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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Self-doped microphase separated block copolymer electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polymer electrolyte includes a self-doped microphase separated block copolymer including at least one ionically conductive block and at least one second block that is immiscible in the ionically conductive block, an anion immobilized on the polymer electrolyte and a cationic species. The ionically conductive block provides a continuous ionically conductive pathway through the electrolyte. The electrolyte may be used as an electrolyte in an electrochemical cell.

Mayes, Anne M. (Waltham, MA); Sadoway, Donald R. (Waltham, MA); Banerjee, Pallab (Boston, MA); Soo, Philip (Cambridge, MA); Huang, Biying (Cambridge, MA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interface in the Li-ion battery. Electrochimica Acta 50,K. The role of Li-ion battery electrolyte reactivity inK. The role of Li-ion battery electrolyte reactivity in

Hudson, William Rodgers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries. Nature 394, 456-facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 414, 359-367 (vanadium oxides for lithium batteries. Journal of Materials

Hudson, William Rodgers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Block Copolymer Solid Battery Electrolyte with High Li-Ion Transference Number  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Block Copolymer Solid Battery Electrolyte with High Li-Ion Transference Number Ayan Ghosh number TLi+ value of 0.9 at room temperature 21­23°C . The solid-state flexible, translucent polymer of withstanding such high voltage conditions. Unlike traditional liquid electrolytes, solid-state polymer electro

Rubloff, Gary W.

5

Self-doped block copolymer electrolytes for solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Self-doped block copolymer electrolytes for solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries Donald R. Introduction The ideal electrolyte material for a solid-state battery would have the ionic conductivity and cathode binder thin-®lm, solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries of the type Li/ BCE/LiMnO2 have been

Sadoway, Donald Robert

6

A Failure and Structural Analysis of Block Copolymer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries By Gregory Michaelfor Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries by Gregory Michaelin rechargeable lithium metal batteries. The block copolymer

Stone, Gregory Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising Science for PlutoniumAbout Us / OurBioscience:

8

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising Science for PlutoniumAbout Us / OurBioscience:Proton

9

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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10

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - SeptemberMicroneedlesAdvanced Photon Source Thecharacterizationof

11

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - SeptemberMicroneedlesAdvanced Photon Source ThecharacterizationofProton

12

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - SeptemberMicroneedlesAdvanced Photon Source ThecharacterizationofProtonProton

13

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - SeptemberMicroneedlesAdvanced Photon Source

14

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - SeptemberMicroneedlesAdvanced Photon SourceProton Channel Orientation in

15

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - SeptemberMicroneedlesAdvanced Photon SourceProton Channel Orientation inProton

16

Block Copolymer Electrolytes Synthesized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization for Solid-State, Thin-Film  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- cessing advantages as it is easily scalable and almost solvent-free. Solid-state, thin-film batteries, 2002. The ideal electrolyte material for a solid-state battery would have the ionic conductivity in solid-state lithium batteries, the purpose of this study was to inves- tigate the feasibility

Sadoway, Donald Robert

17

Ionic Conductivity of Block Copolymer Electrolytes in the Vicinity of Order?Disorder and Order?Order Transitions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Order-order and order-disorder phase transitions in mixtures of poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide) (SEO) copolymers and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonimide) (LiTFSI), a common lithium salt used in polymer electrolytes, were studied using a combination of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), birefringence, and ac impedance spectroscopy. The SEO/LiTFSI mixtures exhibit lamellar, hexagonally packed cylinders, and gyroid microphases. The molecular weight of the blocks and the salt concentration was adjusted to obtain order-order and order-disorder transition temperatures within the available experimental window. The ionic conductivities of the mixtures, normalized by the ionic conductivity of a 20 kg/mol homopolymer PEO sample at the salt concentration and temperature of interest, were independent of temperature, in spite of the presence of the above-mentioned phase transitions.

Wanakule, Nisita S.; Panday, Ashoutosh; Mullin, Scott A.; Gann, Eliot; Hexemer, Alex; Balsara, Nitash P.; (UCB); (LBNL)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Commercial applications of block copolymer photonic gels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Block copolymer photonic gels are a simple and easily processed material which responds rapidly to environmental stimuli through a color change. The diblock copolymer that forms the gel self-assembles into a lamellar ...

Lou, Sally S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Magnetic nanostructures patterned by block copolymer lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The aim of this research was twofold: understanding the methods of patterning magnetic films using self-assembled block copolymer masks and examining the magnetic reversal mechanisms of as deposited and patterned magnetic ...

Ilievski, Filip, 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B. N. Capacity fade of Sony 18650 cells cycled at elevatedB. N. Capacity fade of Sony 18650 cells cycled at elevatedcommercially in 1991 by Sony Corporation. 2 In order to

Hudson, William Rodgers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

connecting to the solid-state lithium battery. c. An opticalbattery (discounting packaging, tabs, etc. ) demonstrate the advantage of the solid-state

Hudson, William Rodgers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Deformation behavior of cylindrical block copolymer bicrystals : pathway to understanding block copolymer grain boundaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model bicrystals made by adhering pieces of near-single-crystal styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) cylindrical block copolymer (BCP), produced by a roll-casting process; yield various types of pure tilt grain boundaries. The ...

Wanakamol, Panitarn

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

acid block copolymer: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

H. Cheng, M. Olvera de la Cruz, "Hydrophobic-Charged Block Copolymer Micelles Induced by Materials Science Websites Summary: surface. The electrostatic attraction between the...

24

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Wednesday, 30 May 2012 00:00 In principle, tri-block copolymers...

25

Organic Dye Behavior in PEG Block Copolymer Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Organic Dye Behavior in PEG Block Copolymer Nanoparticles Katie Chin Faculty advisor: Prof. Prud of block copolymers To find the optimal concentrations of fluorescent dyes in the nanoparticles To study(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(- caprolactone) #12;Fluorescent dyes Objective: Encapsulate fluorescent dyes

Petta, Jason

26

Piezoelectric Properties of Non-Polar Block Copolymers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Piezoelectric properties in non-polar block copolymers are a novelty in the field of electroactive polymers. The piezoelectric susceptibility of poly(styrene-b-isoprene) block copolymer lamellae is found to be up to an order of magnitude higher when compared to classic piezoelectric materials. The electroactive response increases with temperature and is found to be strongest in the disordered phase.

Pester, Christian [RWTH Aachen University; Ruppel, Markus A [ORNL; Schoberth, Heiko [University of Bayreuth; Schmidt, K. [Universitat Bayreuth; Liedel, Clemens [RWTH Aachen University; Van Rijn, Patrick [RWTH Aachen University; Littrell, Ken [ORNL; Schindler, Kerstin [RWTH Aachen University; Hiltl, Stephanie [RWTH Aachen University; Czubak, Thomas [RWTH Aachen University; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Boker, Alexander [RWTH Aachen University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Electric Field Induced Selective Disordering in Lamellar Block Copolymers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

External electric fields align nanostructured block copolymers by either rotation of grains or nucleation and growth depending on how strongly the chemically distinct block copolymer components are segregated. In close vicinity to the orderdisorder transition, theory and simulations suggest a third mechanism: selective disordering. We present a time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering study that demonstrates how an electric field can indeed selectively disintegrate ill-aligned lamellae in a lyotropic block copolymer solution, while lamellae with interfaces oriented parallel to the applied field prevail. The present study adds an additional mechanism to the experimentally corroborated suite of mechanistic pathways, by which nanostructured block copolymers can align with an electric field. Our results further unveil the benefit of electric field assisted annealing for mitigating orientational disorder and topological defects in block copolymer mesophases, both in close vicinity to the orderdisorder transition and well below it.

Ruppel, Markus A [ORNL; Pester, Christian W [ORNL; Langner, Karol M [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, The Netherlands; Sevink, Geert [Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, The Netherlands; Schoberth, Heiko [University of Bayreuth; Schmidt, Kristin [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Boker, Alexander [RWTH Aachen University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Block copolymer nanolithography for the fabrication of patterned media.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract Bit patterned perpendicular media has the potential to increase the density of magnetic recording beyond what can be achieved by granular media. Self assembling diblock copolymers are of interest as templates for patterned media, as they potentially provide a low cost fabrication route. A method to fabricate the desired pattern using cylinder forming diblock copolymers of (PS-b-PMMA) as template is reported. Upon phase separation hexagonally packed cylinders of the minority phase (PMMA) surrounded by the continuous majority phase (PS) are obtained. The processing sequence began with spin coating the block copolymer on a suitable substrate, followed by annealing the block copolymer thin film in vacuum to orient it perpendicular to the substrate. Block copolymer templates were obtained by glacial acetic acid treatment which opened the pores in the block copolymer thin film. Ni was electrodeposited in the block copolymer templates and this pattern was then transferred onto the underlying substrate by ion milling

Warke, Vishal V [ORNL; Bakker, Martin G [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Britt, Phillip F [ORNL; Li, Xuefa [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wang, Jin [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Block copolymer with simultaneous electric and ionic conduction for use in lithium ion batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Redox reactions that occur at the electrodes of batteries require transport of both ions and electrons to the active centers. Reported is the synthesis of a block copolymer that exhibits simultaneous electronic and ionic conduction. A combination of Grignard metathesis polymerization and click reaction was used successively to synthesize the block copolymer containing regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. The P3HT-PEO/LiTFSI mixture was then used to make a lithium battery cathode with LiFePO.sub.4 as the only other component. All-solid lithium batteries of the cathode described above, a solid electrolyte and a lithium foil as the anode showed capacities within experimental error of the theoretical capacity of the battery. The ability of P3HT-PEO to serve all of the transport and binding functions required in a lithium battery electrode is thus demonstrated.

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

30

Templated self-assembly of siloxane block copolymers for nanofabrication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monolayer patterns of block copolymer (BCP) microdomains have been pursued for applications in below sub-30 nm nanolithography. BCP selfassembly processing is scalable and low cost, and is well-suited for integration with ...

Jung, Yeon Sik

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Host-Guest Self-assembly in Block Copolymer Blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ultrafine, uniform nanostructures with excellent functionalities can be formed by self-assembly of block copolymer (BCP) thin films. However, extension of their geometric variability is not straightforward due to their ...

Park, Woon Ik

32

Fabrication of nanoscale magnetic domains using block-copolymer lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The tendency of PS-b-PDMS to phase separate, the tunability of the resulting morphology and the sufficient etch contrast between PS and PDMS makes the block copolymer ideal for creating patterns that can be transferred ...

Akinronbi, Babajide

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Controlling morphology of multi-component block copolymer based materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ability of block copolymers to self-assemble into ordered microstructures has attracted much interest both from a pure scientific perspective and for their potential in numerous industrial applications. The microphase ...

Mickiewicz, Rafal Adam, 1974-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Microfluidic devices and Block Copolymer Nanolithography Lead: D. Angelescu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidic devices and Block Copolymer Nanolithography Lead: D. Angelescu Permanent members: B, X. Yuan One of our activities in microfluidics involves the design of a microfluidic system which measures pressure drops along microfluidic channels involving different types of constrictions using

Baudoin, Geneviève

35

Strategies for incorporating functional block copolymers into polyelectrolyte multilayer coatings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis explores the creation of thin film responsive hydrogel coatings via Layer-by Layer assembly (LbL) of temperature (T) responsive block copolymer - polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs). First, the LbL conditions ...

Tan, Wui Siew

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Tunable Morphologies from Charged Block Copolymers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bulk morphologies formed by a new class of charged block copolymers, 75 vol % fluorinated polyisoprene (FPI) 25 vol% sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) with 50% sulfonation, are characterized, and the fundamental underlying forces that promote the self-assembly processes are elucidated. The results show how the bulk morphologies are substantially different from their uncharged diblock counterparts (PS-PI) and also how morphology can be tuned with volume fraction of the charged block and the casting solvent. A physical understanding based on the underlying strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions is obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The 75/25 FPI-PSS shows hexagonal morphologies with the minority blocks (PSS) forming the continuous phase due to charge percolation and the FPI blocks arranged in hexagonal cylinders. Some long-range order can be sustained even if lipophobicity is increased (addition of water), albeit with lower dimensional structures. However, thermal annealing provides sufficient energy to disrupt the percolated charges and promotes aggregation of ionic sites which leads to a disordered system. Diverse and atypical morphologies are readily accessible by simply changing the number distribution of the charges on PSS block.

Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with acidic polymer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyte membrane is formed by an acidic polymer and a low-volatility acid that is fluorinated, substantially free of basic groups, and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric.

Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

38

Block copolymer adhesion promoters via ring-opening metathesis polymerization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coupling agents based on functionalized block copolymers for bonding thermoset polymers to solid materials. These are polymers which possess at least two types of functional groups, one which is able to attach to and react with solid surfaces, and another which can react with a thermoset resin, which are incorporated as pendant groups in monomers distributed in blocks (typically two) along the backbone of the chain. The block copolymers in this invention are synthesized by living ring-opening metathesis polymerization.

Kent, Michael S. (12320 Pine Ridge, NE, Albuquerque, NM 87112); Saunders, Randall (13201 Fruit Ave., NE, Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Disk-cylinder and disk-sphere nanoparticles from block copolymer blend solution construction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers strive to produce nanoparticles with complexity in composition and structure. Although traditional spherical, cylindrical and membranous, or planar, nanostructures are ubiquitous, scientists seek more complicated geometries for potential functionality. Here we report the simple solution construction of multigeometry nanoparticles, disk-sphere and diskcylinder, through a straightforward, molecular-level, blending strategy with binary mixtures of block copolymers. The multigeometry nanoparticles contain disk geometry in the core with either spherical patches along the disk periphery in the case of disk-sphere particles or cylindrical edges and handles in the case of the disk-cylinder particles. The portions of different geometry in the same nanoparticles contain different core block chemistry, thus also defining multicompartments in the nanoparticles. Although the block copolymers chosen for the blends are important for the definition of the final hybrid particles, the control of the kinetic pathway of assembly is critical for successful multigeometry particle construction.

Zhu, Jiahua [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Shiyi [Texas A& M University] [Texas A& M University; Zhang, Ke [Northeastern University] [Northeastern University; Wang, Xiaojun [ORNL] [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL] [ORNL; Wooley, Karen L [ORNL] [ORNL; Pochan, Darrin [University of Delaware] [University of Delaware

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Polymer electrolyte membranes from fluorinated polyisoprene-block-sulfonated polystyrene: Microdomain orientation by external field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, block copolymer ionomers of the cesium salt (20 mol %) of fluorinated polyisoprene-blocksulfonated polystyrene were spin cast into membranes and annealed under an electric field ofw40 V/mm at 130 C for 24 h. The effect of this treatment was a 2.5 times increase in the ionic conductivity as measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, under all humidity conditions measured. This can be attributed to the increased connectivity of the ionic domains of the block copolymers. This E-field alignment technique may thus find application in the fabrication of nanostructured polyelectrolytes with enhanced charge transport capacity.

Sodeye, Akinbode [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts; Huang, Tianzi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gido, Samuel [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut fr Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

New adhesive systems based on functionalized block copolymers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this work was to evaluate chemically-functionalized block copolymers as adhesion promoters for metal/thermoset resin interfaces. Novel block copolymers were synthesized which contain pendant functional groups reactive toward copper and epoxy resins. In particular, imidazole and triazole functionalities that chelate with copper were incorporated onto one block, while secondary amines were incorporated onto the second block. These copolymers were found to self-assemble from solution onto copper surfaces to form monolayers. The structure of the adsorbed monolayers were studied in detail by neutron reflection and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The monolayer structure was found to vary markedly with the solution conditions and adsorption protocol. Appropriate conditions were found for which the two blocks form separate layers on the surface with the amine functionalized block exposed at the air surface. Adhesion testing of block copolymer-coated copper with epoxy resins was performed in both lap shear and peel modes. Modest enhancements in bond strengths were observed with the block copolymer applied to the native oxide. However, it was discovered that the native oxide is the weak link, and that by simply removing the native oxide, and then applying an epoxy resin before the native oxide can reform, excellent bond strength in the as-prepared state as well as excellent retention of bond strength after exposure to solder in ambient conditions are obtained. It is recommended that long term aging studies be performed with and without the block copolymer. In addition, the functionalized block copolymer method should be evaluated for another system that has inherently poor bonding, such as the nickel/silicone interface, and for systems involving metals and alloys which form oxides very rapidly, such as aluminum and stainless steel, where bonding strategies involve stabilizing the native oxide.

Kent, M.; Saunders, R.; Hurst, M.; Small, J.; Emerson, J.; Zamora, D.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Block copolymer adhesion promoters via ring-opening metathesis polymerization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coupling agents are disclosed based on functionalized block copolymers for bonding thermoset polymers to solid materials. These are polymers which possess at least two types of functional groups, one which is able to attach to and react with solid surfaces, and another which can react with a thermoset resin, which are incorporated as pendant groups in monomers distributed in blocks (typically two) along the backbone of the chain. The block copolymers in this invention are synthesized by living ring-opening metathesis polymerization. 18 figs.

Kent, M.S.; Saunders, R.

1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

44

Morphologies of block copolymers composed of charged and neutral blocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reviews current experimental observations and theoretical calculations devoted towards understanding micro-phase separation in charged block copolymer systems. We discuss bulk morphologies in melt and in solution, as well as some of the new emerging research directions. Overall, a comprehensive picture is beginning to emerge on the fundamental role of electrostatics in the microphase separation of charged block copolymers. This understanding provides exciting new insight that may be used to direct targeted structures that endow the materials with desired properties that can have tremendous potential in technological applications.

Kumar, Rajeev [ORNL; Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Wang, Xiaojun [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

2007 Status of Manufacturing: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this document we assess the North American industry's current ability to manufacture polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

Wheeler, D.; Sverdrup, G.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Block copolymer photonic crystals : towards self-assembled active optical elements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Block copolymers have proven to be a unique materials platform for easily fabricated large-area photonic crystals. While the basic concept of block copolymer based photonic band gap materials has been well demonstrated, ...

Yoon, Jongseung

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

aqueous di-block copolymers: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PHT. Poly(3-hexylthiophene)-b-polystyrene di-block copolymer McCullough, Richard D. 2 FREE ENERGY CALCULATIONS FOR DI-BLOCK COPOLYMERS Biology and Medicine Websites Summary:...

48

Flow controlled solvent vapor annealing of block copolymers for lithographic applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Self-assembly of block copolymer thin-films may provide an inexpensive alternative to patterning lithographic features below the resolution limits of traditional optical methods. Block copolymers (BCPs) are polymers made ...

Gotrik, Kevin Willy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

50

Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

51

Thermodynamics and Ionic Conductivity of Block Copolymer Electrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

414(6861): p. 359-367. Abruna, H.D. , Y. Kiya, and J.C.414(6861): p. 359-367. Abruna, H.D. , Y. Kiya, and J.C.

Wanakule, Nisita Sidra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Thermodynamics and Ionic Conductivity of Block Copolymer Electrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Y. Kiya, and J.C. Henderson, Batteries and electrochemicalB. and J. Garche, Lithium batteries: Status, prospects andliquids for lithium batteries. Journal of Power Sources,

Wanakule, Nisita Sidra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Thermodynamics and Ionic Conductivity of Block Copolymer Electrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B. and J. Garche, Lithium batteries: Status, prospects andionic liquids for lithium batteries. Journal of Powersolid-state rechargeable lithium batteries. Journal of the

Wanakule, Nisita Sidra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Polymer-electrolyte membrane, electrochemical fuel cell, and related method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polymer-electrolyte membrane is presented. The polymer-electrolyte membrane comprises an acid-functional polymer, and an additive incorporated in at least a portion of the membrane. The additive comprises a fluorinated cycloaliphatic additive, a hydrophobic cycloaliphatic additive, or combinations thereof, wherein the additive has a boiling point greater than about 120.degree. C. An electrochemical fuel cell including the polymer-electrolyte membrane, and a related method, are also presented.

Krishnan, Lakshmi; Yeager, Gary William; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

55

Radical-cured block copolymer-modified thermosets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized and added at 4 wt % to 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (BisGMA), a monomer that cures using free radical chemistry. In separate experiments, poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) was combined as a secondary monomer with BisGMA and the monomers were loaded with 4 wt % PEP-PEO. The diblock copolymers self-assembled into well-dispersed spherical micelles with PEP cores and PEO coronas. No appreciable change in the final extent of cure of the thermosets was caused by the addition of diblock copolymer, except in the case of BisGMA, where the addition of the block copolymer increased extent of cure by 12%. Furthermore, the extent of cure was increased by 29% and 37% with the addition of 25 and 50 wt % PEGDMA, respectively. Elastic modulus and fracture resistance were also determined, and the values indicate that the addition of block copolymers does not significantly toughen the thermoset materials. This finding is surprising when compared with the large increase in fracture resistance seen in block copolymer-modified epoxies, and an explanation is proposed.

Redline, Erica M.; Francis, Lorraine F.; Bates, Frank S. (UMM)

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

56

Membrane processes relevant for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Membrane processes relevant for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell Aleksander Kolstad Chemical. The important aspects concerning the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell, more commonly known as Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), have been studied in two separate parts. Part 1 of the thesis

Kjelstrup, Signe

57

Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)Electrolysis...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

on Giner and Proton Presentation slides and speaker biographies from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane...

58

Studies of Block Copolymer Thin Films and Mixtures with an Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

identification of structure and domain size in block copolymer thin films using RSoXS enables a quantitative comparison of the bulk

Virgili, Justin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

Liu, Han (Waltham, MA); LaConti, Anthony B. (Lynnfield, MA); Mittelsteadt, Cortney K. (Natick, MA); McCallum, Thomas J. (Ashland, MA)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

60

PEG-Polypeptide Dual Brush Block Copolymers: Synthesis and Application in Nanoparticle Surface PEGylation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

synthesis. Controlled synthesis of these complex block copolymers would significantly expand the library brushes made of polyolefins, polyesters, and poly- ethers.9 Brush block copolymers containing rigid structures into the brush side chains may significantly expand the horizon of brush-like macromolecules

Cheng, Jianjun

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

14-18 fuel cells, 19-26 dye-sensitized solar cells, 27, 28batteries or dye-sensitized solar cells. 57, 58 PVdF-co-PHFP

Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Mesoporous Block Copolymer Membranes for Bioseparations | The Ames  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergy Storage Energy StoragePolicy,ServicesScience

63

Mesopourous block copolymer membranes for bioseparations | The Ames  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergy Storage EnergyLaboratory Mesopourous block

64

Polymer electrolyte membranes from fluorinated polyisoprene-block-sulfonated polystyrene: Membrane structure and transport properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With a view to optimizing morphology and ultimately properties, membranes have been cast from relatively inexpensive block copolymer ionomers of fluorinated polyisoprene-block-sulfonated polystyrene (FISS) with various sulfonation levels, in both the acid form and the cesium neutralized form. The morphology of these membranes was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and ultra-small angle X-ray scattering, as well as water uptake, proton conductivity and methanol permeability within the temperature range from 20 to 60 C. Random phase separated morphologies were obtained for all samples except the cesium sample with 50 mol% sulfonation. The transport properties increased with increasing degree of sulfonation and temperature for all samples. The acid form samples absorbed more water than the cesium samples with a maximum swelling of 595% recorded at 60 C for the acid sample having 50 mol% sulfonation. Methanol permeability for the latter sample was more than an order of magnitude less than for Nafion 112 but so was the proton conductivity within the plane of the membrane at 20 C. Across the plane of the membrane this sample had half the conductivity of Nafion 112 at 60 C.

