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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

2

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

3

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

4

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

5

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

6

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

7

Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interface in the Li-ion battery. Electrochimica Acta 50,K. The role of Li-ion battery electrolyte reactivity inK. The role of Li-ion battery electrolyte reactivity in

Hudson, William Rodgers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrolytes and high-energy electrode materials. 1 Over theinstability between high-energy electrode materials, such assystems. With new high-energy electrode materials – Ni-based

Hudson, William Rodgers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Block Copolymers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... are preserved and not averaged out as in a random copolymer. Thus weak but permeable desalination membranes of cellulose acetate can be stiffened by making a block copolymer with polystyrene, ...

Our Materials Science Correspondent

1973-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

10

Block Copolymer Solid Battery Electrolyte with High Li-Ion Transference Number  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Block Copolymer Solid Battery Electrolyte with High Li-Ion Transference Number Ayan Ghosh number TLi+ value of 0.9 at room temperature 21­23°C . The solid-state flexible, translucent polymer of withstanding such high voltage conditions. Unlike traditional liquid electrolytes, solid-state polymer electro

Rubloff, Gary W.

11

Self-doped block copolymer electrolytes for solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Self-doped block copolymer electrolytes for solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries Donald R. Introduction The ideal electrolyte material for a solid-state battery would have the ionic conductivity and cathode binder thin-®lm, solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries of the type Li/ BCE/LiMnO2 have been

Sadoway, Donald Robert

12

Effect of Counter Ion Placement on Conductivity in Single-Ion Conducting Block Copolymer Electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrolytes Sang-Woog Ryu, Patrick E. Trapa,* Solar C. Olugebefola, Juan A. Gonzalez-Leon, Donald R. Sadoway,* and Anne M. Mayes*,z Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307, USA Single-ion conducting block copolymer electrolytes were prepared

Sadoway, Donald Robert

13

Humidity-Induced Phase Transitions in Ion-Containing Block Copolymer Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humidity-Induced Phase Transitions in Ion-Containing Block Copolymer Membranes Moon Jeong ParkVised Manuscript ReceiVed January 3, 2008 ABSTRACT: The phase behavior of ion-containing block copolymer membranes-to-order transition is driven by an increase in the partial molar entropy of the water molecules in the ordered phase

Geissler, Phillip

14

Mechanically and structurally robust sulfonated block copolymer membranes for water purification applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effective removal of ionic pollutants from contaminated water using negatively charged nanofiltration membranes is demonstrated. Block copolymers comprising polystyrene (PS) and partially hydrogenated polyisoprene (hPI) were synthesized by varying chain architectures. A one step procedure of cross-linking (hPI blocks) and sulfonation reactions (PS chains) was then carried out, which was revealed as an effective method to enhance mechanical integrity of membranes while hydrophilic sulfonated chains remain intact. In particular, the control of chain architecture allows us to create a synergetic effect on optimizing charge densities of the membrane, water permeability, and mechanical integrity under water purification conditions. The best performing membrane can almost completely (>99%) reject various divalent cations and also show NO3? rejection > 85% and Na+ rejection > 87%. Well defined nanostructures (tens of nanometers) as well as the periodically arranged water domains (a few nanometers) within hydrophilic phases of the hydrated membranes were confirmed by in situ neutron scattering experiments.

J Yeo; S Y Kim; S Kim; D Y Ryu; T-H Kim; M J Park

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Block Copolymer Electrolytes Synthesized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization for Solid-State, Thin-Film  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- cessing advantages as it is easily scalable and almost solvent-free. Solid-state, thin-film batteries, 2002. The ideal electrolyte material for a solid-state battery would have the ionic conductivity in solid-state lithium batteries, the purpose of this study was to inves- tigate the feasibility

Sadoway, Donald Robert

16

Sulfonated Polybenzophenone/Poly(arylene ether) Block Copolymer Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Major car companies have announced that they will commercialize fuel cell vehicles from 2015. ... Future articles will describe the performance of these copolymers as proton-exchange membranes in hydrogen/air and direct methanol fuel cells. ...

Takahiro Miyahara; Tetsuji Hayano; Soichi Matsuno; Masahiro Watanabe; Kenji Miyatake

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

17

Bicontinuous Alkaline Fuel Cell Membranes from Strongly Self-Segregating Block Copolymers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Samuel C. Price †, Xiaoming Ren ‡, Aaron C. Jackson †, Yuesheng Ye §, Yossef A. Elabd §, and Frederick L. Beyer *† ... For larger fuel cell units (>500 W) it is imperative that the fuel cell power units be able to operate on fuels within the military logistics chain. ... membranes (fueled with H or MeOH) and also to identify candidate alk. ...

Samuel C. Price; Xiaoming Ren; Aaron C. Jackson; Yuesheng Ye; Yossef A. Elabd; Frederick L. Beyer

2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

18

Effects of Fluorine-Containing Graft and Block Copolymer Additives on Removal Characteristics of Dilute Benzene in Water by Microphase-Separated Membranes Modified with These Additives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Add to ACS ChemWorx ... When larger amounts of the PFA-g-PDMS and PFA-b-PDMS were added to a PMMA/PDMS, the latter additive could keep the microphase-separated structures with a continuous PDMS phase, but the former did not. ... Thus, in this study the pervaporation characteristics for the removal of benzene from a dilute aqueous solution of benzene using PFA-g-PDMS/PMMA-g-PDMS and PFA-b-PDMS/PMMA-g-PDMS membranes, which were prepared by adding fluorine-containing graft and block copolymer additives to the PMMA-g-PDMS membrane, were investigated. ...

Tadashi Uragmi; Hiroshi Yamada; Takashi Miyata

2006-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

19

Argonne CNM Highlight: Block copolymer lithography approach to nanoscale  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Block copolymer lithography approach to nanoscale self-assembly Block copolymer lithography approach to nanoscale self-assembly hybrid organic-organomemtalliic block copolymer thin film cast on a silicon nitride membrane substrate This image created by Seth Darling and Nathan Ramanathan was selected for the September 2009 cover of Materials Today. Block copolymer lithography represents a promising next-generation alternative to traditional top-down methodologies. The figure shows an optical micrograph of a hybrid organic-organometallic block copolymer thin film cast on a silicon nitride membrane substrate, which reveals thickness-induced coloring effects reminiscent of art glass. This polymer self-assembles into an ordered nanoscale cylindrical morphology, the orientation of which can be controlled with film thickness. Cylinders

20

Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotligh...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Magnetic nanostructures patterned by block copolymer lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this research was twofold: understanding the methods of patterning magnetic films using self-assembled block copolymer masks and examining the magnetic reversal mechanisms of as deposited and patterned magnetic ...

Ilievski, Filip, 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

connecting to the solid-state lithium battery. c. An opticalbattery (discounting packaging, tabs, etc. ) demonstrate the advantage of the solid-state

Hudson, William Rodgers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

masses, scaled to cathode active material, of the cellby active material weight in the cathode) declines by only

Hudson, William Rodgers

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Wednesday, 30 May 2012 00:00 In principle, tri-block copolymers...

25

Using Self-Assembled Block Copolymer Macrostructures for Creating a Model System for Cell Mimicry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of self-assembled materials spans many different fields of scientific research, but our primary motivation for their use in this research is biomimicry. The constituent blocks of amphiphilic block copolymers can be made from either amino acids... bilayer membrane that encloses a spherical volume, an easily modifiable surface and controlled surface density, characteristic mechanical properties, and a responsive nature to surrounding 3 conditions. Ideally, these specific traits are may...

Gaspard, Jeffery Simon

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

26

Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

July-09 Improve cathode utilization in dry full cells. Accomplished by technology transfer to Seeo, Inc. Objectives *Synthesis of dry block copolymer electrolytes for...

27

Enhanced Charge Transport in Enzyme-Wired Organometallic Block Copolymers for Bioenergy and Biosensors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Enhanced Charge Transport in Enzyme-Wired Organometallic Block Copolymers for Bioenergy and Biosensors ...

Joungphil Lee; Hyungmin Ahn; Ilyoung Choi; Markus Boese; Moon Jeong Park

2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

28

Fabrication of nanoscale magnetic domains using block-copolymer lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The tendency of PS-b-PDMS to phase separate, the tunability of the resulting morphology and the sufficient etch contrast between PS and PDMS makes the block copolymer ideal for creating patterns that can be transferred ...

Akinronbi, Babajide

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Fabricating Nano-Scale Devices: Block Copolymers and their Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

research/block- copolymers-nano/nanofabrication-with-bloc/copolymer self-assembly. Nano letters, Matsen, M. W. , &Emitting Devices. ACS Nano, 3(5), 1063- I mage S ources

Limaye, Aditya

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Microfluidic devices and Block Copolymer Nanolithography Lead: D. Angelescu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microfluidic devices and Block Copolymer Nanolithography Lead: D. Angelescu Permanent members: B, X. Yuan One of our activities in microfluidics involves the design of a microfluidic system which measures pressure drops along microfluidic channels involving different types of constrictions using

Baudoin, Geneviève

31

Selenophene–Thiophene Block Copolymer Solar Cells with Thermostable Nanostructures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selenophene–Thiophene Block Copolymer Solar Cells with Thermostable Nanostructures ... Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H6, Canada ...

Dong Gao; Jon Hollinger; Dwight S. Seferos

2012-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

32

Block copolymer adhesion promoters via ring-opening metathesis polymerization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coupling agents based on functionalized block copolymers for bonding thermoset polymers to solid materials. These are polymers which possess at least two types of functional groups, one which is able to attach to and react with solid surfaces, and another which can react with a thermoset resin, which are incorporated as pendant groups in monomers distributed in blocks (typically two) along the backbone of the chain. The block copolymers in this invention are synthesized by living ring-opening metathesis polymerization.

Kent, Michael S. (12320 Pine Ridge, NE, Albuquerque, NM 87112); Saunders, Randall (13201 Fruit Ave., NE, Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Block copolymer adhesion promoters via ring-opening metathesis polymerization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coupling agents are disclosed based on functionalized block copolymers for bonding thermoset polymers to solid materials. These are polymers which possess at least two types of functional groups, one which is able to attach to and react with solid surfaces, and another which can react with a thermoset resin, which are incorporated as pendant groups in monomers distributed in blocks (typically two) along the backbone of the chain. The block copolymers in this invention are synthesized by living ring-opening metathesis polymerization. 18 figs.

Kent, M.S.; Saunders, R.

