations except those of gravity. 8 figs.

  1. Passive magnetic bearing element with minimal power losses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    Systems employing passive magnetic bearing elements having minimal power losses are provided. Improved stabilizing elements are shown, employing periodic magnet arrays and inductively loaded circuits, but with improved characteristics compared to the elements disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 5,495,221 entitled "Dynamically Stable Magnetic Suspension/Bearing System." The improvements relate to increasing the magnitude of the force derivative, while at the same time reducing the power dissipated during the normal operation of the bearing system, to provide a passive bearing system that has virtually no losses under equilibrium conditions, that is, when the supported system is not subject to any accelerations except those of gravity.

  2. Verifying TRU Passive DPF Cold Ambient Performance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TRU Passive DPF Cold Ambient Performance Verifying TRU Passive DPF Cold Ambient Performance Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_lucht.pdf (151.1 KB) More Documents & Publications ADEC II Universal SCR Retrofit System for On-road and Off-road Diesel Engines Emissions

  3. Thermal performance of an earth-sheltered passive solar residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaVigne, A.B. (Puget Sound Power and Light Co., Bellevue, WA); Schuldt, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of the measured thermal performance of a direct gain, passive solar residence in the Pacific Northwest. The east, west, and north exterior walls of the house are bermed to within 12 inches (30 cm) of the ceiling; sliding interior insulated panels cover the double glazed, south facing windows when appropriate. The cost of the house construction was kept modest.

  4. Passive-Solar-Heating Analysis: a new ASHRAE manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The forthcoming ASHRAE book, Passive Solar Heating Analysis, is described. ASHRAE approval procedures are discussed. An overview of the contents is given. The development of the solar load ratio correlations is described, and the applicability of the analysis method is discussed.

  5. Hood River Passive House, Hood River, Oregon (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-02-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50%" (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  6. Thermal-hydraulic modeling needs for passive reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, J.M.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has received an application for design certification from the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for an Advanced Light Water Reactor design known as the AP600. As part of the design certification process, the USNRC uses its thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes to independently audit the vendor calculations. The focus of this effort has been the small break LOCA transients that rely upon the passive safety features of the design to depressurize the primary system sufficiently so that gravity driven injection can provide a stable source for long term cooling. Of course, large break LOCAs have also been considered, but as the involved phenomena do not appear to be appreciably different from those of current plants, they were not discussed in this paper. Although the SBLOCA scenario does not appear to threaten core coolability - indeed, heatup is not even expected to occur - there have been concerns as to the performance of the passive safety systems. For example, the passive systems drive flows with small heads, consequently requiring more precision in the analysis compared to active systems methods for passive plants as compared to current plants with active systems. For the analysis of SBLOCAs and operating transients, the USNRC uses the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic system analysis code. To assure the applicability of RELAP5 to the analysis of these transients for the AP600 design, a four year long program of code development and assessment has been undertaken.

  7. Passivation of quartz for halogen-containing light sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falkenstein, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    Lifetime of halogen containing VUV, UV, visible or IR light sources can be extended by passivating the quartz or glass gas containers with halogens prior to filling the quartz with the halogen and rare gas mixtures used to produce the light.

  8. Simple procedure for schematic design of passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, W.O.; Kosiewicz, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple procedure for use during the schematic phase of passive solar building design is presented in this article. The procedure is quantitative and accurate enough to insure that designs based on the provided starting point values of the primary building parameters will be cost effective.

  9. Entirely passive heat pipe apparatus capable of operating against gravity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koenig, Daniel R.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an entirely passive heat pipe apparatus capable of operating against gravity for vertical distances in the order of 3 to 7 meters and more. A return conduit into which an inert gas is introduced is used to lower the specific density of the working fluid so that it may be returned a greater vertical distance from condenser to evaporator.

  10. Passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1989-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  11. Natural circulating passive cooling system for nuclear reactor containment structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Wade, Gentry E.

    1990-01-01

    A passive cooling system for the contaminant structure of a nuclear reactor plant providing protection against overpressure within the containment attributable to inadvertent leakage or rupture of the system components. The cooling system utilizes natural convection for transferring heat imbalances and enables the discharge of irradiation free thermal energy to the atmosphere for heat disposal from the system.

  12. Passive Imaging of Warhead-Like Configurations Using Cosmic-Ray Muons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwellenbach, D.

    2012-07-17

    Cosmic-Muon-Based Interrogation has untapped potential for national security. This presentation describes muons-based passive interrogation techniques.

  13. Light-Induced Passivation of Si by Iodine Ethanol Solution: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.; Rupnowski, P.; Appel, J.; Guhaabiswas, D.; Anderson-Jackson, L.

    2009-02-01

    We report on our observations of light-activated passivation of silicon surfaces by iodine-ethanol solution.

  14. Yahoo! Compute Coop Next Generation Passive Cooling Design for Data Centers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Yahoo! Compute Coop Next Generation Passive Cooling Design for Data Centers Yahoo! Compute Coop Next Generation Passive Cooling Design for Data Centers yahoo_passive_cooling.pdf (541.13 KB) More Documents & Publications Award Selections for Industrial Technologies Program Recovery Act Funding ITP_Data_Centers.xls SeaMicro Volume Server Power Reduction

  15. The role of surface passivation in controlling Ge nanowire faceting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamalski, A. D.; Tersoff, J.; Kodambaka, S.; Zakharov, D. N.; Ross, F. M.; Stach, E. A.

    2015-11-05

    In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of nanowire morphologies indicate that during Au-catalyzed Ge nanowire growth, Ge facets can rapidly form along the nanowire sidewalls when the source gas (here, digermane) flux is decreased or the temperature is increased. This sidewall faceting is accompanied by continuous catalyst loss as Au diffuses from the droplet to the wire surface. We suggest that high digermane flux and low temperatures promote effective surface passivation of Ge nanowires with H or other digermane fragments inhibiting diffusion and attachment of Au and Ge on the sidewalls. Furthermore, these results illustrate the essential roles of the precursor gas and substrate temperature in maintaining nanowire sidewall passivation, necessary to ensure the growth of straight, untapered, <111>-oriented nanowires.

  16. The role of surface passivation in controlling Ge nanowire faceting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gamalski, A. D.; Tersoff, J.; Kodambaka, S.; Zakharov, D. N.; Ross, F. M.; Stach, E. A.

    2015-11-05

    In situ transmission electron microscopy observations of nanowire morphologies indicate that during Au-catalyzed Ge nanowire growth, Ge facets can rapidly form along the nanowire sidewalls when the source gas (here, digermane) flux is decreased or the temperature is increased. This sidewall faceting is accompanied by continuous catalyst loss as Au diffuses from the droplet to the wire surface. We suggest that high digermane flux and low temperatures promote effective surface passivation of Ge nanowires with H or other digermane fragments inhibiting diffusion and attachment of Au and Ge on the sidewalls. Furthermore, these results illustrate the essential roles of themore » precursor gas and substrate temperature in maintaining nanowire sidewall passivation, necessary to ensure the growth of straight, untapered, <111>-oriented nanowires.« less

  17. Passive heat-transfer means for nuclear reactors. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burelbach, J.P.

    1982-06-10

    An improved passive cooling arrangement is disclosed for maintaining adjacent or related components of a nuclear reactor within specified temperature differences. Specifically, heat pipes are operatively interposed between the components, with the vaporizing section of the heat pipe proximate the hot component operable to cool it and the primary condensing section of the heat pipe proximate the other and cooler component operable to heat it. Each heat pipe further has a secondary condensing section that is located outwardly beyond the reactor confinement and in a secondary heat sink, such as air ambient the containment, that is cooler than the other reactor component. By having many such heat pipes, an emergency passive cooling system is defined that is operative without electrical power.

  18. Solution-processed amorphous silicon surface passivation layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mews, Mathias Sontheimer, Tobias; Korte, Lars; Rech, Bernd; Mader, Christoph; Traut, Stephan; Wunnicke, Odo

    2014-09-22

    Amorphous silicon thin films, fabricated by thermal conversion of neopentasilane, were used to passivate crystalline silicon surfaces. The conversion is investigated using X-ray and constant-final-state-yield photoelectron spectroscopy, and minority charge carrier lifetime spectroscopy. Liquid processed amorphous silicon exhibits high Urbach energies from 90 to 120?meV and 200?meV lower optical band gaps than material prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Applying a hydrogen plasma treatment, a minority charge carrier lifetime of 1.37?ms at an injection level of 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3} enabling an implied open circuit voltage of 724?mV was achieved, demonstrating excellent silicon surface passivation.

  19. Integration of quantum cascade lasers and passive waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montoya, Juan Wang, Christine; Goyal, Anish; Creedon, Kevin; Connors, Michael; Daulton, Jeffrey; Donnelly, Joseph; Missaggia, Leo; Aleshire, Chris; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio; Herzog, William

    2015-07-20

    We report on monolithic integration of active quantum cascade laser (QCL) materials with passive waveguides formed by using proton implantation. Proton implantation reduces the electron concentration in the QCL layers by creating deep levels that trap carriers. This strongly reduces the intersubband absorption and the free-carrier absorption in the gain region and surrounding layers, thus significantly reducing optical loss. We have measured loss as low as α = 0.33 cm{sup −1} in λ = 9.6 μm wavelength proton-implanted QCL material. We have also demonstrated lasing in active-passive integrated waveguides. This simple integration technique is anticipated to enable low-cost fabrication in infrared photonic integrated circuits in the mid-infrared (λ ∼ 3–16 μm)

  20. Passive hybrid sensing tag with flexible substrate saw device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Jack L.; Chu, Eric Y.; Ho, Harvey

    2012-12-25

    The integration of surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters, microfabricated transmission lines, and sensors onto polymer substrates in order to enable a passive wireless sensor platform is described herein. Incident microwave pulses on an integrated antenna are converted to an acoustic wave via a SAW filter and transmitted to an impedance based sensor, which for this work is a photodiode. Changes in the sensor state induce a corresponding change in the impedance of the sensor resulting in a reflectance profile. Data collected at a calibrated receiver is used to infer the state of the sensor. Based on this principal, light levels were passively and wirelessly demonstrated to be sensed at distances of up to about 12 feet.

  1. Evaluating the performance of passive-solar-heated buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Methods of evaluating the thermal performance of passive-solar buildings are reviewed. Instrumentation and data logging requirements are outlined. Various methodologies that have been used to develop an energy balance for the building and various performance measures are discussed. Methods for quantifying comfort are described. Subsystem and other special-purpose monitoring are briefly reviewed. Summary results are given for 38 buildings that have been monitored.

  2. Heat storage and distribution inside passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    Passive solar buildings are investigated from the viewpoint of the storage of solar heat in materials of the building: walls, floors, ceilings, and furniture. The effects of the location, material, thickness, and orientation of each internal building surface are investigated. The concept of diurnal heat capacity is introduced and a method of using this parameter to estimate clear-day temperature swings is developed. Convective coupling to remote rooms within a building is discussed. Design guidelines are given.

  3. Passive Tamper Indicating Enclosures Incorporating Embedded Optical Fibre

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wynn, Paul; White, Helen; Allen, Keir; Simmons, Kevin L.; Sliva, Paul; Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.

    2011-08-14

    AWE and PNNL are engaged in a technical collaboration investigating techniques to enhance continuity of knowledge over Accountable Items within a verified nuclear weapons dismantlement process. Tamper Indicating Enclosures (TIE) will likely be deployed as part of a chain of custody regime to indicate an unauthorised attempt to access an Accountable Item. This paper looks at the use of passive TIEs incorporating embedded optical fibre; concepts relating to deployment, tamper indication and unique identification will be discussed.

  4. Passive solar heated energy conserving biosphere home. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekarski, R.

    1985-01-01

    ''Warm Gold'' is an original design of a passive solar heated energy conserving biosphere home. It has been owner-built with financial help from the US Department of Energy through its Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program of 1980. The home incorporates the six major components of passive solar design: appropriate geometry and orientation, glazing, light levels and reflective surfaces, ventilation, thermal storage, and insulation. Warm Gold is an earth-sheltered home with earth cover on the roof as well as on the two opaque north leg walls. It is of durable and efficient masonry construction which included stone masonry with on-site materials and cement block and ready mix concrete. Excavation, backfill, and drainage were necessary aspects of earth sheltered construction together with the all-important Bentonite waterproofing system. Warm Gold is a house which meets all the national building code standards of HUD. The home has two bedrooms, one bathroom, living room, dining room-kitchen, greenhouse, and utility annex, all of which are incorporated with the earth-sheltered, passive solar systems to be a comfortable, energy-efficient living environment.

  5. Performance of fuel cell for energy supply of passive house

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A. Mureşan, D.; Naghiu, G.; Răboacă, S. M.; Aşchilean, I.

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen technology and passive house represent two concepts with a remarkable role for the efficiency and decarbonisation of energy systems in the residential buildings area. Through design and functionality, the passive house can make maximum use of all available energy resources. One of the solutions to supply energy of these types of buildings is the fuel cell, using this technology integrated into a system for generating electricity from renewable primary sources, which take the function of backup power (energy reserve) to cover peak load and meteorological intermittents. In this paper is presented the results of the case study that provide an analysis of the energy, environmental and financial performances regarding energy supply of passive house by power generation systems with fuel cell fed with electrolytic hydrogen produced by harnessing renewable energy sources available. Hybrid systems have been configured and operate in various conditions of use for five differentiated locations according to the main areas of solar irradiation from the Romanian map. Global performance of hybrid systems is directly influenced by the availability of renewable primary energy sources - particular geo-climatic characteristics of the building emplacement.

  6. Passive and low energy research and development: a global view

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Passive and low energy applications in buildings have become a topic of worldwide interest within the last few years. It has now been demonstrated very clearly that indoor comfort can be maintained with an expenditure of only 10 to 20% of the energy often required by modern buildings. This is accomplished through a combination of conservation measures to minimize the load, passive use of solar energy for heating, natural cooling, and daylighting. The major research emphasis has been on devising mathematical models to characterize heat flow within buildings, on the validation of these models by comparison with test results, and on the subsequent use of the models to investigate the influence of both design parameters and weather on system performance. Design guidelines have been developed, and simplified methods of analysis have been promulgated. Performance has been monitored in test modules, test buildings, and many residential and commercial buildings. The results both confirm good performance and establish the accuracy of model predictions. A significant change in the research picture has been seen in the last 4 years; whereas the major effort was originally in the United States, research is now being conducted in many countries throughout the world as many people have realized that passive and low energy methods are appropriate in virtually every climate and are well suited to economic, convenient, and reliable building construction and operation.

  7. Advances in passive neutron instruments for safeguards use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Miller, M.C.; Stewart, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    Passive neutron and other nondestructive assay techniques have been used extensively by the International Atomic Energy Agency to verify plutonium metal, powder, mixed oxide, pellets, rods, assemblies, scrap, and liquids. Normally, the coincidence counting rate is used to measure the {sup 240}Pu-effective mass and gamma-ray spectrometry or mass spectrometry is used to verify the plutonium isotopic ratios. During the past few years, the passive neutron detectors have been installed in plants and operated in the unattended/continuous mode. These radiation data with time continuity have made it possible to use the totals counting rate to monitor the movement of nuclear material. Monte Carlo computer codes have been used to optimize the detector designs for specific applications. The inventory sample counter (INVS-III) has been designed to have a higher efficiency (43%) and a larger uniform counting volume than the original INVS. Data analyses techniques have been developed, including the ``known alpha`` and ``known multiplication`` methods that depend on the sample. For scrap and other impure or poorly characterized samples, we have developed multiplicity counting, initially implemented in the plutonium scrap multiplicity counter. For large waste containers such as 200-L drums, we have developed the add-a-source technique to give accurate corrections for the waste-matrix materials. This paper summarizes recent developments in the design and application of passive neutron assay systems.

  8. Passive film formation on 316L stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1981-10-01

    The polarization behavior of 316L stainless steel has been studied in deaerated sodium sulfate solutions of various pH values. Potentiodynamic, potentiostatic and galvanostatic methods were used for a kinetic study of the formation and growth of passive films. For the film composition analysis, Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and ESCA techniques were also employed. Anodic polarization curves show that current increases as pH decreases and temperature increases. The activation energy for the reaction in the active region was determined to be 10.8 Kcal/mole. From potentiostatic experiments, three stages for passive film formation were observed: the initial active-passive transition, the logarithmic growth of the film and the parabolic growth of the film. The logarithmic relation is expressed and the parabolic relation written. The depth profile concentration of elements in the film by AES showed chromium enrichment at the surface except for the specimen treated at 0.9V (SCE), where iron was the dominant element in the film. The relative amount of Fe/sup 2 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ on the film surface analyzed by ESCA was not different for specimens anodized at 0.18V and 0.58V.

  9. Passivation layers for reduced total dose effects and ELDRS in linear bipolar devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodd, Paul Emerson; Riewe, Leonard Charles; Pease, Ronald L.; Shaneyfelt, Marty Ray; Gupta, Sunny; Maher, Michael C.; Schwank, James Ralph

    2003-07-01

    It is shown that final chip passivation layers can have a significant impact on total dose hardness. A number of final chip passivation layers are evaluated to identify films that mitigate enhanced low-dose-rate sensitivity (ELDRS) in National Semiconductor Corporation's linear bipolar technologies. It is shown that devices fabricated with either a low temperature oxide or a tetraethyl ortho silicate passivation do not exhibit significant ELDRS effects up to 100 krad(SiO{sub 2}). Passivation studies on CMOS SRAMs suggest that it is unlikely that the passivation layers (or processing tools) are acting as a new source of hydrogen, which could drift or diffuse into the oxide and increase ELDRS sensitivity. Instead, it is possible that the passivation layers affect the mechanical stress in the oxide, which may affect oxide trap properties and possibly the release and mobility of hydrogen. Correlations between mechanical stress induced by the passivation layers and radiation degradation are discussed.

  10. Effect of Hydrogen Passivation on the Electronic Structure of Ionic Semiconductor Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, H. X.; Li, S. S.; Li, J. B.; Wei, S. H.

    2012-05-15

    In theoretical studies of thin film and nanostructured semiconductors, pseudohydrogen (PH) is widely used to passivate the surface dangling bonds. Based on these calculations, it is often believed that nanostructured semiconductors, due to quantum confinement, have a larger band gap than their bulk counterparts. Using first-principles band structure theory calculation and comparing systematically the differences between PH-passivated and real-hydrogen-passivated (RH-passivated) semiconductor surfaces and nanocrystals, we show that, unlike PH passivation that always increases the band gap with respect to the bulk value, RH passivation of the nanostructured semiconductors can either increase or decrease the band gap, depending on the ionicity of the nanocompounds. The differences between PH and RH passivations decreases when the covalency of the semiconductor increases and can be explained using a band coupling model. This observation greatly increases the tunability of nanostructured semiconductor properties, especially for wide-gap ionic semiconductors.

  11. Use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the use of DRACS to Enhance HTGRs Passive Safety and Economy. One of the important requirements for Gen. IV High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) is passive safety. Currently all the HTGR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. [1] The decay heat first is transferred to core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. Similar concepts have been widely used in sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) designs, advanced light water reactors like AP1000. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area. RVACS tends to be less expensive. However, it limits the largest achievable power level for modular HTGRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface). When the relative decay heat removal capability is reduced, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annual designs with internal reflector can mitigate this effect therefore further increase the power. Another way to increase power is to increase power density. However, it is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides safety, HTGRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor designs. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of HTGRs. Forsberg [2] pointed out other disadvantages of using RVACS such as conflicting functional requirements for the reactor vessel and scaling distortion for integral effect test of the system performance. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume based passive decay removal system, call Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove

  12. Electrostatic stabilizer for a passive magnetic bearing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2015-11-24

    Electrostatic stabilizers are provided for passive bearing systems composed of annular magnets having a net positive stiffness against radial displacements and that have a negative stiffness for vertical displacements, resulting in a vertical instability. Further embodiments are shown of a radial electrostatic stabilizer geometry (using circuitry similar to that employed in the vertical stabilizer). This version is suitable for stabilizing radial (lateral) displacements of a rotor that is levitated by annular permanent magnets that are stable against vertical displacements but are unstable against radial displacements.

  13. Electrostatic stabilizer for a passive magnetic bearing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2015-12-01

    Electrostatic stabilizers are provided for passive bearing systems composed of annular magnets having a net positive stiffness against radial displacements and that have a negative stiffness for vertical displacements, resulting in a vertical instability. Further embodiments are shown of a radial electrostatic stabilizer geometry (using circuitry similar to that employed in the vertical stabilizer). This version is suitable for stabilizing radial (lateral) displacements of a rotor that is levitated by annular permanent magnets that are stable against vertical displacements but are unstable against radial displacements.

  14. Natural air motion and stratification in passive buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Jones, G.F.; Yamaguchi, Kenjiro

    1984-01-01

    Natural convection is a major mechanism for heat distribution in many passive solar buildings, especially those with sunspaces. To better understand this mechanism, observations of air velocities and temperatures have been made in 13 different houses that encompass a wide variety of one- and two-story geometries. This paper extends previous reports. Results from one house are described in detail, and some generalizations are drawn from the large additional mass of data taken. A simple mathematical model is presented that describes the general nature of airflow and energy flow through an aperture.

  15. Heat storage and distribution inside passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Passive-solar buildings are investigated from the viewpoint of the storage of solar heat in materials of the building: walls, floors, ceilings, and furniture. The effects of the location, material, thickness, and orientation of each internal building surface are investigated. The concept of diurnal heat capacity is introduced and a method of using this parameter to estimate clear-day temperature swings is developed. Convective coupling to remote rooms within a building is discussed, including both convection through single doorways and convective loops that may exist involving a sunspace. Design guidelines are given.

  16. Erbium-based magnetic refrigerant (regenerator) for passive cryocooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    1996-07-23

    A two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler is disclosed having a low temperature stage for reaching approximately 10K, wherein the low temperature stage includes a passive magnetic heat regenerator selected from the group consisting of Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Sn, Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Pb, Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}(Sn{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}), and Er{sub 9}Ni{sub 3}Sn comprising a mixture of Er{sub 3}Ni and Er{sub 6}Ni{sub 2}Sn in the microstructure. 14 figs.

  17. Erbium-based magnetic refrigerant (regenerator) for passive cryocooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    1996-07-23

    A two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler having a low temperature stage for reaching approximately 10K, wherein the low temperature stage includes a passive magnetic heat regenerator selected from the group consisting of Er.sub.6 Ni.sub.2 Sn, Er.sub.6 Ni.sub.2 Pb, Er.sub.6 Ni.sub.2 (Sn.sub.0.75 Ga.sub.0.25), and Er.sub.9 Ni.sub.3 Sn comprising a mixture of Er.sub.3 Ni and Er.sub.6 Ni.sub.2 Sn in the microstructure.

  18. Integration of Full Tensor Gravity and ZTEM Passive Low Frequency EM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Instruments for Simultaneous Data Acquisition | Department of Energy Full Tensor Gravity and ZTEM Passive Low Frequency EM Instruments for Simultaneous Data Acquisition Integration of Full Tensor Gravity and ZTEM Passive Low Frequency EM Instruments for Simultaneous Data Acquisition Integration of Full Tensor Gravity and ZTEM Passive Low Frequency EM Instruments for Simultaneous Data Acquisition presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  19. Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary system when rendered inoperable.

  20. Passive cooling system for top entry liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boardman, Charles E.; Hunsbedt, Anstein; Hui, Marvin M.

    1992-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a top entry loop joined satellite assembly with a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This satellite type reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary cooling system when rendered inoperative.

  1. Characteristics, design implications, and applicability of passive solar heating systems for buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Givoni, B. )

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews the performance characteristics of various passive solar heating systems for buildings, the main design factors affecting their performance, the relative advantages and main problems associated with them, and their applicability to different building types and climatic regions. Emphasis is placed on the architectural design issues associated with the different passive solar heating systems and to the problems that may be encountered when passive solar heating is applied in regions with hot summers.

  2. The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY08 design summary. This report summarizes design and modeling activities for the MEMS passive shock sensor. It provides a description of past design revisions, including the purposes and major differences between design revisions but with a focus on Revisions 4 through 7 and the work performed in fiscal

  3. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Hood River Passive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    House - Hood River, Oregon (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Hood River Passive House - Hood River, Oregon (Fact Sheet) Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Hood River Passive House - Hood River, Oregon (Fact Sheet) The Hood River Passive Project incorporates high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters

  4. Remotely Interrogated Passive Polarizing Dosimeter (RIPPeD).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Buller, Daniel L.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Boye, Robert R.; Samora, Sally; Washburn, Cody M.; Wheeler, David Roger

    2008-09-01

    Conductive polymers have become an extremely useful class of materials for many optical applications. We have developed an electrochemical growth method for depositing highly conductive ({approx}100 S/cm) polypyrrole. Additionally, we have adapted advanced fabrication methods for use with the polypyrrole resulting in gratings with submicron features. This conductive polymer micro-wire grid provides an optical polarizer with unique properties. When the polymer is exposed to ionizing radiation, its conductivity is affected and the polarization properties of the device, specifically the extinction ratio, change in a corresponding manner. This change in polarization properties can be determined by optically interrogating the device, possibly from a remote location. The result is a passive radiation-sensitive sensor with very low optical visibility. The ability to interrogate the device from a safe standoff distance provides a device useful in potentially dangerous environments. Also, the passive nature of the device make it applicable in applications where external power is not available. We will review the polymer deposition, fabrication methods and device design and modeling. The characterization of the polymer's sensitivity to ionizing radiation and optical testing of infrared polarizers before and after irradiation will also be presented. These experimental results will highlight the usefulness of the conductive infrared polarizer to many security and monitoring applications.

  5. Use of passive sampling devices to determine soil contaminant concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, K.A. |; Hooper, M.J.; Weisskopf, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    The effective remediation of contaminated sites requires accurate identification of chemical distributions. A rapid sampling method using passive sampling devices (PSDs) can provide a thorough site assessment. We have been pursuing their application in terrestrial systems and have found that they increase the ease and speed of analysis, decrease solvent usage and overall cost, and minimize the transport of contaminated soils. Time and cost savings allow a higher sampling frequency than is generally the case using traditional methods. PSDs have been used in the field in soils of varying physical properties and have been successful in estimating soil concentrations ranging from 1 {mu}g/kg (parts per billion) to greater than 200 mg/kg (parts per million). They were also helpful in identifying hot spots within the sites. Passive sampling devices show extreme promise as an analytical tool to rapidly characterize contaminant distributions in soil. There are substantial time and cost savings in laboratory personnel and supplies. By selectively excluding common interferences that require sample cleanup, PSDs can be retrieved from the field and processed rapidly (one technician can process approximately 90 PSDs in an 8-h work day). The results of our studies indicate that PSDs can be used to accurately estimate soil contaminant concentrations and provide lower detection limits. Further, time and cost savings will allow a more thorough and detailed characterization of contaminant distributions. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Plasma etching, texturing, and passivation of silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruby, D.S.; Yang, P.; Zaidi, S.; Brueck, S.; Roy, M.; Narayanan, S.

    1998-11-01

    The authors improved a self-aligned emitter etchback technique that requires only a single emitter diffusion and no alignments to form self-aligned, patterned-emitter profiles. Standard commercial screen-printed gridlines mask a plasma-etchback of the emitter. A subsequent PECVD-nitride deposition provides good surface and bulk passivation and an antireflection coating. The authors used full-size multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells processed in a commercial production line and performed a statistically designed multiparameter experiment to optimize the use of a hydrogenation treatment to increase performance. They obtained an improvement of almost a full percentage point in cell efficiency when the self-aligned emitter etchback was combined with an optimized 3-step PECVD-nitride surface passivation and hydrogenation treatment. They also investigated the inclusion of a plasma-etching process that results in a low-reflectance, textured surface on multicrystalline silicon cells. Preliminary results indicate reflectance can be significantly reduced without etching away the emitter diffusion.

  7. Plasma etching, texturing, and passivation of silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruby, D.S.; Yang, P.; Brueck, S.; Narayanan, S.

    1999-03-01

    We improved a self-aligned emitter etchback technique that requires only a single emitter diffusion and no alignments to form self-aligned, patterned-emitter profiles. Standard commercial screen-printed gridlines mask a plasma-etchback of the emitter. A subsequent PECVD-nitride deposition provides good surface and bulk passivation and an antireflection coating. We used full-size multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells processed in a commercial production line and performed a statistically designed multiparameter experiment to optimize the use of a hydrogenation treatment to increase performance. We obtained an improvement of almost a full percentage point in cell efficiency when the self-aligned emitter etchback was combined with an optimized 3-step PECVD-nitride surface passivation and hydrogenation treatment. We also investigated the inclusion of a plasma-etching process that results in a low-reflectance, textured surface on multicrystalline silicon cells. Preliminary results indicate reflectance can be significantly reduced without etching away the emitter diffusion. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Plasma texturing, etching and passivation of multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruby, D.S.; Yang, P.; Zaidi, S.; Roy, M.; Narayanan, S.

    1999-07-01

    The authors improved a self-aligned emitter etchback technique that requires only a single emitter diffusion and no alignments to form self-aligned, patterned-emitter profiles. Standard commercial screen-printed gridlines mask a plasma-etchback of the emitter. A subsequent PECVD-nitride deposition provides good surface and bulk passivation and an antireflection coating. The authors used full-size multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells processed in a commercial production line and performed a statistically designed multiparameter experiment to optimize the use of a hydrogenation treatment to increase performance. They obtained an improvement of almost a full percentage point in cell efficiency when the self-aligned emitter etchback was combined with an optimized 3-step PECVD-nitride surface passivation and hydrogenation treatment. They also investigated the inclusion of a plasma-etching process that results in a low-reflectance, textured surface on multicrystalline silicon cells. Preliminary results indicate reflectance can be significantly reduced without etching away the emitter diffusion.

  9. Passive tire pressure sensor and method (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Passive tire pressure sensor and method A surface acoustic wave device includes a micro-machined pressure transducer for monitoring tire pressure. The device is configured ...

  10. The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 testing for functionality...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shock Sensor : FY08 testing for functionality, model validation, and technology readiness. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Sandia MEMS Passive Shock Sensor : FY08 ...

  11. Disruption Analysis and Response Implicattions of Passive Plates for the NSTX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuhu Zhai, Peter Titus, Art Brooks, and Ron Hatcher

    2012-08-27

    The NSTX upgrade project requires analysis qualifications of existing vacuum vessel and passive stabilizing plates for increased plasma performance. Vertical stability is critically dependent on the passive conducting structure that surrounds the plasma. In this paper, the passive conducting structure is analyzed for the upgrade condition during plasma disruption to ensure the level of stress in the stabilizing plates and the fastener is within its design limits. The counter-bore of the passive plates for bolting is evaluated in details and counter-bore bushing is redesigned to prevent shear failure during disruptions as a result of high pulling and pushing forces, particularly for support at the corner bolts

  12. Using Passive Solar Design to Save Money and Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Passive Solar Design to Save Money and Energy Using Passive Solar Design to Save Money and Energy October 17, 2014 - 9:45am Q&A What do you want to know about solar energy at home? Tell Us Addthis Passive solar design uses carefully designed overhangs and reflective coatings on windows, exterior walls, and roofs to provide comfort during the cooling season. | Photo courtesy of Jason Flakes, U.S. Department of Energy Passive solar design uses carefully designed overhangs and reflective

  13. Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on passive PEM water management, was given by Susie Stenkamp of PNNL at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

  14. Capacitance of a passive iron electrode in acidic solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grilikhes, M.S.; Berezin, M.Yu.; Gorlin, A.V.; Sapelova, E.V.; Sokolov, M.A.; Sukhotin, A.M.

    1985-12-01

    In the present work the authors measured the capacitance of the electrical double layer on passive Armco iron in acidic solutions with the simultaneous recording of the potentiodynamic curves. The measurements were carried out on an apparatus which is based on the double-pulse variant of the galvanostatic method with a pulse lifetime of 2 microseconds, in which the influence of the faradic processes on the capacitance curves is negligibly small in the case of electrochemical systems with small exchange currents. The experiments were carried out at room temperature in 0.5 M sulfuric acid (pH 0.25) and 0.5 M tartaric acid H/sub 2/C/sub 4/H/sub 4/O/sub 6/ (pH 1.6).

  15. The corrosivity and passivity of sputtered Mg-Ti alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Song, Guang -Ling; Unocic, Kinga A.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Cakmak, Ercan; Brady, Michael P.; Gannon, Paul E.; Himmer, Phil; Andrews, Quinn

    2015-11-30

    Our study explored the possibility of forming a “stainless” Mg–Ti alloy. The electrochemical behavior of magnetron-sputtered Mg–Ti alloys was measured in a NaCl solution, and the surface films on the alloys were examined by XPS, SEM and TEM. Increased corrosion resistance was observed with increased Ti content in the sputtered Mg–Ti alloys, but passive-like behavior was not reached until the Ti level (atomic %) was higher than the Mg level. Moreover, the surface film that formed on sputtered Mg–Ti based alloys in NaCl solution was thick, discontinuous and non-protective, whereas a thin, continuous and protective Mg and Ti oxide filmmore » was formed on a sputtered Ti–Mg based alloy.« less

  16. System and method for floating-substrate passive voltage contrast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Mark W.; Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Soden, Jerry M.; Walraven, Jeremy A.; Pimentel, Alejandro A.