Sodeye, Akinbode [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts; Huang, Tianzi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gido, Samuel [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Water Visualization and Flooding in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Visualization and Flooding in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Brian Holsclaw West- 2H2O e- e- e- e- e- H+ H+ H+ Membrane + Schematic of a PEMFC Operation #12;PFR PEM Fuel Cell Plug for membrane Two-phase flow in channels #12;CSTR PEM Fuel Cell Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor (CSTR) "Perfect

Petta, Jason

66

Dynamics of crystallization from segregated block copolymer melts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microphase separation in semicrystalline block copolymers can be driven by two forces: thermodynamic incompatibility between blocks or crystallization of one or more blocks. Prior work has demonstrated that when the block incompatibility is small, crystallization occurs from a single-phase melt and alternating lamellar microdomains result regardless of the copolymer composition. Several experimental studies have examined the time-resolved process of crystallization from single-phase melts. An added complexity in the case of semicrystalline block copolymers which have large block incompatibilities is the possible formation of an ordered melt mesophase; the presence of these microdomains may affect the crystallization process and the resultant morphology. A number of studies have investigated time-resolved crystallization from weakly segregated diblock copolymer melts, concluding that crystallization destroys any pre-existing melt microstructure resulting in a lamellar morphology. We recently reported the statically determined crystallization results for a series of ethylene-block-(3-methyl-1-butene) polymers, which will be referred to as E/MB`s. The composition of each of the polymers in the series was held constant at {approx}26 wt. % E (f{sub E}) block to produce hexagonally packed cylindrical melts, while the molecular weights were altered to obtain varying degrees of incompatibility. Through static scattering measurements, we have clearly shown that a strongly segregated cylindrical melt can confine crystallization to the pre-established microdomains under ordinary processing conditions. In this work, combined synchrotron-based SAXS and WAXS are employed to dynamically follow the microphase separation and crystallization in these materials at both the unit cell and microdomain scales.

Quiram, D.J.; Register, R.A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Marchand, G.R. [Dow Chemical Co., Plaquemine, LA (United States); Ryan, A.J. [Univ. of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, MI (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

67

Fabrication and characterization of nanostructures from self-assembled block copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoscale magnetic dot arrays have attracted considerable interest, both for fundamental studies of micromagnetism and for possible applications in high-density magnetic data storage. Self-assembled block copolymers provide ...

Cheng, Joy, 1974-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Fabrication and characterization of novel nanostructures based on block copolymer lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microphase-separation of block copolymers into periodic nanoscale structures has drawn considerable attention as a method for pattern generation in nanolithography. One of the main challenges is to create complex nanostructures ...

Chuang, Vivian Peng-Wei

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Amphiphilic block copolymer micelles : creation of functional nanocavities and their use as nanocontainers for controlled release  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Block copolymers in solution can self-assemble in to a variety of morphologies, with features on the nanometer length scale. This has lead to significant recent research into this assembly process and a wide range of ...

Miller, Andrew Craig

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Sacrificial-Post Templating Method for Block Copolymer Self-Assembly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A sacrificial-post templating method is presented for directing block copolymer self-assembly to form nanostructures consisting of monolayers and bilayers of microdomains. In this approach, the topographical post template ...

Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

71

Method of producing nanopatterned articles using surface-reconstructed block copolymer films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nanopatterned surfaces are prepared by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate, annealing and surface reconstructing the block copolymer film to create an array of cylindrical voids, depositing a metal on the surface-reconstructed block copolymer film, and heating the metal-coated block copolymer film to redistribute at least some of the metal into the cylindrical voids. When very thin metal layers and low heating temperatures are used, metal nanodots can be formed. When thicker metal layers and higher heating temperatures are used, the resulting metal structure includes nanoring-shaped voids. The nanopatterned surfaces can be transferred to the underlying substrates via etching, or used to prepare nanodot- or nanoring-decorated substrate surfaces.

Russell, Thomas P; Park, Soojin; Wang, Jia-Yu; Kim, Bokyung

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

72

Synthesis and solution state self-assembly of linear-dendritic block copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Linear-dendritic block copolymers consisting of a poly(styrene) linear block and poly(amidoamine) dendrimer block were synthesized and examined for their ability to self-assemble in both aqueous environments and organic/aqueous ...

Stokes, Kristoffer Keith

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

The model of stress distribution in polymer electrolyte membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An analytical model of mechanical stress in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) of a hydrogen/air fuel cell with porous Water Transfer Plates (WTP) is developed in this work. The model considers a mechanical stress in the membrane is a result of the cell load cycling under constant oxygen utilization. The load cycling causes the cycling of the inlet gas flow rate, which results in the membrane hydration/dehydration close to the gas inlet. Hydration/dehydration of the membrane leads to membrane swelling/shrinking, which causes mechanical stress in the constrained membrane. Mechanical stress results in through-plane crack formation. Thereby, the mechanical stress in the membrane causes mechanical failure of the membrane, limiting fuel cell lifetime. The model predicts the stress in the membrane as a function of the cell geometry, membrane material properties and operation conditions. The model was applied for stress calculation in GORE-SELECT.

Atrazhev, Vadim V; Dmitriev, Dmitry V; Erikhman, Nikolay S; Sultanov, Vadim I; Patterson, Timothy; Burlatsky, Sergei F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

The model of stress distribution in polymer electrolyte membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An analytical model of mechanical stress in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) of a hydrogen/air fuel cell with porous Water Transfer Plates (WTP) is developed in this work. The model considers a mechanical stress in the membrane is a result of the cell load cycling under constant oxygen utilization. The load cycling causes the cycling of the inlet gas flow rate, which results in the membrane hydration/dehydration close to the gas inlet. Hydration/dehydration of the membrane leads to membrane swelling/shrinking, which causes mechanical stress in the constrained membrane. Mechanical stress results in through-plane crack formation. Thereby, the mechanical stress in the membrane causes mechanical failure of the membrane, limiting fuel cell lifetime. The model predicts the stress in the membrane as a function of the cell geometry, membrane material properties and operation conditions. The model was applied for stress calculation in GORE-SELECT.

Vadim V. Atrazhev; Tatiana Yu. Astakhova; Dmitry V. Dmitriev; Nikolay S. Erikhman; Vadim I. Sultanov; Timothy Patterson; Sergei F. Burlatsky

2014-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

75

Subnanometer Porous Thin Films by the Co-assembly of Nanotube Subunits and Block Copolymers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Porous thin films containing subnanometer channels oriented normal to the surface exhibit unique transport and separation properties and can serve as selective membranes for separation and protective coatings. While molecularly defined nanoporous inorganic and organic materials abound, generating flexible nanoporous thin films with highly aligned channels over large areas has been elusive. Here, we developed a new approach where the growth of cyclic peptide nanotubes can be directed in a structural framework set by the self-assembly of block copolymers. By conjugating polymers to cyclic peptides, the subunit of an organic nanotube can be selectively solubilized in one copolymer microdomain. The conjugated polymers also mediate the interactions between nanotube and local medium and guide the growth of nanotubes in a confined geometry. This led to subnanometer porous membranes containing high-density arrays of through channels. This new strategy takes full advantage of nanoscopic assembly of BCPs and the reversibility of organic nanotube growth and circumvents impediments associated with aligning and organizing high aspect ratio nano-objects normal to the surface. Furthermore, the hierarchical coassembly strategy described demonstrates the feasibility of synchronizing multiple self-assembly processes to achieve hierarchically structured soft materials with molecular level control.

Xu, Ting; Zhao, Nana; Ren, Feng; Hourani, Rami; Lee, Ming Tsang; Shu, Jessica Y; Mao, Samuel; Helms, Brett A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

Liu, Han (Waltham, MA); LaConti, Anthony B. (Lynnfield, MA)

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

77

Membranes and separators for flowing electrolyte batteries-a review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flowing electrolyte batteries are rechargeable electrochemical storage devices in which externally stored electrolytes are circulated through the cell stack during charge or discharge. The potential advantages that flow batteries offer compared to other secondary batteries include: 1) ease of thermal and electrolyte management, 2) simple electrochemistry, 3) deep cycling capability, and 4) minimal loss of capacity with cycling. However, flow batteries are more complex than other secondary batteries and consequently may cost more and may be less reliable. Flow batteries are being developed for utility load leveling, electric vehicles, solar photovoltaic and wind turbine application. The status of flow batteries has recently been reviewed by Clark et al. The flowing electrolyte batteries place rigorous demands on the performance of separators and membranes. The operating characteristics of the iron/chromium redox battery were changed in order to accommodate the limitations in membrane performance. Low cost alternatives to the presently used membrane must be found before the zinc/ferricyanide battery can be economically feasible. The zinc/bromine battery's efficiency could be improved if a suitably selective membrane were available. It is anticipated that better and less costly membranes to meet these needs will be developed as more is learned about their preparation and performance.

Arnold, C.; Assink, R.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Measuring Physical Properties of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented by Cortney Mittelsteadt of Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC, at the DOE High Temperature Membrane Working Group held September 14, 2006.

79

Sandia National Laboratories: polymer electrolyte membrane  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbine bladelifetime ismobileparallelplantplasmapolymer electrolyte

80

Design and optimization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design and optimization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells M. Grujicic* , K optimization algorithm to determine an optimum design of the fuel cell with respect to the operation difference has the largest effect on the predicted polarization curve of the fuel cell. However, the optimal

Grujicic, Mica

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Water Management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells Catherine Chan & Lauren Isbell objectives Important variables that lead to results Conclusion #12;Basic Operation of a PEM Fuel Cell fuel cell? A flow channel? The importance of water management Experimental setup and methods Project

Petta, Jason

82

Three steps in the anode reaction of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Effect of CO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three steps in the anode reaction of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Effect of CO Anne in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS mechanism 1. Introduction In the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), the largest overpotential

Kjelstrup, Signe

83

Ordered porous mesostructured materials from nanoparticle-block copolymer self-assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides mesostructured materials and methods of preparing mesostructured materials including metal-rich mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrids, porous metal-nonmetal nanocomposite mesostructures, and ordered metal mesostructures with uniform pores. The nanoparticles can be metal, metal alloy, metal mixture, intermetallic, metal-carbon, metal-ceramic, semiconductor-carbon, semiconductor-ceramic, insulator-carbon or insulator-ceramic nanoparticles, or combinations thereof. A block copolymer/ligand-stabilized nanoparticle solution is cast, resulting in the formation of a metal-rich (or semiconductor-rich or insulator-rich) mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrid. The hybrid is heated to an elevated temperature, resulting in the formation of an ordered porous nanocomposite mesostructure. A nonmetal component (e.g., carbon or ceramic) is then removed to produce an ordered mesostructure with ordered and large uniform pores.

Warren, Scott; Wiesner, Ulrich; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

84

Electrically conductive doped block copolymer of polyacetylene and polyisoprene. [Soluble in organic solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrically conductive block copolymer of polyisoprene and polyacetylene and a method of making the same are disclosed. The polymer is prepared by first polymerizing isoprene with n-butyllithium in a toluene solution to form an active isoprenyllithium polymer. The active polymer is reacted with an equimolar amount of titanium butoxide and subsequently exposed to gaseous acetylene. A block copolymer of polyisoprene and polyacetylene is formed. The copolymer is soluble in common solvents and may be doped with I/sub 2/ to give it an electrical conductivity in the metallic regime.

Aldissi, M.

1984-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

85

Toughening of Epoxies Based on Self-Assembly of Nano-Sized Amphiphilic Block Copolymer Micelles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(ethylene-altpropylene)- b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) block copolymer (BCP) micelle particles. The amphiphilic BCP toughener was incorporated into a liquid epoxy resin and selfassembled into well-dispersed 15 nm spherical micelle particles. The nano-sized BCP, at 5 wt...

Liu, Jia

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

86

Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block) structures, using sodium silicate as the silica source and amphiphilic block copolymers as the structure of mesoporous silica material using nonionic surfac- tant and sodium silicate in the pH range 3­10.5. However

Kim, Ji Man

87

Optical Metamaterials by Block-Copolymer Self-Assembly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

frequency and highly enhanced transmission, an hall mark of optical metamaterials. The optical characterization discussed in this dissertation showed good agreement with finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculations and analytical models. The optical... in the electrolyte to metal, therby creating a deposit 28 on the working electrode (i.e. the FTO layer). The electrochemical setup was composed of an FTO layer acting as working electrode, a saturated calomel elec- trode as reference electrode, and a platinum mesh...

Salvatore, Stefano

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

88

Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) ElectrolysisSpotlight on Giner and Proton  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Video recording of the webinar, Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) ElectrolysisSpotlight on Giner and Proton, originally presented on May 23, 2011.

89

Synthesis and Characterization of Smart Block Copolymers for Biomineralization and Biomedical Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Self-assembly is a powerful tool in forming structures with nanoscale dimensions. Self-assembly of macromolecules provides an efficient and rapid pathway for the formation of structures from the nanometer to micrometer range that are difficult, if not impossible to obtain by conventional lithographic techniques [1]. Depending on the morphologies obtained (size, shape, periodicity, etc.) these self-assembled systems have already been applied or shown to be useful for a number of applications in nanotechnology [2], biomineralization [3, 4], drug delivery [5, 6] and gene therapy [7]. In this respect, amphiphilic block copolymers that self-organize in solution have been found to be very versatile [1]. In recent years, polymer-micellar systems have been designed that are adaptable to their environment and able to respond in a controlled manner to external stimuli. In short, synthesis of 'nanoscale objects' that exhibit 'stimulus-responsive' properties is a topic gathering momentum, because their behavior is reminiscent of that exhibited by proteins [8]. By integrating environmentally sensitive homopolymers into amphiphilic block copolymers, smart block copolymers with self assembled supramolecular structures that exhibit stimuli or environmentally responsive properties can be obtained [1]. Several synthetic polymers are known to have environmentally responsive properties. Changes in the physical, chemical or biochemical environment of these polymers results in modulation of the solubility or chain conformation of the polymer [9]. There are many common schemes of engineering stimuli responsive properties into materials [8, 9]. Polymers exhibiting lower critical solution temperature (LCST) are soluble in solvent below a specific temperature and phase separate from solvent above that temperature while polymers exhibiting upper critical solution temperatures (UCST) phase separate below a certain temperature. The solubility of polymers with ionizable moieties depends on the pH of the solution. Polymers with polyzwitterions, anions and cations have been shown to exhibit pH responsive self assembly. Other stimuli responsive polymers include glucose sensitive polymers, calcium ion-sensitive polymers and so on. Progress in living radical polymerization (LRP) methods [10] has made it possible for the facile synthesis of these block copolymer systems with controlled molecular weights and well defined architectures. The overall theme of this work is to develop novel smart block copolymers for biomineralization and biomedical applications. Synthesis and characterization of self-assembling thermoreversible ionic block copolymers as templates in biomimetic nanocomposite synthesis using a bottom-up approach is a novel contribution in this respect. Further, we have extended these families of copolymers to include block copolymer-peptide conjugates to enhance biological specificity. Future directions on this work will focus on enhancing the polymer templating properties for biomineralization by expanding the family of block copolymers with organic polypeptides and biological polypeptide scaffolds as well as a detailed understanding of the polymer-inorganic nanocomposites at the molecular level using small angle scattering analysis. Glucose responsive polymer hydrogels for drug delivery, polymer-ligand conjugates for non-viral therapy and thermoresponsive injectable photocrosslinkable hydrogels for posttraumatic arthritis cartilage healing are other applications of these novel copolymers synthesized in our work.

Mathumai Kanapathipillai

2008-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

90

Tailor-Made Onion-Like Stereocomplex Crystals in Incompatible Enantiomeric Polylactide Containing Block Copolymer Blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stereocomplexes formed by blending enantiomeric PLA block copolymers have demonstrated great potential for applications in biomedical devices. Here, we successfully synthesized well-defined enantiomeric PLA containing block copolymers by living ring-opening polymerization of L- and D-lactides from hydroxyl-terminated hydrophilic [poly(ethylene oxide) or PEO] and hydrophobic [poly(ethylene-co-1,2-butylene) or PEB] oligomers. Quantitative stereocomplex formation was achieved by equimolar mixing of the incompatible PEO-b-PLLA and PEB-b-PDLA. Intriguingly, in the blend of PEB-b-PDLA and PEO-b-PLLA with different PEB and PEO molecular weights, onion-like stereocomplex crystals were observed because of unbalanced surface stresses caused by different PEO and PEB molecular weights.

Sun,L.; Zhu, L.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Block copolymer micellar thin films as templates for the production of tunable inorganic nanocluster arrays and their applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the past decade, the use of self-assembling systems for the fabrication of materials on the nanometer scale has been an active area of research. Block copolymer thin films are a subclass of' self-assembling systems that ...

Bennett, Ryan Derek

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Computational study of self-assembly in block copolymer/superparamagnetic nanoparticle composites under external magnetic fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This computational and theoretical study investigates the self-assembly of superparamagnetic nanoparticles and block copolymers under external magnetic fields. A variety of morphological transitions are observed based on ...

Raman, Vinay

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Asymmetrical Self-assembly From Fluorinated and Sulfonated Block Copolymers in Aqueous Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Block copolymers of fluorinated isoprene and partially sulfonated styrene form novel tapered rods and ribbon-like micelles in aqueous media due to a distribution of sulfonation sites and a large Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. A combination of microscopy, light scattering, and simulation demonstrates the presence of these unique nanostructures. This study sheds light on the micellization behavior of amphiphilic block polymers by revealing a new mechanism of self-assembly.

Wang, Xiaojun [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Baskaran, Durairaj [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil Block Copolymers and Their Application in Electroluminescent Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of alternating electron transporting and hole transporting 15 nm lamellae within the active layer of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is demonstrated to improve device performance. A new multifunctional bipolar rod-coil block copolymer containing a poly(alkoxy phenylenevinylene) (PPV) rod-shaped block as the hole transporting and emitting material and a poly(vinyloxadiazole) coil-shaped electron transporting block is synthesized. This new block copolymer is the active material of a self-assembling multicomponent electroluminescent device that can be deposited in a single step. In the thin film, grazing incidence X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that the layers form grains which are oriented bimodally: parallel and perpendicular from the anode. In this mixed orientation, the device demonstrates better performance than those with either pure PPV or a blend of the two analogous homopolymers as the active materials, i.e., higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) and brightness. This improved device performance is mainly attributed to the bipolar functionality and microphase separation of the block copolymer, which provide highly efficient hole and electron recombination at the nanodomain interfaces.

Tao, Yuefei; Ma, Biwu; Segalman, Rachel A. (UCB); (LBNL)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

95

Self-Assembly of Rod-Coil Block Copolymers And Their Application in Electroluminescent Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation of alternating electron transporting and hole transporting 15 nm lamellae within the active layer of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is demonstrated to improve device performance. A new multifunctional bipolar rod-coil block copolymer containing a poly(alkoxy phenylenevinylene) (PPV) rod-shaped block as the hole transporting and emitting material and a poly(vinyloxadiazole) coil-shaped electron transporting block is synthesized. This new block copolymer is the active material of a self-assembling multicomponent electroluminescent device that can be deposited in a single step. In the thin film, grazing incidence X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that the layers form grains which are oriented bimodally: parallel and perpendicular from the anode. In this mixed orientation, the device demonstrates better performance than those with either pure PPV or a blend of the two analogous homopolymers as the active materials, i.e., higher external quantum efficiency (EQE) and brightness. This improved device performance is mainly attributed to the bipolar functionality and microphase separation of the block copolymer, which provide highly efficient hole and electron recombination at the nanodomain interfaces.

Tao, Y.; Ma, B.; Segalman, R.A.

2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

96

Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

97

A Failure and Structural Analysis of Block Copolymer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

resistance are determined by fitting an equivalent circuitresistances in the cell can be extracted by fitting equivalentresistance and is approximately 20 ohm-cm throughout the experiment. The equivalent

Stone, Gregory Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Synthesis and Characterization of Stimuli Responsive Block Copolymers, Self-Assembly Behavior and Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The central theme of this thesis work is to develop new block copolymer materials for biomedical applications. While there are many reports of stimuli-responsive amphiphilic [19-21] and crosslinked hydrogel materials [22], the development of an in situ gel forming, pH responsive pentablock copolymer is a novel contribution to the field, Figure 1.1 is a sketch of an ABCBA pentablock copolymer. The A blocks are cationic tertiary amine methacrylates blocked to a central Pluronic F127 triblock copolymer. In addition to the prerequisite synthetic and macromolecular characterization of these new materials, the self-assembled supramolecular structures formed by the pentablock were experimentally evaluated. This synthesis and characterization process serves to elucidate the important structure property relationships of these novel materials, The pH and temperature responsive behavior of the pentablock copolymer were explored especially with consideration towards injectable drug delivery applications. Future synthesis work will focus on enhancing and tuning the cell specific targeting of DNA/pentablock copolymer polyplexes. The specific goals of this research are: (1) Develop a synthetic route for gel forming pentablock block copolymers with pH and temperature sensitive properties. Synthesis of these novel copolymers is accomplished with ATRP, yielding low polydispersity and control of the block copolymer architecture. Well defined macromolecular characteristics are required to tailor the phase behavior of these materials. (2) Characterize relationship between the size and shape of pentablock copolymer micelles and gel structure and the pH and temperature of the copolymer solutions with SAXS, SANS and CryoTEM. (3) Evaluate the temperature and pH induced phase separation and macroscopic self-assembly phenomenon of the pentablock copolymer. (4) Utilize the knowledge gained from first three goals to design and formulate drug delivery formulations based on the multi-responsive properties of the pentablock copolymer. Demonstrate potential biomedical applications of these materials with in vitro drug release studies from pentablock copolymer hydrogels. The intent of this work is to contribute to the knowledge necessary for further tailoring of these, and other functional block copolymer materials for biomedical applications.

Michael Duane Determan

2005-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

99

Association and Structure of Thermo Sensitive Comblike Block Copolymers in Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structures and association properties of thermo sensitive poly(methoxyoligo(ethylene glycol) norbornenyl esters) block copolymers in D2O were investigated by Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). Each block is a comb-like polymer with a polynorbornene (PNB) backbone and oligo ethylene glycol (OEG) side chains (one side chain per NB monomer). The chemical formula of the block copolymer is (OEG3NB)79-(OEG6.6NB)67, where subscripts represent the degree of polymerization (DP) of OEG and NB in each block The polymer concentration was fixed at 2.0 wt % and the structural changes were investigated over a temperature range between 25 C and 68 C. It was found that at room temperature polymers associate to form micelles with a spherical core formed by the block (OEG3NB)79 and corona formed by the block (OEG6.6NB)67 and that the shape of the polymer in the corona could be described by the form factor of rigid cylinders. At elevated temperatures, the aggregation number increases and the micelles become more compact. At temperatures round the cloud point temperature (CPT) T = 60 C a correlation peak started to appear and became pronounced at 68 C due to the formation of a partially ordered structure with a correlation length ~ 349 .

Cheng, Gang [ORNL; Hua, Fengjun [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Wignall, George D [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Hammouda, B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Nanostructured polymer membranes for proton conduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polymers having an improved ability to entrain water are characterized, in some embodiments, by unusual humidity-induced phase transitions. The described polymers (e.g., hydrophilically functionalized block copolymers) have a disordered state and one or more ordered states (e.g., a lamellar state, a gyroid state, etc.). In one aspect, the polymers are capable of undergoing a disorder-to-order transition while the polymer is exposed to an increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. In some aspects the polymer includes a plurality of portions, wherein a first portion forms proton-conductive channels within the membrane and wherein the channels have a width of less than about 6 nm. The described polymers are capable of entraining and preserving water at high temperature and low humidity. Surprisingly, in some embodiments, the polymers are capable of entraining greater amounts of water with the increase of temperature. The polymers can be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in fuel cells.

Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Park, Moon Jeong

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Synthesis of Polystyrene-Polylactide Bottlebrush Block Copolymers and Their Melt Self-Assembly into Large Domain Nanostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High molecular weight polystyrene-polylactide (PS-PLA) bottlebrush block copolymers have been shown to self-assemble into highly ordered lamellae structures with domain spacings as large as 163 nm, as identified by ultrasmall-angle X-ray scattering. Bottlebrush block copolymers were synthesized by a combination of living radical and ring-opening polymerizations. The backbone was prepared by RAFT block copolymerization of solketal methacrylate (SM) and 2-(bromoisobutyryl)ethyl methacrylate (BIEM). Polystyrene branches were grafted by ATRP from poly(BIEM) block, and PLA branches were grafted from the poly(SM) block after the removal of ketal groups. The investigation into the self-assembly of PS-PLA bottlebrush block copolymers with varying lengths of branches and backbones revealed a number of unusual trends, which were attributed to their dynamic, three-dimensional structure. The results suggest that in phase-separated melts the bottlebrush block copolymer backbone, while extended, still possesses a certain degree of flexibility to accommodate for different interfacial areas necessary to pack into lamellae microstructures.