1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

35

Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

36

Thermodynamics and Ionic Conductivity of Block Copolymer Electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Y. Kiya, and J.C. Henderson, Batteries and electrochemicalB. and J. Garche, Lithium batteries: Status, prospects andliquids for lithium batteries. Journal of Power Sources,

Wanakule, Nisita Sidra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Polymer-electrolyte membrane, electrochemical fuel cell, and related method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polymer-electrolyte membrane is presented. The polymer-electrolyte membrane comprises an acid-functional polymer, and an additive incorporated in at least a portion of the membrane. The additive comprises a fluorinated cycloaliphatic additive, a hydrophobic cycloaliphatic additive, or combinations thereof, wherein the additive has a boiling point greater than about 120.degree. C. An electrochemical fuel cell including the polymer-electrolyte membrane, and a related method, are also presented.

Krishnan, Lakshmi; Yeager, Gary William; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

38

Radical-cured block copolymer-modified thermosets  

SciTech Connect

Poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized and added at 4 wt % to 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (BisGMA), a monomer that cures using free radical chemistry. In separate experiments, poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) was combined as a secondary monomer with BisGMA and the monomers were loaded with 4 wt % PEP-PEO. The diblock copolymers self-assembled into well-dispersed spherical micelles with PEP cores and PEO coronas. No appreciable change in the final extent of cure of the thermosets was caused by the addition of diblock copolymer, except in the case of BisGMA, where the addition of the block copolymer increased extent of cure by 12%. Furthermore, the extent of cure was increased by 29% and 37% with the addition of 25 and 50 wt % PEGDMA, respectively. Elastic modulus and fracture resistance were also determined, and the values indicate that the addition of block copolymers does not significantly toughen the thermoset materials. This finding is surprising when compared with the large increase in fracture resistance seen in block copolymer-modified epoxies, and an explanation is proposed.

Redline, Erica M.; Francis, Lorraine F.; Bates, Frank S. (UMM)

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

39

Membrane processes relevant for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Membrane processes relevant for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell Aleksander Kolstad Chemical. The important aspects concerning the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell, more commonly known as Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), have been studied in two separate parts. Part 1 of the thesis

Kjelstrup, Signe

40

Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)Electrolysis...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

on Giner and Proton Presentation slides and speaker biographies from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Studies of Block Copolymer Thin Films and Mixtures with an Ionic Liquid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

identification of structure and domain size in block copolymer thin films using RSoXS enables a quantitative comparison of the bulk

Virgili, Justin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Gamma radiation induced degradation in PE-PP block copolymer  

SciTech Connect

In the present investigation, effect of gamma irradiation on the PP-PE block copolymer has been studied. The polymer has been subjected to gamma irradiation from 100 to 500 Mrad dosages. Characterization of the polymer using XRD and FTIR was done both before irradiation and after irradiation in each step. Effect of irradiation on the electrical properties of the material has also been studied. FTIR study shows that the sample loses C - C stretching mode of vibration but gains C=C stretching mode of vibration after irradiation. Present investigation clearly indicates that though the electrical conductivity increases in the material, it undergoes degradation and shows brittleness due to irradiation.

Ravi, H. R.; Sreepad, H. R.; Ahmed, Khaleel; Govindaiah, T. N. [P.G. Department of Physics, Government College (Autonomous), Mandya - 571401, Karnataka State (India)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

43

PEG-Polypeptide Dual Brush Block Copolymers: Synthesis and Application in Nanoparticle Surface PEGylation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

synthesis. Controlled synthesis of these complex block copolymers would significantly expand the library brushes made of polyolefins, polyesters, and poly- ethers.9 Brush block copolymers containing rigid structures into the brush side chains may significantly expand the horizon of brush-like macromolecules

Cheng, Jianjun

44

Rapid self-assembly of brush block copolymers to photonic crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rapid self-assembly of brush block copolymers to photonic crystals Benjamin R. Sveinbjörnssona,1 demonstrate the rapid self-assembly of brush block copolymers to nanostructures with photonic bandgaps control of the polymer molecular weight and the method of self-assembly. These polymers could be developed

Atwater, Harry

45

Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. Ionic Liquids as Green Solvents: Progress and Prospectsthem attention as “green” solvents for synthesis and

Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Dynamics of crystallization from segregated block copolymer melts  

SciTech Connect

Microphase separation in semicrystalline block copolymers can be driven by two forces: thermodynamic incompatibility between blocks or crystallization of one or more blocks. Prior work has demonstrated that when the block incompatibility is small, crystallization occurs from a single-phase melt and alternating lamellar microdomains result regardless of the copolymer composition. Several experimental studies have examined the time-resolved process of crystallization from single-phase melts. An added complexity in the case of semicrystalline block copolymers which have large block incompatibilities is the possible formation of an ordered melt mesophase; the presence of these microdomains may affect the crystallization process and the resultant morphology. A number of studies have investigated time-resolved crystallization from weakly segregated diblock copolymer melts, concluding that crystallization destroys any pre-existing melt microstructure resulting in a lamellar morphology. We recently reported the statically determined crystallization results for a series of ethylene-block-(3-methyl-1-butene) polymers, which will be referred to as E/MB`s. The composition of each of the polymers in the series was held constant at {approx}26 wt. % E (f{sub E}) block to produce hexagonally packed cylindrical melts, while the molecular weights were altered to obtain varying degrees of incompatibility. Through static scattering measurements, we have clearly shown that a strongly segregated cylindrical melt can confine crystallization to the pre-established microdomains under ordinary processing conditions. In this work, combined synchrotron-based SAXS and WAXS are employed to dynamically follow the microphase separation and crystallization in these materials at both the unit cell and microdomain scales.

Quiram, D.J.; Register, R.A. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Marchand, G.R. [Dow Chemical Co., Plaquemine, LA (United States); Ryan, A.J. [Univ. of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, MI (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

High-activity fuel cell catalyst layers via block copolymer nanocomposites.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalyst layers are disordered blends of carbon-supported platinum catalyst in an ionomeric matrix. The objective of this research… (more)

Alabi, Toheeb Bola

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Insertion Mechanism of a Poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) Block Copolymer into a DPPC Monolayer  

SciTech Connect

Interactions between amphiphilic block copolymers and lipids are of medical interest for applications such as drug delivery and the restoration of damaged cell membranes. A series of monodisperse poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) (EOBO) block copolymers were obtained with two ratios of hydrophilic/hydrophobic block lengths. We have explored the surface activity of EOBO at a clean interface and under 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) monolayers as a simple cell membrane model. At the same subphase concentration, EOBO achieved higher equilibrium surface pressures under DPPC compared to a bare interface, and the surface activity was improved with longer poly(butylene oxide) blocks. Further investigation of the DPPC/EOBO monolayers showed that combined films exhibited similar surface rheology compared to pure DPPC at the same surface pressures. DPPC/EOBO phase separation was observed in fluorescently doped monolayers, and within the liquid-expanded liquid-condensed coexistence region for DPPC, EOBO did not drastically alter the liquid-condensed domain shapes. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) quantitatively confirmed that the lattice spacings and tilt of DPPC in lipid-rich regions of the monolayer were nearly equivalent to those of a pure DPPC monolayer at the same surface pressures.

Leiske, Danielle L.; Meckes, Brian; Miller, Chad E.; Wu, Cynthia; Walker, Travis W.; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Ketelson, Howard A.; Toney, Michael F.; Fuller, Gerald G. (Stanford); (SLAC); (UC); (Alcan)

2012-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

49

Physical characterization of multiple emulsions formulated with a green solvent and different HLB block copolymers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper reports a physical characterization of multiple emulsions formulated with a green solvent (2-ethylhexyl lactate) and different HLB amphiphilic block copolymers (Atlas™ G-5000 and Atlox™ 4912), as emulsifiers. 15 wt% 2-ethylhexyl lactate emulsions stabilized by a 1:1 mass ratio of both copolymers were prepared with different copolymer concentrations in one single emulsification step, using a rotor-stator emulsification device. Multiple emulsions were characterized by means of electrolytic conductivity measurements, viscosity, optical microscopy, laser diffraction and multiple light scattering techniques. W/O/W emulsions were obtained in all cases, regardless of the copolymer composition used. All emulsions showed Newtonian behaviour and relatively low viscosity values (2–2.6 times the viscosity of water at 20 °C). Viscosity hardly increased with the overall copolymer concentration. The mean Sauter diameter of O/W globules increased with copolymer concentration, while the evolution of the volumetric mean diameter depended on the occurrence of some recoalescence. The onset of different simultaneous destabilization mechanisms was detected by multiple light scattering. Even though creaming was the predominant destabilization mechanism, a separated layer of oil phase due to coalescence was also observed in most cases after a long aging time. The destabilization kinetics was slowed down by increasing the total copolymer concentration when both types of copolymers were used.

M.C. García; J. Muñoz; M.C. Alfaro; J.M. Franco

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

The model of stress distribution in polymer electrolyte membrane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analytical model of mechanical stress in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) of a hydrogen/air fuel cell with porous Water Transfer Plates (WTP) is developed in this work. The model considers a mechanical stress in the membrane is a result of the cell load cycling under constant oxygen utilization. The load cycling causes the cycling of the inlet gas flow rate, which results in the membrane hydration/dehydration close to the gas inlet. Hydration/dehydration of the membrane leads to membrane swelling/shrinking, which causes mechanical stress in the constrained membrane. Mechanical stress results in through-plane crack formation. Thereby, the mechanical stress in the membrane causes mechanical failure of the membrane, limiting fuel cell lifetime. The model predicts the stress in the membrane as a function of the cell geometry, membrane material properties and operation conditions. The model was applied for stress calculation in GORE-SELECT.

Atrazhev, Vadim V; Dmitriev, Dmitry V; Erikhman, Nikolay S; Sultanov, Vadim I; Patterson, Timothy; Burlatsky, Sergei F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

The model of stress distribution in polymer electrolyte membrane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analytical model of mechanical stress in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) of a hydrogen/air fuel cell with porous Water Transfer Plates (WTP) is developed in this work. The model considers a mechanical stress in the membrane is a result of the cell load cycling under constant oxygen utilization. The load cycling causes the cycling of the inlet gas flow rate, which results in the membrane hydration/dehydration close to the gas inlet. Hydration/dehydration of the membrane leads to membrane swelling/shrinking, which causes mechanical stress in the constrained membrane. Mechanical stress results in through-plane crack formation. Thereby, the mechanical stress in the membrane causes mechanical failure of the membrane, limiting fuel cell lifetime. The model predicts the stress in the membrane as a function of the cell geometry, membrane material properties and operation conditions. The model was applied for stress calculation in GORE-SELECT.

Vadim V. Atrazhev; Tatiana Yu. Astakhova; Dmitry V. Dmitriev; Nikolay S. Erikhman; Vadim I. Sultanov; Timothy Patterson; Sergei F. Burlatsky

2014-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

52

Method of producing nanopatterned articles using surface-reconstructed block copolymer films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nanopatterned surfaces are prepared by a method that includes forming a block copolymer film on a substrate, annealing and surface reconstructing the block copolymer film to create an array of cylindrical voids, depositing a metal on the surface-reconstructed block copolymer film, and heating the metal-coated block copolymer film to redistribute at least some of the metal into the cylindrical voids. When very thin metal layers and low heating temperatures are used, metal nanodots can be formed. When thicker metal layers and higher heating temperatures are used, the resulting metal structure includes nanoring-shaped voids. The nanopatterned surfaces can be transferred to the underlying substrates via etching, or used to prepare nanodot- or nanoring-decorated substrate surfaces.

