National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for blocks sedimentary layering

  1. Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

  2. Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers

  3. Organic photosensitive optoelectronic device having a phenanthroline exciton blocking layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mark E.; Li, Jian; Forrest, Stephen; Rand, Barry

    2011-02-22

    An organic photosensitive optoelectronic device, having an anode, a cathode, and an organic blocking layer between the anode and the cathode is described, wherein the blocking layer comprises a phenanthroline derivative, and at least partially blocks at least one of excitons, electrons, and holes.

  4. Organic photovoltaic cell incorporating electron conducting exciton blocking layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.

    2014-08-26

    The present disclosure relates to photosensitive optoelectronic devices including a compound blocking layer located between an acceptor material and a cathode, the compound blocking layer including: at least one electron conducting material, and at least one wide-gap electron conducting exciton blocking layer. For example, 3,4,9,10 perylenetetracarboxylic bisbenzimidazole (PTCBI) and 1,4,5,8-napthalene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (NTCDA) function as electron conducting and exciton blocking layers when interposed between the acceptor layer and cathode. Both materials serve as efficient electron conductors, leading to a fill factor as high as 0.70. By using an NTCDA/PTCBI compound blocking layer structure increased power conversion efficiency is achieved, compared to an analogous device using a conventional blocking layers shown to conduct electrons via damage-induced midgap states.

  5. Deep crustal sediment study: Widespread precambrian layered rocks (sedimentary ?) beneath the US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1992-05-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the U.S. midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1-3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence, its ultimate lateral extent, and resource potential are unknown. The objective of this project is to seek and reprocess seismic reflection data provided by industry from the U.S. midcontinent, and together with the COCORP deep reflection data and information from the scattered basement-penetrating drill holes, to begin to constrain the distribution, origin and evolution of this enigmatic layered sequence, particularly to evaluate if sedimentary material may be an important constituent (i.e., deep gas potential).

  6. Deep crustal sediment study: Widespread Precambrian layered rocks (Sedimentary ) beneath the US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C.

    1992-01-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence, its ultimate lateral extent, and resource potential are unknown. The objective of this project is to seek and reprocess seismic reflection data provided by industry from the US midcontinent and together with the COCORP deep reflection data and information from the scattered basement-penetrating drill holes, to begin to constrain the distribution, origin and evolution of this enigmatic layered sequence, particularly to evaluate if sedimentary material may be an important constituent (i.e., deep gas potential).

  7. Deep crustal sediment study: Widespread Precambrian layered rocks (Sedimentary ?) beneath the US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C.

    1992-06-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence, its ultimate lateral extent, and resource potential are unknown. The objective of this project is to seek and reprocess seismic reflection data provided by industry from the US midcontinent and together with the COCORP deep reflection data and information from the scattered basement-penetrating drill holes, to begin to constrain the distribution, origin and evolution of this enigmatic layered sequence, particularly to evaluate if sedimentary material may be an important constituent (i.e., deep gas potential).

  8. Hole Blocking, Electron Transporting and Window Layer for Optimized

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Culn(1-x)GaxSe2 Solar Cells - Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Hole Blocking, Electron Transporting and Window Layer for Optimized Culn(1-x)GaxSe2 Solar Cells Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology <br type="_moz" /> A schematic illustration of an exemplary embodiment of the disclosed CIGS based solar cell, with a quasi-2-dimensional electron

  9. Organic photosensitive cells having a reciprocal-carrier exciton blocking layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rand, Barry P.; Forrest, Stephen R.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2007-06-12

    A photosensitive cell includes an anode and a cathode; a donor-type organic material and an acceptor-type organic material forming a donor-acceptor junction connected between the anode and the cathode; and an exciton blocking layer connected between the acceptor-type organic material of the donor-acceptor junction and the cathode, the blocking layer consisting essentially of a material that has a hole mobility of at least 10.sup.-7 cm.sup.2/V-sec or higher, where a HOMO of the blocking layer is higher than or equal to a HOMO of the acceptor-type material.

  10. Dilute Group III-V nitride intermediate band solar cells with contact blocking layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man

    2012-07-31

    An intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) is provided including a p-n junction based on dilute III-V nitride materials and a pair of contact blocking layers positioned on opposite surfaces of the p-n junction for electrically isolating the intermediate band of the p-n junction by blocking the charge transport in the intermediate band without affecting the electron and hole collection efficiency of the p-n junction, thereby increasing open circuit voltage (V.sub.OC) of the IBSC and increasing the photocurrent by utilizing the intermediate band to absorb photons with energy below the band gap of the absorber layers of the IBSC. Hence, the overall power conversion efficiency of a IBSC will be much higher than an conventional single junction solar cell. The p-n junction absorber layers of the IBSC may further have compositionally graded nitrogen concentrations to provide an electric field for more efficient charge collection.

  11. Dilute group III-V nitride intermediate band solar cells with contact blocking layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Yu, Kin Man

    2015-02-24

    An intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) is provided including a p-n junction based on dilute III-V nitride materials and a pair of contact blocking layers positioned on opposite surfaces of the p-n junction for electrically isolating the intermediate band of the p-n junction by blocking the charge transport in the intermediate band without affecting the electron and hole collection efficiency of the p-n junction, thereby increasing open circuit voltage (V.sub.OC) of the IBSC and increasing the photocurrent by utilizing the intermediate band to absorb photons with energy below the band gap of the absorber layers of the IBSC. Hence, the overall power conversion efficiency of a IBSC will be much higher than an conventional single junction solar cell. The p-n junction absorber layers of the IBSC may further have compositionally graded nitrogen concentrations to provide an electric field for more efficient charge collection.

  12. Sedimentary Geothermal Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Pumps Sedimentary Geothermal Links Related documents and websites Estimate of the Geothermal Energy Resource in the Major Sedimentary Basins in the United States...

  13. Geothermal Resources Of California Sedimentary Basins | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Geothermal Resources Of California Sedimentary Basins Abstract The 2004 Department of Energy...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of CuO nanofibers, and investigation for its suitability as blocking layer in ZnO NPs based dye sensitized solar cell and as photocatalyst in organic dye degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahay, R.; Sundaramurthy, J.; Suresh Kumar, P.; Thavasi, V.; Mhaisalkar, S.G.; Ramakrishna, S.

    2012-02-15

    Electrospun copper based composite nanofibers were synthesized using the copper acetate/polyvinyl alcohol/water solution as starting material. Synthesized composite nanofibers were sintered at 500 Degree-Sign C to obtain CuO nanofibers. XRD, FTIR and XPS techniques were used to confirm the presence of pure CuO nanostructures. The effect of annealing cycle on the crystalline structure of the CuO nanofibers was analyzed and observed that the decrease in crystallite size with an increase in the dwelling time improved the orientation of the CuO crystallite. The blue-shift in the band-gap energies of CuO nanofibers was observed as a result of quantum confinement from bulk CuO (1.2 eV) to one dimensional (1D) nanostructures ({approx}1.746 eV). The catalytic activity of the CuO fibers for the degradation of methyl orange was carried out and as a blocking layer in ZnO based DSSC was fabricated and observed a {approx}25% increase in the current density. - Graphical abstract: The study on the suitability of highly crystalline CuO nanofibers as the blocking layer in ZnO based DSSC was demonstrated and fabricated with possible energy applications. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CuO nanofibers were successfully synthesized by using electrospinning technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of the dwelling time of the annealing cycle for the formation of the crystallite CuO nanofibers was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 25% increase in the current density was observed with the application of CuO as blocking layer.

  15. GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyaard, David S., E-mail: meyaad@rpi.edu; Lin, Guan-Bo; Ma, Ming; Fred Schubert, E. [Future Chips Constellation, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)] [Future Chips Constellation, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Cho, Jaehee [Future Chips Constellation, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States) [Future Chips Constellation, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Semiconductor Physics Research Center, School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang-Heon; Kim, Min-Ho; Shim, HyunWook; Sun Kim, Young [LED Business, Samsung Electronics, Yongin 446-920 (Korea, Republic of)] [LED Business, Samsung Electronics, Yongin 446-920 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-11

    A GaInN light-emitting diode (LED) structure is analyzed that employs a separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region, i.e., the AlGaN electron-blocking layer (EBL) and p-type GaN cladding layer, followed by wafer or chip bonding. Such LED structure has a polarization-inverted EBL and allows for uncompromised epitaxial-growth optimization of the p-type region, i.e., without the need to consider degradation of the quantum-well active region during p-type region growth. Simulations show that such an LED structure reduces electron leakage, reduces the efficiency droop, improves hole injection, and has the potential to extend high efficiencies into the green spectral region.

  16. Interfacial reactions in epitaxial Al/TiN(111) model diffusion barriers: Formation of an impervious self-limited wurtzite-structure AIN(0001) blocking layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, J.-S.; Desjardins, P.; Lavoie, C.; Shin, C.-S.; Cabral, C.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.

    2001-06-15

    Single-crystal TiN(111) layers, 45 nm thick, were grown on MgO(111) by ultrahigh vacuum reactive magnetron sputter deposition in pure N{sub 2} discharges at T{sub s}=700{degree}C. Epitaxial Al(111) overlayers, 160 nm thick, were then deposited at T{sub s}=100{degree}C in Ar without breaking vacuum. Interfacial reactions and changes in bilayer microstructure due to annealing at 620 and 650{degree}C were investigated using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The interfacial regions of samples annealed at 620{degree}C consist of continuous {approx_equal}7-nm-thick epitaxial wurtzite-structure AlN(0001) layers containing a high density of stacking faults, with {approx_equal}22 nm thick tetragonal Al{sub 3}Ti(112) overlayers. Surprisingly, samples annealed at the higher temperature are more stable against Al{sub 3}Ti formation. TEM analyses of bilayers annealed at 650{degree}C (10{degree}C below the Al melting point!) reveal only the self-limited growth of an {approx_equal}3-nm-thick interfacial layer of perfect smooth epitaxial wurtzite-structure AlN(0001) which serves as an extremely effective deterrent for preventing further interlayer reactions. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Stratified precambrian rocks (sedimentary?) beneath the midcontinent region of the US. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C.

    1993-02-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence and its ultimate lateral extent are unknown. However, the occurrences of Precambrian layered rocks on both the COCORP profiles and reprocessed industry seismic reflection data from the region lie within regions of generally low amplitude and low frequency aeromagnetic anomaly, suggesting an even greater distribution. Unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks have been recovered from drill holes in southwest Ohio and adjacent northern Kentucky and southwesternmost Indiana. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks lie above and may be part of an underlying package of strongly layered rocks imaged on a short and shallow seismic profile in southwest Ohio. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks were originally viewed as part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan?) rift; however, in light of Grenville foreland structures seen on the COCORP profile to the north in west central Ohio, these Precambrian strata may (1) be part of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin, or (2) indicate that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary material may be an important constituent of the layered rocks observed on COCORP beneath southern Illinois and Indiana.

  18. Stratified precambrian rocks (sedimentary ) beneath the midcontinent region of the US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C.

    1993-02-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks occurs beneath the Phanerozoic platform strata which blanket the US midcontinent. Observed on COCORP deep reflection data in southern Illinois and Indiana and in SW Oklahoma and adjacent Texas, this sequence is locally 1--3 times as thick as the overlying Paleozoic cover, but the origin of this sequence and its ultimate lateral extent are unknown. However, the occurrences of Precambrian layered rocks on both the COCORP profiles and reprocessed industry seismic reflection data from the region lie within regions of generally low amplitude and low frequency aeromagnetic anomaly, suggesting an even greater distribution. Unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks have been recovered from drill holes in southwest Ohio and adjacent northern Kentucky and southwesternmost Indiana. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks lie above and may be part of an underlying package of strongly layered rocks imaged on a short and shallow seismic profile in southwest Ohio. These Precambrian sedimentary rocks were originally viewed as part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan ) rift; however, in light of Grenville foreland structures seen on the COCORP profile to the north in west central Ohio, these Precambrian strata may (1) be part of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin, or (2) indicate that unmetamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary material may be an important constituent of the layered rocks observed on COCORP beneath southern Illinois and Indiana.

  19. Sedimentation and reservoir distribution related to a tilted block system in the Sardinia Oligocene-Miocene rift (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tremolieres, P.; Cherchi, A.; Eschard, R.; De Graciansky, P.C.; Montadert, L.

    1988-08-01

    In the western Mediterranean basin lies a rift system about 250 km long and 50 km wide and its infilling outcrop (central Sardinia). Seismic reflection surveys show its offshore extension. Block tilting started during the late Oligocene and lasted during Aquitanian-early Burdigalian time. Two main fault trends, with synthetic and antithetic throws, define the more-or-less collapsed blocks. This morphology guided the transit and trapping of sediments. The sedimentation started in a continental environment then, since the Chattian, in marine conditions. In the central part, the series can reach a thickness of 2,000 m. The basement composition and the volcanics products related to the main fault motion controlled the nature of the synrift deposits. According to their location in the rift context, the tilted blocks trap either continental deposits or marine siliciclastic or carbonate deposits. In the deeper part of the graben, sands were redeposited by gravity flows into the basinal marls. The younger prerift deposits are from Eocene to early Oligocene age and locally comprise thick coal layers. Postrift deposits, mainly marls, sealed the blocks and synrift sedimentary bodies. In middle and late Miocene time some faults were reactivated during compressional events. Then, a quaternary extensional phase created the Campidano graben, filled with about 1,000 m of sediments superimposed on the Oligocene-Miocene rift.

  20. Modeling of the Sedimentary Interbedded Basalt Stratigraphy for the Idaho National Laboratory Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzette Payne

    2006-04-01

    This report summarizes how the effects of the sedimentary interbedded basalt stratigraphy were modeled in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Drill holes indicate the bedrock beneath INL facilities is composed of about 1.1 km of alternating layers of basalt rock and loosely consolidated sediments. Alternating layers of hard rock and “soft” loose sediments tend to attenuate seismic energy greater than uniform rock due to scattering and damping. The INL PSHA incorporated the effects of the sedimentary interbedded basalt stratigraphy by developing site-specific shear (S) wave velocity profiles. The profiles were used in the PSHA to model the near-surface site response by developing site-specific stochastic attenuation relationships.

  1. Modeling of the Sedimentary Interbedded Basalt Stratigraphy for the Idaho National Laboratory Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzette Payne

    2007-08-01

    This report summarizes how the effects of the sedimentary interbedded basalt stratigraphy were modeled in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Drill holes indicate the bedrock beneath INL facilities is composed of about 1.1 km of alternating layers of basalt rock and loosely consolidated sediments. Alternating layers of hard rock and “soft” loose sediments tend to attenuate seismic energy greater than uniform rock due to scattering and damping. The INL PSHA incorporated the effects of the sedimentary interbedded basalt stratigraphy by developing site-specific shear (S) wave velocity profiles. The profiles were used in the PSHA to model the near-surface site response by developing site-specific stochastic attenuation relationships.

  2. CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    future increase in industrial efforts at CO2 storage in Colorado sedimentary basins. ... As a more sustainable energy industry is becoming a global priority, it is imperative to ...

  3. Self-Organized Pattern Formation in Sedimentary Geochemical Systems. (Book)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Book: Self-Organized Pattern Formation in Sedimentary Geochemical Systems. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self-Organized Pattern Formation in Sedimentary Geochemical Systems. Abstract not provided. Authors: Wang, Yifeng Publication Date: 2015-09-01 OSTI Identifier: 1228821 Report Number(s): SAND2015-7601B 603562 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Book Publisher: SPEM Publications Research Org: Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque,

  4. CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins. Applied

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Studies in Reservoir Assessment and Dynamic Processes Affecting Industrial Operations (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins. Applied Studies in Reservoir Assessment and Dynamic Processes Affecting Industrial Operations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CO2 Saline Storage Demonstration in Colorado Sedimentary Basins. Applied Studies in Reservoir Assessment and Dynamic Processes Affecting Industrial Operations This

  5. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  6. NATURAL GAS RESOURCES IN DEEP SEDIMENTARY BASINS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thaddeus S. Dyman; Troy Cook; Robert A. Crovelli; Allison A. Henry; Timothy C. Hester; Ronald C. Johnson; Michael D. Lewan; Vito F. Nuccio; James W. Schmoker; Dennis B. Riggin; Christopher J. Schenk

    2002-02-05

    From a geological perspective, deep natural gas resources are generally defined as resources occurring in reservoirs at or below 15,000 feet, whereas ultra-deep gas occurs below 25,000 feet. From an operational point of view, ''deep'' is often thought of in a relative sense based on the geologic and engineering knowledge of gas (and oil) resources in a particular area. Deep gas can be found in either conventionally-trapped or unconventional basin-center accumulations that are essentially large single fields having spatial dimensions often exceeding those of conventional fields. Exploration for deep conventional and unconventional basin-center natural gas resources deserves special attention because these resources are widespread and occur in diverse geologic environments. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that 939 TCF of technically recoverable natural gas remained to be discovered or was part of reserve appreciation from known fields in the onshore areas and State waters of the United. Of this USGS resource, nearly 114 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically-recoverable gas remains to be discovered from deep sedimentary basins. Worldwide estimates of deep gas are also high. The U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000 Project recently estimated a world mean undiscovered conventional gas resource outside the U.S. of 844 Tcf below 4.5 km (about 15,000 feet). Less is known about the origins of deep gas than about the origins of gas at shallower depths because fewer wells have been drilled into the deeper portions of many basins. Some of the many factors contributing to the origin of deep gas include the thermal stability of methane, the role of water and non-hydrocarbon gases in natural gas generation, porosity loss with increasing thermal maturity, the kinetics of deep gas generation, thermal cracking of oil to gas, and source rock potential based on thermal maturity and kerogen type. Recent experimental simulations using laboratory pyrolysis methods have provided much information on the origins of deep gas. Technologic problems are one of the greatest challenges to deep drilling. Problems associated with overcoming hostile drilling environments (e.g. high temperatures and pressures, and acid gases such as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) for successful well completion, present the greatest obstacles to drilling, evaluating, and developing deep gas fields. Even though the overall success ratio for deep wells is about 50 percent, a lack of geological and geophysical information such as reservoir quality, trap development, and gas composition continues to be a major barrier to deep gas exploration. Results of recent finding-cost studies by depth interval for the onshore U.S. indicate that, on average, deep wells cost nearly 10 times more to drill than shallow wells, but well costs and gas recoveries vary widely among different gas plays in different basins. Based on an analysis of natural gas assessments, many topical areas hold significant promise for future exploration and development. One such area involves re-evaluating and assessing hypothetical unconventional basin-center gas plays. Poorly-understood basin-center gas plays could contain significant deep undiscovered technically-recoverable gas resources.

  7. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  8. High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

    2010-06-03

    Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

  9. Parametric Analysis of the Factors Controlling the Costs of Sedimentary Geothermal Systems - Preliminary Results (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustine, C.

    2013-10-01

    Parametric analysis of the factors controlling the costs of sedimentary geothermal systems was carried out using a modified version of the Geothermal Electricity Technology Evaluation Model (GETEM). The sedimentary system modeled assumed production from and injection into a single sedimentary formation.

  10. Liquid blocking check valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, John T.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

  11. Net Requirements Transparency Process for Slice/Block and Block...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 As part of its Net Requirements Transparency process, on July 31, 2013 BPA published the SliceBlock and Block customers' FY2012 and forecast FY2014 Total Retail Load (TRL) and...

  12. DOE workshop: Sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    A DOE workshop on sedimentary systems, aqueous and organic geochemistry was held July 15-16, 1993 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Papers were organized into several sections: Fundamental Properties, containing papers on the thermodynamics of brines, minerals and aqueous electrolyte solutions; Geochemical Transport, covering 3-D imaging of drill core samples, hydrothermal geochemistry, chemical interactions in hydrocarbon reservoirs, fluid flow model application, among others; Rock-Water Interactions, with presentations on stable isotope systematics of fluid/rock interaction, fluid flow and petotectonic evolution, grain boundary transport, sulfur incorporation, tracers in geologic reservoirs, geothermal controls on oil-reservoir evolution, and mineral hydrolysis kinetics; Organic Geochemistry covered new methods for constraining time of hydrocarbon migration, kinetic models of petroleum formation, mudstones in burial diagenesis, compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of petroleums, stability of natural gas, sulfur in sedimentary organic matter, organic geochemistry of deep ocean sediments, direct speciation of metal by optical spectroscopies; and lastly, Sedimentary Systems, covering sequence stratigraphy, seismic reflectors and diagenetic changes in carbonates, geochemistry and origin of regional dolomites, and evidence of large comet or asteroid impacts at extinction boundaries.

  13. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  14. Block coordination copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2014-11-11

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  15. Block coordination copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J; Benin, Annabelle I; Willis, Richard R

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  16. Block coordination copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koh, Kyoung Moo; Wong-Foy, Antek G.; Matzger, Adam J.; Benin, Annabelle I.; Willis, Richard R.

    2012-12-04

    The present invention provides compositions of crystalline coordination copolymers wherein multiple organic molecules are assembled to produce porous framework materials with layered or core-shell structures. These materials are synthesized by sequential growth techniques such as the seed growth technique. In addition, the invention provides a simple procedure for controlling functionality.

  17. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]ℓ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock spacemore » exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  18. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T] also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.

  19. P wave velocity variations in the Coso region, California, derived...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    defined with layers of blocks. Slowness variations in the surface layer reflect local geology, including slow velocities for the sedimentary basins of Indian Wells and Rose...

  20. Estimate of Geothermal Energy Resource in Major U.S. Sedimentary Basins (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ESTIMATE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY RESOURCE IN MAJOR U.S. SEDIMENTARY BASINS Colleen Porro and Chad Augustine April 24, 2012 National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO NREL/PR-6A20-55017 NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY Sedimentary Basin Geothermal WHAT IS SEDIMENTARY BASIN GEOTHERMAL? 2 Geothermal Energy from Sedimentary Rock - Using hot" geothermal fluids (>100 o C) produced from sedimentary basins to generate electricity - Advantages: * Reservoirs are porous, permeable, and well

  1. Help:Blocking users | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3 What it means to be blocked 4 See Also Blocking Blocking users is fairly straightforward, visit Special:BlockIP and follow these steps: IP Address or username: Enter in...

  2. Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Luna field area, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roveri, M. )

    1990-05-01

    The Luna gas field is located near Crotone (Calabria region, southern Italy) in a shallow-water/onshore area. It was discovered and put into production during the early 1970s. Up to now it has produced 19 {times} 10{sup 9} sm{sup 3} of gas; its productivity (50 {times} 10{sup 6} sm{sup 3}/y) has remained virtually unaltered since the beginning. The field is located on the axial culmination of a thrust-related anticline of the Apennine postcollisional thrust belt; it can be roughly subdivided into two areas characterized by different stratigraphic contexts. In the northern and central parts of the field is a structural trap. Reservoir rocks are Serravallian to Tortonian deep marine resedimented conglomerates and sandstones. These deposits represent part of the infill of a middle-upper Miocene foredeep. Reservoir rocks are now thrusted, eroded, and unconformably overlain by lower Pliocene shales, which are the most important seal in this part of the field. In the southern part of the field is a combination trap. Reservoir rocks are upper Tortonian shallow-water sandstones. They lap onto a Tortonian unconformity related to a tectonic phase which split the previous foredeep into minor piggyback basins. The upper Tortonian sandstones are overlain and sealed by Messinian shales and evaporites. Tectonosedimentary evolution of the area and, consequently, areal distribution and geometry of sedimentary bodies - both potential reservoirs and seals - have been reconstructed using a sequence stratigraphy approach. The sedimentary record has been informally subdivided into five main depositional sequences bounded by unconformities or their correlative conformities; classic facies analysis and petrophysical, seismic, and biostratigraphic data have been utilized to define the internal characteristics of each sequence.

  3. Early rifting deposition: examples from carbonate sequences of Sardinia (Cambrian) and Tuscany (Triassic-Jurassic), Italy: an analogous tectono-sedimentary and climatic context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cocozza, T.; Gandin, A.

    1987-05-01

    Lower Cambrian Ceroide Limestone (Sardinia) and Lower Jurassic Massiccio Limestone (Tuscany) belong to sequences deposited in analogous tectono-sedimentary context: the former linked to the Caledonian Sardic Phase, the latter to the Alpine Orogeny. Both units consist of massive pure limestone characterized by marginal and lagoonal sequences repeatedly interfingering in the same geological structure. This distribution indicates a morphology of the platforms composed of banks (marginal facies) and shallow basins (lagoonal facies) comparable with a Bahamian complex. Dolomitization affects patchily the massive limestone bodies, and karstic features, breccias, and sedimentary dikes occur at their upper boundary. Both units overlie early dolomite and evaporites (sabkha facies) containing siliciclastic intercalations in their lower and/or upper part and are unconformably covered by open-shelf red (hematitic), nodular limestone Ammonitico Rosso facies). The sedimentary evolution of the two sequences appears to have been controlled by synsedimentary tectonics whose major effects are the end of the terrigenous input, the bank-and-basin morphology of the platform, the irregular distribution of the dolomitization, and the nodular fabric of the overlying facies. The end of the Bahamian-type system is marked by the karstification of the emerged blocks and is followed by their differential sinking and burial under red-nodular facies. From a geodynamic viewpoint, sequences composed of Bahamian-like platform carbonates followed by Ammonitico Rosso facies imply deposition along continental margins subjected to block-faulting during an extensional regime connected with the beginning of continental rifting. Moreover, the variation from sabkha to Bahamian conditions suggests the drifting of the continent from arid to humid, tropical areas.

  4. The geomechanics of CO{sub 2} storage in deep sedimentary formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, J.

    2011-11-01

    This paper provides a review of the geomechanics and modeling of geomechanics associated with geologic carbon storage (GCS), focusing on storage in deep sedimentary formations, in particular saline aquifers. The paper first introduces the concept of storage in deep sedimentary formations, the geomechanical processes and issues related with such an operation, and the relevant geomechanical modeling tools. This is followed by a more detailed review of geomechanical aspects, including reservoir stress-strain and microseismicity, well integrity, caprock sealing performance, and the potential for fault reactivation and notable (felt) seismic events. Geomechanical observations at current GCS field deployments, mainly at the In Salah CO2 storage project in Algeria, are also integrated into the review. The In Salah project, with its injection into a relatively thin, low-permeability sandstone is an excellent analogue to the saline aquifers that might be used for large scale GCS in parts of Northwest Europe, the U.S. Midwest, and China. Some of the lessons learned at In Salah related to geomechanics are discussed, including how monitoring of geomechanical responses is used for detecting subsurface geomechanical changes and tracking fluid movements, and how such monitoring and geomechanical analyses have led to preventative changes in the injection parameters. Recently, the importance of geomechanics has become more widely recognized among GCS stakeholders, especially with respect to the potential for triggering notable (felt) seismic events and how such events could impact the long-term integrity of a CO{sub 2} repository (as well as how it could impact the public perception of GCS). As described in the paper, to date, no notable seismic event has been reported from any of the current CO{sub 2} storage projects, although some unfelt microseismic activities have been detected by geophones. However, potential future commercial GCS operations from large power plants will require injection at a much larger scale. For such largescale injections, a staged, learn-as-you-go approach is recommended, involving a gradual increase of injection rates combined with continuous monitoring of geomechanical changes, as well as siting beneath a multiple layered overburden for multiple flow barrier protection, should an unexpected deep fault reactivation occur.

  5. Help:Range blocks | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    accounts editing from these IP addresses will also be blocked, unless you check the box to only block anonymous editors. Range blocking is enabled on all Wikimedia wikis; to...

  6. Block LancZos PACKage

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-05-01

    BLZPACK (for Block LancZos PACKage) is a standard Fortran 77 implementation of the block Lanczos algorithm intended for the solution of the standard eigenvalue problem Ax=ux or the generalized eigenvalue problem Ax=uBx, where A and B are real, sparse symmetric matrices, u and eigenvalue and x and eigenvector. The development of this eigensolver was motivated by the need to solve large, sparse, generalized problems from free vibration analyses in structural engineering. Several upgrades were performedmore » afterwards aiming at the solution of eigenvalues problems from a wider range of applications.« less

  7. Geological parameters used to determine the low enthalpy geothermal potential of sedimentary formations in France

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maget, Ph.; Housse, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of low enthalpy geothermal potential in sedimentary formations and its exploitation require the solution of two different problems, depending on whether the formations under consideration are calcareous or detrital.

  8. Tunable Encapsulation Structure of Block Copolymer Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Aqueous Solution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Youngkyu; Ahn, Suk-Kyun; Zhang, Zhe; Smith, Gregory Scott; Do, Changwoo

    2015-01-01

    The nano-sized and shape-tunable molecular building blocks can provide great opportunities for the fabrication of precisely controlled nanostructures. In this work, we have fabricated a molecular building block of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) coated by PPO-PEO-PPO block copolymers whose encapsulation structure can be controlled via temperature or addition of small molecules. The structure and optical properties of SWNT-block copolymers have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The structure of the hydrated block copolymer layer surrounding SWNT can be controlled reversibly by varying temperature as well asmore » by irreversibly adding 5-methylsalicylic acid (5MS). Increasing hydrophobicity of the polymers with temperature and strong tendency of 5MS to interact with both block copolymers and orbitals of the SWNTs are likely to be responsible for the significant structural change of the block copolymer encapsulation layer, from loose corona shell to tightly encapsulating compact shell. These result shows an efficient and simple way to fabricate and manipulate carbon-based nano building blocks in aqueous systems with tunable structure.« less

  9. Belos Block Linear Solvers Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-03-01

    Belos is an extensible and interoperable framework for large-scale, iterative methods for solving systems of linear equations with multiple right-hand sides. The motivation for this framework is to provide a generic interface to a collection of algorithms for solving large-scale linear systems. Belos is interoperable because both the matrix and vectors are considered to be opaque objects--only knowledge of the matrix and vectors via elementary operations is necessary. An implementation of Balos is accomplished viamore » the use of interfaces. One of the goals of Belos is to allow the user flexibility in specifying the data representation for the matrix and vectors and so leverage any existing software investment. The algorithms that will be included in package are Krylov-based linear solvers, like Block GMRES (Generalized Minimal RESidual) and Block CG (Conjugate-Gradient).« less

  10. Liquid-blocking check valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, J.T.

    1982-09-27

    A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

  11. Petroleum geology of principal sedimentary basins in eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K.Y.

    1986-05-01

    The principal petroliferous basins in eastern China are the Songliao, Ordos, and Sichuan basins of Mesozoic age, and the North China, Jianghan, Nanxiang, and Subei basins of Cenozoic age. These basins contain mostly continental fluvial and lacustrine detrital sediments. Four different geologic ages are responsible for the oil and gas in this region: (1) Mesozoic in the Songliao, Ordos, and Sichuan basins; (2) Tertiary in the North China, Jianghan, Nanxiang, and Subei basins; (3) Permian-Carboniferous in the southern North China basin and the northwestern Ordos basin; and (4) Sinian in the southern Sichuan basin. The most prolific oil and gas sources are the Mesozoic of the Songliao basin and the Tertiary of the North China basin. Although the major source rocks in these basins are lacustrine mudstone and shale, their tectonic settings and the resultant temperature gradients differ. For example, in the Songliao, North China, and associated basins, trapping conditions commonly are associated with block faulting of an extensional tectonic regime; the extensional tectonics in turn contribute to a high geothermal gradient (40/sup 0/-60/sup 0/C/km), which results in early maturation and migration for relatively shallow deposits. However, the Ordos and Sichuan basins formed under compressional conditions and are cooler. Hence, maturation and migration occurred late, relative to reservoir deposition and burial, the result being a poorer quality reservoir.

  12. Method of producing nanopatterned articles using surface-reconstructed block copolymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, Thomas P; Park, Soojin; Wang, Jia-Yu; Kim, Bokyung

    2013-08-27

    Nanopatterned surfaces are prepared by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate, annealing and surface reconstructing the block copolymer film to create an array of cylindrical voids, depositing a metal on the surface-reconstructed block copolymer film, and heating the metal-coated block copolymer film to redistribute at least some of the metal into the cylindrical voids. When very thin metal layers and low heating temperatures are used, metal nanodots can be formed. When thicker metal layers and higher heating temperatures are used, the resulting metal structure includes nanoring-shaped voids. The nanopatterned surfaces can be transferred to the underlying substrates via etching, or used to prepare nanodot- or nanoring-decorated substrate surfaces.

  13. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Information and resources on the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program.

  14. Method for making block siloxane copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Nora; Jessop, Edward S.; Kolb, John R.

    1982-01-01

    A method for synthesizing block polysiloxane copolymers. Diorganoscyclosiloxanes and an end-blocking compound are interacted in the presence of a ring opening polymerization catalyst, producing a blocked prepolymer. The prepolymer is then interacted with a silanediol, resulting in condensation polymerization of the prepolymers. A second end-blocking compound is subsequently introduced to end-cap the polymers and copolymers formed from the condensation polymerization.

  15. Method for making block siloxane copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, N.L.; Jessop, E.S.; Kolb, J.R.

    1981-02-25

    A method for synthesizing block polysiloxane copolymers is disclosed. Diorganoscyclosiloxanes and an end-blocking compound are interacted in the presence of a ring opening polymerization catalyst, producing a blocked prepolymer. The prepolymer is then interacted with a silanediol, resulting in condensation polymerization of the prepolymers. A second end-blocking compound is subsequently introduced to end-cap the polymers and copolymers formed from the condensation polymerization.