Rzayev, J.; (SUNYB)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

102

Computational Modeling of Electrolyte/Cathode Interfaces in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computational Modeling of Electrolyte/Cathode Interfaces in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Dr Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are alternative energy conversion devices that efficiently. The fundamental relationship between operating conditions and device performance will help to optimize the device

Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

103

Dynamical Studies of Charged Di-Block Copolymer in Different Dielectric Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brownian Dynamics simulations are carried out to understand the effect of temperature and dielectric constant of the medium on microphase separation of charged-neutral diblock copolymer systems. For different dielectric media, we focus on the effect of temperature on the morphology and dynamics of model charged diblock copolymers. In this study we examine in detail a system with a partially charged block copolymer consisting of 75% neutral blocks and 25% of charged blocks with 50% degree of ionization. Our investigations show that due to the presence of strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions, the block copolymermorphologies are rather different than those of their neutral counterpart at low dielectric constant, however at high dielectric constant the neutral diblock behaviors are observed. This article highlights the effect of dielectric constant of two different media on different thermodynamic and dynamic quantities. At low dielectric constant, the morphologies are a direct outcome of the ion-counterion multiplet formation. At high dielectric constant, these charged diblocks behavior resembles that of neutral and weakly charged polymers with sustainable long-range order. Similar behavior has been observed in chain swelling, albeit with small changes in swelling ratio for large changes in polarity of the medium. The results of our simulations agree with recent experimental results and are consistent with recent theoretical predictions of counterion adsorption on flexible polyelectrolytes.

Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Kumar, Rajeev [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Effect of Macromolecular Architecture on the Morphology of Polystyrene Polyisoprene Block Copolymers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of block connectivity on the morphologies of four block copolymers of varying architecture containing polystyrene (PS) and polyisoprene (PI) has been studied. The volume fraction of PS and molecular weight are held constant while varying the architecture from a linear PS-PI diblock copolymer to three different miktoarm star architectures: PS2PI, PSPI2, and PS2PI2. Morphologies of the PS2PI and PSPI2 miktoarm stars are different from those observed for the linear copolymer and dependent on the connectivity of the copolymer blocks. The change in morphology with connectivity indicates that combining two chains at a junction point leads to chain crowding, where subsequent excluded volume effects drive the change in morphology for each sample. The PS2PI2 miktoarm star exhibits the same morphology as the linear diblock but with a reduction in the size of the domains. The extent of the decrease in domain size indicates that chain stretching impacts the formation of this morphology. Experimentally observed morphologies for different chain architectures are generally consistent with three-dimensional self-consistent field theory simulations, taking into account conformational asymmetry and experimental uncertainty in the copolymer composition. Furthermore, these results generally agree with analytical theory predictions that account for architectural and conformational asymmetry.

Kumar, Rajeev [ORNL; Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Sides, Scott [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Dadmun, Mark D [ORNL; Dyer, Caleb W [ORNL; Driva, Paraskevi [ORNL; Chen, Jihua [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Structural changes in block copolymer solution under shear flow as determined by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A nonequilibrium molecular dynamics computer simulation on microsegregated solutions of symmetrical diblock copolymers is reported. As the polymer concentration increases, the system undergoes phase transitions in the following order: body centered cubic (BCC) micelles, hexagonal (HEX) cylinders, gyroid (GYR) bicontinuous networks, and lamellae (L), which are the same morphologies that have been reported for block copolymer melts. Structural classification is based on the patterns of the anisotropic static structure factor and characteristic 3-dimensional images. The systems in the BCC micellar ($\\rho\\sigma^{3}=0.3$) and HEX cylindrical ($\\rho\\sigma^{3}=0.4$) phases were then subjected to a steady planar shear flow. In weak shear flow, the segregated domains in both systems tend to rearrange into sliding parallel close-packed layers with their normal in the direction of the shear gradient. At higher shear rates both systems adopt a perpendicular lamellar structure with the normal along the neutral direction. A further increase in the shear rate results in a decrease in lamellar spacing without any further structural transitions. Two critical shear rate values that correspond to the demarcation of different structural behaviors were found.

Igor Rychkov; Kenichi Yoshikawa

2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

106

Process Controlled Multiscale Morphologies in Metal-containing Block Copolymer Thin Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane) (PS-b-PFS) is a metal-containing block copolymer that exhibits certain advantages as a mask for lithographic applications. These advantages include compatibility with a wide range of substrates, ease of control over domain morphologies and robust stability to etch plasma, which aid in the development of high-aspect-ratio patterns. An asymmetric cylinder-forming PS-b-PFS copolymer is subjected to different processing to manipulate the morphology of the phase-separated domains. Control of film structure and domain morphology is achieved by adjusting the film thickness, mode of annealing, and/or annealing time. Changing the process from thermal or solvent annealing to hybrid annealing (thermal and then solvent annealing in sequence) leads to the formation of mesoscale spherulitic and dendritic morphologies. In this communication, we show that reversing the order of the hybrid annealing (solvent annealing first and then thermal annealing) of relatively thick films (>100 nm) on homogeneously thick substrates develops disordered lamellar structure. Furthermore, the same processing applied on a substrate with a thin, mechanically flexible window in the center leads to the formation of sub-micron scale concentric ring patterns. Enhanced material mobility in the thick film during hybrid annealing along with dynamic rippling effects that may arise from the vibration of the thin window during spin casting are likely causes for these morphologies.

Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan [ORNL] [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Darling, Seth B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water transport in the ionomeric membrane, typically Nafion{reg_sign}, has profound influence on the performance of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell, in terms of internal resistance and overall water balance. In this work, high resolution neutron imaging of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane is presented in order to measure water content and through-plane gradients in situ under disparate temperature and humidification conditions.

Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, D S [NIST; Jacobson, D L [NIST; Arif, M [NIST

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

109

Transient Analysis of Proton Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) at Start-Up  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transient Analysis of Proton Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) at Start-Up and Failure M. F perfor- mance of the fuel cell has already been reported, when inter- digitated flow fields are used [1 with experiments to study the effect of temperature, humidity, and pressure on fuel cell performance

Yanikoglu, Berrin

110

Transport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not consume fossil fuels or pro- duce CO2 while producing highly pure hydrogen.1-10 Gaseous SO2 fedTransport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur and Biological Systems Department, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123, USA c Department of Materials Science

Weidner, John W.

111

Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering Investigation of the Hydrogen Surface Self-Diffusion on Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Catalyst Support  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Catalyst Support Ole-Erich Haas* Department of Chemistry, Norwegian Uni in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, called XC-72. QENS spectra were recorded at the time through the backing electrode and catalyst layer in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC

Kjelstrup, Signe

112

DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80?C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO{sub 2}, and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

Fox, E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biomolecular materials to structured electrolytes for lithum-ion batteries and supercapacitors. Drawings of 12 possible morphologies Varying morphologies of linear tri-block...

114

Trifluorostyrene containing compounds, and their use in polymer electrolyte membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluorinated ion exchange polymer is prepared by grafting a monomer onto a base polymer, wherein the grafting monomer is selected from the group consisting of structure 1a, 1b and mixture thereof; ##STR00001## wherein Y is selected from the group consisting of --R.sub.FSO.sub.2F, --R.sub.FSO.sub.3M, --R.sub.SO.sub.2NH.sub.2 and --R.sub.FSO.sub.2N(M)SO.sub.2R.sup.2.sub.F, where in M is hydrogen, an alkali cation or ammonium; and R.sub.F and R.sup.2.sub.F are perfluorinated or partially fluorinated, and may optionally include ether oxygens; and n is between 1 and 2 for 1a, or n is between 1 and 3 for 1b. These ion exchange polymers are useful is preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

Choudhury, Biswajit (Kingston, CA); Roelofs, Mark Gerrit (Hockessin, DE); Yang; Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE)

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

115

Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells; Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.

Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory

2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

116

Chaotic behavior of ion exchange phenomena in polymer gel electrolytes through irradiated polymeric membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A desktop experiment has been done to show the nonlinearity in the I-V characteristics of an ion conducting electrochemical micro-system. Its chaotic dynamics is being reported for the first time which has been captured by an electronic circuit. Polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte comprising of a combination of plasticizers (ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate) and salts have been prepared to study the exchange of ions through porous poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. The nonlinearity of this system is due to the ion exchange of the polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) through a porous membrane. The different regimes of spiking and non-spiking chaotic motions are being presented. The possible applications are highlighted.

Sangeeta Rawat; Barnamala Saha; Awadhesh Prasad; Amita Chandra

2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

117

Electrolyte membrane, methods of manufacture thereof and articles comprising the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein is a method of forming an electrolyte membrane comprising forming a mixture; the mixture comprising a polyhydroxy compound, an aromatic polyhalide compound and an alkali metal hydroxide; disposing the mixture on a porous substrate; reacting the mixture to form a proton conductor; and crosslinking the proton conductor to form a cross-linked proton-conducting network. Disclosed herein too is an article comprising a porous substrate; and a crosslinked proton conductor disposed on the porous substrate.

Tamaki, Ryo (Santa Clarita, CA); Rice, Steven Thomas (Scotia, NY); Yeager, Gary William (Rexford, NY)

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

118

Electrolyte membrane, methods of manufacture thereof and articles comprising the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein is a method of forming an electrolyte membrane comprising forming a mixture; the mixture comprising a polyhydroxy compound, an aromatic polyhalide compound and an alkali metal hydroxide; disposing the mixture on a porous substrate; reacting the mixture to form a crosslinked proton conductor; and sulfonating the proton conductor. Disclosed herein too is an article comprising a porous substrate; and a sulfonated crosslinked proton conductor disposed within pores of the porous substrate.

Tamaki, Ryo; Rice, Steven Thomas; Yeager, Gary William

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

119

Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

120

Boronization of nickel and nickel clad materials for potential use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new low-cost, nickel clad bipolar plate concept is currently being developed for use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Reported in this paper are the details of a powder-pack boronization process that would be used to establish a passivation layer on the electrolyte exposed surfaces of the bipolar plate in the final stage of manufacture. Results from energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy indicate that under moderate boronization conditions a homogeneous Ni3B layer grows on the exposed surfaces of the nickel clad material, the thickness of which depends on the time and temperature of boronization according to a Wagner-type scale growth relationship. At higher temperatures and longer reaction times, a Ni2B overlayer forms on top of the Ni3B during boronization.

Weil, K. Scott; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Xia, Gordon; Coleman, J. E.; Yang, Z Gary

2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics.

Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

122

40 The Electrochemical Society Interface Winter 2003 ne quickly realizes that a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) unit powered by hydrogen or methanol is more than just a stack of cells with other energy producing devices. What is less obvious is that the heart and soul of the PEM fuel cell in reactant crossover, which decreases fuel utilization. This is especially problematic in a direct methanol

Sethuraman, Vijay A.

123

Dynamic Thermal Model of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Budi Hadisujoto, Rehan Refai, Dongmei Chen, Tess J. Moon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamic Thermal Model of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Budi Hadisujoto, Rehan Refai to improve the performance of a PEM fuel cell Simulation Results Advanced Power Systems and Controls (GDL) to reduce water saturation · Model water transport in PEM fuel cell Contribution: · Dynamic

Ben-Yakar, Adela

124

Poly(cyclohexadiene)-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this research project was to create and develop fuel cell membranes having high proton conductivity at high temperatures and high chemical and mechanical durability. Poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) is of interest as an alternative polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) material due to its ring-like structure which is expected to impart superior mechanical and thermal properties, and due to the fact that PCHD can readily be incorporated into a range of homopolymer and copolymer structures. PCHD can be aromatized, sulfonated, or fluorinated, allowing for tuning of key performance structure and properties. These factors include good proton transport, hydrophilicity, permeability (including fuel gas impermeability), good mechanical properties, morphology, thermal stability, crystallinity, and cost. The basic building block, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, is a hydrocarbon monomer that could be inexpensively produced on a commercial scale (pricing typical of other hydrocarbon monomers). Optimal material properties will result in novel low cost PEM membranes engineered for high conductivity at elevated temperatures and low relative humidities, as well as good performance and durability. The primary objectives of this project were: (1) To design, synthesize and characterize new non-Nafion PEM materials that conduct protons at low (25-50%) RH and at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 120 C; and (2) To achieve these objectives, a range of homopolymer and copolymer materials incorporating poly(cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) will be synthesized, derivatized, and characterized. These two objectives have been achieved. Sulfonated and crosslinked PCHD homopolymer membranes exhibit proton conductivities similar to Nafion in the mid-RH range, are superior to Nafion at higher RH, but are poorer than Nafion at RH < 50%. Thus to further improve proton conductivity, particularly at low RH, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was incorporated into the membrane by blending and by copolymerization. Conductivity measurements at 120 C over RH ranging from 20 to 100% using the BekkTech protocol showed much improved proton conductivities. Conductivities for the best of these new membranes exceed the DOE Year 3 milestone of 100 mS/cm at 50% RH at 120 C. Further optimization of these very promising low cost membranes could be pursued in the future.

Mays, Jimmy W.

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

125

Unique battery with a multi-functional, physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and a method making the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a unique battery having a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and method of making the same. The Applicant's invented battery employs a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode that acts as a separator, electrolyte, and electrode, within the same monolithic structure. The chemical composition, physical arrangement of molecules, and physical geometry of the pores play a role in the sequestration and conduction of ions. In one preferred embodiment, ions are transported via the ion-hoping mechanism where the oxygens of the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 wall are available for positive ion coordination (i.e. Li.sup.+). This active membrane-electrode composite can be adjusted to a desired level of ion conductivity by manipulating the chemical composition and structure of the pore wall to either increase or decrease ion conduction.

Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klinger, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

126

The Chemical Behavior and Degradation Mitigation Effect of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Perfluorosulfonic Acid Polymer Electrolyte Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Perfluorosulfonic acid membranes, the polymer of choice for polymer electrolyte hydrogen fuel cells, are susceptible to degradation due to attacks on polymer chains from radicals. Mitigation of this attack by cerium-based radical scavengers is an approach that has shown promise. In this work, two formulations of single-crystal cerium oxide nanoparticles, with an order of magnitude difference in particle size, are incorporated into said membranes and subjected to proton conductivity measurements and ex-situ durability tests. We found that ceria is reduced to Ce(III) ions in the acidic environment of a heated, humidified membrane which negatively impacts proton conductivity. In liquid and gas Fenton testing, fluoride emission is reduced by an order of magnitude, drastically increasing membrane longevity. Side-product analysis demonstrated that in the liquid Fenton test, the main point of attack are weak polymer end groups, while in the gas Fenton test, there is additional side-chain attack. Both mechanisms are mitigated by the addition of the ceria nanoparticles, whereby the extent of the durability improvement is found to be independent of particle size.

Pearman, Benjamin P [ORNL; Mohajeri, Nahid [ORNL; Slattery, Darlene [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); Hampton, Michael [University of Florida; Seal, Sudipta [University of Central Florida; Cullen, David A [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Theory of proton exchange membranes fuel cells and the testing of performance characteristics of polymer electrolyte membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells hold great promise as source of power. A hydrogen and oxygen PEM fuel is a simple fuel cell that can be theoretically characterized. The performance of a PEM fuel cell can be ...

Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc, 1982-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Porous membrane electrochemical cell for uranium and transuranic recovery from molten salt electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process and device for the recovery of the minor actinides and the transuranic elements (TRU's) from a molten salt electrolyte. The process involves placing the device, an electrically non-conducting barrier between an anode salt and a cathode salt. The porous barrier allows uranium to diffuse between the anode and cathode, yet slows the diffusion of uranium ions so as to cause depletion of uranium ions in the catholyte. This allows for the eventual preferential deposition of transuranics present in spent nuclear fuel such as Np, Pu, Am, Cm. The device also comprises an uranium oxidation anode. The oxidation anode is solid uranium metal in the form of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel is placed in a ferric metal anode basket which serves as the electrical lead or contact between the molten electrolyte and the anodic uranium metal.

Willit, James L. (Ratavia, IL)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

129

Porous membrane electrochemical cell for uranium and transuranic recovery from molten salt electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process and device for the recovery of the minor actinides and the transuranic elements (TRU's) from a molten salt electrolyte. The process involves placing the device, an electrically non-conducting barrier between an anode salt and a cathode salt. The porous barrier allows uranium to diffuse between the anode and cathode, yet slows the diffusion of uranium ions so as to cause depletion of uranium ions in the catholyte. This allows for the eventual preferential deposition of transuranics present in spent nuclear fuel such as Np, Pu, Am, Cm. The device also comprises an uranium oxidation anode. The oxidation anode is solid uranium metal in the form of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel is placed in a ferric metal anode basket which serves as the electrical lead or contact between the molten electrolyte and the anodic uranium metal.

Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL)

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

130

Nanofiltration of Electrolyte Solutions by Sub-2nm Carbon Nanotube Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both MD simulations and experimental studies have shown that liquid and gas flow through carbon nanotubes with nanometer size diameter is exceptionally fast. For applications in separation technology, selectivity is required together with fast flow. In this work, we use pressure-driven filtration experiments to study ion exclusion in silicon nitride/sub-2-nm CNT composite membranes as a function of solution ionic strength, pH, and ion valence. We show that carbon nanotube membranes exhibit significant ion exclusion at low salt concentration. Our results support a rejection mechanism dominated by electrostatic interactions between fixed membrane charges and mobile ions, while steric and hydrodynamic effects appear to be less important. Comparison with commercial nanofiltration membranes for water softening reveals that our carbon nanotube membranes provides far superior water fluxes for similar ion rejection capabilities.

Fornasiero, F; Park, H G; Holt, J K; Stadermann, M; Kim, S; In, J B; Grigoropoulos, C P; Noy, A; Bakajin, O

2008-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

131

High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics. In another aspect, the electrolyte exhibits a conductivity drop when the temperature of electrolyte increases over a threshold temperature, thereby providing a shutoff mechanism for preventing thermal runaway in lithium battery cells.

Mullin, Scott; Panday, Ashoutosh; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

132

Investigation of the performance and water transport of a polymer electrolyte membrane (pem) fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel cell performance was obtained as functions of the humidity at the anode and cathode sites, back pressure, flow rate, temperature, and channel depth. The fuel cell used in this work included a membrane and electrode assembly (MEA) which...

Park, Yong Hun

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Mechanics and multi-physics deformation behavior of polymer electrolyte membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel cells are a developing technology within the energy sector that offer both efficiency and environmental advantages over traditional combustion processes. In particular, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are ...

Silberstein, Meredith N

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Experimental characterization of water sorption and transport properties of polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??L'objectif gnral de cette thse de doctorat est de caractriser les proprits de membranes PFSA de type Nafion N115 et Nafion NRE212 en termes de (more)

Maldonado Snchez, Libeth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte membrane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To achieve a deeper understanding of water transport and performance issues associated with water management, we have conducted in situ water examinations to help understand the effects of components and operation. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and neutron radiography were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells under various operating conditions. Variables examined include: sub-freezing conditions, inlet relative humidities, cell temperature, current density and response transients, different flow field orientations and different component materials (membranes, GDLs and MEAs). Quantification of the water within the membrane was made by neutron radiography after equilibration to different humidified gases, during fuel cell operation and in hydrogen pump mode. The water content was evaluated in bare Nafion{reg_sign} membranes as well as in MEAs operated in both fuel cell and H{sub 2} pump mode. These in situ imaging results allow measurement of the water content and gradients in the PEFC membrane and relate the membrane water transport characteristics to the fuel cell operation and performance under disparate materials and operational combinations. Flow geometry makes a large impact on MEA water content. Higher membrane water with counter flow was measured compared with co-flow for sub-saturated inlet RH's. This correlates to lower HFR and higher performance compared with co-flow. Higher anode stoichiometry helps remove water which accumulates in the anode channels and GDL material. Cell orientation was measured to affect both the water content and cell performance. While membrane water content was measured to be similar regardless of orientation, cells with the cathode on top show flooding and loss of performance compared with similarly operated cells with the anode on top. Transient fuel cell current measurements show a large degree of hysteresis in terms of membrane hydration as measured by HFR. Current step transients from 0.01 A cm{sup -2} to 0.68 A cm{sup -2} consistently show PEM wetting occurring within 5 to 20 sec. Whereas the PEM drying response to the reverse step transient of 0.68 A cm{sup -2} to 0.01 A cm{sup -2}, takes several minutes. The observed faster wetting response is due to reaction water being produced in the cathode and back diffusing into the membrane. The slower PEM drying is due to the water slowly being removed out of the wetted GDLs. This rate of removal of water and hence the PEM hydration level was found to be influenced strongly by the PTFE loadings in the GDL substrate and Microporous layer (MPL). The drying of the membrane is influenced by both the anode and cathode GDL PTFE loadings. Lower PTFE loading in the anode GDL leads to better membrane hydration probably due to the easier incorporation of water from the anode GDL into the membrane. Similarly a lower PTFE loading in the cathode GDL also results in better membrane hydration probably due to the better water retention properties (less hydrophobic) of this GDL. Fuel cells operated isothermal at sub-freezing temperatures show gradual cell performance decay over time and eventually drops to zero. AC impedance analysis indicates that losses are initially due to increasing charge transfer resistance. After time, the rate of decay accelerates rapidly due to mass transport limitations. High frequency resistance also increases over time and is a function of the initial membrane water content. These results indicate that catalyst layer ice formation is influenced strongly by the MEA and is responsible for the long-term degradation of fuel cells operated at sub-freezing temperatures. Water distribution measurements indicate that ice may be fonning mainly in the GDLs at -10 C but are concentrated in the catalyst layer at -20 C.

Spernjak, Dusan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fairweather, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukherjee, Partha [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Draft Funding Opportunity Announcement Research and Development of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are a critical component of the fuel cell stack and must be durable and tolerate a wide range of operating's humidity requirements add complexity to the fuel cell system that impacts the system cost and durability Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells for the Hydrogen Economy The Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to issue

137

Stable trifluorostyrene containing compounds grafted to base polymers, and their use as polymer electrolyte membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fluorinated ion exchange polymer prepared by grafting at least one grafting monomer on to at least one base polymer, wherein the grafting monomer comprises structure 1a or 1b: wherein Z comprises S, SO.sub.2, or POR wherein R comprises a linear or branched perfluoroalkyl group of 1 to 14 carbon atoms optionally containing oxygen or chlorine, an alkyl group of 1 to 8 carbon atoms, an aryl group of 6 to 12 carbon atoms or a substituted aryl group of 6 to 12 carbon atoms; RF comprises a linear or branched perfluoroalkene group of 1 to 20 carbon atoms, optionally containing oxygen or chlorine; Q is chosen from F, --OM, NH.sub.2, --N(M)SO.sub.2R.sup.2.sub.F, and C(M)(SO.sub.2R.sup.2.sub.F).sub.2, wherein M comprises H, an alkali cation, or ammonium; R.sup.2.sub.F groups comprises alkyl of 1 to 14 carbon atoms which may optionally include ether oxygens or aryl of 6 to 12 carbon atoms where the alkyl or aryl groups may be perfluorinated or partially fluorinated; and n is 1 or 2 for 1a, and n is 1, 2, or 3 for 1b. These ion exchange polymers are useful in preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies used in fuel cells.

Yang, Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE); Roelofs, Mark Gerrit (Hockessin, DE)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

138

POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYZER OPERATION WITH VARYING INLET WATER FEED CONFIGURATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolysis is a potential alternative technology to crack water in specialty applications where a dry gas stream is needed, such as isotope production. One design proposal is to feed the cathode of the electrolyzer with vapor phase water. This feed configuration would allow isotopic water to be isolated on the cathode side of the electrolyzer and the isotope recovery system could be operated in a closed loop. Tests were performed to characterize the difference in the current-voltage behavior between a PEM electrolyzer operated with a cathode water vapor feed and with an anode liquid water feed. The cathode water vapor feed cell had a maximum limiting current density of 100 mA/cm2 at 70 C compared to a current density of 800 mA/cm2 for the anode liquid feed cell at 70 C. The limiting current densities for the cathode water vapor feed cell were approximately 3 times lower than predicted by a water mass transfer model. It is estimated that a cathode water vapor feed electrolyzer system will need to be between 8-14 times larger in active area or number of cells than an anode liquid feed system.