    2009-04-28

    A passive voltage contrast (PVC) system and method are disclosed for analyzing ICs to locate defects and failure mechanisms. During analysis a device side of a semiconductor die containing the IC is maintained in an electrically-floating condition without any ground electrical connection while a charged particle beam is scanned over the device side. Secondary particle emission from the device side of the IC is detected to form an image of device features, including electrical vias connected to transistor gates or to other structures in the IC. A difference in image contrast allows the defects or failure mechanisms be pinpointed. Varying the scan rate can, in some instances, produce an image reversal to facilitate precisely locating the defects or failure mechanisms in the IC. The system and method are useful for failure analysis of ICs formed on substrates (e.g. bulk semiconductor substrates and SOI substrates) and other types of structures.

  17. Experimental and analytical studies of passive shutdown heat removal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedersen, D.; Tessier, J.; Heineman, J.; Stewart, R.; Anderson, T.; August, C.; Chawla, T.; Cheung, F.B.; Despe, O.; Haupt, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Using a naturally circulating air stream to remove shutdown decay heat from a nuclear reactor vessel is a key feature of advanced liquid metal reactor (LMR) concepts developed by potential vendors selected by the Department of Energy. General Electric and Rockwell International continue to develop innovative design concepts aimed at improving safety, lowering plant costs, simplifying plant operation, reducing construction times, and most of all, enhancing plant licensability. The reactor program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical support to both organizations. The method of shutdown heat removal proposed employs a totally passive cooling system that rejects heat from the reactor by radiation and natural convection to air. The system is inherently reliable since it is not subject failure modes associated with active decay cooling systems. The system is designed to assure adequate cooling of the reactor under abnormal operating conditions associated with loss of heat removal through other heat transport paths.

  18. NATURAL CONVECTION IN PASSIVE SOLAR BUILDINGS: EXPERIMENTS, ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gadgil, A.; Bauman, F.; Kammerud, R.

    1981-04-01

    Computer programs have been developed to numerically simulate natural convection in two- and three-dimensional room geometries. The programs have been validated using published data from the literature, results from a full-scale experiment performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and results from a small-scale experiment performed at LBL. One of the computer programs has been used to study the influence of natural convection on the thermal performance of a single zone in a direct-gain passive solar building. It is found that the convective heat transfer coefficients between the air and the enclosure surfaces can be substantially different from the values assumed in the standard building energy analysis methods, and can exhibit significant variations across a given surface. This study implies that the building heating loads calculated by standard building energy analysis methods may have substantial errors as a result of their use of common assumptions regarding the convection processes which occur in an enclosure.

  19. Apparatus and process for passivating an SRF cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao; Wallace, John P

    2014-12-02

    An apparatus and process for the production of a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients is provided. The apparatus comprises a first chamber positioned within a second chamber, an RF generator and vacuum pumping systems. The process comprises placing the niobium cavity in a first chamber of the apparatus; thermally treating the cavity by high temperature in the first chamber while maintaining high vacuum in the first and second chambers; and applying a passivating thin film layer to a surface of the cavity in the presence of a gaseous mixture and an RF field. Further a niobium cavity exhibiting high quality factors at high gradients produced by the method of the invention is provided.

  20. The corrosivity and passivity of sputtered Mg-Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Guang -Ling; Unocic, Kinga A.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Cakmak, Ercan; Brady, Michael P.; Gannon, Paul E.; Himmer, Phil; Andrews, Quinn

    2015-11-30

    Our study explored the possibility of forming a “stainless” Mg–Ti alloy. The electrochemical behavior of magnetron-sputtered Mg–Ti alloys was measured in a NaCl solution, and the surface films on the alloys were examined by XPS, SEM and TEM. Increased corrosion resistance was observed with increased Ti content in the sputtered Mg–Ti alloys, but passive-like behavior was not reached until the Ti level (atomic %) was higher than the Mg level. Moreover, the surface film that formed on sputtered Mg–Ti based alloys in NaCl solution was thick, discontinuous and non-protective, whereas a thin, continuous and protective Mg and Ti oxide film was formed on a sputtered Ti–Mg based alloy.

  1. Segmented saddle-shaped passive stabilization conductors for toroidal plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leuer, J.A.

    1990-05-01

    A large toroidal vacuum chamber for plasma generation and confinement is lined with a toroidal blanket for shielding using modules segmented in the toroidal direction. To provide passive stabilization in the same manner as a conductive vacuum chamber wall, saddle-shaped conductor loops are provided on blanket modules centered on a midplane of the toroidal chamber with horizontal conductive bars above and below the midplane, and vertical conductive legs on opposite sides of each module to provide return current paths between the upper and lower horizontal conductive bars. The close proximity of the vertical legs provided on adjacent modules without making physical contact cancel the electromagnetic field of adjacent vertical legs. The conductive bars spaced equally above and below the midplane simulate toroidal conductive loops or hoops that are continuous, for vertical stabilization of the plasma even though they are actually segmented. 5 figs.

  2. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  3. Passive Spectroscopic Diagnostics for Magnetically-confined Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, B. C.; Biter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hillis, D. L.; Hogan, J. T.

    2007-07-18

    Spectroscopy of radiation emitted by impurities and hydrogen isotopes plays an important role in the study of magnetically-confined fusion plasmas, both in determining the effects of impurities on plasma behavior and in measurements of plasma parameters such as electron and ion temperatures and densities, particle transport, and particle influx rates. This paper reviews spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma radiation that are excited by collisional processes in the plasma, which are termed 'passive' spectroscopic diagnostics to distinguish them from 'active' spectroscopic diagnostics involving injected particle and laser beams. A brief overview of the ionization balance in hot plasmas and the relevant line and continuum radiation excitation mechanisms is given. Instrumentation in the soft X-ray, vacuum ultraviolet, ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum is described and examples of measurements are given. Paths for further development of these measurements and issues for their implementation in a burning plasma environment are discussed.

  4. Active/passive mode-locked laser oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fountain, William D.; Johnson, Bertram C.

    1977-01-01

    A Q-switched/mode-locked Nd:YAG laser oscillator employing simultaneous active (electro-optic) and passive (saturable absorber) loss modulation within the optical cavity is described. This "dual modulation" oscillator can produce transform-limited pulses of duration ranging from about 30 psec to about 5 nsec with greatly improved stability compared to other mode-locked systems. The pulses produced by this system lack intrapulse frequency or amplitude modulation, and hence are idealy suited for amplification to high energies and for other applications where well-defined pulses are required. Also, the pulses of this system have excellent interpulse characteristics, wherein the optical noise between the individual pulses of the pulse train has a power level well below the power of the peak pulse of the train.

  5. Optimal gate-width setting for passive neutrons multiplicity counting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G; Schear, Melissa A

    2010-01-01

    When setting up a passive neutron coincidence counter it is natural to ask what coincidence gate settings should be used to optimize the counting precision. If the gate width is too short then signal is lost and the precision is compromised because in a given period only a few coincidence events will be observed. On the other hand if the gate is too large the signal will be maximized but it will also be compromised by the high level of random pile-up or Accidental coincidence events which must be subtracted. In the case of shift register electronics connected to an assay chamber with an exponential dieaway profile operating in the regime where the Accidentals rate dominates the Reals coincidence rate but where dead-time is not a concern, simple arguments allow one to show that the relative precision on the net Reals rate is minimized when the coincidence gate is set to about 1.2 times the lie dieaway time of the system. In this work we show that making the same assumptions it is easy to show that the relative precision on the Triples rates is also at a minimum when the relative precision of the Doubles (or Reals) is at a minimum. Although the analysis is straightforward to our knowledge such a discussion has not been documented in the literature before. Actual measurement systems do not always behave in the ideal we choose to model them. Fortunately however the variation in the relative precision as a function of gate width is rather flat for traditional safeguards counters and so the performance is somewhat forgiving of the exact choice. The derivation further serves to delineate the important parameters which determine the relative counting precision of the Doubles and Triples rates under the regime considered. To illustrate the similarities and differences we consider the relative standard deviation that might be anticipated for a passive correlation count of an axial section of a spent nuclear fuel assembly under practically achievable conditions.

  6. Method for passive cooling liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, and system thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Busboom, Herbert J.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel.

  7. Method to grow group III-nitrides on copper using passivation layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Qiming; Wang, George T; Figiel, Jeffrey T

    2014-06-03

    Group III-nitride epilayers can be grown directly on copper substrates using intermediate passivation layers. For example, single crystalline c-plane GaN can be grown on Cu (110) substrates with MOCVD. The growth relies on a low temperature AlN passivation layer to isolate any alloying reaction between Ga and Cu.

  8. Silicon surface and bulk defect passivation by low temperature PECVD oxides and nitrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Z.; Rohatgi, A.; Ruby, D.

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of PECVD passivation of surface and bulk defects in Si, as well as phosphorous diffused emitters, Is investigated and quantified. Significant hydrogen incorporation coupled with high positive charge density in the PECVD SiN layer is found to play an important role in bulk and surface passivation. It is shown that photo-assisted anneal in a forming gas ambient after PECVD depositions significantly improves the passivation of emitter and bulk defects. PECVD passivation of phosphorous doped emitters and boron doped bare Si surfaces is found to be a strong function of doping concentration. Surface recombination velocity of less than 200 cm/s for 0.2 Ohm-cm and less than 1 cm/s for high resistivity substrates ({approximately} Ohm-cm) were achieved. PECVD passivation improved bulk lifetime in the range of 30% to 70% in multicrystalline Si materials. However, the degree of the passivation was found to be highly material specific. Depending upon the passivation scheme, emitter saturation current density (J{sub oe}) can be reduced by a factor of 3 to 9. Finally, the stability of PECVD oxide/nitride passivation under prolonged UV exposure is established.

  9. Technology Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of Passive Vents in New-Construction Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Puttagunta, S. Maxwell, D. Berger, and M. Zuluaga

    2015-10-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) conducted research to gain more insight into passive vents. Because passive vents are meant to operate in a general environment of negative apartment pressure, the research assessed whether these negative pressures prevail through a variety of environmental conditions.

  10. Sidewall passivation for InGaN/GaN nanopillar light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Won Hyuck; Abraham, Michael; Yu, Shih-Ying [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); You, Guanjun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Li; Xu, Jian, E-mail: jianxu@engr.psu.edu [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Mohney, Suzanne E., E-mail: mohney@ems.psu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2014-07-07

    We studied the effect of sidewall passivation on InGaN/GaN multiquantum well-based nanopillar light emitting diode (LED) performance. In this research, the effects of varying etch rate, KOH treatment, and sulfur passivation were studied for reducing nanopillar sidewall damage and improving device efficiency. Nanopillars prepared under optimal etching conditions showed higher photoluminescence intensity compared with starting planar epilayers. Furthermore, nanopillar LEDs with and without sulfur passivation were compared through electrical and optical characterization. Suppressed leakage current under reverse bias and four times higher electroluminescence (EL) intensity were observed for passivated nanopillar LEDs compared with unpassivated nanopillar LEDs. The suppressed leakage current and EL intensity enhancement reflect the reduction of non-radiative recombination at the nanopillar sidewalls. In addition, the effect of sulfur passivation was found to be very stable, and further insight into its mechanism was gained through transmission electron microscopy.

  11. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling guidelines for conserving energy at home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The idea of passive solar is simple, but applying it effectively does require information and attention to the details of design and construction. Some passive solar techniques are modest and low-cost, and require only small changes in remodeler's typical practice. At the other end of the spectrum, some passive solar systems can almost eliminate a house's need for purchased heating (and in some cases, cooling) energy -- but probably at a relatively high first cost. In between are a broad range of energy-conserving passive solar techniques. Whether or not they are cost-effective, practical and attractive enough to offer a market advantage to any individual remodeler depends on very specific factors such as local costs, climate, and market characteristics. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling Guidelines For Conserving Energy At Homes is written to help give remodelers the information they need to make these decisions. Passive Solar Design Strategies is a package in three basic parts: The Guidelines contain information about passive solar techniques and how they work, and provides specific examples of systems which will save various percentages of energy; The Worksheets offer a simple, fill-in-the-blank method to pre-evaluate the performance of a specific design; The Worked Example demonstrates how to complete the worksheets for a typical residence.

  12. HTS thin films: Passive microwave components and systems integration issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miranda, F.A.; Chorey, C.M.; Bhasin, K.B.

    1994-12-31

    The excellent microwave properties of the High-Temperature-Superconductors (HTS) have been amply demonstrated in the laboratory by techniques such as resonant cavity, power transmission and microstrip resonator measurements. The low loss and high Q passive structures made possible with HTS, present attractive options for applications in commercial, military and space-based systems. However, to readily insert HTS into these systems improvement is needed in such areas as repeatability in the deposition and processing of the HTS films, metal-contact formation, wire bonding, and overall film endurance to fabrication and assembly procedures. In this paper we present data compiled in our lab which illustrate many of the problems associated with these issues. Much of this data were obtained in the production of a space qualified hybrid receiver-downconverter module for the Naval Research Laboratory`s High Temperature Superconductivity Space Experiment II (HTSSE-II). Examples of variations observed in starting films and finished circuits will be presented. It is shown that under identical processing the properties of the HTS films can degrade to varying extents. Finally, we present data on ohmic contacts and factors affecting their adhesion to HTS films, strength of wire bonds made to such contacts, and aging effects.

  13. Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

    2014-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

  14. Passive Two-Phase Cooling for Automotive Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated and tested using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245 fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator concept that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce its size was designed. Simulation results indicate the concept's thermal resistance can be 58% to 65% lower than automotive dual-side-cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers-plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

  15. Solving Inverse Detection Problems Using Passive Radiation Signatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Favorite, Jeffrey A.; Armstrong, Jerawan C.; Vaquer, Pablo A.

    2012-08-15

    The ability to reconstruct an unknown radioactive object based on its passive gamma-ray and neutron signatures is very important in homeland security applications. Often in the analysis of unknown radioactive objects, for simplicity or speed or because there is no other information, they are modeled as spherically symmetric regardless of their actual geometry. In these presentation we discuss the accuracy and implications of this approximation for decay gamma rays and for neutron-induced gamma rays. We discuss an extension of spherical raytracing (for uncollided fluxes) that allows it to be used when the exterior shielding is flat or cylindrical. We revisit some early results in boundary perturbation theory, showing that the Roussopolos estimate is the correct one to use when the quantity of interest is the flux or leakage on the boundary. We apply boundary perturbation theory to problems in which spherically symmetric systems are perturbed in asymmetric nonspherical ways. We apply mesh adaptive direct search (MADS) algorithms to object reconstructions. We present a benchmark test set that may be used to quantitatively evaluate inverse detection methods.

  16. Amorphous silicon passivated contacts for diffused junction silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, J. Yan, D.; Wan, Y.; Cuevas, A.; Demaurex, B.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; De Wolf, S.

    2014-04-28

    Carrier recombination at the metal contacts is a major obstacle in the development of high-performance crystalline silicon homojunction solar cells. To address this issue, we insert thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon [a-Si:H(i)] passivating films between the dopant-diffused silicon surface and aluminum contacts. We find that with increasing a-Si:H(i) interlayer thickness (from 0 to 16?nm) the recombination loss at metal-contacted phosphorus (n{sup +}) and boron (p{sup +}) diffused surfaces decreases by factors of ?25 and ?10, respectively. Conversely, the contact resistivity increases in both cases before saturating to still acceptable values of ? 50 m? cm{sup 2} for n{sup +} and ?100 m? cm{sup 2} for p{sup +} surfaces. Carrier transport towards the contacts likely occurs by a combination of carrier tunneling and aluminum spiking through the a-Si:H(i) layer, as supported by scanning transmission electron microscopyenergy dispersive x-ray maps. We explain the superior contact selectivity obtained on n{sup +} surfaces by more favorable band offsets and capture cross section ratios of recombination centers at the c-Si/a-Si:H(i) interface.

  17. AIR PASSIVATION OF METAL HYDRIDE BEDS FOR WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J; R. H. Hsu, R

    2007-07-02

    Metal hydride beds offer compact, safe storage of tritium. After metal hydride beds have reached the end of their useful life, the beds will replaced with new beds and the old beds prepared for disposal. One acceptance criteria for hydride bed waste disposal is that the material inside the bed not be pyrophoric. To determine the pyrophoric nature of spent metal hydride beds, controlled air ingress tests were performed. A simple gas handling manifold fitted with pressure transducers and a calibrated volume were used to introduce controlled quantities of air into a metal hydride bed and the bed temperature rise monitored for reactivity with the air. A desorbed, 4.4 kg titanium prototype hydride storage vessel (HSV) produced a 4.4 C internal temperature rise upon the first air exposure cycle and a 0.1 C temperature rise upon a second air exposure. A total of 346 scc air was consumed by the bed (0.08 scc per gram Ti). A desorbed, 9.66 kg LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} prototype storage bed experienced larger temperature rises over successive cycles of air ingress and evacuation. The cycles were performed over a period of days with the bed effectively passivated after the 12th cycle. Nine to ten STP-L of air reacted with the bed producing both oxidized metal and water.

  18. Combined passive magnetic bearing element and vibration damper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system contains magnetic subsystems which act together to support a rotating element in a state of dynamic equilibrium and dampen transversely directed vibrations. Mechanical stabilizers are provided to hold the suspended system in equilibrium until its speed has exceeded a low critical speed where dynamic effects take over, permitting the achievement of a stable equilibrium for the rotating object. A state of stable equilibrium is achieved above a critical speed by use of a collection of passive elements using permanent magnets to provide their magnetomotive excitation. In a improvement over U.S. Pat. No. 5,495,221, a magnetic bearing element is combined with a vibration damping element to provide a single upper stationary dual-function element. The magnetic forces exerted by such an element, enhances levitation of the rotating object in equilibrium against external forces, such as the force of gravity or forces arising from accelerations, and suppresses the effects of unbalance or inhibits the onset of whirl-type rotor-dynamic instabilities. Concurrently, this equilibrium is made stable against displacement-dependent drag forces of the rotating object from its equilibrium position.

  19. Integration of a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable DMFC Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supply | Department of Energy a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable DMFC Power Supply Integration of a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable DMFC Power Supply Download slides from the presentation by the University of North Florida at the July 17, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "Fuel Cells for Portable Power." Integration of a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable DMFC Power Supply Webinar Slides (6.16 MB) More

  20. Passive Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines Passive Ammonia SCR for Lean Burn SIDI Engines Passive NH3 SCR has been demonstrated as a high efficiency and low cost alternative lean NOx aftertreatment technology for stratified gasoline engines. deer09_li.pdf (1.57 MB) More Documents & Publications Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Laboratory and Vehicle Demonstration of a "2nd-Generation" LNT+in-situ SCR Diesel NOx Emission Control

  1. DOE Tour of Zero: Pumpkin Ridge Passive House by Hammer and Hand |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Pumpkin Ridge Passive House by Hammer and Hand DOE Tour of Zero: Pumpkin Ridge Passive House by Hammer and Hand 1 of 10 Hammer and Hand built this 3,599-square-foot home near Portland, Oregon, to the performance criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) program. 2 of 10 This high-performance two-story home has been certified to the criteria of the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, the Passive House Institute U.S., and the Pacific

  2. Amorphous/crystalline silicon interface passivation: Ambient-temperature dependence and implications for solar cell performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Seif, Johannes P.; Krishnamani, Gopal; Demaurex, Benedicte; Ballif, Christophe; Wolf, Stefaan De

    2015-03-02

    Silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells feature amorphous silicon passivation films, which enable very high voltages. We report how such passivation increases with operating temperature for amorphous silicon stacks involving doped layers and decreases for intrinsic-layer-only passivation. We discuss the implications of this phenomenon on the solar cell's temperature coefficient, which represents an important figure-of-merit for the energy yield of devices deployed in the field. We show evidence that both open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) are affected by these variations in passivation and quantify these temperature-mediated effects, compared with those expected from standard diode equations. We confirm that devicesmore » with high Voc values at 25°C show better high-temperature performance. Thus, we also argue that the precise device architecture, such as the presence of charge-transport barriers, may affect the temperature-dependent device performance as well.« less

  3. Construction details of an earth-sheltered passive solar thermosiphon air house

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashelman, R.B.; Hagen, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    Construction details are presented for Sunrise, a passive solar, earth-sheltered house in eastern West Virginia. Particular attention is paid to the thermosiphon air system, as well as structural, waterproofing and insulation details.

  4. Amorphous/crystalline silicon interface passivation: Ambient-temperature dependence and implications for solar cell performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seif, Johannes P.; Krishnamani, Gopal; Demaurex, Benedicte; Ballif, Christophe; Wolf, Stefaan De

    2015-03-02

    Silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells feature amorphous silicon passivation films, which enable very high voltages. We report how such passivation increases with operating temperature for amorphous silicon stacks involving doped layers and decreases for intrinsic-layer-only passivation. We discuss the implications of this phenomenon on the solar cell's temperature coefficient, which represents an important figure-of-merit for the energy yield of devices deployed in the field. We show evidence that both open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) are affected by these variations in passivation and quantify these temperature-mediated effects, compared with those expected from standard diode equations. We confirm that devices with high Voc values at 25°C show better high-temperature performance. Thus, we also argue that the precise device architecture, such as the presence of charge-transport barriers, may affect the temperature-dependent device performance as well.

  5. Field test and evaluation of the passive neutron coincidence collar for prototype fast reactor fuel subassemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Keddar, A.

    1982-08-01

    The passive neutron Coincidence Collar, which was developed for the verification of plutonium content in fast reactor fuel subassemblies, has been field tested using Prototype Fast Reactor fuel. For passive applications, the system measures the /sup 240/Pu-effective mass from the spontaneous fission rate, and in addition, a self-interrogation technique is used to determine the fissile content in the subassembly. Both the passive and active modes were evaluated at the Windscale Works in the United Kingdom. The results of the tests gave a standard deviation 0.75% for the passive count and 3 to 7% for the active measurement for a 1000-s counting time. The unit will be used in the future for the verification of plutonium in fresh fuel assemblies.

  6. Amorphous/crystalline silicon interface passivation: Ambient-temperature dependence and implications for solar cell performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seif, Johannes P.; Krishnamani, Gopal; Demaurex, Benedicte; Ballif, Christophe; Wolf, Stefaan De

    2015-03-02

    Silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells feature amorphous silicon passivation films, which enable very high voltages. We report how such passivation increases with operating temperature for amorphous silicon stacks involving doped layers and decreases for intrinsic-layer-only passivation. We discuss the implications of this phenomenon on the solar cell's temperature coefficient, which represents an important figure-of-merit for the energy yield of devices deployed in the field. We show evidence that both open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) are affected by these variations in passivation and quantify these temperature-mediated effects, compared with those expected from standard diode equations. We confirm that devices with high Voc values at 25C show better high-temperature performance. Thus, we also argue that the precise device architecture, such as the presence of charge-transport barriers, may affect the temperature-dependent device performance as well.

  7. Electronic states of lithium passivated germanium nanowires: An ab-initio study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trejo, A.; Carvajal, E.; Vzquez-Medina, R.; Cruz-Irisson, M.

    2014-05-15

    A study of the electronic and structural properties of germanium nanowires (GeNWs) was performed using the ab-initio Density Functional Theory within the generalized gradient approximation where electron-ion interactions are described by ultrasoft pseudopotentials. To study the effects of the lithium in the surface of the GeNWs we compare the electronic band structures of Hydrogen passivated GeNWs with those of partial and totally Li passivated GeNWs. The nanowires were constructed in the [001], [111] and [110] directions, using the supercell model to create different wire diameters. The results show that in the case of partial Li passivation there are localized orbitals near the valence band maximum, which would create a p-doped-kind of state. The total Li passivation created metallic states for all the wires.

  8. Hydrogen plasma treatments for passivation of amorphous-crystalline silicon-heterojunctions on surfaces promoting epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mews, Mathias; Mingirulli, Nicola; Korte, Lars; Schulze, Tim F.

    2013-03-25

    The impact of post-deposition hydrogen plasma treatment (HPT) on passivation in amorphous/crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) interfaces is investigated. Combining low temperature a-Si:H deposition and successive HPT, a high minority carrier lifetime >8 ms is achieved on c-Si <100>, which is otherwise prone to epitaxial growth and thus inferior passivation. It is shown that the passivation improvement stems from diffusion of hydrogen atoms to the heterointerface and subsequent dangling bond passivation. Concomitantly, the a-Si:H hydrogen density increases, leading to band gap widening and void formation, while the film disorder is not increased. Thus, HPT allows for a-Si:H band gap and a-Si:H/c-Si band offset engineering.

  9. Building with passive solar: an application guide for the southern homeowner and builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-03-01

    This instructional material was prepared for training workshops for builders and home designers. It includes: fundamental definitions and equations, climate and site studies, building components, passive systems and techniques, and design tools. (MHR)

  10. EM’s Use of Cost-Effective Passive Groundwater Sampling Grows

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – EM increasingly uses passive groundwater sampling as an effective technique to monitor contaminant concentrations post-cleanup, saving the Cold War cleanup program millions of dollars over traditional methods.

  11. OSI Passive Seismic Experiment at the Former Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, J J; Harben, P

    2010-11-11

    On-site inspection (OSI) is one of the four verification provisions of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Under the provisions of the CTBT, once the Treaty has entered into force, any signatory party can request an on-site inspection, which can then be carried out after approval (by majority voting) of the Executive Council. Once an OSI is approved, a team of 40 inspectors will be assembled to carry out an inspection to ''clarify whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of Article I''. One challenging aspect of carrying out an on-site inspection (OSI) in the case of a purported underground nuclear explosion is to detect and locate the underground effects of an explosion, which may include an explosion cavity, a zone of damaged rock, and/or a rubble zone associated with an underground collapsed cavity. The CTBT (Protocol, Section II part D, paragraph 69) prescribes several types of geophysical investigations that can be carried out for this purpose. One of the methods allowed by the CTBT for geophysical investigation is referred to in the Treaty Protocol as ''resonance seismometry''. This method, which was proposed and strongly promoted by Russia during the Treaty negotiations, is not described in the Treaty. Some clarification about the nature of the resonance method can be gained from OSI workshop presentations by Russian experts in the late 1990s. Our understanding is that resonance seismometry is a passive method that relies on seismic reverberations set up in an underground cavity by the passage of waves from regional and teleseismic sources. Only a few examples of the use of this method for detection of underground cavities have been presented, and those were done in cases where the existence and precise location of an underground cavity was known. As is the case with many of the geophysical methods allowed during an OSI under the Treaty, how resonance seismology really works and

  12. Satellite remote sensing of global rainfall using passive microwave radiometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferriday, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    Global rainfall over land and ocean is estimated using measurements of upwelling microwaves by a satellite passive microwave radiometer. Radiative transfer calculations through a cloud model are used to parameterize an inversion technique for retrieving rain rates from brightness temperatures measured by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The rainfall retrieval technique is based on the interaction between multi-spectral microwave radiances and millimeter sized liquid and frozen hydrometeors distributed in the satellite`s field of view. The rain rate algorithm is sensitive to both hydrometeor emission and scattering while being relatively insensitive to extraneous atmospheric and surface effects. Separate formulations are used over ocean and land to account for different background microwave characteristics and the algorithm corrects for inhomogeneous distributions of rain rates within the satellite`s field of view. Estimates of instantaneous and climate scale rainfall are validated through comparisons with modeled clouds, surface radars, rain gauges and alternative satellite estimates. The accuracy of the rainfall estimates is determined from a combination of validation comparisons, theoretical sampling error calculations, and modeled sensitivity to variations in atmospheric and surface radiative properties. An error budget is constructed for both instantaneous rain rates and climate scale global estimates. At a one degree resolution, the root mean square errors in instantaneous rain rate estimates are 13% over ocean and 20% over land. The root mean square errors in global rainfall totals over a four month period are found to be 46% over ocean and 63% over land. Global rainfall totals are computed on a monthly scale for a three year period from 1987 to 1990. The time series is analyzed for climate scale rainfall distribution and variability.

  13. Passive gamma analysis of the boiling-water-reactor assemblies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vo, D.; Favalli, A.; Grogan, B.; Jansson, P.; Liljenfeldt, H.; Mozin, V.; Schwalbach, P.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S.; Trellue, H.; et al

    2016-06-04

    This research focused on the analysis of a set of stationary passive gamma measurements taken on the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from a boiling water reactor (BWR) using pulse height analysis data acquisition. The measurements were performed on 25 different BWR assemblies in 2014 at Sweden’s Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab). This study was performed as part of the Next Generation of Safeguards Initiative–Spent Fuel project to research the application of nondestructive assay (NDA) to spent fuel assemblies. The NGSI–SF team is working to achieve the following technical goals more easily and efficiently than in themore » past using nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of spent fuel assemblies: (1) verify the initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time of facility declaration; (2) detect the diversion or replacement of pins, (3) estimate the plutonium mass, (4) estimate the decay heat, and (5) determine the reactivity of spent fuel assemblies. The final objective of this project is to quantify the capability of several integrated NDA instruments to meet the aforementioned goals using the combined signatures of neutrons, gamma rays, and heat. This report presents a selection of the measured data and summarizes an analysis of the results. Specifically, trends in the count rates measured for spectral lines from the following isotopes were analyzed as a function of the declared burnup and cooling time: 137Cs, 154Eu, 134Cs, and to a lesser extent, 106Ru and 144Ce. From these measured count rates, predictive algorithms were developed to enable the estimation of the burnup and cooling time. Furthermore, these algorithms were benchmarked on a set of assemblies not included in the standard assemblies set used by this research team.« less

  14. Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx | Department of Energy Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx Reports results from study of potential for using chemisorbing materials to temporally trap HC and NOx emissions during cold-start of HEVs and PHEVs over transient driving cycles p-13_gao.pdf (1.35 MB) More Documents & Publications

  15. Evaluation of Passive and Active Soot Filters for Removal of Particulate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions from Diesel Engines | Department of Energy Passive and Active Soot Filters for Removal of Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines Evaluation of Passive and Active Soot Filters for Removal of Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Cummins, Inc. 2002_deer_bunting.pdf (1.89 MB) More Documents & Publications Investigation of the Effects of Fuels and Aftertreatment Devices on the Emission Profiles of Trucks and Buses Exhaust Aftertreatment and

  16. Optimization of an Advanced Passive/Active Diesel Emission Control System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy an Advanced Passive/Active Diesel Emission Control System Optimization of an Advanced Passive/Active Diesel Emission Control System Evaluation of PM exhaust aftertreatment technologies of a non-road engine over a steady-state cycle deer08_shade.pdf (1.28 MB) More Documents & Publications Diesel Particulate Filters and NO2 Emission Limits Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration Units Active Diesel Emission Control

  17. Electrical passivation of the silicon surface by organic monolayers of 1-octadecene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonova, I. V.; Soots, R. A.; Seleznev, V. A.; Prints, V. Ya.

    2007-08-15

    The electrical properties of structures consisting of a monolayer of 1-octadecene deposited on the Si surface are investigated depending on the method of passivation of the surface prior to the deposition of the film (hydrogen and ion passivation) and the intensity of illumination which activates the addition reaction of molecules of 1-octadecene to the Si atoms. The monolayer of 1-octadecene on the Si surface is stable and provides the chemical passivation of the surface. Two types of traps are found, namely, traps for holes and electrons, whose density can be varied during deposition of the monolayer by the choice of intensity of illumination and by the method of passivation of the surface. In the case of a low level of illumination and/or the use of the iodine passivation of the surface, the electron traps prevail, and, in the case of high intensity of illumination and/or hydrogen passivation of the surface, the hole traps prevail. It is shown that the use of these films provides conductivity in thin near-surface layers of Si due to providing the mode of flat bands or accumulation of carriers near the surface.

  18. CVD-Based Valence-Mending Passivation for Crystalline-Si Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Meng

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate a new surface passivation technique, valence-mending passivation, for its applications in crystalline-Si solar cells to achieve significant efficiency improvement and cost reduction. As the enabling technique, the project includes the development of chemical vapor deposition recipes to passivate textured Si(100) and multicrystalline-Si surfaces by sulfur and the characterization of the passivated Si surfaces, including thermal stability, Schottky barrier height, contact resistance and surface recombination. One important application is to replace the Ag finger electrode in Si cells with Al to reduce cost, by ~$0.1/Wp, and allow terawatt-scale deployment of crystalline-Si solar cells. These all-Al Si cells require a low-temperature metallization process for the Al electrode, to be compatible with valence-mending passivation and to prevent Al diffusion into n-type Si. Another application is to explore valence-mending passivation of grain boundaries in multicrystalline Si by diffusing sulfur into grain boundaries, to reduce the efficiency gas between monocrystalline-Si solar cells and multicrystalline-Si cells. The major accomplishments of this project include: 1) Demonstration of chemical vapor deposition processes for valence-mending passivation of both monocrystalline Si(100) and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Record Schottky barriers have been demonstrated, with the new record-low barrier of less than 0.08 eV between Al and sulfur-passivated n-type Si(100) and the new record-high barrier of 1.14 eV between Al and sulfur-passivated p-type Si(100). On the textured p-type monocrystalline Si(100) surface, the highest barrier with Al is 0.85 eV by valence-mending passivation. 2) Demonstration of a low-temperature metallization process for Al in crystalline-Si solar cells. The new metallization process is based on electroplating of Al in a room-temperature ionic liquid. The resistivity of the electroplated Al is ~7×10–6

  19. Using a Ventilation Controller to Optimize Residential Passive Ventilation For Energy and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    One way to reduce the energy impact of providing residential ventilation is to use passive and hybrid systems. However, these passive and hybrid (sometimes called mixed-mode) systems must still meet chronic and acute health standards for ventilation. This study uses a computer simulation approach to examine the energy and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of passive and hybrid ventilation systems, in 16 California climate zones. Both uncontrolled and flow controlled passive stacks are assessed. A new hybrid ventilation system is outlined that uses an intelligent ventilation controller to minimise energy use, while ensuring chronic and acute IAQ standards are met. ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2010 – the United States standard for residential ventilation - is used as the chronic standard, and exposure limits for PM2.5, formaldehyde and NO2 are used as the acute standards.The results show that controlled passive ventilation and hybrid ventilation can be used in homes to provide equivalent IAQ to continuous mechanical ventilation, for less use of energy.