Russell, Thomas P; Park, Soojin; Wang, Jia-Yu; Kim, Bokyung

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

53

Synthesis and Properties of Novel Cationic, Temperature-Sensitive Block-Copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Facile, one-step synthesis of self-assembling, cationic block copolymers of poly(2-N-(dimethylaminoethyl) methacrylate) (pDMAEMA) and PEO-PPO-PEO (Pluronic®) is developed. The copolymers are obtained via free-radical ...

Deshmukh, Smeet

54

Fabrication and characterization of novel nanostructures based on block copolymer lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microphase-separation of block copolymers into periodic nanoscale structures has drawn considerable attention as a method for pattern generation in nanolithography. One of the main challenges is to create complex nanostructures ...

Chuang, Vivian Peng-Wei

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Fabrication and characterization of nanostructures from self-assembled block copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanoscale magnetic dot arrays have attracted considerable interest, both for fundamental studies of micromagnetism and for possible applications in high-density magnetic data storage. Self-assembled block copolymers provide ...

Cheng, Joy, 1974-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Lattice Boltzmann method for multiscale self-consistent field theory simulations of block copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new Lattice Boltzmann (LB) approach is introduced to solve for the block copolymer propagator in polymer field theory. This method bridges two desired properties from different numerical techniques, namely: (i) it is ...

Chen, Hsieh

57

Hierarchical Assembly of Nanoparticle Superstructures from Block Copolymer-Nanoparticle Composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate the assembly of block copolymer-nanoparticle composite films on chemically nanopatterned substrates and present fully three-dimensional simulations of a coarse grain model for these hybrid systems. The location and distribution of nanoparticles within the ordered block copolymer domains depends on the thermodynamic state of the composite in equilibrium with the surface. Hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles enables applications in which the ability to precisely control their locations within periodic and nonregular geometry patterns and arrays is required.

Huiman Kang; François A. Detcheverry; Andrew N. Mangham; Mark P. Stoykovich; Kostas Ch. Daoulas; Robert J. Hamers; Marcus Müller; Juan J. de Pablo; Paul F. Nealey

2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

58

Membranes and separators for flowing electrolyte batteries-a review  

SciTech Connect

Flowing electrolyte batteries are rechargeable electrochemical storage devices in which externally stored electrolytes are circulated through the cell stack during charge or discharge. The potential advantages that flow batteries offer compared to other secondary batteries include: 1) ease of thermal and electrolyte management, 2) simple electrochemistry, 3) deep cycling capability, and 4) minimal loss of capacity with cycling. However, flow batteries are more complex than other secondary batteries and consequently may cost more and may be less reliable. Flow batteries are being developed for utility load leveling, electric vehicles, solar photovoltaic and wind turbine application. The status of flow batteries has recently been reviewed by Clark et al. The flowing electrolyte batteries place rigorous demands on the performance of separators and membranes. The operating characteristics of the iron/chromium redox battery were changed in order to accommodate the limitations in membrane performance. Low cost alternatives to the presently used membrane must be found before the zinc/ferricyanide battery can be economically feasible. The zinc/bromine battery's efficiency could be improved if a suitably selective membrane were available. It is anticipated that better and less costly membranes to meet these needs will be developed as more is learned about their preparation and performance.

Arnold, C.; Assink, R.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Measuring Physical Properties of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presented by Cortney Mittelsteadt of Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC, at the DOE High Temperature Membrane Working Group held September 14, 2006.

60

Water Management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells Catherine Chan & Lauren Isbell objectives Important variables that lead to results Conclusion #12;Basic Operation of a PEM Fuel Cell fuel cell? A flow channel? The importance of water management Experimental setup and methods Project

Petta, Jason

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Ordered porous mesostructured materials from nanoparticle-block copolymer self-assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides mesostructured materials and methods of preparing mesostructured materials including metal-rich mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrids, porous metal-nonmetal nanocomposite mesostructures, and ordered metal mesostructures with uniform pores. The nanoparticles can be metal, metal alloy, metal mixture, intermetallic, metal-carbon, metal-ceramic, semiconductor-carbon, semiconductor-ceramic, insulator-carbon or insulator-ceramic nanoparticles, or combinations thereof. A block copolymer/ligand-stabilized nanoparticle solution is cast, resulting in the formation of a metal-rich (or semiconductor-rich or insulator-rich) mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrid. The hybrid is heated to an elevated temperature, resulting in the formation of an ordered porous nanocomposite mesostructure. A nonmetal component (e.g., carbon or ceramic) is then removed to produce an ordered mesostructure with ordered and large uniform pores.

Warren, Scott; Wiesner, Ulrich; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

62

Power Control of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In addition to degrading performance (from a Nernst potential perspective), this depleted oxygen state could damage the electrocatalyst. ... Unfortunately, application of these advanced control methods will require the development of more sophisticated models, so as to reduce the model mismatch degradation resulting from the feed-forward characteristics inherent to these controllers. ... A math. model is developed to simulate the transient phenomena in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system. ...

Kevin C. Lauzze; Donald J. Chmielewski

2006-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

63

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments have been few. Now, an international team from the United States, Korea, and Japan has succeeded in combining resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) at ALS Beamline 11.0.1 with transmission electron microscopy tomography (TEMT) and other techniques to unambiguously determine morphologies comprising two nested hexagonally packed arrays of nanoscopic, cylindrical microdomains in the bulk and a core-shell nanostructure in a thin film. Not only has this work revealed a new phase of ABC tri-block copolymer with complicated morphology, it has illustrated the importance of RSoXS as a unique, powerful tool for examining complex, multi-component systems that could not be characterized with conventional methods.

64

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments have been few. Now, an international team from the United States, Korea, and Japan has succeeded in combining resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) at ALS Beamline 11.0.1 with transmission electron microscopy tomography (TEMT) and other techniques to unambiguously determine morphologies comprising two nested hexagonally packed arrays of nanoscopic, cylindrical microdomains in the bulk and a core-shell nanostructure in a thin film. Not only has this work revealed a new phase of ABC tri-block copolymer with complicated morphology, it has illustrated the importance of RSoXS as a unique, powerful tool for examining complex, multi-component systems that could not be characterized with conventional methods.

65

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments have been few. Now, an international team from the United States, Korea, and Japan has succeeded in combining resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) at ALS Beamline 11.0.1 with transmission electron microscopy tomography (TEMT) and other techniques to unambiguously determine morphologies comprising two nested hexagonally packed arrays of nanoscopic, cylindrical microdomains in the bulk and a core-shell nanostructure in a thin film. Not only has this work revealed a new phase of ABC tri-block copolymer with complicated morphology, it has illustrated the importance of RSoXS as a unique, powerful tool for examining complex, multi-component systems that could not be characterized with conventional methods.

66

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments have been few. Now, an international team from the United States, Korea, and Japan has succeeded in combining resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) at ALS Beamline 11.0.1 with transmission electron microscopy tomography (TEMT) and other techniques to unambiguously determine morphologies comprising two nested hexagonally packed arrays of nanoscopic, cylindrical microdomains in the bulk and a core-shell nanostructure in a thin film. Not only has this work revealed a new phase of ABC tri-block copolymer with complicated morphology, it has illustrated the importance of RSoXS as a unique, powerful tool for examining complex, multi-component systems that could not be characterized with conventional methods.

67

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Wednesday, 30 May 2012 00:00 In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments have been few. Now, an international team from the United States, Korea, and Japan has succeeded in combining resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) at ALS Beamline 11.0.1 with transmission electron microscopy tomography (TEMT) and other techniques to unambiguously determine morphologies comprising two nested hexagonally packed arrays of nanoscopic, cylindrical microdomains in the bulk and a core-shell nanostructure in a thin film. Not only has this work revealed a new phase of ABC tri-block copolymer with complicated morphology, it has illustrated the importance of RSoXS as a unique, powerful tool for examining complex, multi-component systems that could not be characterized with conventional methods.

68

Toughening of Epoxies Based on Self-Assembly of Nano-Sized Amphiphilic Block Copolymer Micelles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(ethylene-altpropylene)- b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) block copolymer (BCP) micelle particles. The amphiphilic BCP toughener was incorporated into a liquid epoxy resin and selfassembled into well-dispersed 15 nm spherical micelle particles. The nano-sized BCP, at 5 wt...

Liu, Jia

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

69

Synthesis and Aggregation Behavior of Pluronic F87/Poly(acrylic acid) Block Copolymer with Doxorubicin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was grafted onto both termini of Pluronic F87 (PEO??-PPO??-PEO??) via atom transfer radical polymerization to produce a novel muco-adhesive block copolymer PAA??-b-F??-b-PAA??. It was observed that ...

Tian, Y.

70

Patterned Block-Copolymer-Silica Mesostructures as Host Media for the Laser Dye Rhodamine 6G  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-gel route using poly-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (EOx-POy-EOx) block copolymer with soft lithography to produce high- quality waveguides. This enables efficient waveguiding in the line123) and (EO)106(PO)70- (EO)106 (F127), X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron

Yang, Peidong

71

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print In principle, tri-block copolymers (tri-BCPs), consisting of three chemically distinct polymers covalently joined together at the ends of each polymer chain, can serve as scaffolds and templates for fabricating a vast number of nanostructures. While quantitatively understanding the details of the morphology and the manner in which the different blocks interact with surfaces and interfaces is critical to success, previous experiments have been few. Now, an international team from the United States, Korea, and Japan has succeeded in combining resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) at ALS Beamline 11.0.1 with transmission electron microscopy tomography (TEMT) and other techniques to unambiguously determine morphologies comprising two nested hexagonally packed arrays of nanoscopic, cylindrical microdomains in the bulk and a core-shell nanostructure in a thin film. Not only has this work revealed a new phase of ABC tri-block copolymer with complicated morphology, it has illustrated the importance of RSoXS as a unique, powerful tool for examining complex, multi-component systems that could not be characterized with conventional methods.

72

Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis—Spotlight on Giner and Proton  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Slides presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis—Spotlight on Giner and Proton" on May 23, 2011.

73

Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis—Spotlight on Giner and Proton  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Video recording of the webinar, Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis—Spotlight on Giner and Proton, originally presented on May 23, 2011.