Fox, E

2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

139

Dynamics of Block Copolymer Nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed study of the dynamics of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles suspended in polystyrene homopolymer matrices was carried out using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy for temperatures between 120 and 180 C. For low molecular weight polystyrene homopolymers, the observed dynamics show a crossover from diffusive to hyper-diffusive behavior with decreasing temperatures. For higher molecular weight polystyrene, the nanoparticle dynamics appear hyper-diffusive at all temperatures studied. The relaxation time and characteristic velocity determined from the measured hyper-diffusive dynamics reveal that the activation energy and underlying forces determined are on the order of 2.14 10?19 J and 87 pN, respectively. We also carried out a detailed X-ray scattering study of the static and dynamic behavior of a styrene isoprene diblock copolymer melt with a styrene volume fraction of 0.3468. At 115 and 120 C, we observe splitting of the principal Bragg peak, which we attribute to phase coexistence of hexagonal cylindrical and cubic double- gyroid structure. In the disordered phase, above 130 C, we have characterized the dynamics of composition fluctuations via X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Near the peak of the static structure factor, these fluctuations show stretched-exponential relaxations, characterized by a stretching exponent of about 0.36 for a range of temperatures immediately above the MST. The corresponding characteristic relaxation times vary exponentially with temperature, changing by a factor of 2 for each 2 C change in temperature. At low wavevectors, the measured relaxations are diffusive with relaxation times that change by a factor of 2 for each 8 C change in temperature.

Mochrie, Simon G. J.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

140

Mesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. ; Register, R. A. ; Marchand, G. R. Macromolecules 1997,D. J. ; Loo, Y. L. ; Marchand, G. R. ; Fetters, L. J.

Wong, David Tunmin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A Carbon Corrosion Model to Evaluate the Effect of Steady State and Transient Operation of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A carbon corrosion model is developed based on the formation of surface oxides on carbon and platinum of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrode. The model predicts the rate of carbon corrosion under potential hold and potential cycling conditions. The model includes the interaction of carbon surface oxides with transient species like OH radicals to explain observed carbon corrosion trends under normal PEM fuel cell operating conditions. The model prediction agrees qualitatively with the experimental data supporting the hypothesis that the interplay of surface oxide formation on carbon and platinum is the primary driver of carbon corrosion.

Pandy, Arun; Gummalla, Mallika; Atrazhev, Vadim V; Kuzminyh, Nikolay Yu; Sultanov, Vadim I; Burlatsky, Sergei F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic performance properties of experimental membranes, 9) fabrication and FC performance testing of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) from experimental membranes, and 10) measurement of ex situ and in situ membrane durability of experimental membranes. Although none of the experimental hydrocarbon membranes that issued from the project displayed proton conductivities that met DOE requirements, the project contributed to our basic understanding of membrane structure-property relationships in a number of key respects. An important finding of the benchmark studies is that physical degradation associated with humidity and temperature variations in the FC tend to open new fuel crossover pathways and act synergistically with chemical degradation to accelerate overall membrane degradation. Thus, for long term membrane survival and efficient fuel utilization, membranes must withstand internal stresses due to humidity and temperature changes. In this respect, rigid aromatic hydrocarbon fuel cell membranes, e.g. PAES, offer an advantage over un-modified Nafion membranes. The benchmark studies also showed that broadband dielectric spectroscopy is a potentially powerful tool in assessing shifts in the fundamental macromolecular dynamics caused by Nafion chemical degradation, and thus, this technique is of relevance in interrogating proton exchange membrane durability in fuel cells and macromolecular dynamics as coupled to proton migration, which is of fundamental relevance in proton exchange membranes in fuel cells. A key finding from the hydrocarbon membrane synthesis effort was that rigid aromatic polymers containing isolated ion exchange groups tethered tightly to the backbone (short tether), such as HPPS, provide excellent mechanical and durability properties but do not provide sufficient conductivity, in either random or block configuration, when used as the sole ion exchange monomer. However, we continue to hypothesize that longer tethers, and tethered groups spaced more closely within the hydrophilic chain elements of the polymer, will yield highly conductive materials with excellent mech

Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

143

Composite Electrolyte to Stabilize Metallic Lithium Anodes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

- Develop composites of electrolyte materials with requisite electrochemical and mechanical properties - Fabricate thin membranes to provide good power performance and long...

144

Multi-scale First-Principles Modeling of Three-Phase System of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The three-phase system consisting of Nafion, graphite and platinum in the presence of water is studied using molecule dynamics simulation. The force fields describing the molecular interaction between the components in the system are developed to reproduce the energies calculated from density functional theory modeling. The configuration of such complicated three-phase system is predicted through MD simulations. The nanophase-segregation and transport properties are investigated from the equilibrium state. The coverage of the electrolyte on the platinum surface and the dissolution of oxygen are analyzed.

Brunello, Giuseppe; Choi, Ji; Harvey, David; Jang, Seung

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

IMIDAZOLE-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS FOR USE IN POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS: EFFECT OF ELECTRON-WITHDRAWING AND ELECTRON-DONATING SUBSTITUENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) require humidifi cation for acceptable proton conductivity. Development of a novel polymer that is conductive without a water-based proton carrier is desirable for use in automobiles. Imidazole (Im) is a possible replacement for water as a proton solvent; Im can be tethered to the polymer structure by means of covalent bonds, thereby providing a solid state proton conducting membrane where the solvating groups do not leach out of the fuel cell. These covalent bonds can alter the electron availability of the Im molecule. This study investigates the effects of electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents on the conductivity of Im complexed with methanesulfonic acid (MSA) in the form of ionic liquids. Due to the changes in the electronegativity of nitrogen, it is expected that 2-phenylimidazole (2-PhIm, electron-withdrawing) will exhibit increased conductivity compared to Im, while 2-methylimidazole (2-MeIm, electron-donating) will exhibit decreased conductivity. Three sets of ionic liquids were prepared at defi ned molar ratios: Im-MSA, 2-PhIm-MSA, and 2-MeIm- MSA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and 1H-NMR were used to characterize each complex. Impedance analysis was used to determine the conductivity of each complex. Both the 2-PhIm-MSA and 2-MeIm-MSA ionic liquids were found to be less conductive than the Im-MSA complex at base-rich compositions, but more conductive at acid-rich compositions. 1H-NMR data shows a downfi eld shift of the proton on nitrogen in 2-PhIm compared to Im, suggesting that other factors may diminish the electronic effects of the electron withdrawing group at base-rich compositions. Further studies examining these effects may well result in increased conductivity for Im-based complexes. Understanding the conductive properties of Im-derivatives due to electronic effects will help facilitate the development of a new electrolyte appropriate for automotive fuel cell use.

Chang, E.; Fu, Y.; Kerr, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Co 13 O 2 , LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 Anode: MCMB, LTO Electrolyte-1: 1.2M LiPF 6 ECEMC 37 with or without additive Electrolyte-2: fully or partially fluorinated...

147

Thermally Nitrided Stainless Steels for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates: Part 2: Beneficial Modification of Passive Layer on AISI446  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal nitridation of AISI446 mod-1 superferritic stainless steel for 24 h at 1100 C resulted in an adherent, inward growing surface layer based on (Cr, Fe){sub 2}N{sub 1-x} (x = 0--0.5). The layer was not continuous, and although it resulted in low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) and good corrosion resistance under simulated polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodic conditions; poor corrosion resistance was observed under simulated anodic conditions. Nitridation for 2 h at 1100 C resulted in little nitrogen uptake and a tinted surface. Analysis by SEM, XPS, and AES suggested a complex heterogeneous modification of the native passive oxide film by nitrogen rather than the desired microns-thick exclusive Cr-rich nitride layer. Surprisingly, this modification resulted in both good corrosion resistance under simulated cathodic and anodic conditions and low ICR, well over an order of magnitude lower than the untreated alloy. Further, little increase in ICR was observed under passivating polarization conditions. The potential of this phenomenon for PEMFC bipolar plates is discussed.

Wang, Heli [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Brady, Michael P [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Turner, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

testing Cathode: LiNi13Mn13Co13O2 Anode: MCMB Electrolyte: 1.2M LiPF6 ECEMC 37 with or without additive - Separator: Celgard 2325 Voltage for cycling:...

149

Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the components composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of its characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 10{sup ?6} S/cm up to 6.01 10{sup ?4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 10{sup ?3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

Fauzi, Iqbal, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

150

Some durability considerations for proton exchange membranes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

creates an aggressive environment for the electrolyte membrane. This includes: - Mechanical stresses related to changes in the level of membrane hydration. - Thermal...

151

Using a Quasipotential Transformation for Modeling Diffusion Media in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell , Numerical Heat Transferof Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Using a Two-EquationExchange Membrane Fuel Cells 2. Absolute Permeability ,

Weber, Adam Z.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

153

Block Copolymer Separators for Lithium Batteries  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

- Funding received in FY09 and FY10: 700K * PartnersCollaborators - Project Lead: LBNL - Advanced Light Source - National Center for Electron Microscopy - Stanford...

154

Block Copolymer Patterning of Functional Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for next generation solar cells. The proof of principle is demonstrated by fabricating dye- sensitized solar cells incorporating structured arrays of TiO2. The first part of this thesis introduces the operating principles of the solar cell as a means... of the bicontinuous gyroid block copoly- mer phase is summarized in Chapter 7. Dye-sensitized solar cells incorporating a TiO2 gyroid net- work are characterized in Chapter 8. These results are the first reported application of a gyroid structure in a functioning...

Crossland, Edward

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

155

MonolayerThickness of Block Copolymer Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.47 · Index of ref. for PS-PEHMA 1.51 #12;Annealing the films · Tg 22nm 24nm Height Images #12;AFM 12-33 26nm 28nm 30nm Bi-continuous #12;12-33Area% 13.08 31.55 41 Area % Thickness (nm) Monolayer: 18.86nm Bilayer: 37.72nm #12;Monolayer thickness 12

Petta, Jason

156

Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

157

Fuel cell having electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell having an electrolyte control volume includes a pair of porous opposed electrodes. A maxtrix is positioned between the pair of electrodes for containing an electrolyte. A first layer of backing paper is positioned adjacent to one of the electrodes. A portion of the paper is substantially previous to the acceptance of the electrolyte so as to absorb electrolyte when there is an excess in the matrix and to desorb electrolyte when there is a shortage in the matrix. A second layer of backing paper is positioned adjacent to the first layer of paper and is substantially impervious to the acceptance of electrolyte.

Wright, Maynard K. (Bethel Park, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Novel Electrolytes and Additives  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

7 Point of Reference - Electrode and Electrolyte Chemistries Gen 2 electrolyte EC:EMC (3:7 by wt.) + 1.2M LiPF 6 Cu (-) Al (+) Mag-10 graphite Particle size 5 m Celgard...

159

Anion exchange polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes include chemical compounds comprising a polymer backbone with side chains that include guanidinium cations.

Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

160

Solid polymer electrolyte compositions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

Garbe, James E. (Stillwater, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (St. Paul, MN); Le, Dinh Ba (St. Paul, MN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Liu, Changle (Midland, MI); Xu, Kang (Montgomery Village, MD); Skotheim, Terje A. (Tucson, AZ)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Aluminum oxyhydroxide based separator/electrolyte and battery system, and a method of making the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The instant invention relates a solid-state electrochemical cell and a novel separator/electrolyte incorporated therein. The invented electrochemical cell generally comprising: a unique metal oxyhydroxide based (i.e. AlOOH) separator/electrolyte membrane sandwiched between a first electrode and a second electrode. The novel separator/electrolyte comprises a nanoparticulate metal oxyhydroxide, preferably AlOOH and a salt which are mixed and then pressed together to form a monolithic metal oxyhydroxide-salt membrane.

Gerald, II; Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Fuel cell subassemblies incorporating subgasketed thrifted membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell roll good subassembly is described that includes a plurality of individual electrolyte membranes. One or more first subgaskets are attached to the individual electrolyte membranes. Each of the first subgaskets has at least one aperture and the first subgaskets are arranged so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the first subgaskets. A second subgasket comprises a web having a plurality of apertures. The second subgasket web is attached to the one or more first subgaskets so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the second subgasket web. The second subgasket web may have little or no adhesive on the subgasket surface facing the electrolyte membrane.

Iverson, Eric J; Pierpont, Daniel M; Yandrasits, Michael A; Hamrock, Steven J; Obradovich, Stephan J; Peterson, Donald G

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

164

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

165

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Nanoporous polymer electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO); Nguyen, Vinh (Wheat Ridge, CO)

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

167

Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich's solution and analysis.

Fuller, T.F.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Solid Electrolyte Batteries  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Kim Texas Materials Institute The University of Texas at Austin Solid Electrolyte Batteries This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. DOE...

169

Electrolytes for power sources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrolytes are disclosed for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids. 7 figures.

Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

1995-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

170

Novel Electrolytes and Additives  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Objectives - Relevance Performance, calendar-life, and safety characteristics of Li-ion cells are dictated by the nature and stability of the electrolyte and the...

171

Molecular Simulations of Electrolytes and Electrolyte/Electrode...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Simulations of Electrolytes and ElectrolyteElectrode Interfaces Grant D. Smith and Oleg Borodin Department of Materials Science & Engineering University of Utah 02182008 "This...

172

Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietip sheetK-4In 2013Department ofThispurposeFact

173

Macroscopic Modeling of Polymer-Electrolyte Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Therefore, the nonionic fluorocarbon matrix can be taken asmembrane, such as the fluorocarbon-rich skin on the surfacewhere the gray area is the fluorocarbon matrix, the black is

Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Membrane reference electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

175

Battery utilizing ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

Yahnke, Mark S. (Berkeley, CA); Shlomo, Golan (Haifa, IL); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Molten salt electrolyte separator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1996-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

177

Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4})] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF{sub 6} in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 10{sup ?3} S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO{sub 2} coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator.

Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Satyanarayana, N., E-mail: nallanis2011@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry-605014 (India); Venkateswarlu, M. [R and D, Amaraja batteries, Thirupathi-517501 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

178

Diffuse charge effects in fuel cell membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is commonly assumed that electrolyte membranes in fuel cells are electrically neutral, except in unsteady situations, when the double-layer capacitance is heuristically included in equivalent circuit calculations. Indeed, ...

Biesheuvel, P. M.

179

SOLID ELECTROLYTE BATTERIES  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

(+) Would allow a lithium anode Would block dendrites from a lithium anode or a Lisolid- electrolyte interface Would allow alternative cathodes, e.g. air, S 8 , or Fe 3+...

180

High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Anion exchange polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

182

Controlled Self Assembly of Conjugated Polymer Containing Block Copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in dye/polymer blend photovoltaic cells. Advanced MaterialsA. J. , Polymer Photovoltaic Cells - Enhanced Efficiencies2-Layer Organic Photovoltaic Cell. Applied Physics Letters

McCulloch, Bryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Rheological properties characterization of styrene-isoprene-styrene block copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, macrostructural effects such as branching · Applications: ­ Injection molding ­ Fiber spinning ­ Film blowing Preparation CD ­ constraint direction FD ­ flow direction · Aluminum channel die is lubricated with silicone oil · Compression at T = 140HC FD ­ flow direction LD ­ loading direction courtesy of S.B. Myers

Petta, Jason

184

Controlled Self Assembly of Conjugated Polymer Containing Block Copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Copolymers for Organic Optoelectronics. Macromolecules 2009,Copolymers for Organic Optoelectronics. Macromolecules 2009,performance of polymer optoelectronics. Table of Contents

McCulloch, Bryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Controlled Self Assembly of Conjugated Polymer Containing Block Copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for photovoltaics however it appears efficiencies tend to belimiting efficiencies. Typically polymer photovoltaics areefficiency Plot of current density versus voltage for photovoltaics

McCulloch, Bryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Controlled Self Assembly of Conjugated Polymer Containing Block Copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B. D. ; Segalman, R. A. , Self-assembly of rod-coil blockF. , Synthesis and Self- Assembly of Poly(diethylhexyloxy-p-I. , Three-dimensional self- assembly of rodcoil copolymer

McCulloch, Bryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Fabricating Nano-Scale Devices: Block Copolymers and their Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

leaving behind cylindrical troughs where the polystyrenewas deposited into these cylindrical troughs using sputter

Limaye, Aditya

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Lower Cost, Nanoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separator - Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and InterfacesAdministration -Lowell L. Wood, 1981 The Ernest

189

Block Copolymer Cathode Binder to Simultaneously Transport Electronic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScienceCareers Apply forBiosurveillance A Los

190

Block Copolymer Separators for Lithium Batteries | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTie Ltd: ScopeDepartment1, 2011 (BETO)andDepartment ofPage

191

Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich`s solution and analysis.

Fuller, T.F.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Integrated photoelectrochemical cell and system having a liquid electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An integrated photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell generates hydrogen and oxygen from water while being illuminated with radiation. The PEC cell employs a liquid electrolyte, a multi-junction photovoltaic electrode, and a thin ion-exchange membrane. A PEC system and a method of making such PEC cell and PEC system are also disclosed.

Deng, Xunming (Sylvania, OH); Xu, Liwei (Sylvania, OH)

2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

193

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline membrane cell Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PROGRAM Hydrogen and Fuel Summary: collectors. In a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which is widely regarded as the most promising... through it. While the protons...

194

Aluminum oxyhydroxide based separator/electrolyte and battery system, and a method making the same  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The instant invention relates a solid-state electrochemical cell and a novel separator/electrolyte incorporated therein. A preferred embodiment of the invented electrochemical cell generally comprises a unique metal oxyhydroxide based (i.e. AlOOH) separator/electrolyte membrane sandwiched between a first electrode and a second electrode. A preferred novel separator/electrolyte comprises a nanoparticulate metal oxyhydroxide, preferably AlOOH and a salt which are mixed and then pressed together to form a monolithic metal oxyhydroxide-salt membrane.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

195

Batteries using molten salt electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

196

POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS: The Gas Diffusion Layer Johannah Itescu Princeton University PRISM REU #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information I. What do fuel cells do? Generate electricity through chemical reaction #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information -+ + eHH 442 2 0244 22 He

Petta, Jason

197

Spin coating of electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

Stetter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Maclay, G. Jordan (Maywood, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Molecular Architecture for Polyphosphazene Electrolytes for Seawater Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a series of polyphosphazenes were designed to function as water resistant, yet ionically conductive membranes for application to lithium/seawater batteries. In membranes of this nature, various molecular architectures are possible and representatives from each possible type were chosen. These polymers were synthesized and their performance as solid polymer electrolytes was evaluated in terms of both lithium ion conductivity and water permeability. The impact that this molecular architecture has on total performance of the membranes for seawater batteries is discussed. Further implications of this molecular architecture on the mechanisms of lithium ion transport through polyphosphazenes are also discussed.

Mason K. Harrup; Mason K. Harrup; Thomas A. Luther; Christopher J. Orme; Eric S. Peterson

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Battery utilizing ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

200

Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael Mitchell, Dilip Natarajan, Larry J. Markoski, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Letters Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion membrane as the electrolyte. We studied the effect of cell resistance, hydrogen and oxygen flow rates

Kenis, Paul J. A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Solid polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Ice electrode electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

Glenn, David F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Harris, Taryl L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ingram, Jani C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Ice electrode electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

204

Solid polymer electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

1995-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

205

Thin film composite electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

206

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

207

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

THE VITELLINE MEMBRANE OF THE UNFERTILIZED HEN'S EGG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

membrane is charged and asymmetrical. It's directional specificity to ion transport and accompanying volumeTHE VITELLINE MEMBRANE OF THE UNFERTILIZED HEN'S EGG : ELECTROLYTE AND WATER TRANSPORT T. RYMEN J more than just the result of the membrane's ion exchange behaviour and that it may involve an enzymatic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

HTMWG, May 18, 2009, Welcome!  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

PEMFC membranes are being pursued Morphology Molecular Approach Additive Approach Micronano engineering approach Conduction Mechanism Other Polymer Block Copolymer Rigid Rods...

210

Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); York, Cynthia A. (Newington, CT); Waszczuk, Piotr (White Bear Lake, MN); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL)

2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

211

Ceramic electrolyte coating and methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aqueous coating slurries useful in depositing a dense coating of a ceramic electrolyte material (e.g., yttrium-stabilized zirconia) onto a porous substrate of a ceramic electrode material (e.g., lanthanum strontium manganite or nickel/zirconia) and processes for preparing an aqueous suspension of a ceramic electrolyte material and an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material. The invention also includes processes for depositing an aqueous spray coating slurry including a ceramic electrolyte material onto pre-sintered, partially sintered, and unsintered ceramic substrates and products made by this process.

Seabaugh, Matthew M. (Columbus, OH); Swartz, Scott L. (Columbus, OH); Dawson, William J. (Dublin, OH); McCormick, Buddy E. (Dublin, OH)

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

212

InVited Feature Article Water Dynamics and Proton Transfer in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

InVited Feature Article Water Dynamics and Proton Transfer in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes David E is the most widely used polyelectrolyte membrane in fuel cells. Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of the O but has since become the most commonly used membrane separator in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

Fayer, Michael D.

213

Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance. Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance....

214

Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

Derzon, Dora K. (1554 Rosalba St. NE., Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM 87112); Arnold, Jr., Charles (3436 Tahoe, NE., Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM 87111); Delnick, Frank M. (9700 Fleming Rd., Dexter, MI 48130)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Electrolytes - Technology review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Safety, lifetime, energy density, and costs are the key factors for battery development. This generates the need for improved cell chemistries and new, advanced battery materials. The components of an electrolyte are the solvent, in which a conducting salt and additives are dissolved. Each of them plays a specific role in the overall mechanism of a cell: the solvent provides the host medium for ionic conductivity, which originates in the conductive salt. Furthermore, additives can be used to optimize safety, performance, and cyclability. By understanding the tasks of the individual components and their optimum conditions of operation, the functionality of cells can be improved from a holistic point of view. This paper will present the most important technological features and requirements for electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The state-of-the-art chemistry of each component is presented, as well as different approaches for their modification. Finally, a comparison of Li-cells with lithium-based technologies currently under development is conducted.

Meutzner, Falk; Urea de Vivanco, Mateo [Institut fr Experimentelle Physik, Technische Universitt Bergakademie Freiberg, Leipziger Strae 23, 09596 Freiberg (Germany)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

217

Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Electrolyte paste for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The electrolyte matrix and electrolyte reservoir plates in a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant stack are filled with electrolyte by applying a paste of dry electrolyte powder entrained in a dissipatable carrier to the reactant flow channels in the current collector plate. The stack plates are preformed and solidified to final operating condition so that they are self sustaining and can be disposed one atop the other to form the power plant stack. Packing the reactant flow channels with the electrolyte paste allows the use of thinner electrode plates, particularly on the anode side of the cells. The use of the packed electrolyte paste provides sufficient electrolyte to fill the matrix and to entrain excess electrolyte in the electrode plates, which also serve as excess electrolyte reservoirs. When the stack is heated up to operating temperatures, the electrolyte in the paste melts, the carrier vaporizes, or chemically decomposes, and the melted electrolyte is absorbed into the matrix and electrode plates.

Bregoli, Lawrance J. (Southwick, MA); Pearson, Mark L. (New London, CT)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Novel electrolytes and electrolyte additives for PHEV applications  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

diagnostics. Some of these electrolytes contained the following: - Solvents: EC, PC, EMC, etc. - Salts: LiPF 6 , LiBF 4 , LiB(C 2 O 4 ) 2 , LiF 2 BC 2 O 4 , etc. - Additives:...

220

Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The Dynamics of Platinum Precipitation in an Ion Exchange Membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microscopy of polymer electrolyte membranes that have undergone operation under fuel cell conditions, have revealed a well defined band of platinum in the membrane. Here, we propose a physics based model that captures the mechanism of platinum precipitation in the polymer electrolyte membrane. While platinum is observed throughout the membrane, the preferential growth of platinum at the band of platinum is dependent on the electrochemical potential distribution in the membrane. In this paper, the location of the platinum band is calculated as a function of the gas concentration at the cathode and anode, gas diffusion coefficients and solubility constants of the gases in the membrane, which are functions of relative humidity. Under H2/N2 conditions the platinum band is located near the cathode-membrane interface, as the oxygen concentration in the cathode gas stream increases and/or the hydrogen concentration in the anode gas stream decreases, the band moves towards the anode. The model developed in this paper...