  20. Role of Passive Safety Systems in Severe Accidents Prevention for Advanced WWER-1000 Reactor Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukin, N.V.; Fil, N.S.; Shumsky, A.M. [EDO 'Gidropress', 21 Ordzhonikidze str., Podolsk, Moscow Region, RU-142103 (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Role of new safety systems applied in advanced WWER-1000 (passive residual heat removal system, SPOT and passive core flooding system, HA-2) in severe accident prevention is considered in the paper. The following typical beyond-design accidents (BDBAs) that essentially determine the design basis of the above passive systems are considered in the paper: - station blackout; - LB LOCA (double-ended cold leg break 850 mm diameter) with station blackout. The domestic DINAMIKA-97 and TETCH-M-97 codes developed by EDO 'Gidropress' were used for the analyses. Besides, some supporting calculations have been performed by new Russian KORSAR code and western RELAP5/MOD3.2 and ATHLET 1.2A codes. The analysis of station blackout accident without operation of new passive systems have shown the exceeding of the maximum design limit of fuel rod damage already in 2-2,5 h after initiating event. Operation of SPOT system prevents any core damage during the BDBA under consideration. The analysis have also demonstrated that operation of new passive safety systems (SPOT and HA-2) ensures the effective core cooling within required period of time. This ensures essentially decreased probability of severe core degradation. (authors)

  1. Passivation dynamics in the anisotropic deposition and stripping of bulk magnesium electrodes during electrochemical cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Haasch, Richard T.; Meng, Yifei; Vieker, Henning; Hahn, Nathan; Golzhauser, Armin; Zuo, Jian-Min; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2015-08-10

    Rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, though little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pit densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 μm in height. Finally, the passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte.

  2. Amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers for crystalline-silicon-based heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boccard, Mathieu; Holman, Zachary C.

    2015-08-14

    With this study, amorphous silicon enables the fabrication of very high-efficiency crystalline-silicon-based solar cells due to its combination of excellent passivation of the crystalline silicon surface and permeability to electrical charges. Yet, amongst other limitations, the passivation it provides degrades upon high-temperature processes, limiting possible post-deposition fabrication possibilities (e.g., forcing the use of low-temperature silver pastes). We investigate the potential use of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers to sidestep this issue. The passivation obtained using device-relevant stacks of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide with various carbon contents and doped amorphous silicon are evaluated, and their stability upon annealing assessed, amorphous silicon carbide being shown to surpass amorphous silicon for temperatures above 300C. We demonstrate open-circuit voltage values over 700 mV for complete cells, and an improved temperature stability for the open-circuit voltage. Transport of electrons and holes across the hetero-interface is studied with complete cells having amorphous silicon carbide either on the hole-extracting side or on the electron-extracting side, and a better transport of holes than of electrons is shown. Also, due to slightly improved transparency, complete solar cells using an amorphous silicon carbide passivation layer on the hole-collecting side are demonstrated to show slightly better performances even prior to annealing than obtained with a standard amorphous silicon layer.

  3. Low temperature front surface passivation of interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, Brent; Das, Ujjwal; Jani, Omkar; Hegedus, Steve; Birkmire, Robert

    2009-06-08

    The interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) solar cell requires a low temperature front surface passivation/anti-reflection structure. Conventional silicon surface passivation using SiO2 or a-SiNx is performed at temperature higher than 400C, which is not suitable for the IBC-SHJ cell. In this paper, we propose a PECVD a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H/a-SiC:H stack structure to passivate the front surface of crystalline silicon at low temperature. The optical properties and passivation quality of this structure are characterized and solar cells using this structure are fabricated. With 2 nm a-Si:H layer, the stack structure exhibits stable passivation with effective minority carrier lifetime higher than 2 ms, and compatible with IBC-SHJ solar cell processing. A critical advantage of this structure is that the SiC allows it to be HF resistant, thus it can be deposited as the first step in the process. This protects the a-Si/c-Si interface and maintains a low surface recombination velocity.

  4. Carrier Selective, Passivated Contacts for High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells based on Transparent Conducting Oxides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Young, David L.; Nemeth, William; Grover, Sachit; Norman, Andrew; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Lee, Benjamin G.; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and results of passivated contacts to n-type silicon utilizing thin SiO2 and transparent conducting oxide layers. High temperature silicon dioxide is grown on both surfaces of an n-type wafer to a thickness <50 Å, followed by deposition of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) and a patterned metal contacting layer. As deposited, the thin-film stack has a very high J0,contact, and a non-ohmic, high contact resistance. However, after a forming gas anneal, the passivation quality and the contact resistivity improve significantly. The contacts are characterized by measuring the recombination parameter of the contact (J0,contact) and the specificmore » contact resistivity (ρcontact) using a TLM pattern. The best ITO/SiO2 passivated contact in this study has J0,contact = 92.5 fA/cm2 and ρcontact = 11.5 mOhm-cm2. These values are placed in context with other passivating contacts using an analysis that determines the ultimate efficiency and the optimal area fraction for contacts for a given set of (J0,contact, ρcontact) values. The ITO/SiO2 contacts are found to have a higher J0,contact, but a similar ρcontact compared to the best reported passivated contacts.« less

  5. Passivation dynamics in the anisotropic deposition and stripping of bulk magnesium electrodes during electrochemical cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Haasch, Richard T.; Meng, Yifei; Vieker, Henning; Hahn, Nathan; Golzhauser, Armin; Zuo, Jian-Min; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.

    2015-08-10

    Rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, though little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pit densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 ?m in height. Finally, the passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte.

  6. Research on ambient temperature passive magnetic bearings at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, R.F.; Ryitov, D.D.` Smith, J.R.; Tung, L.S.

    1997-04-01

    Research performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the equilibrium and stability of a new class of ambient-temperature passive bearing systems is described. The basic concepts involved are: (1) Stability of the rotating system is only achieved in the rotating state. That is, disengaging mechanical systems are used to insure stable levitation at rest (when Earnshaw`s theorem applies). (2) Stable levitation by passive magnetic elements can be achieved if the vector sum of the force derivatives of the several elements of the system is net negative (i.e. restoring) for axial, transverse, and tilt-type perturbations from equilibrium. To satisfy the requirements of (2) using only permanent magnet elements we have employed periodic ``Halbach arrays.`` These interact with passive inductive loaded circuits and act as stabilizers, with the primary forces arising from axially symmetric permanent-magnet elements. Stabilizers and other elements needed to create compact passive magnetic bearing systems have been constructed. Novel passive means for stabilizing classes of rotor-dynamic instabilities in such systems have also been investigated.

  7. Mutual Passivation in Dilulte GaNxAs1-x Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wu, J.; Mars, D.E.; Scarpulla, M.A.; Dubon, O.D.; Ridgway, M.C.; Geisz, J.F.

    2005-03-21

    The dilute GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-x} alloys (with x up to 0.05) have exhibited many unusual properties as compared to the conventional binary and ternary semiconductor alloys. We report on a new effect in the GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-x} alloy system in which electrically active substitutional group IV donors and isoelectronic N atoms passivate each other's activity. This mutual passivation occurs in dilute GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-x} doped with group IV donors through the formation of nearest neighbor IV{sub Ga-}N{sub As} pairs when the samples are annealed under conditions such that the diffusion length of the donors is greater than or equal to the average distance between donor and N atoms. The passivation of the shallow donors and the N{sub As} atoms is manifested in a drastic reduction in the free electron concentration and, simultaneously, an increase in the fundamental band gap. This mutual passivation effect is demonstrated in both Si and Ge doped GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-x} alloys. Analytical calculations of the passivation process based on Ga vacancies mediated diffusion show good agreement with the experimental results.

  8. Amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers for crystalline-silicon-based heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boccard, Mathieu; Holman, Zachary C.

    2015-08-14

    With this study, amorphous silicon enables the fabrication of very high-efficiency crystalline-silicon-based solar cells due to its combination of excellent passivation of the crystalline silicon surface and permeability to electrical charges. Yet, amongst other limitations, the passivation it provides degrades upon high-temperature processes, limiting possible post-deposition fabrication possibilities (e.g., forcing the use of low-temperature silver pastes). We investigate the potential use of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers to sidestep this issue. The passivation obtained using device-relevant stacks of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide with various carbon contents and doped amorphous silicon are evaluated, and their stability upon annealing assessed, amorphous silicon carbide being shown to surpass amorphous silicon for temperatures above 300°C. We demonstrate open-circuit voltage values over 700 mV for complete cells, and an improved temperature stability for the open-circuit voltage. Transport of electrons and holes across the hetero-interface is studied with complete cells having amorphous silicon carbide either on the hole-extracting side or on the electron-extracting side, and a better transport of holes than of electrons is shown. Also, due to slightly improved transparency, complete solar cells using an amorphous silicon carbide passivation layer on the hole-collecting side are demonstrated to show slightly better performances even prior to annealing than obtained with a standard amorphous silicon layer.

  9. Amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers for crystalline-silicon-based heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boccard, Mathieu; Holman, Zachary C.

    2015-08-14

    With this study, amorphous silicon enables the fabrication of very high-efficiency crystalline-silicon-based solar cells due to its combination of excellent passivation of the crystalline silicon surface and permeability to electrical charges. Yet, amongst other limitations, the passivation it provides degrades upon high-temperature processes, limiting possible post-deposition fabrication possibilities (e.g., forcing the use of low-temperature silver pastes). We investigate the potential use of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide passivating layers to sidestep this issue. The passivation obtained using device-relevant stacks of intrinsic amorphous silicon carbide with various carbon contents and doped amorphous silicon are evaluated, and their stability upon annealing assessed, amorphousmore » silicon carbide being shown to surpass amorphous silicon for temperatures above 300°C. We demonstrate open-circuit voltage values over 700 mV for complete cells, and an improved temperature stability for the open-circuit voltage. Transport of electrons and holes across the hetero-interface is studied with complete cells having amorphous silicon carbide either on the hole-extracting side or on the electron-extracting side, and a better transport of holes than of electrons is shown. Also, due to slightly improved transparency, complete solar cells using an amorphous silicon carbide passivation layer on the hole-collecting side are demonstrated to show slightly better performances even prior to annealing than obtained with a standard amorphous silicon layer.« less

  10. Hydrogenation Methods and Passivation Mechanisms for c-Si Photovoltaics: Final Technical Report, 2 January 2002 - 15 January 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estreicher, S. K.

    2008-11-01

    Joint experimental and theortetical research program to improve processes used to eliminate or passivate lifetime-reducing defects in the Si bulk.

  11. RHEED, AES and XPS studies of the passive films formed on ion implanted stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, C.R.; Doss, K.G.K.; Wang, Y.F.; Warren, J.B.; Hubler, G.K.

    1981-12-01

    P-implantation (10/sup 17/ ions cm/sup -2/, 40 KeV) into 304 stainless steel (ss) has been carried out, and an amorphous surface alloy was formed. Polarization studies in deaerated 1N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/+ 2% NaCl showed that P-implantation improved both the general and localized corrosion resistance of 304 ss. A comparative study has been carried out between the implanted and unimplanted steel to determine what influence P-implantation has upon the properties of the passive film formed 1N H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The influence of Cl ions on pre-formed passive films was also studied. RHEED, XPS and AES were used to evaluate the nature of the passive films formed in these studies.

  12. REVERSIBLE AND IRREVERSIBLE PASSIVATION OF A LA-NI-AL ALLOY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanahan, K.; Klein, J.

    2009-06-25

    This paper seeks to explore some of the effects of passivating a LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} sample by air oxidation under controlled conditions. Passivation of this metal hydride alloy seems to have two distinct regimes. The first occurs with air oxidation at 80 C and 20 C. It is characterized by complete reversibility upon hydrogen readsorption, although said readsorption is hindered substantially at room temperature, requiring the material to be heated to produce the reactivation. The second regime is illustrated by 130 C air oxidation and is characterized by irreversible loss of hydrogen absorption capacity. This passivation does not hinder hydrogen readsorption into the remaining hydride material.

  13. The effect of microscopic texture on the direct plasma surface passivation of Si solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrabian, S.; Xu, S.; Qaemi, A. A.; Shokri, B.; Chan, C. S.; Ostrikov, K.

    2013-04-15

    Textured silicon surfaces are widely used in manufacturing of solar cells due to increasing the light absorption probability and also the antireflection properties. However, these Si surfaces have a high density of surface defects that need to be passivated. In this study, the effect of the microscopic surface texture on the plasma surface passivation of solar cells is investigated. The movement of 10{sup 5} H{sup +} ions in the texture-modified plasma sheath is studied by Monte Carlo numerical simulation. The hydrogen ions are driven by the combined electric field of the plasma sheath and the textured surface. The ion dynamics is simulated, and the relative ion distribution over the textured substrate is presented. This distribution can be used to interpret the quality of the Si dangling bonds saturation and consequently, the direct plasma surface passivation.

  14. Si Passivation and Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Nitride: Final Technical Report, March 18, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwater, H. A.

    2007-11-01

    This report investigated chemical and physical methods for Si surface passivation for application in crystalline Si and thin Si film photovoltaic devices. Overall, our efforts during the project were focused in three areas: i) synthesis of silicon nitride thin films with high hydrogen content by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition; ii) investigation of the role of hydrogen passivation of defects in crystalline Si and Si solar cells by out diffusion from hydrogenated silicon nitride films; iii) investigation of the growth kinetics and passivation of hydrogenated polycrystalline. Silicon nitride films were grown by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition and film properties have been characterized as a function of SiH4/NH3 flow ratio. It was demonstrated that hot-wire chemical vapor deposition leads to growth of SiNx films with controllable stoichiometry and hydrogen.

  15. UTag: Long-range Ultra-wideband Passive Radio Frequency Tags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowla, F

    2007-03-14

    Long-range, ultra-wideband (UWB), passive radio frequency (RF) tags are key components in Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) system that will revolutionize inventory control and tracking applications. Unlike conventional, battery-operated (active) RFID tags, LLNL's small UWB tags, called 'UTag', operate at long range (up to 20 meters) in harsh, cluttered environments. Because they are battery-less (that is, passive), they have practically infinite lifetimes without human intervention, and they are lower in cost to manufacture and maintain than active RFID tags. These robust, energy-efficient passive tags are remotely powered by UWB radio signals, which are much more difficult to detect, intercept, and jam than conventional narrowband frequencies. The features of long range, battery-less, and low cost give UTag significant advantage over other existing RFID tags.

  16. A concept of JAERI passive safety light water reactor system (JPSR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murao, Y.; Araya, F.; Iwamura, T.

    1995-09-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) proposed a passive safety reactor system concept, JPSR, which was developed for reducing manpower in operation and maintenance and influence of human errors on reactor safety. In the concept the system was extremely simplified. The inherent matching nature of core generation and heat removal rate within a small volume change of the primary coolant is introduced by eliminating chemical shim and adopting in-vessel control rod drive mechanism units, a low power density core and once-through steam generators. In order to simplify the system, a large pressurizer, canned pumps, passive engineered-safety-features-system (residual heat removal system and coolant injection system) are adopted and the total system can be significantly simplified. The residual heat removal system is completely passively actuated in non-LOCAs and is also used for depressurization of the primary coolant system to actuate accumulators in small break LOCAs and reactor shutdown cooling system in normal operation. All of systems for nuclear steam supply system are built in the containment except for the air coolers as a the final heat sink of the passive residual heat removal system. Accordingly the reliability of the safety system and the normal operation system is improved, since most of residual heat removal system is always working and a heat sink for normal operation system is {open_quotes}safety class{close_quotes}. In the passive coolant injection system, depressurization of the primary cooling system by residual heat removal system initiates injection from accumulators designed for the MS-600 in medium pressure and initiates injection from the gravity driven coolant injection pool at low pressure. Analysis with RETRAN-02/MOD3 code demonstrated the capability of passive load-following, self-power-controllability, cooling and depressurization.

  17. Passive decay heat removal by natural air convection after severe accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erbacher, F.J.; Neitzel, H.J.; Cheng, X.

    1995-09-01

    The composite containment proposed by the Research Center Karlsruhe and the Technical University Karlsruhe is to cope with severe accidents. It pursues the goal to restrict the consequences of core meltdown accidents to the reactor plant. One essential of this new containment concept is its potential to remove the decay heat by natural air convection and thermal radiation in a passive way. To investigate the coolability of such a passive cooling system and the physical phenomena involved, experimental investigations are carried out at the PASCO test facility. Additionally, numerical calculations are performed by using different codes. A satisfying agreement between experimental data and numerical results is obtained.

  18. Secure optionally passive RFID tag or sensor with external power source and data logging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nekoogar, Faranak; Reynolds, Matthew; Lefton, Scott; Dowla, Farid; Twogood, Richard

    2016-05-31

    A secure optionally passive RFID tag or sensor system comprises a passive RFID tag having means for receiving radio signals from at least one base station and for transmitting radio signals to at least one base station, where the tag is capable of being powered exclusively by received radio energy, and an external power and data logging device having at least one battery and electronic circuitry including a digital memory configured for storing and recalling data. The external power and data logging device has a means for powering the tag, and also has a means.

  19. Experimental and analytical studies of a passive shutdown heat removal system for advanced LMRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heineman, J.; Kraimer, M.; Lottes, P.; Pedersen, D.; Stewart, R.; Tessier, J.

    1988-01-01

    A facility designed and constructed to demonstrate the viability of natural convection passive heat removal systems as a key feature of innovative LMR Shutdown Heat Removal (SHR) systems is in operation at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is being used to investigate the heat transfer performance of the GE/PRISM and the RI/SAFR passive designs. This paper presents a description of the NSTF, the pretest analysis of the Radiant Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) in support of the GE/PRISM IFR concept, and experiment results for the RVACS simulation. Preliminary results show excellent agreement with predicted system performance.

  20. Economic analysis of a passive solar multiple-family dwelling for upstate New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laquatra, J. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the economic feasibility of passive solar energy as applied to a multiple-family dwelling in three upstate New York cities: Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse. Specifically, two passive solar applications - a Trombe wall and a direct-gain system - for a nine-unit structure designed by Total Environmental Action, Inc. were analyzed through the use of a solar economic performance code. City-specific data, including climatological information, building construction costs, utility rates, and property taxes were used, as were various economic parameters to reflect economic conditions in general and specifically those of the solar systems' owners.

  1. Passive solar retrofit: how to add natural heating and cooling to your home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strickler, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    This do-it-yourself guide includes information on planning and maintaining a passive retrofit home. Information is given on: evaluating an individual house; climate, and situation; deciding on most appropriate solar features; determining the need for outside help and locating it; applying for financial assistance and tax credits; choosing materials; and construction. Also covered are: house insulation, auxiliary heating and cooling, decorating the passive solar retrofit, essential weather data, construction guidelines, a list of manufacturers of solar materials, and a reference supplement are included.

  2. Combined impurity gettering and defect passivation in polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verhoef, L.A.; Michiels, P.; Sinke, W.C. ); Denisse, C.M.M.; Hendriks, M. ); van Zolingen, R.J.C. )

    1990-12-17

    Polycrystalline silicon wafers have been subjected to annealing (700 {degree}C, 1 h) and to a hydrogen plasma (350 {degree}C, 30 min) during the processing of solar cells. The annealing treatment enhances the bulk minority-carrier recombination lifetime by 19%, presumably by impurity gettering. The plasma treatment improves the lifetime by 26%; hydrogen passivation accounts for at least 2/3 of this improvement. Gettering and passivation are found to be complementary: application of both treatments results in a 43% increase in lifetime compared to standard.

  3. Local-Level Prognostics Health Management Systems Framework for Passive AdvSMR Components. Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Pardini, Allan F.; Jones, Anthony M.; Deibler, John E.; Pitman, Stan G.; Tucker, Joseph C.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2014-09-12

    This report describes research results to date in support of the integration and demonstration of diagnostics technologies for prototypical AdvSMR passive components (to establish condition indices for monitoring) with model-based prognostics methods. The focus of the PHM methodology and algorithm development in this study is at the localized scale. Multiple localized measurements of material condition (using advanced nondestructive measurement methods), along with available measurements of the stressor environment, enhance the performance of localized diagnostics and prognostics of passive AdvSMR components and systems.

  4. Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aftertreatment System | Department of Energy Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Catalyst Design for Urea-less Passive Ammonia SCR Lean-Burn SIDI Aftertreatment System Lean-burn SIDI engine technology offers improved fuel economy. deer10_viola.pdf (3.46 MB) More Documents & Publications Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline En

  5. Ion blistering of boron-doped silicon: The critical role of defect passivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desrosiers, N.; Giguere, A.; Moutanabbir, O.; Terreault, B.

    2005-12-05

    The microscopic mechanism of hydrogen ion blistering of silicon was investigated using Raman scattering spectroscopy and thermal desorption spectrometry. The data in B-doped Si({approx}10{sup -3}/{omega} cm) are particularly worth noting, since B doping at this level strongly reduces both the ion dose and the thermal budget required for blistering. In that case the Si-H stretch mode is found to be shifted markedly towards higher frequencies characteristic of highly passivated vacancies and internal surfaces. It is deduced that the degree of defect passivation is a most critical factor for blistering.

  6. Hydrogen in plasma-nanofabrication: Selective control of nanostructure heating and passivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolter, Matthias; Levchenko, Igor; Ostrikov, Kostya; Kersten, Holger

    2010-03-29

    The possibility of independent control of the surface fluxes of energy and hydrogen-containing radicals, thus enabling selective control of the nanostructure heating and passivation, is demonstrated. In situ energy flux measurements reveal that even a small addition of H{sub 2} to low-pressure Ar plasmas leads to a dramatic increase in the energy deposition through H recombination on the surface. The heat release is quenched by a sequential addition of a hydrocarbon precursor while the surface passivation remains effective. Such selective control offers an effective mechanism for deterministic control of the growth shape, crystallinity, and density of nanostructures in plasma-aided nanofabrication.

  7. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor passive safety system response to postulated events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M. C.; Wright, R. F.

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor. This paper is part of a series of four describing the design and safety features of the Westinghouse SMR. This paper focuses in particular upon the passive safety features and the safety system response of the Westinghouse SMR. The Westinghouse SMR design incorporates many features to minimize the effects of, and in some cases eliminates the possibility of postulated accidents. The small size of the reactor and the low power density limits the potential consequences of an accident relative to a large plant. The integral design eliminates large loop piping, which significantly reduces the flow area of postulated loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs). The Westinghouse SMR containment is a high-pressure, compact design that normally operates at a partial vacuum. This facilitates heat removal from the containment during LOCA events. The containment is submerged in water which also aides the heat removal and provides an additional radionuclide filter. The Westinghouse SMR safety system design is passive, is based largely on the passive safety systems used in the AP1000{sup R} reactor, and provides mitigation of all design basis accidents without the need for AC electrical power for a period of seven days. Frequent faults, such as reactivity insertion events and loss of power events, are protected by first shutting down the nuclear reaction by inserting control rods, then providing cold, borated water through a passive, buoyancy-driven flow. Decay heat removal is provided using a layered approach that includes the passive removal of heat by the steam drum and independent passive heat removal system that transfers heat from the primary system to the environment. Less frequent faults such as loss of coolant accidents are mitigated by passive injection of a large quantity of water that is readily available inside containment. An automatic depressurization system is used to

  8. Displacement method and apparatus for reducing passivated metal powders and metal oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrell; Jonathan S. , Ripley; Edward B.

    2009-05-05

    A method of reducing target metal oxides and passivated metals to their metallic state. A reduction reaction is used, often combined with a flux agent to enhance separation of the reaction products. Thermal energy in the form of conventional furnace, infrared, or microwave heating may be applied in combination with the reduction reaction.

  9. Excellent c-Si surface passivation by low-temperature atomic layer deposited titanium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Baochen; Hoex, Bram; Aberle, Armin G.; Bhatia, Charanjit S.; Chi, Dongzhi

    2014-06-23

    In this work, we demonstrate that thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) titanium oxide (TiO{sub x}) films are able to provide a—up to now unprecedented—level of surface passivation on undiffused low-resistivity crystalline silicon (c-Si). The surface passivation provided by the ALD TiO{sub x} films is activated by a post-deposition anneal and subsequent light soaking treatment. Ultralow effective surface recombination velocities down to 2.8 cm/s and 8.3 cm/s, respectively, are achieved on n-type and p-type float-zone c-Si wafers. Detailed analysis confirms that the TiO{sub x} films are nearly stoichiometric, have no significant level of contaminants, and are of amorphous nature. The passivation is found to be stable after storage in the dark for eight months. These results demonstrate that TiO{sub x} films are also capable of providing excellent passivation of undiffused c-Si surfaces on a comparable level to thermal silicon oxide, silicon nitride, and aluminum oxide. In addition, it is well known that TiO{sub x} has an optimal refractive index of 2.4 in the visible range for glass encapsulated solar cells, as well as a low extinction coefficient. Thus, the results presented in this work could facilitate the re-emergence of TiO{sub x} in the field of high-efficiency silicon wafer solar cells.

  10. Passive soil venting at the Chemical Waste Landfill Site at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelan, J.M.; Reavis, B.; Cheng, W.C.

    1995-05-01

    Passive Soil Vapor Extraction was tested at the Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNLIW). Data collected included ambient pressures, differential pressures between soil gas and ambient air, gas flow rates into and out of the soil and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in vented soil gas. From the differential pressure and flow rate data, estimates of permeability were arrived at and compared with estimates from other studies. Flow, differential pressure, and ambient pressure data were collected for nearly 30 days. VOC data were collected for two six-hour periods during this time. Total VOC emissions were calculated and found to be under the limit set by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Although a complete process evaluation is not possible with the data gathered, some of the necessary information for designing a passive venting process was determined and the important parameters for designing the process were indicated. More study is required to evaluate long-term VOC removal using passive venting and to establish total remediation costs when passive venting is used as a polishing process following active soil vapor extraction.

  11. Mobile Pit verification system design based on passive special nuclear material verification in weapons storage facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, J. N.; Chin, M. R.; Sjoden, G. E.

    2013-07-01

    A mobile 'drive by' passive radiation detection system to be applied in special nuclear materials (SNM) storage facilities for validation and compliance purposes has been designed through the use of computational modeling and new radiation detection methods. This project was the result of work over a 1 year period to create optimal design specifications to include creation of 3D models using both Monte Carlo and deterministic codes to characterize the gamma and neutron leakage out each surface of SNM-bearing canisters. Results were compared and agreement was demonstrated between both models. Container leakages were then used to determine the expected reaction rates using transport theory in the detectors when placed at varying distances from the can. A 'typical' background signature was incorporated to determine the minimum signatures versus the probability of detection to evaluate moving source protocols with collimation. This established the criteria for verification of source presence and time gating at a given vehicle speed. New methods for the passive detection of SNM were employed and shown to give reliable identification of age and material for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and weapons grade plutonium (WGPu). The finalized 'Mobile Pit Verification System' (MPVS) design demonstrated that a 'drive-by' detection system, collimated and operating at nominally 2 mph, is capable of rapidly verifying each and every weapon pit stored in regularly spaced, shelved storage containers, using completely passive gamma and neutron signatures for HEU and WGPu. This system is ready for real evaluation to demonstrate passive total material accountability in storage facilities. (authors)

  12. Mapping the energy saving potential of passive heating combined with conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure is presented for estimating the energy savings potential of combining conservation and passive solar strategies to reduce building heating. General scaling laws are used for costs and the resulting continuous equations are evaluated to find the least life-cycle cost strategy. Results are mapped for the US.

  13. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Hood River Passive House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-02-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50%" (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  14. Solar space heater: do-it-yourself manual for low-cost passive solar panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    A passive solar space heating unit for installation on 20 houses of low-income families was designed and constructed. The unit was planned to be low cost and easy to construct. A brochure showing step by step construction is included. (MHR)

  15. Layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride for surface passivation in quantum dot solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanmugam, Mariyappan; Jain, Nikhil; Jacobs-Gedrim, Robin; Yu, Bin; Xu, Yang

    2013-12-09

    Single crystalline, two dimensional (2D) layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), is demonstrated as an emerging material candidate for surface passivation on mesoporous TiO{sub 2}. Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dot based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell employed h-BN passivated TiO{sub 2} as an electron acceptor exhibits photoconversion efficiency ?46% more than BHJ employed unpassivated TiO{sub 2}. Dominant interfacial recombination pathways such as electron capture by TiO{sub 2} surface states and recombination with hole at valence band of CdSe are efficiently controlled by h-BN enabled surface passivation, leading to improved photovoltaic performance. Highly crystalline, confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, dangling bond-free 2D layered h-BN with self-terminated atomic planes, achieved by chemical exfoliation, enables efficient passivation on TiO{sub 2}, allowing electronic transport at TiO{sub 2}/h-BN/CdSe interface with much lower recombination rate compared to an unpassivated TiO{sub 2}/CdSe interface.

  16. Sonoma House: Monitoring of the First U.S. Passive House Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A.; Weitzel, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; Dakin, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Sonoma Deep Retrofit is a single-story deep retrofit project in the marine climate of Sonoma, California. The design was guided by Passive House principles which promote the use of very high levels of wall, ceiling, and floor insulation along with tight envelope construction to maintain a comfortable indoor environment with little or no need for conventional heating or cooling.

  17. Entirely passive heat-pipe apparatus capable of operating against gravity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koenig, D.R.

    1981-02-11

    The disclosure is directed to an entirely passive heat pipe apparatus capable of operating against gravity for vertical distances in the order of 3 to 7 and more. A return conduit into which an inert gas is introduced is used to lower the specific density of the working fluid so that it may be returned a greater vertical distance from condenser to evaporator.

  18. Passive Spectroscopy Bolometers, Grating- And X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Scott, S; Paul, S; Ince-Cushmann, A; Reinke, M; Rice, J; Beiersdorfer, P; Gu, M F; Lee, S G; Broennimann, C; Eikenberry, E F

    2007-11-07

    This tutorial gives a brief introduction into passive spectroscopy and describes the working principles of bolometers, a high-resolution grating spectrometer, and a novel X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, which is of particular interest for profile measurements of the ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity on ITER and future burning plasma experiments.

  19. Sonoma House. Monitoring of the First U.S. Passive House Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A.; Weitzel, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; Dakin, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Sonoma Deep Retrofit is a single-story deep retrofit project in the marine climate of Sonoma, California. The design was guided by Passive House principles that promote the use of very high levels of wall, ceiling, and floor insulation along with tight envelope construction to maintain a comfortable indoor environment with little or no need for conventional heating or cooling.

  20. Passivation of deep level states caused by misfit dislocations in InGaAs on patterned GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matragrano, M.J.; Watson, G.P.; Ast, D.G. ); Anderson, T.J.; Pathangey, B. )

    1993-03-22

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) were used to study the hydrogen passivation of misfit dislocations in In[sub 0.06]Ga[sub 0.94]As/GaAs heterostructures. The CL observations indicate that hydrogen plasma exposure passivates most, but not all, of the dark line defects existing in the specimen prior to hydrogenation. The concentration of deep level defect states that cannot be passivated is below the detection limit of the DLTS instrument (approximately 4[times]10[sup 12] cm[sup [minus]3]). We find the passivation is stable after anneals at temperatures as high as 600 [degree]C, indicating that hydrogen passivation of misfit dislocations is at least as stable as that of the isolated point defect studied previously with DLTS [W. C. Dautremont-Smith, J. C. Nabity, V. Swaminathan, M. Stavola, J. Chevalier, C. W. Tu, and S. J. Pearton, Appl. Phys. Lett. [bold 49] 1098 (1986)].

  1. Energy and air quality implications of passive stack ventilation in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation requires energy to transport and condition the incoming air. The energy consumption for ventilation in residential buildings depends on the ventilation rate required to maintain an acceptable indoor air quality. Historically, U.S. residential buildings relied on natural infiltration to provide sufficient ventilation, but as homes get tighter, designed ventilation systems are more frequently required particularly for new energy efficient homes and retrofitted homes. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 is used to specify the minimum ventilation rate required in residential buildings and compliance is normally achieved with fully mechanical whole-house systems; however, alternative methods may be used to provide the required ventilation when their air quality equivalency has been proven. One appealing method is the use of passive stack ventilation systems. They have been used for centuries to ventilate buildings and are often used in ventilation regulations in other countries. Passive stacks are appealing because they require no fans or electrical supply (which could lead to lower cost) and do not require maintenance (thus being more robust and reliable). The downside to passive stacks is that there is little control of ventilation air flow rates because they rely on stack and wind effects that depend on local time-varying weather. In this study we looked at how passive stacks might be used in different California climates and investigated control methods that can be used to optimize indoor air quality and energy use. The results showed that passive stacks can be used to provide acceptable indoor air quality per ASHRAE 62.2 with the potential to save energy provided that they are sized appropriately and flow controllers are used to limit over-ventilation.