  16. Palynostratigraphy of the Erkovtsy field of brown coal (the Zeya-Bureya sedimentary basin)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kezina, T.V.; Litvinenko, N.D.

    2007-08-15

    The Erkovtsy brown coal field in the northwestern Zeya-Bureya sedimentary basin (129-130{sup o}E, 46-47{sup o}N) is structurally confined to southern flank of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Belogor'e depression. The verified stratigraphic scheme of the coalfield sedimentary sequence is substantiated by palynological data on core samples from 18 boreholes sampled in the course of detailed prospecting and by paleobotanical analysis of sections in the Yuzhnyi sector of the coalfield (data of 1998 by M.A. Akhmetiev and S.P. Manchester). Sections of the Erkovtsy, Arkhara-Boguchan, and Raichikha brown-coal mines are correlated. Stratigraphic subdivisions distinguished in the studied sedimentary succession are the middle and upper Tsagayan subformations (the latter incorporating the Kivda Beds), Raichikha, Mukhino, Buzuli, and Sazanka formations.

  17. Manipulating Interfaces through Surface Confinement of Poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-poly(vinyldimethylazlactone), a Dually Reactive Block Copolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lokitz, Bradley S; Wei, Jifeng; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan P; Ivanov, Ilia N; Browning, James B; Ankner, John Francis; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Messman, Jamie M

    2012-01-01

    The assembly of dually reactive, well-defined diblock copolymers incorporating the chemoselective/functional monomer, 4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (VDMA) and the surface-reactive monomer glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is examined to understand how competition between surface attachment and microphase segregation influences interfacial structure. Reaction of the PGMA block with surface hydroxyl groups not only anchors the copolymer to the surface, but limits chain mobility, creating brush-like structures comprising PVDMA blocks, which contain reactive azlactone groups. The block copolymers are spin coated at various solution concentrations and annealed at elevated temperature to optimize film deposition to achieve a molecularly uniform layer. The thickness and structure of the polymer thin films are investigated by ellipsometry, infrared spectroscopy, and neutron reflectometry. The results show that deposition of PGMA-b-PVDMA provides a useful route to control film thickness while preserving azlactone groups that can be further modified with biotin-poly(ethylene glycol)amine to generate designer surfaces. The method described herein offers guidance for creating highly functional surfaces, films, or coatings through the use of dually reactive block copolymers and postpolymerization modification.

  18. Blocked impurity band hybrid infrared focal plane arrays for astronomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, D.B.; Seib, D.H.; Stetson, S.B.; Herter, T.; Rowlands, N.; Schoenwald, J.

    1989-02-01

    High-performance infrared hybrid focal plane arrays using 10 x 50 element Si:As Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB) detectors (cut-off wavelength = 28 ..mu..m) and matching switched MOSFET multiplexers have been developed and characterized for space astronomy. Use of impurity band conduction technology provides detectors which are nuclear radiation hard and free of the many anomalies associated with conventional silicon photoconductive detectors. Emphasis in this paper is on recent advances in detector material quality which have led to significantly improved detector and hybrid characteristics. Results demonstrating increase quantum efficiency (particular at short wavelength infrared), obtained by varying the Blocked-Impurity-Band detector properties (infrared active layer thickness and arsenic doping profile), are summarized. Read noise and dark current for different temperatures have been measured and are also described. The hybrid array performance achieved clearly demonstrates that BIB detectors are well suited for use in astronomical instrumentation.

  19. LARGE BLOCK TEST STATUS REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilder, D. G.; Blair, S. C.; Buscheck, T.; Carloson, R. C.; Lee, K.; Meike, A.; Ramirez, J. L.; Sevougian, D.

    1997-08-26

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is investigatinq the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. As shown in Fig. 1-1, the site is located about 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in an area of uninhabited desert.

  20. Molecular origin of photovoltaic performance in donor-block-acceptor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular origin of photovoltaic performance in donor-block-acceptor all-conjugated block ... Title: Molecular origin of photovoltaic performance in donor-block-acceptor all-conjugated ...

  1. Block Island Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status Proposed Developer Deepwater Wind Location Offshore from Block Island RI Coordinates 41.1, -71.53 Show Map Loading...

  2. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Block Grant Program Project Title AK-TRIBE-NANWALEK (AKA ENGLISH BAY) Location: Tribe AK-TRIBE- NANWALEK (AKA ENGLISH BAY) AK American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: Proposed ...

  3. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form Program or Field Office: Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Project Title ...

  4. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NEP A Determination for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Application submitted by the Native Village of Tetlin of AK Energy Efficiency and Conservation ...

  5. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Form Program or Field Office: Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program ... diode (LED) retrofits, 4) building retrofits to replace a 50 ton HVAC ...

  6. Gas block mechanism for water removal in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Issacci, Farrokh; Rehg, Timothy J.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention is directed to apparatus and method for cathode-side disposal of water in an electrochemical fuel cell. There is a cathode plate. Within a surface of the plate is a flow field comprised of interdigitated channels. During operation of the fuel cell, cathode gas flows by convection through a gas diffusion layer above the flow field. Positioned at points adjacent to the flow field are one or more porous gas block mediums that have pores sized such that water is sipped off to the outside of the flow field by capillary flow and cathode gas is blocked from flowing through the medium. On the other surface of the plate is a channel in fluid communication with each porous gas block mediums. The method for water disposal in a fuel cell comprises installing the cathode plate assemblies at the cathode sides of the stack of fuel cells and manifolding the single water channel of each of the cathode plate assemblies to the coolant flow that feeds coolant plates in the stack.

  7. Nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films via block copolymer lithography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B.; Sumant, A. V.; Auciello, O.

    2010-07-01

    Nanopatterning of diamond surfaces is critical for the development of diamond-based microelectromechanical system/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS), such as resonators or switches. Micro-/nanopatterning of diamond materials is typically done using photolithography or electron beam lithography combined with reactive ion etching (RIE). In this work, we demonstrate a simple process, block copolymer (BCP) lithography, for nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films to produce nanostructures suitable for the fabrication of NEMS based on UNCD. In BCP lithography, nanoscale self-assembled polymeric domains serve as an etch mask for pattern transfer. The authors used thin films of a cylinder-forming organic-inorganic BCP, poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane), PS-b-PFS, as an etch mask on the surface of UNCD films. Orientational control of the etch masking cylindrical PFS blocks is achieved by manipulating the polymer film thickness in concert with the annealing treatment. We have observed that the surface roughness of UNCD layers plays an important role in transferring the pattern. Oxygen RIE was used to etch the exposed areas of the UNCD film underneath the BCP. Arrays of both UNCD posts and wirelike structures have been created using the same starting polymeric materials as the etch mask.

  8. Light extraction block with curved surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  9. Precision aligned split V-block

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, Irwin S.

    1984-01-01

    A precision aligned split V-block for holding a workpiece during a milling operation having an expandable frame for allowing various sized workpieces to be accommodated, is easily secured directly to the mill table and having key lugs in one base of the split V-block that assures constant alignment.

  10. Sedimentary structures and textures of Rio Orinoco channel sands, Venezuela and Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    The majority of the sedimentary structures in the channel sands of the Orinoco River are planar cross-strata that are products of sand-wave deposition. Sands in these deposits are mostly medium-grained. Eolian dunes form on top of the sand waves when they are exposed to the trade winds at low river stages. The windblown sands are typically fine-grained.

  11. Thermal Expansion Behavior of Cerro Prieto Sandstones and Other Sedimentary Rocks Under Stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contreras, E.; Bermejo, F.

    1983-12-15

    This paper describes the experimental work and presents the results of a research program carried out to investigate the thermal expansion behavior of sedimentary rocks under high stress conditions. The aspects that were investigated include the effects of temperature, temperature cycling, and confining pressure. Furthermore, the validity of the usual assumption on thermal expansion isotropy was investigated. On the other hand, the matrix thermal expansion concept is analyzed and its physical meaning and aplications are discussed. The effect of temperature on porosity is also a subject investigated regarding experimental methods for its estimation and comparison of earlier results. The experiments carried out consisted basically of thermal strain versus temperature measurements on jacketed and unjacketed samples subjected to different confining pressures and covering the temperature range from 25 C to 280 C and the pressure range from 3.0 MPa to 34.4 MPa. A review of earlier work is included as a reference frame to discuss and compare the results of this work, as well as to emphasize the limited extent of the research on thermal expansion behavior of sedimentary rocks that had been accomplished. Results are presented by means of thermal strain versus temperature curves and tabular data of thermal expansion coefficients. Several important conclusions for laborarory and field applications are reached from each of the aspects investigated. The wide research scope of considerable amount of data reported may represent an important contribution to the knowledge of thermal expansion behavior of sedimentary rocks.

  12. Estimate of Geothermal Energy Resource in Major U.S. Sedimentary Basins (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porro, C.; Augustine, C.

    2012-04-01

    This study estimates the magnitude of geothermal energy from fifteen major known US sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties are known. This reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin as well as a relative assessment of geologic risk elements for each play. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by Muffler (USGS). Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient Information were gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data was insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission websites. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size and temperature distribution, and to qualitatively assess reservoir productivity.

  13. Estimate of the Geothermal Energy Resource in the Major Sedimentary Basins in the United States (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esposito, A.; Porro, C.; Augustine, C.; Roberts, B.

    2012-09-01

    Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties such as depth to basement and formation thickness are well known. The availability of this data reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin. This study estimates the magnitude of recoverable geothermal energy from 15 major known U.S. sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by (Muffler, 1979). A qualitative recovery factor was determined for each basin based on data on flow volume, hydrothermal recharge, and vertical and horizontal permeability. Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient information was gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data were insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission databases. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size, temperature distribution, and a probable quantitative recovery factor.

  14. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, Mike S.; Detwiler, Russell L.; Lao, Kang; Serajian, Vahid; Elkhoury, Jean; Diessl, Julia; White, Nicky

    2012-12-13

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  15. Doped Y.sub.2O.sub.3 buffer layers for laminated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T. [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W. [Framingham, MA

    2007-08-21

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the metallic substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising Y.sub.2O.sub.3 and a dopant for blocking cation diffusion through the Y.sub.2O.sub.3, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  16. Picture of the Week: Supercomputer building blocks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Supercomputer building blocks The first row of cabinets for the new Trinity supercomputer are being prepared for connection to the water cooling infrastructure at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Each set of 12 cabinets is delivered, connected and tested one row at a time, by the Cray installation team, until all five rows arrive. June 21, 2015 Supercomputer building blocks x View extra-large image on Flickr » The first row of cabinets for the new Trinity supercomputer are being prepared for

  17. Photonic layered media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2002-01-01

    A new class of structured dielectric media which exhibit significant photonic bandstructure has been invented. The new structures, called photonic layered media, are easy to fabricate using existing layer-by-layer growth techniques, and offer the ability to significantly extend our practical ability to tailor the properties of such optical materials.

  18. Molecular origin of photovoltaic performance in donor-block-acceptor all-conjugated block copolymers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Kendall A.; Lin, Yen -Hao; Mok, Jorge W.; Yager, Kevin G.; Strzalka, Joseph; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Verduzco, Rafael

    2015-11-03

    All-conjugated block copolymers may be an effective route to self-assembled photovoltaic devices, but we lack basic information on the relationship between molecular characteristics and photovoltaic performance. Here, we synthesize a library of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) block poly((9,9-dialkylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(alkylthiophen-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2',2''-diyl) (PFTBT) donor-block-acceptor all-conjugated block copolymers and carry out a comprehensive study of processing conditions, crystallinity, domain sizes, and side-chain structure on photovoltaic device performance. We find that all block copolymers studied exhibit an out-of-plane crystal orientation after deposition, and on thermal annealing at high temperatures the crystal orientation flips to an in-plane orientation. By varying processing conditions on polymer photovoltaic devices, we show thatmore » the crystal orientation has only a modest effect (15-20%) on photovoltaic performance. The addition of side-chains to the PFTBT block is found to decrease photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies by at least an order of magnitude. Through grazing-incidence X-ray measurements we find that the addition of side-chains to the PFTBT acceptor block results in weak segregation and small (< 10 nm) block copolymer self-assembled donor and acceptor domains. This work is the most comprehensive to date on all-conjugated block copolymer systems and suggests that photovoltaic performance of block copolymers depends strongly on the miscibility of donor and acceptor blocks, which impacts donor and acceptor domain sizes and purity. Lastly, strategies for improving the device performance of block copolymer photovoltaics should seek to increase segregation between donor and acceptor polymer domains.« less

  19. Molecular origin of photovoltaic performance in donor-block-acceptor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    all-conjugated block copolymers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Molecular origin of photovoltaic performance in donor-block-acceptor all-conjugated block copolymers Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on November 3, 2016 Title: Molecular origin of photovoltaic performance in donor-block-acceptor all-conjugated block copolymers All-conjugated block copolymers may be an effective route to self-assembled photovoltaic devices, but we lack basic

  20. Low-dislocation-density epitatial layers grown by defect filtering by self-assembled layers of spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming

    2013-04-23

    A method for growing low-dislocation-density material atop a layer of the material with an initially higher dislocation density using a monolayer of spheroidal particles to bend and redirect or directly block vertically propagating threading dislocations, thereby enabling growth and coalescence to form a very-low-dislocation-density surface of the material, and the structures made by this method.

  1. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yun, Jae-Chul; Para, Adam

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  2. Exploration of multi-block polymer morphologies using high performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exploration of multi-block polymer morphologies using high performance computing Modern material design increasingly relies on controlling small scale morphologies. Multi-block...

  3. Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Grantees...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conservation Block Grant Grantees on Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds and New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program ...

  4. Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Block Grant Program Recipients on Formula Grants U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block ...

  5. State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Conservation Block Grant Program Guidance 13-001: Guidance for Returning Interest Earned State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program ...

  6. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Financing Program Guidance Grantee Letter Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant ... of Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant-funded financing programs, including ...

  7. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program National...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Block Grant Program National Evaluation Executive Summary This document presents findings from an evaluation of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant ...

  8. Energy Efficiency and Consveration Block Grant Program National...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Consveration Block Grant Program National Evaluation Fact Sheet Energy Efficiency and Consveration Block Grant Program National Evaluation Fact Sheet This fact sheet provides ...

  9. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Programs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Programs After Grant Retirement Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Programs After Grant Retirement ...

  10. GUIDANCE FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT RECIPIENTS...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT RECIPIENTS ON CLOSEOUT PROCEDURES FOR NON-STATE ENERGY OFFICE RECIPIENTS. GUIDANCE FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT RECIPIENTS ON ...

  11. Indian Community Development Block Grant Program FY 2016 Notice...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indian Community Development Block Grant Program FY 2016 Notice of Funding Availability Workshop Indian Community Development Block Grant Program FY 2016 Notice of Funding ...

  12. Guidance For Energy Efficiency And Conservation Block Grant Grantees...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    For Energy Efficiency And Conservation Block Grant Grantees On Financing Programs Guidance For Energy Efficiency And Conservation Block Grant Grantees On Financing Programs U.S. ...

  13. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Program Guidance Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Program Guidance Relevant guidance for Energy Efficiency ...

  14. Guidance For Energy Efficiency And Conservation Block Grant Grantees...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidance For Energy Efficiency And Conservation Block Grant Grantees On Financing Programs Guidance For Energy Efficiency And Conservation Block Grant Grantees On Financing ...

  15. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Program Guidance Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Program Guidance Relevant guidance for Energy ...

  16. Deformation Processes in Block Copolymer Toughened Epoxies (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deformation Processes in Block Copolymer Toughened Epoxies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Deformation Processes in Block Copolymer Toughened Epoxies Authors:...

  17. A novel power block for CSP systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittelman, Gur; Epstein, Michael

    2010-10-15

    Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) and in particular parabolic trough, is a proven large-scale solar power technology. However, CSP cost is not yet competitive with conventional alternatives unless subsidized. Current CSP plants typically include a condensing steam cycle power block which was preferably designed for a continuous operation and higher operating conditions and therefore, limits the overall plant cost effectiveness and deployment. The drawbacks of this power block are as follows: (i) no power generation during low insolation periods (ii) expensive, large condenser (typically water cooled) due to the poor extracted steam properties (high specific volume, sub-atmospheric pressure) and (iii) high installation and operation costs. In the current study, a different power block scheme is proposed to eliminate these obstacles. This power block includes a top Rankine cycle with a back pressure steam turbine and a bottoming Kalina cycle comprising another back pressure turbine and using ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid. The bottoming (moderate temperature) cycle allows power production during low insolation periods. Because of the superior ammonia-water vapor properties, the condensing system requirements are much less demanding and the operation costs are lowered. Accordingly, air cooled condensers can be used with lower economical penalty. Another advantage is that back pressure steam turbines have a less complex design than condensing steam turbines which make their costs lower. All of these improvements could make the combined cycle unit more cost effective. This unit can be applicable in both parabolic trough and central receiver (solar tower) plants. The potential advantage of the new power block is illustrated by a detailed techno-economical analysis of two 50 MW parabolic trough power plants, comparing between the standard and the novel power block. The results indicate that the proposed plant suggests a 4-11% electricity cost saving. (author)

  18. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM (ARC EXTERNAL TO BLOCK)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brobeck, W.H.

    1958-09-01

    This patent pentains to an ion producing mechanism employed in a calutron which has the decided advantage of an increased amount of ionization effectuated by the arc, and a substantially uniform arc in poiat of time, i arc location and along the arc length. The unique features of the disclosed ion source lie in the specific structural arrangement of the source block, gas ionizing passage, filament shield and filament whereby the arc is established both within the ionizing passage and immediately outside the exit of the ionizing passage at the block face.

  19. GaAs Blocked-Impurity-Band Detectors for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardozo, Benjamin Lewin

    2004-12-21

    High-purity and doped GaAs films have been grown by Liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) for development of a blocked impurity band (BIB) detector for far-infrared radiation. The film growth process developed has resulted in the capability to grow GaAs with a net active impurity concentration below 1 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, ideal for the blocking layer of the BIB detector. The growth of n-type LPE GaAs films with donor concentrations below the metal-insulator transition, as required for the absorbing layer of a BIB detector, has been achieved. The control of the donor concentration, however, was found to be insufficient for detector production. The growth by LPE of a high-purity film onto a commercially grown vapor-phase epitaxial (VPE) n-type GaAs doped absorbing layer resulted in a BIB device that showed a significant reduction in the low-temperature dark current compared to the absorbing layer only. Extended optical response was not detected, most likely due to the high compensation of the commercially grown GaAs absorbing layer, which restricts the depletion width of the device.

  20. Layered rocks beneath the Phanerozoic platform of the US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, E.C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1991-03-01

    A thick sequence of layered rocks lies hidden beneath the Phanerozoic cover of the central US over large regions. A thick sequence of Precambrian layered rocks in imaged on the COCORP transect across southern Illinois and Indiana. The thickness of this layered sequence varies from 1-3 times the thickness of the overlying Phanerozoic section of the Illinois basin. The layered sequence is observed for close to 200 km in an east-west direction. Similar layered reflections are seen on the COCORP data from Hardeman Co., TX, and neighboring southwest Oklahoma. Both of these known occurrences lie within the region of the middle Proterozoic Granite/Rhyolite province of the US midcontinent, an area within which scattered wells to basement commonly encounter 1.3-1.5 Ga undeformed granite and/or compositionally similar rhyolite. Therefore, these layered assemblages may comprise a thick sequence of silicic volcanic and sedimentary rocks (perhaps also injected by mafic sills) between scattered volcanic-intrusive centers, such as exposed in the St. Francois Mountains of southeast Missouri. However, in places such as Illinois and Indiana, the near absence of deep wells leaves the possibility that the upper portion of these layered rocks may locally be of late Proterozoic or earliest Paleozoic age. The reprocessing of available industry data, analyzed in conjunction with the existing COCORP data, includes extended vibroseis correlation. These industry data are invaluable in the author's effort to expand the known distribution of these layered rocks (e.g., into north-central Illinois) and to map their structures.

  1. 100th anniversary special paper: Sedimentary mineral deposits and the evolution of earth's near-surface environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, H.D. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth & Planetary Science

    2005-12-15

    The nature of sedimentary mineral deposits has evolved during Earth's history in concert with changes in the oxidation (redo) state of the ocean-atmosphere system, biological evolution, and the growing importance of geologically young accumulations of ore-grade material. There is now strong evidence that the atmosphere and the oceans were anoxic, or essentially anoxic, before 2.4 Ga. Banded iron formations (BIF) and the detrital uranium ores formed prior to 2.4 Ga are consistent with such a state. The period between 2.4 and 2.0 Ga is called the Great Oxidation Event by some. Its ores bear unmistakable marks of the presence of atmospheric O{sub 2}. Between 1.8 and 0.8 Ga the Earth system seems to have been remarkably stable. Sedimentary ore deposits of this period were influenced by the presence of O{sub 2}. BIF, sedimentary manganese, and phosphorites disappeared ca. 1.8 Ga, but sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits and unconformity-type uranium deposits flourished, and nonsulfide zinc deposits put in an appearance. The period between 0.8 Ga and the end of the Proterozoic at 0.54 Ga was as turbulent or more so than the Paleoproterozoic. BIF returned, as did sedimentary manganese deposits and phosphorites. A further rise in the O{sub 2} content of the atmosphere and an increase in the sulfate concentration of seawater during this period brought the composition of the atmosphere and of seawater close to their present redox state. The last 540 m.y. of Earth's history have seen the system pass through two supercycles of roughly equal length. Climate, the redox stratification of the oceans ocean mixing, and the nature of sedimentary ores were influenced by tectonically and volcanically driven changes during these supercycles. The evolution of the higher land plants gave rise to coal deposits and sandstone-type uranium ores and was important for the formation of bauxites.

  2. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is .gtoreq.2 and is the number of selective layers.

  3. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  4. Self-doped microphase separated block copolymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayes, Anne M.; Sadoway, Donald R.; Banerjee, Pallab; Soo, Philip; Huang, Biying

    2002-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte includes a self-doped microphase separated block copolymer including at least one ionically conductive block and at least one second block that is immiscible in the ionically conductive block, an anion immobilized on the polymer electrolyte and a cationic species. The ionically conductive block provides a continuous ionically conductive pathway through the electrolyte. The electrolyte may be used as an electrolyte in an electrochemical cell.

  5. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  6. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  7. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  8. Poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block polymers for metal oxide templating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulze, Morgan W.; Sinturel, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    A series of poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (CEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized through tandem anionic polymerizations and heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation. Solvent-annealed CEO diblock films were used to template dense arrays of inorganic oxide nanodots via simple spin coating of an inorganic precursor solution atop the ordered film. The substantial chemical dissimilarity of the two blocks enables (i) selective inclusion of the inorganic precursor within the PEO domain and (ii) the formation of exceptionally small feature sizes due to a relatively large interaction parameter estimated from mean-field analysis of the order–disorder transition temperatures of compositionally symmetric samples. UV/ozone treatment following incorporation produces an ordered arrangement of oxide nanodots and simultaneously removes the block polymer template. However, we report the smallest particles (6 ± 1 nm) templated from a selective precursor insertion method to date using a block polymer scaffold.

  9. Poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block polymers for metal oxide templating

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schulze, Morgan W.; Sinturel, Christophe; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2015-09-01

    A series of poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (CEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized through tandem anionic polymerizations and heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation. Solvent-annealed CEO diblock films were used to template dense arrays of inorganic oxide nanodots via simple spin coating of an inorganic precursor solution atop the ordered film. The substantial chemical dissimilarity of the two blocks enables (i) selective inclusion of the inorganic precursor within the PEO domain and (ii) the formation of exceptionally small feature sizes due to a relatively large interaction parameter estimated from mean-field analysis of the order–disorder transition temperatures of compositionally symmetric samples. UV/ozone treatment following incorporation produces anmore » ordered arrangement of oxide nanodots and simultaneously removes the block polymer template. However, we report the smallest particles (6 ± 1 nm) templated from a selective precursor insertion method to date using a block polymer scaffold.« less

  10. Boundary Layer Structure:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boundary Layer Structure: a comparison between methods and sites Thiago Biscaro Suzane de Sá Jae-In Song Shaoyue "Emily" Qiu Mentors: Virendra Ghate and Ewan O'Connor July 24 2015 1 st ever ARM Summer Training Outline * IntroducQon * Methodology * Results - SGP - MAO - Comparison between the 2 sites * Conclusions INTRODUCTION Focus: esQmates of PBL height Boundary Layer: "The boUom layer of the troposphere that is in contact with the surface of the earth." (AMS, Glossary of

  11. Compliant layer chucking surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaedel, Kenneth L.; Spence, Paul A.; Thompson, Samuel L.

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus are described wherein a thin layer of complaint material is deposited on the surface of a chuck to mitigate the deformation that an entrapped particle might cause in the part, such as a mask or a wafer, that is clamped to the chuck. The harder particle will embed into the softer layer as the clamping pressure is applied. The material composing the thin layer could be a metal or a polymer for vacuum or electrostatic chucks. It may be deposited in various patterns to affect an interrupted surface, such as that of a "pin" chuck, thereby reducing the probability of entrapping a particle.

  12. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  13. Efficient methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells with active layers from 300 to 900 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momblona, C.; Malinkiewicz, O.; Soriano, A.; Gil-Escrig, L.; Bandiello, E.; Scheepers, M.; Bolink, H. J.; Edri, E.

    2014-08-01

    Efficient methylammonium lead iodide perovskite-based solar cells have been prepared in which the perovskite layer is sandwiched in between two organic charge transporting layers that block holes and electrons, respectively. This configuration leads to stable and reproducible devices that do not suffer from strong hysteresis effects and when optimized lead to efficiencies close to 15%. The perovskite layer is formed by using a dual-source thermal evaporation method, whereas the organic layers are processed from solution. The dual-source thermal evaporation method leads to smooth films and allows for high precision thickness variations. Devices were prepared with perovskite layer thicknesses ranging from 160 to 900 nm. The short-circuit current observed for these devices increased with increasing perovskite layer thickness. The main parameter that decreases with increasing perovskite layer thickness is the fill factor and as a result optimum device performance is obtained for perovskite layer thickness around 300 nm. However, here we demonstrate that with a slightly oxidized electron blocking layer the fill factor for the solar cells with a perovskite layer thickness of 900 nm increases to the same values as for the devices with thin perovskite layers. As a result the power conversion efficiencies for the cells with 300 and 900 nm are very similar, 12.7% and 12%, respectively.

  14. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM NOTICE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM NOTICE 10-004A ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM NOTICE 10-004A REVISION: THIS GUIDANCE HAS BEEN AMENDED ...

  15. Measurement of the Magnet Blocks for SSRF Insertion Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He Yongzhou; Zhang Jidong; Zhou Qiaogen; Qian Zhenmei; Li Yang

    2010-06-23

    Two in-vacuum undulators IVU25s and one elliptically polarized undulator EPU100 have been developed for SSRF. Two IVU25s with the same hybrid design contain about 640 Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} magnet blocks and the dimension of blocks is 65 Wx25 Hx9 D. The EPU100 of the APPLE-II type contains about 690 NdFeB magnet blocks with the dimension of 35 Wx35 Hx25 D. This paper describes the magnetic measurements of these magnet blocks with the Helmholtz coil measurement system for IVU25 magnet blocks and the Hall probe measurement system for EPU100 magnet blocks. The measured maximum magnetic moment deviation and the maximum angle deviation are less than {+-}1.0% and 1.1 deg. respectively both for Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} blocks and NdFeB blocks and satisfy the specifications of undulators.

  16. Method and structure for skewed block-cyclic distribution of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    block-cyclic distribution of lower-dimensional data arrays in higher-dimensional processor grids Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method and structure for skewed block-cy...

  17. Indian Community Development Block Grant Program Workshop - Seattle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indian Community Development Block Grant Program Workshop - Seattle Indian Community Development Block Grant Program Workshop - Seattle May 18, 2016 9:00AM to 3:00PM PDT Seattle, ...

  18. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANTS PROGRAM NOTICE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANTS PROGRAM NOTICE 10-012 ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANTS PROGRAM NOTICE 10-012 DAVIS-BACON ACT WAGE RATES FOR ...

  19. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Success Stories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program's success stories including news articles, EERE Successes and EERE Blog entries.

  20. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Guidance |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Energy Efficiency & Conservation Block Grant Program » Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Guidance Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Guidance The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program released guidance documents that explain how the recipients of EECBG funds need to report and manage those funds. These documents are listed below by the year they were released. More program guidance documents are

  1. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Success Stories |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Energy Efficiency & Conservation Block Grant Program » Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Success Stories Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Success Stories RSS Read Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program success stories. August 25, 2014 Pictured here is one of the solar arrays that is providing New Bedford with clean, renewable energy to power its municipally owned buildings. This ground-mounted solar array is

  2. Building blocks for correlated superconductors and magnets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sarrao, J. L.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Batista, C. D.; Zhu, J. -X.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-04-01

    Recent efforts at Los Alamos to discover strongly correlated superconductors and hard ferromagnets are reviewed. While serendipity remains a principal engine of materials discovery, design principles and structural building blocks are beginning to emerge that hold potential for predictive discovery. Successes over the last decade with the so-called “115” strongly correlated superconductors are summarized, and more recent efforts to translate these insights and principles to novel hard magnets are discussed. While true “materials by design” remains a distant aspiration, progress is being made in coupling empirical design principles to electronic structure simulation to accelerate and guide materials design and synthesis.

  3. Building blocks for correlated superconductors and magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarrao, J. L.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Batista, C. D.; Zhu, J. -X.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-04-01

    Recent efforts at Los Alamos to discover strongly correlated superconductors and hard ferromagnets are reviewed. While serendipity remains a principal engine of materials discovery, design principles and structural building blocks are beginning to emerge that hold potential for predictive discovery. Successes over the last decade with the so-called 115 strongly correlated superconductors are summarized, and more recent efforts to translate these insights and principles to novel hard magnets are discussed. While true materials by design remains a distant aspiration, progress is being made in coupling empirical design principles to electronic structure simulation to accelerate and guide materials design and synthesis.

  4. Layered electrode for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swathirajan, Swathy; Mikhail, Youssef M.

    2001-01-01

    There is provided an electrode structure comprising a current collector sheet and first and second layers of electrode material. Together, the layers improve catalyst utilization and water management.

  5. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Active Management of Integrated GeothermalCO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations: An Approach to Improve Energy Recovery and Mitigate Risk : FY1 Final Report The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. This submittal contains input and output files of the reservoir model analyses. A reservoir-model "index-html" file was sent in a previous submittal to organize the reservoir-model input and output files according to sections of the FY1 Final Report to which they pertain. The recipient should save the file: Reservoir-models-inputs-outputs-index.html in the same directory that the files: Section2.1.*.tar.gz files are saved in.

  6. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bruno; Russell L. Detwiler; Kang Lao; Vahid Serajian; Jean Elkhoury; Julia Diessl; Nicky White

    2012-09-30

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. Terralog USA, in collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), are currently investigating advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. This two-year research project, funded by the US Department of Energy, includes combined efforts for: 1) Resource characterization; 2) Small and large scale laboratory investigations; 3) Numerical simulation at both the laboratory and field scale; and 4) Engineering feasibility studies and economic evaluations. The research project is currently in its early stages. This paper summarizes our technical approach and preliminary findings related to potential resources, small-scale laboratory simulation, and supporting numerical simulation efforts.

  7. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-11-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  8. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  9. A reciprocating rotating-block engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, L.

    1995-06-01

    This article describes the Newbold power plant, a lightweight, clean burning, and efficient engine that is designed to be used in a variety of small-engine applications, from ultralight planes to wheelchairs. A new turbo rotary-power engine brings together different design concepts from engine technology, including the rotary motion of a block, which is applied in a rotary engine, and the reciprocating motion of pistons. The new power plant also uses an air delivery system that operates similar to a turbojet engine. The turbo rotary-power engine, developed by Vernon Newbold, founder of Newbold and Associates, in Lyons, CO, produces power from the heat generated by combustion of most liquid or gaseous fuels. Production engines, expected to be built in August, will be optimized to operate using diesel fuel.

  10. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. Based on a range of well schemes, techno-economic analyses of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are conducted to determine the economic benefits of integrating GCS with geothermal energy production. In addition to considering CO2 injection, reservoir analyses are conducted for nitrogen (N2) injection to investigate the potential benefits of incorporating N2 injection with integrated geothermal-GCS, as well as the use of N2 injection as a potential pressure-support and working-fluid option. Phase 1 includes preliminary environmental risk assessments of integrated geothermal-GCS, with the focus on managing reservoir overpressure. Phase 1 also includes an economic survey of pipeline costs, which will be applied in Phase 2 to the analysis of CO2 conveyance costs for techno-economics analyses of integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites. Phase 1 also includes a geospatial GIS survey of potential integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites, which will be used in Phase 2 to conduct sweet-spot analyses that determine where promising geothermal resources are co-located in sedimentary settings conducive to safe CO2 storage, as well as being in adequate proximity to large stationary CO2 sources.