Burlatsky, S F; Atrazhev, V V; Dmitriev, D V; Kuzminyh, N Y; Erikhman, N S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

High cation transport polymer electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmont, IL)

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

223

Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

224

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

1993-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

225

Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

es089kerr2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes...

227

Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

- Interfacial and Bulk Properties and Stability Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes...

228

Efficient Electrocatalyst Utilization: Electrochemical Deposition of Pt Nanoparticles Using Nafion Membrane as a Template  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the membrane on top. Introduction Nafion membranes are used as electrolytes in methanol and hydrogen fuel cells the catalyst only at the end of the hydrophilic channels that cross the membrane; no catalyst is placed under the anode to the cathode, and they must have a catalyst at both ends. Figure 1 shows a schematic description

Buratto, Steve

229

Modeling water content effects in polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water content and transport is the key factor in the one-dimensional, steady-state model of a complete polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) described here. Water diffusion coefficients, electroosmotic drag coefficients, water sorption isotherms, and membrane conductivities, all measured in our laboratory as functions of membrane water content, were used in the model. The model predicts a net-water-per-proton flux ratio of 0.2 H{sub 2}O/H{sup +} under typical operating conditions, which is much less than the measured electroosmotic drag coefficient for a fully hydrated membrane. It also predicts an increase in membrane resistance with increased current density and demonstrates the great advantage of thinner membranes in alleviating this resistance problem. Both of these predictions were verified experimentally under certain conditions. We also describe the sensitivity of the water concentration profile and associated observables to variations in the values of some of the transport parameters in anticipation of applying the model to fuel cells employing other membranes. 16 refs., 9 figs.

Springer, T.E.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Gottesfeld, S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Update on Electrolyte Modeling with Emphasis on Low Temperature...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

performance) Molecular dynamics simulation studies of electrolytes and electrolyteelectrode interfaces Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...

231

Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award October 15, 2014 -...

232

Improved Membrane Materials for PEM Fuel Cell Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project is to collect and integrate critical structure/property information in order to develop methods that lead to significant improvements in the durability and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) materials. This project is focused on the fundamental improvement of PEMFC membrane materials with respect to chemical, mechanical and morphological durability as well as the development of new inorganically-modified membranes.

Kenneth A. Mauritz; Robert B. Moore

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

233

LOWER TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYTE AND ELECTRODE MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thorough literature survey on low-temperature electrolyte and electrode materials for SOFC is given in this report. Thermodynamic stability of selected electrolyte and its chemical compatibility with cathode substrate were evaluated. Preliminary electrochemical characterizations were conducted on symmetrical cells consisting of the selected electrolyte and various electrode materials. Feasibility of plasma spraying new electrolyte material thin-film on cathode substrate was explored.

Keqin Huang

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

234

Multi-Sourced Electricity for Electrolytic Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

$/tonne (the DOE's centralized plant #12;Page 8 Electrolytic Hydrogen · Focus on low-cost electrolysis - 300 US Americas DOE Hydrogen Electrolysis-Utility Integration Workshop Boulder, Colorado 2004 September 22 & 23Multi-Sourced Electricity for Electrolytic Hydrogen Multi-Sourced Electricity for Electrolytic

235

PEM fuel cellstack development based on membrane-electrode assemblies of ultra-low platinum loadings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Attempt is made to scale-up single cell technology, based on ultra-low platinum loadings, to develop a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack for stationary power generation.

Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

237

Solid lithium-ion electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

Mahadevan, Kathyayani

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

239

Transport Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes I. Modeling Framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and optimization of fuel cells in a design and development environment. Kreuer et al.19 recently presented of ongoing efforts to develop more comprehensive compu- tational fuel cell model14-18 that allow analysis of the fundamental transport mechanisms. In the context of multidimensional fuel cell modeling, practical

Struchtrup, Henning

240

Fuel cell with electrolyte feed system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell having a pair of electrodes at the sites of electrochemical reactions of hydrogen and oxygen and a phosphoric acid electrolyte provided with an electrolyte supporting structure in the form of a laminated matrix assembly disposed between the electrodes. The matrix assembly is formed of a central layer disposed between two outer layers, each being permeable to the flow of the electrolyte. The central layer is provided with relatively large pores while the outer layers are provided with relatively small pores. An external reservoir supplies electrolyte via a feed means to the central layer to compensate for changes in electrolyte volume in the matrix assembly during the operation of fuel cell.

Feigenbaum, Haim (Highland Park, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Membrane Separator for Redox Flow Batteries that Utilize Anion Radical Mediators.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Na + ion conducting polyethylene oxide membrane is developed for an organic electrolyte redox flow battery that utilizes anion radical mediators. To achieve high specific ionic conductivity, tetraethyleneglycol dimethylether (TEGDME) is used as a plasticizer to reduce crystallinity and increase the free volume of the gel film. This membrane is physically and chemically stable in TEGDME electrolyte that contains highly reactive biphenyl anion radical mediators.

Delnick, Frank M.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Microscopic mechanisms of graphene electrolytic delamination from metal substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, hydrogen bubbling delamination of graphene (Gr) from copper using a strong electrolyte (KOH) water solution was performed, focusing on the effect of the KOH concentration (C{sub KOH}) on the Gr delamination rate. A factor of ?10 decrease in the time required for the complete Gr delamination from Cu cathodes with the same geometry was found increasing C{sub KOH} from ?0.05?M to ?0.60?M. After transfer of the separated Gr membranes to SiO{sub 2} substrates by a highly reproducible thermo-compression printing method, an accurate atomic force microscopy investigation of the changes in Gr morphology as a function of C{sub KOH} was performed. Supported by these analyses, a microscopic model of the delamination process has been proposed, where a key role is played by graphene wrinkles acting as nucleation sites for H{sub 2} bubbles at the cathode perimeter. With this approach, the H{sub 2} supersaturation generated at the electrode for different electrolyte concentrations was estimated and the inverse dependence of t{sub d} on C{sub KOH} was quantitatively explained. Although developed in the case of Cu, this analysis is generally valid and can be applied to describe the electrolytic delamination of graphene from several metal substrates.

Fisichella, G. [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, 5 95121 Catania (Italy); Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria, 6 95125 Catania (Italy); Di Franco, S.; Roccaforte, F.; Giannazzo, F., E-mail: filippo.giannazzo@imm.cnr.it [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, 5 95121 Catania (Italy); Ravesi, S. [STMicroelectronics, Stradale Primosole, 50 95121 Catania (Italy)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

243

On a Pioneering Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

"Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Model" is a seminal work that continues to form the basis for modern modeling efforts, especially models concerning the membrane and its behavior at the continuum level. The paper is complete with experimental data, modeling equations, model validation, and optimization scenarios. While the treatment of the underlying phenomena is limited to isothermal, single-phase conditions, and one-dimensional flow, it represents the key interactions within the membrane at the center of the PEFC. It focuses on analyzing the water balance within the cell and clearly demonstrates the complex interactions of water diffusion and electro-osmotic flux. Cell-level and system-level water balance are key to the development of efficient PEFCs going forward, particularly as researchers address the need to simplify humidification and recycle configurations while increasing the operating temperature of the stack to minimize radiator requirements.

Weber, Adam Z.; Meyers, Jeremy P.

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

244

Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives...

245

Immobilized fluid membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.

Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Zhang, Jiguang

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

246

Composite electrode/electrolyte structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided is an electrode fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. Onto this electrode in the green state, a green ionic (e.g., electrolyte) film is deposited and the assembly is co-fired at a temperature suitable to fully densify the film while the substrate retains porosity. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of a metal salt and subsequent low temperature firing. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2004-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

247

Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for rechargeable magnesium batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes present new opportunities for rechargeable magnesium batteries. However, few polymer electrolytes have demonstrated reversible Mg deposition/dissolution and those that have still contain volatile liquids such as tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this work, we report a nanocomposite polymer electrolyte based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), Mg(BH4)2 and MgO nanoparticles for rechargeable Mg batteries. Cells with this electrolyte have a high coulombic efficiency of 98% for Mg plating/stripping and a high cycling stability. Through combined experiment-modeling investigations, a correlation between improved solvation of the salt and solvent chain length, chelation and oxygen denticity is established. Following the same trend, the nanocomposite polymer electrolyte is inferred to enhance the dissociation of the salt Mg(BH4)2 and thus improve the electrochemical performance. The insights and design metrics thus obtained may be used in nanocomposite electrolytes for other multivalent systems.

Shao, Yuyan; Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Hu, Jian Z.; Hu, Mary Y.; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Wei, Zhehao; Gu, Meng; Deng, Xuchu; Xu, Suochang; Han, Kee Sung; Wang, Jiulin; Nie, Zimin; Li, Guosheng; Zavadil, K.; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Mueller, Karl T.; Persson, Kristin A.; Liu, Jun

2014-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

248

Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

Lucht, Brett L

2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

249

Design and synthesis of guest-host nanostructures to enhance ionic conductivity across nanocomposite membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion conducting membrane has a matrix including an ordered array of hollow channels and a nanocrystalline electrolyte contained within at least some or all of the channels. The channels have opposed open ends, and a channel width of 1000 nanometers or less, preferably 60 nanometers or less, and most preferably 10 nanometers or less. The channels may be aligned perpendicular to the matrix surface, and the length of the channels may be 10 nanometers to 1000 micrometers. The electrolyte has grain sizes of 100 nanometers or less, and preferably grain sizes of 1 to 50 nanometers. The electrolyte may include grains with a part of the grain boundaries aligned with inner walls of the channels to form a straight oriented grain-wall interface or the electrolyte may be a single crystal. In one form, the electrolyte conducts oxygen ions, the matrix is silica, and the electrolyte is yttrium doped zirconia.

Hu, Michael Z. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Kosacki, Igor (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

250

Electrolytic process for preparing uranium metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic process for making uranium from uranium oxide using Cl.sub.2 anode product from an electrolytic cell to react with UO.sub.2 to form uranium chlorides. The chlorides are used in low concentrations in a melt comprising fluorides and chlorides of potassium, sodium and barium in the electrolytic cell. The electrolysis produces Cl.sub.2 at the anode that reacts with UO.sub.2 in the feed reactor to form soluble UCl.sub.4, available for a continuous process in the electrolytic cell, rather than having insoluble UO.sub.2 fouling the cell.

Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

SOLID ELECTROLYTES FOR NEXT GENERATION BATTERIES  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Austin SOLID ELECTROLYTES FOR NEXT GENERATION BATTERIES PI: John B. Goodenough Presented by: Long Wang Texas Materials Institute The University of Texas at Austin DOE Vehicle...

252

LOWER TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYTE AND ELECTRODE MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LSGM electrolyte and LSCF cathode materials were synthesized via solid state reaction and wet-chemical method. From these materials, symmetrical cells were fabricated for electrochemical characterizations.

Keqin Huang

2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

253

Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

254

Preparation of Pt deposited nanotubular TiO{sub 2} as cathodes for enhanced photoelectrochemical hydrogen production using seawater electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to develop effective cathodes to increase the production of hydrogen and use the seawater, an abundant resource in the earth as the electrolyte in photoelectrochemical systems. In order to fabricate the Pt/TiO{sub 2} cathodes, various contents of the Pt precursor (0-0.4 wt%) deposited by the electrodeposition method were used. On the basis of the hydrogen evolution rate, 0.2 wt% Pt/TiO{sub 2} was observed to exhibit the best performance among the various Pt/TiO{sub 2} cathodes with the natural seawater and two concentrated seawater electrolytes obtained from single (nanofiltration) and combined membrane (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) processes. The surface characterizations exhibited that crystal structures and morphological properties of Pt and TiO{sub 2} found the results of XRD pattern and SEM/TEM images, respectively. - Graphical abstract: On the basis of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production, 0.2 wt% Pt/TiO{sub 2} was observed to exhibit the best performance among the various Pt/TIO{sub 2} cathodes with natural seawater. In comparison of hydrogen evolution rate with various seawater electrolytes, 0.2 wt% Pt/TiO{sub 2} was found to show the better performance as cathode with the concentrated seawater electrolytes obtained from membrane. Highlights: > Pt deposited TiO{sub 2} electrodes are used as cathode in PEC H{sub 2} production. > Natural and concentrated seawater by membranes are used as electrolytes in PEC. > Pt/TiO{sub 2} shows a good performance as cathode with seawater electrolytes. > H{sub 2} evolution rate increases with more concentrated seawater electrolyte. > Highly saline seawater is useful resource for H{sub 2} production.

Nam, Wonsik [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Technology and Education, Department of Applied Chemical Engineering, 1800 Chungjeollo, Byeongcheon-myun, Chungnam 330-708 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seichang [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Hyunku [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jaekyung, E-mail: jyoon@kier.re.kr [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

EFFECT OF COMPRESSION ON CONDUCTIVITY AND MORPHOLOGY OF PFSA MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cells (PEFCs) are promising candidates for powering vehicles and portable devices using renewable-energy sources. The core of a PEFC is the solid electrolyte membrane that conducts protons from anode to cathode, where water is generated. The conductivity of the membrane, however, depends on the water content of the membrane, which is strongly related to the cell operating conditions. The membrane and other cell components are typically compressed to minimize various contact resistances. Moreover, the swelling of a somewhat constrained membrane in the cell due to the humidity changes generates additional compressive stresses in the membrane. These external stresses are balanced by the internal swelling pressure of the membrane and change the swelling equilibrium. It was shown using a fuel-cell setup that compression could reduce the water content of the membrane or alter the cell resistance. Nevertheless, the effect of compression on the membranes transport properties is yet to be understood, as well as its implications in the structure-functions relationships of the membrane. We previously studied, both experimentally and theoretically, how compression affects the water content of the membrane.6 However, more information is required the gain a fundamental understanding of the compression effects. In this talk, we present the results of our investigation on the in-situ conductivity of the membrane as a function of humidity and cell compression pressure. Moreover, to better understand the morphology of compressed membrane, small-angle X-ray-scattering (SAXS) experiments were performed. The conductivity data is then analyzed by investigating the size of the water domains of the compressed membrane determined from the SAXS measurements.

Kusoglu, Ahmet; Weber, Adam; Jiang, Ruichin; Gittleman, Craig

2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

256

Multicomponent membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Investigation of Temperature-Driven Water Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell: Phase-Change-Induced Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of Temperature-Driven Water Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell: Phase cell membranes, a net flux of water was found to flow from the hot to the cold side of the full, 2008. Published January 8, 2009. Proper water management is critical to achieve high performance

Mench, Matthew M.

258

Computational modeling of structure and OH-anion diffusion in quaternary ammonium polysulfone hydroxide Polymer electrolyte for application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction Despite the significant progress made in reducing cost of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells further progress in commercializa- tion of the fuel cell technology, the focus should be moved to other types of fuel cells which do not require expensive Pt as catalysts. Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) are more

Goddard III, William A.

259

High performance electrolytes for MCFC  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system is described. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and BaCO{sub 3}, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO{sub 3} enables lower temperature fuel cell operation. 15 figs.

Kaun, T.D.; Roche, M.F.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

260

Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conditions used for fuelcell simulations. 3.12 Values usedin Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells II. Parametric Study,of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells, Electrochimica Acta, 53,

Balliet, Ryan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Novel Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells Novel Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells 2010 DOE Vehicle...

262

Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Development of Novel Electrolytes...

263

Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

264

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

265

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

266

Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

15eswise2012p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte...

267

Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

15eswise2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte...

268

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies on Vanadium(IV) Electrolyte...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Magnetic Resonance Studies on Vanadium(IV) Electrolyte Solutions for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery . Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies on Vanadium(IV) Electrolyte Solutions for...

269

Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-ion Batteries by In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy. Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for...

270

Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries. Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in...

271

Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

272

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry Presentation given by Argonne...

273

Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes and electrolyteelectrode interfaces Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes and...

274

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the AgCl/Electrolyte Interfacial...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Simulation of the AgClElectrolyte Interfacial Capacity. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the AgClElectrolyte Interfacial Capacity. Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulation of the...

275

Process Development and Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials Process Development and Scale up of Advanced Electrolyte Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

276

Surface and interfacial tensions of Hofmeister electrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface and interfacial tensions of Hofmeister electrolytes Alexandre P. dos Santos and Yan Levin to account quantitatively for the surface and interfacial tensions of different electrolyte solutions can also be used to calculate the surface and the interfacial tensions of acid solutions, predicting

Levin, Yan

277

Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Growth of Pt nanoparticle for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at anode side of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. With a Pt loading of 25 g-Pt/cm2 , current, PEM fuel cell, Mass specific power density, Electrochemical active surface area, Oxygen reduction PEMFC Growth of Pt nanoparticle for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells

279

New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40C to -40C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

Yang, Xiao-Qing

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

280

Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making the same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between {minus}15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.

1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

282

LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and Testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Progress has been made in the preparation and characterization of thin electrolytes and porous LSM substrates. Both of these tasks are essentially on or ahead of schedule. In our proposal, we suggested that the ZrO{sub 2}/Sc system needed to be considered as a candidate as a thin electrolyte. This was because microcrystalline ZrO{sub 2}/Sc has a significantly higher ionic conductivity than YSZ, particularly at the lower temperatures. As a result, some 0.5 micron thick film of ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc on an alumina substrate (grain size 20nm) was prepared and the electrical conductivity measured as a function of temperature and oxygen activity. The Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} certainly has a higher conductivity that either 20nm or 2400nm YSZ, however, electronic conductivity dominates the conductivity for oxygen activities below 10{sup -15}. Whereas for YSZ, electronic conductivity is not a problem until the oxygen activity decreases below 10{sup -25}. These initial results show that the ionic conductivity of 20nm YSZ and 20nm ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc are essentially the same and the enhanced conductivity which is observed for Sc doping in microcrystalline specimens is not observed for the same composition when it is nanocrystalline. In addition they show that the electronic conductivity of Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that observed for YSZ. The conclusion one reaches is that for 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films, Sc doping of ZrO{sub 2} has no benefits compared to YSZ. As a result, electrolyte films of ZrO{sub 2}/Sc should not be considered as candidates. However, they have the potential of being useful as an interface on the anode side of the electrolyte. NexTech has focused much of its effort during the past few months on establishing tape casting methods for porous LSM substrates. This work, performed under a separate DOE-funded program, involved tape casting formulations comprising LSM powders with bi-modal particle size distributions and fugitive pore forming additives. Sintered LSM substrates with porosities in the 30 to 40 vol% range, and pore sizes of 10 {approx} 20 microns have been prepared. In addition, tape casting formulations involving composite mixtures of LSM and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) have been evaluated. The LSM/SDC cathode substrates are expected to provide better performance at low temperatures. Characterization of these materials is currently underway.

Harlan U. Anderson

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

Angell, Charles Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

284

Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Tempe, AZ)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents. 9 figs.

Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

286

Active membrane having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a physicochemically-active porous membrane for electrochemical cells that purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. One dimension of the pore surface has a macroscopic length (1 nm-1000 .mu.m) and is directed parallel to the direction of an electric field, which is produced between the cathode and the anode electrodes of an electrochemical cell. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klingler, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

287

Highly Quantitative Electrochemical Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrolytes & Solid Electrolyte Interphases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The methods to measure solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) electrochemical properties and SEI formation capability of non-aqueous electrolyte solutions are not adequately addressed in the literature. And yet, there is a strong demand in new electrolyte generations that promote stabilized SEIs and have an influence to resolve safety, calendar life and other limitations of Li-ion batteries. To fill this gap, in situ electrochemical approach with new descriptive criteria for highly quantitative characterization of SEI and electrolytes is proposed. These criteria are: SEI formation capacity, SEI corrosion rate, SEI maintenance rate, and SEI kinetic stability. These criteria are associated with battery parameters like irreversible capacity, self-discharge, shelf-life, power, etc. Therefore, they are especially useful for electrolyte development and standard fast screening, allowing a skillful approach to narrow down the search for the best electrolyte. The characterization protocol also allows retrieving information on interfacial resistance for SEI layers and the electrochemical window of electrolytes, the other important metrics of characterization. The method validation was done on electrolyte blends containing phosphazenes, developed at Idaho National Laboratory, as 1.2M LiPF6 [80 % EC-MEC (2:8) (v/v) + 20% Phosphazene variety] (v/v), which were targeted for safer electrolyte variations.

Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Mason K. Harrup; Harry W. Rollins

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

A disposable, self-administered electrolyte test  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis demonstrates the novel concept that it is possible to make a disposable, self-administered electrolyte test to be introduced to the general consumer market. Although ion specific electrodes have been used to ...

Prince, Ryan, 1977-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Self-doped molecular composite battery electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is in solid polymer-based electrolytes for battery applications. It uses molecular composite technology, coupled with unique preparation techniques to render a self-doped, stabilized electrolyte material suitable for inclusion in both primary and secondary batteries. In particular, a salt is incorporated in a nano-composite material formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of a ceramic precursor in the presence of a solvated polymer material, utilizing a condensation agent comprised of at least one cation amenable to SPE applications. As such, the counterion in the condensation agent used in the formation of the molecular composite is already present as the electrolyte matrix develops. This procedure effectively decouples the cation loading levels required for maximum ionic conductivity from electrolyte physical properties associated with condensation agent loading levels by utilizing the inverse relationship discovered between condensation agent loading and the time domain of the aging step.

Harrup, Mason K.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Stewart, Frederick F.

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

290

A bio-inspired microstructure induced by slow injection moulding of cylindrical block copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11482 (2011). Acknowledgments The authors thank the British Heart Foundation for financial support for this work under Grant NH/11/4/29059; the Armstrong Fund (Cambridge University) for a studentship to support Jacob Brubert; and the Diamond Light Source...

Stasiak, Joanna; Brubert, Jacob; Serrani, Marta; Nair, Sukumaran; de Gaetano, Francesco; Costantino, Maria Laura; Moggridge, Geoff D.

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

291

The effects of polydispersity on the morphology of polystyrene-polyferrocenyldimethylsilane block copolymer thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction: As the size of electronic and magnetic devices decreases, nanoscale patterning becomes an increasingly important area of research. Two different approaches have been taken to pattern media: top-down methods ...

Perkinson, Joy C. (Joy Clare)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Self assembly of block copolymers : applicability in microelectronics and gains for patterned media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As device size decreases, conventional lithographic methods are finding it increasingly hard to keep up. Introduction of newer method such as E-beam, X-ray lithography etc. has demonstrated possibility of scaling to lower ...

Chaube, Anay

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Synthesis and Characterization of Simultaneous Electronic and Ionic Conducting Block Copolymers for Lithium Battery Electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

binder material for solid-state battery electrodes. The1.10. Proposed new solid-state lithium battery design. The

Patel, Shrayesh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Charge Transfer in Single Chains of a DonorAcceptor Conjugated Tri-Block Copolymer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the device electrodes. Bulk heterojunction solar cells made up of blends of the donor and acceptor materials go some way to solving these problems, however careful control over the morphology of the film components is necessary.6,7 In order to impose... in solution, in films and as single chains. While an additional long-wavelength emission apparent in neat films of the copolymer is attributed to inter-chain exciplex formation, no such long-wavelength emission is apparent in solution or from single...

Hooley, Emma N.; Jones, David J.; Greenham, Neil C.

2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

295

Rapid self-assembly of brush block copolymers to photonic crystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spanning the entire visible spectrum, from ultraviolet (UV) to near infrared (NIR). Linear relationships, combating the "urban heat island effect" by reflecting infrared radiation that would otherwise thermalize were observed between the peak wavelengths of reflection and polymer molecular weights. This work

Atwater, Harry

296

Selective growth of magnetic nanoparticles in domains of block copolymer films, and in polyelectrolyte multilayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nonagglomerated cobalt, iron, iron-cobalt, and cobalt-nickel alloy nanoparticles, some of which exhibit significant room-temperature magnetic coercivity, have been produced by thermal decomposition of organometallic complexes ...