  2. Passivation dynamics in the anisotropic deposition and stripping of bulk magnesium electrodes during electrochemical cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Haasch, Richard T.; Meng, Yifei; Vieker, Henning; Hahn, Nathan; Golzhauser, Armin; Zuo, Jian-Min; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; et al

    2015-08-10

    Rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, though little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pitmore » densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 μm in height. Finally, the passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte.« less

  3. Study of Cost Effective Large Advanced Pressurized Water Reactors that Employ Passive Safety Features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winters, J. W.; Corletti, M. M.; Hayashi, Y.

    2003-11-12

    A report of DOE sponsored portions of AP1000 Design Certification effort. On December 16, 1999, The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Design Certification of the AP600 standard nuclear reactor design. This culminated an 8-year review of the AP600 design, safety analysis and probabilistic risk assessment. The AP600 is a 600 MWe reactor that utilizes passive safety features that, once actuated, depend only on natural forces such as gravity and natural circulation to perform all required safety functions. These passive safety systems result in increased plant safety and have also significantly simplified plant systems and equipment, resulting in simplified plant operation and maintenance. The AP600 meets NRC deterministic safety criteria and probabilistic risk criteria with large margins. A summary comparison of key passive safety system design features is provided in Table 1. These key features are discussed due to their importance in affecting the key thermal-hydraulic phenomenon exhibited by the passive safety systems in critical areas. The scope of some of the design changes to the AP600 is described. These changes are the ones that are important in evaluating the passive plant design features embodied in the certified AP600 standard plant design. These design changes are incorporated into the AP1000 standard plant design that Westinghouse is certifying under 10 CFR Part 52. In conclusion, this report describes the results of the representative design certification activities that were partially supported by the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. These activities are unique to AP1000, but are representative of research activities that must be driven to conclusion to realize successful licensing of the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States.

  4. THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING IS BLOWING UP.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... It's the materials themselves. It might seem that the best way to build a next- generation ... that solidify upon cooling before the next layer is added, much like a hot glue gun. ...

  5. New Approaches for Passivation of Crystalline and Amorphous Silicon: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-09-351

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.

    2012-09-01

    New approaches of passivating crystalline, multicrystalline, and amorphous silicon will be explored. These will include the use of aqueous solution of KCN and a proprietary composition formulated by Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc. The surface passivation will be compared with that provided by an iodine-ethanol solution, and bulk passivation will be compared with that of H-passivation obtained by silicon nitride, in a fire-through process.

  6. Elasticity-induced force reversal between active spinning particles in dense passive media

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aragones, J. L.; Steimel, J. P.; Alexander-Katz, A.

    2016-04-26

    The self-organization of active particles is governed by their dynamic effective interactions. Such interactions are controlled by the medium in which such active agents reside. Here we study the interactions between active agents in a dense non-active medium. Our system consists of actuated, spinning, active particles embedded in a dense monolayer of passive, or non-active, particles. We demonstrate that the presence of the passive monolayer alters markedly the properties of the system and results in a reversal of the forces between active spinning particles from repulsive to attractive. The origin of such reversal is due to the coupling between themore » active stresses and elasticity of the system. Finally, this discovery provides a mechanism for the interaction between active agents in complex and structured media, opening up opportunities to tune the interaction range and directionality via the mechanical properties of the medium.« less

  7. Method of remote powering and detecting multiple UWB passive tags in an RFID system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Benzel, David M.; Dallum, Gregory E.; Spiridon, Alex

    2012-05-29

    A new Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), tracking, powering apparatus/system and method using coded Ultra-wideband (UWB) signaling is introduced. The proposed hardware and techniques disclosed herein utilize a plurality of passive UWB transponders in a field of an RFID-radar system. The radar system itself enables multiple passive tags to be remotely powered (activated) at about the same time frame via predetermined frequency UWB pulsed formats. Once such tags are in an activated state, an UWB radar transmits specific "interrogating codes" to put predetermined tags in an awakened status. Such predetermined tags can then communicate by a unique "response code" so as to be detected by an UWB system using radar methods.

  8. Hydrogen passivation of electron trap in amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanyu, Yuichiro Domen, Kay; Nomura, Kenji; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Kamiya, Toshio; Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama ; Kumomi, Hideya; Hosono, Hideo; Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama; Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama

    2013-11-11

    We report an experimental evidence that some hydrogens passivate electron traps in an amorphous oxide semiconductor, a-In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO). The a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) annealed at 300?C exhibit good operation characteristics; while those annealed at ?400?C show deteriorated ones. Thermal desorption spectra (TDS) of H{sub 2}O indicate that this threshold annealing temperature corresponds to depletion of H{sub 2}O desorption from the a-IGZO layer. Hydrogen re-doping by wet oxygen annealing recovers the good TFT characteristic. The hydrogens responsible for this passivation have specific binding energies corresponding to the desorption temperatures of 300430?C. A plausible structural model is suggested.

  9. Experimental and analytical studies of passive shutdown heat removal from advanced LMRs (liquid metal reactors)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedersen, D.; Heineman, J.; Stewart, R.; Anderson, T.; Lottes, P.; Tessier, J.

    1988-01-01

    A facility designed and constructed to demonstrate the viability of natural convection passive heat removal systems as a key feature of innovative LMR Shutdown Heat Removal (SHR) systems is in operation at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) has investigated the heat transfer performance of the GE/PRISM passive design. This initial series of experiments simulates the air-side geometry of the PRISM Radiant Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS). The NSTF operates in either a uniform heat flux mode and a uniform temperature mode at the air/guard vessel interface. Analysis of the RVACS performance data indicates excellent agreement with pretest analytical predictions. Correlation analysis presents the heat transfer data in a form suitable for use in LMR design and verification of analytical studies.

  10. Control system analysis for off-peak auxiliary heating of passive solar systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, H.S.; Melsa, J.L.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A computer simulation method is presented for the design of an electrical auxiliary energy system for passive solar heated structures. The system consists of electrical mats buried in the ground underneath the structure. Energy is stored in the ground during utility off-peak hours and released passively to the heated enclosure. An optimal control strategy is used to determine the system design parameters of depth of mat placement and minimum instaled electrical heating capacity. The optimal control applies combinations of fixed duration energy pulses to the heater, which minimize the room temperature error-squared for each day, assuming advance knowledge of the day's weather. Various realizable control schemes are investigated in an attempt to find a system that approaches the performance of the optimal control system.

  11. Passive test cell data for the solar laboratory, Winter 1980-81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.

    1982-05-01

    Testing was done during the 1980-81 winter in 400 ft/sup 3/ test cells at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Solar Lab. This testing was done primarily to determine the relative efficiency of various passive solar heating concepts and to obtain data that could be used to validate computer simulation programs. The passive solar systems tested were Trombe wall with and without selective absorber, water wall, phase-change wall, direct gain, a heat-pipe collector, and two sunspace geometries. The heating load coefficient of these cells was roughly 26 Btu/h /sup 0/F and the collector area was 23.4 ft/sup 2/, giving a load collector ratio of approximately 27 Btu//sup 0/F day ft/sup 2/. The test cell configurations and instrumentation are detailed herein, and the resulting data and cell efficiencies are discussed.

  12. Progress Towards Prognostic Health Management of Passive Components in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Pardini, Allan F.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Prowant, Matthew S.

    2014-08-01

    Sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are two key national energy priorities. The development of deployable small modular reactors (SMRs) is expected to support these objectives by developing technologies that improve the reliability, sustain safety, and improve affordability of new reactors. Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. Prognostic health management (PHM) systems can benefit both the safety and economics of deploying AdvSMRs and can play an essential role in managing the inspection and maintenance of passive components in AdvSMR systems. This paper describes progress on development of a prototypic PHM system for AdvSMR passive components, with thermal creep chosen as the target degradation mechanism.

  13. Securing Operating Data From Passive Safety Tests at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.; Nelson, Joseph V.; Polzin, David L.

    2011-06-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992. The technologies employed in designing and constructing this reactor, along with information obtained from tests conducted during its operation, are currently being secured and archived by the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program. This report is one in a series documenting the overall project efforts to retrieve and preserve critical information related to advanced reactors. A previous report summarized the initial efforts to review, retrieve and preserve the most salient documents related to Passive Safety Testing (PST) in the FFTF. Efforts continue to locate, secure, and retrieve record copies of original plant data tapes for the series of passive safety tests conducted between 1986 and 1991.

  14. Securing Operating Data From Passive Safety Tests at the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah L.; Nelson, Joseph V.; Polzin, David L.

    2011-06-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) to operate in the United States, from 1982 to 1992. The technologies employed in designing and constructing this reactor, along with information obtained from tests conducted during its operation, are currently being secured and archived by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program. This report is one in a series documenting the overall project efforts to retrieve and preserve critical information related to advanced reactors. A previous report summarized the initial efforts to review, retrieve and preserve the most salient documents related to Passive Safety Testing (PST) in the FFTF. Efforts continue to locate, secure, and retrieve record copies of original plant data tapes for the series of passive safety tests conducted between 1986 and 1991.

  15. Passive cigarette smoke, coal heating, and respiratory symptoms of nonsmoking women in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, C.A. III Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT ); Xu, X. )

    1993-09-01

    In this study the authors evaluated data from a sample of 973 never-smoking women, ages 20-40, who worked in three similar textile mills in Anhui Province, China. They compared prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms across homes with and without coal heating and homes with different numbers of smokers. Multiple logistic regression models that controlled for age, job title, and mill of employment were also estimated. Respiratory symptoms were associated with combined exposure to passive cigarette smoke and coal heating. Effects of passive cigarette smoke and coal heating on respiratory symptoms appeared to be nearly additive, suggesting a dose-response relationship between respiratory symptoms and home indoor air pollution from these two sources. The prevalence of chest illness, cough, phlegm, and shortness of breath (but not wheeze) was significantly elevated for women living in homes with both smokers and coal heating.

  16. System and method of DPF passive enhancement through powertrain torque-speed management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sujan, Vivek A.; Frazier, Timothy R.

    2015-11-24

    This disclosure provides a method and system for determining recommendations for vehicle operation that reduce soot production in view of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) of an exhaust aftertreatment system. Recommendations generated can reduce excessive particulate matter (PM) production during transient engine events and provide for operating conditions favorable for passive regeneration. In this way, less frequent active regeneration of the DPF is needed and/or more opportunities are provided for passive regeneration. The system and method can utilize location and terrain information to anticipate and project a window of operation in view of reducing soot production and soot loading of the DPF, or provide the operator with instruction when such opportunities are present or will soon be encountered.

  17. Commissioning a passive-scattering proton therapy nozzle for accurate SOBP delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelsman, M.; Lu, H.-M.; Herrup, D.; Bussiere, M.; Kooy, H. M.

    2009-06-15

    Proton radiotherapy centers that currently use passively scattered proton beams do field specific calibrations for a non-negligible fraction of treatment fields, which is time and resource consuming. Our improved understanding of the passive scattering mode of the IBA universal nozzle, especially of the current modulation function, allowed us to re-commission our treatment control system for accurate delivery of SOBPs of any range and modulation, and to predict the output for each of these fields. We moved away from individual field calibrations to a state where continued quality assurance of SOBP field delivery is ensured by limited system-wide measurements that only require one hour per week. This manuscript reports on a protocol for generation of desired SOBPs and prediction of dose output.

  18. Research Gaps and Technology Needs in Development of PHM for Passive AdvSMR Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically due to losses in economy of scale, thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance (O&M) costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components. state-of-the-art in PHM.

  19. Research gaps and technology needs in development of PHM for passive AdvSMR components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Henagar, Chuck H. Jr.; Coble, Jamie B.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2014-02-18

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near-term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. SMRs are challenged economically because of losses in economy of scale; thus, there is increased motivation to reduce the controllable operations and maintenance costs through automation technologies including prognostics health management (PHM) systems. In this regard, PHM systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of AdvSMRs and face several unique challenges with respect to implementation for passive AdvSMR components. This paper presents a summary of a research gaps and technical needs assessment performed for implementation of PHM for passive AdvSMR components.

  20. Effect of hydrogen passivation on charge storage in silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Chang-Hee; Kim, Baek-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Seong-Ju; Park, Nae-Man; Sung, Gun-Yong

    2005-04-04

    The effect of hydrogen passivation on the charge storage characteristics of two types of silicon nitride films containing silicon quantum dots (Si QDs) grown by SiH{sub 4}+N{sub 2} and SiH{sub 4}+NH{sub 3} plasma was investigated. The transmission electron microscope analysis and the capacitance-voltage measurement showed that the silicon nitride film grown by SiH{sub 4}+NH{sub 3} plasma has a lower interface trap density and a higher density of Si QDs compared to that grown by SiH{sub 4}+N{sub 2} plasma. It was also found that the charge retention characteristics in the Si QDs were greatly enhanced in the samples grown by means of SiH{sub 4}+NH{sub 3} plasma, due to the hydrogen passivation of the defects in the silicon nitride films by NH{sub 3} during the growth of the Si QDs.

  1. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cary, Robert E.

    2015-12-08

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  2. Guidelines for conservation levels and for sizing passive-solar collection area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines are given for selecting R-values and infiltration levels, and determining the size of the solar collection area for passive solar building. The guidelines are based on balancing the incremental cost/benefit of conservation and solar strategies. Tables are given for 209 cities in the US and the results are also displayed on maps. The procedures are developed in an appendix, which gives the cost assumptions used and explains how to develop different guidelines for different costs.

  3. DOE FACT SHEET: Net Zero Performance Analysis and Passive Survivability at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FACT SHEET: Net Zero Performance Analysis and Passive Survivability at Seattle's New North Precinct Police Station Overview The City of Seattle was recognized as a Climate Action Champion (CAC) by The White House and the Department of Energy (DOE) in December 2014. In 2015, DOE released a Notice of Technical Assistance (NOTA) to provide CACs with additional opportunities for financial and technical assistance to support and advance their greenhouse gas emissions reduction and climate resilience

  4. Passivation of c-Si surfaces by sub-nm amorphous silicon capped with silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Yimao Yan, Di; Bullock, James; Zhang, Xinyu; Cuevas, Andres

    2015-12-07

    A sub-nm hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film capped with silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) is shown to provide a high level passivation to crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces. When passivated by a 0.8 nm a-Si:H/75 nm SiN{sub x} stack, recombination current density J{sub 0} values of 9, 11, 47, and 87 fA/cm{sup 2} are obtained on 10 Ω·cm n-type, 0.8 Ω·cm p-type, 160 Ω/sq phosphorus-diffused, and 120 Ω/sq boron-diffused silicon surfaces, respectively. The J{sub 0} on n-type 10 Ω·cm wafers is further reduced to 2.5 ± 0.5 fA/cm{sup 2} when the a-Si:H film thickness exceeds 2.5 nm. The passivation by the sub-nm a-Si:H/SiN{sub x} stack is thermally stable at 400 °C in N{sub 2} for 60 min on all four c-Si surfaces. Capacitance–voltage measurements reveal a reduction in interface defect density and film charge density with an increase in a-Si:H thickness. The nearly transparent sub-nm a-Si:H/SiN{sub x} stack is thus demonstrated to be a promising surface passivation and antireflection coating suitable for all types of surfaces encountered in high efficiency c-Si solar cells.

  5. Improved Humidity Profiling by Combining Passive and Active Remote Sensors at the Southern Great Plains

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improved Humidity Profiling by Combining Passive and Active Remote Sensors at the Southern Great Plains L. Bianco, D. Cimini, and F. Marzano Center of Excellence CETEMPS University of L'Aquila L'Aquila, Italy L. Bianco and E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado R. Ware Radiometrics Co. and University Consortium for Atmospheric Research

  6. Integration of Full Tensor Gravity and ZTEM Passive Low Frequency EM Instruments for Simultaneous Data Acquisition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Full Tensor Gravity and ZTEM Passive Low Frequency EM Instruments for Simultaneous Data Acquisition Scott Wieberg Bell Geospace, Inc. Track Name Project Officer: Ava Coy: Total Project Funding: $1.8M: April 25, 2013 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or otherwise restricted information. 2 | US DOE Geothermal Office eere.energy.gov Relevance/Impact of Research *Objectives - Combine Air-FTG ® and ZTEM(tm) onto One Platform for Simultaneous Acquisition - Test

  7. Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at =0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the =0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than =0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an ideal passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.

  8. Bedrock refractive-flow cells: A passive treatment analog to funnel-and-gate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, V.; Edwards, D.

    1997-12-31

    Funnel-and-gate technology provides a mechanism to passively treat groundwater contaminant plumes, but depends on placement of a sufficient barrier ({open_quotes}funnel{close_quotes}) in the plume flow path to channel the plume to a pass-through treatment zone ({open_quotes}gate{close_quotes}). Conventional barrier technologies limit funnel-and-gate deployment to unconsolidated overburden applications. A method has been developed which allows similar passive treatment to be applied to bedrock plumes. Rather than use barriers as the funnel, the method uses engineered bedrock zones, installed via precision blasting or other means, to refract groundwater flow along a preferred path to treatment (gate). The method requires orienting the refractive cell based on the Tangent Law and extending refractive cell limbs down gradient of the gate to disperse head and control flow. A typical Refractive-Flow cell may be{open_quotes}Y{close_quotes}shaped, with each limb 3-10 ft [1-3 m] wide and several tens to a few hundred feet [10 - 100 m] in length. Treatment takes place at the center of the X. MODFLOW modeling has been used to successfully simulate desired flow. Engineered blasting has been used at full scale application to create bedrock rubble zones for active collection/flow control for several years. The method provides a previously unavailable method to passively treat contaminated groundwater in bedrock at low cost.

  9. Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

    1988-01-01

    During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

  10. Hydrogen passivation of titanium impurities in silicon: Effect of doping conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, P.; Coutinho, J. Torres, V. J. B.; Rayson, M. J.; Briddon, P. R.

    2014-07-21

    While the contamination of solar silicon by fast diffusing transition metals can be now limited through gettering, much attention has been drawn to the slow diffusing species, especially the early 3d and 4d elements. To some extent, hydrogen passivation has been successful in healing many deep centers, including transition metals in Si. Recent deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements concerning hydrogen passivation of Ti revealed the existence of at least four electrical levels related to Ti{sub i}H{sub n} in the upper-half of the gap. These findings challenge the existing models regarding both the current level assignment as well as the structure/species involved in the defects. We revisit this problem by means of density functional calculations and find that progressive hydrogenation of interstitial Ti is thermodynamically stable in intrinsic and n-doped Si. Full passivation may not be possible to attain in p-type Si as Ti{sub i}H{sub 3} and Ti{sub i}H{sub 4} are metastable against dissociation and release of bond-centered protons. All DLTS electron traps are assigned, namely, E40? to Ti{sub i}H(-/0), E170? to Ti{sub i}H{sub 3}(0/+), E(270) to Ti{sub i}H{sub 2}(0/+), and E170 to Ti{sub i}H(0/+) transitions. Ti{sub i}H{sub 4} is confirmed to be electrically inert.

  11. New energy-conserving passive solar single-family homes. Cycle 5, Category 2 HUD solar heating and cooling demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The 91 new single-family, energy-conserving passive solar homes described represent award winning designs of the series of five demonstration cycles of the HUD program. Information is presented to help builders and lenders to understand passive solar design, to recognize passive solar buildings, and to provide specific design, construction, and marketing suggestions and details. The first section describes the concept of passive solar energy, explains the various functions which passive solar systems must perform, and discusses the various types of passive systems found in the Cycle 5 projects. The second section discusses each of the 91 solar homes. The third section details the issues of climate requirements and site design concerns, gives examples of building construction, and suggests how to market solar homes. The appendices address more technical aspects of the design and evaluation of passive solar homes.

  12. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Hood River Passive House- Hood River, Oregon (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Hood River Passive Project incorporates high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless minisplit heat pump.

  13. Impact of Passive Safety on FHR Instrumentation Systems Design and Classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) will rely more extensively on passive safety than earlier reactor classes. 10CFR50 Appendix A, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum design requirements to provide reasonable assurance of adequate safety. 10CFR50.69, Risk-Informed Categorization and Treatment of Structures, Systems and Components for Nuclear Power Reactors, provides guidance on how the safety significance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) should be reflected in their regulatory treatment. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has provided 10 CFR 50.69 SSC Categorization Guideline (NEI-00-04) that factors in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model insights, as well as deterministic insights, through an integrated decision-making panel. Employing the PRA to inform deterministic requirements enables an appropriately balanced, technically sound categorization to be established. No FHR currently has an adequate PRA or set of design basis accidents to enable establishing the safety classification of its SSCs. While all SSCs used to comply with the general design criteria (GDCs) will be safety related, the intent is to limit the instrumentation risk significance through effective design and reliance on inherent passive safety characteristics. For example, FHRs have no safety-significant temperature threshold phenomena, thus, enabling the primary and reserve reactivity control systems required by GDC 26 to be passively, thermally triggered at temperatures well below those for which core or primary coolant boundary damage would occur. Moreover, the passive thermal triggering of the primary and reserve shutdown systems may relegate the control rod drive motors to the control system, substantially decreasing the amount of safety-significant wiring needed. Similarly, FHR decay heat removal systems are intended to be running continuously to minimize the amount of safety-significant instrumentation needed to initiate

  14. Impact of Passive Safety on FHR Instrumentation Systems Design and Classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) will rely more extensively on passive safety than earlier reactor classes. 10CFR50 Appendix A, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, establishes minimum design requirements to provide reasonable assurance of adequate safety. 10CFR50.69, Risk-Informed Categorization and Treatment of Structures, Systems and Components for Nuclear Power Reactors, provides guidance on how the safety significance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) should be reflected in their regulatory treatment. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has provided 10 CFR 50.69 SSC Categorization Guideline (NEI-00-04) that factors in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model insights, as well as deterministic insights, through an integrated decision-making panel. Employing the PRA to inform deterministic requirements enables an appropriately balanced, technically sound categorization to be established. No FHR currently has an adequate PRA or set of design basis accidents to enable establishing the safety classification of its SSCs. While all SSCs used to comply with the general design criteria (GDCs) will be safety related, the intent is to limit the instrumentation risk significance through effective design and reliance on inherent passive safety characteristics. For example, FHRs have no safety-significant temperature threshold phenomena, thus enabling the primary and reserve reactivity control systems required by GDC 26 to be passively, thermally triggered at temperatures well below those for which core or primary coolant boundary damage would occur. Moreover, the passive thermal triggering of the primary and reserve shutdown systems may relegate the control rod drive motors to the control system, substantially decreasing the amount of safety-significant wiring needed. Similarly, FHR decay heat removal systems are intended to be running continuously to minimize the amount of safety-significant instrumentation needed to initiate

  15. Integration of a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable DMFC Power Supply

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a "Passive Water Recovery" MEA into a Portable DMFC Power Supply This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Presentation Outline: DMFC Background UNF Passive Water Recovery MEA UNF Portable Power Supply Performance Next Steps Much of the work presented is the result of DOE collaboration and funding: 1. New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability, and Cost 2. Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell for Mobile

  16. Re-passivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Chloride plus Nitrate Solutions using the Potentiodynamic-Galvano-static-Potentiostatic Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Kenneth J.; Rebak, Raul B.

    2007-07-01

    In general, the susceptibility of Alloy 22 to suffer crevice corrosion is measured using the Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization (CPP) technique. This is a fast technique that gives rather accurate and reproducible values of re-passivation potential (ER1) in most cases. In the fringes of susceptibility, when the environment is not highly aggressive, the values of re-passivation potential using the CPP technique may not be highly reproducible, especially because the technique is fast. To circumvent this, the re-passivation potential of Alloy 22 was measured using a slower method that combines Potentiodynamic-Galvano-static-Potentiostatic steps (called here the Tsujikawa-Hisamatsu Electrochemical or THE method). The THE method applies the charge to the specimen in a more controlled way, which may give more reproducible re-passivation potential values, especially when the environment is not aggressive. The values of re-passivation potential of Alloy 22 in sodium chloride plus potassium nitrate solutions were measured using the THE and CPP methods. Results show that both methods yield similar values of re-passivation potential, especially under aggressive conditions. (authors)

  17. Methodology for the Incorporation of Passive Component Aging Modeling into the RAVEN/ RELAP-7 Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandelli, Diego; Rabiti, Cristian; Cogliati, Joshua; Alfonsi, Andrea; Askin Guler; Tunc Aldemir

    2014-11-01

    Passive system, structure and components (SSCs) will degrade over their operation life and this degradation may cause to reduction in the safety margins of a nuclear power plant. In traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using the event-tree/fault-tree methodology, passive SSC failure rates are generally based on generic plant failure data and the true state of a specific plant is not reflected realistically. To address aging effects of passive SSCs in the traditional PRA methodology [1] does consider physics based models that account for the operating conditions in the plant, however, [1] does not include effects of surveillance/inspection. This paper represents an overall methodology for the incorporation of aging modeling of passive components into the RAVEN/RELAP-7 environment which provides a framework for performing dynamic PRA. Dynamic PRA allows consideration of both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties (including those associated with maintenance activities) in a consistent phenomenological and probabilistic framework and is often needed when there is complex process/hardware/software/firmware/ human interaction [2]. Dynamic PRA has gained attention recently due to difficulties in the traditional PRA modeling of aging effects of passive components using physics based models and also in the modeling of digital instrumentation and control systems. RAVEN (Reactor Analysis and Virtual control Environment) [3] is a software package under development at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) as an online control logic driver and post-processing tool. It is coupled to the plant transient code RELAP-7 (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) also currently under development at INL [3], as well as RELAP 5 [4]. The overall methodology aims to: • Address multiple aging mechanisms involving large number of components in a computational feasible manner where sequencing of events is conditioned on the physical conditions predicted in a simulation

  18. Amorphous Silicon Carbide Passivating Layers to Enable Higher Processing Temperature in Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boccard, Mathieu; Holman, Zachary

    2015-04-06

    "Very efficient crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells have been demonstrated when thin layers of intrinsic and doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) are used for passivation and carrier selectivity in a heterojunction device. One limitation of this device structure is the (parasitic) absorption in the front passivation/collection a-Si:H layers; another is the degradation of the a-Si:H-based passivation upon temperature, limiting the post-processes to approximately 200°C thus restricting the contacting possibilities and potential tandem device fabrication. To alleviate these two limitations, we explore the potential of amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H), a widely studied material in use in standard a-Si:H thin-film solar cells, which is known for its wider bandgap, increased hydrogen content and stronger hydrogen bonding compared to a-Si:H. We study the surface passivation of solar-grade textured n-type c-Si wafers for symmetrical stacks of 10-nm-thick intrinsic a-SiC:H with various carbon content followed by either p-doped or n-doped a-Si:H (referred to as i/p or i/n stacks). For both doping types, passivation (assessed through carrier lifetime measurements) is degraded by increasing the carbon content in the intrinsic a-SiC:H layer. Yet, this hierarchy is reversed after annealing at 350°C or more due to drastic passivation improvements upon annealing when an a-SiC:H layer is used. After annealing at 350°C, lifetimes of 0.4 ms and 2.0 ms are reported for i/p and i/n stacks, respectively, when using an intrinsic a-SiC:H layer with approximately 10% of carbon (initial lifetimes of 0.3 ms and 0.1 ms, respectively, corresponding to a 30% and 20-fold increase, respectively). For stacks of pure a-Si:H material the lifetimes degrade from 1.2 ms and 2.0 ms for i/p and i/n stacks, respectively, to less than 0.1 ms and 1.1 ms (12-fold and 2-fold decrease, respectively). For complete solar cells using pure a-Si:H i/p and i/n stacks, the open-circuit voltage (Voc

  19. Passive and Active Neutron Matrix Correction for Heterogeneous Distributions Utilizing the Neutron Imaging Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villani, M.F.; Croft, St.; Alvarez, E.; Wilkins, C.G.; Stamp, D.; Fisher, J.; Ambrifi, A.; Simone, G.; Bourva, L.C.

    2008-07-01

    Classical Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting (PNCC) and Differential Die-Away (DDA) active neutron interrogation techniques [1, 2] are well suited for determining the gross matrix correction factors for homogenous mass distributions of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) within an interfering waste drum matrix. These measured passive and active matrix correction factors are crucial in quantifying the SNM mass, associated Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), and Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) within the drum. When heterogeneous SNM mass distributions are encountered, the measured SNM mass, TMU and MDA biases introduced may be 100%, or greater, especially for dense hydrogenous matrices. The standard matrix correction factors can be adjusted if a coarse spatial image of the SNM mass, relative to the matrix, is available. The image can then be analyzed to determine the spatially-adjusted, matrix correction factors case by case. This image analysis approach was accomplished by modifying the standard Passive-Active Neutron (PAN) counter design [3] to accommodate a unique data acquisition architecture that supports a newly developed image acquisition and analysis application called the Neutron Imaging Technique (NIT). The NIT functionality supports both PNCC and DDA acquisition and analysis modes and exploits the symmetry between a stored set of factory acquired NIT images with those from the unknown PAN assay. The NIT result is then an adjustment to the classical correction factor reducing, if not removing, the SNM mass bias and revealing the true TMU and MDA values. In this paper we describe the NIT for the PAN design from the software and algorithmic perspectives and how this technique accommodates waste matrix drums that are difficult, from the classical standpoint, if not impossible, to extract meaningful SNM mass, TMU and MDA results. (authors)

  20. Cooperative passive-solar commercial retrofit. Final report, September 1, 1980-December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, W.T.

    1982-12-01

    The primary objectives of this project were: the conversion of an existing south-facing storefront into a trombe'-wall passive solar collector, the sharing of information on simple low-cost energy alternatives with the local community, and the reduction of the store building's dependence on non-renewable fossil fuel for space heating. Six 6' wide pre-assembled collector glazing panels were mounted on a 12' high by 36' long portion of the south-facing masonry wall. Vent-holes were cut through the wall at each panel to provide air inlets and outlets for the collector and monitoring equipment was installed to record performance. A series of hands-on construction workshops were attended by Co-op and community members. During these sessions, collector components were assembled. The panels were installed on April 22, 1981 in celebration of Earth Day. Additional sessions were held to complete the project, make necessary modifications and install sensors. Project personnel participated in several energy-education activities, including workshops, seminars and alternative energy home tours. A community-based energy resource council was founded with the assistance of several key Co-op project members and a fully-illustrated How-To manual, entitled Passive Solar Collector: A Trombe'-Wall Retrofit Guide was published. Finally, a variety of energy conservation measures were undertaken. These included a new airlock store entry, insulated store ceiling, destratification ceiling fans and wood-burning furnaces have combined with the passive solar collector to substantially reduce the use of fuel oil for heat.

  1. Technical Needs for Prototypic Prognostic Technique Demonstration for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-05-17

    This report identifies a number of requirements for prognostics health management of passive systems in AdvSMRs, documents technical gaps in establishing a prototypical prognostic methodology for this purpose, and describes a preliminary research plan for addressing these technical gaps. AdvSMRs span multiple concepts; therefore a technology- and design-neutral approach is taken, with the focus being on characteristics that are likely to be common to all or several AdvSMR concepts. An evaluation of available literature is used to identify proposed concepts for AdvSMRs along with likely operational characteristics. Available operating experience of advanced reactors is used in identifying passive components that may be subject to degradation, materials likely to be used for these components, and potential modes of degradation of these components. This information helps in assessing measurement needs for PHM systems, as well as defining functional requirements of PHM systems. An assessment of current state-of-the-art approaches to measurements, sensors and instrumentation, diagnostics and prognostics is also documented. This state-of-the-art evaluation, combined with the requirements, may be used to identify technical gaps and research needs in the development, evaluation, and deployment of PHM systems for AdvSMRs. A preliminary research plan to address high-priority research needs for the deployment of PHM systems to AdvSMRs is described, with the objective being the demonstration of prototypic prognostics technology for passive components in AdvSMRs. Greater efficiency in achieving this objective can be gained through judicious selection of materials and degradation modes that are relevant to proposed AdvSMR concepts, and for which significant knowledge already exists. These selections were made based on multiple constraints including the analysis performed in this document, ready access to laboratory-scale facilities for materials testing and measurement, and

  2. Passivation layer on polyimide deposited by combined plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition and cathodic vacuum arc technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Z. J.; Tay, B. K.; Sze, J. Y.; Ha, P. C. T.

    2007-05-15

    A thin passivation layer of aluminum oxide was deposited on polyimide by using the combined plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D) and cathodic vacuum arc technique. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy C 1s spectra showed that the carbonyl bond (C=O) and ether group (C-O-C and C-N-C) presented in pristine polyimide were damaged by implantation of aluminum ions and deposition of an aluminum oxide passivation layer. O 1s and Al 2p spectra confirmed the formation of a thin aluminum oxide passivation layer. This passivation layer can be implemented in aerospace engineering where polyimide may suffer degradation from fast atomic oxygen in the low-earth-orbit environment. To test the protection of this passivation layer to energetic oxygen ions, a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system was used to simulate the oxygen-ion irradiation, and the results showed that a higher weight occurred for passivated samples compared to pristine ones. X-ray diffraction showed that Al peaks were presented on the surface region, but no aluminum oxide peak was detected. The authors then concluded that Al clusters were formed in polyimide besides aluminum oxide, which was in an x-ray amorphous state. Furthermore, contact-angle measurements showed a reduced contact angle for passivated polyimide from a pristine value of 78 deg. to 20 deg. by using deionized water. Several discussions have been made on the surface chemical and structural property changes by using the combined PIII and D and cathodic vacuum arc technique.