  11. Active Management of Integrated Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs in Sedimentary Formations

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of integrating geologic CO2 storage (GCS) with geothermal energy production. Phase 1 includes reservoir analyses to determine injector/producer well schemes that balance the generation of economically useful flow rates at the producers with the need to manage reservoir overpressure to reduce the risks associated with overpressure, such as induced seismicity and CO2 leakage to overlying aquifers. Based on a range of well schemes, techno-economic analyses of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are conducted to determine the economic benefits of integrating GCS with geothermal energy production. In addition to considering CO2 injection, reservoir analyses are conducted for nitrogen (N2) injection to investigate the potential benefits of incorporating N2 injection with integrated geothermal-GCS, as well as the use of N2 injection as a potential pressure-support and working-fluid option. Phase 1 includes preliminary environmental risk assessments of integrated geothermal-GCS, with the focus on managing reservoir overpressure. Phase 1 also includes an economic survey of pipeline costs, which will be applied in Phase 2 to the analysis of CO2 conveyance costs for techno-economics analyses of integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites. Phase 1 also includes a geospatial GIS survey of potential integrated geothermal-GCS reservoir sites, which will be used in Phase 2 to conduct sweet-spot analyses that determine where promising geothermal resources are co-located in sedimentary settings conducive to safe CO2 storage, as well as being in adequate proximity to large stationary CO2 sources.

  12. Layered seal for turbomachinery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar; Morgan, Victor John; Weber, David Wayne

    2015-11-20

    The present application provides seal assemblies for reducing leakages between adjacent components of turbomachinery. The seal assemblies may include outer shims, and at least a portion of the outer shims may be substantially impervious. At least one of the outer shims may be configured for sealing engagement with seal slots of the adjacent components. The seal assemblies may also include at least one of an inner shim and a filler layer positioned between the outer shims. The at least one inner shim may be substantially solid and the at least one filler layer may be relatively porous. The seal assemblies may be sufficiently flexible to account for misalignment between the adjacent components, sufficiently stiff to meet assembly requirements, and sufficiently robust to operating meet requirements associated with turbomachinery.

  13. Poly(lactide)-block-poly([epsilon]-caprolactone-co-[epsilon]-decalactone)-block-poly(lactide) copolymer elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneiderman, Deborah K.; Hill, Erin M.; Martello, Mark T.; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2015-08-28

    Batch ring opening transesterification copolymerization of ?-caprolactone and ?-decalactone was used to generate statistical copolymers over a wide range of compositions and molar masses. Reactivity ratios determined for this monomer pair, rCL = 5.9 and rDL = 0.03, reveal ?-caprolactone is added preferentially regardless of the propagating chain end. Relative to poly(?-caprolactone) the crystallinity and melting point of these statistical copolymers were depressed by the addition of ?-decalactone; copolymers containing greater than 31 mol% (46 wt%) ?-decalactone were amorphous. Poly(lactide)-block-poly(?-caprolactone-co-?-decalactone)-block-poly(lactide) triblock polymers were also prepared and used to explore the influence of midblock composition on the temperature dependent Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (?). In addition, uniaxial extension tests were used to determine the effects of midblock composition, poly(lactide) content, and molar mass on the mechanical properties of these new elastomeric triblocks.

  14. Update on Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Allocations | Department of Energy Update on Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Allocations Update on Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Allocations April 10, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis After a review of eligibility criteria for the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program, $16,429,000 in additional funding will go to 23 counties in Delaware, Kansas, and Louisiana to support energy efficiency projects. Delaware counties

  15. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Programs After

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grant Retirement | Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Programs After Grant Retirement Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Programs After Grant Retirement July 15, 2014 - 12:12pm Addthis The information below will help you manage successful Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) financing programs: July 2014 Letter to EECBG Financing Program Managers. This document: Clarifies DOE's ongoing role in monitoring,

  16. Morphology and Conductivity Relationship of Single-Ion-Conducting Block

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copolymer Electrolytes - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research May 15, 2014, Research Highlights Morphology and Conductivity Relationship of Single-Ion-Conducting Block Copolymer Electrolytes (Left) Microphase separation of PEO (red) and PSLiTFSI (blue) blocks at low temperature. Lithium ions are trapped in ion clusters (green). (Right) At high temperatures, block mixing occurs and lithium ions are released from clusters. Scientific Achievement Showed that an order to disorder transition

  17. Block copolymer adhesion promoters via ring-opening metathesis polymerization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kent, Michael S.; Saunders, Randall

    1997-01-01

    Coupling agents based on functionalized block copolymers for bonding thermoset polymers to solid materials. These are polymers which possess at least two types of functional groups, one which is able to attach to and react with solid surfaces, and another which can react with a thermoset resin, which are incorporated as pendant groups in monomers distributed in blocks (typically two) along the backbone of the chain. The block copolymers in this invention are synthesized by living ring-opening metathesis polymerization.

  18. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Power Block R&D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power block research at NREL focuses on assessing the potential of advanced power cycles to integrate with concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. This research increases the ...

  19. Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Recipients...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recipients on Program Evaluation Guidelines Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Recipients on Program Evaluation Guidelines Guidance for Energy Efficiency ...

  20. Crystal Engineering on Superpolyhedral Building Blocks in Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Superpolyhedral Building Blocks in Metal-Organic Frameworks Applied in Gas Adsorption. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B: Struct. Sci., Cryst. Eng. Mater., 71, 613-618 (2015). DOI:...

  1. Energy.gov Content Management System Block Types

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) websites, learn about the variety of block types available in the Energy.gov Drupal content management system (CMS).

  2. Net Requirements Transparency Process for Slice/Block Customers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 2012 Net Requirements Transparency Process for SliceBlock Customers Description of Changes and a Response to Comments September 24, 2012 Background and Description of Changes:...

  3. Microsoft Word - Final Dec 4 Annncmnt of Agg Blocks Adjustmnt...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aggregate Blocks and Prepayments BPA will Accept for Prepayment Program, the Adjustment Cap, Market Clearing Purchase Price, and Reservation Price Background Pursuant to Paragraph...

  4. Germanium blocked impurity band infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossington, C.S.; Haller, E.E.

    1988-08-01

    Germanium blocked impurity band (BIB) photoconductors have been fabricated and characterized for responsivity, dark current, and noise equivalent power. BIB photoconductors theoretically provide an extension of the spectral response, a reduction in sensitivity to cosmic radiation and a reduction in noise characteristics compared with conventional photoconductors. Silicon BIB detectors have been successfully developed by researchers at Rockwell International, which do indeed meet their theoretical potential. In the proper configuration, these same Si BIB detectors are capable of continuous detection of individual photons in the wavelength range from 0.4 to 28 ..mu..m. Until the BIB concept was developed, detection of individual photons was only possible with photomultiplier tubes which detected visible light. Due to the successes of the Si BIB detectors, it seemed natural to extend this concept to Ge detectors, which would then allow an extension of the spectral response over conventional Ge detectors from /approximately/100 ..mu..m to /approximately/200 ..mu..m. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Power Block R&D for CSP Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Power plant components and systems for concentrating solar power (CSP) benefit from a mature and well-understood technology found elsewhere in the power generation industry. The SunShot Initiative funds research and development (R&D) on power block and related aspects within the industry, national laboratories and universities to achieve technical targets of power block subsystems.

  6. Modeling Mechanical Behavior of a Prismatic Replaceable Reflector Block

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Bratton

    2009-04-01

    This report outlines the development of finite element models used to determine temperature and stresses in a prismatic core reflector block. This initial analysis determines an appropriate temperature distribution in a prismatic reflector from limiting conditions in the adjacent fuel block based on simplifying assumptions.

  7. Automatic Blocking Of QR and LU Factorizations for Locality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Q; Kennedy, K; You, H; Seymour, K; Dongarra, J

    2004-03-26

    QR and LU factorizations for dense matrices are important linear algebra computations that are widely used in scientific applications. To efficiently perform these computations on modern computers, the factorization algorithms need to be blocked when operating on large matrices to effectively exploit the deep cache hierarchy prevalent in today's computer memory systems. Because both QR (based on Householder transformations) and LU factorization algorithms contain complex loop structures, few compilers can fully automate the blocking of these algorithms. Though linear algebra libraries such as LAPACK provides manually blocked implementations of these algorithms, by automatically generating blocked versions of the computations, more benefit can be gained such as automatic adaptation of different blocking strategies. This paper demonstrates how to apply an aggressive loop transformation technique, dependence hoisting, to produce efficient blockings for both QR and LU with partial pivoting. We present different blocking strategies that can be generated by our optimizer and compare the performance of auto-blocked versions with manually tuned versions in LAPACK, both using reference BLAS, ATLAS BLAS and native BLAS specially tuned for the underlying machine architectures.

  8. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  9. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  10. Light-emitting block copolymers composition, process and use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferraris, John P.; Gutierrez, Jose J.

    2006-11-14

    Generally, and in one form, the present invention is a composition of light-emitting block copolymer. In another form, the present invention is a process producing a light-emitting block copolymers that intends polymerizing a first di(halo-methyl) aromatic monomer compound in the presence of an anionic initiator and a base to form a polymer and contacting a second di(halo-methyl) aromatic monomer compound with the polymer to form a homopolymer or block copolymer wherein the block copolymer is a diblock, triblock, or star polymer. In yet another form, the present invention is an electroluminescent device comprising a light-emitting block copolymer, wherein the electroluminescent device is to be used in the manufacturing of optical and electrical devices.

  11. Templated, layered manganese phosphate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thoma, Steven G.; Bonhomme, Francois R.

    2004-08-17

    A new crystalline maganese phosphate composition having an empirical formula: O). The compound was determined to crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3c1 with a=8.8706(4) .ANG., c=26.1580(2) .ANG., and V (volume)=1783 .ANG..sup.3. The structure consists of sheets of corner sharing Mn(II)O.sub.4 and PO.sub.4 tetrahedra with layers of (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N and water molecules in-between. The pronated (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N molecules provide charge balancing for the inorganic sheets. A network of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and the inorganic sheets holds the structure together.

  12. Processes for multi-layer devices utilizing layer transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Kim, Bongsang; Cederberg, Jeffrey; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2015-02-03

    A method includes forming a release layer over a donor substrate. A plurality of devices made of a first semiconductor material are formed over the release layer. A first dielectric layer is formed over the plurality of devices such that all exposed surfaces of the plurality of devices are covered by the first dielectric layer. The plurality of devices are chemically attached to a receiving device made of a second semiconductor material different than the first semiconductor material, the receiving device having a receiving substrate attached to a surface of the receiving device opposite the plurality of devices. The release layer is etched to release the donor substrate from the plurality of devices. A second dielectric layer is applied over the plurality of devices and the receiving device to mechanically attach the plurality of devices to the receiving device.

  13. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS VIA BUILDING BLOCK SYNTHESES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig E. Barnes

    2013-03-05

    A broadly applicable methodology has been developed to prepare new single site catalysts on silica supports. This methodology requires of three critical components: a rigid building block that will be the main structural and compositional component of the support matrix; a family of linking reagents that will be used to insert active metals into the matrix as well as cross link building blocks into a three dimensional matrix; and a clean coupling reaction that will connect building blocks and linking agents together in a controlled fashion. The final piece of conceptual strategy at the center of this methodology involves dosing the building block with known amounts of linking agents so that the targeted connectivity of a linking center to surrounding building blocks is obtained. Achieving targeted connectivities around catalytically active metals in these building block matrices is a critical element of the strategy by which single site catalysts are obtained. This methodology has been demonstrated with a model system involving only silicon and then with two metal-containing systems (titanium and vanadium). The effect that connectivity has on the reactivity of atomically dispersed titanium sites in silica building block matrices has been investigated in the selective oxidation of phenols to benezoquinones. 2-connected titanium sites are found to be five times as active (i.e. initial turnover frequencies) than 4-connected titanium sites (i.e. framework titanium sites).

  14. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) was selected for a pilot-scale test and demonstration facility for supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of low-activity waste (LAW) at the Hanford U.S. DOE Site. During engineering-scale (ES) tests, a small fraction of radioactive Tc (and Re, its nonradioactive surrogate) were transferred out of the LAW glass feed and molten LAW glass, and deposited on the surface and within the pores of the castable refractory block (CRB). Laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand the mechanisms of the transport Tc/Re into the CRB during vitrification and to evaluate various means of CRB protection against the deposition of leachable Tc/Re. The tests used Re as a chemical surrogate for Tc. The tests with the baseline CRB showed that the molten LAW penetrates into CRB pores before it converts to glass, leaving deposits of sulfates and chlorides when the nitrate components decompose. Na2O from the LAW reacts with the CRB to create a durable glass phase that may contain Tc/Re. Limited data from a single CRB sample taken from an ES experiment indicate that, while a fraction of Tc/Re is present in the CRB in a readily leachable form, most of the Tc/Re deposited in the refractory is retained in the form of a durable glass phase. In addition, the molten salts from the LAW, mainly sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates, begin to evaporate from BV feeds at temperatures below 800 C and condense on solid surfaces at temperatures below 530 C. Three approaches aimed at reducing or preventing the deposition of soluble Tc/Re within the CRB were proposed: metal lining, sealing the CRB surface with a glaze, and lining the CRB with ceramic tiles. Metal liners were deemed unsuitable because evaluations showed that they can cause unacceptable distortions of the electric field in the BV system. Sodium silicate and a low-alkali borosilicate glaze were selected for testing. The glazes slowed down molten salt condensate penetration, but did little to reduce the penetration of molten salt. Out of several refractory tile candidates, only greystone and fused-cast alumina-zirconia-silica (AZS) refractory remained intact and well bonded to the CRB after firing to 1000 C. The deformation of the refractory-tile composite was avoided by prefiring the greystone tile to 800 C. Condensed vapors did not penetrate the tiles, but Re salts condensed on their surface. Refractory corrosion tests indicated that a 0.25-inch-thick greystone tile would not corrode during a BV melt. Tiles can reduce both vapor penetration and molten salt penetration, but vapor deposition above the melt line will occur even on tiles. The Tc/Re transport scenario was outlined as follows. At temperatures below 700 C, molten ionic salt (MIS) that includes all the Tc/Re penetrates, by capillarity, from the feed into the CRB open porosity. At approximately 750 C, the MIS decomposes through the loss of NOx, leaving mainly sulfate and chloride salts. The Na2O formed in the decomposition of the nitrates reacts with insoluble grains in the feed and with the aluminosilicates in the CRB to form more viscous liquids that reduce further liquid penetration into the CRB. At 800 to 1000 C, a continuous glass phase traps the remains of the MIS in the form of inclusions in the bulk glass melt. At 1000 to 1200 C, the salt inclusions in the glass slowly dissolve but also rise to the surface. The Tc/Re salts also evaporate from the free surface of the glass melt that is rapidly renewed by convective currents. The vapors condense on cooler surfaces in the upper portion of the CRB, the box lid, and the off-gas system.

  15. Block copolymer adhesion promoters via ring-opening metathesis polymerization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kent, M.S.; Saunders, R.

    1997-02-18

    Coupling agents are disclosed based on functionalized block copolymers for bonding thermoset polymers to solid materials. These are polymers which possess at least two types of functional groups, one which is able to attach to and react with solid surfaces, and another which can react with a thermoset resin, which are incorporated as pendant groups in monomers distributed in blocks (typically two) along the backbone of the chain. The block copolymers in this invention are synthesized by living ring-opening metathesis polymerization. 18 figs.

  16. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; Yang, Ruizhi; Easton, E. Bradley; Dahn, Jeffrey R.; O'Neill, David G.

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  17. Deep Insights from Thin Layers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new technique developed by researchers at a trio of National Labs reveals secrets to proteins -- one layer at a time.

  18. Indian Community Development Block Grant Program Workshop- Seattle

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Southwest Office of Native American Programs is conducting this training workshop to assist applicants with the Indian Community Development Block Grant Program.

  19. Virasoro conformal blocks and thermality from classical background fields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.

    2015-11-30

    We show that in 2d CFTs at large central charge, the coupling of the stress tensor to heavy operators can be re-absorbed by placing the CFT in a non-trivial background metric. This leads to a more precise computation of the Virasoro conformal blocks between heavy and light operators, which are shown to be equivalent to global conformal blocks evaluated in the new background. We also generalize to the case where the operators carry U(1) charges. The refined Virasoro blocks can be used as the seed for a new Virasoro block recursion relation expanded in the heavy-light limit. Furthermore, we commentmore » on the implications of our results for the universality of black hole thermality in AdS3 , or equivalently, the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis for CFT2 at large central charge.« less

  20. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Success...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    like this will grace Gabe Nesbitt Community Park in McKinney, Texas, thanks to an Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant | Photo courtesy of McKinney, Texas EECBG...

  1. Microsoft Word - Posted DSI Amendment of Alcoa Block Power Sales...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    No. 1 Contract No. 06PB-11744 DRAFT AMENDMENT executed by the BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION and ALCOA INC. This AMENDMENT to the BLOCK POWER SALES AGREEMENT is executed by the...

  2. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Enzymes on Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-06-01

    The use of Layer-by-layer techniques for immobilizing several types of enzymes, e.g. glucose oxidase (GOx), horse radish oxidases(HRP), and choline oxidase(CHO) on carbon nanotubes and their applications for biosenseing are presented. The enzyme is immobilized on the negatively charged CNT surface by alternatively assembling a cationic polydiallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride (PDDA) layer and a enzyme layer. The sandwich-like layer structure (PDDA/enzyme/PDDA/CNT) formed by electrostatic assembling provides a favorable microenvironment to keep the bioactivity of enzyme and to prevent enzyme molecule leakage. The morphologies and electrocatalytic acitivity of the resulted enzyme film were characterized using TEM and electrochemical techniques, respectively. It was found that these enzyme-based biosensors are very sensitive, selective for detection of biomolecules, e.g. glucose, choline.

  3. Leakage pathway layer for solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, Andy; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter; Sun, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Leakage pathway layers for solar cells and methods of forming leakage pathway layers for solar cells are described.

  4. Titanium dioxide/silicon hole-blocking selective contact to enable double-heterojunction crystalline silicon-based solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagamatsu, Ken A. Man, Gabriel; Jhaveri, Janam; Berg, Alexander H.; Kahn, Antoine; Wagner, Sigurd; Sturm, James C.; Avasthi, Sushobhan; Sahasrabudhe, Girija; Schwartz, Jeffrey

    2015-03-23

    In this work, we use an electron-selective titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) heterojunction contact to silicon to block minority carrier holes in the silicon from recombining at the cathode contact of a silicon-based photovoltaic device. We present four pieces of evidence demonstrating the beneficial effect of adding the TiO{sub 2} hole-blocking layer: reduced dark current, increased open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}), increased quantum efficiency at longer wavelengths, and increased stored minority carrier charge under forward bias. The importance of a low rate of recombination of minority carriers at the Si/TiO{sub 2} interface for effective blocking of minority carriers is quantitatively described. The anode is made of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) heterojunction to silicon which forms a hole selective contact, so that the entire device is made at a maximum temperature of 100 °C, with no doping gradients or junctions in the silicon. A low rate of recombination of minority carriers at the Si/TiO{sub 2} interface is crucial for effective blocking of minority carriers. Such a pair of complementary carrier-selective heterojunctions offers a path towards high-efficiency silicon solar cells using relatively simple and near-room temperature fabrication techniques.

  5. Block Copolymer Cathode Binder to Simultaneously Transport Electronic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge and Ions - Energy Innovation Portal Block Copolymer Cathode Binder to Simultaneously Transport Electronic Charge and Ions Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Javier, A.E., Patel, S.N., Hallinan Jr., D.T., Srinivasan, V., Balsara, N.P. "Simultaneous Electronic and Ionic Conduction in a Block Copolymer: Application in Lithium Battery Electrodes," Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2011, Volume 50,

  6. Structural response of a prealigned cylindrical block copolymer melt to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    extensional flow (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Structural response of a prealigned cylindrical block copolymer melt to extensional flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural response of a prealigned cylindrical block copolymer melt to extensional flow Authors: McCready, Erica M. ; Burghardt, Wesley R. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (NWU) Publication Date: 2015-08-24 OSTI Identifier: 1179492 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name:

  7. Frequently Asked Questions on Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grant Financing Program Compliance and Reporting | Department of Energy Frequently Asked Questions on Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Program Compliance and Reporting Frequently Asked Questions on Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Program Compliance and Reporting Find answers to frequently asked questions (FAQs) regarding financing program reporting and compliance for programs developed using U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency

  8. Big Questions: The Ultimate Building Blocks of Matter

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    The Standard Model of particle physics treats quarks and leptons as having no size at all. Quarks are found inside protons and neutrons and the most familiar lepton is the electron. While the best measurements to date support that idea, there is circumstantial evidence that suggests that perhaps the these tiny particles might be composed of even smaller building blocks. This video explains this circumstantial evidence and introduces some very basic ideas of what those building blocks might be.

  9. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Program Guidance |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Grantee Letter | Department of Energy Guidance Grantee Letter Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Financing Program Guidance Grantee Letter This document clarifies the U.S. Department of Energy's ongoing role in the monitoring, reporting, and oversight of Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant-funded financing programs, including Revolving Loan Funds, Loan Loss Reserves, and Interest Rate Buydowns. PDF icon July 2014 Letter to EECGB Financing Program Managers More

  10. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the

  11. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program National Evaluation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Executive Summary | Department of Energy Program National Evaluation Executive Summary Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program National Evaluation Executive Summary This document presents findings from an evaluation of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program, a national program operated by the U.S. Department of Energy from 2009 to 2015 that provided grants and technical assistance to local governments, states and territories to support a wide variety of

  12. Alternating Current Photovoltaic Building Block - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Alternating Current Photovoltaic Building Block Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (891 KB) Technology Marketing Summary This technology provides a fully integrated and self-containing alternating current (AC) photovoltaic (PV) Building Block device and method that allows photovoltaic applications to become true plug-and-play devices. The

  13. $300,000 Block Grant Awarded to Tri-City Industrial Development...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    300,000 Block Grant Awarded to Tri-City Industrial Development Council (TRIDEC) 300,000 Block Grant Awarded to Tri-City Industrial Development Council (TRIDEC) 300,000 Block ...

  14. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Wednesday, 30 May 2012 00:00 In principle, tri-block copolymers...

  15. Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micro/nano...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micronanobio systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micro...

  16. Department of Energy Awards $300,000 Block Grant to the Rocky...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Block Grant to the Rocky Flats Community Reuse Organization Department of Energy Awards 300,000 Block Grant to the Rocky Flats Community Reuse Organization More Documents &...

  17. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut fr Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  18. Boundary Layer Cloud Turbulence Characteristics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boundary Layer Cloud Turbulence Characteristics Virendra Ghate Bruce Albrecht Parameter Observational Readiness (/10) Modeling Need (/10) Cloud Boundaries 9 9 Cloud Fraction Variance Skewness Up/Downdraft coverage Dominant Freq. signal Dissipation rate ??? Observation-Modeling Interface

  19. Intermetallic Layers in Soldered Joints

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-12-10

    ILAG solves the one-dimensional partial differential equations describing the multiphase, multicomponent, solid-state diffusion-controlled growth of intermetallic layers in soldered joints. This software provides an analysis capability for materials researchers to examine intermetallic growth mechanisms in a wide variety of defense and commercial applications involving both traditional and advanced materials. ILAG calculates the interface positions of the layers, as well as the spatial distribution of constituent mass fractions, and outputs the results at user-prescribed simulation times.

  20. Method and structure for skewed block-cyclic distribution of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lower-dimensional data arrays in higher-dimensional processor grids (Patent) | SciTech Connect skewed block-cyclic distribution of lower-dimensional data arrays in higher-dimensional processor grids Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method and structure for skewed block-cyclic distribution of lower-dimensional data arrays in higher-dimensional processor grids A method and structure of distributing elements of an array of data in a computer memory to a specific processor of a

  1. Lignin-blocking treatment of biomass and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-10-20

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion. Cellulase efficiencies are improved by the protein or polypeptide treatment. The treatment may be used in combination with steam explosion and acid prehydrolysis techniques. Hydrolysis yields from lignin containing biomass are enhanced 5-20%, and enzyme utilization is increased from 10% to 50%. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

  2. Electrically conductive doped block copolymer of polyacetylene and polyisoprene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1985-01-01

    An electrically conductive block copolymer of polyisoprene and polyacetyl and a method of making the same are disclosed. The polymer is prepared by first polymerizing isoprene with n-butyllithium in a toluene solution to form an active isoprenyllithium polymer. The active polymer is reacted with an equimolar amount of titanium butoxide and subsequently exposed to gaseous acetylene. A block copolymer of polyisoprene and polyacetylene is formed. The copolymer is soluble in common solvents and may be doped with I.sub.2 to give it an electrical conductivity in the metallic regime.

  3. Impact of sedimentary provenance and weathering on arsenic distribution in aquifers of the Datong basin, China: Constraints from elemental geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Xianjun; Wang, Yanxin; Ellis, Andre; Liu, Chongxuan; Duan, Mengyu; Li, Junxia

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic (As)-contaminated aquifer sediments from Datong basin, China have been analyzed to infer the provenance and depositional environment related to As distribution in the aquifer sediments. The As content in the sediments ranged from 2.45 to 27.38 mg/kg with an average value of 9.54 mg/kg, which is comparable to the average value in modern unconsolidated sediments. However, minor variation in As concentration with depth has been observed in the core. There was a significant correlation between Fe, and Al and As, which was attributed to the adsorption or co-precipitation of As onto/with Fe oxides/hydroxides and/or Fe-coated clay minerals. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized REEs patterns of sediment samples along the borehole were constant, and the sediments had a notably restricted range of La-N/Yb-N ratios from 0.7 to 1.0. These results suggested that the provenance of the Datong basin remained similar throughout the whole depositional period. The analysis of major geochemical compositions confirmed that all core sediments were from the same sedimentary source and experienced significant sedimentary recycling. The co-variation of As, V/Al, Ni/Al and chemical index of alteration (CIA) values in the sediments along the borehole suggested that As distribution in the sediments was primarily controlled by weathering processes. The calculated CIA values of the sediments along the borehole indicate that a relative strong chemical weathering occurred during the deposition of sediments at depths of similar to 35 to 88 m, which was corresponding to the depth at which high As groundwater was observed at the site. Strong chemical weathering favored the deposition of Fe-bearing minerals including poorly crystalline and crystalline Fe oxide mineral phases and concomitant co-precipitation of As with these minerals in the sediments. Subsequent reductive dissolution of As-bearing poorly crystalline and crystalline Fe oxides would result in the enrichment of As in groundwater. In general, the chemical weathering during the deposition of the sediments governed the co-accumulation of Fe oxides and As in the aquifer sediments. And then, the reductive dissolution of Fe oxides/hydroxides is the mechanism of As enrichment in the groundwater in the Datong basin

  4. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  5. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming; Liao, Xianbo; Du, Wenhui

    2011-10-04

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  6. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming; Liao, Xianbo; Du, Wenhui

    2011-02-01

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  7. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) program represents a Presidential priority to invest in the cheapest, cleanest and most reliable energy technologies we have – energy efficiency and conservation – which can be deployed immediately.

  8. About the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program's purpose was to reduce fossil fuel emissions and total energy use and create jobs by working with cities, counties, states, U.S. territories, and Indian tribes to implement and manage energy efficiency and conservation projects and programs; in the transportation, building, and other sectors.

  9. Reordering transitions during annealing of block copolymer cylinder phases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-10-06

    While equilibrium block-copolymer morphologies are dictated by energy-minimization effects, the semi-ordered states observed experimentally often depend on the details of ordering pathways and kinetics. In this study, we explore reordering transitions in thin films of block-copolymer cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate). We observe several transient states as films order towards horizontally-aligned cylinders. In particular, there is an early-stage reorganization from randomly-packed cylinders into hexagonally-packed vertically-aligned cylinders; followed by a reorientation transition from vertical to horizontal cylinder states. These transitions are thermally activated. The growth of horizontal grains within an otherwise vertical morphology proceeds anisotropically, resulting in anisotropic grains in the final horizontalmore » state. The size, shape, and anisotropy of grains are influenced by ordering history; for instance, faster heating rates reduce grain anisotropy. These results help elucidate aspects of pathway-dependent ordering in block-copolymer thin films.« less

  10. Modeling pre-failure stress-strain properties of sedimentary softrock based on very small strain stiffness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayano, K.; Tatsuoka, F.; Yoshiizumi, N.

    1999-07-01

    The pre-peak stress-strain properties of sedimentary softrocks were investigated by triaxial compression tests and large-amplitude cyclic loading tests extending triaxial compression and extension stress states. Axial strains were measured locally to a resolution of 0.0001%. Young's moduli E{sub v} at quasi-elastic small axial strains of less than about 0.001% were evaluated at different isotropic and anisotropic stress states during those tests and isotropic compression tests. The E{sub v} value increased rather uniquely with the vertical stress {sigma}{sub v} while it decreased with large-amplitude cyclic straining, compared with those measured at isotropic stress states. A normalization method is proposed for the drained tangent Young's modulus E{sub tan} to exclude the effects of pressure change and damage by shearing on the E{sub tan} values by dividing each E{sub tan} value by the current E{sub v} value. The E{sub tan}/E{sub v} and q/q{sub max} relationships are considered to have more general strain-nonlinear features than the relationships between the ratio of E{sub tan} to the initial elastic Young's modulus E{sub 0} and q/q{sub max}.

  11. Biogenicity and Syngeneity of Organic Matter in Ancient Sedimentary Rocks: Recent Advances in the Search for Evidence of Past Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Cady, Sherry L.

    2014-12-01

    he past decade has seen an explosion of new technologies for assessment of biogenicity and syngeneity of carbonaceous material within sedimentary rocks. Advances have been made in techniques for analysis of in situ organic matter as well as for extracted bulk samples of soluble and insoluble (kerogen) organic fractions. The in situ techniques allow analysis of micrometer-to-sub-micrometer-scale organic residues within their host rocks and include Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy/imagery, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and forms of secondary ion/laser-based mass spectrometry, analytical transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption microscopy/spectroscopy. Analyses can be made for chemical, molecular, and isotopic composition coupled with assessment of spatial relationships to surrounding minerals, veins, and fractures. The bulk analyses include improved methods for minimizing contamination and recognizing syngenetic constituents of soluble organic fractions as well as enhanced spectroscopic and pyrolytic techniques for unlocking syngenetic molecular signatures in kerogen. Together, these technologies provide vital tools for the study of some of the oldest and problematic carbonaceous residues and for advancing our understanding of the earliest stages of biological evolution on Earth and the search for evidence of life beyond Earth. We discuss each of these new technologies, emphasizing their advantages and disadvantages, applications, and likely future directions.

  12. Synthesis of layered double hydroxide nanosheets by coprecipitation using a T-type microchannel reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, Xiujiang; Sun, Meiyu; Ma, Xiuming; Hou, Wanguo

    2014-02-15

    The synthesis of Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets by coprecipitation using a T-type microchannel reactor is reported. Aqueous LDH nanosheet dispersions were obtained. The LDH nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and particle size analysis, and the transmittance and viscosity of LDH nanosheet dispersions were examined. The two-dimensional LDH nanosheets consisted of 12 brucite-like layers and were stable for ca. 16 h at room temperature. In addition, the co-assembly between LDH nanosheets and dodecyl sulfate (DS) anions was carried out, and a DS intercalated LDH nanohybrid was obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of LDH nanosheets being directly prepared in bulk aqueous solution. This simple, cheap method can provide naked LDH nanosheets in high quantities, which can be used as building blocks for functional materials. - Graphical abstract: Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets were synthesized by coprecipitation using a T-type microchannel reactor, and could be used as basic building blocks for LDH-based functional materials. Display Omitted - Highlights: LDH nanosheets were synthesized by coprecipitation using a T-type microchannel reactor. Naked LDH nanosheets were dispersed in aqueous media. LDH nanosheets can be used as building blocks for functional materials.

  13. Method of forming oriented block copolymer line patterns, block copolymer line patterns formed thereby, and their use to form patterned articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, Thomas P.; Hong, Sung Woo; Lee, Doug Hyun; Park, Soojin; Xu, Ting

    2015-10-13

    A block copolymer film having a line pattern with a high degree of long-range order is formed by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate surface with parallel facets, and annealing the block copolymer film to form an annealed block copolymer film having linear microdomains parallel to the substrate surface and orthogonal to the parallel facets of the substrate. The line-patterned block copolymer films are useful for the fabrication of magnetic storage media, polarizing devices, and arrays of nanowires.

  14. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T. [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W. [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  15. Lubricant-infused nanoparticulate coatings assembled by layer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lubricant-infused nanoparticulate coatings assembled by layer-by-layer deposition Title: Lubricant-infused nanoparticulate coatings assembled by layer-by-layer deposition ...

  16. Understanding Long-Term Solute Transport in Sedimentary Basins: Simulating Brine Migration in the Alberta Basin. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alicia M. Wilson

    2009-11-30

    Mass transport in deep sedimentary basins places important controls on ore formation, petroleum migration, CO2 sequestration, and geochemical reactions that affect petroleum reservoir quality, but large-scale transport in this type of setting remains poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is highlighted in the resource-rich Alberta Basin, where geochemical and hydrogeologic studies have suggested residence times ranging from hundreds of millions of years to less than 5 My, respectively. Here we developed new hydrogeologic models that were constrained by geochemical observations to reconcile these two very different estimates. The models account for variable-density fluid flow, heat transport, solute transport, sediment deposition and erosion, sediment compressibility, and dissolution of salt deposits, including Cl/Br systematics. Prior interpretations of Cl/Br ratios in the Alberta Basin concluded that the brines were derived from evaporatively-concentrated brines that were subsequently diluted by seawater and freshwater; models presented here show that halite dissolution must have contributed strongly as well, which implies significantly greater rates of mass transport. This result confirms that Cl/Br ratios are subject to significant non-uniqueness and thus do not provide good independent indicators of the origin of brines. Salinity and Cl/Br ratios provided valuable new constraints for basin-scale models, however. Sensitivity studies revealed that permeabilities obtained from core- and field-scale tests were appropriate for basin-scale models, despite the differences in scale between the tests and the models. Simulations of groundwater age show that the residence time of porefluids in much of the basin is less than 100 My. Groundwater age increases with depth and approaches 200 My in the deepest part of the basin, but brines are significantly younger than their host rocks throughout the basin.