74

Dye-sensitized solar cells based on electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibre membrane gel electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) based on electrospun nanofibre membrane electrolytes offer several advantages over liquid electrolyte based solar cells. Nanofibre membranes having different thicknesses were prepared by electrospinning on platinum electrodes from a 11 wt% solution of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at an applied voltage of 8 kV. The membranes were then activated by immersing in a solution containing potassium iodide (KI) (0.06 g), propylene carbonate (PC) (0.8 g) and iodine (I2) (0.0092 g) for 30 minutes to obtain “gel” type membrane electrolytes with different thicknesses. These nanofibre membrane electrolytes were used to fabricate quasi-solid state (gel) \\{DSSCs\\} and the performance of these solar cells were compared with \\{DSSCs\\} fabricated with liquid electrolyte (KI:PC:I2) and conventional PAN based gel electrolyte (PAN:KI:PC:I2). DSSC with nanofibre membrane electrolyte of thickness 9.14 ?m showed the highest light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 5.2% whereas an identical cell based on corresponding liquid electrolyte showed an efficiency of 5.3%. The open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit current density (JSc) and fill factor for the solar cell based on this electrolyte was 0.67 V, 13.31 mA cm?2 and 59% respectively at an incident light intensity of 1000 W m?2 with a 1.5 AM filter.

M.A.K.L. Dissanayake; H.K.D.W.M.N.R. Divarathne; C.A. Thotawatthage; C.B. Dissanayake; G.K.R. Senadeera; B.M.R. Bandara

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

76

A Failure and Structural Analysis of Block Copolymer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resistance are determined by fitting an equivalent circuitresistances in the cell can be extracted by fitting equivalentresistance and is approximately 20 ohm-cm throughout the experiment. The equivalent

Stone, Gregory Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Electrochemical characterization of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Water Electrolysis Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to report on the electrochemical characterization of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) water electrolysis cells. Results were obtained using membrane-electrode assemblies containing unsupported IrO2 catalyst at anode for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and carbon-supported platinum nano-particles at the cathode for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Roughness factors of anodes and cathodes have been determined using an internal reference electrode. Individual cell voltage contributions have also been measured as a function of operating current density. Cell impedance spectra have been measured at different cell voltages along the polarization curve. It is shown that charge transfer processes are major cell impedance contributors at voltages up to 1.8-1.9 V. At higher cell voltages, cell impedances are mainly resistive. It is shown that the impedance associated with the HER is negligible and that the two time-constants observed on experimental impedance spectra can both be attributed to the OER. Possible mechanism options are discussed. Finally, some results related to the EIS characterization of PEM water electrolysis stacks are also reported.

C. Rozain; P. Millet

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Journal of Power Sources 160 (2006) 386397 Polymer electrolyte membrane resistance model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that is sandwiched between the catalyst layers. The PEM con- ducts protons from the anode to the cathode pressure at the anode and the cathode on the membrane resistance. The accuracy of the solution is verified applications [1,2]. These polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) consist of the membrane elec- trode

Sethuraman, Vijay A.

79

Water Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzers Used to Recycle Anhydrous HCl  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is car- ried out in an electrolyzer similar to a H2-O2 polymer electrolyte membrane PEM fuel cell. The Du-coated Nafion 115 membrane was measured as a function of HCl flow rate and temperature at a constant cell 50% of the chlorine used in the chemical industry ends up as hydrogen chloride, a waste byproduct.2

Weidner, John W.

80

Nitrogen Front Evolution in Purged Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Dead-Ended Anode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogen Front Evolution in Purged Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell with Dead-Ended Anode and experimentally verify the evolution of liquid water and nitrogen fronts along the length of the anode channel in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell operating with a dead-ended anode that is fed by dry hydrogen

Stefanopoulou, Anna

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Use of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticle/Block Copolymer Electrostatic Complexes as Contrast Agents in Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the past years we have investigated the complexation between nanocolloids and oppositely charged polymers. The nanocolloids examined were ionic surfactant micelles and inorganic oxide nanoparticles. For the polymers, we used homopolyelectrolytes and block copolymers with linear and comb architectures. In general, the attractive interactions between oppositely charged species are strong and as such, the simple mixing of solutions containing dispersed constituents yield to a precipitation, or to a phase separation. We have developed means to control the electrostatically-driven attractions and to preserve the stability of the mixed solution. With these approaches, we designed novel core-shell nanostructures, e.g. as those obtained with polymers and iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles. In this presentation, we show that electrostatic complexation can be used to tailor new functionalized nanoparticles and we provide examples related to biomedical applications in the domain of contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Jean-Francois Berret; Regis Cartier

2007-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

82

Influence of electrolytes and membranes on cell operation for syn-gas production  

SciTech Connect

The impact of membrane type and electrolyte composition for the electrochemical generation of synthesis gas (CO + H2) using a Ag gas diffusion electrode are presented. Changing from a cation exchange membrane to an anion exchange membrane (AEM) extended the cell operational time at low Ecell values (up to 4x) without impacting product composition. The use of KOH as the catholyte decreased the Ecell and resulted in a minimum electrolyte cost reduction of 39%. The prime factor in determining operational time at low Ecell values was the ability to maintain a sufficiently high anolyte pH.

Eric J. Dufek; Tedd E. Lister; Michael E. McIlwain

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Draft Funding Opportunity Announcement for Research and Development of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells for the Hydrogen Economy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Proposed statement of work for the upcoming solicitation for Research and Development of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells for the Hydrogen Economy.

84

High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane  

SciTech Connect

Water transport in the ionomeric membrane, typically Nafion{reg_sign}, has profound influence on the performance of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell, in terms of internal resistance and overall water balance. In this work, high resolution neutron imaging of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane is presented in order to measure water content and through-plane gradients in situ under disparate temperature and humidification conditions.

Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, D S [NIST; Jacobson, D L [NIST; Arif, M [NIST

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Process Controlled Multiscale Morphologies in Metal-containing Block Copolymer Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

Poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane) (PS-b-PFS) is a metal-containing block copolymer that exhibits certain advantages as a mask for lithographic applications. These advantages include compatibility with a wide range of substrates, ease of control over domain morphologies and robust stability to etch plasma, which aid in the development of high-aspect-ratio patterns. An asymmetric cylinder-forming PS-b-PFS copolymer is subjected to different processing to manipulate the morphology of the phase-separated domains. Control of film structure and domain morphology is achieved by adjusting the film thickness, mode of annealing, and/or annealing time. Changing the process from thermal or solvent annealing to hybrid annealing (thermal and then solvent annealing in sequence) leads to the formation of mesoscale spherulitic and dendritic morphologies. In this communication, we show that reversing the order of the hybrid annealing (solvent annealing first and then thermal annealing) of relatively thick films (>100 nm) on homogeneously thick substrates develops disordered lamellar structure. Furthermore, the same processing applied on a substrate with a thin, mechanically flexible window in the center leads to the formation of sub-micron scale concentric ring patterns. Enhanced material mobility in the thick film during hybrid annealing along with dynamic rippling effects that may arise from the vibration of the thin window during spin casting are likely causes for these morphologies.

Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan [ORNL] [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Darling, Seth B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

87

Transport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur Electrolyzer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

not consume fossil fuels or pro- duce CO2 while producing highly pure hydrogen.1-10 Gaseous SO2 fedTransport Properties and Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for the Hybrid Sulfur and Biological Systems Department, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123, USA c Department of Materials Science

Weidner, John W.

88

DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80?C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO{sub 2}, and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

Fox, E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Trifluorostyrene containing compounds, and their use in polymer electrolyte membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluorinated ion exchange polymer is prepared by grafting a monomer onto a base polymer, wherein the grafting monomer is selected from the group consisting of structure 1a, 1b and mixture thereof; ##STR00001## wherein Y is selected from the group consisting of --R.sub.FSO.sub.2F, --R.sub.FSO.sub.3M, --R.sub.SO.sub.2NH.sub.2 and --R.sub.FSO.sub.2N(M)SO.sub.2R.sup.2.sub.F, where in M is hydrogen, an alkali cation or ammonium; and R.sub.F and R.sup.2.sub.F are perfluorinated or partially fluorinated, and may optionally include ether oxygens; and n is between 1 and 2 for 1a, or n is between 1 and 3 for 1b. These ion exchange polymers are useful is preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

Choudhury, Biswajit (Kingston, CA); Roelofs, Mark Gerrit (Hockessin, DE); Yang; Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE)

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

90

Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells; Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storate  

SciTech Connect

Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.

Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory

2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

91

Electrolyte membrane, methods of manufacture thereof and articles comprising the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein is a method of forming an electrolyte membrane comprising forming a mixture; the mixture comprising a polyhydroxy compound, an aromatic polyhalide compound and an alkali metal hydroxide; disposing the mixture on a porous substrate; reacting the mixture to form a crosslinked proton conductor; and sulfonating the proton conductor. Disclosed herein too is an article comprising a porous substrate; and a sulfonated crosslinked proton conductor disposed within pores of the porous substrate.

Tamaki, Ryo; Rice, Steven Thomas; Yeager, Gary William

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

92

Observing proton motion on the nanoscale in polymeric electrolyte membranes with quasielastic neutron scattering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The mechanism of proton conductivity in high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (HT-PEFCs) has been investigated with macroscopic conductivity measurements and on a microscopic scale with quasielastic neutron scattering techniques. Polybenzimidazole membranes, which are used in HT-PEFCs, are doped with phosphoric acid (PA) to achieve the desired proton conductivity. Neutron spin echo experiments showed that the polymer matrix is very rigid incoherent scattering experiments, but incoherent scattering revealed rather fast diffusion processes, compatible with macroscopic conductivity measurements. The measured diffusion is faster than anticipated from the conductivity of a phosphoric acid doped PBI membrane, but slower than that expected for pure phosphoric acid. Over larger distances the fractal polymer membrane network slows down the locally fast diffusion to the macroscopic values. With elastic fixed window scans on a backscattering spectrometer an activation energy of 7.6 kJ/mol is obtained at typical conditions in an HT-PEFC.

O. Holderer; O. Ivanova; B. Hopfenmüller; M. Zamponi; W. Maier; A. Majerus; W. Lehnert; M. Monkenbusch; R. Zorn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Boronization of nickel and nickel clad materials for potential use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A new low-cost, nickel clad bipolar plate concept is currently being developed for use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Reported in this paper are the details of a powder-pack boronization process that would be used to establish a passivation layer on the electrolyte exposed surfaces of the bipolar plate in the final stage of manufacture. Results from energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy indicate that under moderate boronization conditions a homogeneous Ni3B layer grows on the exposed surfaces of the nickel clad material, the thickness of which depends on the time and temperature of boronization according to a Wagner-type scale growth relationship. At higher temperatures and longer reaction times, a Ni2B overlayer forms on top of the Ni3B during boronization.