Abes, Jeff I., 1975-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Attenuation of dilute aromatic hydrocarbon transport by a block copolymer in a compacted vertisol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard calibration curve for ethylbenzene. . . . . 85 32 Standard calibration curve for total xylenes . 86 33 Concentration of benzene in load column leachate as a function of pore volumes. 96 34 Concentration of toluene in load column leachate as a... function of pore volumes. 96 FIGURE Page 35 Concentration of ethylbenzene in load column leachate as a function of pore volumes . . 97 36 Concentration of xylenes in load column leachate as a function of pore volumes. 37 Pore volumes through column...

Akin, James Browning

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Understanding barriers to efficient nucleic acid delivery with bioresponsive block copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The delivery of nucleic acids has the potential to revolutionize medicine by allowing previously untreatable diseases to be clinically addressed. Viral delivery systems have been held back by immunogenicity and toxicity ...

Bonner, Daniel Kenneth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Microstructured block copolymer surfaces for control of microbe capture and aggregation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The capture and arrangement of surface-associated microbes is influenced by biochemical and physical properties of the substrate. In this report, we develop lectin-functionalized substrates containing patterned, three-dimensional polymeric structures of varied shapes and densities and use these to investigate the effects of topology and spatial confinement on lectin-mediated microbe capture. Films of poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA) were patterned on silicon surfaces into line or square grid patterns with 5 m wide features and varied edge spacing. The patterned films had three-dimensional geometries with 900 nm film thickness. After surface functionalization with wheat germ agglutinin, the size of Pseudomonas fluorescens aggregates captured was dependent on the pattern dimensions. Line patterns with edge spacing of 5 m or less led to the capture of individual microbes with minimal formation of aggregates, while grid patterns with the same spacing also captured individual microbes with further reduction in aggregation. Both geometries allowed for increases in aggregate size distribution with increased in edge spacing. These engineered surfaces combine spatial confinement with affinity-based microbe capture based on exopolysaccharide content to control the degree of microbe aggregation, and can also be used as a platform to investigate intercellular interactions and biofilm formation in microbial populations of controlled sizes.

Hansen, Ryan R [ORNL] [ORNL; Shubert, Katherine R [ORNL] [ORNL; Morrell, Jennifer L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lokitz, Bradley S [ORNL] [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL] [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Nanostructured electrospun fibers : from superhydrophobicity to block copolymer self-assembly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrospinning has emerged in recent years as a relatively easy, efficient and robust method to make ultrafine continuous fibers with diameter on the order of -100 nm from a variety of materials. As a result, numerous ...

Ma, Minglin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Self-assembly and selective swelling in Lamellar block copolymer photonic gels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Materials with responsive structural color have broad applications ranging from sensing to smart coating. Nature provides inspirations for the design of such materials. Mimicking the structure of the skin elements responsible ...

Fan, Yin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

amine-containing block copolymers: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in solution triblock copolymers, designed as amphiphilic dual brushes. One type of brush was made of poly for proteogly- cans.8 Combined with the concept of amphiphilic...

303

Thin polymer films of block copolymers and blend/nanoparticle composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical microscopy techniques were used to investigate systematically the self-assembled nanostructure behaviour of two different ...

Kalloudis, Michail

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

304

Synthesis and Characterization of Simultaneous Electronic and Ionic Conducting Block Copolymers for Lithium Battery Electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protection in Secondary Lithium Batteries. Electrochim. ActaFacing Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. Nature 2001, 414,for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries Using Electroactive

Patel, Shrayesh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Barium Titanate Nanoparticles in Block Copolymer Tu Lee,*,, Nan Yao, Hiroaki Imai,, and Ilhan A. Aksay,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is not compromised. Nanometer-sized cubic BaTiO3 particles are commonly crystallized by hydrothermal processing from)6) on the hydroxylated polybutadiene matrix, and (3) hydrothermal reduction of the organometallic complexes in an NH3/H2O °C. Lilley and Wusirika processed monosized powders of cubic BaTiO3 by dispersing TiO2 powders

Aksay, Ilhan A.

306

Low temperature processing of baroplastic core-shell nanoparticles and block copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Baroplastics are nanophase polymeric materials comprised of two components that can miscibilize under pressure thereby facilitating flow. The possibility of processing these materials at low temperatures was the main focus ...

Gonzlez-Len, Juan A. (Juan Antonio)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Molecular architectures based on pi-conjugated block copolymers for global quantum computation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a molecular setup for the physical implementation of a barrier global quantum computation scheme based on the electron-doped pi-conjugated copolymer architecture of nine blocks PPP-PDA-PPP-PA-(CCH-acene)-PA-PPP-PDA-PPP (where each block is an oligomer). The physical carriers of information are electrons coupled through the Coulomb interaction, and the building block of the computing architecture is composed by three adjacent qubit systems in a quasi-linear arrangement, each of them allowing qubit storage, but with the central qubit exhibiting a third accessible state of electronic energy far away from that of the qubits' transition energy. The third state is reached from one of the computational states by means of an on-resonance coherent laser field, and acts as a barrier mechanism for the direct control of qubit entanglement. Initial estimations of the spontaneous emission decay rates associated to the energy level structure allow us to compute a damping rate of order 10^{-7} s, which suggest a not so strong coupling to the environment. Our results offer an all-optical, scalable, proposal for global quantum computing based on semiconducting pi-conjugated polymers.

Cesar A. Mujica Martinez; Julio C. Arce; John H. Reina; Michael Thorwart

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Block copolymer-templated iron oxide nanoparticles for bimodal growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Since their discovery carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have sparked great interest due to their exceptional mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. These properties make carbon nanotubes desirable for numerous applications ...

Yazzie, Kyle E

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Nanostructure in block copolymer solutions: Rheology and small-angle neutron scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Triblock copolymers composed of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) present an amphiphilic character in aqueous solutions. Since PPO is less hydrophilic than PEO and since their solubilities decrease when the temperature increases, the copolymers self-assemble spontaneously, forming micelles at moderate temperatures. For higher temperatures or concentrations, the copolymers or the micelles are ordered because of repulsive interactions and form lyotropic liquid crystalline phases. These are phases of very great viscosity with the aspect of gels, and transitions between different crystalline phases can occur at fixed concentration during an increase of temperature. We studied solutions of three different copolymers. The first two have a star structure. They are both composed of four branches (EO){sub x}(PO){sub y} fixed on an ethylene diamine, but differ by the values of x and y. Their commercial name is Tetronic 908 (x=114, y=21) and Tetronic 704 (x=16, y=18). The third copolymer (EO){sub 37}(PO){sub 56}(EO){sub 37} is linear and is known under the name of Pluronic P105. The measurements of the shear complex elastic modulus according to the temperature is used to determine the temperatures of the different transitions. Then, small-angle neutron scattering on samples under flow and true crystallographic arguments make it possible to identify the nature of the crystalline phases. For the systems studied, we show that the branched copolymers form only one type of liquid crystalline phase, which is bcc for the T908 and lamellar for the T704. For the linear copolymer, it is possible to identify three transitions: micellar solution to hexagonal phase, hexagonal phase to body-centered cubic phase, and finally body-centered cubic phase to lamellar phase.

Habas, Jean-Pierre; Pavie, Emmanuel; Perreur, Christelle; Lapp, Alain; Peyrelasse, Jean [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Polymeres UMR 5067, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, Avenue de l'Universite, 64000 Pau (France); Laboratoire Leon Brillouin CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Polymeres UMR 5067, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, Avenue de l'Universite, 64000 Pau (France)

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Studies of Block Copolymer Thin Films and Mixtures with an Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

based natural materials, 4 dye-sensitized solar cells, 5 andcells, 4-8 and dye-sensitized solar cells. 9-12 While the

Virgili, Justin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Hierarchical Assemblies of Block-Copolymer-Based Supramolecules in Thin Films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hierarchical assemblies of supramolecules, which consisted of polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) with 3-pentadecylphenol (PDP) hydrogen-bonded to the 4VP, were investigated in thin films after solvent annealing in a chloroform atmosphere. The synergistic coassembly of PS-b-P4VP and PDP was utilized to generate oriented hierarchical structures in thin films. Hierarchical assemblies, including lamellae-within-lamellae and cylinders-within-lamellae, were simultaneously ordered and oriented from a few to several tens of nanometers over macroscopic length scales. The macroscopic orientation of supramolecular assembly depends on the P4VP(PDP) fraction and can be tailored by varying the PDP to P4VP ratio without interfering with the supramolecular morphologies. The lamellar and cylindrical microdomains, with a periodicity of {approx}40 nm, could be oriented normal to the surface, while the assembly of comb blocks, P4VP(PDP), with a periodicity of {approx}4 nm, were oriented parallel to the surface. Furthermore, using one PS-b-P4VP copolymer, thin films with different hierarchical structures, i.e., lamellae-within-lamellae and cylinders-within-lamellae, were obtained by varying the ratio of PDP to 4VP units. The concepts described in these studies can be potentially applied to other BCP-based supramolecular thin films, thus creating an avenue to functional, hierarchically ordered thin films.

Tung, Shih-Huang; Kalarickal, Nisha C.; Mays, Jimmy W.; Xu, Ting (UCB); (ORNL)

2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

312

The design, synthesis and properties of pressure-processable biodegradable block copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, biodegradable block copolyesters were specifically designed and synthesized for their susceptibility to pressure-induced mixing. These baroplastic materials are capable of being processed and molded through ...

Lovell, Nathan Gary

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Phase diagram of selectively cross-linked block copolymers shows chemically microstructured gel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study analytically the intricate phase behavior of cross-linked $AB$ diblock copolymer melts, which can undergo two main phase transitions due to quenched random constraints: Gelation, i.e., spatially random localization of polymers forming a system-spanning cluster, is driven by increasing the number parameter $\\mu$ of irreversible, type-selective cross-links between random pairs of $A$ blocks. Self-assembly into a periodic pattern of $A$/$B$-rich microdomains (microphase separation) is controlled by the $AB$ incompatibility $\\chi$ inversely proportional to temperature. Our model aims to capture the system's essential microscopic features, including an ensemble of random networks that reflects spatial correlations at the instant of cross-linking. We identify suitable order parameters and derive a free-energy functional in the spirit of Landau theory that allows us to trace a phase diagram in the plane of $\\mu$ and $\\chi$. Selective cross-links promote microphase separation at higher critical temperatures than in uncross-linked diblock copolymer melts. Microphase separation in the liquid state facilitates gelation, giving rise to a novel gel state whose chemical composition density mirrors the periodic $AB$ pattern.

Alice von der Heydt; Annette Zippelius

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

314

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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315

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter ApropaneBacteria -

316

Interfacial Reactivity of Block Copolymers: Understanding the Amphiphile-to-Hydrophile Transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)-poly(ethyleneglycol)(PPS-PEG)copolymers.Hereweproposeamechanismforvesicledegradation deduced from copolymer conformational changes occurring at the air/water interface in a Langmuir trough, such as cylindrical and spherical micelles. Subtle differences in response to the applied surface pressure

317

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared atEffectquestionnairesU.S.Resistive-ideal

318

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared atEffectquestionnairesU.S.Resistive-idealResonant Soft X-Ray

319

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared atEffectquestionnairesU.S.Resistive-idealResonant Soft

320

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared atEffectquestionnairesU.S.Resistive-idealResonant SoftResonant

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared atEffectquestionnairesU.S.Resistive-idealResonant

322

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared atEffectquestionnairesU.S.Resistive-idealResonantResonant Soft

323

Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new electrolytic process and apparatus are provided using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in alloy or within a sodium beta or beta"-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then chanted to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Nonaqueous electrolyte for electrical storage devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Improved nonaqueous electrolytes for application in electrical storage devices such as electrochemical capacitors or batteries are disclosed. The electrolytes of the invention contain salts consisting of alkyl substituted, cyclic delocalized aromatic cations, and their perfluoro derivatives, and certain polyatomic anions having a van der Waals volume less than or equal to 100 .ANG..sup.3, preferably inorganic perfluoride anions and most preferably PF.sub.6.sup.-, the salts being dissolved in organic liquids, and preferably alkyl carbonate solvents, or liquid sulfur dioxide or combinations thereof, at a concentration of greater than 0.5M and preferably greater than 1.0M. Exemplary electrolytes comprise 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate dissolved in a cyclic or acylic alkyl carbonate, or methyl formate, or a combination therof. These improved electrolytes have useful characteristics such as higher conductivity, higher concentration, higher energy storage capabilities, and higher power characteristics compared to prior art electrolytes. Stacked capacitor cells using electrolytes of the invention permit high energy, high voltage storage.

McEwen, Alan B. (Melrose, MA); Yair, Ein-Eli (Waltham, MA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new electrolytic process and apparatus are provided using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in alloy or within a sodium beta or beta[double prime]-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then shunted to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required. 2 figs.

Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

326

LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report represents a summary of the work carried out on this project which started October 1999 and ended March 2003. A list of the publications resulting from the work are contained in Appendix A. The most significant achievements are: (1) Dense nanocrystalline zirconia and ceria films were obtained at temperatures < 400 C. (2) Nanocrystalline films of both ceria and zirconia were characterized. (3) We showed that under anodic conditions 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films of Sc doped zirconia have sufficient electronic conductivity to prevent them from being useful as an electrolyte. (4) We have developed a process by which dense 0.5 to 5 micron thick dense films of either YSZ or ceria can be deposited on sintered porous substrates which serve as either the cathode or anode at temperatures as low as 400 C. (5) The program has provided the research to produce two PhD thesis for students, one is now working in the solid oxide fuel cell field. (6) The results of the research have resulted in 69 papers published, 3 papers submitted or being prepared for publication, 50 oral presentations and 3 patent disclosures.

Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

E-Print Network 3.0 - additive-free sulphamate-based electrolyte...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electrolytes reinforced by non... Composite electrolytes composed of a blend of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), poly... , the composite electrolyte has good integrity...

328

E-Print Network 3.0 - active electrolyte transport Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electrolytes reinforced by non... Composite electrolytes composed of a blend of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), poly... , the composite electrolyte has good integrity...

329

Water Dynamics in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes: The Effects of Confinement and Structural Changes on the Hydrogen Bond Network  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions energy source is hydrogen. Hydrogen powered vehicles using polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells and hydrophilic aggregates.1-4 Hydrogen fuel cells operate through the oxidation of hydrogen gas at the anodeWater Dynamics in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes: The Effects of Confinement and Structural Changes

Fayer, Michael D.

330

Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell, and an electrochemical cell including the electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electrolyte for use in an electrochemical cell is disclosed of the alkali metal-aluminium-halide type. The electrolyte has a melting point below 140/sup 0/ C. At atmospheric pressure and conforms with the stoichiometric product MAlx4 wherein M represents lithium cations, a mixture of lithium and potassium cations or a mixture of sodium and potassium cations; and X represents a mixture of chloride and fluoride anions. A method of reducing the melting point of a sodium-aluminiumchloride or lithium-aluminium-chloride electrolyte by doping it with a potassium fluoride, sodium fluoride, or lithium fluoride, to obtain said electrolyte with a melting point below 140/sup 0/ C. Is disclosed, as are various electrochemical cells employing the product electrolyte.

Coetzer, J.; Nolte, M.J.; Steynberg, A.D.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Novel Nonflammable Electrolytes for Secondary Magnesium Batteries and High Voltage Electrolytes for Electrochemcial Supercapacitors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnesium has been used successfully in primary batteries, but its use in rechargeable cells has been stymied by the lack of suitable non-aqueous electrolyte that can conduct Mg+2 species, combined with poor stripping and plating properties. The development of a suitable cathode material for rechargeable magnesium batteries has also been a roadblock, but a nonflammable electrolyte is key. Likewise, the development of safe high voltage electrochemical supercapaitors has been stymied by the use of flammable solvents in the liquid electrolyte; to wit, acetonitrile. The purpose of the research conducted in this effort was to identify useful compositions of magnesium salts and polyphosphate solvents that would enable magnesium ions to be cycled within a secondary battery design. The polyphosphate solvents would provide the solvent for the magnesium salts while preventing the electrolyte from being flammable. This would enable these novel electrolytes to be considered as an alternative to THF-based electrolytes. In addition, we explored several of these solvents together with lithium slats for use as high voltage electrolytes for carbon-based electrochemical supercapacitors. The research was successful in that: 1) Magnesium imide dissolved in a phosphate ester solvent that contains a halogented phosphate ester appears to be the preferred electrolyte for a rechargeable Mg cell. 2) A combination of B-doped CNTs and vanadium phosphate appear to be the cathode of choice for a rechargeable Mg cell by virtue of higher voltage and better reversibility. 3) Magnesium alloys appear to perform better than pure magnesium when used in combination with the novel polyphosphate electrolytes. Also, this effort has established that Phoenix Innovation??s family of phosphonate/phosphate electrolytes together with specific lithium slats can be used in supercapacitor systems at voltages of greater than 10V.

Dr. Brian Dixon

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

332

Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

333

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figures.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1991-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

335

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1989-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

338

Combination for electrolytic reduction of alumina  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound is, a fluoride; oxide, or carbonate. The metal is nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath is employed in a combination including a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the instant bath during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum improves the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

339

The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research carried out under grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46371, "The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes", during the period June 1, 2008 -May 31, 2010 was comprised of three related parts. These are: 1. An examination of the state of water in classical proton conduction membranes with the use of deuterium T1 NMR spectroscopy (Allcock and Benesi groups). 2. A dielectric relaxation examination of the behavior of water in classical ionomer membranes (Macdonald program). 3. Attempts to synthesize new proton-conduction polymers and membranes derived from the polyphosphazene system. (Allcock program) All three are closely related, crucial aspects of the design and development of new and improved polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes on which the future of fuel cell technology for portable applications depends.

Allcock, Harry R., Benesi, Alan, Macdonald, Digby, D.

2010-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

340

Interfacial Water-Transport Effects in Proton-Exchange Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is well known that the proton-exchange membrane is perhaps the most critical component of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. Typical membranes, such as Nafion(R), require hydration to conduct efficiently and are instrumental in cell water management. Recently, evidence has been shown that these membranes might have different interfacial morphology and transport properties than in the bulk. In this paper, experimental data combined with theoretical simulations will be presented that explore the existence and impact of interfacial resistance on water transport for Nafion(R) 21x membranes. A mass-transfer coefficient for the interfacial resistance is calculated from experimental data using different permeation cells. This coefficient is shown to depend exponentially on relative humidity or water activity. The interfacial resistance does not seem to exist for liquid/membrane or membrane/membrane interfaces. The effect of the interfacial resistance is to flatten the water-content profiles within the membrane during operation. Under typical operating conditions, the resistance is on par with the water-transport resistance of the bulk membrane. Thus, the interfacial resistance can be dominant especially in thin, dry membranes and can affect overall fuel-cell performance.

Kienitz, Brian; Yamada, Haruhiko; Nonoyama, Nobuaki; Weber, Adam

2009-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Membrane Applications at Ceramatec  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

at Ceramatec Solid Electrolyte Ion Conductors CO 2 to Syngas GTL Advanced Batteries oxygen Fluorine Hydrogen Alkali metals Specialty Chemicals Waste Remediation Disinfection...

342

Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

343

Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries. Effects of additives on the stability of electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow...

344

Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Boundary conditions used for fuelcell simulations. 3.12to the Problem of Cold Start 1.1 PolymerElectrolyte Fuelin Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells II. Parametric Study,

Balliet, Ryan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Electrode/electrolyte interface. A status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a report of a workshop on the [open quotes]state of the art[close quotes] and potential future directions in the study of the electrode/electrolyte interface. Recent advances in experimental capabilities of characterizing the structure of the interface, e.g., through the use of such techniques as scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray methods, are described. New approaches to studies of interfacial dynamics and materials aspects of the electrode/electrolyte interface are also discussed. 346 refs., 17 figs.

Bard, A.J. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)); Abruna, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Chidsey, C.E. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Faulkner, L.R. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (United States)); Feldberg, S.W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Itaya, Kingo (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)); Majda, M. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Melroy, O. (IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (United States)); Murray, R.W. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (United States)); Porter, M.D. (Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States)); Soriaga, M.P. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States)); White, H.S. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States))

1993-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Solid electrolytes strengthened by metal dispersions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in solid electrolytes of advanced secondary batteries of the sodium-sulfur, sodium-halogen, and like combinations is achieved by providing said battery with a cermet electrolyte containing a metal dispersion ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % of a substantially nonreactive metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Pt, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, their alloys, and their physical mixtures in the elemental or uncombined state, the remainder of said cermet being an ion-conductive ceramic material.

Lauf, R.J.; Morgan, C.S.

1981-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

347

Solid electrolytes strengthened by metal dispersions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in solid electrolytes of advanced secondary batteries of the sodium-sulfur, sodium-halogen, and like combinations is achieved by providing said battery with a cermet electrolyte containing a metal dispersion ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % of a substantially nonreactive metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Pt, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, their alloys, and their physical mixtures in the elemental or uncombined state, the remainder of said cermet being an ion-conductive ceramic material.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morgan, Chester S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte containing poly(ethylene oxide), lithium tetrafluoroborate and titanium dioxide is provided in the form of an annealed film having a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-5 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1 and an activation energy of about 0.5 eV.

Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum From Alumina  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic cell for producing aluminum from alumina having a reservoir for collecting molten aluminum remote from the electrolysis.

Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA); Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR)

2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

353

LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. In this portion of study we have focused on producing YSZ films on porous LSM substrates. When using the polymer precursor there are a number of obstacles to overcome in order to form dense electrolyte layers on porous substrates (cathode or anode). Probably the most difficult problems are: (1) Extreme penetration of the polymer into the substrate must be prevented. (2) Shrinkage cracking must be avoided. (3) Film thickness in the 1 to 5{micro}m range must be achieved. We have demonstrated that cracking due to shrinkage involved during the elimination of solvents and organic matter and densification of the remaining oxide is not a problem as long as the resulting oxide film is < {approx} 0.15 {micro}m in thickness. We have also shown that we can make thicker films by making multiple depositions if the substrate is smooth (roughness {le} 0.1 {micro}m) and contains no surface pores > 0.2 {micro}m. The penetration of the polymer into the porous substrate can be minimized by increasing the viscosity of the polymer and reducing the largest pore at the surface of the substrate to {le} 0.2 {micro}m. We have shown that this can be done, but we have also shown that it is difficult to make dense films that are defect free with areas > 1 cm{sup 2}. This is because of the roughness of the substrate and the difficulty in making a substrate which does not have surface voids > 0.2 {micro}m. Thus the process works well for dense, smooth substrates for films < 1 {micro}m thick, but is difficult to apply to rough, porous surfaces and to make film thickness > 1 {micro}m. As a result of these problems, we have been addressing the issue of how to make dense films in the thickness range of 1 to 5 {micro}m on sintered porous substrates without introducing cracks and holes due to shrinkage and surface voids? These endeavors have lead us to a solution which we think is quite unique and should allow us to obtain flaw free dense films of thickness in the 0.5 to 5 {micro}m range at processing temperatures {le} 900{sup o}. The process involves the deposition of a slurry of nanocrystalline YSZ onto a presintered porous LSM substrate. The key element in the deposition is that the slurry contains sufficient YSZ polymer precursor to allow adhesion of the YSZ particles to each other and the surface after annealing at about 600 C. This allows the formation of a porous film of 0.5 to 5 {micro}m thick which adheres to the surface. After formation of this film, YSZ polymer precursor is allowed to impregnate the porous surface layer (capillary forces tend to confine the polymer solution in the nanoporous layer). After several impregnation/heat treatment cycles, a dense film results. Within the next few months, this process should be developed to the point that single cell measurements can be made on 0.5 to 5 {micro}m films on a LSM substrate. This type of processing allows the formation of essentially flaw free films over areas > 1 cm{sup 2}.

Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

354

Computationally-guided Design of Polymer Electrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Polymer Electrolytes Global Significance While progress of sustainable energy- harvesting techniques is promising, tandem advancements in energy storage are required to maintain a stable energy supply be a valuable contribution to the emerging sustainable energy landscape. This project applies polymer physics

355

Cathode for the electrolytic production of hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The invention relates to a cathode for the electrolytic production of hydrogen. The cathode comprises an active surface consisting of a metal oxide obtained by the thermal decomposition of a thermally decomposable compound of a metal chosen from amongst cobalt, iron, manganese or nickel. The cathode is particularly suitable for the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride solutions in cells with a permeable diaphragm.