  17. Periodic nanostructures from self assembled wedge-type block-copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xia, Yan; Sveinbjornsson, Benjamin R.; Grubbs, Robert H.; Weitekamp, Raymond; Miyake, Garret M.; Piunova, Victoria; Daeffler, Christopher Scot

    2015-06-02

    The invention provides a class of wedge-type block copolymers having a plurality of chemically different blocks, at least a portion of which incorporates a wedge group-containing block providing useful properties. For example, use of one or more wedge group-containing blocks in some block copolymers of the invention significantly inhibits chain entanglement and, thus, the present block copolymers materials provide a class of polymer materials capable of efficient molecular self-assembly to generate a range of structures, such as periodic nanostructures and microstructures. Materials of the present invention include copolymers having one or more wedge group-containing blocks, and optionally for some applications copolymers also incorporating one or more polymer side group-containing blocks. The present invention also provides useful methods of making and using wedge-type block copolymers.

  18. Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rand, Barry P.; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2011-05-24

    A photosensitive device includes a series of organic photoactive layers disposed between two electrodes. Each layer in the series is in direct contact with a next layer in the series. The series is arranged to form at least one donor-acceptor heterojunction, and includes a first organic photoactive layer comprising a first host material serving as a donor, a thin second organic photoactive layer comprising a second host material disposed between the first and a third organic photoactive layer, and the third organic photoactive layer comprising a third host material serving as an acceptor. The first, second, and third host materials are different. The thin second layer serves as an acceptor relative to the first layer or as a donor relative to the third layer.

  19. Magnetic alignment of block copolymer microdomains by intrinsic chain anisotropy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Yager, Kevin G.; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S.; Larson, Steven R.; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Pawel W.

    2015-12-18

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ ≈ 2×10–8. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈ 1.2 μm are present during alignment. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropymore » is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.« less

  20. Magnetic alignment of block copolymer microdomains by intrinsic chain anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rokhlenko, Yekaterina; Yager, Kevin G.; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Zhang, Kai; O'Hern, Corey S.; Larson, Steven R.; Gopalan, Padma; Majewski, Pawel W.

    2015-12-18

    We examine the role of intrinsic chain susceptibility anisotropy in magnetic field directed self-assembly of a block copolymer using in situ x-ray scattering. Alignment of a lamellar mesophase is observed on cooling across the disorder-order transition with the resulting orientational order inversely proportional to the cooling rate. We discuss the origin of the susceptibility anisotropy, Δχ, that drives alignment and calculate its magnitude using coarse-grained molecular dynamics to sample conformations of surface-tethered chains, finding Δχ ≈ 2×10–8. From field-dependent scattering data, we estimate that grains of ≈ 1.2 μm are present during alignment. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that intrinsic anisotropy is sufficient to support strong field-induced mesophase alignment and suggest a versatile strategy for field control of orientational order in block copolymers.

  1. EIS-0006: Wind Turbine Generator System, Block Island, Rhode Island

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts of installing and operating a large experimental wind turbine, designated the MOD-OA, which is proposed to be installed on a knoll in Rhode Island's New Meadow Hill Swamp, integrated with the adjacent Block Island Power Company power plant and operated to supply electricity to the existing utility network.

  2. Nanoparticle-Driven Assembly of Highly Conducting Hybrid Block Copolymer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrolytes - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research January 13, 2015, Research Highlights Nanoparticle-Driven Assembly of Highly Conducting Hybrid Block Copolymer Electrolytes (Top) The addition of 2 wt% nanoparticles (SEO-LiTFSI-POSS-2) results in an increase in ionic conductivity. STEM images show the bicontinuous morphology of the electrolyte with 2 wt% of nanoparticles. (Bottom) The value of morphology factor, f, for SEO-LiTFSI-POSS-2 is close to unity, the value expected for an

  3. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  4. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  5. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  6. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  7. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  8. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  9. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  10. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  11. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2010-06-15

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  12. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  13. Radical-cured block copolymer-modified thermosets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redline, Erica M.; Francis, Lorraine F.; Bates, Frank S.

    2013-01-10

    Poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized and added at 4 wt % to 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (BisGMA), a monomer that cures using free radical chemistry. In separate experiments, poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) was combined as a secondary monomer with BisGMA and the monomers were loaded with 4 wt % PEP-PEO. The diblock copolymers self-assembled into well-dispersed spherical micelles with PEP cores and PEO coronas. No appreciable change in the final extent of cure of the thermosets was caused by the addition of diblock copolymer, except in the case of BisGMA, where the addition of the block copolymer increased extent of cure by 12%. Furthermore, the extent of cure was increased by 29% and 37% with the addition of 25 and 50 wt % PEGDMA, respectively. Elastic modulus and fracture resistance were also determined, and the values indicate that the addition of block copolymers does not significantly toughen the thermoset materials. This finding is surprising when compared with the large increase in fracture resistance seen in block copolymer-modified epoxies, and an explanation is proposed.

  14. Optimized capping layers for EUV multilayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bajt, Sasa; Folta, James A.; Spiller, Eberhard A.

    2004-08-24

    A new capping multilayer structure for EUV-reflective Mo/Si multilayers consists of two layers: A top layer that protects the multilayer structure from the environment and a bottom layer that acts as a diffusion barrier between the top layer and the structure beneath. One embodiment combines a first layer of Ru with a second layer of B.sub.4 C. Another embodiment combines a first layer of Ru with a second layer of Mo. These embodiments have the additional advantage that the reflectivity is also enhanced. Ru has the best oxidation resistance of all materials investigated so far. B.sub.4 C is an excellent barrier against silicide formation while the silicide layer formed at the Si boundary is well controlled.

  15. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined...

  16. Construction of block-coil high-field model dipoles for future...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Construction of block-coil high-field model dipoles for future hadron colliders Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Construction of block-coil high-field model ...

  17. Non-crosslinked, amorphous, block copolymer electrolyte for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayes, Anne M.; Ceder, Gerbrand; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Sadoway, Donald R.; Aydinol, Mehmet K.; Soo, Philip P.; Jang, Young-Il; Huang, Biying

    2006-04-11

    Solid battery components are provided. A block copolymeric electrolyte is non-crosslinked and non-glassy through the entire range of typical battery service temperatures, that is, through the entire range of at least from about 0.degree. C. to about 70.degree. C. The chains of which the copolymer is made each include at least one ionically-conductive block and at least one second block immiscible with the ionically-conductive block. The chains form an amorphous association and are arranged in an ordered nanostructure including a continuous matrix of amorphous ionically-conductive domains and amorphous second domains that are immiscible with the ionically-conductive domains. A compound is provided that has a formula of Li.sub.xM.sub.yN.sub.zO.sub.2. M and N are each metal atoms or a main group elements, and x, y and z are each numbers from about 0 to about 1. y and z are chosen such that a formal charge on the M.sub.yN.sub.z portion of the compound is (4-x). In certain embodiments, these compounds are used in the cathodes of rechargeable batteries. The present invention also includes methods of predicting the potential utility of metal dichalgogenide compounds for use in lithium intercalation compounds. It also provides methods for processing lithium intercalation oxides with the structure and compositional homogeneity necessary to realize the increased formation energies of said compounds. An article is made of a dimensionally-stable, interpenetrating microstructure of a first phase including a first component and a second phase, immiscible with the first phase, including a second component. The first and second phases define interphase boundaries between them, and at least one particle is positioned between a first phase and a second phase at an interphase boundary. When the first and second phases are electronically-conductive and ionically-conductive polymers, respectively, and the particles are ion host particles, the arrangement is an electrode of a battery.

  18. Inkjet Deposition of Layer-by-Layer Assembled Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andres, C. M.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2010-09-23

    Layer-by-layer assembly (LBL) can create advanced composites with exceptional properties unavailable by other means, but the laborious deposition process and multiple dipping cycles hamper their utilization in microtechnologies and electronics. Multiple rinse steps provide both structural control and thermodynamic stability to LBL multilayers, but they significantly limit their practical applications and contribute significantly to the processing time and waste. Here we demonstrate that by employing inkjet technology one can deliver the necessary quantities of LBL components required for film buildup without excess, eliminating the need for repetitive rinsing steps. This feature differentiates this approach from all other recognized LBL modalities. Using a model system of negatively charged gold nanoparticles and positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride, the material stability, nanoscale control over thickness, and particle coverage offered by the inkjet LBL technique are shown to be equal or better than the case of multilayers made with traditional dipping cycles. The opportunity for fast deposition of complex metallic patterns using a simple inkjet printer is also shown. The additive nature of LBL deposition based on the formation of insoluble nanoparticle-polyelectrolyte complexes of various compositions provides an excellent opportunity for versatile, multicomponent, and noncontact patterning for the simple production of stratified patterns that are much needed in advanced devices.

  19. Atomic layer deposition of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic magnetite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn Ren, Wei E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yuepeng; Chen, Xing; Ye, Zuo-Guang E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2015-05-07

    One of the key challenges in realizing superparamagnetism in magnetic thin films lies in finding a low-energy growth way to create sufficiently small grains and magnetic domains which allow the magnetization to randomly and rapidly reverse. In this work, well-defined superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films are successfully prepared using atomic layer deposition technique by finely controlling the growth condition and post-annealing process. As-grown Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films exhibit a conformal surface and poly-crystalline nature with an average grain size of 7 nm, resulting in a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 210 K. After post-annealing in H{sub 2}/Ar at 400 °C, the as-grown α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample is reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase, exhibiting a ferrimagnetic ordering and distinct magnetic shape anisotropy. Atomic layer deposition of magnetite thin films with well-controlled morphology and magnetic properties provides great opportunities for integrating with other order parameters to realize magnetic nano-devices with potential applications in spintronics, electronics, and bio-applications.

  20. ARM - Measurement - Planetary boundary layer height

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsPlanetary boundary layer height ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Planetary boundary layer height Top of the planetary boundary layer; also known as depth or height of the mixing layer. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each

  1. Biaxially textured metal substrate with palladium layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robbins, William B.

    2002-12-31

    Described is an article comprising a biaxially textured metal substrate and a layer of palladium deposited on at least one major surface of the metal substrate; wherein the palladium layer has desired in-plane and out-of-plane crystallographic orientations, which allow subsequent layers that are applied on the article to also have the desired orientations.

  2. Single Helix to Double Gyroid in Chiral Block Copolymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C Chen; H Hsueh; Y Chiang; R Ho; S Akasaka; H Hasegawa

    2011-12-31

    An order-order phase transition of chiral block copolymers (BCPs*) from single helix to double gyroid (H* {yields} G) through a nucleation and growth process was demonstrated. The H* and G phases can be obtained by solution casting from fast and slow solvent evaporation, respectively, suggesting that the H* phase is a metastable phase. Consequently, the coexistence of H* and G phases can be found in the solution-cast samples from intermediate solvent evaporation. To truly examine the transition mechanism of the H* {yields} G, electron tomography was carried out to directly visualize the morphological evolution in real space, in particular, the transition zone at interface. Unlike the mechanisms for the transitions of block copolymers (BCPs) by considering the interdomain spacing matching, a significant mismatch in the lattices for the H* {yields} G was found. Consequently, the transition may require an adjustment on the geometric dimensions to justify corresponding lattice mismatch. As a result, the morphological observations from electron tomography offer new insights into BCP phase transitions.

  3. Dense, layered membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roark, Shane E.; MacKay, Richard; Mundschau, Michael V.

    2006-02-21

    This invention provides hydrogen-permeable membranes for separation of hydrogen from hydrogen-containing gases. The membranes are multi-layer having a central hydrogen-permeable layer with one or more catalyst layers, barrier layers, and/or protective layers. The invention also relates to membrane reactors employing the hydrogen-permeable membranes of the invention and to methods for separation of hydrogen from a hydrogen-containing gas using the membranes and reactors. The reactors of this invention can be combined with additional reactor systems for direct use of the separated hydrogen.

  4. Solar cell with silicon oxynitride dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepherd, Michael; Smith, David D

    2015-04-28

    Solar cells with silicon oxynitride dielectric layers and methods of forming silicon oxynitride dielectric layers for solar cell fabrication are described. For example, an emitter region of a solar cell includes a portion of a substrate having a back surface opposite a light receiving surface. A silicon oxynitride (SiO.sub.xN.sub.y, 0layer is disposed on the back surface of the portion of the substrate. A semiconductor layer is disposed on the silicon oxynitride dielectric layer.

  5. Deuteration Can Impact Micellization Pressure and Cloud Pressure of Polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in Compressible Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winoto, Winoto; Shen, Youqin; Radosz, Maciej; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    The deuterated homopolymers and their corresponding polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene copolymers require lower cloud pressures than their hydrogenous analogues to dissolve in a compressible alkane solvent, such as propane. For symmetric diblocks, deuteration reduces the micellization pressure. By contrast, for asymmetric diblocks with a long diene block relative to the styrene block, deuteration can increase the micellization pressure. All in all, however, the deuteration effects, while measurable, do not qualitatively change the principal diblock properties in compressible propane solutions, such as pressure-induced micelle decomposition, micelle formation and micelle size, and their temperature dependence. Therefore, isotope labeling should be a useful approach to neutron-scattering characterization for styrene-diene block copolymers in compressible alkane systems.

  6. Multi Layer Contaminant Migration Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-07-28

    This computer software augments and enhances certain calculation included in the previously copyrighted Vadose Zone Contaminant Migration Model. The computational method used in this model recognizes the heterogenous nature of the soils and attempts to account for the variability by using four separate layers to simulate the flow of water through the vadose zone. Therefore, the pore-water velocity calculated by the code will be different than the previous model because it accounts for a widermore » variety of soil properties encountered in the vadose zone. This model also performs an additional screening step than in the previous model. In this model the higher value of two different types of Soil Screening Levels are compared to soil concentrations of contaminants. If the contaminant concentration exceeds the highest of two SSLs, then that contaminant is listed. This is consistent with USEPA's Soil Screening Guidance.« less

  7. Nanoporous Gold as a Platform for a Building Block Catalyst

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wittstock, Arne; Wichmann, Andre; Baeumer, Marcus

    2012-09-25

    The porous bulk materials are of great interest in catalysis because they can be employed in heterogeneous gas and liquid phase catalysis, electrocatalysis, and in electrocatalytic sensing. Nanoporous gold gained considerable attraction in this context because it is the prime example of a corrosion-derived nanoporous bulk metal. Moreover, the material was shown to be a very active and selective Au type catalyst for a variety of oxidation reactions. In leveraging the functionalization of the surface of the material with various additives, its catalytic applications can be extended and tuned. In this review, we will summarize recent developments in using nanoporousmore » gold as the platform for the development of high performance catalytic materials by adding metals, metal oxides, and molecular functionalities as building blocks.« less

  8. Sealed Battery Block Provided With A Cooling System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoog, Roelof; Barbotin, Jean-Loup

    1999-11-16

    The present invention relates to a sealed battery block operating at a pressure of at least 1 bar relative, the battery including a container made of a plastics material and made up of a lid and of a case subdivided into wells by at least one partition, said battery being provided with a cooling system including two cheek plates made of a plastics material and co-operating with the outside faces of respective ones of two opposite walls of said case, each cheek plate co-operating with the corresponding wall to define a compartment provided with a plurality of ribs forming baffles for fluid flow purposes, and with an inlet orifice and an outlet orifice for the fluid, said battery being characterized in that each of said ribs extends in a direction that forms an angle relative to the plane of said partition lying in the range 60.degree. to 90.degree..

  9. Linked supramolecular building blocks for enhanced cluster formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McLellan, Ross; Palacios, Maria A.; Beavers, Christine M.; Teat, Simon J.; Piligkos, Stergios; Brechin, Euan K.; Dalgarno, Scott J.

    2015-01-09

    Methylene-bridged calix[4]arenes have emerged as extremely versatile ligand supports in the formation of new polymetallic clusters possessing fascinating magnetic properties. Metal ion binding rules established for this building block allow one to partially rationalise the complex assembly process. The ability to covalently link calix[4]arenes at the methylene bridge provides significantly improved control over the introduction of different metal centres to resulting cluster motifs. Clusters assembled from bis-calix[4]arenes and transition metal ions or 3d-4f combinations display characteristic features of the analogous calix[4]arene supported clusters, thereby demonstrating an enhanced and rational approach towards the targeted synthesis of complex and challenging structures.

  10. Characterization of thick 4H-SiC hot-wall CVD layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.J.; Irvine, K.G.; Kordina, O.; Singh, R.; Palmour, J.W.; Carter, C.H. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Epitaxial 4H-SiC layers suitable for high power devices have been grown in a hot-wall chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) system. These layers were subsequently characterized for many parameters important in device development and production. The uniformity of both thickness and doping is presented. Doping trends vs. temperature and growth rate is shown for the p-type dopant used. The n-type dopant drops in concentration with increasing temperature or increasing growth rate. In contrast, the p-type dopant increases in concentration with decreasing temperature or increasing growth rate. A simple descriptive model for this behavior is presented. The outcome from capacitance-voltage and SIMS measurements demonstrate that transitions from n to n{sup {minus}}, or p to p{sup {minus}}, and even n to p levels can be made quickly without adjustment to growth conditions. The ability to produce sharp transitions without process changes avoids degrading the resulting surface morphology or repeatability of the process. Avoiding process changes is particularly important in growth of thick layers since surface roughness tends to increase with layer thickness. Device results from diodes producing two different blocking voltages in excess of 5 kV is also shown. The higher voltage diodes exhibited a breakdown behavior which was near the theoretical limit for the epitaxial layer thickness and doping level grown.

  11. Spectral changes in layered f -electron systems induced by Kondo...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spectral changes in layered f -electron systems induced by Kondo hole substitution in the boundary layer Title: Spectral changes in layered f -electron systems induced by Kondo ...

  12. Nanomanufacturing : nano-structured materials made layer-by-layer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, James V.; Cheng, Shengfeng; Grest, Gary Stephen; Tjiptowidjojo, Kristianto; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Fan, Hongyou; Schunk, Peter Randall; Chandross, Michael Evan; Roberts, Scott A.

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale, high-throughput production of nano-structured materials (i.e. nanomanufacturing) is a strategic area in manufacturing, with markets projected to exceed $1T by 2015. Nanomanufacturing is still in its infancy; process/product developments are costly and only touch on potential opportunities enabled by growing nanoscience discoveries. The greatest promise for high-volume manufacturing lies in age-old coating and imprinting operations. For materials with tailored nm-scale structure, imprinting/embossing must be achieved at high speeds (roll-to-roll) and/or over large areas (batch operation) with feature sizes less than 100 nm. Dispersion coatings with nanoparticles can also tailor structure through self- or directed-assembly. Layering films structured with these processes have tremendous potential for efficient manufacturing of microelectronics, photovoltaics and other topical nano-structured devices. This project is designed to perform the requisite R and D to bring Sandia's technology base in computational mechanics to bear on this scale-up problem. Project focus is enforced by addressing a promising imprinting process currently being commercialized.

  13. Method to fabricate layered material compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2004-11-02

    A new class of processes suited to the fabrication of layered material compositions is disclosed. Layered material compositions are typically three-dimensional structures which can be decomposed into a stack of structured layers. The best known examples are the photonic lattices. The present invention combines the characteristic features of photolithography and chemical-mechanical polishing to permit the direct and facile fabrication of, e.g., photonic lattices having photonic bandgaps in the 0.1-20.mu. spectral range.

  14. Method to fabricate layered material compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2002-01-01

    A new class of processes suited to the fabrication of layered material compositions is disclosed. Layered material compositions are typically three-dimensional structures which can be decomposed into a stack of structured layers. The best known examples are the photonic lattices. The present invention combines the characteristic features of photolithography and chemical-mechanical polishing to permit the direct and facile fabrication of, e.g., photonic lattices having photonic bandgaps in the 0.1-20.mu. spectral range.

  15. Manganese containing layer for magnetic recording media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambeth, David N.; Lee, Li-Lien; Laughlin, David E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides for a magnetic recording media incorporating Mn-containing layers between a substrate and a magnetic layer to provide media having increased coercivity and lower noise. The Mn-containing layer can be incorporated in a rotating, translating or stationary recording media to operate in conjunction with magnetic transducing heads for recording and reading of magnetic data, as well as other applications. The magnetic recording medium of the invention preferably includes a Co or Co alloy film magnetic layer, and Mn-containing layer, preferably comprised of VMn, TiMn, MnZn, CrMnMo, CrMnW, CrMnV, and CrMnTi, and most preferably a CrMn alloy, disposed between the substrate and the magnetic layer to promote an epitaxial crystalline structure in the magnetic layer. The medium can further include seed layers, preferably polycrystalline MgO for longitudinal media, underlayers, and intermediate layers. Underlayers and intermediate layers are comprised of materials having either an A2 structure or a B2-ordered crystalline structure disposed between the seed layer and the magnetic layer. Materials having an A2 structure are preferably Cr or Cr alloys, such as CrV, CrMo, CrW and CrTi. Materials having a B2-ordered structure having a lattice constant that is substantially comparable to that of Cr, such as those preferably selected from the group consisting of NiAl, AILCo, FeAl, FeTi, CoFe, CoTi, CoHf, CoZr, NiTi, CuBe, CuZn, A-LMn, AlRe, AgMg, and Al.sub.2 FeMn.sub.2, and is most preferably FeAl or NiAl.

  16. Solar collector with blackened layer facing insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugger, R.

    1981-05-12

    A solar collector has a surface turned toward the sun and forms a heat exchange cell which has at least one wall composed of sheet aluminum. A tramsmitting layer of such a wall or the absorption layer thereof is a black layer of aluminum oxide containing Ag or Sn and formed unitarily on the aluminum sheet, e.g. By a chemical or electrochemical process.

  17. Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D.; Muenchausen, Ross E.

    1993-01-01

    A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure.

  18. Multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung [Richland, WA; Meinhardt, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-09-14

    Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.

  19. Multi-layer seal for electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung [Richland, WA; Meinhardt, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Stevenson, Jeffry W [Richland, WA

    2010-11-16

    Multi-layer seals are provided that find advantageous use for reducing leakage of gases between adjacent components of electrochemical devices. Multi-layer seals of the invention include a gasket body defining first and second opposing surfaces and a compliant interlayer positioned adjacent each of the first and second surfaces. Also provided are methods for making and using the multi-layer seals, and electrochemical devices including said seals.

  20. Cooperative storage of shared files in a parallel computing system with dynamic block size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    2015-11-10

    Improved techniques are provided for parallel writing of data to a shared object in a parallel computing system. A method is provided for storing data generated by a plurality of parallel processes to a shared object in a parallel computing system. The method is performed by at least one of the processes and comprises: dynamically determining a block size for storing the data; exchanging a determined amount of the data with at least one additional process to achieve a block of the data having the dynamically determined block size; and writing the block of the data having the dynamically determined block size to a file system. The determined block size comprises, e.g., a total amount of the data to be stored divided by the number of parallel processes. The file system comprises, for example, a log structured virtual parallel file system, such as a Parallel Log-Structured File System (PLFS).

  1. Sodium-layer laser guide stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, H.W.

    1993-08-03

    The requirements and design of a laser system to generate a sodium- layer beacon is presented. Early results of photometry and wavefront sensing are given.

  2. Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Yang, Fan; Rand, Barry P.

    2011-09-06

    A photosensitive device includes a plurality of organic photoconductive materials disposed in a stack between a first electrode and a second electrode, including a first continuous layer of donor host material, a second continuous layer of acceptor host material, and at least one other organic photoconductive material disposed as a plurality of discontinuous islands between the first continuous layer and the second continuous layer. Each of these other photoconductive materials has an absorption spectra different from the donor host material and the acceptor host material. Preferably, each of the discontinuous islands consists essentially of a crystallite of the respective organic photoconductive material, and more preferably, the crystallites are nanocrystals.

  3. Enhanced Densification of SDC Barrier Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, John S.; Templeton, Jared W.; Lu, Zigui; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-09-12

    This technical report explores the Enhanced Densification of SCD Barrier Layers A samaria-doped ceria (SDC) barrier layer separates the lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) cathode from the yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to prevent the formation of electrically resistive interfacial SrZrO{sub 3} layers that arise from the reaction of Sr from the LSCF with Zr from the YSZ. However, the sintering temperature of this SDC layer must be limited to {approx}1200 C to avoid extensive interdiffusion between SDC and YSZ to form a resistive CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution. Therefore, the conventional SDC layer is often porous and therefore not as impervious to Sr-diffusion as would be desired. In the pursuit of improved SOFC performance, efforts have been directed toward increasing the density of the SDC barrier layer without increasing the sintering temperature. The density of the SDC barrier layer can be greatly increased through small amounts of Cu-doping of the SDC powder together with increased solids loading and use of an appropriate binder system in the screen print ink. However, the resulting performance of cells with these barrier layers did not exhibit the expected increase in accordance with that achieved with the prototypical PLD SDC layer. It was determined by XRD that increased sinterability of the SDC also results in increased interdiffusivity between the SDC and YSZ, resulting in formation of a highly resistive solid solution.

  4. Thermal-stress analysis of a Fort St. Vrain core-support block under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carruthers, L.M.; Butler, T.A.; Anderson, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    A thermoelastic stress analysis of a graphite core support block in the Fort St. Vrain High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor is described. The support block is subjected to thermal stresses caused by a loss of forced circulation accident of the reactor system. Two- and three-dimensional finite element models of the core support block are analyzed using the ADINAT and ADINA codes, and results are given that verify the integrity of this structural component under the given accident condition.

  5. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments

  6. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments

  7. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments

  8. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments

  9. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments

  10. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Block Plains

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma | Department of Energy from Block Plains and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Block Plains and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma Comment submitted on updated Part 2 application. PDF icon Comment from Block Plains & Eastern Clean Line Arkansas and Oklahoma 06-08-15.pdf More Documents & Publications Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from

  11. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments

  12. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments

  13. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANTS PROGRAM NOTICE 10-012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DAVIS-BACON ACT WAGE RATES FOR ARRA-FUNDED ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANTS PROGRAM PROJECTS INVOLVING RESIDENTIAL WEATHERIZATION WORK

  14. Collapse transitions in thermosensitive multi-block copolymers: A Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rissanou, Anastassia N.; Tzeli, Despoina S.; Anastasiadis, Spiros H.; Bitsanis, Ioannis A.

    2014-05-28

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed on a simple cubic lattice to investigate the behavior of a single linear multiblock copolymer chain of various lengths N. The chain of type (A{sub n}B{sub n}){sub m} consists of alternating A and B blocks, where A are solvophilic and B are solvophobic and N = 2nm. The conformations are classified in five cases of globule formation by the solvophobic blocks of the chain. The dependence of globule characteristics on the molecular weight and on the number of blocks, which participate in their formation, is examined. The focus is on relative high molecular weight blocks (i.e., N in the range of 5005000 units) and very differing energetic conditions for the two blocks (very goodalmost athermal solvent for A and bad solvent for B). A rich phase behavior is observed as a result of the alternating architecture of the multiblock copolymer chain. We trust that thermodynamic equilibrium has been reached for chains of N up to 2000 units; however, for longer chains kinetic entrapments are observed. The comparison among equivalent globules consisting of different number of B-blocks shows that the more the solvophobic blocks constituting the globule the bigger its radius of gyration and the looser its structure. Comparisons between globules formed by the solvophobic blocks of the multiblock copolymer chain and their homopolymer analogs highlight the important role of the solvophilic A-blocks.

  15. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces...

  16. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Wednesday, 30 May 2012 00:00 In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks

  17. Self-assembly of block copolymers on topographically patterned polymeric substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, Thomas P.; Park, Soojin; Lee, Dong Hyun; Xu, Ting

    2016-05-10

    Highly-ordered block copolymer films are prepared by a method that includes forming a polymeric replica of a topographically patterned crystalline surface, forming a block copolymer film on the topographically patterned surface of the polymeric replica, and annealing the block copolymer film. The resulting structures can be used in a variety of different applications, including the fabrication of high density data storage media. The ability to use flexible polymers to form the polymeric replica facilitates industrial-scale processes utilizing the highly-ordered block copolymer films.

  18. Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Recipients on Program Evaluation Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program grantees on planning and conducting program evaluations on Recovery Act funded EECBG programs and activities

  19. In Situ SAXS Studies of Structural Relaxation of an Ordered Block...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In Situ SAXS Studies of Structural Relaxation of an Ordered Block Copolymer Melt Following Cessation of Uniaxial Extensional Flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In Situ ...

  20. Nanostructure of Solid Precipitates Obtained by Expansion of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene Solutions in Near Critical Propane: Block Ratio and Micellar Solution Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Jade; Tyrrell, Zachary; Radosz, Maciej; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to incompressible liquid solutions, compressible near-critical solutions of block copolymers allow for controlling rapid structure transformations with pressure alone. For example, when dissolved in near-critical propane, polystyrene-block-polybutadiene can form a random molecular solution at high pressures, a micellar solution at moderate pressures, and a solvent-free precipitate at low pressures. In contrast to the unstructured virgin copolymer, such a propane-treated precipitate rapidly self-assembles toward structures characteristic of equilibrated block copolymers, such as lamellae, spheres, or cylinders, which depend on the block ratio rather than on the decompression rate or temperature, at least within the rate and temperature ranges investigated in this work. At lower temperatures, however, say below 40 C, glass transition of the styrene-butadiene diblocks can inhibit independent structure formation, while crystallization of their hydrogenated-butadiene analogues can preserve the micellar-solution structure.

  1. STUDIES IN ASTRONOMICAL TIME SERIES ANALYSIS. VI. BAYESIAN BLOCK REPRESENTATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Norris, Jay P.; Jackson, Brad; Chiang, James

    2013-02-20

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting and characterizing local variability in time series and other forms of sequential data. The goal is to identify and characterize statistically significant variations, at the same time suppressing the inevitable corrupting observational errors. We present a simple nonparametric modeling technique and an algorithm implementing it-an improved and generalized version of Bayesian Blocks-that finds the optimal segmentation of the data in the observation interval. The structure of the algorithm allows it to be used in either a real-time trigger mode, or a retrospective mode. Maximum likelihood or marginal posterior functions to measure model fitness are presented for events, binned counts, and measurements at arbitrary times with known error distributions. Problems addressed include those connected with data gaps, variable exposure, extension to piecewise linear and piecewise exponential representations, multivariate time series data, analysis of variance, data on the circle, other data modes, and dispersed data. Simulations provide evidence that the detection efficiency for weak signals is close to a theoretical asymptotic limit derived by Arias-Castro et al. In the spirit of Reproducible Research all of the code and data necessary to reproduce all of the figures in this paper are included as supplementary material.

  2. Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckingsale, D. A.; Gaudin, W. P.; Hornung, R. D.; Gunney, B. T.; Gamblin, T.; Herdman, J. A.; Jarvis, S. A.

    2014-11-17

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87× faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.

  3. Cyclone separator having boundary layer turbulence control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishna, Coimbatore R.; Milau, Julius S.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone separator including boundary layer turbulence control that is operable to prevent undue build-up of particulate material at selected critical areas on the separator walls, by selectively varying the fluid pressure at those areas to maintain the momentum of the vortex, thereby preventing particulate material from inducing turbulence in the boundary layer of the vortical fluid flow through the separator.

  4. Atomic Layer Deposition | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition New nanophase thin film materials with properties tailored to specifically meet the needs of industry New software simulates ALD over multiple length scale, saving industry time and money on developing specialized tools PDF icon Atomic_Layer_Deposition

  5. Instability limits for spontaneous double layer formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, J. Jr.; Department of Physics, Texas Lutheran University, Seguin, Texas 78155 ; Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S.; VanDervort, R. W.; Magee, R. M.; TriAlpha Energy, Inc., Foothill Ranch, California 92610 ; Reynolds, E.

    2013-11-15

    We present time-resolved measurements that demonstrate that large amplitude electrostatic instabilities appear in pulsed, expanding helicon plasmas at the same time as particularly strong double layers appear in the expansion region. A significant cross-correlation between the electrostatic fluctuations and fluctuations in the number of ions accelerated by the double layer electric field is observed. No correlation is observed between the electrostatic fluctuations and ions that have not passed through the double layer. These measurements confirm that the simultaneous appearance of the electrostatic fluctuations and the double layer is not simple coincidence. In fact, the accelerated ion population is responsible for the growth of the instability. The double layer strength, and therefore, the velocity of the accelerated ions, is limited by the appearance of the electrostatic instability.

  6. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  7. Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells incorporating a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.

    1980-01-01

    Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells which incorporate a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer adjacent to the junction forming metal layer exhibit increased open circuit voltages compared to standard rectifying junction metal devices, i.e., Schottky barrier devices, and rectifying junction metal insulating silicon devices, i.e., MIS devices.

  8. Ultraviolet emission from a multi-layer graphene/MgZnO/ZnO light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Jang-Won; Choi, Yong-Seok; Goo Kang, Chang; Hun Lee, Byoung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byeong-Hyeok [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Tu, C. W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0407 (United States); Park, Seong-Ju, E-mail: sjpark@gist.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-03

    We report on ultraviolet emission from a multi-layer graphene (MLG)/MgZnO/ZnO light-emitting diodes (LED). The p-type MLG and MgZnO in the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED are used as transparent hole injection and electron blocking layers, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED show that current transport is dominated by tunneling processes in the MgZnO barrier layer under forward bias conditions. The holes injected from p-type MLG recombine efficiently with the electrons accumulated in ZnO, and the MLG/MgZnO/ZnO LED shows strong ultraviolet emission from the band edge of ZnO and weak red-orange emission from the deep levels of ZnO.