  3. Functionalization/passivation of porous graphitic carbon with di-tert-amylperoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, David S.; Gupta, Vipul; Olsen, Rebecca E.; Miller, Alex T.; Davis, Robert C.; Ess, Daniel; Zhu, Zihua; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Linford, Matthew R.

    2011-11-18

    Porous graphitic carbon (PGC) particles were functionalized/passivated in situ in packed beds at elevated temperature with neat di-tert-amylperoxide (DTAP) in a column oven. The performance of these particles for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was assayed before and after this chemistry with the following analytes: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, n-propyl benzene, n-butyl benzene, p-xylene, phenol, 4-methylphenol, phenetole, 3,5-xylenol, and anisole. After the first functionalization/passivation, the retention factors, k, of these compounds decreased by about 5% and the number of theoretical plates (N) increased by ca. 15%. These values of k then remained roughly constant after a second functionalization/ passivation but a further increase in N was noticed. In addition, after each of the reactions, the peak asymmetries decreased by ca. 15%, for a total of ca. 30%. The columns were then subjected twice to methanol at 100 C for 5 h at 1 mL/min. After these stability tests, the values of k remained roughly constant, the number of plates increased, which is favorable, and the asymmetries rose and then declined, where they remained below the initial values for the unfunctionalized columns. Functionalized and unfunctionalized particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and BET measurements, which showed no difference between the functionalized and unfunctionalized materials, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), where ToF-SIMS suggested some chemical differences between the functionalized and unfunctionalized materials. In particular ToF-SIMS suggested that the expected five-carbon fragments from DTAP exist at higher concentrations on DTAP-functionalized PGC. First principle calculations on model graphitic surfaces suggest that the first addition of a DTAP radical to the surface proceeds in an approximately isothermal or slightly favorable fashion, but that subsequent DTAP

  4. Method and means of passive detection of leaks in buried pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claytor, T.

    1979-10-30

    A method and means for passive detection of a leak in a buried pipe containing fluid under pressure includes a plurality of acoustic detectors that are placed in contact with the pipe. Noise produced by the leak is detected by the detectors, and the detected signals are correlated to locate the leak. In one embodiment of the invention two detectors are placed at different locations to locate a leak between them. In an alternate embodiment two detectors of different waves are placed at substantially the same location to determine the distance of the leak from the location.

  5. Description of the OSU APEX test facility to assess AP600 passive safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochreiter, L.E.; Lau, L.K.; Reyes, J.N. Jr.; Groome, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to describe the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) test facility, which is a new integral system test facility located at Oregon State University (OSU) specifically scaled, designed, and built to simulate all of the important geometrical details of the Westinghouse AP600. The APEX facility has been designed and constructed to develop a database that can be used to validate the thermal hydraulic safety analysis codes that will be used in the AP600 design certification process. The test facility has been specifically designed and scaled to model small break loss-of-coolant and long-term cooling transients, which utilize the AP600 passive safety systems.

  6. Passivating overcoat bilayer for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel G. (Los Altos, CA); Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A passivating overcoat bilayer is used for multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft x-ray applications to prevent oxidation and corrosion of the multilayer coating, thereby improving the EUV optical performance. The overcoat bilayer comprises a layer of silicon or beryllium underneath at least one top layer of an elemental or a compound material that resists oxidation and corrosion. Materials for the top layer include carbon, palladium, carbides, borides, nitrides, and oxides. The thicknesses of the two layers that make up the overcoat bilayer are optimized to produce the highest reflectance at the wavelength range of operation. Protective overcoat systems comprising three or more layers are also possible.

  7. Passive Electrostatic Recycling Spectrometer of Desk-Top Size for Charged Particles of Low Kinetic Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessier, D. R.; Niu, Y.; Seccombe, D. P.; Reddish, T. J.; Alderman, A. J.; Birdsey, B. G.; Hammond, P.; Read, F. H.

    2007-12-21

    A passive electrostatic recycling spectrometer for charged particles is described and demonstrated to store electrons with typical kinetic energies of tens of eV. The design of the charged particle optics and the basic operating characteristics of the storage ring are discussed. The storage lifetime achieved is {approx}50 {mu}s, which is target gas pressure limited and corresponds to {approx}200 orbits of the 0.65 m orbital circumference. The storage ring also has controllable energy dispersive elements enabling it to operate as a spectroscopic device.

  8. Pressure gradient passivation of carbonaceous material normally susceptible to spontaneous combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Sands, William D.; Schroeder, Karl; Summers, Cathy A.; Utz, Bruce R.

    2000-11-14

    This invention is a process for the passivation or deactivation with resp to oxygen of a carbonaceous material by the exposure of the carbonaceous material to an oxygenated gas in which the oxygenated gas pressure is increased from a first pressure to a second pressure and then the pressure is changed to a third pressure. Preferably a cyclic process which comprises exposing the carbonaceous material to the gas at low pressure and increasing the pressure to a second higher pressure and then returning the pressure to a lower pressure is used. The cycle is repeated at least twice wherein the higher pressure may be increased after a selected number of cycles.

  9. Low resistance barrier layer for isolating, adhering, and passivating copper metal in semiconductor fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weihs, Timothy P.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    2002-01-01

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  10. Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; James E. Parks, II; Pihl, Josh A.; Toops, Todd J.

    2016-04-05

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in oxidizing exhaust. For these lean gasoline engines, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCRmore » approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. In this work, a passive SCR system was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine to assess NH3 generation over a Pd-only TWC and utilization over a Cu-based SCR catalyst. System NOX reduction efficiency and fuel efficiency improvement compared to stoichiometric engine operation were measured. A feedback control strategy based on cumulative NH3 produced by the TWC during rich operation and NOX emissions during lean operation was implemented on the engine to control lean/rich cycle timing. At an SCR average inlet temperature of 350 °C, an NH3:NOX ratio of 1.15:1 (achieved through longer rich cycle timing) resulted in 99.7 % NOX conversion. Increasing NH3 generation further resulted in even higher NOX conversion; however, tailpipe NH3 emissions resulted. At higher underfloor temperatures, NH3 oxidation over the SCR limited NH3 availability for NOX reduction. At the engine conditions studied, greater than 99 % NOX conversion was achieved with passive SCR while delivering

  11. Ammonia Generation and Utilization in a Passive SCR (TWC+SCR) System on Lean Gasoline Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J

    2016-01-01

    Lean gasoline engines offer greater fuel economy than the common stoichiometric gasoline engine, but the current three-way catalyst (TWC) on stoichiometric engines is unable to control nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions in the oxygen-rich exhaust. Thus, lean NOX emission control is required to meet existing Tier 2 and upcoming Tier 3 emission regulations set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has proven effective in controlling NOX from diesel engines, the urea storage and delivery components can add significant size and cost. As such, onboard NH3 production via a passive SCR approach is of interest. In a passive SCR system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean operation, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. In this work, a passive SCR system was evaluated on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine to assess NH3 generation over a Pd-only TWC and utilization over a Cu-based SCR catalyst. System NOX reduction efficiency and fuel efficiency improvement compared to stoichiometric engine operation were measured. A feedback control strategy based on cumulative NH3 produced by the TWC during rich operation and NOX emissions during lean operation was implemented on the engine to control lean/rich cycle timing. 15% excess NH3 production over a 1:1 NH3:NOX ratio was required (via longer rich cycle timing) to achieve 99.7% NOX conversion at an SCR average inlet temperature of 350 C. Increasing NH3 generation further resulted in even higher NOX conversion; however, tailpipe NH3 emissions resulted. At higher temperatures, NH3 oxidation becomes important and limits NH3 availability for NOX reduction. At the engine conditions studied here, greater than 99% NOX conversion was achieved with passive SCR while delivering fuel

  12. Characterization of CZTSSe photovoltaic device with an atomic layer-deposited passivation layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Wei Cao, Yanyan; Caspar, Jonathan V.; Guo, Qijie; Johnson, Lynda K.; Mclean, Robert S.; Malajovich, Irina; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy

    2014-07-28

    We describe a CZTSSe (Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S{sub 1−x},Se{sub x}){sub 4}) photovoltaic (PV) device with an ALD (atomic layer deposition) coated buffer dielectric layer for CZTSSe surface passivation. An ALD buffer layer, such as TiO{sub 2}, can be applied in order to reduce the interface recombination and improve the device's open-circuit voltage. Detailed characterization data including current-voltage, admittance spectroscopy, and capacitance profiling are presented in order to compare the performance of PV devices with and without the ALD layer.

  13. Method and means of passive detection of leaks in buried pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claytor, Thomas N.

    1981-01-01

    A method and means for passive detection of a leak in a buried pipe containing fluid under pressure includes a plurality of acoustic detectors that are placed in contact with the pipe. Noise produced by the leak is detected by the detectors, and the detected signals are correlated to locate the leak. In one embodiment of the invention two detectors are placed at different locations to locate a leak between them. In an alternate embodiment two detectors of different waves are placed at substantially the same location to determine the distance of the leak from the location.

  14. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: A Production Builder's Passive House - Denver, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-05-01

    Brookfield Home’s first project is in a community called Midtown in Denver, Colorado, in which the builder took on the challenge of increased energy efficiency by creating a Passive House (PH)-certified model home. Brookfield worked with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team IBACOS to create the home, evaluate advanced building technologies, and use the home as a marketing tool for potential homebuyers. Brookfield also worked with KGA studio architects to create a new floor plan that would be constructed to the PH standard as an upgrade option.

  15. Passive pavement-mounted acoustical linguistic drive alert system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger A.; Anderson, Richard L.; Carnal, Charles L.; Hylton, James O.; Stevens, Samuel S.

    2001-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for passive pavement-mounted acoustical alert of the occupants of a vehicle. A method of notifying a vehicle occupant includes providing a driving medium upon which a vehicle is to be driven; and texturing a portion of the driving medium such that the textured portion interacts with the vehicle to produce audible signals, the textured portion pattern such that a linguistic message is encoded into the audible signals. The systems and methods provide advantages because information can be conveyed to the occupants of the vehicle based on the location of the vehicle relative to the textured surface.

  16. Passivation of an isoelectronic impurity by atomic hydrogen: The case of ZnTe:O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felici, Marco; Polimeni, Antonio; Capizzi, Mario; Nabetani, Y.; Okuno, T.; Aoki, K.; Kato, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Hirai, T.

    2006-03-06

    We investigated the optical properties of ZnTe:O/GaAs before and after atomic hydrogen irradiation. Oxygen incorporation gives rise to energy levels associated with single O atoms, O-O pairs, and O clusters, and to a blueshift of the energy gap of the material with respect to that of pure ZnTe/GaAs. All of these effects disappear progressively after irradiation with H, which also leads to an increase in the tensile strain of the epilayer. These observations provide experimental evidence of H-induced passivation of an isoelectronic impurity in II-VI alloys.

  17. Phosphorus doping and hydrogen passivation of donors and defects in silicon nanowires synthesized by laser ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukata, N.; Chen, J.; Sekiguchi, T.; Matsushita, S.; Oshima, T.; Uchida, N.; Murakami, K.; Tsurui, T.; Ito, S.

    2007-04-09

    Phosphorus (P) doping was performed during the synthesis of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) by laser ablation. At least three types of signals were observed by electron spin resonance (ESR) at 4.2 K. Phosphorus doping into substitutional sites of crystalline Si in SiNWs was demonstrated by the detection of an ESR signal with a g value of 1.998, which corresponds to conduction electrons in crystalline Si, and by an energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy spectrum of the P K{alpha} line. The ESR results also revealed the presence of defects. These defects were partially passivated by hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

  18. Pressure gradient passivation of carbonaceous material normally susceptible to spontaneous combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Sands, William D.; Schroeder, Karl; Summers, Cathy A.; Utz, Bruce R.

    2002-01-29

    This invention is a process for the passivation or deactivation with respect to oxygen of a carbonaceous material by the exposure of the carbonaceous material to an oxygenated gas in which the oxygenated gas pressure is increased from a first pressure to a second pressure and then the pressure is changed to a third pressure. Preferably a cyclic process which comprises exposing the carbonaceous material to the gas at low pressure and increasing the pressure to a second higher pressure and then returning the pressure to a lower pressure is used. The cycle is repeated at least twice wherein the higher pressure may be increased after a selected number of cycles.

  19. Passive solar commercial buildings: design assistance and demonstration program. Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-26

    The final design of the Mount Airy Public Library is given. Incremental passive design costs are discussed. Performance and economic analyses are made and the results reported. The design process is thoroughly documented. Considerations discussed are: (1) building energy needs; (2) site energy potentials, (3) matching energy needs with site energy potentials, (4) design indicators for best strategies and concepts, (5) schematic design alternatives, (6) performance testing of the alternatives, (7) design selection, and (8) design development. Weather data and Duke Power electric rates are included. (LEW)

  20. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layers for the in-situ passivation of GaN-based HEMT structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunin, P. A. Drozdov, Yu. N.; Drozdov, M. N.; Korolev, S. A.; Okhapkin, A. I.; Khrykin, O. I.; Shashkin, V. I.

    2015-11-15

    A method for the in situ passivation of GaN-based structures with silicon nitride in the growth chamber of a metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor is described. The structural and electrical properties of the obtained layers are investigated. The in situ and ex situ passivation of transistor structures with silicon nitride in an electron-beam-evaporation device are compared. It is shown that ex situ passivation changes neither the initial carrier concentration nor the mobility. In situ passivation makes it possible to protect the structure surface against uncontrollable degradation upon the finishing of growth and extraction to atmosphere. In the in situ passivated structure, the carrier concentration increases and the mobility decreases. This effect should be taken into account when manufacturing passivated GaN-based transistor structures.

  1. Evaluate fundamental approaches to longwall dust control: Subprogram A, Passive barriers/spray air movers for dust control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, J.; Ruggieri, S.

    1990-05-01

    One method to control shearer-generated dust on longwall faces is to confine the dust cloud to the face area and keep it away from face personnel as it travels downstream over the shearer body and beyond. Passive barriers can help this process by partitioning the airflow around the shearer into a clean split and a contaminated split. In addition, water sprays used as air movers (such as the Shearer Clearer developed on another USBM contract) aid the air partitioning process. A variety of passive barrier designs were developed and evaluated in the laboratory, tested in conjunction with the Shearer Clearer. The results showed that a headgate splitter arm'' to begin the airsplitting process is a vital part of a passive barrier system, whether or not a spray air moving system is also used on the shearer. A simple gob-side passive barrier along the edge of the shearer was also shown to help partition the airflow. Underground evaluations were conducted on a combination passive barrier/spray air moving system. The results confirmed the importance of the headgate splitter arm and showed that a gob-side barrier was very effective when used on shearers with ineffective external spray systems. The gob-side barrier was unnecessary, however, on shearers equipped with effective external air moving systems such as the Shearer Clearer. 32 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Motion correction for passive radiation imaging of small vessels in ship-to-ship inspections

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ziock, Klaus -Peter; Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Ernst, Joseph M.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Hayward, Jason P.; Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Paquit, Vincent C.; Patlolla, Dilip Reddy; Trombino, David

    2015-09-05

    Passive radiation detection remains one of the most acceptable means of ascertaining the presence of illicit nuclear materials. In maritime applications it is most effective against small to moderately sized vessels, where attenuation in the target vessel is of less concern. Unfortunately, imaging methods that can remove source confusion, localize a source, and avoid other systematic detection issues cannot be easily applied in ship-to-ship inspections because relative motion of the vessels blurs the results over many pixels, significantly reducing system sensitivity. This is particularly true for the smaller watercraft, where passive inspections are most valuable. We have developed a combinedmore » gamma-ray, stereo visible-light imaging system that addresses this problem. Data from the stereo imager are used to track the relative location and orientation of the target vessel in the field of view of a coded-aperture gamma-ray imager. Using this information, short-exposure gamma-ray images are projected onto the target vessel using simple tomographic back-projection techniques, revealing the location of any sources within the target. Here,the complex autonomous tracking and image reconstruction system runs in real time on a 48-core workstation that deploys with the system.« less

  3. Corrosion, passivity and breakdown of alloys used in high energy density batteries: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, J.

    1987-10-01

    The objective of this research is to further the understanding of the passivity of metals and alloys in non-aqueous and mixed solvents. There is a lack of data in this area, despite its importance to applications such as the construction materials for high energy density batteries. There have been a number of corrosion-related problems reported in the construction materials of such batteries. As demands for longevity for these batteries increase, problems associated with corrosion will become increasingly important. This work is concerned with analyzing the nature, mode of formation, and mode of breakdown of passive films that exist on alloys in non-aqueous and mixed solvents. Work during Year I has concentrated upon generating cyclic voltammograms and potentiodynamic curves as baseline data on Au and Armco Fe in water/propylene carbonate mixtures. In addition, Scanning Electron Microscopy has been performed in order to characterize the attack observed and to correlate it to the electrochemical parameters measured. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  4. Experimental study on the operational and the cooling performance of the APR+ passive auxiliary feedwater system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, K. H.; Bae, B. U.; Kim, S.; Cho, Y. J.; Park, Y. S.; Kim, B. D.

    2012-07-01

    The passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) is one of the advanced safety features adopted in the APR+ which is intended to completely replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. The PAFS cools down the steam generator secondary side and eventually removes the decay heat from the reactor core by introducing a natural driving force mechanism; i.e., condensing steam in nearly-horizontal U-tubes submerged inside the passive condensation cooling tank (PCCT). With an aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS, the separate effect test, PASCAL (PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop), is being performed to experimentally investigate the condensation heat transfer and natural convection phenomena in the PAFS. A single nearly-horizontal U-tube whose dimension is same as the prototypic U-tube of the APR+ PAFS is simulated in the PASCAL test. By performing the PASCAL test, the major thermal-hydraulic parameters such as local/overall heat transfer coefficients, fluid temperature inside the tube, wall temperature of the tube, and pool temperature distribution in the PCCT were produced not only to evaluate the current condensation heat transfer model but also to present database for the safety analysis related with the PAFS. (authors)

  5. Method for analyzing passive silicon carbide thermometry with a continuous dilatometer to determine irradiation temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Campbell, Anne A.; Porter, Wallace D.; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2016-01-14

    Silicon carbide is used as a passive post-irradiation temperature monitor because the irradiation defects will anneal out above the irradiation temperature. The irradiation temperature is determined by measuring a property change after isochronal annealing, i.e., lattice spacing, dimensions, electrical resistivity, thermal diffusivity, or bulk density. However, such methods are time-consuming since the steps involved must be performed in a serial manner. This work presents the use of thermal expansion from continuous dilatometry to calculate the SiC irradiation temperature, which is an automated process requiring minimal setup time. Analysis software was written that performs the calculations to obtain the irradiation temperaturemore » and removes possible user-introduced error while standardizing the analysis. In addition, this method has been compared to an electrical resistivity and isochronal annealing investigation, and the results revealed agreement of the calculated temperatures. These results show that dilatometry is a reliable and less time-intensive process for determining irradiation temperature from passive SiC thermometry.« less

  6. A model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data.

  7. Model for thermally driven heat and air transport in passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Balcomb, J.D.; Otis, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A model for transient interzone heat and air flow transport in passive solar buildings is presented incorporating wall boundary layers in stratified zones, and with interzone transport via apertures (doors and windows). The model includes features that have been observed in measurements taken in more than a dozen passive solar buildings. The model includes integral formulations of the laminar and turbulent boundary layer equations for the vertical walls which are then coupled to a one-dimensional core model for each zone. The cores in each zone exchange mass and energy through apertures that are modeled by an orifice type equation. The procedure is transient in that time dependence is retained only in the core equations which are solved by an explicit method. The model predicts room stratification of about 2/sup 0/C/m (1.1/sup 0/F/ft) for a room-to-room temperature difference of 0.56/sup 0/C(1/sup 0/F) which is in general agreement with the data. 38 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  8. Demonstration of passive plasma lensing of a laser wakefield accelerated electron bunch

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuschel, S.; Hollatz, D.; Heinemann, T.; Karger, O.; Schwab, M. B.; Ullmann, D.; Knetsch, A.; Seidel, A.; Rodel, C.; Yeung, M.; et al

    2016-07-20

    We report on the first demonstration of passive all-optical plasma lensing using a two-stage setup. An intense femtosecond laser accelerates electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) to 100 MeV over millimeter length scales. By adding a second gas target behind the initial LWFA stage we introduce a robust and independently tunable plasma lens. We observe a density dependent reduction of the LWFA electron beam divergence from an initial value of 2.3 mrad, down to 1.4 mrad (rms), when the plasma lens is in operation. Such a plasma lens provides a simple and compact approach for divergence reduction well matchedmore » to the mm-scale length of the LWFA accelerator. The focusing forces are provided solely by the plasma and driven by the bunch itself only, making this a highly useful and conceptually new approach to electron beam focusing. Possible applications of this lens are not limited to laser plasma accelerators. Since no active driver is needed the passive plasma lens is also suited for high repetition rate focusing of electron bunches. As a result, its understanding is also required for modeling the evolution of the driving particle bunch in particle driven wake field acceleration.« less

  9. Back-side hydrogenation technique for defect passivation in silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1994-04-19

    A two-step back-side hydrogenation process includes the steps of first bombarding the back side of the silicon substrate with hydrogen ions with intensities and for a time sufficient to implant enough hydrogen atoms into the silicon substrate to potentially passivate substantially all of the defects and impurities in the silicon substrate, and then illuminating the silicon substrate with electromagnetic radiation to activate the implanted hydrogen, so that it can passivate the defects and impurities in the substrate. The illumination step also annihilates the hydrogen-induced defects. The illumination step is carried out according to a two-stage illumination schedule, the first or low-power stage of which subjects the substrate to electromagnetic radiation that has sufficient intensity to activate the implanted hydrogen, yet not drive the hydrogen from the substrate. The second or high-power illumination stage subjects the substrate to higher intensity electromagnetic radiation, which is sufficient to annihilate the hydrogen-induced defects and sinter/alloy the metal contacts. 3 figures.

  10. Passivating ligand and solvent contribution to the electronics properties of semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tretiak, Sergei; Crotty, Angela; Fischer, Sean; Kilina, Svetlana

    2010-10-04

    Expanding on previous work, we examine in detail the impact passivating ligands have on the electronic properties of CdSe quantum dots (QDs). We also explore the importance of the inclusion of solvent in simulating passivated QDs. Most ligand states are found well removed from the band edges, with pyridine being the exception and contributing states that sit right on the conduction band edge. Localized trap states are found for trimethylphosphine and pyridine capped QDs, with solvent helping to eliminate these. The effect of losing a ligand on the electronic properties of the system is observed to vary in proportion with the binding energy and steric bulk of the ligand. More disruption of the electronic properties is seen for tight-binding, sterically large ligands. We also look at the validity of using the single-particle Kohn-Sham (KS) representation to approximate optical absorption spectra. Besides a systematic blue-shift relative to the time-dependent density functional theory spectra, the KS spectra are in very good agreement with the more accurate method for these systems. Such agreement here justifies the use of the KS approach for calculating absorption spectra of QD systems.

  11. Alternative Passive Decay-Heat Systems for the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a low-pressure, liquid-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor for the production of electricity and hydrogen. The high-temperature (950 deg C) variant is defined as the liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR). The AHTR has the same safety goals and uses the same graphite-matrix coated particle fuel as do modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. However, the large AHTR power output [2400 to 4000 MW(t)] implies the need for a different type of passive decay-heat removal system. Because the AHTR is a low-pressure, liquid-cooled reactor like sodium-cooled reactors, similar types of decay-heat-removal systems can be used. Three classes of passive decay heat removal systems have been identified: the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system which is similar to that proposed for the General Electric S-PRISM sodium-cooled fast reactor; the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system, which is similar to that used in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II; and a new pool reactor auxiliary cooling system. These options are described and compared. (author)

  12. Back-side hydrogenation technique for defect passivation in silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1994-01-01

    A two-step back-side hydrogenation process includes the steps of first bombarding the back side of the silicon substrate with hydrogen ions with intensities and for a time sufficient to implant enough hydrogen atoms into the silicon substrate to potentially passivate substantially all of the defects and impurities in the silicon substrate, and then illuminating the silicon substrate with electromagnetic radiation to activate the implanted hydrogen, so that it can passivate the defects and impurities in the substrate. The illumination step also annihilates the hydrogen-induced defects. The illumination step is carried out according to a two-stage illumination schedule, the first or low-power stage of which subjects the substrate to electromagnetic radiation that has sufficient intensity to activate the implanted hydrogen, yet not drive the hydrogen from the substrate. The second or high-power illumination stage subjects the substrate to higher intensity electromagnetic radiation, which is sufficient to annihilate the hydrogen-induced defects and sinter/alloy the metal contacts.

  13. Passive Superconducting Flux Conservers for Rotating-Magnetic-Field-Driven Field-Reversed Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oz, E.; Myers, C. E.; Edwards, M. R.; Berlinger, B.; Brooks, A.; Cohen, S. A.

    2011-01-05

    The Princeton Field-Reversed Configuration (PFRC) experiment employs an odd-parity rotating magnetic field (RMFo) current drive and plasma heating system to form and sustain high-? plasmas. For radial confinement, an array of coaxial, internal, passive, flux-conserving (FC) rings applies magnetic pressure to the plasma while still allowing radio-frequency RMFo from external coils to reach the plasma. The 3 ms pulse duration of the present experiment is limited by the skin time (?fc) of its room-temperature copper FC rings. To explore plasma phenomena with longer characteristic times, the pulse duration of the next-generation PFRC-2 device will exceed 100 ms, necessitating FC rings with (?fc > 300 ms. In this paper we review the physics of internal, discrete, passive FCs and describe the evolution of the PFRC's FC array. We then detail new experiments that have produced higher performance FC rings that contain embedded high-temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. Several HTS tape winding configurations have been studied and a wide range of extended skin times, from 0.4 s to over 103 s, has been achieved. The new FC rings must carry up to 3 kA of current to balance the expected PFRC-2 plasma pressure, so the dependence of the HTS-FC critical current on the winding configuration and temperature was also studied. From these experiments, the key HTS-FC design considerations have been identified and HTS-FC rings with the desired performance characteristics have been produced.

  14. Method for Analyzing Passive SiC Thermometry with a Continuous Dilatometer to Determine Irradiation Temperature

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Campbell, Anne A; Porter, Wallace D; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide is used as a passive post-irradiation temperature monitor because the irradiation defects will anneal out above the irradiation temperature. The irradiation temperature is determined by measuring a property change after isochronal annealing, i.e., lattice spacing, dimensions, electrical resistivity, thermal diffusivity, or bulk density. However, such methods are time-consuming since the steps involved must be performed in a serial manner. This work presents the use of thermal expansion from continuous dilatometry to calculate the SiC irradiation temperature, which is an automated process requiring minimal setup time. Analysis software was written that performs the calculations to obtain the irradiation temperaturemoreand removes possible user-introduced error while standardizing the analysis. This method has been compared to an electrical resistivity and isochronal annealing investigation, and the results revealed agreement of the calculated temperatures. These results show that dilatometry is a reliable and less time-intensive process for determining irradiation temperature from passive SiC thermometry.less

  15. Passive shielding effect on space profile of magnetic field emissions for wireless power transfer to vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batra, T. Schaltz, E.

    2015-05-07

    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer systems are of high importance with respect to human safety and health. Aluminum and ferrite are used in the system to reduce the fields and are termed as passive shielding. In this paper, the influence of these materials on the space profile has been investigated with the help of simulations on Comsol for the four possible geometriesno shielding, ferrite, aluminum, and full shielding. As the reflected impedance varies for the four geometries, the primary current is varied accordingly to maintain constant power transfer to the secondary side. Surrounding magnetic field plots in the vertical direction show that maxima's of the two coils for the no shielding geometry are centered at the respective coils and for the remaining three are displaced closer to each other. This closeness would lead to more effective addition of the two coil fields and an increase in the resultant field from space point of view. This closeness varies with distance in the horizontal direction and vertical gap between the coils and is explained in the paper. This paper provides a better understanding of effect of the passive shielding materials on the space nature of magnetic fields for wireless power transfer for vehicle applications.

  16. Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

    2012-06-01

    One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The decay heat first is transferred to the core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to the reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface area). When the relative decay heat removal capability decreases, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annular core designs with inner graphite reflector can mitigate this effect; therefore can further increase the reactor power. Another way to increase the reactor power is to increase power density. However, the reactor power is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environment side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or

  17. Development of Black Silicon Antireflection Control and Passivation Technology for Commercial Application: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-475

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, H. C.

    2014-06-01

    The work involves the development of a commercial manufacturing process for both multicrystalline and monocrystalline solar cells that combines Natcore's patent pending passivation technology.

  18. Passivated Tunneling Contacts to N-Type Wafer Silicon and Their Implementation into High Performance Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stradins, P.; Essig, S.; Nemeth, W.; Lee, B. G.; Young, D.; Norman, A.; Liu, Y.; Luo, J.-W.; Warren, E.; Dameron, A.; LaSalvia, V.; Page, M.; Rohatgi, A.; Upadhyaya, A.; Rounsaville, B.; Ok, Y.-W.; Glunz, S.; Benick, J.; Feldmann, F.; Hermle, M.

    2014-12-01

    We present a case that passivated contacts based on a thin tunneling oxide layer, combined with a transport layer with properly selected work function and band offsets, can lead to high efficiency c-Si solar cells. Passivated contacts contribute to cell efficiency as well as design flexibility, process robustness, and a simplified process flow. Material choices for the transport layer are examined, including transparent n-type oxides and n+-doped poly-Si. SiO2/n+-poly-Si full-area, induced-junction back surface field contacts to n-FZ and n-Cz Si are incorporated into high efficiency cells with deep, passivated boron emitters.

  19. Chemical and electronic passivation of 4H-SiC surface by hydrogen-nitrogen mixed plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Bingbing; Huang, Lingqin; Zhu, Qiaozhi; Wang, Dejun; Qin, Fuwen

    2014-05-19

    We propose a low-temperature electron cyclotron resonance microwave hydrogen-nitrogen mixed plasma treatment method for passivating 4H-SiC surface and investigate the effects of treatment on the structural, chemical, and electronic properties of the surface. The results indicate that the method is highly controllable and could result in an atomically ordered, unreconstructed, smooth, and clean SiC surface. The absence of surface band bending is indicative of an electronically passivated SiC surface with a surface state density as low as 5.47??10{sup 10}?cm{sup ?2}. This effect could be attributed to the simultaneous effects of H and N passivating on SiC surface.

  20. Oxygen demand for the stabilization of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in passively aerated bioreactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasinski, Slawomir Wojnowska-Baryla, Irena

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The use of an passively aerated reactor enables effective stabilization of OFMSW. • Convective air flow does not inhibit the aerobic stabilization of waste. • The use of an passively aerated reactor reduces the heat loss due to convection. • The volume of supplied air exceeds 1.7–2.88 times the microorganisms demand. - Abstract: Conventional aerobic waste treatment technologies require the use of aeration devices that actively transport air through the stabilized waste mass, which greatly increases operating costs. In addition, improperly operated active aeration systems, may have the adverse effect of cooling the stabilized biomass. Because active aeration can be a limiting factor for the stabilization process, passive aeration can be equally effective and less expensive. Unfortunately, there are few reports documenting the use of passive aeration systems in municipal waste stabilization. There have been doubts raised as to whether a passive aeration system provides enough oxygen to the organic matter mineralization processes. In this paper, the effectiveness of aeration during aerobic stabilization of four different organic fractions of municipal waste in a reactor with an integrated passive ventilation system and leachate recirculation was analyzed. For the study, four fractions separated by a rotary screen were chosen. Despite the high temperatures in the reactor, the air flow rate was below 0.016 m{sup 3}/h. Using Darcy’s equation, theoretical values of the air flow rate were estimated, depending on the intensity of microbial metabolism and the amount of oxygen required for the oxidation of organic compounds. Calculations showed that the volume of supplied air exceeded the microorganisms demand for oxidation and endogenous activity by 1.7–2.88-fold.