Nicolas, E.

1983-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

356

Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

Swoboda, C.A.

1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

357

Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Method and apparatus for storage battery electrolyte circulation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolyte reservoir in fluid communication with the cell of a storage battery is intermittently pressurized with a pulse of compressed gas to cause a flow of electrolyte from the reservoir to the upper region of less dense electrolyte in the cell. Upon termination of the pressure pulse, more dense electrolyte is forced into the reservoir from the lower region of the cell by the differential pressure head between the cell and reservoir electrolyte levels. The compressed gas pulse is controlled to prevent the entry of gas from the reservoir into the cell.

Inkmann, Mark S. (Milwaukee, WI)

1980-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

359

Combined uranous nitrate production consisting of undivided electrolytic cell and divided electrolytic cell (Electrolysis ? Electrolytic cell)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate is a green, mild way to make uranous ions. Undivided electrolyzers whose maintenance is less but their conversion ratio and current efficiency are low, have been chosen. However, at the beginning of undivided electrolysis, high current efficiency can also be maintained. Divided electrolyzers' conversion ratio and current efficiency is much higher because the re-oxidation of uranous on anode is avoided, but their maintenance costs are more, because in radioactive environment the membrane has to be changed after several operations. In this paper, a combined method of uranous production is proposed which consists of 2 stages: undivided electrolysis (early stage) and divided electrolysis (late stage) to benefit from the advantages of both electrolysis modes. The performance of the combined method was tested. The results show that in combined mode, after 200 min long electrolysis (80 min undivided electrolysis and 120 min divided electrolysis), U(IV) yield can achieve 92.3% (500 ml feed, U 199 g/l, 72 cm{sup 2} cathode, 120 mA/cm{sup 2}). Compared with divided mode, about 1/3 working time in divided electrolyzer is reduced to achieve the same U(IV) yield. If 120 min long undivided electrolysis was taken, more than 1/2 working time can be reduced in divided electrolyzer, which means that about half of the maintenance cost can also be reduced. (authors)

Yuan, Zhongwei; Yan, Taihong; Zheng, Weifang; Li, Xiaodong; Yang, Hui; Xian, Liang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O.Box 275-26, Beijing 102413 (China)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Dr. Ing. /PhD / Dr.techn. Students supervised by Signe Kjelstrup 1. Torleif Holt, Transport and equilibrium properties of a cation exchange membrane (1983)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, (1996) 6. Magnar Ottøy, Mass and heat transfer in ion-exchange membranes (1996) 7. Belinda Flem, Peltier in the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (2007) 17. Isabella Inzoli, Coupled transports of heat and massDr. Ing. /PhD / Dr.techn. Students supervised by Signe Kjelstrup 1. Torleif Holt, Transport

Kjelstrup, Signe

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Multianalyte biosensor based on pH-sensitive ZnO electrolyteinsulatorsemiconductor structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multianalyte electrolyteinsulatorsemiconductor (EIS) sensors with a ZnO sensing membrane annealed on silicon substrate for use in pH sensing were fabricated. Material analyses were conducted using X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy to identify optimal treatment conditions. Sensing performance for various ions of Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, urea, and glucose was also tested. Results indicate that an EIS sensor with a ZnO membrane annealed at 600?C exhibited good performance with high sensitivity and a low drift rate compared with all other reported ZnO-based pH sensors. Furthermore, based on well-established pH sensing properties, pH-ion-sensitive field-effect transistor sensors have also been developed for use in detecting urea and glucose ions. ZnO-based EIS sensors show promise for future industrial biosensing applications.

Haur Kao, Chyuan; Chun Liu, Che; Ueng, Herng-Yih [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hsiang, E-mail: hchen@ncnu.edu.tw; Cheng Chu, Yu; Jie Chen, Yu [Department of Applied Materials and Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Puli, Nantou 545, Taiwan (China); Ling Lee, Ming; Ming Chang, Kow [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-Chu 300, Taiwan (China)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

362

Measurements of water uptake and transport properties in anion-exchange membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the cost of the fuel cell systems. Although promising, conventional liquid electrolyte- based alkaline fuel Keywords: Direct ethanol fuel cells Anion-exchange membrane Water uptake Water diffusivity Mass. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Alkaline fuel cells allow the use of non-platinum (Pt) catalysts

Zhao, Tianshou

363

Microcomposite Fuel Cell Membranes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Summary of microcomposite fuel cell membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

364

Electrolyte reservoir for carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrode for a carbonate fuel cell and method of making same are described wherein a substantially uniform mixture of an electrode-active powder and porous ceramic particles suitable for a carbonate fuel cell are formed into an electrode with the porous ceramic particles having pores in the range of from about 1 micron to about 3 microns, and a carbonate electrolyte is in the pores of the ceramic particles.

Iacovangelo, C.D.; Shores, D.A.

1984-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

365

Neutron activation analysis applied to perspiration electrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Member) (Eieisber) (Hie isbn r ) (Nc, . ib": ) J iniar ! Vl R P 3STR-'. CT Neutron ';ctivatior. Imalysis iipplied to Perspiration Electrolytes. (January 1969) Robert C. N Andrew:, B. S. , Norcester Poly' echnic Institut Directed by: Dr. James B... dlX II1 last Neutron Act ivsticn Cross-Eec!iona - - - 73 J Igf 0F TABL? S TABLE 1 TABLE 2 TABLE 3 TABLE 6! Nuclear Properties of Pertinent Elec!eats - - 6 Sodium Reactions Interfering Reactions - - - - - - ~ - - - - 13 Sodium Concentrations...

McAndrew, Robert Gavin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

366

Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2.8 wt.% Si-0.7 wt.% Fe-0.8 wt.% Mn),. Purification factors (defined as the initial impurity concentration divided by the final impurity concentration) of greater than 20 were achieved for silicon, iron, copper, and manganese. Cell performance was measured using its current and voltage characteristics and composition analysis of the anode, cathode, and electrolytes. The various cells were autopsied as part of the study. Three electrolyte systems tested were: LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3, LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 and LiF-10 wt.% AlF3. An extended four-day run with the LiCl-10 wt.% AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 electrolyte system was stable for the entire duration of the experiment, running at energy requirements about one third of the Hoopes and the conventional Hall-Heroult process. Three different anode membranes were investigated with respect to their purification performance and survivability: a woven graphite cloth with 0.05 cm nominal thickness & > 90 % porosity, a drilled rigid membrane with nominal porosity of 33%, and another drilled rigid graphite membrane with increased thickness. The latter rigid drilled graphite was selected as the most promising membrane design. The economic viability of the membrane cell to purify scrap is sensitive to primary & scrap aluminum prices, and the cost of electricity. In particular, it is sensitive to the differential between scrap and primary aluminum price which is highly variable and dependent on the scrap source. In order to be economically viable, any scrap post-processing technology in the U.S. market must have a total operating cost well below the scrap price differential of $0.20-$0.40 per lb to the London Metal Exchange (LME), a margin of 65%-85% of the LME price. The cost to operate the membrane cell is estimated to be < $0.24/lb of purified aluminum. The energy cost is estimated to be $0.05/lb of purified aluminum with the remaining costs being repair and maintenance, electrolyte, labor, taxes and depreciation. The bench-scale work on membrane purification cell process has demonstrated technological advantages and subs

David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

367

Chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst and a membrane electrode assembly for fuel cells that includes such a cathode catalyst. The cathode catalyst includes a support having at least one transition metal in elemental form and a chalcogen disposed on the support. Methods of making the cathode catalyst and membrane electrode assembly are also described.

Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Choi, Jong-Ho (Los Alamos, NM); Alonso-Vante, Nicolas (France, FR); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL); Cao, Dianxue (Urbana, IL)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

368

Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

Joshi, Ashok V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Balagopal, Shekar (Sandy, UT); Pendelton, Justin (Salt Lake City, UT)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

369

Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack. 6 figs.

Reiser, C.A.; Maricle, D.L.

1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

370

Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid electrolytic capacitor having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects.

Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Armstrong, Pamela S. (Abingdon, MD); Panitz, Janda Kirk G. (Edgewood, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid electrolytic capacitor is described having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects. 2 figs.

Sharp, D.J.; Armstrong, P.S.; Panitz, J.K.G.

1998-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

372

E-Print Network 3.0 - autohumidification polymer electrolyte...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Park Collection: Engineering ; Materials Science 18 Switchable window based on electrochromic polymers Chunye Xu,a) Summary: electrolyte, and a counterelectrode that replaces...

373

Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

Lee, Hung-Sui (East Setauket, NY); Geng, Lin (Coram, NY); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY)

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

374

Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

375

Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

cells with high energy anode and dual-phase electrolyte systems Partners BASF SE, Germany * Development of Li-S battery materials 3 Relevance. Project Objectives. * Develop a...

376

Accurate static and dynamic properties of liquid electrolytes...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

electrolytes. However, to date, almost all molecular-dynamics simulations of these fluids rely on classical force fields, while a complete description of the functionality of...

377

High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

or otherwise restricted information High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Program 2 Overview * Start: Sep 2008 * End: Sep 2011 * 20 %...

378

Key Issues Regarding Electrolytes at Interfacial Regions (subtask...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

with Emphasis on Low Temperature Performance Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report Development of Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries...

379

assisted electrolyte cell: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Highly Porous Catalytic Layers for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Based on Carbon Aerogels Physics Websites Summary: Synthesis of Highly Porous Catalytic Layers for Polymer...

380

Polymer Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium Batteries  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Electrolyte Channels 10 nm For ion conduction Li cathode Hard matrix For mechanical support Dendrite (1 m) Decouple the mechanical and electrical properties...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Method of synthesizing polymers from a solid electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of synthesizing electrically conductive polymers from a solvent-free solid polymer electrolyte is disclosed. An assembly of a substrate having an electrode thereon, a thin coating of solid electrolyte including a solution of PEO complexed with an alkali salt, and a thin transparent noble metal electrode are disposed in an evacuated chamber into which a selected monomer vapor is introduced while an electric potential is applied across the solid electrolyte to hold the thin transparent electrode at a positive potential relative to the electrode on the substrate, whereby a highly conductive polymer film is grown on the transparent electrode between it and the solid electrolyte.

Skotheim, T.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

382

Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

intio studies of electrolytes and electrolyteelectrode interfaces Grant D. Smith and Oleg Borodin University of Utah May 11, 2011 This presentation does not contain any...

383

Development of Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Battaglia & J. Kerr (LBNL) * M. Payne (Novolyte) * F. Puglia & B. Ravdel (Yardney) * G. Smith & O. Borodin (U. Utah) 3 3 Develop novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries that...

384

Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conditions used for fuelcell simulations. 3.12 Values usedin Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells II. Parametric Study,Fuel Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1

Balliet, Ryan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

* Marshal Smart (JPLABR), Brett Lucht (URI) - New Electrolyte evaluation. * DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program - New polyelectrolyte material synthesis and Applied Science...

386

Composite Polymer Electrolytes Based on Poly(ethylene glycol) and Hydrophobic Fumed Silica: Dynamic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

utilized in electrolyte processing. Introduction Rechargeable lithium batteries employing solid elec electrolytes based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO).1 Solid polymer electrolytes can potentially eliminate battery* Department of Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695

Raghavan, Srinivasa

387

Membrane fluids and Dirac membrane fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are two different methods to describe membrane (string) fluids, which use different field content. The relation between the methods is clarified by construction of combined method. Dirac membrane field appears naturally in new approach. It provides a possibility to consider new aspects of electrodynamics-type theories with electric and magnetic sources. The membrane fluid models automatically prohibit simulatenos existence of electric and magnetic currents. Possible applications to the dark energy problem are mentioned.

M. G. Ivanov

2005-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

388

E-Print Network 3.0 - automotive polymer electrolyte Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Workshop Summary: on in market entry process 12;Mainstream Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell ( PEM) Cost Barriers 3 Graphite... and runs on: Ambient air No added electrolyte No...

389

Dr. Piotr Zelenay's Professional Bio Dr. Zelenay's expertise is in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, electrocatalysis, surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dr. Piotr Zelenay's Professional Bio Dr. Zelenay's expertise is in polymer electrolyte fuel cells of polymer electrolyte fuel cell science and technology, electrocatalysis, and electrode kinetics. Piotr

390

Preparation of ceramic matrix and alumina fiber composites for use as solid electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making solid electrolytes using a fibrous stabilizing dispersed second phase for enhanced conductivity of the electrolyte after deformation and annealing. 1 tab.

Dudney, N.J.

1987-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

391

E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic sulfate electrolyte Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

solution. A partially... -ion batteries that use aqueous electrolytes offer safety and cost advantages when compared to today's commercial... cells that use organic electrolytes....

392

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid electrolyte fuel cells Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electrolyte fuel cells Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: acid electrolyte fuel cells Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 EERE Information...

393

Solid electrolytes for battery applications a theoretical perspective a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solid state batteries at the present time. · Several companies are involved in all solids state batterySolid electrolytes for battery applications ­ a theoretical perspective a Natalie Holzwarth ion batteries Solid electrolytes Advantages 1. Excellent chemical and physical stability. 2. Perform

Holzwarth, Natalie

394

Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of three crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, and 18-crown-6, as additives and co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolytes on the cell performance of primary Li/air batteries operated in a dry air environment were investigated. Crown ethers have large effects on the discharge performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in Li/air batteries. A small amount (normally less than 10% by weight or volume in electrolytes) of 12-Crown-4 and 15-crown-5 reduces the battery performance and a minimum discharge capacity appears at the crown ether content of ca. 5% in the electrolytes. However, when the content increases to about 15%, both crown ethers improve the capacity of Li/air cells by about 28% and 16%, respectively. 15-Crown-5 based electrolytes even show a maximum discharge capacity in the crown ether content range from 10% to 15%. On the other hand, the increase of 18-crown-6 amount in the electrolytes continuously lowers of the cell performance. The different battery performances of these three crown ethers in electrolytes are explained by the combined effects from the electrolytes contact angle, oxygen solubility, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and the stability of complexes formed between crown ether molecules and lithium ions.

Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

395

Method of preparing thin film polymeric gel electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

Derzon, Dora K. (Albuquerque, NM); Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Method of preparing thin film polymeric gel electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte is described, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.

1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

397

EAF dust as an electrolytic zinc resource  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two viable options are presently available to the electrolytic zinc producer to supplement the zinc production capability significantly by using electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) or leady ZnO products derived from EAFD: Integrated processing of the materials using the Modified Zincex Process and commingling the zinc sulfate solution from that process with the neutral solution from the calcine leaching circuit; Installing a completely separate circuit for treating the material using technologies such as the Modified Zincex or Esinex Processes. EAFD and halogen-bearing EAFD derived products are a zinc resource which is virtually untapped by new or existing electrolytic zinc producers and which offers them, with the advent of new technologies able to deal with halides, the opportunity to maintain or increase their zinc production from a relatively cheap, if not ``free``, and already mined zinc source. Such an approach would also provide the EAFD producer an alternative, perhaps lower cost, outlet for their material to the currently rather closely held EAFD processing industry.

Zunkel, A.D. [A.D. Zunkel Consultants Inc., Vancouver, WA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

398

Performance of capacitors using organic electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) based on charge storage at the interface between a high surface area activated carbon electrode and an electrolyte solution are characterized by their long cycle life and high power density in comparison with batteries. However, energy density of electric double-layer capacitors obtained at present is at most 1Wh/kg at a power density of 600W/kg and smaller compared with that of batteries, which limits the applications of the capacitor. Therefore, new capacitors which show larger energy density than that of electric-double layer capacitors are proposed. The new capacitors are hybrid capacitors consisting of activated carbon cathode, Li-doped graphite anode and an organic electrolyte. Maximum voltage applicable to the cell becomes over 4.0V which is larger than that of the electric double-layer capacitor. As a result, discharged energy density of the cell becomes 4Wh/kg at a power density of 600W/kg.

Morimoto, T.; Tsushima, M.; Che, Y.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Membrane Technology Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

At the Membrane Technology Workshop (held July 24, 2012, in Rosemont, IL), stakeholders from industry and academia explored the status of membrane research and development (R&D). Participants ...

400

Composite zeolite membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new class of composite zeolite membranes and synthesis techniques therefor has been invented. These membranes are essentially defect-free, and exhibit large levels of transmembrane flux and of chemical and isotopic selectivity.

Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM); Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Huntington Beach, CA); Sahimi, Muhammad (Altadena, CA); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Richmond, CA); Harale, Aadesh (Los Angeles, CA); Park, Byoung-Gi (Yeosu, KR); Liu, Paul K. T. (Lafayette Hill, PA)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Supported inorganic membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

Sehgal, Rakesh (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, Charles Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Proton Transfer and Proton Concentrations in Protonated Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes D. B. Spry and M. D. Fayer*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Proton Transfer and Proton Concentrations in Protonated Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes D. B. Spry and M 21, 2009; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: June 3, 2009 Proton transfer in protonated Nafion fuel cell electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs).1 In a PEFC, hydrogen is oxidized at the anode to generate a supply

Fayer, Michael D.

404

Membrane Technology Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by Charles Page (Air Products & Chemicals, Inc.) for the Membrane Technology Workshop held July 24, 2012

405

Composite fuel cell membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

Plowman, Keith R. (Lake Jackson, TX); Rehg, Timothy J. (Lake Jackson, TX); Davis, Larry W. (West Columbia, TX); Carl, William P. (Marble Falls, TX); Cisar, Alan J. (Cypress, TX); Eastland, Charles S. (West Columbia, TX)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Membrane Separations Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS RESEARCH James R. Fair Chemical Engineering Department The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 ABSTRACT The use of membranes for separating gaseous and liquid mixtures has grown dramatically in the past 15... years. Applications have been dominated by light gas separations and water purification. During this pioneering period, equipment containing the membrane suIfaces has been developed to a point where failures are minimal and the membranes themselves...

Fair, J. R.

407

Composite fuel cell membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane is described suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

Plowman, K.R.; Rehg, T.J.; Davis, L.W.; Carl, W.P.; Cisar, A.J.; Eastland, C.S.

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

408

Cadmium sulfide membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

Spanhel, Lubomir (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1991-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

409

Cadmium sulfide membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

Spanhel, Lubomir (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1992-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

410

Meniscus Membranes For Separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

Dye, Robert C. (Irvine, CA); Jorgensen, Betty (Jemez Springs, NM); Pesiri, David R. (Aliso Viejo, CA)

2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

411

Meniscus membranes for separations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

Dye, Robert C. (Irvine, CA); Jorgensen, Betty (Jemez Springs, NM); Pesiri, David R. (Aliso Viejo, CA)

2004-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

412

Polyphosphazene semipermeable membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A semipermeable, inorganic membrane is disclosed; the membrane is prepared from a phosphazene polymer and, by the selective substitution of the constituent groups bound to the phosphorous in the polymer structure, the selective passage of fluid from a feedstream can be controlled. Resistance to high temperatures and harsh chemical environments is observed in the use of the phosphazene polymers as semipermeable membranes.

Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); McCaffrey, Robert R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cummings, Daniel G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grey, Alan E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jessup, Janine S. (Darlington, ID); McAtee, Richard E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Electrochemical membrane incinerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochemical incineration of p-benzoquinone was evaluated as a model for the mineralization of carbon in toxic aromatic compounds. A Ti or Pt anode was coated with a film of the oxides of Ti, Ru, Sn and Sb. This quaternary metal oxide film was stable; elemental analysis of the electrolyzed solution indicated the concentration of these metal ions to be 3 .mu.g/L or less. The anode showed good reactivity for the electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone. The use of a dissolved salt matrix as the so-called "supporting electrolyte" was eliminated in favor of a solid-state electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and cathode.

Johnson, Dennis C. (Ames, IA); Houk, Linda L. (Ames, IA); Feng, Jianren (Ames, IA)

2001-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

414

Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A matrix for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 .mu.m to 20 .mu.m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling.

Huang, Chao M. (Danbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Solid polymeric electrolytes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel conductive polyanionic polymers and methods for their preparion are provided. The polyanionic polymers comprise repeating units of weakly-coordinating anionic groups chemically linked to polymer chains. The polymer chains in turn comprise repeating spacer groups. Spacer groups can be chosen to be of length and structure to impart desired electrochemical and physical properties to the polymers. Preferred embodiments are prepared from precursor polymers comprising the Lewis acid borate tri-coordinated to a selected ligand and repeating spacer groups to form repeating polymer chain units. These precursor polymers are reacted with a chosen Lewis base to form a polyanionic polymer comprising weakly coordinating anionic groups spaced at chosen intervals along the polymer chain. The polyanionic polymers exhibit high conductivity and physical properties which make them suitable as solid polymeric electrolytes in lithium batteries, especially secondary lithium batteries.

Angell, Charles A.; Xu, Wu; Sun, Xiaoguang

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

416

Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A matrix is described for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling. 5 figs.

Huang, C.M.; Yuh, C.Y.

1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

417

Unique battery with an active membrane separator having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels and a method making the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a unique battery having an active, porous membrane and method of making the same. More specifically the invention relates to a sealed battery system having a porous, metal oxide membrane with uniform, physicochemically functionalized ion channels capable of adjustable ionic interaction. The physicochemically-active porous membrane purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Ruscic, Katarina J. (Chicago, IL); Sears, Devin N. (Spruce Grove, CA); Smith, Luis J. (Natick, MA); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

418

Method of making a layered composite electrode/electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrode/electrolyte structure is prepared by a plurality of methods. An unsintered (possibly bisque fired) moderately catalytic electronically-conductive or homogeneous mixed ionic electronic conductive electrode material is deposited on a layer composed of a sintered or unsintered ionically-conductive electrolyte material prior to being sintered. A layer of particulate electrode material is deposited on an unsintered ("green") layer of electrolyte material and the electrode and electrolyte layers are sintered simultaneously, sometimes referred to as "co-firing," under conditions suitable to fully densify the electrolyte while the electrode retains porosity. Or, the layer of particulate electrode material is deposited on a previously sintered layer of electrolyte, and then sintered. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of an electrolcatalyst precursor (e.g., a metal salt such as a transition metal nitrate). This may be followed by low temperature firing to convert the precursor to catalyst. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in an ionic (electrochemical) device such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobson, Craig P. (El Cerrito, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

419

Electric current-producing device having sulfone-based electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1--SO2--R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includes a non-symmetrical, non-cyclic sulfone. The sulfone has a formula of R1--SO2--R2, wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and R2 is a linear or branched or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched oxygen containing alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms. The electrolyte can include an electrolyte co-solvent and an electrolyte additive for protective layer formation.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Sun, Xiao-Guang (Tempe, AZ)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

420

Enhanced membrane gas separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

Prasad, R.

1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl.sub.2 -CaF.sub.2 with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

Poa, Davis S. (Naperville, IL); Pierce, R. Dean (Naperville, IL); Mulcahey, Thomas P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Gerald K. (Downers Grove, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell with ceramic electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell is described having a central electrolyte comprised of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized and rendered ionically conductive by the addition of Ca, Mg, Y, La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy Er, or Yb. The electrolyte is sandwiched between porous electrodes of a HfO.sub.2 or ZrO.sub.2 ceramic stabilized by the addition of a rare earth and rendered electronically conductive by the addition of In.sub.2 O.sub.3. Alternatively, the anode electrode may be made of a metal such as Co, Ni, Ir Pt, or Pd.

Marchant, David D. (Richland, WA); Bates, J. Lambert (Richland, WA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum electrolytic capacitors Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

34 MMOODDUULLEE 1144 DDIISSCCRREETTEE CCOOMMPPOONNEENNTTSS Summary: include carbon film resistors, wirewound resistors, tantalum capacitors, aluminum electrolytic...

424

Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20???ºC to 120???ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20???ºC to 120???ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA?¢????s comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20???ºC to 120???ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA?¢????s, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year R&D Plan. In the course of this four-year program we developed a new PEM with improved proton conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical stability. We incorporated this new membrane into MEAs and evaluated performance and durability.