  9. Multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Hibbs, Michael; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2012-02-07

    Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. The multi-block architecture has defined, controllable hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. These improved membranes have better ion transport (proton conductivity) and water swelling properties.

  10. Ultrasonic examination of the heavy section test blocks for hydroprocessing reactors used by the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodd, F.J.; Zhang, Y.; Imgram, A.

    1995-12-01

    An 18-inch (457 mm) thick Cr-Mo steel test block with an austenitic stainless steel ID cladding was designed and fabricated at the direction of the Material Properties Council in cooperation with the Pressure Vessel Research Committee (PVRC) Committee on Nondestructive Examination of Components. The test block contains several embedded flaws located near both ID and OD surfaces. Chevron Research and Technology Company and WesDyne International conducted the initial UT Examinations on this block at Chevron. In addition, a 10-inch (254 mm) thick block with embedded flaws was also examined. All the flaws m the two blocks were either cracks or lack of fusion. The examination results demonstrate the feasibility of UT to detect and size flaws in hydroprocessing reactor vessels and provide a basis to compare the relative capabilities of UT with the radiographic (RT) inspections currently required by the fabrication code.

  11. Method for forming a barrier layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  12. Superconductive articles including cerium oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, X.D.; Muenchausen, R.E.

    1993-11-16

    A ceramic superconductor comprising a metal oxide substrate, a ceramic high temperature superconductive material, and a intermediate layer of a material having a cubic crystal structure, said layer situated between the substrate and the superconductive material is provided, and a structure for supporting a ceramic superconducting material is provided, said structure comprising a metal oxide substrate, and a layer situated over the surface of the substrate to substantially inhibit interdiffusion between the substrate and a ceramic superconducting material deposited upon said structure. 7 figures.

  13. Sub-5 nm Domains in Ordered Poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) Block Polymers for Lithography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennemur, Justin; Yao, Li; Bates, Frank Stephen; Hillmyer, Marc

    2014-01-01

    A series of poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly- (methyl methacrylate) (PCHE PMMA) diblock copolymers with varying molar mass (4.9 kg/mol Mn 30.6 kg/mol) and narrow molar mass distribution were synthesized through a combination of anionic and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) techniques. Heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of -(hydroxy)polystyrene (PS-OH) yielded -(hydroxy)poly(cyclohexylethylene) (PCHEOH) with little loss of hydroxyl functionality. PCHE-OH was reacted with -bromoisobutyryl bromide (BiBB) to produce an ATRP macroinitiator used for the polymerization of methyl methacrylate. PCHE PMMA is a glassy, thermally stable material with a large effective segment segment interaction parameter, eff = (144.4 6.2)/T (0.162 0.013), determined by meanfield analysis of order-to-disorder transition temperatures (TODT) measured by dynamic mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Ordered lamellar domain pitches (9 D 33 nm) were identified by small-angle X-ray scattering from neat BCPs containing 43 52 vol % PCHE ( f PCHE). Atomic force microscopy was used to show 7.5 nm lamellar features (D = 14.8 nm) which are some of the smallest observed to date. The lowest molar mass sample (Mn = 4.9 kg/mol, f PCHE = 0.46) is characterized by TODT = 173 3 C and sub-5 nm nanodomains, which together with the sacrificial properties of PMMA and the high overall thermal stability place this material at the forefront of high- systems for advanced nanopatterning applications.

  14. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  15. Counting molecular-beam grown graphene layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plaut, Annette S.; Wurstbauer, Ulrich; Pinczuk, Aron; Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 ; Garcia, Jorge M.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.

    2013-06-17

    We have used the ratio of the integrated intensity of graphene's Raman G peak to that of the silicon substrate's first-order optical phonon peak, accurately to determine the number of graphene layers across our molecular-beam (MB) grown graphene films. We find that these results agree well both, with those from our own exfoliated single and few-layer graphene flakes, and with the results of Koh et al.[ACS Nano 5, 269 (2011)]. We hence distinguish regions of single-, bi-, tri-, four-layer, etc., graphene, consecutively, as we scan coarsely across our MB-grown graphene. This is the first, but crucial, step to being able to grow, by such molecular-beam-techniques, a specified number of large-area graphene layers, to order.

  16. Cermet layer for amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    A transparent high work function metal cermet forms a Schottky barrier in a Schottky barrier amorphous silicon solar cell and adheres well to the P+ layer in a PIN amorphous silicon solar cell.

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Boundary Layer Cloud IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsBoundary Layer Cloud IOP Campaign Links Campaign Images ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at...

  18. Multi-layer waste containment barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Nickelson, David F.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for constructing an underground containment barrier for containing an in-situ portion of earth. The apparatus includes an excavating device for simultaneously (i) excavating earthen material from beside the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming an open side trench defined by opposing earthen sidewalls, and (ii) excavating earthen material from beneath the in-situ portion of earth without removing the in-situ portion and thereby forming a generally horizontal underground trench beneath the in-situ portion defined by opposing earthen sidewalls. The apparatus further includes a barrier-forming device attached to the excavating device for simultaneously forming a side barrier within the open trench and a generally horizontal, multi-layer barrier within the generally horizontal trench. The multi-layer barrier includes at least a first layer and a second layer.

  19. Detecting and Blocking Network Attacks at Ultra High Speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paxson, Vern

    2010-11-29

    Stateful, in-depth, in-line traffic analysis for intrusion detection and prevention has grown increasingly more difficult as the data rates of modern networks rise. One point in the design space for high-performance network analysis - pursued by a number of commercial products - is the use of sophisticated custom hardware. For very high-speed processing, such systems often cast the entire analysis process in ASICs. This project pursued a different architectural approach, which we term Shunting. Shunting marries a conceptually quite simple hardware device with an Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) running on commodity PC hardware. The overall design goal is was to keep the hardware both cheap and readily scalable to future higher speeds, yet also retain the unparalleled flexibility that running the main IPS analysis in a full general-computing environment provides. The Shunting architecture we developed uses a simple in-line hardware element that maintains several large state tables indexed by packet header fields, including IP/TCP flags, source and destination IP addresses, and connection tuples. The tables yield decision values the element makes on a packet-by-packet basis: forward the packet, drop it, or divert ('shunt') it through the IPS (the default). By manipulating table entries, the IPS can, on a fine-grained basis: (i) specify the traffic it wishes to examine, (ii) directly block malicious traffic, and (iii) 'cut through' traffic streams once it has had an opportunity to 'vet' them, or (iv) skip over large items within a stream before proceeding to further analyze it. For the Shunting architecture to yield benefits, it needs to operate in an environment for which the monitored network traffic has the property that - after proper vetting - much of it can be safely skipped. This property does not universally hold. For example, if a bank needs to examine all Web traffic involving its servers for regulatory compliance, then a monitor in front of one of the bank's server farms cannot safely omit a subset of the traffic from analysis. In this environment, Shunting cannot realize its main performance benefits, and the monitoring task likely calls for using custom hardware instead. However, in many other environments we find Shunting holds promise for delivering major performance gains. This arises due to the the widely documented 'heavy tail' nature of most forms of network traffic, which we might express as 'a few of the connections carry just about all the bytes.' The key additional insight is '... and very often for these few large connections, the very beginning of the connection contains nearly all the information of interest from a security analysis perspective.' We argue that this second claim holds because it is at the beginning of connections that authentication exchanges occur, data or file names and types are specified, request and reply status codes conveyed, and encryption is negotiated. Once these occur, we have seen most of the interesting facets of the dialog. Certainly the remainder of the connection might also yield some grist for analysis, but this is generally less likely, and thus if we want to lower analysis load at as small a loss as possible of information relevant to security analysis, we might best do so by skipping the bulk of large connections. In a different context, the 'Time Machine' work by Kornexl and colleagues likewise shows that in some environments we can realize major reductions in the volume of network traffic processed, by limiting the processing to the first 10-20 KB of each connection. As a concrete example, consider an IPS that monitors SSH traffic. When a new SSH connection arrives and the Shunt fails to find an entry for it in any of its tables (per-address, per-port, per-connection), it executes the default action of diverting the connection through the IPS. The IPS analyzes the beginning of the connection in this fashion. As long as it is satisified with the dialog, it reinjects the packets forwarded to it so that the connection can continue. If the connection successfully negotiates encryption, the IPS can no longer profitably analyze it, so it downloads a per-connection table entry to the Shunt specifying that the action for the connection in the future is 'forward.' For heavy-tailed connections, this means a very large majority of the connection's packets will now pass through the Shunt device without burdening the IPS with any further analysis load. On the other hand, if the IPS is dissatisfied with some element of the initial dialog, it downloads a 'drop' entry to terminate the connection. Note that by providing for reinjection, we can promote an intrusion detection system into an intrusion prevention system, one that does not merely detect attacks but can block them before they complete. Reinjection also allows the IPS to normalize traffic to remove ambiguities that attackers can leverage to evade the IPS.

  20. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D.; Cabalu, Jasper S.

    2012-08-07

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  1. Optical devices featuring textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D.; Cabalu, Jasper S.

    2011-10-11

    A semiconductor sensor, solar cell or emitter, or a precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate. The textured layers enhance light extraction or absorption. Texturing in the region of multiple quantum wells greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency if the semiconductor is polar and the quantum wells are grown along the polar direction. Electroluminescence of LEDs of the invention is dichromatic, and results in variable color LEDs, including white LEDs, without the use of phosphor.

  2. Optical devices featuring nonpolar textured semiconductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moustakas, Theodore D; Moldawer, Adam; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Abell, Joshua

    2013-11-26

    A semiconductor emitter, or precursor therefor, has a substrate and one or more textured semiconductor layers deposited onto the substrate in a nonpolar orientation. The textured layers enhance light extraction, and the use of nonpolar orientation greatly enhances internal quantum efficiency compared to conventional devices. Both the internal and external quantum efficiencies of emitters of the invention can be 70-80% or higher. The invention provides highly efficient light emitting diodes suitable for solid state lighting.

  3. Method of depositing epitaxial layers on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit

    2003-12-30

    An epitaxial article and method for forming the same includes a substrate having a textured surface, and an electrochemically deposited substantially single orientation epitaxial layer disposed on and in contact with the textured surface. The epitaxial article can include an electromagnetically active layer and an epitaxial buffer layer. The electromagnetically active layer and epitaxial buffer layer can also be deposited electrochemically.

  4. High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene and Polystyrene-block-Polyisoprene Solutions in Propane Exhibit Cloud-Pressure Reduction and Distinct Micellization End Points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winoto, Winoto; Radosz, Maciej; Tan, Sugata; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical non-micellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size and ratio, and on the polymer concentration. For a given pressure, the micellization end-point temperature corresponds to the "critical micelle temperature." The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

  5. Three-dimensional thermoelastic analysis of a Fort St. Vrain core support block

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, T.A.; Anderson, C.A.

    1981-09-01

    A thermoelastic stress analysis of a graphite core support block in the Fort St. Vrain High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor is described. The support block is subjected to thermal stresses caused by a loss of forced circulation accident of the reactor system. Two- and three-dimensional finite element models of the core support block are analyzed using the ADINAT and ADINA codes, and results are given that verify the integrity of this structural component under the given accident condition. 10 refs., 39 figs.

  6. Non-immunogenic, hydrophilic/cationic block copolymers and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scales, Charles W.; Huang, Faqing; McCormick, Charles L.

    2010-05-18

    The present invention provides novel non-immunogenic, hydrophilic/cationic block copolymers comprising a neutral-hydrophilic polymer and a cationic polymer, wherein both polymers have well-defined chain-end functionality. A representative example of such a block copolymer comprises poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide) (PHPMA) and poly(N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]methacrylamide) (PDMAPMA). Also provided is a synthesis method thereof in aqueous media via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Further provided are uses of these block copolymers as drug delivery vehicles and protection agents.

  7. Testing of TAMU3: a Nb3Sn Block-Coil Dipole with Stress Management

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Testing of TAMU3: a Nb3Sn Block-Coil Dipole with Stress Management Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Testing of TAMU3: a Nb3Sn Block-Coil Dipole with Stress Management The Accelerator Research Lab (ARL) at Texas A&M has recently concluded the construction and testing of a superconducting block-coil dipole TAMU3. TAMU3 reached 85% of the resistive-onset short sample critical current (0.1 μV/cm criterion) that was measured on

  8. Pore size distribution and methane equilibrium conditions at Walker Ridge Block 313, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bihani, Abhishek; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann; Glosser, Deborah; Shushtarian, Arash

    2015-12-15

    Coexistence of three methane phases (liquid (L), gas (G), hydrate (H)) in marine gas hydrate systems may occur according to in-situ pressure, temperature, salinity and pore size. In sediments with salinity close to seawater, a discrete zone of three-phase (3P) equilibrium may occur near the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) due to capillary effects. The existence of a 3P zone influences the location of the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) and has implications for methane fluxes at the base of the RHSZ. We studied hydrate stability conditions in two wells, WR313-G and WR313-H, at Walker Ridge Block 313 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We determined pore size distributions (PSD) by constructing a synthetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time distribution. Correlations were obtained by non-linear regression on NMR, gamma ray, and bulk density logs from well KC-151 at Keathley Canyon. The correlations enabled construction of relaxation time distributions for WR313-G and WR313-H, which were used to predict PSD through comparison with mercury injection capillary pressure measurements. With the computed PSD, L+H and L+G methane solubility was determined from in-situ pressure and temperature. The intersection of the L+G and L+H curves for various pore sizes allowed calculation of the depth range of the 3P equilibrium zone. As in previous studies at Blake Ridge and Hydrate Ridge, the top of the 3P zone moves upwards with increasing water depth and overlies the bulk 3P equilibrium depth. In clays at Walker Ridge, the predicted thickness of the 3P zone is approximately 35 m, but in coarse sands it is only a few meters due to the difference in absolute pore sizes and the width of the PSD. The thick 3P zone in the clays may explain in part why the BSR is only observed in the sand layers at Walker Ridge, although other factors may influence the presence or absence of a BSR.

  9. Thermoelectric misfit-layered cobalt oxides with interlayers of hydroxide and peroxide species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Ta-Lei; Lybeck, Jenni; Chan, Ting-Shan; Hsu, Ying-Ya; Tewari, Girish C.; Rautama, Eeva-Leena; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit

    2013-12-15

    Among the thermoelectric misfit-layered cobalt oxides, [M{sub m}A{sub 2}O{sub m+2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2}, the parent m=0 phases exhibit divergent chemical features but are less understood than the more common m>0 members of the series. Here we synthesize Sr-for-Ca substituted [(Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2} zero phases up to x=0.2 through low-temperature hydrothermal conversion of precursor powders of the m=1 misfit system, [Co(Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 3}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2}. In the zero-phase [(Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2} system, as the Sr content x increases the lattice expands anisotropically along the c axis such that the ab-plane dimension and the misfit parameter q remain essentially constant. X-ray absorption spectroscopy data suggest the presence of peroxide-type oxygen species in the (Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2} rock-salt block and together with infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and low-temperature resistivity and thermopower measurements evidence that the isovalent Sr-for-Ca substitution controls the balance between the peroxide and hydroxide species in the (Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2} block but leaves the valence of Co essentially intact in the CoO{sub 2} block. The higher electrical conductivity of the Sr-substituted phases is explained as a consequence of increased carrier mobility. - Graphical abstract: Among the thermoelectric misfit-layered cobalt oxides, [M{sub m}A{sub 2}O{sub m+2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2}, the parent zero (m=0) phases exhibit divergent chemical features. For [(Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2}, X-ray absorption spectroscopy data suggest the presence of peroxide-type oxygen species in the (Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2} rock-salt block and together with thermogravimetric and low-temperature transport-property measurements evidence that the isovalent Sr-for-Ca substitution controls the balance between the peroxide and hydroxide species in the (Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2} block but leaves the valence of Co essentially intact in the CoO{sub 2} block. - Highlights: Parent m=0 [M{sub m}A{sub 2}O{sub m+2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2} misfit-layer oxides exhibit divergent chemical features. [(Ca,Sr){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2} is found to contain both peroxide and hydroxide species. Hydrothermal synthesis yields [(Ca{sub 1?x}Sr{sub x}){sub z}(O,OH){sub 2}]{sub q}CoO{sub 2} samples up to x=0.2. With increasing x, the c axis expands but the misfit parameter q remains constant. Co valence remains intact, but peroxide and hydroxide contents may be affected.

  10. Thermal Multi-layer Coating Analysis | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Multi-layer Coating Analysis Key to Argonne's thermal multi-layer analysis method is the numerical algorithm used for automated analysis of thermal imaging data for multi-layer materials. PDF icon multilayer-coating-analysis

  11. Characterization of CZTSSe photovoltaic device with an atomic layer-deposited passivation layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Wei Cao, Yanyan; Caspar, Jonathan V.; Guo, Qijie; Johnson, Lynda K.; Mclean, Robert S.; Malajovich, Irina; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy

    2014-07-28

    We describe a CZTSSe (Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S{sub 1−x},Se{sub x}){sub 4}) photovoltaic (PV) device with an ALD (atomic layer deposition) coated buffer dielectric layer for CZTSSe surface passivation. An ALD buffer layer, such as TiO{sub 2}, can be applied in order to reduce the interface recombination and improve the device's open-circuit voltage. Detailed characterization data including current-voltage, admittance spectroscopy, and capacitance profiling are presented in order to compare the performance of PV devices with and without the ALD layer.

  12. Organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2012-03-27

    An organic light emitting device having multiple separate emissive layers is provided. Each emissive layer may define an exciton formation region, allowing exciton formation to occur across the entire emissive region. By aligning the energy levels of each emissive layer with the adjacent emissive layers, exciton formation in each layer may be improved. Devices incorporating multiple emissive layers with multiple exciton formation regions may exhibit improved performance, including internal quantum efficiencies of up to 100%.

  13. Boundary Layer Cloudiness Parameterizations Using ARM Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Albrecht

    2004-09-15

    This study used DOE ARM data and facilities to: (1) study macroscopic properties of continental stratus clouds at SGP and the factors controlling these properties, (2) develop a scientific basis for understanding the processes responsible for the formation of boundary layer clouds using ARM observations in conjunction with simple parametric models and LES, and (3) evaluate cumulus cloud characteristics retrieved from the MMCR operating at TWP-Nauru. In addition we have used high resolution 94 GHz observations of boundary layer clouds and precipitation to: (1) develop techniques for using high temporal resolution Doppler velocities to study large-eddy circulations and turbulence in boundary layer clouds and estimate the limitations of using current and past MMCR data for boundary layer cloud studies, (2) evaluate the capability and limitations of the current MMCR data for estimating reflectivity, vertical velocities, and spectral under low- signal-to-noise conditions associated with weak no n-precipitating clouds, (3) develop possible sampling modes for the new MMCR processors to allow for adequate sampling of boundary layer clouds, and (4) retrieve updraft and downdraft structures under precipitating conditions.

  14. Membrane catalyst layer for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1993-01-01

    A gas reaction fuel cell incorporates a thin catalyst layer between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane and a porous electrode backing. The catalyst layer is preferably less than about 10 .mu.m in thickness with a carbon supported platinum catalyst loading less than about 0.35 mgPt/cm.sup.2. The film is formed as an ink that is spread and cured on a film release blank. The cured film is then transferred to the SPE membrane and hot pressed into the surface to form a catalyst layer having a controlled thickness and catalyst distribution. Alternatively, the catalyst layer is formed by applying a Na.sup.+ form of a perfluorosulfonate ionomer directly to the membrane, drying the film at a high temperature, and then converting the film back to the protonated form of the ionomer. The layer has adequate gas permeability so that cell performance is not affected and has a density and particle distribution effective to optimize proton access to the catalyst and electronic continuity for electron flow from the half-cell reaction occurring at the catalyst.

  15. Inorganic dual-layer microporous supported membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Tsai, Chung-Yi; Lu, Yungfeng

    2003-03-25

    The present invention provides for a dual-layer inorganic microporous membrane capable of molecular sieving, and methods for production of the membranes. The inorganic microporous supported membrane includes a porous substrate which supports a first inorganic porous membrane having an average pore size of less than about 25 .ANG. and a second inorganic porous membrane coating the first inorganic membrane having an average pore size of less than about 6 .ANG.. The dual-layered membrane is produced by contacting the porous substrate with a surfactant-template polymeric sol, resulting in a surfactant sol coated membrane support. The surfactant sol coated membrane support is dried, producing a surfactant-templated polymer-coated substrate which is calcined to produce an intermediate layer surfactant-templated membrane. The intermediate layer surfactant-templated membrane is then contacted with a second polymeric sol producing a polymeric sol coated substrate which is dried producing an inorganic polymeric coated substrate. The inorganic polymeric coated substrate is then calcined producing an inorganic dual-layered microporous supported membrane in accordance with the present invention.

  16. Energy Efficiency and Consveration Block Grant Program National Evaluation Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet provides summarized results of the National Evaluation of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program, a national program funded one-time under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

  17. Energy Department Announces Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program National Evaluation Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department announced today the results of a major national evaluation of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) program funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA).

  18. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    enormous parameter space for the creation of new morphologies. Illustration from F.S. Bates and G.H. Fredrickson, "Block copolymers-designer soft materials," Physics Today 52, 32...

  19. Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Recipients on Formula Grants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program Guidance 10-011 dealing with formula grants.

  20. Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Grantees on Financing Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides general guidance to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant grantees on financing programs. Author: U.S. Department of Energy

  1. Block entropy and quantum phase transition in the anisotropic Kondo necklace model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza-Arenas, J. J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2010-06-15

    We study the von Neumann block entropy in the Kondo necklace model for different anisotropies {eta} in the XY interaction between conduction spins using the density matrix renormalization group method. It was found that the block entropy presents a maximum for each {eta} considered, and, comparing it with the results of the quantum criticality of the model based on the behavior of the energy gap, we observe that the maximum block entropy occurs at the quantum critical point between an antiferromagnetic and a Kondo singlet state, so this measure of entanglement is useful for giving information about where a quantum phase transition occurs in this model. We observe that the block entropy also presents a maximum at the quantum critical points that are obtained when an anisotropy {Delta} is included in the Kondo exchange between localized and conduction spins; when {Delta} diminishes for a fixed value of {eta}, the critical point increases, favoring the antiferromagnetic phase.

  2. Video compression of coronary angiograms based on discrete wavelet transform with block classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, B.K.T.; Tsai, M.J.; Wei, J.; Ma, M.; Saipetch, P.

    1996-12-01

    A new method of video compression for angiographic images has been developed to achieve high compression ratio ({approximately}20:1) while eliminating block artifacts which leads to loss of diagnostic accuracy. This method adopts motion picture experts group`s (MPEG`s) motion compensated prediction to take advantage of frame to frame correlation. However, in contrast to MPEG, the error images arising from mismatches in the motion estimation are encoded by discrete wavelet transform (DWT) rather than block discrete cosine transform (DCT). Furthermore, the authors developed a classification scheme which label each block in an image as intra, error, or background type and encode it accordingly. This hybrid coding can significantly improve the compression efficiency in certain cases. This method can be generalized for any dynamic image sequences applications sensitive to block artifacts.

  3. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thermoelectrics and separations media, to name a few. Yet, by simply attaching one more polymer that is chemically distinct from the other blocks to the end of the di-BCP and by...

  4. How to create formatted blocks to hold OpenEI wiki content |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    format, which you can see in use on the OpenEI frontpage. As an example of the migration, please see below. You can see that classes after "block-v1" moved in addition to...

  5. Graphene-silicon layered structures on single-crystalline Ir...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Graphene-silicon layered structures on single-crystalline Ir(111) thin films Prev Next Title: Graphene-silicon layered structures on single-crystalline...

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Campaigns 2013 Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment 2013.05.28, Turner, SGP ... Lead Scientist : David Turner For data sets, see below. Abstract Boundary layer turbulence ...

  7. Application of Analytical Heat Transfer Models of Multi-layered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    multi-layered cylindrical solution to simulate the temperature response of a deep geologic radioactive waste repository with multi-layered natural and engineered...

  8. Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible substrates using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible substrates using a modular rotating cylinder reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial atomic layer deposition on...

  9. Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Amorphous Silicon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Amorphous Silicon Anodes Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Amorphous Silicon Anodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program ...

  10. Magnetism reflectometer study shows LiF layers improve efficiency...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetism reflectometer study shows LiF layers improve efficiency in spin valve devices ... when an organic polymer semiconductor layer is placed between the magnetic materials. ...

  11. Optical transmission through double-layer, laterally shifted...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Optical transmission through double-layer, laterally shifted metallic subwavelength hole arrays We measure the transmission of infra-red radiation through double-layer metal ...

  12. Controlled Covalent Modification of Epitaxial Single Layer Graphene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Controlled Covalent Modification of Epitaxial Single Layer Graphene on ... Title: Controlled Covalent Modification of Epitaxial Single Layer Graphene on 6H-SiC ...

  13. Buffer layer for thin film structures (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate ...

  14. A dual mass flux framework for boundary layer convection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A dual mass flux framework for boundary layer convection Neggers, Roel European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Category: Modeling A new convective boundary layer...

  15. Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials Title Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2015 Authors...

  16. In Situ SAXS Studies of Structural Relaxation of an Ordered Block Copolymer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Melt Following Cessation of Uniaxial Extensional Flow (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect In Situ SAXS Studies of Structural Relaxation of an Ordered Block Copolymer Melt Following Cessation of Uniaxial Extensional Flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In Situ SAXS Studies of Structural Relaxation of an Ordered Block Copolymer Melt Following Cessation of Uniaxial Extensional Flow Authors: McCready, Erica M. ; Burghardt, Wesley R. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (NWU) Publication

  17. Laboratory simulation of binary and triple well EGS in large granite blocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    using AE events for drilling guidance (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Laboratory simulation of binary and triple well EGS in large granite blocks using AE events for drilling guidance Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on May 2, 2017 Title: Laboratory simulation of binary and triple well EGS in large granite blocks using AE events for drilling guidance Authors: Frash, Luke P. ; Gutierrez, Marte ; Hampton, Jesse ; Hood, John Publication Date:

  18. Road Blocks Yield Key Information about a Catalyst | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Road Blocks Yield Key Information about a Catalyst Researchers systematically blocked key chemical reaction pathways to get unambiguous information about how carbon-nitrogen bonds are formed in a catalytic reaction known as hydroamination. Understanding a multi-step catalytic mechanism is like a solving a puzzle where you can't see the pieces. However, you can add your own "pieces" with known shapes to figure out what other pieces of the puzzle then will (or will not) fit.

  19. 3-dimensional control over lamella orientation and order in thick block

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    copolymer films (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: 3-dimensional control over lamella orientation and order in thick block copolymer films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 3-dimensional control over lamella orientation and order in thick block copolymer films Authors: Olszowka, Violetta ; Tsarkova, Larisa ; Böker, Alexander [1] + Show Author Affiliations Bayreuth Publication Date: 2016-04-06 OSTI Identifier: 1245839 Resource Type:

  20. US-Guided Femoral and Sciatic Nerve Blocks for Analgesia During Endovenous Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, Saim Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Sindel, Timur

    2013-02-15

    Endovenous laser ablation may be associated with significant pain when performed under standard local tumescent anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of femoral and sciatic nerve blocks for analgesia during endovenous ablation in patients with lower extremity venous insufficiency. During a 28-month period, ultrasound-guided femoral or sciatic nerve blocks were performed to provide analgesia during endovenous laser ablation in 506 legs and 307 patients. The femoral block (n = 402) was performed at the level of the inguinal ligament, and the sciatic block at the posterior midthigh (n = 124), by injecting a diluted lidocaine solution under ultrasound guidance. After the blocks, endovenous laser ablations and other treatments (phlebectomy or foam sclerotherapy) were performed in the standard fashion. After the procedures, a visual analogue pain scale (1-10) was used for pain assessment. After the blocks, pain scores were 0 or 1 (no pain) in 240 legs, 2 or 3 (uncomfortable) in 225 legs, and 4 or 5 (annoying) in 41 legs. Patients never experienced any pain higher than score 5. The statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the pain scores of the right leg versus the left leg (p = 0.321) and between the pain scores after the femoral versus sciatic block (p = 0.7). Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks may provide considerable reduction of pain during endovenous laser and other treatments, such as ambulatory phlebectomy and foam sclerotherapy. They may make these procedures more comfortable for the patient and easier for the operator.

  1. Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micro/nano/bio

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    systems (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micro/nano/bio systems Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tobacco mosaic virus: A biological building block for micro/nano/bio systems Authors: Fan, Xiao Z ; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina ; Gnerlich, Markus ; Brown, Adam ; Gerasopoulos, K ; McCarthy, M ; Culver, James ; Ghodssi, Reza Publication Date: 2013-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1160750 DOE Contract Number: SC0001160 Resource Type: Journal

  2. Preventive maintenance system for the photomultiplier detector blocks of pet scanners

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Alejandro V.; Warner, Donald

    1995-01-24

    A system including a method and apparatus for preventive maintenance of PET scanner photomultiplier detector blocks is disclosed. The quantitive comparisons used in the method of the present invention to provide an indication in the form of a display or printout advising the user that the photomultiplier block is stable, intermittently unstable, or drifting unstable, and also advising of the expected date of failure of a photomultiplier block in the PET scanner. The system alerts the user to replace the defective photomultiplier block prior to catastrophic failure in a scheduled preventative maintenance program, thus eliminating expensive and unscheduled downtime of the PET scanner due to photomultiplier failure. The apparatus for carrying out the method of the present invention preferably resides in the host computer controlling a PET scanner. It includes a memory adapted for storing a record of a number of iterative adjustments that are necessary to calibrate the gain of a photomultiplier detector block i at a time t.sub.0, a time t.sub.1 and a time T, where T>t.sub.1 >t.sub.0, which is designated as Histo(i,j(t)). The apparatus also includes a processor configured by a software program or a combination of programmed RAM and ROM devices to perform a number of calculations and operations on these values, and also includes a counter for analyzing each photomultiplier detector block i=1 through I of a PET scanner.

  3. Preventive maintenance system for the photomultiplier detector blocks of PET scanners

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, A.V.; Warner, D.

    1995-01-24

    A system including a method and apparatus for preventive maintenance of PET scanner photomultiplier detector blocks is disclosed. The qualitative comparisons used in the method of the present invention to provide an indication in the form of a display or printout advising the user that the photomultiplier block is stable, intermittently unstable, or drifting unstable, and also advising of the expected date of failure of a photomultiplier block in the PET scanner. The system alerts the user to replace the defective photomultiplier block prior to catastrophic failure in a scheduled preventative maintenance program, thus eliminating expensive and unscheduled downtime of the PET scanner due to photomultiplier failure. The apparatus for carrying out the method of the present invention preferably resides in the host computer controlling a PET scanner. It includes a memory adapted for storing a record of a number of iterative adjustments that are necessary to calibrate the gain of a photomultiplier detector block i at a time t[sub 0], a time t[sub 1] and a time T, where T>t[sub 1]>t[sub 0], which is designated as Histo(i,j(t)). The apparatus also includes a processor configured by a software program or a combination of programmed RAM and ROM devices to perform a number of calculations and operations on these values, and also includes a counter for analyzing each photomultiplier detector block i=1 through I of a PET scanner. 40 figures.

  4. Process for depositing Cr-bearing layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Eshelman, Mark A.

    1995-05-09

    A method of applying a Cr-bearing layer to a substrate, comprises introducing an organometallic compound, in vapor or solid powder form entrained in a carrier gas to a plasma of an inductively coupled plasma torch or device to thermally decompose the organometallic compound and contacting the plasma and the substrate to be coated so as to deposit the Cr-bearing layer on the substrate. A metallic Cr, Cr alloy or Cr compound such as chromium oxide, nitride and carbide can be provided on the substrate. Typically, the organometallic compound is introduced to an inductively coupled plasma torch that is disposed in ambient air so to thermally decompose the organometallic compound in the plasma. The plasma is directed at the substrate to deposit the Cr-bearing layer or coating on the substrate.

  5. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P.

    1998-07-21

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bias layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200 C, the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 {angstrom}/sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous. 4 figs.

  6. Process for depositing Cr-bearing layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, T.W.; Lograsso, T.A.; Eshelman, M.A.

    1995-05-09

    A method of applying a Cr-bearing layer to a substrate, comprises introducing an organometallic compound, in vapor or solid powder form entrained in a carrier gas to a plasma of an inductively coupled plasma torch or device to thermally decompose the organometallic compound and contacting the plasma and the substrate to be coated so as to deposit the Cr-bearing layer on the substrate. A metallic Cr, Cr alloy or Cr compound such as chromium oxide, nitride and carbide can be provided on the substrate. Typically, the organometallic compound is introduced to an inductively coupled plasma torch that is disposed in ambient air so to thermally decompose the organometallic compound in the plasma. The plasma is directed at the substrate to deposit the Cr-bearing layer or coating on the substrate. 7 figs.

  7. Growth of oxide exchange bias layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiken, Alison; Michel, Richard P.