  1. Beyond-Design-Basis-Accidents Passive Containment-Cooling Spray System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karameldin, Aly; Temraz, Hassan M. Elsawy; Ibrahim, Nady Attia [Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt)

    2001-10-15

    The proposed safety feature considered in this study aims to increase the safety margins of nuclear power plants by proposed water tanks located inside or outside the upper zone of the containment to be utilized for (a) residual heat removal of the reactor in case of station blackout or in case of normal reactor shutdown and (b) beyond-design-basis accidents, in which core melt and debris-concrete interaction take place, associated with accumulative containment pressure increase and partial loss of the active systems. The proposed passive containment system can be implemented by a special mechanism, which can allow the pressurization of the water in the tanks and therefore can enable an additional spray system to start in case of increasing the containment pressure over a certain value just below the design pressure. A conservative case study is that of a Westinghouse 3411-MW(thermal) power station, where the proposed passive containment cooling spray system (PCCSS) will start at a pressure of 6 bars and terminate at a pressure of 3 bars. A one-dimensional lumped model is postulated to describe the thermal and hydraulic process behavior inside the containment after a beyond-design-basis accident. The considered parameters are the spray mass flow rate, the initial droplet diameters, fuel-cooling time, and the ultimate containment pressure. The overall heat and mass balance inside the containment are carried out, during both the containment depressurization (by the spraying system) and pressurization (by the residual energies). The results show that the design of the PCCSS is viable and has a capability to maintain the containment below the design pressure passively for the required grace period of 72 h. Design curves of the proposed PCCSS indicate the effect of the spray flow rate and cooling time on the total sprayed volume during the grace period of 72 h. From these curves it can be concluded that for the grace period of 72 h, the required tank volumes are 3800

  2. IN SITU INVESTIGATION OF THE PASSIVATION OF ALLOY C22 AND OF THE PASSIVE FILMS FORMED ON ALLOY C22 IN ACIDIC ELECTROLYTES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE AND AT 90 DEGREES C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Miyagusuku, S. Harrington, and T. M. Devine

    2006-03-11

    The passive films formed on Alloy C22 in several acidic solutions were investigated by a combination of five in situ techniques: cyclic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, Mott-Schottky analyses, electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements, and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Similar tests were conducted on unalloyed samples of nickel, chromium and molybdenum, which are the main alloying elements of Alloy C22. The results of the tests conducted on nickel, chromium, and molybdenum helped to determine the roles of these elements in the passivation of Alloy C22. In general, the corrosion resistance of C22 was superior to that of unalloyed chromium. Although chromium is an important component of the passive film on Alloy C22, the other elements figure prominently in the corrosion resistance of C22 in acidic solutions. The passivity of Alloy C22 was detrimentally affected by increasing concentrations of hydrogen ions, chloride ions, and increasing temperature. The results of this study provide understanding of the resistance/susceptibility of Alloy C22 to corrosion by the aggressive solutions that can develop inside pits and crevices.

  3. Hodges residence: performance of a direct gain passive solar home in Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, L.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for the performance of the Hodges residence, a 2200-square-foot earth-sheltered direct gain passive solar home in Ames, Iowa, during the 1979-80 heating season, its first occupied season. No night insulation was used on its 500 square feet of double-pane glass. Total auxiliary heat required was 43 GJ (41 MBtu) gross and 26 GJ (25 MBtu) net, amounting, respectively, to 60 and 36 kJ/C/sup 0/-day-m/sup 2/ (2.9 and 1.8 Btu/F/sup 0/-day-ft/sup 2/). The heating season was unusually cloudy and included the cloudiest January in the 21 years of Ames insolation measurements. Results are also presented for the performance of the hollowcore floor which serves as the main storage mass and for the comfort range in the house.

  4. Hodges residence: performance of a direct gain passive solar home in Iowa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, L.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for the performance of the Hodges Residence, a 2200-square-foot earth-sheltered direct gain passive solar home in Ames, Iowa, during the 1979-80 heating season, its first occupied season. No night insulation was used on its 500 square feet of double-pane glass. Total auxiliary heat required was 43 GJ (41 MBTU) gross and 26 GJ (25 MBTU) net, amounting, respectively, to 60 and 36 kJ/C/sup 0/-day-m/sup 2/ (2.9 and 1.8 BTU/F/sup 0/-day-ft/sup 2/). The heating season was unusually cloudy and included the cloudiest January in the 21 years of Ames insolation measurements. Results are also presented for the performance of the hollow-core floor which serves as the main storage mass and for the comfort range in the house.

  5. Passive cooling and heating program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for FY-1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapira, H.B.; Kaplan, S.I.; Chester, C.V.

    1981-01-01

    Construction was completed of an earth-sheltered, passively solar heated office-dormitory, the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, designed at ORNL. Instrumentation of the building was designed, procured, and installed. Building performance will be monitored and compared with predictions of the DOE-2 code. A study of the incorporation of vegetation on architecture was conducted by the Harvard School of Design. A final report was issued which is a prototype handbook for the use of vegetation to reduce cooling loads in structures. An experiment to reduce the cooling requirement of mobile homes by shading with fast-growing vines was begun: a maintenance-oriented trellis was constructed and vines were planted. An RFP for the production of a prototype set of reflective insulating blinds was issued.

  6. Passive containment cooling system with drywell pressure regulation for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    A boiling water reactor having a regulating valve for placing the wetwell in flow communication with an intake duct of the passive containment cooling system. This subsystem can be adjusted to maintain the drywell pressure at (or slightly below or above) wetwell pressure after the initial reactor blowdown transient is over. This addition to the PCCS design has the benefit of eliminating or minimizing steam leakage from the drywell to the wetwell in the longer-term post-LOCA time period and also minimizes the temperature difference between drywell and wetwell. This in turn reduces the rate of long-term pressure buildup of the containment, thereby extending the time to reach the design pressure limit.

  7. Passive containment cooling system with drywell pressure regulation for boiling water reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, P.R.

    1994-12-27

    A boiling water reactor is described having a regulating valve for placing the wetwell in flow communication with an intake duct of the passive containment cooling system. This subsystem can be adjusted to maintain the drywell pressure at (or slightly below or above) wetwell pressure after the initial reactor blowdown transient is over. This addition to the PCCS design has the benefit of eliminating or minimizing steam leakage from the drywell to the wetwell in the longer-term post-LOCA time period and also minimizes the temperature difference between drywell and wetwell. This in turn reduces the rate of long-term pressure buildup of the containment, thereby extending the time to reach the design pressure limit. 4 figures.

  8. Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo's structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated.

  9. Implementation of Tunneling Passivated Contacts into Industrially Relevant n-Cz Si Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemeth, William; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Page, Matthew R.; Warren, Emily L.; Dameron, Arrelaine; Norman, Andrew G.; Lee, Benjamin G.; Young, David L.; Stradins, Paul

    2015-06-14

    We identify bottlenecks, and propose solutions, to implement a B-diffused front emitter and a backside pc-Si/SiO2 pasivated tunneling contact into high efficiency n-Cz Si cells in an industrially relevant way. We apply an O-precipitate dissolution treatment to make n-Cz wafers immune to bulk lifetime process degradation, enabling robust, passivated B front emitters with J0 <; 20fA/cm2. Adding ultralow recombination n+ pc-Si/SiO2 back contacts enables pre-metallized cells with iVoc=720 mV and J0=8.6 fA/cm2. However, metallization significantly degrades performance of these contacts due to pinholes and possibly, grain boundary diffusion of primary metal and source contaminates such as Cu. An intermediate, doped a-Si:H capping layer is found to significantly block the harmful metal penetration into pc-Si.

  10. Methodology Development for Passive Component Reliability Modeling in a Multi-Physics Simulation Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldemir, Tunc; Denning, Richard; Catalyurek, Umit; Unwin, Stephen

    2015-01-23

    Reduction in safety margin can be expected as passive structures and components undergo degradation with time. Limitations in the traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology constrain its value as an effective tool to address the impact of aging effects on risk and for quantifying the impact of aging management strategies in maintaining safety margins. A methodology has been developed to address multiple aging mechanisms involving large numbers of components (with possibly statistically dependent failures) within the PRA framework in a computationally feasible manner when the sequencing of events is conditioned on the physical conditions predicted in a simulation environment, such as the New Generation System Code (NGSC) concept. Both epistemic and aleatory uncertainties can be accounted for within the same phenomenological framework and maintenance can be accounted for in a coherent fashion. The framework accommodates the prospective impacts of various intervention strategies such as testing, maintenance, and refurbishment. The methodology is illustrated with several examples.

  11. Method for passively compensating for temperature coefficient of gain in silicon photomultipliers and similar devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKisson, John E.; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    A method for designing a completely passive bias compensation circuit to stabilize the gain of multiple pixel avalanche photo detector devices. The method includes determining circuitry design and component values to achieve a desired precision of gain stability. The method can be used with any temperature sensitive device with a nominally linear coefficient of voltage dependent parameter that must be stabilized. The circuitry design includes a negative temperature coefficient resistor in thermal contact with the photomultiplier device to provide a varying resistance and a second fixed resistor to form a voltage divider that can be chosen to set the desired slope and intercept for the characteristic with a specific voltage source value. The addition of a third resistor to the divider network provides a solution set for a set of SiPM devices that requires only a single stabilized voltage source value.

  12. Effect of noise on the power spectrum of passively mode-locked lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliyahu, D.; Salvatore, R.A.; Yariv, A.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the effects of noise on the power spectrum of pulse trains generated by a continuously operating passively mode-locked laser. The shape of the different harmonics of the power spectrum is calculated in the presence of correlated timing fluctuations between neighboring pulses and in the presence of amplitude fluctuations. The spectra at the different harmonics are influenced mainly by the nonstationary timing-jitter fluctuations; amplitude fluctuations slightly modify the spectral tails. Estimation of the coupling term between the longitudinal cavity modes or the effective saturable absorber coefficient is made from the timing-jitter correlation time. Experimental results from an external cavity two-section semiconductor laser are given. The results show timing-jitter fluctuations having a relaxation time much longer than the repetition period. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America.

  13. Experience operating LANL`s passive/active neutron (PAN) assay system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taggart, D.P.; Betts, S.E.; Martinez, E.F.; Mendez, J.L.; Rael, C.D.; Vigil, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    We present a summary of our operating experience with LANL`s mobile PAN assay system, which was acquired from the Carlsbad Area Office in 1994, refurbished, calibrated, and fielded for the first time on LANL`s TRU waste in the winter of 1996. It is functionally identical to other PAN systems throughout the DOE complex and its software is the same as at INEL. Since Jan. 1996, it has passed the first round of the Performance Demonstration Program and has been used to assay several hundred drums of LANL`s TRU waste. Difficulties in assaying homogeneous wastes with high ({alpha},n) neutron fluxes and experience in assaying debris waste in both active and passive PAN modes are reported on.

  14. Transparent electrodes in silicon heterojunction solar cells: Influence on contact passivation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomasi, Andrea; Sahli, Florent; Seif, Johannes Peter; Fanni, Lorenzo; de Nicolas Agut, Silvia Martin; Geissbuhler, Jonas; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Nicolay, Sylvain; Barraud, Loris; Niesen, Bjoern; et al

    2015-10-26

    Charge carrier collection in silicon heterojunction solar cells occurs via intrinsic/doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer stacks deposited on the crystalline silicon wafer surfaces. Usually, both the electron and hole collecting stacks are externally capped by an n-type transparent conductive oxide, which is primarily needed for carrier extraction. Earlier, it has been demonstrated that the mere presence of such oxides can affect the carrier recombination in the crystalline silicon absorber. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the impact of this phenomenon on both the electron and hole collecting sides, including its consequences for the operating voltages of silicon heterojunction solarmore » cells. As a result, we define guiding principles for improved passivating contact design for high-efficiency silicon solar cells.« less

  15. Transparent electrodes in silicon heterojunction solar cells: Influence on contact passivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasi, Andrea; Sahli, Florent; Seif, Johannes Peter; Fanni, Lorenzo; de Nicolas Agut, Silvia Martin; Geissbuhler, Jonas; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Nicolay, Sylvain; Barraud, Loris; Niesen, Bjoern; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-10-26

    Charge carrier collection in silicon heterojunction solar cells occurs via intrinsic/doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer stacks deposited on the crystalline silicon wafer surfaces. Usually, both the electron and hole collecting stacks are externally capped by an n-type transparent conductive oxide, which is primarily needed for carrier extraction. Earlier, it has been demonstrated that the mere presence of such oxides can affect the carrier recombination in the crystalline silicon absorber. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the impact of this phenomenon on both the electron and hole collecting sides, including its consequences for the operating voltages of silicon heterojunction solar cells. As a result, we define guiding principles for improved passivating contact design for high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  16. Localized electrical fine tuning of passive microwave and radio frequency devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findikoglu, Alp T.

    2001-04-10

    A method and apparatus for the localized electrical fine tuning of passive multiple element microwave or RF devices in which a nonlinear dielectric material is deposited onto predetermined areas of a substrate containing the device. An appropriate electrically conductive material is deposited over predetermined areas of the nonlinear dielectric and the signal line of the device for providing electrical contact with the nonlinear dielectric. Individual, adjustable bias voltages are applied to the electrically conductive material allowing localized electrical fine tuning of the devices. The method of the present invention can be applied to manufactured devices, or can be incorporated into the design of the devices so that it is applied at the time the devices are manufactured. The invention can be configured to provide localized fine tuning for devices including but not limited to coplanar waveguides, slotline devices, stripline devices, and microstrip devices.

  17. Enhancing ultra-high CPV passive cooling using least-material finned heat sinks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Micheli, Leonardo Mallick, Tapas K.; Fernandez, Eduardo F.; Almonacid, Florencia; Reddy, K. S.

    2015-09-28

    Ultra-high concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems aim to increase the cost-competiveness of CPV by increasing the concentrations over 2000 suns. In this work, the design of a heat sink for ultra-high concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) applications is presented. For the first time, the least-material approach, widely used in electronics to maximize the thermal dissipation while minimizing the weight of the heat sink, has been applied in CPV. This method has the potential to further decrease the cost of this technology and to keep the multijunction cell within the operative temperature range. The designing procedure is described in the paper and the results of a thermal simulation are shown to prove the reliability of the solution. A prediction of the costs is also reported: a cost of 0.151$/W{sub p} is expected for a passive least-material heat sink developed for 4000x applications.

  18. Interaction and motion of solitons in passively-mode-locked fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xueming

    2011-11-15

    Interaction and motion of multiple solitons in passively-mode-locked (PML) fiber lasers are investigated numerically. Three types of relative motions of two solitons are found in PML fiber lasers. The numerical results show that the relative motion of solitons attributes to the phase shift, which corresponds to the instantaneous frequency at pulse peak to be nonzero. Different from the classical dynamics of billiard balls, the interaction of solitons is similar to the Feynman diagram which is a pictorial way to represent the interaction of particles. After solitons interact with one another, their shapes do not change, but their phases shift and relative motions change. The theoretical results demonstrate that the separation of neighboring solitons in the laser cavity is about several hundred picoseconds to several nanoseconds. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  19. Soliton formation and evolution in passively-mode-locked lasers with ultralong anomalous-dispersion fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Xueming

    2011-08-15

    The soliton formation and evolution are numerically and experimentally investigated in passively-mode-locked lasers where pulses encounter ultralong anomalous-dispersion fibers. The pulse formation and evolution in lasers are determined by two balances, namely, nonlinearity and anomalous-dispersion balance and intracavity filtering and self-amplitude modulation balance. It is numerically found that a higher-energy soliton can be split into identical lower-energy multisolitons with exactly the same physical properties. Simulation results show that the separation of neighboring solitons is variational in the temporal domain. The temporal and spectral characteristics of solitons have large variations throughout the laser cavity, qualitatively distinct from the steady state of conventional solitons. The experimental observations confirm the theoretical predictions.

  20. Passive Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Multi-Ionic Aqueous Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lian, T.; Estill, J.C.; Hust, G.A.; Fix, D.V.; Rebak, R.B.

    2002-06-03

    In current waste packaging design, Alloy 22 (Ni-22Cr-13Mo-3W-3Fe) has been chosen as the candidate materials to fabricate a 2 cm outer layer of the high-level nuclear waste containers, as part of proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. During the repository period, the container materials will be subject to the corrosion due to its exposure to the multi-ionic aqueous environments. Although Alloy 22 has demonstrated excellent corrosion resistance, but accumulation of small yearly corrosion rate for 10,000 or more years can be significant enough. The goal of this research is to seek alternative techniques to obtain a reasonably confident corrosion rate determination, since the conventional weight loss technique requires many years to achieve a detectable weight loss in Alloy 22 samples. This paper will discuss the latest experiment results in using potentiostatic technique to determine passive dissolution rates.

  1. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

    1994-05-03

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  2. Passive decay heat removal system for water-cooled nuclear reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    A passive decay-heat removal system for a water-cooled nuclear reactor employs a closed heat transfer loop having heat-exchanging coils inside an open-topped, insulated box located inside the reactor vessel, below its normal water level, in communication with a condenser located outside of containment and exposed to the atmosphere. The heat transfer loop is located such that the evaporator is in a position where, when the water level drops in the reactor, it will become exposed to steam. Vapor produced in the evaporator passes upward to the condenser above the normal water level. In operation, condensation in the condenser removes heat from the system, and the condensed liquid is returned to the evaporator. The system is disposed such that during normal reactor operations where the water level is at its usual position, very little heat will be removed from the system, but during emergency, low water level conditions, substantial amounts of decay heat will be removed.

  3. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, Daniel J.; Schrader, Kenneth J.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  4. Improved performance in GaInNAs solar cells by hydrogen passivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuda, M.; Whiteside, V. R.; Keay, J. C.; Meleco, A.; Sellers, I. R.; Hossain, K.; Golding, T. D.; Leroux, M.; Al Khalfioui, M.

    2015-04-06

    The effect of UV-activated hydrogenation on the performance of GaInNAs solar cells is presented. A proof-of-principle investigation was performed on non-optimum GaInNAs cells, which allowed a clearer investigation of the role of passivation on the intrinsic nitrogen-related defects in these materials. Upon optimized hydrogenation of GaInNAs, a significant reduction in the presence of defect and impurity based luminescence is observed as compared to that of unpassivated reference material. This improvement in the optical properties is directly transferred to an improved performance in solar cell operation, with a more than two-fold improvement in the external quantum efficiency and short circuit current density upon hydrogenation. Temperature dependent photovoltaic measurements indicate a strong contribution of carrier localization and detrapping processes, with non-radiative processes dominating in the reference materials, and evidence for additional strong radiative losses in the hydrogenated solar cells.

  5. Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

    1995-04-11

    A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo`s structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated. 5 figures.

  6. Method for surface passivation and protection of cadmium zinc telluride crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mescher, Mark J.; James, Ralph B.; Schlesinger, Tuviah E.; Hermon, Haim

    2000-01-01

    A method for reducing the leakage current in CZT crystals, particularly Cd.sub.1-x Zn.sub.x Te crystals (where x is greater than equal to zero and less than or equal to 0.5), and preferably Cd.sub.0.9 Zn.sub.0.1 Te crystals, thereby enhancing the ability of these crystal to spectrally resolve radiological emissions from a wide variety of radionuclides. Two processes are disclosed. The first method provides for depositing, via reactive sputtering, a silicon nitride hard-coat overlayer which provides significant reduction in surface leakage currents. The second method enhances the passivation by oxidizing the CZT surface with an oxygen plasma prior to silicon nitride deposition without breaking the vacuum state.

  7. Passive Q-switching of a diode-pumped neodymium:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Compact diode-pumped neodymium:YAG lasers are becoming common commercial devices. Such lasers are often Q-switched to enhance peak power or to allow greater harmonic conversion efficiency. Active electrooptic or acoustooptic modulators are usually used to Q-switch YAG lasers. While these techniques work well, they do require expensive and bulky modulators and driving electronics. For some applications a simpler technique, such as passive Q-switching, could replace these active Q-switches. This thesis investigates the suitability of two color center materials as possible saturable absorbers for compact Nd:YAG lasers. The first material, lithium fluoride with F{sub 2}{sup {minus}} defects, has been used previously as a Q-switch for flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG lasers. The second material, sodium chloride with F{sub 2}{sup +} defects, has not, to the author's knowledge, been used as a saturable absorber in a YAG laser. Lithium fluoride was found to be an excellent Q-switch material for a small diode-pumped YAG laser. The passively Q-switched pulses were comparable to the best results using active Q-switches. The LiF saturable absorber material is compact, inexpensive, and easy to prepare. The only discovered drawback to this material is the observation of a gradual bleaching of the saturable absorption with extended use at high peak powers. This thesis describes the properties and preparation of the LiF Q-switch material. The use of colored sodium chloride as a Q-switch material is also described. This material has the unique property that the amount of saturable loss in a particular crystal direction can be dynamically adjusted through the action of polarized light incident on the crystal.

  8. SWEPP PAN assay system uncertainty analysis: Passive mode measurements of graphite waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackwood, L.G.; Harker, Y.D.; Meachum, T.R.; Yoon, Woo Y.

    1997-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is being used as a temporary storage facility for transuranic waste generated by the U.S. Nuclear Weapons program at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. Currently, there is a large effort in progress to prepare to ship this waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. In order to meet the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan nondestructive assay compliance requirements and quality assurance objectives, it is necessary to determine the total uncertainty of the radioassay results produced by the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) Passive Active Neutron (PAN) radioassay system. To this end a modified statistical sampling and verification approach has been developed to determine the total uncertainty of a PAN measurement. In this approach the total performance of the PAN nondestructive assay system is simulated using computer models of the assay system and the resultant output is compared with the known input to assess the total uncertainty. This paper is one of a series of reports quantifying the results of the uncertainty analysis of the PAN system measurements for specific waste types and measurement modes. In particular this report covers passive mode measurements of weapons grade plutonium-contaminated graphite molds contained in 208 liter drums (waste code 300). The validity of the simulation approach is verified by comparing simulated output against results from measurements using known plutonium sources and a surrogate graphite waste form drum. For actual graphite waste form conditions, a set of 50 cases covering a statistical sampling of the conditions exhibited in graphite wastes was compiled using a Latin hypercube statistical sampling approach.

  9. Passivation of Oxide Layers on 4H-SiC Using Sequential Anneals in Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J. R.; Isaacs-Smith, T.; Wang, S.; Ahyi, C.; Lawless, R. M.; Tin, C. C.; Dhar, S.; Franceschetti, Alberto G; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Feldman, Leonard C; Chung, G.; Chisholm, Matthew F

    2004-01-01

    The interface passivation process based on post-oxidation, high temperature anneals in nitric oxide (NO) is well established for SiO{sub 2} on (0001) 4H-SiC. The NO process results in an order of magnitude or more reduction in the interface state density near the 4H conduction band edge. However, trap densities are still high compared to those measured for Si/SiO{sub 2} passivated with post-oxidation anneals in hydrogen. Herein, we report the results of studies for 4H-SiC/SiO{sub 2} undertaken to determine the effects of additional passivation anneals in hydrogen when these anneals are carried out following a standard NO anneal. After NO passivation and Pt deposition to form gate contacts, post-metallization anneals in hydrogen further reduced the trap density from approximately 1.5 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}eV{sup -1} to about 6 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}eV{sup -1} at a trap energy of 0.1 eV below the band edge for dry thermal oxides on both (0001) and (11-20) 4H-SiC.

  10. Sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide surface passivation effects on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaidi, Z. H. Lee, K. B.; Qian, H.; Jiang, S.; Houston, P. A.; Guiney, I.; Wallis, D. J.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2014-12-28

    In this work, we have compared SiN{sub x} passivation, hydrogen peroxide, and sulfuric acid treatment on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs surface after full device fabrication on Si substrate. Both the chemical treatments resulted in the suppression of device pinch-off gate leakage current below 1??A/mm, which is much lower than that for SiN{sub x} passivation. The greatest suppression over the range of devices is observed with the sulfuric acid treatment. The device on/off current ratio is improved (from 10{sup 4}10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7}) and a reduction in the device sub-threshold (S.S.) slope (from ?215 to 90?mV/decade) is achieved. The sulfuric acid is believed to work by oxidizing the surface which has a strong passivating effect on the gate leakage current. The interface trap charge density (D{sub it}) is reduced (from 4.86 to 0.90??10{sup 12?}cm{sup ?2} eV{sup ?1}), calculated from the change in the device S.S. The gate surface leakage current mechanism is explained by combined Mott hopping conduction and Poole Frenkel models for both untreated and sulfuric acid treated devices. Combining the sulfuric acid treatment underneath the gate with the SiN{sub x} passivation after full device fabrication results in the reduction of D{sub it} and improves the surface related current collapse.

  11. On the mechanism for improved passivation by addition of molybdenum to austenitic stainless steels in O-phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guenbour, A.; Faucheu, J.; Ben Bachir, A.

    1988-04-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism for increased corrosion resistance in O-phosphoric acid solutions by addition of molybdenum to 17Cr-13Ni stainless steel (SS), anodic curves polarization and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) have been performed on the Mo-containing steels passivated in 40 wt% H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ with chloride and fluoride ions as impurities. The addition of Mo to austenitic SS affects the nature and composition of the passive film. The studies by ESCA have shown that the passive film is formed in an overlap of two layers. The external layer contains phosphates and is rich in Mo(VI) and Si(IV). The improved resistance of SSs alloyed with Mo caused by that layer probably composed of silico-molybdic-hydrate complex, particularly stable in acidic pH. The similarity of results obtained between MO-alloyed steels and steels without Mo, but passivated in MoO/sub 4/ solutions, suggest that the protective layer is formed by soluble Mo compounds.

  12. An XPS study of passive films on stainless steels and a high-grade Ni-base alloy in seawater environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgkiess, T.; Neville, A.

    1999-11-01

    In the present study an assessment has been made of the air-formed passive film and the passive film existing after a short exposure to a synthetic seawater environment on austenitic (UNS S31603), superaustenitic (UNS S31254 and UNS S32654) and superduplex (UNS S32760) stainless steels and a Ni-based alloy (UNS N06625) using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Assessment of their corrosion behavior has been made through use of electrochemical accelerated tests supported by post-test microscopy. The passive film on the Ni-base (low Fe) UNS N06625 alloy is remarkably similar to those formed on the high Cr and Mo stainless steels. It has been demonstrated that the Fe/Cr ratio in the passive film is dependent on alloy composition and on the conditions to which the material has been exposed and a general correlation between passive film constitution and corrosion resistance is evident.

  13. Fate of As, Se, and Hg in a Passive Integrated System for Treatment of Fossil Plant Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Yost; Paul Pier; Gregory Brodie

    2007-12-31

    TVA is collaborating with EPRI and DOE to demonstrate a passive treatment system for removing SCR-derived ammonia and trace elements from a coal-fired power plant wastewater stream. The components of the integrated system consist of trickling filters for ammonia oxidation, reaction cells containing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for trace contaminant removal, a settling basin for storage of iron hydroxide floc, and anaerobic vertical-flow wetlands for biological denitrification. The passive integrated treatment system will treat up to 0.25 million gallons per day (gpd) of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) pond effluent, with a configuration requiring only gravity flow to obviate the need for pumps. The design of the system will enable a comparative evaluation of two parallel treatment trains, with and without the ZVI extraction trench and settling/oxidation basin components. One of the main objectives is to gain a better understanding of the chemical transformations that species of trace elements such as arsenic, selenium, and mercury undergo as they are treated in passive treatment system components with differing environmental conditions. This progress report details the design criteria for the passive integrated system for treating fossil power plant wastewater as well as performance results from the first several months of operation. Engineering work on the project has been completed, and construction took place during the summer of 2005. Monitoring of the passive treatment system was initiated in October 2005 and continued until May 18 2006. The results to date indicate that the treatment system is effective in reducing levels of nitrogen compounds and trace metals. Concentrations of both ammonia and trace metals were lower than expected in the influent FGD water, and additions to increase these concentrations will be done in the future to further test the removal efficiency of the treatment system. In May 2006, the wetland cells were drained of FGD water, refilled with

  14. GALAXY EVOLUTION IN OVERDENSE ENVIRONMENTS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: PASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN A CLUSTER AT z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Daddi, E.; Onodera, M.; Carollo, M.; Dickinson, M.; Renzini, A.; Arimoto, N.; Cimatti, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Chary, R.-R.

    2013-08-01

    We present a study of galaxy populations in the central region of the IRAC-selected, X-ray-detected galaxy cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2. Based on a sample of spectroscopic and photometric cluster members, we investigate stellar populations and the morphological structure of cluster galaxies over an area of {approx}0.7 Mpc{sup 2} around the cluster core. The cluster stands out as a clear overdensity both in redshift space and in the spatial distribution of galaxies close to the center of the extended X-ray emission. The cluster core region (r < 200 kpc) shows a clearly enhanced passive fraction with respect to field levels. However, together with a population of massive, passive galaxies mostly with early-type morphologies, the cluster core also hosts massive, actively star-forming, often highly dust reddened sources. Close to the cluster center, a multi-component system of passive and star-forming galaxies could represent the future brightest cluster galaxy still forming. We observe a clear correlation between passive stellar populations and an early-type morphology, in agreement with field studies at similar redshift. Passive early-type galaxies in this cluster are typically a factor of 2-3 smaller than similarly massive early types at z {approx} 0. On the other hand, these same objects are on average larger by a factor of {approx}2 than field early-types at similar redshift, lending support to recent claims of an accelerated structural evolution in high-redshift dense environments. These results point toward the early formation of a population of massive galaxies, already evolved both in their structure and stellar populations, coexisting with still actively forming massive galaxies in the central regions of young clusters 10 billion years ago.

  15. MODULAR AND FULL SIZE SIMPLIFIED BOILING WATER REACTOR DESIGN WITH FULLY PASSIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ishii; S. T. Revankar; T. Downar; Y. Xu, H. J. Yoon; D. Tinkler; U. S. Rohatgi

    2003-06-16

    OAK B204 The overall goal of this three-year research project was to develop a new scientific design of a compact modular 200 MWe and a full size 1200 MWe simplified boiling water reactors (SBWR). Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to perform scientific designs of the core neutronics and core thermal-hydraulics for a small capacity and full size simplified boiling water reactor, (2) to develop a passive safety system design, (3) improve and validate safety analysis code, (4) demonstrate experimentally and analytically all design functions of the safety systems for the design basis accidents (DBA) and (5) to develop the final scientific design of both SBWR systems, 200 MWe (SBWR-200) and 1200 MWe (SBWR-1200). The SBWR combines the advantages of design simplicity and completely passive safety systems. These advantages fit well within the objectives of NERI and the Department of Energy's focus on the development of Generation III and IV nuclear power. The 3-year research program was structured around seven tasks. Task 1 was to perform the preliminary thermal-hydraulic design. Task 2 was to perform the core neutronic design analysis. Task 3 was to perform a detailed scaling study and obtain corresponding PUMA conditions from an integral test. Task 4 was to perform integral tests and code evaluation for the DBA. Task 5 was to perform a safety analysis for the DBA. Task 6 was to perform a BWR stability analysis. Task 7 was to perform a final scientific design of the compact modular SBWR-200 and the full size SBWR-1200. A no cost extension for the third year was requested and the request was granted and all the project tasks were completed by April 2003. The design activities in tasks 1, 2, and 3 were completed as planned. The existing thermal-hydraulic information, core physics, and fuel lattice information was collected on the existing design of the simplified boiling water reactor. The thermal-hydraulic design were developed. Based on a detailed integral

  16. Multi-point, high-speed passive ion velocity distribution diagnostic on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Bongard, M. W.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-15

    A passive ion temperature polychromator has been deployed on Pegasus to study power balance and non-thermal ion distributions that arise during point source helicity injection. Spectra are recorded from a 1 m F/8.6 Czerny-Turner polychromator whose output is recorded by an intensified high-speed camera. The use of high orders allows for a dispersion of 0.02 A/mm in 4th order and a bandpass of 0.14 A ({approx}13 km/s) at 3131 A in 4th order with 100 {mu}m entrance slit. The instrument temperature of the spectrometer is 15 eV. Light from the output of an image intensifier in the spectrometer focal plane is coupled to a high-speed CMOS camera. The system can accommodate up to 20 spatial points recorded at 0.5 ms time resolution. During helicity injection, stochastic magnetic fields keep T{sub e} low ({approx}100 eV) and thus low ionization impurities penetrate to the core. Under these conditions, high core ion temperatures are measured (T{sub i} Almost-Equal-To 1.2 keV, T{sub e} Almost-Equal-To 0.1 keV) using spectral lines from carbon III, nitrogen III, and boron IV.

  17. Instrumented performance study of a passive solar heated earth sheltered residence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarnell, R.C.; Yarnell, B.K.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a one year effort to gather performance data on an earth sheltered, passive solar house located in Carson City, Nevada. Automatic equipment logged insolation and temperature data for a one (1) year period commencing shortly after completion of construction of the structure and its occupancy by the owners. The use of a recording micrologger reflects an effort to obtain unbiased, factual data on the performance of the house and to reduce the impact of subjective perceptions of the occupants' comfort on the report. Raw data was gathered continuously. A pyranometer measured the amount of whole sky solar radiation. Results were recorded as Btu's per square foot. Thermistors measured temperatures of: (a) outdoor ambient air, (b) indoor living room ambient air, (c) indoor greenhouse ambient air, (d) dining room mass wall, (e) greenhouse mass wall, (f) perimeter earth-sheltered wall, and (g) solar heated DHW storage tank. An event counter recorded user operated insulating adjustments (raising and lowering of insulating of curtains) and auxiliary heating (building or stoking a fire in the wood burning stove).

  18. Biogas from refuse via an earth-sheltered passive solar digester. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    As originally conceived, the project involved the design, construction and operation of a test-scale refuse digestion system and alternative energy technology, as an integral component of a planned comprehensive waste management system based on the concept of recycling and resource recovery. Specific technologies employed in the digestion system included aerobic composting and anaerobic fermentation. System inputs included non-recycleable organic refuse (paper, food wastes, etc.) and septage (septic tank sludge), both of which represent disposal problems for many North American communities, and heat. Anticipated system outputs were biogas (50 to 60% methane), a premium fuel, and compostable sludge, a potential soil amendment-fertilizer. Projected net energy output was enhanced by incorporating biological feedstock preheating, earth sheltering, passive solar heating, and sludge heat recovery into the project design. The purpose of the project was to demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of this system versus competing waste-to-energy technologies. Due primarily to institutional barriers and related factors, the project did not progress to the point of enabling the stated purpose to be demonstrated.

  19. Design and operation of a passive neutron monitor for assaying the TRU content of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Brown, D.P.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.; Rogers, L.A.