Weil, K. Scott; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Xia, Gordon; Coleman, J. E.; Yang, Z Gary

2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

94

Synthesis and Characterization of Cross?linked Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Supercapacitor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cross?linked polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) electrolyte membranes have been synthesized by using a solution casting method. In this study PVA was blended with oxidative cross?linked agent (zinc acetate) and nano?sized silica as filler to stabilize PVA matrix and enhance conductivity. The cross?linked membranes were immersed into lithium hydroxide (LiOH) aqueous solution to increase their ionic conductivity. Two techniques were used to characterize the resulted membranes including Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) and AC impedance spectroscopies. The results showed that absorption peaks of C?O?C group and Si?O?Si are presence in the FTIR spectra attributed to the cross?linking process. Impedance spectra indicated that the contribution of ionic dopant (LiOH) to enhance conductivity is insignificant. The highest conductivity of the studied cross?linked PVA membrane is 1.34×10 ?3 ? S ? cm ?1 corresponding to 5% LiOH dopant concentration of cross?linked PVA?zinc acetate?nano silica membrane. The present study also suggested that the solution casting is appropriate for cross?linked membrane synthesis.

Memoria Rosi; Muhamad Prama Ekaputra; Mikrajuddin Abdullah; Khairurrijal

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Controllable Organization of Quantum Dots into Mesoscale Wires and Cables via Interfacial Block Copolymer Self-Assembly  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Controllable Organization of Quantum Dots into Mesoscale Wires and Cables via Interfacial Block Copolymer Self-Assembly ... Figure 2b,c shows higher magnification AFM images of interesting features within the branched cable network, including a typical branch point (b) and a QD/polymer ring incorporated into the cable (c). ... It was noted that several of the LB films containing ring/cable structures also contained small planar aggregates along the length of the cables where an elevated rim was present at the edge of a relatively flat surface, similar to a continent as described by Devereaux et al.26 It appears that these flat surfaces tend to rupture by formation of a single central hole in a secondary dewetting process, followed by the radial growth of the hole. ...

Robert B. Cheyne; Matthew G. Moffitt

2007-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

96

Analysis of the spatially distributed performance degradation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Herein we report the spatially uneven degradation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack operated under load variation. Fifteen sub-membrane electrode assemblies (sub-MEAs) at various cell positions and various points within each cell were obtained from the original \\{MEAs\\} employed in the fuel cell stack. Polarization curves and the voltammetric charge of these \\{MEAs\\} were measured in order to correlate localized performances with the redistributed electrochemically active surface on Pt using the polarization technique and cyclic voltammetry. Several ex situ characterizations including electron probe microanalysis, environmental scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction were also performed to find evidence, supporting the inhomogeneous degradation of the fuel cell stack. Possible routes and processes for the non-uniform stack degradation during the PEMFC stack operation will also be discussed.

Min Kyung Cho; Dae-Nyung Lee; Yi-Young Kim; Jonghee Han; Hyoung-Juhn Kim; EunAe Cho; Tae-Hoon Lim; Dirk Henkensmeier; Sung Jong Yoo; Yung-Eun Sung; Sehkyu Park; Jong Hyun Jang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Two-Dimensional Property Distributions, Ohmic Losses, and Power Consumption within a Fuel Cell Polymer Electrolyte Membrane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two-Dimensional Property Distributions, Ohmic Losses, and Power Consumption within a Fuel Cell Polymer Electrolyte Membrane ... The land provides both mechanical support and electrical contact to the porous transport layer (PTL), while the fuel and oxidant are distributed to the catalyst layer (CL) through the channels, again via the PTL. ... The anisotropic nature of the distributions suggest that there may be localized “hot spots” where an increased rate of power consumption could heat the membrane and cause it to fail. ...

Venkateshwar R. Devulapalli; Aaron V. Phoenix

2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

98

Dynamic Thermal Model of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Budi Hadisujoto, Rehan Refai, Dongmei Chen, Tess J. Moon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic Thermal Model of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Budi Hadisujoto, Rehan Refai to improve the performance of a PEM fuel cell Simulation Results Advanced Power Systems and Controls (GDL) to reduce water saturation · Model water transport in PEM fuel cell Contribution: · Dynamic

Ben-Yakar, Adela

99

Corrosion and contact resistance measurements of different bipolar plate material for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Different types of commercial stainless steels (SS316, SS310 and incoloy 800), poco graphite, composite graphite, titanium carbide, zirconium carbide and carbide base coating on aluminum substrate using thermal spray technique were evaluated as metallic bipolar plate in terms of Interfacial Contact Resistance (ICR) and corrosion resistance in a solution simulating the environment of a bipolar plate in a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), 0.5 M H2SO4 and 200 ppm HF at room temperature. In addition, a comparison between graphite composites and carbide-based amorphous metallic coating alloy bipolar plate cost analysis. Results show that stainless steels have a high ICR and undergo corrosion in both anode and cathode due to the passive film formation. Moreover, although carbide-based alloy showed an ICR much less than composite graphite, their behaviour was not satisfactory in corrosive acidic medium.

Yue Hung; Hazem Tawfik; K.M. El-Khatib; Hammam El-Abd

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Poly(cyclohexadiene)-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this research project was to create and develop fuel cell membranes having high proton conductivity at high temperatures and high chemical and mechanical durability. Poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) is of interest as an alternative polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) material due to its ring-like structure which is expected to impart superior mechanical and thermal properties, and due to the fact that PCHD can readily be incorporated into a range of homopolymer and copolymer structures. PCHD can be aromatized, sulfonated, or fluorinated, allowing for tuning of key performance structure and properties. These factors include good proton transport, hydrophilicity, permeability (including fuel gas impermeability), good mechanical properties, morphology, thermal stability, crystallinity, and cost. The basic building block, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, is a hydrocarbon monomer that could be inexpensively produced on a commercial scale (pricing typical of other hydrocarbon monomers). Optimal material properties will result in novel low cost PEM membranes engineered for high conductivity at elevated temperatures and low relative humidities, as well as good performance and durability. The primary objectives of this project were: (1) To design, synthesize and characterize new non-Nafion PEM materials that conduct protons at low (25-50%) RH and at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 120 C; and (2) To achieve these objectives, a range of homopolymer and copolymer materials incorporating poly(cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) will be synthesized, derivatized, and characterized. These two objectives have been achieved. Sulfonated and crosslinked PCHD homopolymer membranes exhibit proton conductivities similar to Nafion in the mid-RH range, are superior to Nafion at higher RH, but are poorer than Nafion at RH < 50%. Thus to further improve proton conductivity, particularly at low RH, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was incorporated into the membrane by blending and by copolymerization. Conductivity measurements at 120 C over RH ranging from 20 to 100% using the BekkTech protocol showed much improved proton conductivities. Conductivities for the best of these new membranes exceed the DOE Year 3 milestone of 100 mS/cm at 50% RH at 120 C. Further optimization of these very promising low cost membranes could be pursued in the future.

Mays, Jimmy W.

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Redox Flow Battery (RFB) with Low-cost Electrolyte and Membrane Technologies - Thomas Kodenkandath, ITN Energy Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Innovative, high energy density Mn-V based RFB electrolytes as a Innovative, high energy density Mn-V based RFB electrolytes as a low-cost alternate to all-Vanadium systems * Low-cost membrane technology, based on renewable biopolymer Chitosan with improved proton conduction & chemical stability, adaptable to Mn-V system * Scale-up of electrolyte and membrane technologies in pursuit of ARPA-E's goal for a 2.5kW/10kWh RFB stack with integrated BoS at a total cost of ~$1000/unit and ~1.2 m 3 footprint ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO 2.5kW/10kWh Redox Flow Battery (RFB) with Low-cost Electrolyte and Membrane Technologies $2.1 M, 33-month program awarded by ARPA-E Sept 7, 2012 Dr. Thomas Kodenkandath High-Performance, Low-cost RFB through Electrolyte & Membrane Innovations Technology Summary

102

Effects of Membrane- and Catalyst-layer-thickness Nonuniformities in Polymer-electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy, Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cell, and Infrastructurein Polymer-electrolyte Fuel Cells Adam Z. Weber 1, * ,z andAs polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) make the transfer

Weber, Adam Z.; Newman, John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Effects of anode flooding on the performance degradation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks in a fuel cell vehicle can be inevitably exposed to harsh environments such as cold weather in winter, causing water flooding by the direct flow of condensed water to the electrodes. In this study, anode flooding was experimentally investigated with condensed water generated by cooling the anode gas line during a long-term operation (?1600 h). The results showed that the performance of the PEMFC was considerably degraded. After the long-term experiment, the thickness of the anode decreased, and the ratio of Pt to carbon in the anode increased. Moreover, repeated fuel starvation of the half-cell severely oxidized the carbon surface due to the high induced potential (>1.5 VRHE). The cyclic voltammogram of the anode in the half-cell experiments indicated that the characteristic feature of the oxidized carbon surface was similar to that of the anode in the single cell under anode flooding conditions during the long-term experiment. Therefore, repeated fuel starvation by anode flooding caused severe carbon corrosion in the anode because the electrode potential locally increased to >1.0 VRHE. Consequently, the density of the tri-phase boundary decreased due to the corrosion of carbons supporting the Pt nanoparticles in the anode.

Mansu Kim; Namgee Jung; KwangSup Eom; Sung Jong Yoo; Jin Young Kim; Jong Hyun Jang; Hyoung-Juhn Kim; Bo Ki Hong; EunAe Cho

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Influence of thermal post-curing on the degradation of a cross-linked polybenzimidazole-based membrane for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The lifetime stability of membranes is one of the main requirements regarding reliability of high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The present work has improved durability under cycled operation by thermal post-curing of cross-linked polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based membranes. The membranes were dried over 1, 2 and 3 h at 250 °C under air. Ex-situ experiments proved an increase in stability by post-curing. The liquid uptake and swelling in phosphoric acid increased with longer curing periods. The effect of thermal treatments on cycle stability, lifetime and begin-of-life performance of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) was investigated. Longer post-curing periods of the membranes had no influence on the MEAs' begin-of-life performance and constant current behavior over 2300 h. However, the 3 h post-cured \\{MEAs\\} showed enhanced cycle stability. Post-mortem analysis was carried out to identify the occurring degradation mechanisms. While a significant loss of phosphoric acid and a reduction of electrochemical surface activity on the cathode were observed for both post-cured MEAs, the 3 h dried membrane sample had a significantly higher resistance against pinhole formation during the long term test. Altogether, this work presents thermal post-curing as a promising method for the reduction of degradation determining effects in fuel cell membranes.