    1998-01-01

    An oxide (NiO, CoO, NiCoO) antiferromagnetic exchange bias layer produced by ion beam sputtering of an oxide target in pure argon (Ar) sputtering gas, with no oxygen gas introduced into the system. Antiferromagnetic oxide layers are used, for example, in magnetoresistive readback heads to shift the hysteresis loops of ferromagnetic films away from the zero field axis. For example, NiO exchange bia layers have been fabricated using ion beam sputtering of an NiO target using Ar ions, with the substrate temperature at 200.degree. C., the ion beam voltage at 1000V and the beam current at 20 mA, with a deposition rate of about 0.2 .ANG./sec. The resulting NiO film was amorphous.

  8. Permafrost Active Layer Seismic Interferometry Experiment (PALSIE).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, Robert; Knox, Hunter Anne; James, Stephanie; Lee, Rebekah; Cole, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present findings from a novel field experiment conducted at Poker Flat Research Range in Fairbanks, Alaska that was designed to monitor changes in active layer thickness in real time. Results are derived primarily from seismic data streaming from seven Nanometric Trillium Posthole seismometers directly buried in the upper section of the permafrost. The data were evaluated using two analysis methods: Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and ambient noise seismic interferometry. Results from the HVSR conclusively illustrated the method's effectiveness at determining the active layer's thickness with a single station. Investigations with the multi-station method (ambient noise seismic interferometry) are continuing at the University of Florida and have not yet conclusively determined active layer thickness changes. Further work continues with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine if the ground based measurements can constrain satellite imagery, which provide measurements on a much larger spatial scale.

  9. Buffer layers on metal alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Groves, James R.

    2004-10-05

    An article including a substrate, at least one intermediate layer upon the surface of the substrate, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the at least one intermediate layer, and a layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer is provided together with additional layers such as a HTS top-layer of YBCO directly upon the layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material layer. With a HTS top-layer of YBCO upon at least one layer of the SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material in such an article, J.sub.c 's of up to 1.3.times.10.sup.6 A/cm.sup.2 have been demonstrated with projected I.sub.c 's of over 200 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide.

  10. Fusion utility in the Knudsen layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-09-15

    In inertial confinement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared with those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer effect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate the restoring reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  11. Photovoltaic cell with thin CS layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jordan, John F.; Albright, Scot P.

    1994-01-18

    An improved photovoltaic panel and method of forming a photovoltaic panel are disclosed for producing a high efficiency CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cell. The photovoltaic panel of the present invention is initially formed with a substantially thick Cds layer, and the effective thickness of the CdS layer is substantially reduced during regrowth to both form larger diameter CdTe crystals and substantially reduce the effective thickness of the C This invention was made with Government support under Subcontract No. ZL-7-06031-3 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  12. Fusion Utility in the Knudsen Layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-08-01

    In inertial confi#12;nement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared to those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer e#11;ffect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate restoring the reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  13. Buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shoup, Shara S. (Woodstock, GA); Paranthamam, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Beach, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method is disclosed for forming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a biaxially oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing/annealing in a reducing atmosphere. This method is advantageous for providing substrates for depositing electronically active materials thereon.

  14. Quantum Security for the Physical Layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humble, Travis S

    2013-01-01

    The physical layer describes how communication signals are encoded and transmitted across a channel. Physical security often requires either restricting access to the channel or performing periodic manual inspections. In this tutorial, we describe how the field of quantum communication offers new techniques for securing the physical layer. We describe the use of quantum seals as a unique way to test the integrity and authenticity of a communication channel and to provide security for the physical layer. We present the theoretical and physical underpinnings of quantum seals including the quantum optical encoding used at the transmitter and the test for non-locality used at the receiver. We describe how the envisioned quantum physical sublayer senses tampering and how coordination with higher protocol layers allow quantum seals to influence secure routing or tailor data management methods. We conclude by discussing challenges in the development of quantum seals, the overlap with existing quantum key distribution cryptographic services, and the relevance of a quantum physical sublayer to the future of communication security.

  15. Atomic layer deposition of nanoporous biomaterials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayan, R. J.; Adiga, S. P.; Pellin, M. J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N. A.; Brigmon, R. L.; Elam, J. W.; Univ. of North Carolina; North Carolina State Univ.; Eastman Kodak Co.; North Dakota State Univ.; SRL

    2010-03-01

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials. Nanoporous alumina, also known as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), is a nanomaterial that exhibits several unusual properties, including high pore densities, straight pores, small pore sizes, and uniform pore sizes. In 1953, Keller et al. showed that anodizing aluminum in acid electrolytes results in a thick layer of nearly cylindrical pores, which are arranged in a close-packed hexagonal cell structure. More recently, Matsuda & Fukuda demonstrated preparation of highly ordered platinum and gold nanohole arrays using a replication process. In this study, a negative structure of nanoporous alumina was initially fabricated and a positive structure of a nanoporous metal was subsequently fabricated. Over the past fifteen years, nanoporous alumina membranes have been used as templates for growth of a variety of nanostructured materials, including nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, and nanoporous membranes.

  16. Planetary Boundary Layer from AERI and MPL

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sawyer, Virginia

    2014-02-13

    The distribution and transport of aerosol emitted to the lower troposphere is governed by the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which limits the dilution of pollutants and influences boundary-layer convection. Because radiative heating and cooling of the surface strongly affect the PBL top height, it follows diurnal and seasonal cycles and may vary by hundreds of meters over a 24-hour period. The cap the PBL imposes on low-level aerosol transport makes aerosol concentration an effective proxy for PBL height: the top of the PBL is marked by a rapid transition from polluted, well-mixed boundary-layer air to the cleaner, more stratified free troposphere. Micropulse lidar (MPL) can provide much higher temporal resolution than radiosonde and better vertical resolution than infrared spectrometer (AERI), but PBL heights from all three instruments at the ARM SGP site are compared to one another for validation. If there is agreement among them, the higher-resolution remote sensing-derived PBL heights can accurately fill in the gaps left by the low frequency of radiosonde launches, and thus improve model parameterizations and our understanding of boundary-layer processes.

  17. Double layer capacitor prospects look good

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    The Fourth International Seminar in Double Layer Capacitors and similar energy devices has been sponsored again by Dr. S.P. Wolsky and Dr. Nikola Marincic. The seminar was held in December 1994, at Deerfield Beach, FL. This report provides a brief description of information on supercapacitors.

  18. Thick diffusion limit boundary layer test problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, T. S.; Warsa, J. S.; Chang, J. H.; Adams, M. L.

    2013-07-01

    We develop two simple test problems that quantify the behavior of computational transport solutions in the presence of boundary layers that are not resolved by the spatial grid. In particular we study the quantitative effects of 'contamination' terms that, according to previous asymptotic analyses, may have a detrimental effect on the solutions obtained by both discontinuous finite element (DFEM) and characteristic-method (CM) spatial discretizations, at least for boundary layers caused by azimuthally asymmetric incident intensities. Few numerical results have illustrated the effects of this contamination, and none have quantified it to our knowledge. Our test problems use leading-order analytic solutions that should be equal to zero in the problem interior, which means the observed interior solution is the error introduced by the contamination terms. Results from DFEM solutions demonstrate that the contamination terms can cause error propagation into the problem interior for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal grids, and that this error is much worse for non-orthogonal grids. This behavior is consistent with the predictions of previous analyses. We conclude that these boundary layer test problems and their variants are useful tools for the study of errors that are introduced by unresolved boundary layers in diffusive transport problems. (authors)

  19. Nano-soldering to single atomic layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girit, Caglar O.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2011-10-11

    A simple technique to solder submicron sized, ohmic contacts to nanostructures has been disclosed. The technique has several advantages over standard electron beam lithography methods, which are complex, costly, and can contaminate samples. To demonstrate the soldering technique graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, has been contacted, and low- and high-field electronic transport properties have been measured.

  20. Double layer field shaping systems for toroidal plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi (La Jolla, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for plasma generation, confinement and control such as Tokamak plasma systems are described having a two layer field shaping coil system comprising an inner coil layer close to the plasma and an outer coil layer to minimize the current in the inner coil layer.

  1. Pd/Ni-WO3 anodic double layer gasochromic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping

    2004-04-20

    An anodic double layer gasochromic sensor structure for optical detection of hydrogen in improved response time and with improved optical absorption real time constants, comprising: a glass substrate; a tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer coated on the glass substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer.

  2. Layered method of electrode for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, R.R.

    1991-07-30

    This patent describes a fuel electrode. It comprises a first layer comprising substantially stabilized zirconia; a second layer, in intimate contact with the first layer, comprising a mixture of stabilized zirconia and metal powder selected from the group consisting of nickel, palladium, platinum and cobalt; and a third layer comprising substantially metal powder selected from the group consisting of nickel, palladium, platinum and cobalt.

  3. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  4. Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi-Chung; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1989-03-28

    One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

  5. Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findikoglu, Alp T.; Matias, Vladimir

    2007-10-30

    A conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film growth and a thin film semiconductor structure such as, for example, a photodetector, a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer. The thin film semiconductor structure includes: a substrate; a first electrode deposited on the substrate; and a semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the first electrode. The first electrode includes a template layer deposited on the substrate and a buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer. The template layer includes a first metal nitride that is electrically conductive and has a rock salt crystal structure, and the buffer layer includes a second metal nitride that is electrically conductive. The semiconducting layer is epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making such a thin film semiconductor structure is also described.

  6. Synthesis of manganese oxide supported on mesoporous titanium oxide: Influence of the block copolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmit, F.; Bois, L.; Chiriac, R.; Toche, F.; Chassagneux, F.; Besson, M.; Descorme, C.; Khrouz, L.

    2015-01-15

    Manganese oxides supported on mesoporous titanium oxides were synthesized via a sol–gel route using block copolymer self-assembly. The oxides were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analyses, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, electron microscopy and electronic paramagnetic resonance. A mesoporous anatase containing amorphous manganese oxide particles could be obtained with a 0.2 Mn:Ti molar ratio. At higher manganese loading (0.5 Mn:Ti molar ratio), segregation of crystalline manganese oxide occurred. The influence of block copolymer and manganese salt on the oxide structure was discussed. The evolution of the textural and structural characteristics of the materials upon hydrothermal treatment was also investigated. - Graphical abstract: One-pot amorphous MnO{sub 2} supported on mesoporous anataseTiO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Mesoporous manganese titanium oxides were synthesized using block copolymer. • Block copolymers form complexes with Mn{sup 2+} from MnCl{sub 2}. • With block copolymer, manganese oxide can be dispersed around the titania crystallites. • With Mn(acac){sub 2}, manganese is dispersed inside titania. • MnOOH crystallizes outside mesoporous titania during hydrothermal treatment.

  7. Elastodynamic behavior of the three dimensional layer-by-layer metamaterial structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.; Economou, E. N.

    2014-10-07

    In this work, we numerically investigate for the first time the elastodynamic behavior of a three dimensional layer-by-layer rod structure, which is easy to fabricate and has already proved to be very efficient as a photonic crystal. The Finite Difference Time Domain method was used for the numerical calculations. For the rods, several materials were examined and the effects of all the geometric parameters of the structure were also numerically investigated. Additionally, two modifications of the structure were included in our calculations. The results obtained here (for certain geometric parameters), exhibiting a high ratio of longitudinal over transverse sound velocity and therefore a close approach to ideal pentamode behavior over a frequency range, clearly show that the layer-by-layer rod structure, besides being an efficient photonic crystal, is a very serious contender as an elastodynamic metamaterial.

  8. Method of adhesion between an oxide layer and a metal layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jennison, Dwight R.; Bogicevic, Alexander; Kelber, Jeffry A.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2004-09-14

    A method of controlling the wetting characteristics and increasing the adhesion between a metal and an oxide layer. By introducing a negatively-charged species to the surface of an oxide layer, layer-by-layer growth of metal deposited onto the oxide surface is promoted, increasing the adhesion strength of the metal-oxide interface. The negatively-charged species can either be deposited onto the oxide surface or a compound can be deposited that dissociates on, or reacts with, the surface to form the negatively-charged species. The deposited metal adatoms can thereby bond laterally to the negatively-charged species as well as vertically to the oxide surface as well as react with the negatively charged species, be oxidized, and incorporated on or into the surface of the oxide.

  9. Fabrication of Emissible Metallic Layer-by-Layer Photonic Crystals Using

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microtransfer Molding with Electro-Deposition - Energy Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Fabrication of Emissible Metallic Layer-by-Layer Photonic Crystals Using Microtransfer Molding with Electro-Deposition Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory researchers have

  10. Fabrication of Emissible Metallic Layer-by-Layer Photonic Crystals Using

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microtransfer Molding with Electro-Deposition - Energy Innovation Portal Fabrication of Emissible Metallic Layer-by-Layer Photonic Crystals Using Microtransfer Molding with Electro-Deposition Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Photonic crystals are optical materials that can be used to control and manipulate the flow of light. Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a method for the producing photonic crystals that can be used as highly

  11. Underpotential Deposition-Mediated Layer-by-Layer Growth of Thin Films -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Startup America Startup America Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Underpotential Deposition-Mediated Layer-by-Layer Growth of Thin Films Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Overpotential deposition of Ag monolayer and bilayer on Au( 1 1 1) mediated by Pb adlayer (236 KB) <p> Increase in catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR)

  12. Ordered porous mesostructured materials from nanoparticle-block copolymer self-assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Scott; Wiesner, Ulrich; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J

    2013-10-29

    The invention provides mesostructured materials and methods of preparing mesostructured materials including metal-rich mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrids, porous metal-nonmetal nanocomposite mesostructures, and ordered metal mesostructures with uniform pores. The nanoparticles can be metal, metal alloy, metal mixture, intermetallic, metal-carbon, metal-ceramic, semiconductor-carbon, semiconductor-ceramic, insulator-carbon or insulator-ceramic nanoparticles, or combinations thereof. A block copolymer/ligand-stabilized nanoparticle solution is cast, resulting in the formation of a metal-rich (or semiconductor-rich or insulator-rich) mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrid. The hybrid is heated to an elevated temperature, resulting in the formation of an ordered porous nanocomposite mesostructure. A nonmetal component (e.g., carbon or ceramic) is then removed to produce an ordered mesostructure with ordered and large uniform pores.

  13. Computer simulation of shading and blocking: Discussion of accuracy and recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipps, F W

    1992-04-01

    A field of heliostats suffers losses caused by shading and blocking by neighboring heliostats. The complex geometry of multiple shading and blocking events suggests that a processing code is needed to update the boundary vector for each shading or blocking event. A new version, RSABS, (programmer`s manual included) simulates the split-rectangular heliostat. Researchers concluded that the dominant error for the given heliostat geometry is caused by the departure from planarity of the neighboring heliostats. It is recommended that a version of the heliostat simulation be modified to include losses due to nonreflective structural margins, if they occur. Heliostat neighbors should be given true guidance rather than assumed to be parallel, and the resulting nonidentical quadrilateral images should be processed, as in HELIOS, by ignoring overlapping events, rare in optimized fields.

  14. Influence of shape and skin of matrix-rock blocks on pressure transients in fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Swaan, A.

    1986-01-01

    A formulation of pressure transients in terms of the intrinsic, or core, properties of the two media that compose the fractured reservoir, establishes the influence of these properties, and reciprocally, their corroboration from - the pressure-time relationship observed in well tests and interference tests. The following reservoir characteristics are analyzed: the area of fractures transverse to flow; the dimensions, shape and properties of rectangular parallelepiped matrix-rock blocks; and a permeability reduction in the blocks surface. A restatement of the so-called pseudo-steady state inter-media flow gives to parameters alfa and lambda in the theory of a previous study the physical meaning they lacked, and allows a direct determination of the blocks minimum dimension.

  15. Millisecond ordering of block-copolymer films via photo-thermal gradients

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Majewski, Pawel W.; Yager, Kevin G.

    2015-03-12

    For the promise of self-assembly to be realized, processing techniques must be developed that simultaneously enable control of the nanoscale morphology, rapid assembly, and, ideally, the ability to pattern the nanostructure. Here, we demonstrate how photo-thermal gradients can be used to control the ordering of block-copolymer thin films. Highly localized laser heating leads to intense thermal gradients, which induce a thermophoretic force on morphological defects. This increases the ordering kinetics by at least 3 orders-of-magnitude, compared to conventional oven annealing. By simultaneously exploiting the thermal gradients to induce shear fields, we demonstrate uniaxial alignment of a block-copolymer film in lessmore » than a second. Finally, we provide examples of how control of the incident light-field can be used to generate prescribed configurations of block-copolymer nanoscale patterns.« less

  16. Biomimetic processing of oriented crystalline ceramic layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cesarano, J.; Shelnutt, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this project was to develop the capabilities for Sandia to fabricate self assembled Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of various materials and to exploit their two-dimensional crystalline structure to promote the growth of oriented thin films of inorganic materials at room temperature. This includes the design and synthesis of Langmuir-active (amphiphilic) organic molecules with end groups offering high nucleation potential for various ceramics. A longer range goal is that of understanding the underlying principles, making it feasible to use the techniques presented in this report to fabricate unique oriented films of various materials for electronic, sensor, and membrane applications. Therefore, whenever possible, work completed in this report was completed with the intention of addressing the fundamental phenomena underlying the growth of crystalline, inorganic films on template layers of highly organized organic molecules. This problem was inspired by biological processes, which often produce exquisitely engineered structures via templated growth on polymeric layers. Seashells, for example, exhibit great toughness owing to their fine brick-and-mortar structure that results from templated growth of calcium carbonate on top of layers of ordered organic proteins. A key goal in this work, therefore, is to demonstrate a positive correlation between the order and orientation of the template layer and that of the crystalline ceramic material grown upon it. The work completed was comprised of several parallel efforts that encompassed the entire spectrum of biomimetic growth from solution. Studies were completed on seashells and the mechanisms of growth for calcium carbonate. Studies were completed on the characterization of LB films and the capability developed for the in-house fabrication of these films. Standard films of fatty acids were studied as well as novel polypeptides and porphyrins that were synthesized.

  17. Semiconductor tunnel junction with enhancement layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klem, J.F.; Zolper, J.C.

    1997-10-21

    The incorporation of a pseudomorphic GaAsSb layer in a runnel diode structure affords a new degree of freedom in designing runnel junctions for p-n junction device interconnects. Previously only doping levels could be varied to control the tunneling properties. This invention uses the valence band alignment band of the GaAsSb with respect to the surrounding materials to greatly relax the doping requirements for tunneling. 5 figs.

  18. Semiconductor tunnel junction with enhancement layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klem, John F.; Zolper, John C.

    1997-01-01

    The incorporation of a pseudomorphic GaAsSb layer in a runnel diode structure affords a new degree of freedom in designing runnel junctions for p-n junction device interconnects. Previously only doping levels could be varied to control the tunneling properties. This invention uses the valence band alignment band of the GaAsSb with respect to the surrounding materials to greatly relax the doping requirements for tunneling.

  19. Stable Boundary Layer Education Field Campaign Summary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary DD Turner March 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe

  20. SUPERSONIC SHEAR INSTABILITIES IN ASTROPHYSICAL BOUNDARY LAYERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    Disk accretion onto weakly magnetized astrophysical objects often proceeds via a boundary layer (BL) that forms near the object's surface, in which the rotation speed of the accreted gas changes rapidly. Here, we study the initial stages of formation for such a BL around a white dwarf or a young star by examining the hydrodynamical shear instabilities that may initiate mixing and momentum transport between the two fluids of different densities moving supersonically with respect to each other. We find that an initially laminar BL is unstable to two different kinds of instabilities. One is an instability of a supersonic vortex sheet (implying a discontinuous initial profile of the angular speed of the gas) in the presence of gravity, which we find to have a growth rate of order (but less than) the orbital frequency. The other is a sonic instability of a finite width, supersonic shear layer, which is similar to the Papaloizou-Pringle instability. It has a growth rate proportional to the shear inside the transition layer, which is of order the orbital frequency times the ratio of stellar radius to the BL thickness. For a BL that is thin compared to the radius of the star, the shear rate is much larger than the orbital frequency. Thus, we conclude that sonic instabilities play a dominant role in the initial stages of nonmagnetic BL formation and give rise to very fast mixing between disk gas and stellar fluid in the supersonic regime.

  1. Layered Atom Arrangements in Complex Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.E. Sikafus; R.W.Grimes; S.M.Corish; A.R. Cleave; M.Tang; C.R.Stanek; B.P. Uberuaga; J.A.Valdez

    2005-04-15

    In this report, we develop an atom layer stacking model to describe systematically the crystal structures of complex materials. To illustrate the concepts, we consider a sequence of oxide compounds in which the metal cations progress in oxidation state from monovalent (M{sup 1+}) to tetravalent (M{sup 4+}). We use concepts relating to geometric subdivisions of a triangular atom net to describe the layered atom patterns in these compounds (concepts originally proposed by Shuichi Iida). We demonstrate that as a function of increasing oxidation state (from M{sup 1+} to M{sup 4+}), the layer stacking motifs used to generate each successive structure (specifically, motifs along a 3 symmetry axis), progress through the following sequence: MMO, MO, M{sub r}O, MO{sub r/s}O{sub u/v}, MOO (where M and O represent fully dense triangular atom nets and r/s and u/v are fractions used to describe partially filled triangular atom nets). We also develop complete crystallographic descriptions for the compounds in our oxidation sequence using trigonal space group R{bar 3}.

  2. Organic electronic devices with multiple solution-processed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Lassiter, Brian E.; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.

    2015-08-04

    A method of fabricating a tandem organic photosensitive device involves depositing a first layer of an organic electron donor type material film by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a first solvent; depositing a first layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the first layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process; depositing a conductive layer over the interim stack by a dry deposition process; depositing a second layer of the organic electron donor type material over the conductive layer by solution-processing of the organic electron donor type material dissolved in a second solvent, wherein the organic electron acceptor type material and the conductive layer are insoluble in the second solvent; depositing a second layer of an organic electron acceptor type material over the second layer of the organic electron donor type material film by a dry deposition process, resulting in a stack.

  3. Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

    1998-10-13

    A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications is disclosed. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. 8 figs.

  4. Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, John P.; Friedmann, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced.

  5. Exploring the effect of noise on the performance benefit of non-blocking

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MPI_Allreduce. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Exploring the effect of noise on the performance benefit of non-blocking MPI_Allreduce. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exploring the effect of noise on the performance benefit of non-blocking MPI_Allreduce. Abstract not provided. Authors: Widener, Patrick ; Ferreira, Kurt Brian ; Levy, Scott N. Publication Date: 2014-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1145671 Report Number(s): SAND2014-4228C 518355 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC04-94AL85000 Resource

  6. New Materials Family on the Block | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Materials Family on the Block Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 12.14.15 New Materials Family on the Block A family of single-phase

  7. Indian Community Development Block Grant Program FY 2016 Notice of Funding

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Availability Workshop | Department of Energy Indian Community Development Block Grant Program FY 2016 Notice of Funding Availability Workshop Indian Community Development Block Grant Program FY 2016 Notice of Funding Availability Workshop May 17, 2016 8:30AM MST to May 18, 2016 12:00PM MST Albuquerque, New Mexico HUD Training Room 500 Gold Avenue, 7th floor, Suite 7301 Albuquerque, NM 87103 Phoenix, Arizona HUD Training Room One North Central Ave, 6th floor Phoenix, AZ 85004 The U.S.

  8. Capitol Area East End, Block 225: California Department of Education Headquarters

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Sacramento, CA The California Department of Education Headquarters, Block 225 was the first of the five buildings to make up the Capitol Area East End Complex. The entire project is being developed by the California Department of General Services Real Estate Division. At 336,000 square feet and six stories high, Block 225 was the most ambitious green-building initiative to have been undertaken by the State at that time and the largest office building project ever undertaken by the State. The project was delivered through a bridged design-build process.

  9. Method and apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes. [stored as uranium hydride in a block of copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMullen, J.W.; Wheeler, M.G.; Cullingford, H.S.; Sherman, R.H.

    1982-08-10

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas is stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forms at a significantly lower temperature).

  10. Electrically conductive doped block copolymer of polyacetylene and polyisoprene. [Soluble in organic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.

    1984-06-27

    An electrically conductive block copolymer of polyisoprene and polyacetylene and a method of making the same are disclosed. The polymer is prepared by first polymerizing isoprene with n-butyllithium in a toluene solution to form an active isoprenyllithium polymer. The active polymer is reacted with an equimolar amount of titanium butoxide and subsequently exposed to gaseous acetylene. A block copolymer of polyisoprene and polyacetylene is formed. The copolymer is soluble in common solvents and may be doped with I/sub 2/ to give it an electrical conductivity in the metallic regime.

  11. Construction of block-coil high-field model dipoles for future hadron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    colliders (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Construction of block-coil high-field model dipoles for future hadron colliders Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Construction of block-coil high-field model dipoles for future hadron colliders A family of high-field dipoles is being developed at Texas A&M University, as part of the program to improve the cost-effectiveness of superconducting magnet technology for future hadron colliders. The TAMU technology employs stress

  12. Block Diagram Simulator to Solve a User-Defined Network of Differential Equatios

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-18

    BDBSIM simulates control and protection systems found in fossil and nuclear power plants. The software is based on the identification of a general equation form that encompasses all control and protection equations encountered in these plants. The user enters his equations in block diagram form as a collection of individual dynamic function, logic, and table blocks. Constructing plant control equations in this manner is analogous to setting up an analog computer for simulation. The capabilitymore » is thus sufficiently general for use in modeling a wide variety of control and protection systems.« less

  13. Analysis of the Younger Dryas Impact Layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Revay, Zsolt; Hagstrum, Jonathon T,; Belgya, Thomas; Hee, Shane S. Que; Smith, Alan R.

    2010-02-27

    We have uncovered a thin layer of magnetic grains and microspherules, carbon spherules, and glass-like carbon at nine sites across North America, a site in Belgium, and throughout the rims of 16 Carolina Bays. It is consistent with the ejecta layer from an impact event and has been dated to 12.9 ka BP coinciding with the onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and widespread megafaunal extinctions in North America. At many locations the impact layer is directly below a black mat marking the sudden disappearance of the megafauna and Clovis people. The distribution pattern of the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) ejecta layer is consistent with an impact near the Great Lakes that deposited terrestrial-like ejecta near the impact site and unusual, titanium-rich projectile-like ejecta further away. High water content associated with the ejecta, up to 28 at. percent hydrogen (H), suggests the impact occurred over the Laurentide Ice Sheet. YDB microspherules and magnetic grains are highly enriched in TiO{sub 2}. Magnetic grains from several sites are enriched in iridium (Ir), up to 117 ppb. The TiO{sub 2}/FeO, K/Th, TiO{sub 2}/Zr, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO+MgO, CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, REE/ chondrite, FeO/MnO ratios and SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, Co, U, Th and other trace element abundances are inconsistent with all terrestrial and extraterrestrial (ET) sources except for KREEP, a lunar igneous rock rich in potassium (K), rare-earth elements (REE), phosphorus (P), and other incompatible elements including U and Th. Normal Fe, Ti, and {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U isotopic abundances were found in the magnetic grains, but {sup 234}U was enriched over equilibrium values by 50 percent in Murray Springs and by 130 percent in Belgium. 40K abundance is enriched by up to 100 percent in YDB sediments and Clovis chert artifacts. Highly vesicular carbon spherules containing nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon, charcoal and soot found in large quantities in the YDB layer are consistent with an impact followed by intense burning. Four holes in the Great Lakes, some deeper than Death Valley, are proposed as possible craters produced by the airburst breakup of a loosely aggregated projectile.

  14. Method of transferring a thin crystalline semiconductor layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nastasi, Michael A.; Shao, Lin; Theodore, N. David

    2006-12-26

    A method for transferring a thin semiconductor layer from one substrate to another substrate involves depositing a thin epitaxial monocrystalline semiconductor layer on a substrate having surface contaminants. An interface that includes the contaminants is formed in between the deposited layer and the substrate. Hydrogen atoms are introduced into the structure and allowed to diffuse to the interface. Afterward, the thin semiconductor layer is bonded to a second substrate and the thin layer is separated away at the interface, which results in transferring the thin epitaxial semiconductor layer from one substrate to the other substrate.

  15. High thermal conductivity lossy dielectric using a multi layer configuration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    2003-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for loss dielectrics. A loss dielectric includes at least one high dielectric loss layer and at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. A method of manufacturing a loss dielectric includes providing at least one high dielectric loss layer and providing at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. The systems and methods provide advantages because the loss dielectrics are less costly and more environmentally friendly than the available alternatives.

  16. € National Energy Policy Act Guide for State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Projects

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    STATE ENERGY PROGRAM NOTICE (10-001) AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM NOTICE (10-003) EFFECTIVE DATE: December 17, 2009 SUBJECT: NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT GUIDE FOR STATE ENERGY PROGRAM AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT PROJECTS PURPOSE: This guidance is designed to help applicants for or recipients of funds from DOE's State Energy Program (SEP) and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) program (Grantees). Grantees may not spend

  17. Final report for CCS cross-layer reliability visioning study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, Heather M; Dehon, Andre; Carter, Nicj

    2010-12-20

    The geometric rate of improvement of transistor size and integrated circuit performance known as Moore's Law has been an engine of growth for our economy, enabling new products and services, creating new value and wealth, increasing safety, and removing menial tasks from our daily lives. Affordable, highly integrated components have enabled both life-saving technologies and rich entertainment applications. Anti-lock brakes, insulin monitors, and GPS-enabled emergency response systems save lives. Cell phones, internet appliances, virtual worlds, realistic video games, and mp3 players enrich our lives and connect us together. Over the past 40 years of silicon scaling, the increasing capabilities of inexpensive computation have transformed our society through automation and ubiquitous communications. Looking forward, increasing unpredictability threatens our ability to continue scaling integrated circuits at Moore's Law rates. As the transistors and wires that make up integrated circuits become smaller, they display both greater differences in behavior among devices designed to be identical and greater vulnerability to transient and permanent faults. Conventional design techniques expend energy to tolerate this unpredictability by adding safety margins to a circuit's operating voltage, clock frequency or charge stored per bit. However, the rising energy costs needed to compensate for increasing unpredictability are rapidly becoming unacceptable in today's environment where power consumption is often the limiting factor on integrated circuit performance and energy efficiency is a national concern. Reliability and energy consumption are both reaching key inflection points that, together, threaten to reduce or end the benefits of feature size reduction. To continue beneficial scaling, we must use a cross-layer, Jull-system-design approach to reliability. Unlike current systems, which charge every device a substantial energy tax in order to guarantee correct operation in spite of rare events, such as one high-threshold transistor in a billion or one erroneous gate evaluation in an hour of computation, cross-layer reliability schemes make reliability management a cooperative effort across the system stack, sharing information across layers so that they only expend energy on reliability when an error actually occurs. Figure 1 illustrates an example of such a system that uses a combination of information from the application and cheap architecture-level techniques to detect errors. When an error occurs, mechanisms at higher levels in the stack correct the error, efficiently delivering correct operation to the user in spite of errors at the device or circuit levels. In the realms of memory and communication, engineers have a long history of success in tolerating unpredictable effects such as fabrication variability, transient upsets, and lifetime wear using information sharing, limited redundancy, and cross-layer approaches that anticipate, accommodate, and suppress errors. Networks use a combination of hardware and software to guarantee end-toend correctness. Error-detection and correction codes use additional information to correct the most common errors, single-bit transmission errors. When errors occur that cannot be corrected by these codes, the network protocol requests re-transmission of one or more packets until the correct data is received. Similarly, computer memory systems exploit a cross-layer division of labor to achieve high performance with modest hardware. Rather than demanding that hardware alone provide the virtual memory abstraction, software page-fault and TLB-miss handlers allow a modest piece of hardware, the TLB, to handle the common-case operations on a cyc1e-by-cycle basis while infrequent misses are handled in system software. Unfortunately, mitigating logic errors is not as simple or as well researched as memory or communication systems. This lack of understanding has led to very expensive solutions. For example, triple-modular redundancy masks errors by triplicating computations in either time or area. This mitigation methods imposes a 200% increase in energy consumption for every operation, not just the uncommon failure cases. At a time when computation is rapidly becoming part of our critical civilian and military infrastructure and decreasing costsfor computation are fueling our economy and our well being, we cannot afford increasingly unreliable electronics or a stagnation in capabilities per dollar, watt, or cubic meter. If researchers are able to develop techniques that tolerate the growing unpredictability of silicon devices, Moore's Law scaling should continue until at least 2022. During this 12-year time period, transistors, which are the building blocks of electronic devices, will scale their dimensions (feature sizes) from 45nm to 4.5nm.

  18. Buffer layers on metal alloy substrates for superconducting tapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jia, Quanxi; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Groves, James R.

    2004-06-29

    An article including a substrate, a layer of an inert oxide material upon the surface of the substrate, a layer of an amorphous oxide or oxynitride material upon the inert oxide material layer, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the amorphous oxide material layer, and a layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer is provided together with additional layers such as a HTS top-layer of YBCO directly upon the layer of a SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material layer. With a HTS top-layer of YBCO upon at least one layer of the SrRuO.sub.3 buffer material in such an article, J.sub.c 's of up to 1.3.times.10.sup.6 A/cm.sup.2 have been demonstrated with projected IC's of over 200 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide.

  19. Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Grantees on Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds and New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program grantees regarding Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) and New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (New CREBs)

  20. GUIDANCE FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND CONSERVATION BLOCK GRANT RECIPIENTS ON CLOSEOUT PROCEDURES FOR NON-STATE ENERGY OFFICE RECIPIENTS.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document provides guidance for energy efficiency and block grant recipients on closeout procedures for non-state energy office recipients.

  1. EECBG Program Notice 10-020B, Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Recipients on Closeout Procedures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program guidance for the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program on closeout procedures, revised January 8, 2013.