Hamrock, Steven J.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

425

Preparations, properties, and applications of periodic nano arrays using anodized aluminum oxide and di-block copolymer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Yoon Kok Park, Epoxy Resin Composition for PackagingHee Sohn and Yoon Kok Park, Epoxy Resin Composition forKun Bae Noh and Yoon Kok Park, Epoxy Resin Composition for

Noh, Kunbae

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

The design and synthesis of polymeric assemblies for materials applications : chemosensing, liquid crystal alignment and block copolymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conjugated polymers are an indispensable class of materials that have advanced the development of optoelectronic device architectures; in part, due to their outstanding electronic and mechanical properties. This thesis ...

Cox, Jason R. (Jason Robert)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Fabrication of densely packed, well-ordered, high-aspect-ratio silicon nanopillars over large areas using block copolymer lithography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, this interpenetrating network of semiconductors would have the required absorption depth [1,2], favorable alignment Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA c- voltaic devices in which a 150-nm-tall inorganic nanopillar network is infiltrated with a light

McGehee, Michael

428

Salt Complexation in Block Copolymer Thin Films Seung Hyun Kim, Matthew J. Misner, Ling Yang, Oleg Gang,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

attention since they exhibit high ionic conductivity, stable electrochemical characteristics, and excellent mechanical properties.28-35 In polymer-based electrochemical technologies these complexes are used in solid copolymer are found to orient normal to the surface of the film with markedly enhanced lateral order

Ocko, Ben

429

Core-shell structures in single flexible-semiflexible block copolymers: Finding the free energy minimum for the folding transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the folding transition of a single diblock copolymer consisting of a semiflexible and a flexible block. We obtain a {\\it Saturn-shaped} core-shell conformation in the folded state, in which the flexible block forms a core and the semiflexible block wraps around it. We demonstrate two distinctive features of the core-shell structures: (i) The kinetics of the folding transition in the copolymer are significantly more efficient than those of a semiflexible homopolymer. (ii) The core-shell structure does not depend on the transition pathway.

Natsuhiko Yoshinaga; Kenichi Yoshikawa

2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

430

Micellization Coupled with Facilitation of J-Aggregation for Poly(1,3-Cyclohexadiene) - Based Amphiphilic Block Copolymers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Self-assembly and its influence on the photophysical properties of polystyrene-b-sulfonated poly (1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PS-b-sPCHD) were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), laser light scattering (LLS) technique, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The amphiphilic PS-b-sPCHD copolymers can associate to form micelles with insoluble PS segments as the core surrounded by soluble sPCHD segments in aqueous media. J-aggregation of the chromophores in sPCHD segments is significantly facilitated in the micellization, resulting in a remarkable change in the photophysical properties of PS-b-sPCHD.

Lin, Jiaping [ORNL; Ding, Weiwei [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Xu, Zhongde [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China; Yuan, Yizhong [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy studies of the dynamics of self-assembling block copolymer structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several improvements presented to the emerging technique of X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy. These improvements enabled the study of polymer structures, in particular isotropic sponge phases of homo-polymer block ...

Falus, Pter, 1972-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Solid-state Graft Copolymer Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (<80 C), flammable, and volatile organic electrolytes. These organic based ...

Hu, Qichao

433

Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional polymer processing methods. An exemplary polymer electrolyte material has an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.6 Pa at 90 degrees C. and is characterized by an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm-1 at 90 degrees C. An exemplary material can be characterized by a two domain or three domain material system. An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For example, the present invention can be applied to improve Li-based batteries by means of enabling higher energy density, better thermal and environmental stability, lower rates of self-discharge, enhanced safety, lower manufacturing costs, and novel form factors.

Singh, Mohit; Gur, Ilan; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

434

Computation of liquid-liquid equilibrium in multicomponent electrolyte systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computational algorithm for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data, based on a generalization of the maximum likelihood method applied to implicit constraints, is presented. The algorithm accepts multicomponent data and binary interaction parameters. A comparative study of the models NRTL and electrolyte-NRTL, used for estimating activity coefficients in a quaternary electrolyte system, is presented and discussed. Results show that both models give accurate predictions and the algorithm presents a good performance without convergence or initialization problems. This suggests that the basic NRTL model can be used for describing phase behavior in weak electrolyte systems and the procedure can be of great use for design and optimization of processes involving multicomponent electrolyte systems. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Vianna, R.F.; d`Avila, S.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

435

Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Method of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electrolytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

436

High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Ab-initio simulation of novel solid electrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

All solid-state batteries may be a solution to some of the problems facing conventional organic electrolytes in Li and Na-ion batteries, but typically conductivities are very low. Reports of fast lithium conduction in Li ...

Richards, William D. (William Davidson)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Computer Modeling of crystalline electrolytes Lithium Thiophosphates and Phophosphates a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

th ECS Meeting ­ Montr´eal 2011 1 #12;Solid vs liquid electrolytes in Li ion batteries Solid;Example of solid electrolyte ­ thin film battery technology 219th ECS Meeting ­ Montr´eal 2011 3 #12;Li/3; ceramic · Li+ conductivity 10-3 S/cm; thermal activation energies 0.1-0.3 eV. 1 Bates et al, Solid State

Holzwarth, Natalie

439

Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A separation membrane is described which is useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C{sub 2+} hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula shown in the accompanying diagram, wherein R{sub 1} is chosen from the group consisting of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R{sub 2} is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP]. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations. 4 figs.

Pinnau, I.; Morisato, Atsushi

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

440

Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A separation membrane useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is chosen from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R.sub.2 is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) PMP!. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations.

Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Morisato, Atsushi (Tokyo, JP)

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Effects of Nonaqueous Electrolytes on Primary Li-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects of nonaqueous electrolytes on the performance of primary Li-air batteries operated in dry air environment have been investigated. Organic solvents with low volatility and low moisture absorption are necessary to minimize the change of electrolyte compositions and the reaction between Li anode and water during the discharge process. The polarity of aprotic solvents outweighs the viscosity, ion conductivity and oxygen solubility on the performance of Li-air batteries once these latter properties attain certain reasonable level, because the solvent polarity significantly affects the number of tri-phase regions formed by oxygen, electrolyte, and active carbons (with catalyst) in the air electrode. The most feasible electrolyte formulation is the system of LiTFSI in PC/EC mixtures, whose performance is relatively insensitive to PC/EC ratio and salt concentration. The quantity of such electrolyte added to a Li-air cell has notably effects on the discharge performance of the Li-air battery as well, and a maximum in capacity is observed as a function of electrolyte amount. The coordination effect from the additives or co-solvents [tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and crown ethers in this study] also greatly affects the discharge performance of a Li-air battery.

Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

442

Polyarylether composition and membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition including a polyarylether copolymer is provided. The copolymer includes a polyarylether backbone; and a sulfonated oligomeric group bonded to the polyarylether suitable for use as a cation conducting membrane. Method of bonding a sulfonated oligomeric group to the polyarylether backbone to form a polyarylether copolymer. The membrane may be formed from the polyarylether copolymer composition. The chain length of the sulfonated oligomeric group may be controlled to affect or control the ion conductivity of the membrane.

Hung, Joyce (Auburn, AL); Brunelle, Daniel Joseph (Burnt Hills, NY); Harmon, Marianne Elisabeth (Redondo Beach, CA); Moore, David Roger (Albany, NY); Stone, Joshua James (Worcester, NY); Zhou, Hongyi (Niskayuna, NY); Suriano, Joseph Anthony (Clifton Park, NY)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

443

Siloxane-grafted membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional group. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

Friesen, D.T.; Obligin, A.S.

1989-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

444

Anion exchange membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

445

Proton-conducting polymer electrolyte membranes based on fluoropolymers incorporating perfluorovinyl ether sulfonic acids and fluoroalkenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acids. A novel synthetic route describing the preparation of perfluorovinyl ether monomer containing. The radical (co) and terpolymerization of 4-[(,,-trifluorovinyl)oxy]benzene sulfonyl chloride (TFVOBSC) with 1,1-difluoroethylene (or vinylidene fluoride, VDF), hexafluoropropene (HFP), and perfluoromethyl vinyl ether (PMVE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

446

Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range.

Barus, R. P. P., E-mail: rismawan.ppb@gmail.com [Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung and Centre for Material and Technical Product, Jalan Sangkuriang No. 14 Bandung (Indonesia); Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E. [Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Ismunandar [Chemistry Study, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

447

Polymer electrolyte membranes from fluorinated polyisoprene-block-sulfonated polystyrene: Structural evolution with hydration and heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) have been used to study the structural changes in fluorinated polyisoprene/sulfonated polystyrene (FISS) diblock copolymers as they evolved from the dry state to the water swollen state. A dilation of the nanometer-scale hydrophilic domains has been observed as hydration increased, with greater dilation occurring in the more highly sulfonated samples or upon hydration at higher temperatures. Furthermore, a decrease in the order in these phase separated structures is observed upon swelling. The glass transition temperatures of the fluorinated blocks have been observed to decrease upon hydration of these materials, and at the highest hydration levels, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has shown the presence of tightly bound water. A precipitous drop in the mechanical integrity of the 50% sulfonated materials is also observed upon exceeding the glass transition temperature (Tg), as measured by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).

Sodeye, Akinbode [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts; Huang, Tianzi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gido, Samuel [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Characterization of Self-Assembly and Charge Transport in Model Polymer Electrolyte Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chamber is affected by a Peltier device that is in thermalcontroller that controls the Peltier device. Our approach isof the specimen chamber, a Peltier device, and a heat sink.

Beers, Keith Morgan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation. (VC)

Suitor, J.W.; Clark, D.J.; Losey, R.W.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation. (VC)

Suitor, J.W.; Clark, D.J.; Losey, R.W.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Nanostructured carbon materials for applications in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden nanostrukturierte Kohlenstoffmaterialen entwickelt, um den kritischsten Stabilittsproblemen von Katalysatoren fr Polymerelektrolytbrennstoffzellen (PEM) zu begegnen. Erste untersuchte Materialien waren Platin-Metall-Nanopartikel, die (more)

Galeano Nuez, Diana Carolina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Control of the transient behaviour of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a feedback control of the air-compressor-motor voltage. However, the net power provided by the fuel cell-related quantity p pressure (Pa) CM compressor-motor-related quantity t time (s) Cp compressor-related quantity volume (m3) reaction W flow rate (kg/s) H 2 hydrogen-related quantity in inlet quantity e linearized

Grujicic, Mica

453

Novel Polymer Electrolyte Nano-Composite Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which have been established to lead in the transition to clean energy technology and will become the energy efficient power (more)

Zarrin, Hadis

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Characterization of Self-Assembly and Charge Transport in Model Polymer Electrolyte Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. T. ; Mullin, S. A. ; Battaglia, V. S. ; Balsara, N. P. J.D. T. ; Mullin, S. A. ; Battaglia, V. S. ; Balsara, N. P.D. T. ; Mullin, S. A. ; Battaglia, V. S. ; Balsara, N. P.

Beers, Keith Morgan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Cu--Ni--Fe anode for use in aluminum producing electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte at a temperature of less than 900.degree. C. having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell having a liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having a bottom and walls extending upwardly from said bottom. A plurality of non-consumable Cu--Ni--Fe anodes and cathodes are disposed in a vertical direction in the electrolyte, the cathodes having a plate configuration and the anodes having a flat configuration to compliment the cathodes. The anodes contain apertures therethrough to permit flow of electrolyte through the apertures to provide alumina-enriched electrolyte between the anodes and the cathodes. Electrical current is passed through the anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes, depositing aluminum at the cathodes and producing gas at the anodes.

Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.; Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

456

Mixed hydrocarbon/fluoropolymer membrane/ionomer MEAs for durability studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. Commercial viability depends on improving the durability of the fuel cell components to increase the system reliability. The aim of this work is to separate ionomer degradation from membrane degradation via mixed membrane/ionomer MEA experiments. The challenges of mixed MEA fabrication due to the incompatibility of the membrane and the electrode are addressed. OCV accelerated testing experiment (AST) were performed. Development of in situ diagnostics and unique experiments to characterize the performance and properties of the ionomer in the electrode as a function of time is reported. These measurements, along with extensive ex situ and post-mortem characterization, can delineate the degradation mechanisms in order to develop more durable fuel cells and fuel cell components.

Li, Bo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Mahlon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cynthia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fenton, James [FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Membrane module assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

Kaschemekat, J.

1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

Microporous alumina ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

Anderson, M.A.; Guangyao Sheng.

1993-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

459

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Nanocomposite Membranes for Complex Separations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

membranes for reverse-selective removal of alkanes from light gases, 2) defect-free inorganic nanocomposite membranes that have uniform pores, and 3) nanocomposite membranes for minimizing protein fouling in microfiltration applications. Reverse-selective...

Yeu, Seung Uk

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2002-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

462

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF COMPRESSION AND CONSTRAINTS ON WATER UPTAKE OF FUEL-CELL MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate characterization of polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) requires understanding the impact of mechanical and electrochemical loads on cell components. An essential aspect of this relationship is the effect of compression on the polymer membrane?s water-uptake behavior and transport properties. However, there is limited information on the impact of physical constraints on membrane properties. In this paper, we investigate both theoretically and experimentally how the water uptake of Nafion membrane changes under external compression loads. The swelling of a compressed membrane is modeled by modifying the swelling pressure in the polymer backbone which relies on the changes in the microscopic volume of the polymer. The model successfully predicts the water content of the compressed membrane measured through in-situ swelling-compression tests and neutron imaging. The results show that external mechanical loads could reduce the water content and conductivity of the membrane, especially at lower temperatures, higher humidities, and in liquid water. The modeling framework and experimental data provide valuable insight for the swelling and conductivity of constrained and compressed membranes, which are of interest in electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells.

Kusoglu, Ahmet; Kienitz, Briian; Weber, Adam

2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

463

Original article Flat ceramic membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

membranes. The orig- inal intellectual concept is protected by two international patents. Strategically of investment and functioning costs while keeping the interest of ceramics. ceramic membrane / plate / tubular

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

464

Catalytic nanoporous membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

465

Cyclic membrane separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

Bowser, John

2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

466

Cyclic membrane separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

Nemser, Stuart M.

2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

467

Composite metal membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, Nathaniel M. (Espanola, NM); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Composite metal membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

469

Rotating bubble membrane radiator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

Webb, Brent J. (West Richland, WA); Coomes, Edmund P. (West Richland, WA)

1988-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

470

Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

471

Novel electrolyte chemistries for Mg-Ni rechargeable batteries.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) serve as means to reduce the nation's dependence on oil. Current electric vehicles use relatively heavy nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) rechargeable batteries. Li-ion rechargeable batteries have been developed extensively as the replacement; however, the high cost and safety concerns are still issues to be resolved before large-scale production. In this study, we propose a new highly conductive solid polymer electrolyte for Mg-Ni high electrochemical capacity batteries. The traditional corrosive alkaline aqueous electrolyte (KOH) is replaced with a dry polymer with conductivity on the order of 10{sup -2} S/cm, as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Several potential novel polymer and polymer composite candidates are presented with the best-performing electrolyte results for full cell testing and cycling.

Garcia-Diaz, Brenda (Savannah River National Laboratory); Kane, Marie; Au, Ming (Savannah River National Laboratory)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Aqueous electrolyte modeling in ASPEN PLUS{trademark}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The presence of electrolytes in aqueous solutions has long been recognized as contributing to significant departures from thermodynamic ideality. The presence of ions in process streams can greatly add to the difficulty of predicting process behavior. The difficulties are increased as temperatures and pressures within a process are elevated. Because many chemical companies now model their processes with chemical process simulators it is important that such codes be able to accurately model electrolyte behavior under a variety of conditions. Here the authors examine the electrolyte modeling capability of ASPEN PLUS{trademark}, a widely used simulator. Specifically, efforts to model alkali metal halide and sulfate systems are presented. The authors show conditions for which the models within the code work adequately and how they might be improved for conditions where the simulator models fail.

Bloomingburg, G.F. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Simonson, J.M.; Moore, R.C.; Mesmer, R.E.; Cochran, H.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Electrolytic production of neodymium without perfluorinated carbon compounds on the offgases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for producing neodymium in an electrolytic cell without formation of perfluorinated carbon gases (PFCs), the method comprising the steps of providing an electrolyte in the electrolytic cell and providing an anode in an anode region of the electrolyte and providing a cathode in a cathode region of the electrolytic cell. Dissolving an oxygen-containing neodymium compound in the electrolyte in the anode region and maintaining a more intense electrolyte circulation in the anode region than in the cathode region. Passing an electrolytic current between said anode and said cathode and depositing neodymium metal at the cathode, preventing the formation of perfluorinated carbon gases by limiting anode over voltage. 4 figs.

Keller, R.; Larimer, K.T.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

474

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous rare-earth electrolyte Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

rare-earth electrolyte Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aqueous rare-earth electrolyte Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 SUSTAINABILITY...

475

Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ethylene Carbonate in Li-Ion Battery Electrolyte Guoyingof a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 %are an important part of Li-ion battery technology yet their

Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Fuel cell system with separating structure bonded to electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell assembly comprises a separating structure configured for separating a first reactant and a second reactant wherein the separating structure has an opening therein. The fuel cell assembly further comprises a fuel cell comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and an electrolyte interposed between the first and second electrodes, and a passage configured to introduce the second reactant to the second electrode. The electrolyte is bonded to the separating structure with the first electrode being situated within the opening, and the second electrode being situated within the passage.

Bourgeois, Richard Scott (Albany, NY); Gudlavalleti, Sauri (Albany, NY); Quek, Shu Ching (Clifton Park, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Powers, James Daniel (Santa Monica, CA)

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

477

All-solid-state proton battery using gel polymer electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proton conducting gel polymer electrolyte system; PMMA+NH{sub 4}SCN+EC/PC, has been prepared. The highest ionic conductivity obtained from the system is 2.5 10?4 S cm{sup ?1}. The optimized composition of the gel electrolyte has been used to fabricate a proton battery with Zn/ZnSO{sub 4}?7H{sub 2}O anode and MnO{sub 2} cathode. The open circuit voltage of the battery is 1.4 V and the highest energy density is 5.7 W h kg?1 for low current drain.

Mishra, Kuldeep, E-mail: mishkuldeep@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, ABES Engineering College, Ghaziabad-201009, India and Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida-201307 (India); Pundir, S. S.; Rai, D. K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida-201307 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

478

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

479

Decoupling of Ionic Trasport from Segmental Relaxation in Polymer Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present detailed studies of the relationship between ionic conductivity and segmental relaxation in polymer electrolytes. The analysis shows that the ionic conductivity can be decoupled from segmental dynamics and the strength of the decoupling correlates with the fragility but not with the glass transition temperature. These results call for a revision of the current picture of ionic transport in polymer electrolytes. We relate the observed decoupling phenomenon to frustration in packing of rigid polymers, where the loose local structure is also responsible for the increase in their fragility.

Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Fan, Fei [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Yu, Xiang [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Behavior of lithium alloy electrodes in organic electrolyte solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrochemical behavior of lithium (Li) alloy electrodes, Li-aluminum (Al) and Li-tin (Sn), has been investigated in propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolyte containing lithium perchlorate (LiClO{sub 4}). The content of Al or Sn in the Li-based alloy was in the range of 0.1 to 2.0 wt.%. The interfacial behavior between the alloy electrode/electrolyte was discussed on the basis of the results of an ac impedance analysis and charge-discharge cycling tests.

Matsuda, Yoshiharu; Ishikawa, Masashi; Morita, Masayuki; Otani, Kenya [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Wrinkling in polygonal membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

boundary conditions of the polygons. When pressurised, the polygonal membranes naturally reach a parabolic shape towards their centre, the extent of which varies greatly depending on a large number of parameters, including most particularly pre...

Bonin, Arnaud Stephane

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

484

Hydrogen transport membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

Mundschau, Michael V.

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

485

Gas Separation Using Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial membrane-based gas separator systems based upon high-flux, asymmetric polysulfone hollow fibers were first introduced in 1977 by Monsanto. These systems were packaged in compact modules containing large amounts of permeation surface area...

Koros, W. J.; Paul, D. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Microprobes aluminosilicate ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods have been developed to make mixed alumina-silicate and aluminosilicate particulate microporous ceramic membranes. One method involves the making of separate alumina and silica sols which are then mixed. Another method involves the creation of a combined sol with aluminosilicate particles. The resulting combined alumina and silica membranes have high surface area, a very small pore size, and a very good temperature stability.

Anderson, Marc A. (2114 Chadbourne Ave., Madison, WI 53705); Sheng, Guangyao (45 N. Orchard St., Madison, WI 53715)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Anomalous diffusivity and electric conductivity for low concentration electrolytes in nanopores S. K. Lai1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the properties of confined electrolytes has been directed to finding an optimized performance of fuel cells

489

amphiphilic hybrid copolymers: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Block Copolymers. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The thin film morphology characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane-containing block copolymers have...

490

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

492

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller Bachelors of Engineering, University in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell is a critical issue in ensuring high cell performance. The water production

Victoria, University of

493

First-principles simulations of extended structures in the lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electrolytes The structure of thin film battery2 Solid state electrolytes that are physically and chemically+xPO4-yNz with x = 3z -2y has been developed as a solid state electrolyte for Li ion batteries., J. of Solid State Chemistry 115, 313 (1995). 2. http://www.ms.ornl.gov/researchgroups/Functional/Battery

Holzwarth, Natalie

494

ELSEVIER Solid State Ionics 94 (1997) 17-25 Ceramic solid electrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ELSEVIER Solid State Ionics 94 (1997) 17-25 SOLID STATE IoMcs Ceramic solid electrolytes John B electrolytes are best suited for solid reactants, as are found in most battery systems. Ceramic solid 78712-106.3. USA Abstract Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems

Gleixner, Stacy

495

Carbonate fuel cell and components thereof for in-situ delayed addition of carbonate electrolyte  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method in which a delayed carbonate electrolyte is stored in the storage areas of a non-electrolyte matrix fuel cell component and is of a preselected content so as to obtain a delayed time release of the electrolyte in the storage areas in the operating temperature range of the fuel cell.

Johnsen, Richard (Waterbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT); Farooque, Mohammad (Danbury, CT)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

496

Phenyl boron-based compounds as anion receptors for non-aqueous battery electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel fluorinated boronate-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boronate-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boronate-based anion receptors include different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Qing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY); Sun, Xuehui (Middle Island, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Method of making membrane-electrode assemblies for electrochemical cells and assemblies made thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for making a combination, unitary, membrane and electrode assembly having a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, and first and second electrodes at least partially embedded in opposed surfaces of the membrane. The electrodes each comprise a respective group of finely divided carbon particles, very finely divided catalytic particles supported on internal and external surfaces of the carbon particles and a proton conductive material intermingled with the catalytic and carbon particles. A first group of finely divided carbon particles forming the first electrode has greater water attraction and retention properties, and is more hydrophilic than a second group of carbon particles forming the second electrode. In a preferred method, the membrane electrode assembly of the invention is prepared by forming a slurry of proton conductive material and at least one group of the carbon and catalyst particles. The slurry is applied to the opposed surfaces of the membrane and heated while being pressed to the membrane for a time and at a temperature and compressive load sufficient to embed at least a portion of the particles into the membrane. 10 figs.

Swathirajan, S.; Mikhail, Y.M.

1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

498

Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

499

Coated powder for electrolyte matrix for carbonate fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A plurality of electrolyte carbonate-coated ceramic particle which does not differ significantly in size from that of the ceramic particle and wherein no significant portion of the ceramic particle is exposed is fabricated into a porous tape comprised of said coated-ceramic particles bonded together by the coating for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell.

Iacovangelo, Charles D. (Schenectady, NY); Browall, Kenneth W. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Phosphorous Computer Modeling of Crystalline Electrolytes: Lithium Thiophosphates and Phosphates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-search algorithm · Minimum-energy migration paths were determined via the construction of a weighted graph Results: Abstract Recently, lithium thiophosphate materials suitable for usage as solid electrolytes with PAW functionals generated using atompaw, and used in pwscf and abinit) · Formation energies

Holzwarth, Natalie