    1984-02-01

    A passive neutron monitor has been designed and built for determining the residual transuranic (TRU) and plutonium content of chopped leached fuel hulls and other solid wastes from spent Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel. The system was designed to measure as little as 8 g of plutonium or 88 mg of TRU in a waste package as large as a 208-l drum which could be emitting up to 220,000 R/hr of gamma radiation. For practical purposes, maximum assay times were chosen to be 10,000 sec. The monitor consists of 96 /sup 10/BF/sub 3/ neutron sensitive proportional counting tubes each 5.08 cm in diameter and 183 cm in active length. Tables of neutron emission rates from both spontaneous fission and (..cap alpha..,n) reactions on oxygen are given for all contributing isotopes expected to be present in spent FFTF fuel. Tables of neutron yeilds from isotopic compositions predicted for various exposures and cooling times are also given. Methods of data reduction and sources, magnitude, and control of errors are discussed. Backgrounds and efficiencies have been measured and are reported. A section describing step-by-step operational procedures is included. Guidelines and procedures for quality control and troubleshooting are also given. 13 references, 15 figures, 4 tables.

  20. Passive wireless surface acoustic wave sensors for monitoring sequestration sites CO2 emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yizhong; Chyu, Minking; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2013-02-14

    University of Pittsburgh’s Transducer lab has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient CO2 measuring technologies for geological sequestration sites leakage monitoring. A passive wireless CO2 sensing system based on surface acoustic wave technology and carbon nanotube nanocomposite was developed. Surface acoustic wave device was studied to determine the optimum parameters. Delay line structure was adopted as basic sensor structure. CNT polymer nanocomposite was fabricated and tested under different temperature and strain condition for natural environment impact evaluation. Nanocomposite resistance increased for 5 times under pure strain, while the temperature dependence of resistance for CNT solely was -1375ppm/°C. The overall effect of temperature on nanocomposite resistance was -1000ppm/°C. The gas response of the nanocomposite was about 10% resistance increase under pure CO2 . The sensor frequency change was around 300ppm for pure CO2 . With paralyne packaging, the sensor frequency change from relative humidity of 0% to 100% at room temperature decreased from over 1000ppm to less than 100ppm. The lowest detection limit of the sensor is 1% gas concentration, with 36ppm frequency change. Wireless module was tested and showed over one foot transmission distance at preferred parallel orientation.

  1. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Setiadi, Herlan; Riyanto, Erwin

    2015-04-16

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia.

  2. Tectonic controls on carbonate platform evolution in southern Papua New Guinea: Passive margin to foreland basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigram, C.J., Davies, P.J.; Feary, D.A.; Symonds, P.A. )

    1989-03-01

    The middle Oligocene collision of the northern margin of the Australian craton with a complex subduction system resulted in emplacement of a thrust mass and formation of a foreland basin that extended from the Coral Sea to the Indian Ocean. The distribution of carbonate-platform facies in southwestern Papua New Guinea reflects the transition from an Eocene passive margin setting to the early stages of foreland basin evolution. The initial basin configuration, with terrigenous sedimentation confined to the proximal foredeep, allowed carbonate deposition in the shallow environment adjacent to the peripheral forebulge. Subsequent southward migration of the basin resulted in a rapid increase in the area and thickness of carbonate-platform deposition. When the proximal foredeep became filled by detritus shed from the emerging orogen, clastic sediments buried the platform and terminated carbonate deposition. The history of the southern Papua New Guinea carbonate platform illustrates the paradox of carbonate deposition within the foreland basin, whereby basin configuration initially encourages thick and extensive carbonate deposition but inevitably leads to terrigenous inundation and the demise of the carbonate platform.

  3. Study on natural convection capability of liquid gallium for passive decay heat removal system (PDHRS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, S.; Ha, K. S.; Lee, S. W.; Park, S. D.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Kim, J. H.; Bang, I. C.

    2012-07-01

    The safety issues of the SFRs are important due to the fact that it uses sodium as a nuclear coolant, reacting vigorously with water and air. For that reason, there are efforts to seek for alternative candidates of liquid metal coolants having excellent heat transfer property and to adopt improved safety features to the SFR concepts. This study considers gallium as alternative liquid metal coolant applicable to safety features in terms of chemical activity issue of the sodium and aims to experimentally investigate the natural convection capability of gallium as a feasibility study for the development of gallium-based passive safety features in SFRs. In this paper, the design and construction of the liquid gallium natural convection loop were carried out. The experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of liquid gallium resulting in heat removal {approx}2.53 kW were compared with existing correlations and they were much lower than the correlations. To comparison of the experimental data with computer code analysis, gallium property code was developed for employing MARS-LMR (Korea version of RELAP) based on liquid gallium as working fluid. (authors)

  4. Thermal- and electromigration-induced stresses in passivated Al- and AlSiCu-interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckers, D.; Schroeder, H.; Schilling, W.; Eppler, I.

    1997-05-01

    Mechanical stresses in microelectronic devices are of special interest because of degradation effects in microelectronic circuits such as stress induced voiding or electromigration. Al and al-alloys are commonly used as interconnect materials in integrated electronic devices. Stress induced voiding and degradation of metal lines by electromigration are closely related to the stresses in the lines. The authors have studied the strain and stress evolution during thermal cycling, isothermal relaxation and due to electromigration in passivated Al and AlSi(1%)Cu(0.5%) lines by X-Ray diffraction with variation of experimental parameters such as the aspect ratio and the electrical current density. Furthermore the extent of voiding and plastic shear deformation has been determined from the experimental metal strains with the help of finite element calculations. Main results are: (1) During thermal cycling the voiding is less than 2 {center_dot} 10{sup {minus}3}. The extent of plastic shear deformation increases with increasing line width and with decreasing flowstress. (2) During isothermal relaxation void growth occurs but no significant change in the plastic shear deformation. (3) An electric current in the lines causes no measurable additional change of the volume averaged stresses up to line failure.

  5. Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Hydrocarbon and NOx Adsorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Kim, Miyoung; Choi, Jae-Soon; Daw, C Stuart; Parks, II, James E; Smith, David E

    2012-01-01

    We presents a study of the potential for using low-cost sorbent materials (i.e. Ag-Beta-zeolite and Fe-Mn-Zr transition metal oxides) to temporally trap hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions during cold-start periods in HEVs and PHEVs over transient driving cycles. The adsorption behavior of the candidate sorbent materials was characterized in our laboratory flow reactor experiments. The parameters were then used to develop a one-dimensional, transient device model which has been implemented in the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to simulate a passive HC and NOx absorber device. The results show that such an absorber can substantially reduce HC and NOx emissions by storing them when the 3-way catalyst is too cool to function and re-releasing them when the exhaust temperature rises. These improved emission controls do not involve any penalty in fuel consumption or require any change in engine operation. The cost of these sorbent materials is also much less than conventional 3-way catalysts.

  6. Requirements for Prognostic Health Management of Passive Components in Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2013-08-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts, may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors and near term small modular reactors (SMRs), which are based on integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) concepts. aSMRs are conceived for applications in remote locations and for diverse missions that include providing process or district heating, water desalination, and hydrogen production. Several challenges exist with respect to cost-effective operations and maintenance (O&M) of aSMRs, including the impacts of aggressive operating environments and modularity, and limiting these costs and staffing needs will be essential to ensuring the economic feasibility of aSMR deployment. In this regard, prognostic health management (PHM) systems have the potential to play a vital role in supporting the deployment of aSMR systems. This paper identifies requirements and technical gaps associated with implementation of PHM systems for passive aSMR components.

  7. POTENTIAL ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: LINES OF INQUIRY SUPPORTING ENHANCED PASSIVE REMEDIATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K; Tom Early, T; Michael Heitkamp, M; Brian02 Looney, B; David Major, D; Brian Riha, B; Jody Waugh, J; Gary Wein, G

    2004-06-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring an initiative to facilitate efficient, effective and responsible use of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and Enhanced Passive Remediation (EPR) for chlorinated solvents. This Office of Environmental Management (EM) ''Alternative Project,'' focuses on providing scientific and policy support for MNA/EPR. A broadly representative working group of scientists supports the project along with partnerships with regulatory organizations such as the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The initial product of the technical working group was a summary report that articulated the conceptual approach and central scientific tenants of the project, and that identified a prioritized listing of technical targets for field research. This report documented the process in which: (1) scientific ground rules were developed, (2) lines of inquiry were identified and then critically evaluated, (3) promising applied research topics were highlighted in the various lines of inquiry, and (4) these were discussed and prioritized. The summary report will serve as a resource to guide management and decision-making throughout the period of the subject MNA/EPR Alternative Project. To support and more fully document the information presented in the summary report, we are publishing a series of supplemental documents that present the full texts from the technical analyses within the various lines of inquiry (see listing). The following report - documenting our evaluation of the state of the science of the characterization and monitoring process and tools-- is one of those supplemental documents.

  8. Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous facies relationships in a passive margin basin, western North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prather, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    Correlation of facies from hydrocarbon-bearing continent and transitional marine sandstones to time-equivalent high-energy shelf-margin carbonates provide insight into hydrocarbon habitats of the Baltimore Canyon basin. These facies occur within a thick (>10,000 ft) prograded wedge of shelf sediments in this passive margin basin. Wells drilled to test structural closures in shallow-water (<600 ft) areas of Baltimore Canyon penetrate clastic facies which are time-equivalent to the downdip carbonate facies tested in deep-water wells. Numerous hydrocarbon shows, including a noncommercial gas and gas-condensate accumulation, occur with sandstone units that were deposited in prograding continental/fluvial and transitional marine environments located updip of the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian carbonate shelf edge. The continental and transitional facies are overlain by a fine-grained deltaic complex which forms a regionally extensive top seal unit. The deltaic complex was deposited during aggradation of the Kimmeridgian through Berriasian shelf-margin carbonates penetrated by the deep-water wells.

  9. Starting a local conservation and passive solar retrofit program: an energy planning sourcebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barber, V; Mathews, R

    1982-02-01

    A city planner or a neighborhood activist may wish to initiate a local conservation and passive solar retrofit program but may not have previous experience in doing so. This sourcebook is designed to assist interested individuals with their energy planning efforts, from determining retrofit potential, to financing and implementing the program. An approach or methodology is provided which can be applied to determine retrofit potential in single-family residences, mobile homes, multifamily residences, and nonresidential buildings. Case studies in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are given as examples. Guidelines are provided for evaluating the economic benefits of a retrofit program through benefit-cost analysis and economic base studies at the city and neighborhood levels. Also included are approaches to community outreach, detailing how to get started, how to gain local support, and examples of successful programs throughout the US. The need for financing, the development of a local strategy, public and private financing techniques, and community energy service organizations are examined. In addition to the Albuquerque case studies, a brief technology characterization, heat-loss calculations, economic tools, and a list of resources are appended.

  10. TRITIUM IN-BED ACCOUNTABILITY FOR A PASSIVELY COOLED, ELECTRICALLY HEATED HYDRIDE BED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Foster, P.

    2011-01-21

    A PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been deployed into tritium service in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. The bed design, absorption and desorption performance, and cold (non-radioactive) in-bed accountability (IBA) results have been reported previously. Six PACE Beds were fitted with instrumentation to perform the steady-state, flowing gas calorimetric inventory method. An IBA inventory calibration curve, flowing gas temperature rise ({Delta}T) versus simulated or actual tritium loading, was generated for each bed. Results for non-radioactive ('cold') tests using the internal electric heaters and tritium calibration results are presented. Changes in vacuum jacket pressure significantly impact measured IBA {Delta}T values. Higher jacket pressures produce lower IBA {Delta}T values which underestimate bed tritium inventories. The exhaust pressure of the IBA gas flow through the bed's U-tube has little influence on measured IBA {Delta}T values, but larger gas flows reduce the time to reach steady-state conditions and produce smaller tritium measurement uncertainties.

  11. Passive safety device and internal short tested method for energy storage cells and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keyser, Matthew; Darcy, Eric; Long, Dirk; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-22

    A passive safety device for an energy storage cell for positioning between two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage cell. The safety device also comprising a separator and a non-conductive layer. A first electrically conductive material is provided on the non-conductive layer. A first opening is formed through the separator between the first electrically conductive material and one of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. A second electrically conductive material is provided adjacent the first electrically conductive material on the non-conductive layer, wherein a space is formed on the non-conductive layer between the first and second electrically conductive materials. A second opening is formed through the non-conductive layer between the second electrically conductive material and another of the electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device. The first and second electrically conductive materials combine and exit at least partially through the first and second openings to connect the two electrically conductive layers of the energy storage device at a predetermined temperature.

  12. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored southeastern depressional wetlands.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Barton, Christopher, D.

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can complicate assessments of restoration success. Sixteen drained depressions in South Carolina, USA, were restored experimentally by forest clearing and ditch plugging for potential crediting to a mitigation bank. Depressions were assigned to alternate revegetation methods representing desired targets of herbaceous and wet-forest communities. After five years, restoration progress and revegetation methods were evaluated. Restored hydroperiods differed among wetlands, but all sites developed diverse vegetation of native wetland species. Vegetation traits were influenced by hydroperiod and the effects of early drought, rather than by revegetation method. For mitigation banking, individual wetlands were assessed for improvement from pre-restoration condition and similarity to assigned reference type. Most wetlands met goals to increase hydroperiod, herb-species dominance, and wetland-plant composition. Fewer wetlands achieved equivalence to reference types because some vegetation targets were incompatible with depression hydroperiods and improbable without intensive management. The results illustrated a paradox in judging success when vegetation goals may be unsuited to system constraints.

  13. Impact of Network Activity Levels on the Performance of Passive Network Service Dependency Discovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Chikkagoudar, Satish; Arthur-Durett, Kristine M.

    2015-11-02

    Network services often do not operate alone, but instead, depend on other services distributed throughout a network to correctly function. If a service fails, is disrupted, or degraded, it is likely to impair other services. The web of dependencies can be surprisingly complex---especially within a large enterprise network---and evolve with time. Acquiring, maintaining, and understanding dependency knowledge is critical for many network management and cyber defense activities. While automation can improve situation awareness for network operators and cyber practitioners, poor detection accuracy reduces their confidence and can complicate their roles. In this paper we rigorously study the effects of network activity levels on the detection accuracy of passive network-based service dependency discovery methods. The accuracy of all except for one method was inversely proportional to network activity levels. Our proposed cross correlation method was particularly robust to the influence of network activity. The proposed experimental treatment will further advance a more scientific evaluation of methods and provide the ability to determine their operational boundaries.

  14. Evaluation of three passive-integrating charcoal detectors for measuring radon concentrations. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, D.L.

    1990-03-01

    Three types of passive-integrating detectors that determine Radon-222 (Radon) concentrations in air samples were studied. Each detector type examined uses activated charcoal to adsorb radon from air samples that enter through a diffusion barrier. This results in a time-integrated sample. The three detector types analyzed were liquid-scintillation vials and canisters with and without moisture-absorbing desiccant. The LS vials contain a mixture of charcoal and desiccant. All three types of detectors were calibrated in a chamber of known radon concentration. Since the LS vials had not previously been studied at AFIT, the optimum procedure for exposing, processing, and counting the vials was established. An automated liquid-scintillation counter (LSC) was used for determining the radon levels of the LS vials. The variability in the radon concentrations computed by the LSC for repeated counting of a single vial was examined and was found to be between 1 and 4%. Reproducibility of radon adsorption by a group of vials exposed simultaneously was examined. Reproducibility values for a group of ten vials counted for 4 cycles had a standard error of 1.4%. A blind test was performed where the detectors were exposed to a known concentration, prepared, counted, and then the concentrations measured were compared to actual values. The measured values were within 0.2% to about 8% of the actual concentrations. Exposure times of 24 to 48 hours were recommended for the vials and 3 to 7 days for the canisters.

  15. Passive recovery of DNAPL from clayey soil via vertical collection wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tease, B.; Gagnon, D.

    1995-12-01

    A release of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) from two underground storage tanks (USTs), created a contaminant plume that extended approximately 30 feet into lacustrine sediments comprised mainly of varved clay. Subsurfaces investigations indicated that the release was comprised primarily of the chlorinated solvent Trichloroethene which had migrated horizontally approximately 250 feet cross-gradient to groundwater flow. A relatively narrow zone of free phase product extended from the UST area approximately 150-200 feet along the plume of migration at a depth of 20-30 feet below the ground surface. Since clay varves interconnected by vertical fractures is believed to have facilitated the DNAPL migration, 4{close_quotes} diameter stainless steel collection recovery of 10-20 quarts of DNAPL per each collection event, over a 4 month period supported what is believed to be preferential DNAPL migration. DNAPL recovery continued for a total of 6 months before the point of diminimus return (1-2 quarts/month) resulted in adopting a quarterly recovery schedule. To date, 201 quarts of free phase DNAPL have been recovered. DNAPL mobility, delineation, well installation and collection techniques are discussed. Compared to conventional remediation alternatives, this passive recovery system provides an innovative approach to a difficult and costly problem; recovery of DNAPL isolated within clay.

  16. Cleaning and passivation of copper surfaces to remove surface radioactivity and prevent oxide formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Seifert, Allen; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bachelor, Paula P.; Day, Anthony R.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Litke, Kevin E.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schulte, Shannon M.; Smart, John E.; Warren, Glen A.

    2007-08-21

    High-purity copper is an attractive material for constructing ultra-low-background radiation measurement devices. Many low-background experiments using high-purity copper have indicated surface contamination emerges as the dominant background. Radon daughters plate out on exposed surfaces, leaving a residual 210Pb background that is difficult to avoid. Dust is also a problem; even under cleanroom conditions, the amount of U and Th deposited on surfaces can represent the largest remaining background. To control these backgrounds, a copper cleaning chemistry has been developed. Designed to replace an effective, but overly aggressive concentrated nitric acid etch, this peroxide-based solution allows for a more controlled cleaning of surfaces. The acidified hydrogen peroxide solution will generally target the Cu+/Cu2+ species which are the predominant surface participants, leaving the bulk of copper metal intact. This preserves the critical tolerances of parts and eliminates significant waste disposal issues. Accompanying passivation chemistry has also been developed that protects copper surfaces from oxidation. Using a high-activity polonium surface spike, the most difficult-to-remove daughter isotope of radon, the performance of these methods are quantified. 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved

  17. Online, In-Situ Monitoring Combustion Turbines Using Wireless Passive Ceramic Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Xun; An, Linan; Xu, Chengying

    2013-06-30

    The overall objective of this project is to develop high-temperature wireless passive ceramic sensors for online, real-time monitoring combustion turbines. During this project period, we have successfully demonstrated temperature sensors up to 1300{degrees}C and pressure sensors up to 800oC. The temperature sensor is based on a high-Q-factor dielectric resonator and the pressure sensor utilizes the evanescent-mode cavity to realize a pressure-sensitive high-Q-factor resonator. Both sensors are efficiently integrated with a compact antenna. These sensors are wirelessly interrogated. The resonant frequency change corresponding to either temperature or pressure can be identified using a time-domain gating technique. The sensors realized in this project can survive harsh environments characterized by high temperatures (>1000{degrees}C) and corrosive gases, owing to the excellent material properties of polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs) developed at University of Central Florida. It is anticipated that this work will significantly advance the capability of high-temperature sensor technologies and be of a great benefit to turbine industry and their customers.

  18. Passive Noise Analysis for Advanced Tamper Indication. End of Year Report 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Benjamin; Sanders, Jeff; West, James; Svoboda, John

    2015-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is part of a multi-lab project assessing front-end electronics for unattended measurement (FEUM) being developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) unattended systems. The FEUM development activity provides an opportunity to address tampering detection between FEUM and the detector, signal integrity from FEUM to the data acquisition systems, and data validity – long-standing challenges for the IAEA. This report summarizes the INL activities in Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 to characterize and test passive noise analysis as a potential tamper-indicating approach for implementation into FEUM or as a stand-alone method. The project’s primary objectives in FY-15 were to (1) determine detectable tamper scenarios using four pre-amplifier/detector systems, (2) perform tests of tampering scenarios with three common cable types used by the IAEA, (3) separate radio-frequency-induced events from inherent effect by means of an anechoic chamber, and (4) perform tests at an industrial facility. General conclusions were reached in several areas.

  19. Excellent Passivation and Low Reflectivity Al2O3/TiO2 Bilayer Coatings for n-Wafer Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, B. G.; Skarp, J.; Malinen, V.; Li, S.; Choi, S.; Branz, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    A bilayer coating of Al2O3 and TiO2 is used to simultaneously achieve excellent passivation and low reflectivity on p-type silicon. This coating is targeted for achieving high efficiency n-wafer Si solar cells, where both passivation and anti-reflection (AR) are needed at the front-side p-type emitter. It could also be valuable for front-side passivation and AR of rear-emitter and interdigitated back contact p-wafer cells. We achieve high minority carrier lifetimes {approx}1 ms, as well as a nearly 2% decrease in absolute reflectivity, as compared to a standard silicon nitride AR coating.

  20. Hydrogen passivation of nitrogen in GaNAs and GaNP alloys: How many H atoms are required for each N atom?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buyanova, I. A.; Chen, W. M.; Izadifard, M.; Pearton, S. J.; Bihler, C.; Brandt, M. S.; Hong, Y. G.; Tu, C. W.

    2007-01-08

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry and photoluminescence are employed to evaluate the origin and efficiency of hydrogen passivation of nitrogen in GaNAs and GaNP. The hydrogen profiles are found to closely follow the N distributions, providing unambiguous evidence for their preferential binding as the dominant mechanism for neutralization of N-induced modifications in the electronic structure of the materials. Though the exact number of H atoms involved in passivation may depend on the conditions of the H treatment and the host matrixes, it is generally found that more than three H atoms are required to bind to a N atom to achieve full passivation for both alloys.

  1. Effect of substrate pretreatments on the atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Yameng; Li, Shuo Gastrow, Guillaume von; Repo, Pivikki; Savin, Hele; Putkonen, Matti

    2015-01-15

    The authors show here that the passivation quality of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is highly sensitive to the surface condition prior to the atomic layer deposition, affecting especially the thermal stability of the film. Pretreatments like diluted HCl bath or preheating at 200?C both improved significantly the passivation quality and thermal stability of the films. In addition, the authors observed that a thin chemical SiO{sub 2} layer resulting from diluted HCl solves the blistering problem often encountered in H{sub 2}O based atomic layer deposited process. Finally, the authors show that the chemical oxide protects the surface from contaminants, enabling long storage times in a dirty ambient between the cleaning and the film deposition.

  2. Prediction of subsurface fracture in mining zone of Papua using passive seismic tomography based on Fresnel zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setiadi, Herlan; Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Riyanto, Erwin

    2015-04-16

    Fracture prediction in a block cave of underground mine is very important to monitor the structure of the fracture that can be harmful to the mining activities. Many methods can be used to obtain such information, such as TDR (Time Domain Relectometry) and open hole. Both of them have limitations in range measurement. Passive seismic tomography is one of the subsurface imaging method. It has advantage in terms of measurements, cost, and rich of rock physical information. This passive seismic tomography studies using Fresnel zone to model the wavepath by using frequency parameter. Fresnel zone was developed by Nurhandoko in 2000. The result of this study is tomography of P and S wave velocity which can predict position of fracture. The study also attempted to use sum of the wavefronts to obtain position and time of seismic event occurence. Fresnel zone tomography and the summation wavefront can predict location of geological structure of mine area as well.

  3. The effect of passive material on the detection of hadrons in calorimeter configurations for the SDC detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirk, T.B.W.; Trost, H.J.

    1991-08-14

    We have used a flexible geometry model of a calorimeter design for SDC to study the effect of passive material in front of the calorimeter and between the barrel and endcap modules on the apparent response to hadrons. The thicknesses of the passive materials have been chosen to closely resemble the currently projected wall thicknesses of the scintillating tile-fiber and liquid-argon calorimeter designs. The liquid-argon model contains about three times the amount of material in its shells compared to the tile-fiber model. The solenoid coil reduces the relative difference somewhat in the barrel region but constitutes only a minor correction in the transition region from barrel to endcap. Correspondingly, we find a significantly worse response for the liquid-argon case which we demonstrate using beams of single {pi}{sup minus} particles of 10 GeV/c momentum. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Vapor Extraction Well Performance and Recommendations for Transitioning to Passive Extraction at the Former DUS-II Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Noonkester, Jay V.; Looney, Brian B.

    2013-04-03

    This investigation evaluated mass extraction rate from individual wells associated with the Western Sector Treatment System (formerly known as the DUS-II project). This was critical since each individual well can have a radius of influence in excess of 100-ft when operating using an active extraction system. Future soil vapor extraction should use the existing active extraction system, supplemented with deployment of passive extraction where appropriate.

  5. Passive tailoring of laser-accelerated ion beam cut-off energy by using double foil assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S. N. Brambrink, E.; Mancic, A.; Romagnani, L.; Audebert, P.; Fuchs, J.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Antici, P.; Dipartimento SBAI, Università di Roma « La Sapienza », Via Scarpa 14-16, 00165 Roma; INRS-Énergie et Matériaux, 1650 bd. L. Boulet, Varennes, J3X1S2 Québec ; D'Humières, E.; Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau; University of Bordeaux—CNRS—CEA, CELIA, UMR5107, 33405 Talence ; Gaillard, S.; Grismayer, T.; Mora, P.; Pépin, H.

    2014-02-15

    A double foil assembly is shown to be effective in tailoring the maximum energy produced by a laser-accelerated proton beam. The measurements compare favorably with adiabatic expansion simulations, and particle-in-cell simulations. The arrangement proposed here offers for some applications a simple and passive way to utilize simultaneously highest irradiance lasers that have best laser-to-ion conversion efficiency while avoiding the production of undesired high-energy ions.

  6. Implementation of passive samplers for monitoring volatile organic compounds in ground water at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, F.G.; Korte, N.E.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J.; Baker, J.L.; Ramm, S.G.

    1998-06-01

    Passive sampling for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been suggested as a possible replacement to the traditional bailer method used at the Department of Energy Kansas City Plant (KCP) for routine groundwater monitoring. To compare methods, groundwater samples were collected from 19 KCP wells with VOC concentrations ranging from non-detectable to > 100,000 {micro}g/L. Analysis of the data was conducted using means and medians of multiple measurements of TCE, 1,2-DCE, 1,1-DCE and VC. All 95% confidence intervals of these VOCs overlap, providing evidence that the two methods are similar. The study also suggests that elimination of purging and decontamination of sampling equipment reduces the labor required to sample by approximately 32%. Also, because the passive method generates no waste water, there are no associated disposal costs. The results suggest evidence to continue studies and efforts to replace traditional bailer methods with passive sampling at KCP based on cost and the similarity of the methods.

  7. Measurement of uranium and plutonium in solid waste by passive photon or neutron counting and isotopic neutron source interrogation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crane, T.W.

    1980-03-01

    A summary of the status and applicability of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for the measurement of uranium and plutonium in 55-gal barrels of solid waste is reported. The NDA techniques reviewed include passive gamma-ray and x-ray counting with scintillator, solid state, and proportional gas photon detectors, passive neutron counting, and active neutron interrogation with neutron and gamma-ray counting. The active neutron interrogation methods are limited to those employing isotopic neutron sources. Three generic neutron sources (alpha-n, photoneutron, and /sup 252/Cf) are considered. The neutron detectors reviewed for both prompt and delayed fission neutron detection with the above sources include thermal (/sup 3/He, /sup 10/BF/sub 3/) and recoil (/sup 4/He, CH/sub 4/) proportional gas detectors and liquid and plastic scintillator detectors. The instrument found to be best suited for low-level measurements (< 10 nCi/g) is the /sup 252/Cf Shuffler. The measurement technique consists of passive neutron counting followed by cyclic activation using a /sup 252/Cf source and delayed neutron counting with the source withdrawn. It is recommended that a waste assay station composed of a /sup 252/Cf Shuffler, a gamma-ray scanner, and a screening station be tested and evaluated at a nuclear waste site. 34 figures, 15 tables.

  8. Research in Hydrogen Passivation of Defects and Impurities in Silicon: Final Report, 2 May 2000-2 July 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashok, S.

    2004-12-01

    This subcontract report describes hydrogenating Si samples by different methods such as low-energy implantation, electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma, and thermal diffusion. The samples were provided through NREL. The experimental work, carried out at Penn State, involved the study of hydrogen interaction with defects, trapping, migration, and formation of complexes. The principal vehicle for the latter study was ion implantation, and the intent to understand mechanisms of defect passivation and activation by hydrogen. NREL implemented a study of hydrogen passivation of impurities and defects in silicon solar cells. The work included theoretical and experimental components performed at different universities. The theoretical studies consisted of the calculation of the structure and parameters related to hydrogen diffusion and interactions of hydrogen with transition-metal impurities in silicon. Experimental studies involved measurements of hydrogen and hydrogen-impurity complexes, and diffusion properties of various species of hydrogen in Si. The experimental work at Penn State included introduction of hydrogen in a variety of PV Si by ECR plasma, low-energy ion implantation, and thermal diffusion. The specific tasks were the evaluation of hydrogen interaction with defects engineered by ion implantation; defect passivation, activation, and migration in hydrogenated Si under thermal anneal; and electrical activity of hydrogen-impurity complexes. Electrical characterization entailed I-V and C-V measurements, spreading resistance, and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS).

  9. Final report-passive safety optimization in liquid sodium-cooled reactors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahalana, J. E.; Hahn, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    2007-08-13

    This report summarizes the results of a three-year collaboration between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to identify and quantify the performance of innovative design features in metallic-fueled, sodium-cooled fast reactor designs. The objective of the work was to establish the reliability and safety margin enhancements provided by design innovations offering significant potential for construction, maintenance, and operating cost reductions. The project goal was accomplished with a combination of advanced model development (Task 1), analysis of innovative design and safety features (Tasks 2 and 3), and planning of key safety experiments (Task 4). Task 1--Computational Methods for Analysis of Passive Safety Design Features: An advanced three-dimensional subassembly thermal-hydraulic model was developed jointly and implemented in ANL and KAERI computer codes. The objective of the model development effort was to provide a high-accuracy capability to predict fuel, cladding, coolant, and structural temperatures in reactor fuel subassemblies, and thereby reduce the uncertainties associated with lower fidelity models previously used for safety and design analysis. The project included model formulation, implementation, and verification by application to available reactor tests performed at EBR-II. Task 2--Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Innovative Design Features: Integrated safety assessments of innovative liquid metal reactor designs were performed to quantify the performance of inherent safety features. The objective of the analysis effort was to identify the potential safety margin enhancements possible in a sodium-cooled, metal-fueled reactor design by use of passive safety mechanisms to mitigate low-probability accident consequences. The project included baseline analyses using state-of-the-art computational models and advanced analyses using the new model developed in Task 1. Task 3--Safety

  10. Performance Evaluation for a Modular, Scalable Passive Cooling System in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, TengFang

    2009-05-01

    . Such modular cooling systems are all scalable localized units, and will be evaluated in terms of their operating energy efficiency in a real data center, respectively, as compared to the energy efficiency of traditional legacy data center cooling systems. The technical objective of this project was to evaluate the energy performance of one of the four commercially available modular cooling systems installed in a data center in Sun Microsystems, Inc. This report is the result of a test plan that was developed with the industrial participants input, including specific design and operating characteristics of the selected passive, modular localized cooling solution provided by vendor 4. The technical evaluation included monitoring and measurement of selected parameters, and establishing and calculating energy efficiency metrics for the selected cooling product, which is a passive, modular, scalable liquid cooling system in this study. The scope is to quantify energy performance of the modular cooling unit corresponding to various server loads and inlet air temperatures, under various chilled-water supply temperatures. The information generated from this testing when combined with documented energy efficiency of the host data center's central chilled water cooling plant can be used to estimate potential energy savings from implementing modular cooling compared to conventional cooling in data centers.

  11. Analysis of large scale tests for AP-600 passive containment cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sha, W.T.; Chien, T.H.; Sun, J.G.; Chao, B.T.

    1997-07-01

    One unique feature of the AP-600 is its passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which is designed to maintain containment pressure below the design limit for 72 hours without action by the reactor operator. During a design-basis accident, i.e., either a loss-of-coolant or a main steam-line break accident, steam escapes and comes in contact with the much cooler containment vessel wall. Heat is transferred to the inside surface of the steel containment wall by convection and condensation of steam and through the containment steel wall by conduction. Heat is then transferred from the outside of the containment surface by heating and evaporation of a thin liquid film that is formed by applying water at the top of the containment vessel dome. Air in the annual space is heated by both convection and injection of steam from the evaporating liquid film. The heated air and vapor rise as a result of natural circulation and exit the shield building through the outlets above the containment shell. All of the analytical models that are developed for and used in the COMMIX-ID code for predicting performance of the PCCS will be described. These models cover governing conservation equations for multicomponents single phase flow, transport equations for the {kappa}-{epsilon} two-equation turbulence model, auxiliary equations, liquid-film tracking model for both inside (condensate) and outside (evaporating liquid film) surfaces of the containment vessel wall, thermal coupling between flow domains inside and outside the containment vessel, and heat and mass transfer models. Various key parameters of the COMMIX-ID results and corresponding AP-600 PCCS experimental data are compared and the agreement is good. Significant findings from this study are summarized.