  2. EECBG Program Notice 09-002B- Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Grantees on financing programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document provides guidance to the Department of Energys (Department or DOE) Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) grantees on financing programs.

  3. Assistance Program, State Energy Program, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) publishes this monitoring plan for Weatherization Assistance Program, State Energy Program (SEP), and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) recipients in states, local governments, weatherization agencies, overseas U.S. territories, and Indian tribes.

  4. Guidance For Energy Efficiency And Conservation Block Grant Grantees On Financing Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP) Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program Notice 09-002D modified October 17, 2012 that provides guidance about financing programs for state and local governments, overseas U.S. territories, and Indian tribes that receive EECBG funding from DOE.

  5. Lattice QCD Thermodynamics : 10k analysis with 1k thermalziation and block size of 500.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soltz, R; Vranas, P; Gupta, R

    2007-05-10

    This is a re-analysis of the Lattice QCD Thermodynamics p4rhcm new beta analysis (UCRL-TR-230742) with approximately 10k trajectories per beta point, rerun with thermalization cut at 1000, and a block size of 500. Some diagnostic text has been omitted to reduce the number of pages.

  6. Compact microwave lamp having a tuning block and a dielectric located in a lamp cavity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, James E.

    2000-01-01

    A microwave lamp having a compact structure utilizing a coupling slot which has a dielectric member extending therethrough and a tuning block adjoining the coupling slot. A non-conventional waveguide is used which has about the width of a WR-284 waveguide and about the length of a WR-340 waveguide.

  7. Efficient block processing of long duration biotelemetric brain data for health care monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soumya, I.; Zia Ur Rahman, M.; Rama Koti Reddy, D. V.; Lay-Ekuakille, A.

    2015-03-15

    In real time clinical environment, the brain signals which doctor need to analyze are usually very long. Such a scenario can be made simple by partitioning the input signal into several blocks and applying signal conditioning. This paper presents various block based adaptive filter structures for obtaining high resolution electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which estimate the deterministic components of the EEG signal by removing noise. To process these long duration signals, we propose Time domain Block Least Mean Square (TDBLMS) algorithm for brain signal enhancement. In order to improve filtering capability, we introduce normalization in the weight update recursion of TDBLMS, which results TD-B-normalized-least mean square (LMS). To increase accuracy and resolution in the proposed noise cancelers, we implement the time domain cancelers in frequency domain which results frequency domain TDBLMS and FD-B-Normalized-LMS. Finally, we have applied these algorithms on real EEG signals obtained from human using Emotive Epoc EEG recorder and compared their performance with the conventional LMS algorithm. The results show that the performance of the block based algorithms is superior to the LMS counter-parts in terms of signal to noise ratio, convergence rate, excess mean square error, misadjustment, and coherence.

  8. Task Parallel Incomplete Cholesky Factorization using 2D Partitioned-Block Layout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Kyungjoo; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran; Stelle, George Widgery; Edwards, Harold C.; Olivier, Stephen Lecler

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a task-parallel algorithm for sparse incomplete Cholesky factorization that utilizes a 2D sparse partitioned-block layout of a matrix. Our factorization algorithm follows the idea of algorithms-by-blocks by using the block layout. The algorithm-byblocks approach induces a task graph for the factorization. These tasks are inter-related to each other through their data dependences in the factorization algorithm. To process the tasks on various manycore architectures in a portable manner, we also present a portable tasking API that incorporates different tasking backends and device-specific features using an open-source framework for manycore platforms i.e., Kokkos. A performance evaluation is presented on both Intel Sandybridge and Xeon Phi platforms for matrices from the University of Florida sparse matrix collection to illustrate merits of the proposed task-based factorization. Experimental results demonstrate that our task-parallel implementation delivers about 26.6x speedup (geometric mean) over single-threaded incomplete Choleskyby- blocks and 19.2x speedup over serial Cholesky performance which does not carry tasking overhead using 56 threads on the Intel Xeon Phi processor for sparse matrices arising from various application problems.

  9. Atomic-layer synthesis and imaging uncover broken inversion symmetry...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomic-layer synthesis and imaging uncover broken inversion symmetry in La 2 - x Sr x CuO 4 films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atomic-layer synthesis and imaging ...

  10. Method of depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured metal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    eu; gd; tb; tm; resup1subx; resup2sub1-xsub2; osub3; buffer; layer; deposited; sol-gel; metal-organic; decomposition; laminate; article; layer; ybco; resup1subx; ...

  11. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries A ...

  12. Buffer layers and articles for electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, Mariappan P.; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.; Feenstra, Roeland; Goyal, Amit

    2004-07-20

    Materials for depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured and untextured metallic and metal oxide substrates for use in the manufacture of superconducting and other electronic articles comprise RMnO.sub.3, R.sub.1-x A.sub.x MnO.sub.3, and combinations thereof; wherein R includes an element selected from the group consisting of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, and Y, and A includes an element selected from the group consisting of Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra.

  13. Ruthenium / aerogel nanocomposits via Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, J; Baumann, T F; Wang, Y; Nelson, E J; Kucheyev, S O; Hamza, A V; Kemell, M; Ritala, M; Leskela, M

    2006-08-28

    We present a general approach to prepare metal/aerogel nanocomposites via template directed atomic layer deposition (ALD). In particular, we used a Ru ALD process consisting of alternating exposures to bis(cyclopentadienyl)ruthenium (RuCp{sub 2}) and air at 350 C to deposit metallic Ru nanoparticles on the internal surfaces of carbon and silica aerogels. The process does not affect the morphology of the aerogel template and offers excellent control over metal loading by simply adjusting the number of ALD cycles. We also discuss the limitations of our ALD approach, and suggest ways to overcome these.

  14. Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

    2011-08-08

    The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan to look more closely at Vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2-8(H2O)] and Siderite [FeCO3] in the next stage of the project.

  15. Bursting frequency prediction in turbulent boundary layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LIOU,WILLIAM W.; FANG,YICHUNG

    2000-02-01

    The frequencies of the bursting events associated with the streamwise coherent structures of spatially developing incompressible turbulent boundary layers were predicted using global numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld and the vertical vorticity equations of hydrodynamic stability problems. The structures were modeled as wavelike disturbances associated with the turbulent mean flow. The global method developed here involves the use of second and fourth order accurate finite difference formula for the differential equations as well as the boundary conditions. An automated prediction tool, BURFIT, was developed. The predicted resonance frequencies were found to agree very well with previous results using a local shooting technique and measured data.

  16. Counting graphene layers with very slow electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, Lud?k; Mikmekov, Elika; Mllerov, Ilona; Lejeune, Michal

    2015-01-05

    The study aimed at collection of data regarding the transmissivity of freestanding graphene for electrons across their full energy scale down to the lowest energies. Here, we show that the electron transmissivity of graphene drops with the decreasing energy of the electrons and remains below 10% for energies below 30?eV, and that the slow electron transmissivity value is suitable for reliable determination of the number of graphene layers. Moreover, electrons incident below 50?eV release adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules and effectively clean graphene in contrast to faster electrons that decompose these molecules and create carbonaceous contamination.

  17. Layered zeolite materials and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsapatsis, Michael; Maheshwari, Sudeep; Bates, Frank S; Koros, William J

    2013-08-06

    A novel oxide material (MIN-I) comprising YO.sub.2; and X.sub.2O.sub.3, wherein Y is a tetravalent element and X is a trivalent element, wherein X/Y=O or Y/X=30 to 100 is provided. Surprisingly, MIN-I can be reversibly deswollen. MIN-I can further be combined with a polymer to produce a nanocomposite, depolymerized to produce predominantly fully exfoliated layers (MIN-2), and pillared to produce a pillared oxide material (MIN-3), analogous to MCM-36. The materials are useful in a wide range of applications, such as catalysts, thin films, membranes, and coatings.

  18. Theory for dynamical self arrest and gelation in microemulsions and the block copolymer systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Sangwook

    2005-05-01

    The main purpose of this work is to investigate the glassy behavior of microemulsions and block copolymers. The origin of glassy behavior in microemulsions and block copolymers is frustration due to a competition between short-range interaction and long range interaction. According to the charge frustrated Ising model, the competition between ferromagnetic interaction and antiferromagnetic interaction is the origin of frustration in microemulsions. The competition between entropic effects and stoichiometric constraints responsible for the formation of micelles in microemulsions can lead to the emergence of a self generated glassy behavior in these systems. In the block copolymer, the competition between the repulsive short range interaction between monomers in polymer chains and the long range interaction by chemical bonds can lead to the emergence of a self generated glassy behavior. The criteria for the fluctuation induced first order transition and our microemulsion and block copolymer glasses are essentially the same. Both are a consequence of the large phase space of low energy excitations (14) (62) (all states with momenta q which fulfill |q| = q{sub m}) and are of at the most a moderate supercooling of the liquid state is required. This is strongly supported by the observation in Ref. (14) that the metastable states which are first to appear at a fluctuation induced first order transition are the ones build by a superposition of large amplitude waves of wavenumber q{sub m}, but with random orientations and phases, i.e. just the ones which form the metastable states of our microemulsion and block copolymer glass. (38)

  19. Traveling Electrons in Loosely Bound Layers | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Traveling Electrons in Loosely Bound Layers September 24, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Extremely large magnetoresistance (XMR) was recently discovered in WTe2, triggering extensive research on this material regarding the XMR origin. Since WTe2 is a layered compound with metal layers sandwiched between adjacent insulating chalcogenide layers, this material has been considered to be electronically two-dimensional. Here a team of users from Argonne's Materials Science Division and Northern Illinois

  20. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region,

  1. Planetary Boundary Layer from AERI and MPL (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Planetary Boundary Layer from AERI and MPL Title: Planetary Boundary Layer from AERI and MPL The distribution and transport of aerosol emitted to the lower troposphere is governed by the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), which limits the dilution of pollutants and influences boundary-layer convection. Because radiative heating and cooling of the surface strongly affect the PBL top height, it follows diurnal and seasonal cycles and may vary by hundreds of

  2. Underpotential deposition-mediated layer-by-layer growth of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jia Xu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-05-19

    A method of depositing contiguous, conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin films with atomic-level control is described. The process involves the use of underpotential deposition of a first element to mediate the growth of a second material by overpotential deposition. Deposition occurs between a potential positive to the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element where a full monolayer of mediating element forms, and a potential which is less than, or only slightly greater than, the bulk deposition potential of the material to be deposited. By cycling the applied voltage between the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element and the material to be deposited, repeated desorption/adsorption of the mediating element during each potential cycle can be used to precisely control film growth on a layer-by-layer basis. This process is especially suitable for the formation of a catalytically active layer on core-shell particles for use in energy conversion devices such as fuel cells.

  3. Layered method of electrode for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Russell R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1991-07-30

    A process for fabricating a fuel electrode comprising: slurry dipping to form layers which are structurally graded from all or mostly all stabilized zirconia at a first layer, to an outer most layer of substantially all metal powder, such an nickel. Higher performaance fuel electrodes may be achieved if sinter active stabilized zirconia doped for electronic conductivity is used.

  4. Thin layer chromatography residue applicator sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Haas, Jeffrey S.; Andresen, Brian D.

    2007-07-24

    A thin layer chromatograph residue applicator sampler. The residue applicator sampler provides for rapid analysis of samples containing high explosives, chemical warfare, and other analyses of interest under field conditions. This satisfied the need for a field-deployable, small, hand-held, all-in-one device for efficient sampling, sample dissolution, and sample application to an analytical technique. The residue applicator sampler includes a sampling sponge that is resistant to most chemicals and is fastened via a plastic handle in a hermetically sealed tube containing a known amount of solvent. Upon use, the wetted sponge is removed from the sealed tube and used as a swiping device across an environmental sample. The sponge is then replaced in the hermetically sealed tube where the sample remains contained and dissolved in the solvent. A small pipette tip is removably contained in the hermetically sealed tube. The sponge is removed and placed into the pipette tip where a squeezing-out of the dissolved sample from the sponge into the pipette tip results in a droplet captured in a vial for later instrumental analysis, or applied directly to a thin layer chromatography plate for immediate analysis.

  5. Electron holography of devices with epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gribelyuk, M. A. Ontalus, V.; Baumann, F. H.; Zhu, Z.; Holt, J. R.

    2014-11-07

    Applicability of electron holography to deep submicron Si devices with epitaxial layers is limited due to lack of the mean inner potential data and effects of the sample tilt. The mean inner potential V{sub 0}?=?12.75?V of the intrinsic epitaxial SiGe was measured by electron holography in devices with Ge content C{sub Ge}?=?18%. Nanobeam electron diffraction analysis performed on the same device structure showed that SiGe is strain-free in [220] direction. Our results showed good correlation with simulations of the mean inner potential of the strain-free SiGe using density function theory. A new method is proposed in this paper to correct electron holography data for the overlap of potentials of Si and the epitaxial layer, which is caused by the sample tilt. The method was applied to the analysis of the dopant diffusion in p-Field-effect Transistor devices with the identical gate length L?=?30?nm, which had alternative SiGe geometry in the source and drain regions and was subjected to different thermal processing. Results have helped to understand electrical data acquired from the same devices in terms of dopant diffusion.

  6. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sankar, Sambasivan [Chicago, IL; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Barnett, Scott A [Evanston, IL; Kim, Ilwon [Skokie, IL; Kroeger, Donald M [Knoxville, TN

    2009-03-31

    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metals and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layer. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may have superconducting properties.

  7. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sankar, Sambasivan; Goyal, Amit; Barnett, Scott A.; Kim, Ilwon; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-08-31

    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metal and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layers. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may be super conducting properties.

  8. Buffer layers for REBCO films for use in superconducting devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A superconducting article includes a substrate having a biaxially textured surface. A biaxially textured buffer layer, which can be a cap layer, is supported by the substrate. The buffer layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different transition metal cations. A biaxially textured superconductor layer is deposited so as to be supported by the buffer layer. A method of making a superconducting article is also disclosed.

  9. Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Stimuli Responsive Block Copolymers, Self-Assembly Behavior and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Duane Determan

    2005-12-17

    The central theme of this thesis work is to develop new block copolymer materials for biomedical applications. While there are many reports of stimuli-responsive amphiphilic [19-21] and crosslinked hydrogel materials [22], the development of an in situ gel forming, pH responsive pentablock copolymer is a novel contribution to the field, Figure 1.1 is a sketch of an ABCBA pentablock copolymer. The A blocks are cationic tertiary amine methacrylates blocked to a central Pluronic F127 triblock copolymer. In addition to the prerequisite synthetic and macromolecular characterization of these new materials, the self-assembled supramolecular structures formed by the pentablock were experimentally evaluated. This synthesis and characterization process serves to elucidate the important structure property relationships of these novel materials, The pH and temperature responsive behavior of the pentablock copolymer were explored especially with consideration towards injectable drug delivery applications. Future synthesis work will focus on enhancing and tuning the cell specific targeting of DNA/pentablock copolymer polyplexes. The specific goals of this research are: (1) Develop a synthetic route for gel forming pentablock block copolymers with pH and temperature sensitive properties. Synthesis of these novel copolymers is accomplished with ATRP, yielding low polydispersity and control of the block copolymer architecture. Well defined macromolecular characteristics are required to tailor the phase behavior of these materials. (2) Characterize relationship between the size and shape of pentablock copolymer micelles and gel structure and the pH and temperature of the copolymer solutions with SAXS, SANS and CryoTEM. (3) Evaluate the temperature and pH induced phase separation and macroscopic self-assembly phenomenon of the pentablock copolymer. (4) Utilize the knowledge gained from first three goals to design and formulate drug delivery formulations based on the multi-responsive properties of the pentablock copolymer. Demonstrate potential biomedical applications of these materials with in vitro drug release studies from pentablock copolymer hydrogels. The intent of this work is to contribute to the knowledge necessary for further tailoring of these, and other functional block copolymer materials for biomedical applications.

  11. Redox Active Layer-by-Layer Structures containing MnO2 Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazito, Fernanda; O'Brien, Robert; Buttry, Daniel A.

    2005-02-01

    Nanoscale materials provide unique properties that will enable new technologies and enhance older ones. One area of intense activity in which nanoscale materials are being used is in the development of new functional materials for battery applications. This effort promises superior materials with properties that circumvent many of the problems associated with traditional battery materials. Previously we have worked on several approaches for using nanoscale materials for application as cathode materials in rechargeable Li batteries. Our recent work has focused on synthesizing MnO2 nanoparticles and using these in layer-by-layer (LbL) structures to probe the redox properties of the nanoparticles. We show that the aqueous colloidal nanoparticles produced by butanol reduction of tetramethylammonium permanganate can be trapped in thin films using a layer-by-layer deposition approach, and that these films are both redox active and exhibit kinetically facile electrochemical responses. We show cyclic voltammetry of MnO2 colloidal nanoparticles entrapped in a LbL thin film at an ITO electrode surface using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). CV experiments demonstrate that Li+ insertion accompanies Mn(IV) reduction in LiClO4 supporting electrolytes, and that reduction is hindered in supporting electrolytes containing only tetrabutylammonium cations. We also show that electron propagation through multilayer films is facile, suggesting that electrons percolate through the films via electron exchange between nanoparticles.

  12. Combining multi-layered bitmap files using network specific hardware

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DuBois, David H.; DuBois, Andrew J.; Davenport, Carolyn Connor

    2012-02-28

    Images and video can be produced by compositing or alpha blending a group of image layers or video layers. Increasing resolution or the number of layers results in increased computational demands. As such, the available computational resources limit the images and videos that can be produced. A computational architecture in which the image layers are packetized and streamed through processors can be easily scaled so to handle many image layers and high resolutions. The image layers are packetized to produce packet streams. The packets in the streams are received, placed in queues, and processed. For alpha blending, ingress queues receive the packetized image layers which are then z sorted and sent to egress queues. The egress queue packets are alpha blended to produce an output image or video.

  13. Cleaning graphene with a titanium sacrificial layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joiner, C. A. Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Vogel, E. M.; Chakrabarti, B.

    2014-06-02

    Graphene is a promising material for future electronic applications and chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper is a promising method for synthesizing graphene on the wafer scale. The processing of such graphene films into electronic devices introduces a variety of contaminants which can be difficult to remove. An approach to cleaning residues from the graphene channel is presented in which a thin layer of titanium is deposited via thermal e-beam evaporation and immediately removed. This procedure does not damage the graphene as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy, greatly enhances the electrical performance of the fabricated graphene field effect transistors, and completely removes the chemical residues from the surface of the graphene channel as evidenced by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  14. Hand portable thin-layer chromatography system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Bushman, John F.; Wiefel, Michael H.; Jensen, Wayne A.

    2000-01-01

    A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.

  15. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-16

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  16. Layered electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Christopher S.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Kahaian, Arthur J.; Kim, Jeom-Soo

    2008-04-15

    Lithium metal oxide compounds of nominal formula Li.sub.2MO.sub.2, in which M represents two or more positively charged metal ions, selected predominantly and preferably from the first row of transition metals are disclosed herein. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds have a layered-type structure, which can be used as positive electrodes for lithium electrochemical cells, or as a precursor for the in-situ electrochemical fabrication of LiMO.sub.2 electrodes. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds of the invention may have additional functions in lithium cells, for example, as end-of-discharge indicators, or as negative electrodes for lithium cells.

  17. Block copolymer with simultaneous electric and ionic conduction for use in lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08

    Redox reactions that occur at the electrodes of batteries require transport of both ions and electrons to the active centers. Reported is the synthesis of a block copolymer that exhibits simultaneous electronic and ionic conduction. A combination of Grignard metathesis polymerization and click reaction was used successively to synthesize the block copolymer containing regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. The P3HT-PEO/LiTFSI mixture was then used to make a lithium battery cathode with LiFePO.sub.4 as the only other component. All-solid lithium batteries of the cathode described above, a solid electrolyte and a lithium foil as the anode showed capacities within experimental error of the theoretical capacity of the battery. The ability of P3HT-PEO to serve all of the transport and binding functions required in a lithium battery electrode is thus demonstrated.

  18. Revisiting the blocking force test on ferroelectric ceramics using high energy x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, L.; Hall, D. A.; Withers, P. J.; Koruza, J.; Webber, K. G.; King, A.

    2015-05-07

    The blocking force test is a standard test to characterise the properties of piezoelectric actuators. The aim of this study is to understand the various contributions to the macroscopic behaviour observed during this experiment that involves the intrinsic piezoelectric effect, ferroelectric domain switching, and internal stress development. For this purpose, a high energy diffraction experiment is performed in-situ during a blocking force test on a tetragonal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic (Pb{sub 0.98}Ba{sub 0.01}(Zr{sub 0.51}Ti{sub 0.49}){sub 0.98}Nb{sub 0.02}O{sub 3}). It is shown that the usual macroscopic linear interpretation of the test can also be performed at the single crystal scale, allowing the identification of local apparent piezoelectric and elastic properties. It is also shown that despite this apparent linearity, the blocking force test involves significant non-linear behaviour mostly due to domain switching under electric field and stress. Although affecting a limited volume fraction of the material, domain switching is responsible for a large part of the macroscopic strain and explains the high level of inter- and intra-granular stresses observed during the course of the experiment. The study shows that if apparent piezoelectric and elastic properties can be identified for PZT single crystals from blocking stress curves, they may be very different from the actual properties of polycrystalline materials due to the multiplicity of the physical mechanisms involved. These apparent properties can be used for macroscopic modelling purposes but should be considered with caution if a local analysis is aimed at.

  19. Studying the Building Blocks of Matter: Public Talk Planned for Oct. 7 at

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab | Jefferson Lab Studying the Building Blocks of Matter: Public Talk Planned for Oct. 7 at Jefferson Lab Studying the Building locks of Matter: Public Talk Planned for Oct. 7 at Jefferson Lab CEBAF Race Track This aerial photo shows the outline of the racetrack-shaped CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab, located in Newport News, Va.. NEWPORT NEWS, VA, Sept. 22, 2014 - In conjunction with Virginia Science Festival events around the Commonwealth, Jefferson Lab Staff Scientist

  20. 50 kW Power Block for Distributed Energy Applications - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Storage Energy Storage Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search 50 kW Power Block for Distributed Energy Applications National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Actual prototype Actual prototype Technology Marketing Summary Distributed energy (DE) systems have begun to make a significant impact on energy supply and will

  1. K+ block is the mechanism of functional asymmetry in bacterial Nav channels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ngo, Van; Wang, Yibo; Haas, Stephan; Noskov, Sergei Y.; Farley, Robert A.; Weinstein, Harel

    2016-01-04

    Crystal structures of several bacterial Nav channels have been recently published and molecular dynamics simulations of ion permeation through these channels are consistent with many electrophysiological properties of eukaryotic channels. Bacterial Nav channels have been characterized as functionally asymmetric, and the mechanism of this asymmetry has not been clearly understood. To address this question, we combined non-equilibrium simulation data with two-dimensional equilibrium unperturbed landscapes generated by umbrella sampling and Weighted Histogram Analysis Methods for multiple ions traversing the selectivity filter of bacterial NavAb channel. This approach provided new insight into the mechanism of selective ion permeation in bacterial Nav channels.more » The non-equilibrium simulations indicate that two or three extracellular K+ ions can block the entrance to the selectivity filter of NavAb in the presence of applied forces in the inward direction, but not in the outward direction. The block state occurs in an unstable local minimum of the equilibrium unperturbed free-energy landscape of two K+ ions that can be ‘locked’ in place bymodest applied forces. In contrast to K+, three Na+ ions move favorably through the selectivity filter together as a unit in a loose “knock-on” mechanism of permeation in both inward and outward directions, and there is no similar local minimum in the two-dimensional free-energy landscape of two Na+ ions for a block state. The useful work predicted by the non-equilibrium simulations that is required to break the K+ block is equivalent to large applied potentials experimentally measured for two bacterial Nav channels to induce inward currents of K+ ions. Here, these results illustrate how inclusion of non-equilibrium factors in the simulations can provide detailed information about mechanisms of ion selectivity that is missing from mechanisms derived from either crystal structures or equilibrium unperturbed free-energy landscapes.« less

  2. A water-processable organic electron-selective layer for solution-processed inverted organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dongcheng; Zhou, Hu; Cai, Ping; Sun, Shi; Ye, Hua; Su, Shi-Jian Cao, Yong

    2014-02-03

    A triazine- and pyridinium-containing water-soluble material of 1,1?,1?-(4,4?,4?-(1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyl)tris(benzene-4,1-diyl)) tris(methylene)tripyridinium bromide (TzPyBr) was developed as an organic electron-selective layer in solution-processed inverted organic solar cells due to its strong anti-erosion capacity against non-polar organic solvents commonly used for the active layer. Ohmic-like contact with the adjacent active materials like fullerene derivatives is speculated to be formed, as confirmed by the work-function measurements with scanning Kelvin probe and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. Besides, considering the deep highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of TzPyBr, excellent hole-blocking property of the electron-selective layer is also anticipated. The inverted organic photovoltaic devices based on the TzPyBr/ITO (indium tin oxide) bilayer cathode exhibit dramatically enhanced performance compared to the control devices with bare ITO as the cathode and even higher efficiency than the conventional type devices with ITO and Al as the electrodes.

  3. Rare earth zirconium oxide buffer layers on metal substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2001-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0layer can be deposited using sol-gel or metal-organic decomposition. The laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  4. Thermally-induced transition of lamellae orientation in block-copolymer films on ‘neutral’ nanoparticle-coated substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yager, Kevin G.; Forrey, Christopher; Singh, Gurpreet; Satija, Sushil K.; Page, Kirt A.; Patton, Derek L.; Jones, Ronald L.; Karin, Alamgir; Douglas, Jack F.

    2015-06-01

    Block-copolymer orientation in thin films is controlled by the complex balance between interfacial free energies, including the inter-block segregation strength, the surface tensions of the blocks, and the relative substrate interactions. While block-copolymer lamellae orient horizontally when there is any preferential affinity of one block for the substrate, we recently described how nanoparticle-roughened substrates can be used to modify substrate interactions. We demonstrate how such ‘neutral’ substrates can be combined with control of annealing temperature to generate vertical lamellae orientations throughout a sample, at all thicknesses. We observe an orientational transition from vertical to horizontal lamellae upon heating, as confirmed using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), neutron reflectometry (NR) and rotational small-angle neutron scattering (RSANS). Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we identify substrate-localized distortions to the lamellar morphology as the physical basis of the novel behavior. In particular, under strong segregation conditions, bending of horizontal lamellae induce a large energetic cost. At higher temperatures, the energetic cost of conformal deformations of lamellae over the rough substrate is reduced, returning lamellae to the typical horizontal orientation. Thus, we find that both surface interactions and temperature play a crucial role in dictating block-copolymer lamellae orientation. As a result, our combined experimental and simulation findings suggest that controlling substrate roughness should provide a useful and robust platform for controlling block-copolymer orientation in applications of these materials.

  5. Thermally-induced transition of lamellae orientation in block-copolymer films on ‘neutral’ nanoparticle-coated substrates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yager, Kevin G.; Forrey, Christopher; Singh, Gurpreet; Satija, Sushil K.; Page, Kirt A.; Patton, Derek L.; Jones, Ronald L.; Karin, Alamgir; Douglas, Jack F.

    2015-06-01

    Block-copolymer orientation in thin films is controlled by the complex balance between interfacial free energies, including the inter-block segregation strength, the surface tensions of the blocks, and the relative substrate interactions. While block-copolymer lamellae orient horizontally when there is any preferential affinity of one block for the substrate, we recently described how nanoparticle-roughened substrates can be used to modify substrate interactions. We demonstrate how such ‘neutral’ substrates can be combined with control of annealing temperature to generate vertical lamellae orientations throughout a sample, at all thicknesses. We observe an orientational transition from vertical to horizontal lamellae upon heating, as confirmedmore » using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM), neutron reflectometry (NR) and rotational small-angle neutron scattering (RSANS). Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we identify substrate-localized distortions to the lamellar morphology as the physical basis of the novel behavior. In particular, under strong segregation conditions, bending of horizontal lamellae induce a large energetic cost. At higher temperatures, the energetic cost of conformal deformations of lamellae over the rough substrate is reduced, returning lamellae to the typical horizontal orientation. Thus, we find that both surface interactions and temperature play a crucial role in dictating block-copolymer lamellae orientation. As a result, our combined experimental and simulation findings suggest that controlling substrate roughness should provide a useful and robust platform for controlling block-copolymer orientation in applications of these materials.« less

  6. Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Program Document: Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report The Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was designed as a multi-phase,

  7. Sensitivity analysis of single-layer graphene resonators using atomic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    finite element method (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Sensitivity analysis of single-layer graphene resonators using atomic finite element method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sensitivity analysis of single-layer graphene resonators using atomic finite element method Atomic finite element simulation is applied to study the natural frequency and sensitivity of a single-layer graphene-based resonator with CCCC, SSSS, CFCF, SFSF,

  8. Experimentally excellent beaming in a two-layer dielectric structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tasolamprou, Anna C.; Zhang, Lei; Kafesaki, Maria; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2014-09-15

    We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that a two-layer dielectric structure can provide collimation and enhanced transmission of a Gaussian beam passing through it. This is due to formation of surface localized states along the layered structure and the coupling of these states to outgoing propagating waves. As a result, a system of multiple cascading two-layers can sustain the beaming for large propagation distances.

  9. Methods for making thin layers of crystalline materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagally, Max G; Paskiewicz, Deborah M; Tanto, Boy

    2013-07-23

    Methods for making growth templates for the epitaxial growth of compound semiconductors and other materials are provided. The growth templates are thin layers of single-crystalline materials that are themselves grown epitaxially on a substrate that includes a thin layer of sacrificial material. The thin layer of sacrificial material, which creates a coherent strain in the single-crystalline material as it is grown thereon, includes one or more suspended sections and one or more supported sections.

  10. Dual ion beam assisted deposition of biaxially textured template layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groves, James R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Hammond, Robert H.

    2005-05-31

    The present invention is directed towards a process and apparatus for epitaxial deposition of a material, e.g., a layer of MgO, onto a substrate such as a flexible metal substrate, using dual ion beams for the ion beam assisted deposition whereby thick layers can be deposited without degradation of the desired properties by the material. The ability to deposit thicker layers without loss of properties provides a significantly broader deposition window for the process.

  11. On the Interaction between Marine Boundary Layer Cellular Cloudiness and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface Heat Fluxes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect On the Interaction between Marine Boundary Layer Cellular Cloudiness and Surface Heat Fluxes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the Interaction between Marine Boundary Layer Cellular Cloudiness and Surface Heat Fluxes The interaction between marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness and surface uxes of sensible and latent heat is investigated. The investigation focuses on the non-precipitating closed-cell state and the

  12. Optical transmission through double-layer, laterally shifted metallic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    subwavelength hole arrays (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Optical transmission through double-layer, laterally shifted metallic subwavelength hole arrays Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optical transmission through double-layer, laterally shifted metallic subwavelength hole arrays We measure the transmission of infra-red radiation through double-layer metal lms with periodic arrays of subwavelength holes. When the two metal lms are placed in su ciently close

  13. Encapsulation methods and dielectric layers for organic electrical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blum, Yigal D; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijan

    2013-07-02

    The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers and dielectric layers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device with a dielectric layer comprising alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

  14. Corrosion protected, multi-layer fuel cell interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feigenbaum, Haim; Pudick, Sheldon; Wang, Chiu L.

    1986-01-01

    An improved interface configuration for use between adjacent elements of a fuel cell stack. The interface is impervious to gas and liquid and provides resistance to corrosion by the electrolyte of the fuel cell. The multi-layer configuration for the interface comprises a non-cupreous metal-coated metallic element to which is film-bonded a conductive layer by hot pressing a resin therebetween. The multi-layer arrangement provides bridging electrical contact.

  15. Optoelectronic device with nanoparticle embedded hole injection/transport layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qingwu; Li, Wenguang; Jiang, Hua

    2012-01-03

    An optoelectronic device is disclosed that can function as an emitter of optical radiation, such as a light-emitting diode (LED), or as a photovoltaic (PV) device that can be used to convert optical radiation into electrical current, such as a photovoltaic solar cell. The optoelectronic device comprises an anode, a hole injection/transport layer, an active layer, and a cathode, where the hole injection/transport layer includes transparent conductive nanoparticles in a hole transport material.

  16. Melanin as an active layer in biosensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piacenti da Silva, Marina Congiu, Mirko Oliveira Graeff, Carlos Frederico de; Fernandes, Jssica Colnaghi Biziak de Figueiredo, Natlia Mulato, Marcelo

    2014-03-15

    The development of pH sensors is of great interest due to its extensive application in several areas such as industrial processes, biochemistry and particularly medical diagnostics. In this study, the pH sensing properties of an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET) based on melanin thin films as active layer are investigated and the physical mechanisms related to the device operation are discussed. Thin films were produced from different melanin precursors on indium tin oxide (ITO) and gold substrates and were investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. Experiments were performed in the pH range from 2 to 12. EGFETs with melanin deposited on ITO and on gold substrates showed sensitivities ranging from 31.3 mV/pH to 48.9 mV/pH, depending on the melanin precursor and the substrate used. The pH detection is associated with specific binding sites in its structure, hydroxyl groups and quinone imine.