T. Ossiander; M. Perchthaler; C. Heinzl; C. Scheu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Effects of Membrane- and Catalyst-layer-thickness Nonuniformities in Polymer-electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thicknesses for the membrane and catalyst layer. Figure 2.of dry membrane (a) and catalyst-layer (b) thickness (andhollow symbols) and catalyst-layer (filled symbols)

Weber, Adam Z.; Newman, John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Dual phase polymer gel electrolyte based on non-woven poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)–layered clay nanocomposite fibrous membranes for lithium ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? P(VdF-co-HFP)–clay nanocomposite based electrospun membranes are prepared. ? The membranes are used as polymer gel electrolyte (PGE) in lithium ion batteries. ? The composite PGE shows ionic conductivity of 5.5 mS cm{sup ?1} at room temperature. ? Li/PGE/LiFePO{sub 4} cell delivers initial discharge capacity of 160 mAh g{sup ?1}. ? The use of prepared electrolyte significantly improved the cell performance. -- Abstract: A new approach for fabricating polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) based on electrospun poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-co-HFP)) incorporated with layered nanoclay has been employed to enhance the ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of P(VdF-co-HFP) without compromising its mechanical strength. The effect of layered nanoclay on properties of membranes has been evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Surface morphology of the membranes has been studied using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Polymer gel electrolytes are prepared by soaking the fibrous membrane into 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC/DEC. The electrochemical studies show that incorporation of layered nanoclay into the polymer matrix greatly enhanced the ionic conductivity and compatibility with lithium electrodes. The charge–discharge properties and cycling performance of Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells comprising nanocomposite polymer gel electrolytes have been evaluated at room temperature.

Shubha, Nageswaran [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Prasanth, Raghavan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute - NTU (ERI-N) Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); TUM-CREATE Center for Electromobility, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Hoon, Hng Huey [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Srinivasan, Madhavi, E-mail: madhavi@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute - NTU (ERI-N) Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); TUM-CREATE Center for Electromobility, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637553 (Singapore)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Dynamic modelling and simulation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell used in vehicle considering heat transfer effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel cell technology is recently becoming one of the most interesting fields for the car companies to invest in. This interest is because of their high efficiency and zero environmental pollution. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are the most appropriate type of fuel cells for use in vehicles due to their low performance temperature and high power density. Air and fuel mass flow rate and partial pressure fuel cell stack temperature relative humidity of fuel cellmembrane and heat and water management are the effective parameters of fuel cellpower systems. Good transient behavior is one of the important factors that affect the success of fuel cell vehicles. In order to avoid stack voltage drop during transient condition the control system of fuel cell vehicle is required to preserve optimal temperature membrane hydration and partial pressure of reactants across the membrane. In this paper we developed a dynamic model for fuel cellpower system. The compressor dynamic supply and return manifold filling dynamics (anode and cathode) cooling system dynamic membrane hydration and time-evolving reactant partial pressure are the most significant parameters in transient and steady state of system. The effects of membrane humidity varying inlet air pressure and compressor performance condition on the generated power are studied in this paper.

S. M. Hosseini; A. H. Shamekhi; A. Yazdani

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Unique battery with a multi-functional, physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and a method making the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a unique battery having a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and method of making the same. The Applicant's invented battery employs a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode that acts as a separator, electrolyte, and electrode, within the same monolithic structure. The chemical composition, physical arrangement of molecules, and physical geometry of the pores play a role in the sequestration and conduction of ions. In one preferred embodiment, ions are transported via the ion-hoping mechanism where the oxygens of the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 wall are available for positive ion coordination (i.e. Li.sup.+). This active membrane-electrode composite can be adjusted to a desired level of ion conductivity by manipulating the chemical composition and structure of the pore wall to either increase or decrease ion conduction.

Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klinger, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

109

Modeling Studies of a Cylindrical Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Cathode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cathode catalyst layer is modeled using spherical agglomerate characterization. ... (16-19) In the present work, we have developed a two-dimensional (2-D) steady-state model of a cylindrical PEMFC cathode under air-breathing and pressurized conditions. ... We adopt an agglomerate catalyst layer model and recast it into a compact form for optimization of polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathodes. ...

Srinivasarao Modekurti; Brian Bullecks; Debangsu Bhattacharyya; Raghunathan Rengaswamy

2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

110

Nanostructured epoxies based on the self-assembly of block copolymers: a new miscible block that can be tailored to different epoxy formulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanostructured thermosets may be obtained by self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in a reactive solvent and fixation of the morphologies by the cross-linking reaction. Nanostructuration requires the presence of a bock that remains miscible in the polymer during polymerization. The selection of the miscible block depends on the particular system and in some cases (e.g., for epoxy-amine network based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, and 4,4'- diaminodiphenylsulfone) it is very difficult to find such a block. In this manuscript it is shown that random copolymers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) containing different molar fractions of DMA, can be used as a miscible block for the nanostructuration of epoxies. The miscibility of the random copolymer during formation of the epoxy network was first analyzed determining cloud-point conversions as a function of the molar fraction of DMA in the copolymer. A thermodynamic model of the phase separation was performed using the Flory-Huggins model and taking the polydispersities of both polymers into account. A single expression of the interaction parameter based on the theory of random copolymers provided a reasonable fitting of the experimental cloud-point curves. The significant increase in the miscibility produced by using small DMA molar fractions in the copolymer was explained by the high negative value of the binary interaction energy between DMA and the epoxy-amine solvent, associated to the positive value of the interaction energy between DMA and MMA units. Block copolymers with poly(n-butyl acrylate) as the immiscible block and the random copolymer P(MMA-co-DMA) as the miscible block were used for the nanostructuration of epoxy networks. The necessary molar fraction of DMA in the miscible block to stabilize a dispersion of nanosize domains depended on the fraction of the immiscible block.

S. Maiez-Tribut; J. P. Pascault; E. R. Soule; J. Borrajo; R. J. J. Williams

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

111

Porous membrane electrochemical cell for uranium and transuranic recovery from molten salt electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process and device for the recovery of the minor actinides and the transuranic elements (TRU's) from a molten salt electrolyte. The process involves placing the device, an electrically non-conducting barrier between an anode salt and a cathode salt. The porous barrier allows uranium to diffuse between the anode and cathode, yet slows the diffusion of uranium ions so as to cause depletion of uranium ions in the catholyte. This allows for the eventual preferential deposition of transuranics present in spent nuclear fuel such as Np, Pu, Am, Cm. The device also comprises an uranium oxidation anode. The oxidation anode is solid uranium metal in the form of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel is placed in a ferric metal anode basket which serves as the electrical lead or contact between the molten electrolyte and the anodic uranium metal.

Willit, James L. (Ratavia, IL)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

112

Porous membrane electrochemical cell for uranium and transuranic recovery from molten salt electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process and device for the recovery of the minor actinides and the transuranic elements (TRU's) from a molten salt electrolyte. The process involves placing the device, an electrically non-conducting barrier between an anode salt and a cathode salt. The porous barrier allows uranium to diffuse between the anode and cathode, yet slows the diffusion of uranium ions so as to cause depletion of uranium ions in the catholyte. This allows for the eventual preferential deposition of transuranics present in spent nuclear fuel such as Np, Pu, Am, Cm. The device also comprises an uranium oxidation anode. The oxidation anode is solid uranium metal in the form of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel is placed in a ferric metal anode basket which serves as the electrical lead or contact between the molten electrolyte and the anodic uranium metal.

Willit, James L. (Batavia, IL)

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

113

Nanofiltration of Electrolyte Solutions by Sub-2nm Carbon Nanotube Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Both MD simulations and experimental studies have shown that liquid and gas flow through carbon nanotubes with nanometer size diameter is exceptionally fast. For applications in separation technology, selectivity is required together with fast flow. In this work, we use pressure-driven filtration experiments to study ion exclusion in silicon nitride/sub-2-nm CNT composite membranes as a function of solution ionic strength, pH, and ion valence. We show that carbon nanotube membranes exhibit significant ion exclusion at low salt concentration. Our results support a rejection mechanism dominated by electrostatic interactions between fixed membrane charges and mobile ions, while steric and hydrodynamic effects appear to be less important. Comparison with commercial nanofiltration membranes for water softening reveals that our carbon nanotube membranes provides far superior water fluxes for similar ion rejection capabilities.

Fornasiero, F; Park, H G; Holt, J K; Stadermann, M; Kim, S; In, J B; Grigoropoulos, C P; Noy, A; Bakajin, O

2008-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

114

Designed Assembly of Biomimetic Membrane From Amphiphilic Copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of block copolymer (PS?PAA) vesicles in different the block copolymer PS?PAA vesicles in different conditions.11  2.2 Block copolymers: PS?PAA and PB?

Tseng, Chun-Che

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Ion Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells and other Electrochemical Devices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ion conducting membrane; fuel cell; redox-flow battery; Li ion battery; proton; hydroxide; diffusion; conductivity; nanomorphology; hydration; visco-elastic constants; phosphate; polyelectrolyte; ionomer; block-copolymer; Nafion; Aquivion ... At this stage, however, they have an immediate potential for redox-flow battery applications, as will be discussed later. ... When the flow battery is charged or discharged, an equivalent amount of ionic charge has to cross the membrane, while the ions involved in the redox process have to be efficiently separated. ...

Klaus-Dieter Kreuer

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

116

Investigation of the performance and water transport of a polymer electrolyte membrane (pem) fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel cell performance was obtained as functions of the humidity at the anode and cathode sites, back pressure, flow rate, temperature, and channel depth. The fuel cell used in this work included a membrane and electrode assembly (MEA) which...

Park, Yong Hun

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Experimental characterization of water sorption and transport properties of polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??L'objectif général de cette thèse de doctorat est de caractériser les propriétés de membranes PFSA de type Nafion N115 et Nafion NRE212 en termes de… (more)

Maldonado Sánchez, Libeth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics. In another aspect, the electrolyte exhibits a conductivity drop when the temperature of electrolyte increases over a threshold temperature, thereby providing a shutoff mechanism for preventing thermal runaway in lithium battery cells.