  12. Passivating ligand and solvent contributions to the electronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Crotty, A.; Kilina, S.; Ivanov, I.; Tretiak, S

    2012-01-01

    We examine in detail the impact of passivating ligands (i.e., amines, phosphines, phosphine oxides and pyridines) on the electronic and optical spectra of Cd{sub 33}Se{sub 33} quantum dots (QDs) using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) quantum-chemical methodologies. Most ligand orbitals are found deep inside in the valence and conduction bands of the QD, with pyridine being an exception by introducing new states close to the conduction band edge. Importantly, all ligands contribute states which are highly delocalized over both the QD surface and ligands, forming hybridized orbitals rather than ligand-localized trap states. In contrast, the states close to the band gap are delocalized over the QD atoms only and define the lower energy absorption spectra. The random detachment of one of ligands from the QD surface results in the appearance of a highly localized unoccupied state inside the energy gap of the QD. Such changes in the electronic structure are correlated with the respective QD-ligand binding energy and steric ligand-ligand interactions. Polar solvent significantly reduces both effects leading to delocalization and stabilization of the surface states. Thus, trap and surface states are substantially eliminated by the solvent. Polar solvent also blue-shifts (e.g., 0.3-0.4 eV in acetonitrile) the calculated absorption spectra. This shift increases with an increase of the dielectric constant of the solvent. We also found that the approximate single-particle Kohn-Sham (KS) approach is adequate for calculating the absorption spectra of the ligated QDs. Besides a systematic blue-shift, the KS spectra are in very good agreement with their respective counterparts calculated with the more accurate TDDFT method.

  13. Monte Carlo and analytical model predictions of leakage neutron exposures from passively scattered proton therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prez-Andjar, Anglica [Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 1202, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 1202, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Zhang, Rui; Newhauser, Wayne [Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 1202, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 1202, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 and The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, 6767 Bertner Avenue, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Stray neutron radiation is of concern after radiation therapy, especially in children, because of the high risk it might carry for secondary cancers. Several previous studies predicted the stray neutron exposure from proton therapy, mostly using Monte Carlo simulations. Promising attempts to develop analytical models have also been reported, but these were limited to only a few proton beam energies. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical model to predict leakage neutron equivalent dose from passively scattered proton beams in the 100-250-MeV interval.Methods: To develop and validate the analytical model, the authors used values of equivalent dose per therapeutic absorbed dose (H/D) predicted with Monte Carlo simulations. The authors also characterized the behavior of the mean neutron radiation-weighting factor, w{sub R}, as a function of depth in a water phantom and distance from the beam central axis.Results: The simulated and analytical predictions agreed well. On average, the percentage difference between the analytical model and the Monte Carlo simulations was 10% for the energies and positions studied. The authors found that w{sub R} was highest at the shallowest depth and decreased with depth until around 10 cm, where it started to increase slowly with depth. This was consistent among all energies.Conclusion: Simple analytical methods are promising alternatives to complex and slow Monte Carlo simulations to predict H/D values. The authors' results also provide improved understanding of the behavior of w{sub R} which strongly depends on depth, but is nearly independent of lateral distance from the beam central axis.

  14. A passively-safe fusion reactor blanket with helium coolant and steel structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crosswait, K.M.

    1994-04-01

    Helium is attractive for use as a fusion blanket coolant for a number of reasons. It is neutronically and chemically inert, nonmagnetic, and will not change phase during any off-normal or accident condition. A significant disadvantage of helium, however, is its low density and volumetric heat capacity. This disadvantage manifests itself most clearly during undercooling accident conditions such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or a loss of flow accident (LOFA). This thesis describes a new helium-cooled tritium breeding blanket concept which performs significantly better during such accidents than current designs. The proposed blanket uses reduced-activation ferritic steel as a structural material and is designed for neutron wall loads exceeding 4 MW/m{sup 2}. The proposed geometry is based on the nested-shell concept developed by Wong, but some novel features are used to reduce the severity of the first wall temperature excursion. These features include the following: (1) A ``beryllium-joint`` concept is introduced, which allows solid beryllium slabs to be used as a thermal conduction path from the first wall to the cooler portions of the blanket. The joint concept allows for significant swelling of the beryllium (10 percent or more) without developing large stresses in the blanket structure. (2) Natural circulation of the coolant in the water-cooled shield is used to maintain shield temperatures below 100 degrees C, thus maintaining a heat sink close to the blanket during the accident. This ensures the long-term passive safety of the blanket.

  15. Status Report on the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) for UF6 Cylinder Assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karen A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Marlow, Johnna B.

    2012-05-02

    The Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) is a nondestructive assay (NDA) system being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). It was designed to determine {sup 235}U mass and enrichment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in product, feed, and tails cylinders (i.e., 30B and 48Y cylinders). These cylinders are found in the nuclear fuel cycle at uranium conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication facilities. The PNEM is a {sup 3}He-based neutron detection system that consists of two briefcase-sized detector pods. A photograph of the system during characterization at LANL is shown in Fig. 1. Several signatures are currently being studied to determine the most effective measurement and data reduction technique for unfolding {sup 235}U mass and enrichment. The system collects total neutron and coincidence data for both bare and cadmium-covered detector pods. The measurement concept grew out of the success of the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), which is an operator system at Rokkasho Enrichment Plant (REP) that uses total neutron counting to determine {sup 235}U mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders. The PNEM system was designed with higher efficiency than the UCAS in order to add coincidence counting functionality for the enrichment determination. A photograph of the UCAS with a 48Y cylinder at REP is shown in Fig. 2, and the calibration measurement data for 30B product and 48Y feed and tails cylinders is shown in Fig. 3. The data was collected in a low-background environment, meaning there is very little scatter in the data. The PNEM measurement concept was first presented at the 2010 Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) Annual Meeting. The physics design and uncertainty analysis were presented at the 2010 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Symposium, and the mechanical and electrical designs and characterization measurements were published in the ESARDA Bulletin in 2011.

  16. Passive smoking, air pollution, and acute respiratory symptoms in a diary study of student nurses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, J.; Zeger, S. )

    1990-01-01

    A cohort of approximately 100 student nurses in Los Angeles was recruited for a diary study of the acute effects of air pollution. Smoking histories and presence of asthma and other allergies were determined by questionnaire. Diaries were completed daily and collected weekly for as long as 3 yr. Air pollution was measured at a monitoring location within 2.5 miles of the school. Incidence and duration of a symptom were modeled separately. Pack-years of cigarettes were predictive of the number of episodes of coughing (p less than 0.0001) and of bringing up phlegm (p less than 0.0001). Current smoking, rather than cumulative smoking, was a better predictor of the duration of a phlegm episode (p less than 0.0001). Controlling for personal smoking, a smoking roommate increased the risk of an episode of phlegm (odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, p less than 0.001), but not of cough. Excluding asthmatics (who may be medicated), increased the odds ratio for passive smoking to 1.76 (p less than 0.0001). In logistic regression models controlling for temperature and serial correlation between days, an increase of 1 SD in carbon monoxide exposure (6.5 ppm) was associated with increased risk of headache (OR = 1.09, p less than 0.001), photochemical oxidants (7.4 pphm) were associated with increased risk of chest discomfort (OR = 1.17, p less than 0.001) and eye irritation (OR = 1.20 p less than 0.001), and nitrogen dioxide (9.1 pphm) was associated with increased risk of phlegm (OR = 1.08 p less than 0.01), sore throats (OR = 1.26, p less than 0.001), and eye irritation (OR = 1.16, p less than 0.001).

  17. Thermal Hydraulic Challenges of Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Passive Safety Features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Pope; Jeong-Ik Lee; Pavel Hejzlar; Michael J. Driscoll

    2009-05-01

    Transient response of a Gas cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) coupled to a recompression supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) power conversion system (PCS) in a direct cycle to Loss of Coolant and Loss of Generator Load Accidents is analyzed using RELAP5-3D. A number of thermal hydraulic challenges for GFR design are pointed out as the designers strive to accommodate cooling of the high power density core of a fast reactor by a gas with its inherently low heat transfer capability, in particular under post LOCA events when system pressure is lost and when reliance on passive decay heat removal is emphasized. Although it is possible to design a S-CO2 cooled GFR that can survive LOCA by cooling the core through natural circulating loops between the core and elevated emergency cooling heat exchangers, it is not an attractive approach because of various bypass paths that can, depending on break location, degrade core cooling. Moreover, natural circulation gas loops can operate in deteriorated heat transfer regimes with substantial reduction of heat transfer coefficient: as low as 30% of forced convection values, and data and correlations in these regimes carry large uncertainties. Therefore, reliable battery powered blowers for post-LOCA decay heat removal (DHR) that provide flow in well defined regimes with low uncertainty, and can be easily over-designed to accommodate bypass flows were selected. The results confirm that a GFR with such a DHR system and negative coolant void worth can withstand LOCA with and without scram as well as loss of electrical load without exceeding core temperature and turbomachinery overspeed limits.

  18. Fully Polarimetric Passive W-band Millimeter Wave Imager for Wide Area Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Sheen, David M.; Kelly, James F.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2013-09-27

    We describe the design and phenomenology imaging results of a fully polarimetric W-band millimeter wave (MMW) radiometer developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for wide-area search. Operating from 92 - 94 GHz, the W-band radiometer employs a Dicke switching heterodyne design isolating the horizontal and vertical mm-wave components with 40 dB of polarization isolation. Design results are presented for both infinite conjugate off-axis parabolic and finite conjugate off-axis elliptical fore-optics using optical ray tracing and diffraction calculations. The received linear polarizations are down-converted to a microwave frequency band and recombined in a phase-shifting network to produce all six orthogonal polarization states of light simultaneously, which are used to calculate the Stokes parameters for display and analysis. The resulting system performance produces a heterodyne receiver noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 150m Kelvin. The radiometer provides novel imaging capability by producing all four of the Stokes parameters of light, which are used to create imagery based on the polarization states associated with unique scattering geometries and their interaction with the down welling MMW energy. The polarization states can be exploited in such a way that man-made objects can be located and highlighted in a cluttered scene using methods such as image comparison, color encoding of Stokes parameters, multivariate image analysis, and image fusion with visible and infrared imagery. We also present initial results using a differential imaging approach used to highlight polarization features and reduce common-mode noise. Persistent monitoring of a scene using the polarimetric passive mm-wave technique shows great promise for anomaly detection caused by human activity.

  19. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.

    2005-07-15

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains on internal 'U-tube' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds.IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95% confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory.Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM.Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.

  20. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KLEIN, JAMES

    2004-10-12

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains an internal ''U-tube'' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds. IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95 percent confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory. Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM. Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.

  1. Passive micromechanical tags. An investigation into writing information at nanometer resolution on micrometer size objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmieder, R.W.; Bastasz, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have completed a 3-year study of the technology related to the development of micron-sized passive micromechanical tags. The project was motivated by the discovery in 1990 by the present authors that low energy, high charge state ions (e.g., Xe{sup +44}) can produce nanometer-size damage sites on solid surfaces, and the realization that a pattern of these sites represents information. It was envisioned that extremely small, chemically inert, mechanical tags carrying a large label could be fabricated for a variety of applications, including tracking of controlled substances, document verification, process control, research, and engineering. Potential applications exist in the data storage, chemical, food, security, and other industries. The goals of this project were fully accomplished, and they are fully documented here. The work was both experimental and developmental. Most of the experimental effort was a search for appropriate tag materials. Several good materials were found, and the upper limits of information density were determined (ca. 10{sup 12} bit/cm{sup 2}). Most of the developmental work involved inventing systems and strategies for using these tags, and compiling available technologies for implementing them. The technology provided herein is application-specific: first, the application must be specified, then the tag can be developed for it. The project was not intended to develop a single tag for a single application or for all possible applications. Rather, it was meant to provide the enabling technology for fabricating tags for a range of applications. The results of this project provide sufficient information to proceed directly with such development.

  2. Bear Creek Valley characterization area mixed wastes passive in situ treatment technology demonstration project - status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, D.; Leavitt, M.; Moss, D.

    1997-03-01

    Historical waste disposal activities within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, have contaminated groundwater and surface water above human health risk levels and impacted the ecology of Bear Creek. Contaminates include nitrate, radioisotopes, metals, volatile organic chemicals (VOCS), and common ions. This paper provides a status report on a technology demonstration project that is investigating the feasibility of using passive in situ treatment systems to remove these contaminants. Although this technology may be applicable to many locations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the project focuses on collecting the information needed to take CERCLA removal actions in 1998 at the S-3 Disposal Ponds site. Phase 1 has been completed and included site characterization, laboratory screening of treatment media (sorbents; and iron), and limited field testing of biological treatment systems. Batch tests using different Y-12 Plant waters were conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of most of the media. Phase 1 results suggest that the most promising treatment media are Dowex 21 k resin, peat moss, zero-valent iron, and iron oxides. Phase 2 will include in-field column testing of these media to assess loading rates, and concerns with clogging, by-products, and long-term treatment efficiency and media stability. Continued testing of wetlands and algal mats (MATs) will be conducted to determine if they can be used for in-stream polishing of surface water. Hydraulic testing of a shallow trench and horizontal well will also be completed during Phase 2. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. A passive margin-type submarine fan complex, Permian Ecca Group, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wickens, H.D. ); Bouma, A.H. )

    1991-03-01

    A submarine fan complex, comprising five arenaceous fan systems separated by basinal shale units, occurs in the southwestern part of the intracratonic Karoo basin in South Africa. Although basin development is related to a subduction zone bordering the palaeo-Pacific ocean to the south of Gondwanaland and the evolution of the Cape Fold Belt, the entire Lower Permian Ecca Group basin-fill succession reflects depositional characteristics of a passive-margin setting. The submarine fan complex, 250 m thick, originated from sediments supplied by Mississippi-type deltas dominating the Ecca coastline. The fine grain-size and low sand/shale ratio of the submarine fan and deltaic deposits reflect the maturity of the ancient river systems. Outcrops of the fan complex are well exposed and cover an area of 650 km{sup 2}. The strata are not affected by folding, and deep erosion allows three-dimensional viewing of mid-fan to outer-fan deposits. Features of interest include stacked lobe deposits displayed along 2.5 km of a 60 m high cliff section, and a transverse cliff section through channel-fill deposits 500 m wide. Paleocurrent directions reveal that each sequence had its own main source area located to the northwest and south of its present geographic location. The cyclic nature of the fan complex is attributed to relative sea-level changes; deposition took place on the basin floor in water depths that do not exceed 500 m. Shoaling of the basin to wave base depths is reflected in the pro-delta and delta front deposits overlying the uppermost fan sequence. Major factors in controlling direction of fan progradation were delta switching and basin floor topography.

  4. Late Permian to mid-Cretaceous carbonate platform along the passive margin of the southeastern Mediterranean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derin, B.; Garfunkel, Z.

    1988-08-01

    Starting from the Late Permian and throughout most of the Mesozoic, up to 5 km of shallow-water carbonates formed in a subsiding belt along the northern fringe of the Arabo-African continent, passing inland into thinner and clastic-rich sections. This sedimentation pattern was established in the Late Permian and evolved in several distinct stages that depended on global oscillations of sea level and local tectonic events. In Middle Triassic to early Liassic times, several pulses of faulting and magmatism, interpreted as rifting, occurred along the subsiding belt of carbonate deposition and produced a passive continental margin. Tectonic activity ended by the Roarcian, and since then a rather uniform shallow-water carbonate shelf formed. It was delimited by shoals of high-energy sediments and fringing reefs, inland of which low-energy carbonate muds and sometimes dolomite accumulated. By the Late Jurassic a more than 1.5 km-high continental slope developed, separating the shallow-water domain from a starved deep-water basin. In latest Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous time the activity of an intraplate hot spot caused extensive magmatism, uplifting, and erosion. The eroded material formed a thick sediment body in front of the continental slope. Since late Valanginian time, renewed regional subsidence and a rise in sea level led to a new phase of carbonate deposition over a wide shallow-water shelf. This was fringed by an accentuated continental slope covered by a basinward-thinning wedge-shaped apron of calciclastic sediments. This region was terminated by Senonian and later deformation related to plate collision in the Alpine orogenic belt.

  5. Development and Evaluation of Passive Integrated Transponder Tag Technology, 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downing, Sandra L.; Prentice, Earl F.; Nunnallee, Edmund P.

    2009-04-03

    Since 1984, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has conducted a research project to develop and evaluate technology for passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB). Work conducted as part of this project between October 2000 and September 2002 (FY01 and FY02) was divided into seven individual elements, which are covered separately in this report. The efforts by personnel associated with this project have produced and will continue to produce products that aid resource stakeholders in assessing the effectiveness of actions taken to enhance the survival of juvenile and adult salmonids. These products and their uses include: (1) Survival and migration timing information on stocks to evaluate water management strategies and fish passage/collection facilities; (2) Data needed for the management and restoration of salmonids and other fish stocks listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA); (3) Information required for the management of multiple species in a variety of habitats; and (4) Tools that enable fisheries researchers and managers to address previously unanswerable questions and critical uncertainties These products are also used in genetic, physiology, behavior, and captive broodstock research on endangered species. The continued development of PIT-tag technology will enable researchers and fisheries managers to address issues expressed in both of NMFS biological opinions for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS)(NMFS 1995a, 2000) and the proposed Snake River Recovery Plan (NMFS 1995b; tasks 2.1.d, 2.3.b.4, 2.4.a, 2.6.c.2, and 2.9.d).

  6. FROM BLUE STAR-FORMING TO RED PASSIVE: GALAXIES IN TRANSITION IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Fasano, Giovanni; Moretti, Alessia; Fritz, Jacopo; Calvi, Rosa; Paccagnella, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting a mass-complete (M {sub *}>10{sup 10.25} M {sub ?}) sample at 0.03passive late types, and blue star-forming early types. Color fractions depend on mass and only for M {sub *}< 10{sup 10.7} M {sub ?} on environment. The incidence of red galaxies increases with increasing mass, and, for M {sub *}< 10{sup 10.7} M {sub ?}, decreases toward the group outskirts and in binary and single galaxies. The relative abundance of green and blue galaxies is independent of environment and increases monotonically with galaxy mass. We also inspect galaxy structural parameters, star-formation properties, histories, and ages and propose an evolutionary scenario for the different subpopulations. Color transformations are due to a reduction and suppression of the star-formation rate in both bulges and disks that does not noticeably affect galaxy structure. Morphological transitions are linked to an enhanced bulge-to-disk ratio that is due to the removal of the disk, not to an increase of the bulge. Our modeling suggests that green colors might be due to star-formation histories declining with long timescales, as an alternative scenario to the classical ''quenching'' processes. Our results suggest that galaxy transformations in star-formation activity and morphology depend neither on the environment nor on being a satellite or the most massive galaxy of a halo. The only environmental dependence we find is the higher fast quenching efficiency in groups giving origin to poststarburst signatures.

  7. The use of passive, secure cells for processing of highly active nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Ch.; Cavanah, P.; Richardson, J.

    2007-07-01

    Passive, secure cells (PSCs) have been used for over 50 years at the Sellafield nuclear site in the UK for radioactive processing plants. PSCs are designed and constructed with the expectation that there will be no need to enter them throughout the life of the plant. EnergySolutions has full and exclusive rights in North America to use the intellectual property and know-how generated at the Sellafield site and this includes all the design and operational data for PSCs. These data are thus available for use in the new build of nuclear plant currently being envisaged under the GNEP initiative. There are three types of PSC. Type 1 PSCs contain plant items with no maintainable moving parts, and pipework is all welded and radiographed to nuclear standards. Type 2 PSCs contain plant items with slowly rotating or intermittently moveable parts, but all maintainable items such as motors and gearboxes are located outside the cell, with sealed through-cell-wall drives. Type 3 PSCs are a newer design, dating from the 1980's, in which all maintainable in-cell items are designed as removable modules. The housings for the equipment are permanently welded into the in-cell pipework, and the modules can be withdrawn from these housings, through removable hatches in the PSC roof, into shielded steel 'flasks'. The flasks are moved to a maintenance cell where the modules are repaired or prepared for disposal. The process is reversed to re-install the modules back into service in the PSC. All three types of PSC have been shown to have operability, maintainability, reliability, space utilization, contamination control and worker radiation dose uptake advantages over canyon-based plants. The increased capital cost of PSCs over canyons is offset by decreased operating costs. Although PSCs have lower flexibility for process change than do canyons, this can be mitigated by the provision of spare cells and pipework at the design stage. Entry to PSCs is possible but has been required only

  8. Non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel using passive neutron Albedo reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, L G; Schear, M A; Croft, S; Tobin, S J; Swinhoe, M T; Menlove, H O

    2010-01-01

    Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR) is one of fourteen techniques that has been researched and evaluated to form part of a comprehensive and integrated detection system for the non-destructive assay (NDA) of spent nuclear fuel. PNAR implemented with {sup 3}He tubes for neutron detection (PNAR-{sup 3}He) is the measurement of time correlated neutrons from a spent fuel assembly with and without a Cadmium (Cd) layer surrounding the assembly. PNAR utilizes the self-interrogation of the fuel via reflection of neutrons born in the fuel assembly back in to the fuel assembly. The neutrons originate primarily from spontaneous fission events within the fuel itself (Curium-244) but are amplified by multiplication. The presence and removal of the Cd provides two measurement conditions with different neutron energy spectra and therefore different interrogating neutron characteristics. Cd has a high cross-section of absorption for slow neutrons and therefore greatly reduces the low energy (thermal) neutron fluence rate returning. The ratios of the Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates obtained in each case are known as the Cd ratios, which are related to fissile content. A potential safeguards application for which PNAR-{sup 3}He is particularly suited is 'fingerprinting'. Fingerprinting could function as an alternative to plutonium (Pu) mass determination; providing confidence that material was not diverted during transport between sites. PNAR-{sup 3}He has six primary NDA signatures: Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates measured with two energy spectra at both shipping and receiving sites. This is to uniquely identify the fuel assembly, and confirm no changes have taken place during transport. Changes may indicate all attempt to divert material for example. Here, the physics of the PNAR-{sup 3}He concept will be explained, alongside a discussion on the development of a prototypical PNAR-{sup 3}He instrument using simulation. The capabilities and performance of the

  9. Passive Acoustic Detection of Wind Turbine In-Flow Conditions for Active Control and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Nathan E.

    2012-03-12

    Wind is a significant source of energy; however, the human capability to produce electrical energy still has many hurdles to overcome. One of these is the unpredictability of the winds in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The ABL is highly turbulent in both stable and unstable conditions (based on the vertical temperature profile) and the resulting fluctuations can have a dramatic impact on wind turbine operation. Any method by which these fluctuations could be observed, estimated, or predicted could provide a benefit to the wind energy industry as a whole. Based on the fundamental coupling of velocity fluctuations to pressure fluctuations in the nearly incompressible flow in the ABL, This work hypothesizes that a ground-based array of infrasonic pressure transducers could be employed to estimate the vertical wind profile over a height relevant for wind turbines. To analyze this hypothesis, experiments and field deployments were conducted. Wind tunnel experiments were performed for a thick turbulent boundary layer over a neutral or heated surface. Surface pressure and velocity probe measurements were acquired simultaneously. Two field deployments yielded surface pressure data from a 49 element array. The second deployment at the Reese Technology Center in Lubbock, TX, also included data from a smaller aperture, 96-element array and a 200-meter tall meteorological tower. Analysis of the data successfully demonstrated the ability to estimate the vertical velocity profile using coherence data from the pressure array. Also, dynamical systems analysis methods were successful in identifying and tracking a gust type event. In addition to the passive acoustic profiling method, this program also investigated a rapid response Doppler SODAR system, the optimization of wind turbine blades for enhanced power with reduced aeroacoustic noise production, and the implementation of a wireless health monitoring system for the wind turbine blades. Each of these other objectives

  10. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, M.G.

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  11. Module greenhouse with high efficiency of transformation of solar energy, utilizing active and passive glass optical rasters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korecko, J.; Jirka, V.; Sourek, B.; Cerveny, J.

    2010-10-15

    Since the eighties of the 20th century, various types of linear glass rasters for architectural usage have been developed in the Czech Republic made by the continuous melting technology. The development was focused on two main groups of rasters - active rasters with linear Fresnel lenses in fixed installation and with movable photo-thermal and/or photo-thermal/photo-voltaic absorbers. The second group are passive rasters based on total reflection of rays on an optical prism. During the last years we have been working on their standardization, exact measuring of their optical and thermal-technical characteristics and on creation of a final product that could be applied in solar architecture. With the project supported by the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic we were able to build an experimental greenhouse using these active and passive optical glass rasters. The project followed the growing number of technical objectives. The concept of the greenhouse consisted of interdependence construction - structural design of the greenhouse with its technological equipment securing the required temperature and humidity conditions in the interior of the greenhouse. This article aims to show the merits of the proposed scheme and presents the results of the mathematical model in the TRNSYS environment through which we could predict the future energy balance carried out similar works, thus optimizing the investment and operating costs. In this article description of various technology applications for passive and active utilization of solar radiation is presented, as well as some results of short-term and long-term experiments, including evaluation of 1-year operation of the greenhouse from the energy and interior temperature viewpoints. A comparison of the calculated energy flows in the greenhouse to real measured values, for verification of the installed model is also involved. (author)

  12. Plant Line Trial Evaluation of Viable Non-Chromium Passivation Systems for Electrolytin Tinplate, ETP (TRP 9911)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John A. Sinsel

    2003-06-30

    Plant trial evaluations have been completed for two zirconium-based, non-chromium passivation systems previously identified as possible alternatives to cathodic dichromate (CDC) passivation for electrolytic tinplate (ETP). These trials were done on a commercial electrolytic tin plating line at Weirton Steel and extensive evaluations of the materials resulting from these trials have been completed. All this was accomplished as a collaborative effort under the AISI Technology Roadmap Program and was executed by seven North American Tin Mill Products producers [Bethlehem Steel (now acquired by International Steel Group (ISG)), Dofasco Inc., National Steel (now acquired by U.S. Steel), U.S. Steel, USS-Posco, Weirton Steel, and Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel] with funding partially from the Department of Energy (DOE) and partially on an equal cost sharing basis among project participants. The initial phases of this project involved optimization of application procedures for the non-chromium systems in the laboratories at Bethlehem Steel and Betz Dearborn followed by extensive testing with various lacquer formulations and food simulants in the laboratories at Valspar and PPG. Work was also completed at Dofasco and Weirton Steel to develop methods to prevent precipitation of insoluble solids as a function of time from the zirconate system. The results of this testing indicated that sulfide staining characteristics for the non-chromium passivation systems could be minimized but not totally eliminated and neither system was found to perform quite as good, in this respect, as the standard CDC system. As for the stability of zirconate treatment, a method was developed to stabilize this system for a sufficient period of time to conduct plant trial evaluations but, working with a major supplier of zirconium orthosulfate, a method for long term stabilization is still under development.

  13. Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregor P. Henze; Moncef Krarti

    2005-09-30

    short-term prediction models to realize almost all of the theoretical potential of this control strategy. Further work evaluated the impact of modeling accuracy on the model-based closed-loop predictive optimal controller to minimize utility cost. The following guidelines have been derived: For an internal heat gain dominated commercial building, reasonable geometry simplifications are acceptable without a loss of cost savings potential. In fact, zoning simplification may improve optimizer performance and save computation time. The mass of the internal structure did not show a strong effect on the optimization. Building construction characteristics were found to impact building passive thermal storage capacity. It is thus advisable to make sure the construction material is well modeled. Zone temperature setpoint profiles and TES performance are strongly affected by mismatches in internal heat gains, especially when they are underestimated. Since they are a key factor in determining the building cooling load, efforts should be made to keep the internal gain mismatch as small as possible. Efficiencies of the building energy systems affect both zone temperature setpoints and active TES operation because of the coupling of the base chiller for building precooling and the icemaking TES chiller. Relative efficiencies of the base and TES chillers will determine the balance of operation of the two chillers. The impact of mismatch in this category may be significant. Next, a parametric analysis was conducted to assess the effects of building mass, utility rate, building location and season, thermal comfort, central plant capacities, and an economizer on the cost saving performance of optimal control for active and passive building thermal storage inventory. The key findings are: (1) Heavy-mass buildings, strong-incentive time-of-use electrical utility rates, and large on-peak cooling loads will likely lead to attractive savings resulting from optimal combined thermal storage

  14. HIA 2015 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Hammer and Hand, Pumpkin Ridge Passive House, North Plains, OR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hammer and Hand Pumpkin Ridge Passive House North Plains, OR DOE ZERO ENERGY READY HOME(tm) The U.S. Department of Energy invites home builders across the country to meet the extraordinary levels of excellence and quality specified in DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program (formerly known as Challenge Home). Every DOE Zero Energy Ready Home starts with ENERGY STAR Certified Homes Version 3.0 for an energy-efficient home built on a solid foundation of building science research. Advanced

  15. Compact disposal of high-energy electron beams using passive or laser-driven plasma decelerating stage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonatto, A.; Schroeder, C.B.; Vay, J.-L.; Geddes, C.R.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey and, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2014-07-13

    A plasma decelerating stage is investigated as a compact alternative for the disposal of high-energy beams (beam dumps). This could benefit the design of laser-driven plasma accelerator (LPA) applications that require transportability and or high-repetition-rate operation regimes. Passive and laser-driven (active) plasma-based beam dumps are studied analytically and with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in a 1D geometry. Analytical estimates for the beam energy loss are compared to and extended by the PIC simulations, showing that with the proposed schemes a beam can be efficiently decelerated in a centimeter-scale distance.

  16. Final report on passive and active low-frequency electromagnetic spectroscopy for airborne detection of underground facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SanFilipo, Bill

    2000-04-01

    The objective of this program is to perform research to advance the science in the application of both passive and active electromagnetic measurement techniques for the detection and spatial delineation of underground facilities. Passive techniques exploit the electromagnetic fields generated by electrical apparatus within the structure, including generators, motors, power distribution circuitry, as well as communications hardware and similar electronics equipment. Frequencies monitored are generally in the audio range (60-20,000 Hz), anticipating strong sources associated with normal AC power (i.e., 50 or 60 Hz and associated harmonics), and low frequency power from broad-band sources such as switching circuits. Measurements are made using receiver induction coils wired to electronics that digitize and record the voltage induced by the time varying magnetic fields. Active techniques employ electromagnetic field transmitters in the form of AC current carrying loops also in the audio frequency range, and receiving coils that measure the resultant time varying magnetic fields. These fields are perturbed from those expected in free space by any conductive material in the vicinity of the coils, including the ground, so that the total measured field is comprised of the primary free-space component and the secondary scattered component. The latter can be further delineated into an average background field (uniform conductive half-space earth) and anomalous field associated with heterogeneous zones in the earth, including both highly conductive objects such as metallic structures as well as highly resistive structures such as empty voids corresponding to rooms or tunnels. Work performed during Phase I included the development of the prototype GEM-2H instrumentation, collection of data at several test sites in the passive mode and a single site in the active mode, development of processing and interpretation software. The technical objectives of Phase II were to: (1

  17. Influence of transient absorber gratings on the pulse parameters of passively mode-locked cw dye ring lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuehlke, D.; Rudolph, W.; Wilhelmi, B.

    1983-02-15

    A theoretical explanation of the experimental results obtained by the method of colliding pulse mode locking (CPM) is given. It is shown that, compared to other passive methods, the coherent interaction of the counter-running pulses in the thin absorber yields considerably shorter pulses with a more favorable stability region. Deviations from an amplifier position being symmetric with respect to the amplification of the counter-running pulses lead to different energies of the pulses and to a strong decrease of the stability range of the CPM.

  18. GREEN FUNCTIONS FOR MULTIPLE SCATTERING AS MATHEMATICAL TOOLS FOR DENSE CLOUD REMOTE SENSING: THEORY, WITH PASSIVE AND ACTIVE APPLICATIONS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, A. B.; Marshak, A.; Cahalan, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    We survey radiative Green function theory (1) in linear transport theory where numerical procedures are required to obtain specific results and (2) in the photon diffusion limit (large optical depths) where it is analytically tractable, at least for homogeneous plane-parallel media. We then describe two recent applications of Green function theory to passive cloud remote sensing in the presence of strong three-dimensional transport effects. Finally, we describe recent instrumental breakthroughs in 'off-beam' cloud lidar which is based on direct measurements of radiative Green functions with special attention to the data collected during the Shuttle-based Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) mission.

  19. Mutual passivation effects in Si-doped diluted In{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}As{sub 1-x}N{sub x} alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, J.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; He, G.; Haller, E.E.; Mars, D.E.; Chamberlin, D.R.

    2003-07-21

    We report systematic investigations of the mutual passivation effects of Si hydrogenic donors and isovalent nitrogen in dilute InGaAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} alloys. Upon thermal annealing at temperatures above {approx}650 C, the Si atoms diffuse assisted by the formation and migration of Ga vacancies. When they find nitrogen atoms, they form stable Si{sub Ga}-N{sub As} nearest-neighbor pairs. As a result of the pair formation, the electrical activity of Si{sub Ga} donors is passivated. At the same time, the effect of an equal number of N{sub As} atoms is also deactivated. The passivation of the shallow donors and the N{sub As} atoms is manifested in a drastic reduction in the free electron concentration and, simultaneously, an increase in the fundamental band gap. Analytical calculations of the passivation process based on Ga vacancies mediated diffusion show good agreement with the experimental results. Monte Carlo simulations have also been performed for a comparison with these results. The effects of mutual passivation on the mobility of free electrons are quantitatively explained on the basis of the band anticrossing model. Optical properties of annealed Si-doped InGaAs{sub 1-x}N{sub x} samples are also discussed.

  20. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Thomas F.; Bandhauer, Todd; Garimella, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.