  17. Coronal electron confinement by double layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T. C.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2013-12-01

    In observations of flare-heated electrons in the solar corona, a longstanding problem is the unexplained prolonged lifetime of the electrons compared to their transit time across the source. This suggests confinement. Recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, which explored the transport of pre-accelerated hot electrons through ambient cold plasma, showed that the formation of a highly localized electrostatic potential drop, in the form of a double layer (DL), significantly inhibited the transport of hot electrons. The effectiveness of confinement by a DL is linked to the strength of the DL as defined by its potential drop. In this work, we investigate the scaling of the DL strength with the hot electron temperature by PIC simulations and find a linear scaling. We demonstrate that the strength is limited by the formation of parallel shocks. Based on this, we analytically determine the maximum DL strength, and also find a linear scaling with the hot electron temperature. The DL strength obtained from the analytic calculation is comparable to that from the simulations. At the maximum strength, the DL is capable of confining a significant fraction of hot electrons in the source.

  18. Method for depositing layers of high quality semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi C.

    2001-08-14

    Plasma deposition of substantially amorphous semiconductor materials is carried out under a set of deposition parameters which are selected so that the process operates near the amorphous/microcrystalline threshold. This threshold varies as a function of the thickness of the depositing semiconductor layer; and, deposition parameters, such as diluent gas concentrations, must be adjusted as a function of layer thickness. Also, this threshold varies as a function of the composition of the depositing layer, and in those instances where the layer composition is profiled throughout its thickness, deposition parameters must be adjusted accordingly so as to maintain the amorphous/microcrystalline threshold.

  19. Method of depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Morrell, Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN); Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Chirayil, Thomas (Knoxville, TN); Specht, Eliot D. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-08-27

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0layer can be deposited using sol-gel or metal-organic decomposition. The laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  20. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for optimized anode water management Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management A fuel cell ...

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - 2013 Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment 2012.09.17, Turner, SGP Comments? We would ... Lead Scientist : David Turner For data sets, see below. Abstract Instruments were deployed ...

  2. Layered Electrodes for Lithium Cells and Batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes for Lithium Cells and Batteries Technology available for licensing: Layered lithium metal oxide compounds for ultra-high-capacity, rechargeable cathodes Lowers cost to ...

  3. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final ... and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 47 ...

  4. Process for synthesis of a layered oxide cathode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrovic, Ivan; Thurston, Anthony; Sheargold, Stephen

    2015-03-31

    A method for preparing a layered oxide cathode using a two step calcination procedure, wherein the first step includes pre-calcination utilizing a rotary calciner.

  5. Electroless Atomic Layer Deposition: A Scalable Approach to Surface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electroless Atomic Layer Deposition: A Scalable Approach to Surface Modified Metal Powders. Abstract not provided. Authors: Cappillino, Patrick ; Robinson, David ; El Gabaly ...

  6. Solid Double-Layered Hydroxide Catalysts for Lignin Decomposition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Solid Double-Layered Hydroxide Catalysts for Lignin Decomposition National Renewable Energy...

  7. Simulations of Cyclic Voltammetry for Electric Double Layers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulations of Cyclic Voltammetry for Electric Double Layers in Asymmetric Electrolytes: A Generalized Modified PoissonNernstPlanck Model Citation Details In-Document Search...

  8. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries Title: Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to ...

  9. Atomic Layer Deposition and in Situ Characterization of Ultraclean...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atomic Layer Deposition and in Situ Characterization of Ultraclean Lithium Oxide and Lithium Hydroxide Authors: Kozen,...

  10. Permafrost and organic layer interactions over a climate gradient...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in permafrost occurrence (PF) and organic layer thickness (OLT) in more than 3000 soil pedons across a mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient. Cause and effect relationships...

  11. Observation of Ordered Structures in Counterion Layers near Wet...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Observation of Ordered Structures in Counterion Layers near Wet Charged Surfaces: A Potential Mechanism for Charge Inversion ...

  12. Application of Analytical Heat Transfer Models of Multi-layered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Application of Analytical Heat Transfer Models of Multi-layered Natural and Engineered Barriers in Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories - 12435 Citation Details ...

  13. Application of Analytical Heat Transfer Models of Multi-layered...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Application of Analytical Heat Transfer Models of Multi-layered Natural and Engineered Barriers to Compare Alternatives for High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Citation Details ...

  14. "Lidar Investigations of Aerosol, Cloud, and Boundary Layer Properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the turbulence within the convective boundary layer and how the turbulence statistics (e.g., variance, skewness) is correlated with larger scale variables predicted by models. ...

  15. Scientist finds new way to predict heat layer troublemaker |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boon to fusion: Scientist finds new way to predict heat layer troublemaker By John ... But heat inevitably flows through the system and becomes separated, or scraped off, from ...

  16. Interactions Between the Daytime Mixed Layer and the Surface...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mesonet and EBBR Heat Fluxes R. L. Coulter Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois Introduction Surface layer estimates of surface sensible heat flux have been made at ...

  17. Scientist finds new way to predict heat layer troublemaker |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientist finds new way to predict heat layer troublemaker By John Greenwald August 27, ... But heat inevitably flows through the system and becomes separated, or scraped off, from ...

  18. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David; Waldhauer, Ann

    2012-12-18

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  19. Photovoltaic Cell Having A P-Type Polycrystalline Layer With Large Crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes R.

    1996-03-26

    A photovoltaic cell has an n-type polycrystalline layer and a p-type polycrystalline layer adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer to form a photovoltaic junction. The p-type polycrystalline layer comprises a substantially planar layer portion having relatively large crystals adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer. The planar layer portion includes oxidized impurities which contribute to obtainment of p-type electrical properties in the planar layer portion.

  20. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David D; Waldhauer, Ann

    2014-04-29

    Methods of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  1. Method of fabricating a solar cell with a tunnel dielectric layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis, Tim; Harrington, Scott; Manning, Jane; Smith, David D.; Waldhauer, Ann

    2015-08-18

    Method of fabricating solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are described. Solar cells with tunnel dielectric layers are also described.

  2. Evaluate Si Layers: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-255

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teplin, C.

    2013-04-01

    Evaluate Si layers based on heteroepitaxial Si growth on RABITS textured metal substrates coated with textured buffer layers.

  3. The effect of the hole injection layer on the performance of single layer organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenjin, Zeng; Ran, Bi; Hongmei, Zhang E-mail: iamwhuang@njupt.edu.cn; Wei, Huang E-mail: iamwhuang@njupt.edu.cn

    2014-12-14

    Efficient single-layer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were reported based on a green fluorescent dye 10-(2-benzothiazolyl)-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1,1,7,7tetramethyl-1H,5H,11H-(1) benzopyropyrano (6,7-8-I,j)quinolizin-11-one (C545T). Herein, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) poly(styrene sulfonate) were, respectively, applied as the injection layer for comparison. The hole transport properties of the emission layer with different hole injection materials are well investigated via current-voltage measurement. It was clearly found that the hole injection layers (HILs) play an important role in the adjustment of the electron/hole injection to attain transport balance of charge carriers in the single emission layer of OLEDs with electron-transporting host. The layer of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum played a dual role of host and electron-transporting materials within the emission layer. Therefore, appropriate selection of hole injection layer is a key factor to achieve high efficiency OLEDs with single emission layer.

  4. Blocking effect of crystalglass interface in lanthanum doped barium strontium titanate glassceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiangrong; Zhang, Yong; Baturin, Ivan; Liang, Tongxiang

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The blocking effect of the crystalglass interface on the carrier transport behavior in the lanthanum doped barium strontium titanate glassceramics: preparation and characterization. - Highlights: La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition promotes the crystallization of the major crystalline phase. The Z? and M? peaks exist a significant mismatch for 0.5 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. The Z? and M? peaks separate obviously for 1.0 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. Crystallite impedance decreases while crystalglass interface impedance increases. La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition increases blocking factor of the crystalglass interface. - Abstract: The microstructures and dielectric properties in La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped barium strontium titanate glassceramics have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and impedance spectroscopy. SEM analysis indicated that La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive decreases the average crystallite size. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the positions of Z? and M? peaks are close for undoped samples. When La{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration is 0.5 mol%, the Z? and M? peaks show a significant mismatch. Furthermore, these peaks separate obviously for 1.0 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. With increasing La{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration, the contribution of the crystallite impedance becomes smaller, while the contribution of the crystalglass interface impedance becomes larger. More interestingly, it was found that La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive increases blocking factor of the crystalglass interface in the temperature range of 250450 C. This may be attributed to a decrease of activation energy of the crystallite and an increase of the crystalglass interface area.

  5. State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program Guidance 13-001: Guidance for Returning Interest Earned

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) State Energy Program (SEP) and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program guidance document for returning interest earned; Program year 2013.

  6. Dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budnik, Thomas A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Samuel J.; Stockdell, William M.

    2012-03-20

    Methods, systems, and products for dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job that include: identifying that a job failed to execute on the block of compute nodes because connectivity failed between a compute node assigned as at least one of the connected nodes for the block of compute nodes and its supporting I/O node; and re-launching the job, including selecting an alternative connected node that is actively coupled for data communications with an active I/O node; and assigning the alternative connected node as the connected node for the block of compute nodes running the re-launched job.

  7. Interpenetrating metal-organic frameworks formed by self-assembly of tetrahedral and octahedral building blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Yongming; Lan Yaqian; Xu Yanhong; Su Zhongmin; Li Shunli; Zang Hongying; Xu Guangjuan

    2009-11-15

    To investigate the relationship between topological types and molecular building blocks (MBBs), we have designed and synthesized a series of three-dimensional (3D) interpenetrating metal-organic frameworks based on different polygons or polyhedra under hydrothermal conditions, namely [Cd(bpib){sub 0.5}(L{sup 1})] (1), [Cd(bpib){sub 0.5}(L{sup 2})].H{sub 2}O (2), [Cd(bpib){sub 0.5}(L{sup 3})] (3) and [Cd(bib){sub 0.5}(L{sup 1})] (4), where bpib=1,4-bis(2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)butane, bib=1,4-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl)butane, H{sub 2}L{sup 1}=4-(4-carboxybenzyloxy)benzoic acid, H{sub 2}L{sup 2}=4,4'-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(oxy))dibenzoic acid and H{sub 2}L{sup 3}=4,4'-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylene))bis(oxy)dibenzoic acid, respectively. Their structures have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Compounds 1-3 display alpha-Po topological nets with different degrees of interpenetration based on the similar octahedral [Cd{sub 2}(-COO){sub 4}] building blocks. Compound 4 is a six-fold interpenetrating diamondoid net based on tetrahedral MBBs. By careful inspection of these structures, we find that various carboxylic ligands and N-donor ligands with different coordination modes and conformations, and metal centers with different geometries are important for the formation of the different MBBs. It is believed that different topological types lie on different MBBs with various polygons or polyhedra. Such as four- and six-connected topologies are formed by tetrahedral and octahedral building blocks. In addition, with the increase of carboxylic ligands' length, the degrees of interpenetration have been changed in the alpha-Po topological nets. And the luminescent properties of these compounds have been investigated in detail. - Graphical abstract: A series of three-dimensional interpenetrating metal-organic frameworks based on different polygons or polyhedra has been synthesized. The crystal structures and topological analysis of these compounds, along with a systematic investigation of the relationship between topological types and molecular building blocks, will be discussed.

  8. Nanoporous polysulfone membranes via a degradable block copolymer precursor for redox flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gindt, Brandon P.; Abebe, Daniel G.; Tang, Zhijiang J.; Lindsey, Melanie B.; Chen, Jihua; Elgammal, Ramez A.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Fujiwara, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    In this study, nanoporous polysulfone (PSU) membranes were fabricated via post-hydrolysis of polylactide (PLA) from PLA–PSU–PLA triblock copolymer membranes. The PSU scaffold was thermally crosslinked before sacrificing PLA blocks. The resulting nanopore surface was chemically modified with sulfonic acid moieties. The membranes were analyzed and evaluated as separators for vanadium redox flow batteries. Nanoporous PSU membranes prepared by this new method and further chemically modified to a slight degree exhibited unique behavior with respect to their ionic conductivity when exposed to solutions of increasing acid concentration.

  9. Nanoscale Building Blocks and DNA "Glue" Help Shape 3D Architectures |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Nanoscale Building Blocks and DNA "Glue" Help Shape 3D Architectures Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More

  10. Primary arm spacing in chill block melt spun Ni-Mo alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, S.N.; Glasgow, T.K.

    1986-01-01

    Chill block melt spun ribbons of Ni-Mo binary alloys containing 8.0 to 41.8 wt % Mo have been prepared under carefully controlled processing conditions. The growth velocity has been determined as a function of distance from the quench surface from the observed ribbon thickness dependence on the melt puddle residence time. Primary arm spacings measured at the midribbon thickness locations show a dependence on growth velocity and alloy composition which is expected from dendritic growth models for binary alloys directionally solidified in a positive temperature gradient.

  11. SF-30 Block 14 (Continued) DE-AC27-08 RV14800, Modification 074

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SF-30 Block 14 (Continued) DE-AC27-08 RV14800, Modification 074 Page 2 of 3 1. The purpose of this contract modification is to definitize the remaining $478,204 of ARRA funding obligated to the contract in previous contract change orders. This modification changes the funding source for work that is already priced in the contract and moves FY 2011 base funded scope to ARRA funded scope for two projects that will be partially funded with ARRA funds (previously undefinitized), and partially funded

  12. Nanoporous polysulfone membranes via a degradable block copolymer precursor for redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gindt, Brandon P.; Abebe, Daniel G.; Tang, Zhijiang J.; Lindsey, Melanie B.; Chen, Jihua; Elgammal, Ramez A.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Fujiwara, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    In this study, nanoporous polysulfone (PSU) membranes were fabricated via post-hydrolysis of polylactide (PLA) from PLA–PSU–PLA triblock copolymer membranes. The PSU scaffold was thermally crosslinked before sacrificing PLA blocks. The resulting nanopore surface was chemically modified with sulfonic acid moieties. The membranes were analyzed and evaluated as separators for vanadium redox flow batteries. Nanoporous PSU membranes prepared by this new method and further chemically modified to a slight degree exhibited unique behavior with respect to their ionic conductivity when exposed to solutions of increasing acid concentration.

  13. AMENDMENT OF SOLICITATION/MODIFICATlON OF CONTRACT MI54 I See Block 16C I

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    MI54 I See Block 16C I REQ. NO. Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Pantex, LLC PO Box 30020 Amarillo, TX 79120 2. AMENDMENTIMODIFICATION NO. 1 3. EFFECTIVE DATE 1 4. REQUlSlTlONlPURCHASE 1 5. PROJECT NO. (If a ~ ~ l i c a b l e ) l.CoNTRACTIDCODE ~ . . U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Service Center Property and M&O Contract Support Department P.O. Box 5400 Albuquerque, NM 87185-5400 I I 9B. DATED (SEE ITEM 1 1 ) PAGE 1 OF 2 PAGES 6. ISSUED BY CODE 1 7.

  14. The Status of Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Recipients' Obligations, OAS-RA-11-16

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Management Alert The Status of Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Recipients' Obligations OAS-RA-11-16 September 2011 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 September 1, 2011 MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY FROM: Gregory H. Friedman Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Management Alert on "The Status of Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Recipients' Obligations" IMMEDIATE CONCERN Because of the unprecedented level of funding provided under the American

  15. Costs Incurred by Selected Tribal Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Recipients, OAS-RA-13-28

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Costs Incurred by Selected Tribal Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Recipients OAS-RA-13-28 July 2013 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 July 18, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY FROM: Rickey R. Hass Deputy Inspector General for Audits and Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on "Costs Incurred by Selected Tribal Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Recipients"

  16. Analysis of slot cutting methods for the Yucca Mountain heated block test using a compliant-joint model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, E.P.; Costin, L.S.

    1991-12-31

    Pretest analysis of a heated block test, proposed for the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was conducted in this investigation. Specifically, the study focuses on the evaluation of the various designs to drill holes and cut slots for the block. The thermal/mechanical analysis was based on the finite element method and a compliant-joint rock-mass constitutive model. Based on the calculated results, relative merits of the various test designs are discussed.

  17. Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arya, Rajeewa R.

    1988-01-12

    Superlattice doped layers for amorphous silicon photovoltaic cells comprise a plurality of first and second lattices of amorphous silicon alternatingly formed on one another. Each of the first lattices has a first optical bandgap and each of the second lattices has a second optical bandgap different from the first optical bandgap. A method of fabricating the superlattice doped layers also is disclosed.

  18. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  19. Integrated circuit with dissipative layer for photogenerated carriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myers, D.R.

    1988-04-20

    The sensitivity of an integrated circuit to single-event upsets is decreased by providing a dissipative layer of silicon nitride between a silicon substrate and the active device. Free carriers generated in the substrate are dissipated by the layer before they can build up charge on the active device. 1 fig.

  20. Current isolating epitaxial buffer layers for high voltage photodiode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Cooper, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    An array of photodiodes in series on a common semi-insulating substrate has a non-conductive buffer layer between the photodiodes and the semi-insulating substrate. The buffer layer reduces current injection leakage between the photodiodes of the array and allows optical energy to be converted to high voltage electrical energy.

  1. Electroluminescent apparatus having a structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krummacher, Benjamin Claus

    2008-09-02

    An apparatus such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer disposed on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains color-changing and non-color-changing regions arranged in a particular pattern.

  2. Multi-layer laminate structure and manufacturing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenihan, James R.; Cleereman, Robert J.; Eurich, Gerald; Graham, Andrew T.; Langmaid, Joe A.

    2013-01-29

    The present invention is premised upon a multi-layer laminate structure and method of manufacture, more particularly to a method of constructing the multi-layer laminate structure utilizing a laminate frame and at least one energy activated flowable polymer.

  3. Multi-layer laminate structure and manufacturing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenihan, James R.; Cleereman, Robert J.; Eurich, Gerald; Graham, Andrew T.; Langmaid, Joe A.

    2012-04-24

    The present invention is premised upon a multi-layer laminate structure and method of manufacture, more particularly to a method of constructing the multi-layer laminate structure utilizing a laminate frame and at least one energy activated flowable polymer.

  4. Mitigation of substrate defects in reticles using multilayer buffer layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirkarimi, Paul B.; Bajt, Sasa; Stearns, Daniel G.

    2001-01-01

    A multilayer film is used as a buffer layer to minimize the size of defects on a reticle substrate prior to deposition of a reflective coating on the substrate. The multilayer buffer layer deposited intermediate the reticle substrate and the reflective coating produces a smoothing of small particles and other defects on the reticle substrate. The reduction in defect size is controlled by surface relaxation during the buffer layer growth process and by the degree of intermixing and volume contraction of the materials at the multilayer interfaces. The buffer layers are deposited at near-normal incidence via a low particulate ion beam sputtering process. The growth surface of the buffer layer may also be heated by a secondary ion source to increase the degree of intermixing and improve the mitigation of defects.

  5. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-15

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel is disclosed. The composition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than approximately 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300 C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  6. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel. The comosition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than aproximatley 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300.degree. C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  7. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  8. Process Controlled Multiscale Morphologies in Metal-containing Block Copolymer Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan [ORNL] [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Darling, Seth B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2014-01-01

    Poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane) (PS-b-PFS) is a metal-containing block copolymer that exhibits certain advantages as a mask for lithographic applications. These advantages include compatibility with a wide range of substrates, ease of control over domain morphologies and robust stability to etch plasma, which aid in the development of high-aspect-ratio patterns. An asymmetric cylinder-forming PS-b-PFS copolymer is subjected to different processing to manipulate the morphology of the phase-separated domains. Control of film structure and domain morphology is achieved by adjusting the film thickness, mode of annealing, and/or annealing time. Changing the process from thermal or solvent annealing to hybrid annealing (thermal and then solvent annealing in sequence) leads to the formation of mesoscale spherulitic and dendritic morphologies. In this communication, we show that reversing the order of the hybrid annealing (solvent annealing first and then thermal annealing) of relatively thick films (>100 nm) on homogeneously thick substrates develops disordered lamellar structure. Furthermore, the same processing applied on a substrate with a thin, mechanically flexible window in the center leads to the formation of sub-micron scale concentric ring patterns. Enhanced material mobility in the thick film during hybrid annealing along with dynamic rippling effects that may arise from the vibration of the thin window during spin casting are likely causes for these morphologies.

  9. Neutral beamline with ion energy recovery based on magnetic blocking of electrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stirling, William L.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beamline generator with energy recovery of the full-energy ion ponent of the beam based on magnetic blocking of electrons is provided. Ions from a positive ion source are accelerated to the desired beam energy from a slightly positive potential level with respect to ground through a neutralizer cell by means of a negative acceleration voltage. The unneutralized full-energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer are retarded and slightly deflected and the electrons in the neutralizer are blocked by a magnetic field generated transverse to the beamline. An electron collector in the form of a coaxial cylinder surrounding and protruding axial a few centimeters beyond the neutralizer exit terminates the electrons which exit the neutralizer in an E x B drift to the collector when the collector is biased a few hundred volts positive with respect to the neutralizer voltage. The neutralizer is operated at the negative acceleration voltage, and the deflected full energy ions are decelerated and the charge collected at ground potential thereby expending none of their energy received from the acceleration power supply.

  10. Neutral beamline with ion energy recovery based on magnetic blocking of electrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stirling, W.L.

    1980-07-01

    A neutral beamline generator with energy recovery of the full-energy ion component of the beam based on magnetic blocking of electrons is provided. Ions from a positive ion source are accelerated to the desired beam energy from a slightly positive potential level with respect to ground through a neutralizer cell by means of a negative acceleration voltage. The unneutralized full-energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer are retarded and slightly deflected and the elecrons in the neutralizer are blocked by a magnetic field generated transverse to the beamline. An electron collector in the form of a coaxial cylinder surrounding and protruding axial a few centimeters beyond the neutralizer exit terminates the electrons which exit the neutralizer in an E x B drift to the collector when the collector is biased a few hundred volts positive with respect to the neutralizer voltage. The neutralizer is operated at the negative acceleration voltage. The neutralizer is operated at the negative acceleration voltage, and the deflected full energy ions are decelerated and the charge collected at ground potential thereby expending none of their energy received from the acceleration power supply.

  11. Efficient Heterogeneous Execution on Large Multicore and Accelerator Platforms: Case Study Using a Block Tridiagonal Solver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Alfred J [ORNL] [ORNL; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The algorithmic and implementation principles are explored in gainfully exploiting GPU accelerators in conjunction with multicore processors on high-end systems with large numbers of compute nodes, and evaluated in an implementation of a scalable block tridiagonal solver. The accelerator of each compute node is exploited in combination with multicore processors of that node in performing block-level linear algebra operations in the overall, distributed solver algorithm. Optimizations incorporated include: (1) an efficient memory mapping and synchronization interface to minimize data movement, (2) multi-process sharing of the accelerator within a node to obtain balanced load with multicore processors, and (3) an automatic memory management system to efficiently utilize accelerator memory when sub-matrices spill over the limits of device memory. Results are reported from our novel implementation that uses MAGMA and CUBLAS accelerator software systems simultaneously with ACML for multithreaded execution on processors. Overall, using 940 nVidia Tesla X2090 accelerators and 15,040 cores, the best heterogeneous execution delivers a 10.9-fold reduction in run time relative to an already efficient parallel multicore-only baseline implementation that is highly optimized with intra-node and inter-node concurrency and computation-communication overlap. Detailed quantitative results are presented to explain all critical runtime components contributing to hybrid performance.

  12. Pressure Effect on the Structural Transition and Suppression of the High-Spin State in the Triple-Layer T'-La₄Ni₃O₈

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, J.-G.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Zhou, H. D.; Matsubayashi, K.; Uwatoko, Y.; Kong, P. P.; Jin, C. Q.; Yang, W. G.; Shen, G. Y.

    2012-06-08

    We report a comprehensive high-pressure study on the triple-layer T'-La₄Ni₃O₈ with a suite of experimental probes, including structure determination, magnetic, and transport properties up to 50 GPa. Consistent with a recent ab inito calculation, application of hydrostatic pressure suppresses an insulator-metal spin-state transition at Pc≈6 GPa. However, a low-spin metallic phase does not emerge after the high-spin state is suppressed to the lowest temperature. For P>20 GPa, the ambient T' structure transforms gradually to a T†-type structure, which involves a structural reconstruction from fluorite La–O₂–La blocks under low pressures to rock-salt LaO-LaO blocks under high pressures. Absence of the metallicmore » phase under pressure has been discussed in terms of local displacements of O²⁻ ions in the fluorite block under pressure before a global T† phase is established.« less

  13. Pressure Effect on the Structural Transition and Suppression of the High-Spin State in the Triple-Layer T'-La?Ni?O?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, J.-G.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Zhou, H. D.; Matsubayashi, K.; Uwatoko, Y.; Kong, P. P.; Jin, C. Q.; Yang, W. G.; Shen, G. Y.

    2012-06-08

    We report a comprehensive high-pressure study on the triple-layer T'-La?Ni?O? with a suite of experimental probes, including structure determination, magnetic, and transport properties up to 50 GPa. Consistent with a recent ab inito calculation, application of hydrostatic pressure suppresses an insulator-metal spin-state transition at Pc?6 GPa. However, a low-spin metallic phase does not emerge after the high-spin state is suppressed to the lowest temperature. For P>20 GPa, the ambient T' structure transforms gradually to a T-type structure, which involves a structural reconstruction from fluorite LaO?La blocks under low pressures to rock-salt LaO-LaO blocks under high pressures. Absence of the metallic phase under pressure has been discussed in terms of local displacements of O? ions in the fluorite block under pressure before a global T phase is established.

  14. Lubricant-Infused Nanoparticulate Coatings Assembled by Layer-by-Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunny, S; Vogel, N; Howell, C; Vu, TL; Aizenberg, J

    2014-09-01

    Omniphobic coatings are designed to repel a wide range of liquids without leaving stains on the surface. A practical coating should exhibit stable repellency, show no interference with color or transparency of the underlying substrate and, ideally, be deposited in a simple process on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. We use layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of negatively charged silica nanoparticles and positively charged polyelectrolytes to create nanoscale surface structures that are further surface-functionalized with fluorinated silanes and infiltrated with fluorinated oil, forming a smooth, highly repellent coating on surfaces of different materials and shapes. We show that four or more LbL cycles introduce sufficient surface roughness to effectively immobilize the lubricant into the nanoporous coating and provide a stable liquid interface that repels water, low-surface-tension liquids and complex fluids. The absence of hierarchical structures and the small size of the silica nanoparticles enables complete transparency of the coating, with light transmittance exceeding that of normal glass. The coating is mechanically robust, maintains its repellency after exposure to continuous flow for several days and prevents adsorption of streptavidin as a model protein. The LbL process is conceptually simple, of low cost, environmentally benign, scalable, automatable and therefore may present an efficient synthetic route to non-fouling materials.

  15. Lubricant-infused nanoparticulate coatings assembled by layer-by-layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunny, Steffi; Vogel, Nicolas; Howell, Caitlin; Vu, Thy L.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Omniphobic coatings are designed to repel a wide range of liquids without leaving stains on the surface. A practical coating should exhibit stable repellency, show no interference with color or transparency of the underlying substrate and, ideally, be deposited in a simple process on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. We use layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of negatively charged silica nanoparticles and positively charged polyelectrolytes to create nanoscale surface structures that are further surface-functionalized with fluorinated silanes and infiltrated with fluorinated oil, forming a smooth, highly repellent coating on surfaces of different materials and shapes. We show that four or more LbL cycles introduce sufficient surface roughness to effectively immobilize the lubricant into the nanoporous coating and provide a stable liquid interface that repels water, low-surface-tension liquids and complex fluids. The absence of hierarchical structures and the small size of the silica nanoparticles enables complete transparency of the coating, with light transmittance exceeding that of normal glass. The coating is mechanically robust, maintains its repellency after exposure to continuous flow for several days and prevents adsorption of streptavidin as a model protein. As a result, the LbL process is conceptually simple, of low cost, environmentally benign, scalable, automatable and therefore may present an efficient synthetic route to non-fouling materials.

  16. Lubricant-infused nanoparticulate coatings assembled by layer-by-layer deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sunny, Steffi; Vogel, Nicolas; Howell, Caitlin; Vu, Thy L.; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Omniphobic coatings are designed to repel a wide range of liquids without leaving stains on the surface. A practical coating should exhibit stable repellency, show no interference with color or transparency of the underlying substrate and, ideally, be deposited in a simple process on arbitrarily shaped surfaces. We use layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of negatively charged silica nanoparticles and positively charged polyelectrolytes to create nanoscale surface structures that are further surface-functionalized with fluorinated silanes and infiltrated with fluorinated oil, forming a smooth, highly repellent coating on surfaces of different materials and shapes. We show that four or more LbL cycles introducemore » sufficient surface roughness to effectively immobilize the lubricant into the nanoporous coating and provide a stable liquid interface that repels water, low-surface-tension liquids and complex fluids. The absence of hierarchical structures and the small size of the silica nanoparticles enables complete transparency of the coating, with light transmittance exceeding that of normal glass. The coating is mechanically robust, maintains its repellency after exposure to continuous flow for several days and prevents adsorption of streptavidin as a model protein. As a result, the LbL process is conceptually simple, of low cost, environmentally benign, scalable, automatable and therefore may present an efficient synthetic route to non-fouling materials.« less

  17. Enhanced memory effect via quantum confinement in 16?nm InN nanoparticles embedded in ZnO charge trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Nayfeh, Ammar; Cimen, Furkan; Alkis, Sabri; Orta, Blend; Alevli, Mustafa; Dietz, Nikolaus; Okyay, Ali K.

    2014-06-23

    In this work, the fabrication of charge trapping memory cells with laser-synthesized indium-nitride nanoparticles (InN-NPs) embedded in ZnO charge trapping layer is demonstrated. Atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers are used as tunnel and blocking oxides. The gate contacts are sputtered using a shadow mask which eliminates the need for any lithography steps. High frequency C-V{sub gate} measurements show that a memory effect is observed, due to the charging of the InN-NPs. With a low operating voltage of 4?V, the memory shows a noticeable threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2?V, which indicates that InN-NPs act as charge trapping centers. Without InN-NPs, the observed memory hysteresis is negligible. At higher programming voltages of 10?V, a memory window of 5?V is achieved and the V{sub t} shift direction indicates that electrons tunnel from channel to charge storage layer.

  18. Controlling Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2 in Aerogels through Surface Functionalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, S; Baumann, T F; King, J S; Kucheyev, S; Wang, Y; Worsley, M A; Biener, J; Bent, S F; Hamza, A V

    2009-03-09

    This report demonstrates a chemical functionalization method for controlling atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO{sub 2} in low-density nanoporous materials. Functionalization of silica aerogel with trimethylsilane is shown to strongly suppress TiO{sub 2} growth via ALD. Subsequent modification of the functionalization through selective removal of the hydrocarbon groups reactivates the aerogel towards TiO{sub 2} deposition. These results demonstrate the potential use of ALD as a selective tool for creating novel nanoporous materials. Nanoporous materials present significant technological advantage for a wide range of applications, including catalysis, energy storage and conversion, nanoelectronics to name just a few (1-4). Hence, there is considerable interest in developing synthetic pathways for the fabrication of nanoporous materials with tailored properties. Aerogels (AGs) are unique low-density, open-cell porous materials consisting of submicrometer pores and ligaments that can be used as a robust material platform for designing novel nanoporous materials. In recent years, a synthetic approach based on ALD on AG templates has emerged as a promising method for the directed growth of nanoporous materials (5-11, 18). This approach has been used successfully to prepare millimeter-sized high aspect ratio aerogels coated uniformly with zinc oxide (ZnO), tungsten (W) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) (10, 11). The ALD process utilizes two sequential, self-limiting surface reactions resulting in a layer-by-layer growth mode. The self limiting nature of the surface reactions makes ALD a particularly suitable technique for uniform deposition onto high aspect ratio porous substrates. Additionally, chemical specificity of the surface reactions in ALD enables one to control the deposition process through selective functionalization of the substrate surface. In fact the functionalization of planar substrates such as silicon wafers with organosilane groups (R{sub n}SiX{sub 4-n} (n = 1-3)) has been shown to deactivate the substrate towards ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, ZnO, and TiO{sub 2} ALD processes (12-16). A possible mechanism for the deactivation effect is the blocking of surface functional groups, such as hydroxyl (OH) moieties, which serve as chemisorption sites for the ALD precursors and hence are essential for nucleating the deposition process. Henceforth, we shall refer to these surface functional groups as nucleation sites for the ALD process.

  19. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  20. NMR of thin layers using a meanderline surface coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowgill, Donald F.

    2001-01-01

    A miniature meanderline sensor coil which extends the capabilities of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to provide analysis of thin planar samples and surface layer geometries. The sensor coil allows standard NMR techniques to be used to examine thin planar (or curved) layers, extending NMRs utility to many problems of modern interest. This technique can be used to examine contact layers, non-destructively depth profile into films, or image multiple layers in a 3-dimensional sense. It lends itself to high resolution NMR techniques of magic angle spinning and thus can be used to examine the bonding and electronic structure in layered materials or to observe the chemistry associated with aging coatings. Coupling this sensor coil technology with an arrangement of small magnets will produce a penetrator probe for remote in-situ chemical analysis of groundwater or contaminant sediments. Alternatively, the sensor coil can be further miniaturized to provide sub-micron depth resolution within thin films or to orthoscopically examine living tissue. This thin-layer NMR technique using a stationary meanderline coil in a series-resonant circuit has been demonstrated and it has been determined that the flat meanderline geometry has about he same detection sensitivity as a solenoidal coil, but is specifically tailored to examine planar material layers, while avoiding signals from the bulk.