Mullin, Scott; Panday, Ashoutosh; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

119

High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte membrane  

SciTech Connect

To achieve a deeper understanding of water transport and performance issues associated with water management, we have conducted in situ water examinations to help understand the effects of components and operation. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and neutron radiography were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells under various operating conditions. Variables examined include: sub-freezing conditions, inlet relative humidities, cell temperature, current density and response transients, different flow field orientations and different component materials (membranes, GDLs and MEAs). Quantification of the water within the membrane was made by neutron radiography after equilibration to different humidified gases, during fuel cell operation and in hydrogen pump mode. The water content was evaluated in bare Nafion{reg_sign} membranes as well as in MEAs operated in both fuel cell and H{sub 2} pump mode. These in situ imaging results allow measurement of the water content and gradients in the PEFC membrane and relate the membrane water transport characteristics to the fuel cell operation and performance under disparate materials and operational combinations. Flow geometry makes a large impact on MEA water content. Higher membrane water with counter flow was measured compared with co-flow for sub-saturated inlet RH's. This correlates to lower HFR and higher performance compared with co-flow. Higher anode stoichiometry helps remove water which accumulates in the anode channels and GDL material. Cell orientation was measured to affect both the water content and cell performance. While membrane water content was measured to be similar regardless of orientation, cells with the cathode on top show flooding and loss of performance compared with similarly operated cells with the anode on top. Transient fuel cell current measurements show a large degree of hysteresis in terms of membrane hydration as measured by HFR. Current step transients from 0.01 A cm{sup -2} to 0.68 A cm{sup -2} consistently show PEM wetting occurring within 5 to 20 sec. Whereas the PEM drying response to the reverse step transient of 0.68 A cm{sup -2} to 0.01 A cm{sup -2}, takes several minutes. The observed faster wetting response is due to reaction water being produced in the cathode and back diffusing into the membrane. The slower PEM drying is due to the water slowly being removed out of the wetted GDLs. This rate of removal of water and hence the PEM hydration level was found to be influenced strongly by the PTFE loadings in the GDL substrate and Microporous layer (MPL). The drying of the membrane is influenced by both the anode and cathode GDL PTFE loadings. Lower PTFE loading in the anode GDL leads to better membrane hydration probably due to the easier incorporation of water from the anode GDL into the membrane. Similarly a lower PTFE loading in the cathode GDL also results in better membrane hydration probably due to the better water retention properties (less hydrophobic) of this GDL. Fuel cells operated isothermal at sub-freezing temperatures show gradual cell performance decay over time and eventually drops to zero. AC impedance analysis indicates that losses are initially due to increasing charge transfer resistance. After time, the rate of decay accelerates rapidly due to mass transport limitations. High frequency resistance also increases over time and is a function of the initial membrane water content. These results indicate that catalyst layer ice formation is influenced strongly by the MEA and is responsible for the long-term degradation of fuel cells operated at sub-freezing temperatures. Water distribution measurements indicate that ice may be fonning mainly in the GDLs at -10 C but are concentrated in the catalyst layer at -20 C.

Spernjak, Dusan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fairweather, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukherjee, Partha [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Highly Conductive Anion Exchange Membrane for High Power Density Fuel-Cell Performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

membranes (fueled with H or MeOH) and also to identify candidate alk. ... Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) provide one possible route to low platinum or platinum-free fuel cells with the potential for facile oxidn. of complex fuels beyond hydrogen and methanol. ... Price, S. C.; Ren, X. M.; Jackson, A. C.; Ye, Y. S.; Elabd, Y. A.; Beyer, F. L.Bicontinuous Alkaline Fuel Cell Membranes from Strongly Self-Segregating Block Copolymers Macromolecules 2013, 46, 7332– 7340 ...

Xiaoming Ren; Samuel C. Price; Aaron C. Jackson; Natalie Pomerantz; Frederick L. Beyer

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Investigation of polymer electrolyte membrane chemical degradation and degradation mitigation using in situ fluorescence spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...membranes (with and without catalyst layers and CeO 2 ) corrected for catalyst-dye interactions where...anode and O 2 across the cathode and corrected for metal-dye...H 2 O 2 production in PEMFC cathode conditions . J Appl Electrochem...

Venkateshkumar Prabhakaran; Christopher G. Arges; Vijay Ramani

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Stable trifluorostyrene containing compounds grafted to base polymers, and their use as polymer electrolyte membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fluorinated ion exchange polymer prepared by grafting at least one grafting monomer on to at least one base polymer, wherein the grafting monomer comprises structure 1a or 1b: wherein Z comprises S, SO.sub.2, or POR wherein R comprises a linear or branched perfluoroalkyl group of 1 to 14 carbon atoms optionally containing oxygen or chlorine, an alkyl group of 1 to 8 carbon atoms, an aryl group of 6 to 12 carbon atoms or a substituted aryl group of 6 to 12 carbon atoms; RF comprises a linear or branched perfluoroalkene group of 1 to 20 carbon atoms, optionally containing oxygen or chlorine; Q is chosen from F, --OM, NH.sub.2, --N(M)SO.sub.2R.sup.2.sub.F, and C(M)(SO.sub.2R.sup.2.sub.F).sub.2, wherein M comprises H, an alkali cation, or ammonium; R.sup.2.sub.F groups comprises alkyl of 1 to 14 carbon atoms which may optionally include ether oxygens or aryl of 6 to 12 carbon atoms where the alkyl or aryl groups may be perfluorinated or partially fluorinated; and n is 1 or 2 for 1a, and n is 1, 2, or 3 for 1b. These ion exchange polymers are useful in preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies used in fuel cells.

Yang, Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE); Roelofs, Mark Gerrit (Hockessin, DE)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

123

Research Strategies for Development of an Efficient and Effective Electrocatalyst for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells and Progress Summary  

SciTech Connect

The current electrocatalyst formulation for the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), platinum supported on carbon (Pt/C), is known to be an effective promoter of redox reactions in fuel cells. However, the cost of Pt (currently ~$2,000/troy ounce) hinders its use as a practical catalyst in commercial fuel cell-powered vehicles at current platinum loading. Another issue with respect to adoption of any electrocatalyst for vehicle applications is durability, especially in light of transportation drive cycle operation with start/stop, start-up/shut-down, and transient requirements. Thus, a robust alternative to current Pt/C technology is needed as the PEMFC electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode. The U.S. Department of Energy is funding cathode catalyst research on low-platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts, including alloys and core-shell systems, and on non-PGM catalysts. This paper provides an overview of the issues, approaches, and status of the research.

Payne, Terry L [ORNL; Benjamin, Tom [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Garland, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy; Kopasz, John [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYZER OPERATION WITH VARYING INLET WATER FEED CONFIGURATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolysis is a potential alternative technology to crack water in specialty applications where a dry gas stream is needed, such as isotope production. One design proposal is to feed the cathode of the electrolyzer with vapor phase water. This feed configuration would allow isotopic water to be isolated on the cathode side of the electrolyzer and the isotope recovery system could be operated in a closed loop. Tests were performed to characterize the difference in the current-voltage behavior between a PEM electrolyzer operated with a cathode water vapor feed and with an anode liquid water feed. The cathode water vapor feed cell had a maximum limiting current density of 100 mA/cm2 at 70 C compared to a current density of 800 mA/cm2 for the anode liquid feed cell at 70 C. The limiting current densities for the cathode water vapor feed cell were approximately 3 times lower than predicted by a water mass transfer model. It is estimated that a cathode water vapor feed electrolyzer system will need to be between 8-14 times larger in active area or number of cells than an anode liquid feed system.

Fox, E

2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

125

Reference electrode for electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

Kessie, R.W.

1988-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

126

Title: Pore formation in Polymer Electrolytes Abstract: Much of our ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The efficient conversion of energy from one form to another, particularly solar, ... The polymer electrolytes in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells ...

127

Electrolytes - Advanced Electrolyte and Electrolyte Additives...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and Electrolyte Additives Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery...

128

Dynamics of Block Copolymer Nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect

A detailed study of the dynamics of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles suspended in polystyrene homopolymer matrices was carried out using X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy for temperatures between 120 and 180 °C. For low molecular weight polystyrene homopolymers, the observed dynamics show a crossover from diffusive to hyper-diffusive behavior with decreasing temperatures. For higher molecular weight polystyrene, the nanoparticle dynamics appear hyper-diffusive at all temperatures studied. The relaxation time and characteristic velocity determined from the measured hyper-diffusive dynamics reveal that the activation energy and underlying forces determined are on the order of 2.14 × 10?19 J and 87 pN, respectively. We also carried out a detailed X-ray scattering study of the static and dynamic behavior of a styrene– isoprene diblock copolymer melt with a styrene volume fraction of 0.3468. At 115 and 120 °C, we observe splitting of the principal Bragg peak, which we attribute to phase coexistence of hexagonal cylindrical and cubic double- gyroid structure. In the disordered phase, above 130 °C, we have characterized the dynamics of composition fluctuations via X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Near the peak of the static structure factor, these fluctuations show stretched-exponential relaxations, characterized by a stretching exponent of about 0.36 for a range of temperatures immediately above the MST. The corresponding characteristic relaxation times vary exponentially with temperature, changing by a factor of 2 for each 2 °C change in temperature. At low wavevectors, the measured relaxations are diffusive with relaxation times that change by a factor of 2 for each 8 °C change in temperature.

Mochrie, Simon G. J.

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

129

Mesoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. ; Register, R. A. ; Marchand, G. R. Macromolecules 1997,D. J. ; Loo, Y. L. ; Marchand, G. R. ; Fetters, L. J.

Wong, David Tunmin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Pattern transfer using block copolymers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...reported to be used as an electrode for battery applications [97]. Alternatively...antireflective coatings [159], patterning graphene transistors [160], biosensors [161...S Jiang, Y Huang, and X Duan. 2010 Graphene nanomesh. Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 190-194...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic performance properties of experimental membranes, 9) fabrication and FC performance testing of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) from experimental membranes, and 10) measurement of ex situ and in situ membrane durability of experimental membranes. Although none of the experimental hydrocarbon membranes that issued from the project displayed proton conductivities that met DOE requirements, the project contributed to our basic understanding of membrane structure-property relationships in a number of key respects. An important finding of the benchmark studies is that physical degradation associated with humidity and temperature variations in the FC tend to open new fuel crossover pathways and act synergistically with chemical degradation to accelerate overall membrane degradation. Thus, for long term membrane survival and efficient fuel utilization, membranes must withstand internal stresses due to humidity and temperature changes. In this respect, rigid aromatic hydrocarbon fuel cell membranes, e.g. PAES, offer an advantage over un-modified Nafion membranes. The benchmark studies also showed that broadband dielectric spectroscopy is a potentially powerful tool in assessing shifts in the fundamental macromolecular dynamics caused by Nafion chemical degradation, and thus, this technique is of relevance in interrogating proton exchange membrane durability in fuel cells and macromolecular dynamics as coupled to proton migration, which is of fundamental relevance in proton exchange membranes in fuel cells. A key finding from the hydrocarbon membrane synthesis effort was that rigid aromatic polymers containing isolated ion exchange groups tethered tightly to the backbone (short tether), such as HPPS, provide excellent mechanical and durability properties but do not provide sufficient conductivity, in either random or block configuration, when used as the sole ion exchange monomer. However, we continue to hypothesize that longer tethers, and tethered groups spaced more closely within the hydrophilic chain elements of the polymer, will yield highly conductive materials with excellent mech

Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

132

Degradation pattern prediction of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack with series reliability structure via durability data of single cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The insufficient long-term durability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stacks has been blocking commercialization of PEMFC technologies. An accelerated degradation test (ADT) is needed to facilitate the PEMFC development process by reducing the testing time. We propose an ADT procedure for a PEMFC stack with the concept of series reliability structure under startup–shutdown cycling testing conditions. The acceleration factor is estimated to fit the degradation paths of individual cells consisting of the PEMFC stack under normal use conditions via the accelerated degradation data of a single cell. We employ a nonparametric regression method to smooth the degradation curves observed from accelerated operating conditions. We illustrate the methodology for estimating the lifetime of the PEMFC stack using the theory of the smallest-order statistics. We propose a three-parameter Weibull distribution in fuel cell technology to fit the failure data of cells in a PEMFC stack.

Suk Joo Bae; Seong-Joon Kim; Jin-Hwa Lee; Inseob Song; Nam-In Kim; Yongho Seo; Ki Buem Kim; Naesung Lee; Jun-Young Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Composite Electrolyte to Stabilize Metallic Lithium Anodes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- Develop composites of electrolyte materials with requisite electrochemical and mechanical properties - Fabricate thin membranes to provide good power performance and long...

134

A new approach to optimize the operating conditions of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell based on degradation mechanisms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Performance degradation remains as one of the primary limitations ... practical applications of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The performance of a PEM fuel cell stack is affected by many internal and...

Ramin Roshandel; Tarannom Parhizgar

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Nanoparticles made of multi-block copolymer of lactic acid and ethylene glycol containing periodic side-chain carboxyl groups for oral delivery of cyclosporine A  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...outcome of CsA treatment (Lindholm Kahan...5 N HCl and water, then precipitated...the basis of electrophoretic mobility under an electric field as an average...washed twice with water and CsA was extracted...observed using the dialysis membrane method...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Chelating agent assisted heat treatment of carbon supported cobalt oxide nanoparticle for use as cathode catalyst of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cobalt-based catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) have been successfully incorporated cobalt oxide (Co3O4) onto Vulcan XC-72 carbon powder by thermal decomposition of Co–ethylenediamine complex (ethylenediamine, NH2CH2CH2NH2, denoted en) at 850 °C. The catalysts were prepared by adsorbing the cobalt complexes [Co(en)(H2O)4]3+, [Co(en)2(H2O)2]3+ and [Co(en)3]3+ on commercial XC-72 carbon black supports, loading amount of Co with respect to carbon black was about 2%, the resulting materials have been pyrolyzed under nitrogen atmosphere to create CoOx/C catalysts, donated as E1, E2, and E3, respectively. The composite materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Chemical compositions of prepared catalysts were determined using inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The catalytic activities for ORR have been analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction of E2 is superior to that of E1 and E3. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) containing the synthesized CoOx/C cathode catalysts were fabricated and evaluated by single cell tests. The E2 cathode performed better than that of E1 and E3 cathode. This can be attributed to the enhanced activity for ORR, in agreement with the composition of the catalyst that CoO co-existed with Co3O4. The maximum power density 73 mW cm?2 was obtained at 0.3 V with a current density of 240 mA cm?2 for E2 and the normalized power density of E2 is larger than that that of commercial 20 wt.% Pt/C-ETEK.

Chia-Hung Huang; Shyh-Jiun Liu; Weng-Sing Hwang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Thermally Nitrided Stainless Steels for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates: Part 2: Beneficial Modification of Passive Layer on AISI446  

SciTech Connect

Thermal nitridation of AISI446 mod-1 superferritic stainless steel for 24 h at 1100 C resulted in an adherent, inward growing surface layer based on (Cr, Fe){sub 2}N{sub 1-x} (x = 0--0.5). The layer was not continuous, and although it resulted in low interfacial contact resistance (ICR) and good corrosion resistance under simulated polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) cathodic conditions; poor corrosion resistance was observed under simulated anodic conditions. Nitridation for 2 h at 1100 C resulted in little nitrogen uptake and a tinted surface. Analysis by SEM, XPS, and AES suggested a complex heterogeneous modification of the native passive oxide film by nitrogen rather than the desired microns-thick exclusive Cr-rich nitride layer. Surprisingly, this modification resulted in both good corrosion resistance under simulated cathodic and anodic conditions and low ICR, well over an order of magnitude lower than the untreated alloy. Further, little increase in ICR was observed under passivating polarization conditions. The potential of this phenomenon for PEMFC bipolar plates is discussed.

Wang, Heli [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Brady, Michael P [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Turner, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the design and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion membrane as the electrolyte. We studied the effect of cell resistance, hydrogen and oxygen flow rates, and electrolyte ...

Ranga S. Jayashree; Michael Mitchell; Dilip Natarajan; Larry J. Markoski; Paul J. A. Kenis

2007-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

139

Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup ?6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup ?4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup ?3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

Fauzi, Iqbal, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

140

Some durability considerations for proton exchange membranes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

creates an aggressive environment for the electrolyte membrane. This includes: - Mechanical stresses related to changes in the level of membrane hydration. - Thermal...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers  

SciTech Connect

Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

142

Block Copolymer Separators for Lithium Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

143

Photo-responsive liquid crystal block copolymers/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photo-responsive liquid crystal polymers (LCP) which contain azobenzene moieties have gained interest for their ability to change properties by merely irradiating them with the correct wavelength of light in the appropriate ...

Petr, Michael Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

MonolayerThickness of Block Copolymer Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.47 · Index of ref. for PS-PEHMA 1.51 #12;Annealing the films · Tg 22nm 24nm Height Images #12;AFM 12-33 26nm 28nm 30nm Bi-continuous #12;12-33Area% 13.08 31.55 41 Area % Thickness (nm) Monolayer: 18.86nm Bilayer: 37.72nm #12;Monolayer thickness 12

Petta, Jason

145

Block Copolymer Separators for Lithium Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Members HEV (2010) PHEV (2015) EV (2020) Characteristics Unit Available Energy Density Whkg 5-13 30-200 100-130 Available Energy Density Whl 7-20 40-290 200-300...

146

Using Membrane Sets Incorporated into a Crossflow Electrofiltration/Electrodialysis Treatment Module to Treat CMP Wastewater and Simultaneously Generate Electrolytic Ionized Water.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this work, membrane set(s) had been incorporated into different crossflow electrofiltration (CEF) /electrodialysis (ED) treatment modules for treating various CMP wastewaters and simultaneously generating… (more)

Yang, Tsung-Yin

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Chapter 9 - Nanotechnology-Based Membranes for Water Purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Herein we present a critical review of nanotechnology-enabled materials touted as low-energy replacements for conventional reverse osmosis (RO) membranes in desalination and water reuse applications. Zeolite coatings promise a highly selective material that have the chemical, thermal, and mechanical stabilities of conventional ceramic membranes. Nanocomposite membranes exhibit up to three times higher permeability than current commercial polymeric membranes, with no change in salt rejection, and can be fabricated with antimicrobial and photoreactive functionalities. Biomimetic membranes can produce highly selective membranes potentially useful in both forward osmosis and RO applications. Aquaporin (AQP)-based lipid bilayer vesicles exhibit nearly 100 times higher water permeability than commercial membranes with near perfect salt rejection. Carbon nanotube (CNT)- and graphene-based membranes (theoretically) exhibit acceptable salt rejections with water permeabilities between 5 and 1000 times higher than commercial membranes. Self-assembled block copolymer membranes represent a fully polymeric approach to forming highly selective structures reminiscent of AQP- or CNT-based materials.

Eric M.V. Hoek; Mary Theresa M. Pendergast; Asim K. Ghosh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

A thin-film/agglomerate model of a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell cathode catalyst layer with consideration of solid-polymer-electrolyte distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental work on the proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has revealed that a better utilization of carbon supported platinum catalyst (Pt/C) hinges on an appropriate...1–12...]. GDE is prepared by a po...

Ken-Ming Yin

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Polymer anion-selective membranes for electrolytic splitting of water. Part II: Enhancement of ionic conductivity and performance under conditions of alkaline water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An attempt was made to increase the ionic conductivity of novel, heterogeneous, anion-selective membranes by increasing the porosity of their surface skin. This was based on the addition of a water-soluble compon...

Jaromír Hnát; Martin Paidar; Jan Schauer; Jan Žitka…

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted electrolyte cell Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modelica This presentation will describe... a dynamic and spatially distributed (quasi 2- dimensional) Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell... model that has been created...

151

Task 1: Modeling Study of CO Effects on Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Anodes Task 2: Study of Ac Impedance as Membrane/Electrode Manufacturing Diagnostic Tool  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide poisoning of polymer electrolyte fuel cell anodes is a key problem to be overcome when operating a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) on reformed fuels. CO adsorbs preferentially on the precious metal surface leading to substantial performance losses. Some recent work has explored this problem, primarily using various Pt alloys in attempts to lower the degree of surface deactivation. In their studies of hydrogen oxidation on Pt and Pt alloy (Pt/Sn, Pt/Ru) rotating disk electrodes exposed to H{sub 2}/CO mixtures, Gasteiger et al. showed that a small hydrogen oxidation current is observed well before the onset of major CO oxidative stripping (ca. 0.4 V) on Pt/Ru. However, these workers concluded that such current observed at low anode overpotentials was too low to be of practical value. Nonetheless, MST-11 researchers and others have found experimentally that it is possible to run a PEFC, e.g., with a Pt/Ru anode, in the presence of CO levels in the range 10--100 ppm with little voltage loss. Such experimental results suggest that, in fact, PEFC operation at significant current densities under low anode overpotentials is possible in the presence of such levels of CO, even before resorting to air bleeding into the anode feed stream. The latter approach has been shown to be effective in elimination of Pt anode catalyst poisoning effects at CO levels of 20--50 ppm for cells operating at 80 C with low Pt catalyst loading. The effect of oxygen bleeding is basically to lower P{sub CO} down to extremely low levels in the anode plenum thanks to the catalytic (chemical) oxidation of CO by dioxygen at the anode catalyst. In this modeling work the authors do not include specific description of oxygen bleeding effects and concentrate on the behavior of the anode with feed streams of H{sub 2} or reformate containing low levels of CO. The anode loss is treated in this work as a hydrogen and carbon monoxide electrode kinetics problem, but includes the effects of dilution of the feedstream with significant fractions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen and of mass transport losses in the gas diffusion backing. Not included in the anode model are ionic resistance and diffusion losses in the catalyst layer. They are looking to see if the overall pattern of polarization curves calculated based on such a purely kinetic model indeed mimics the central features of polarization curves observed for PEFCs operating on hydrogen with low levels of CO.

Thomas E. Springer

1998-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

152

Simulating Nonuniform Properties in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN POLYMER-ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS A. Z. Weber and J. Newmanvapor flow throughout all of the fuel-cell sandwich layers,of the membrane thickness in fuel-cell water management. The

Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Effects of anisotropic bending stiffness of gas diffusion layer on the MEA degradation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells by wet/dry gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effects of anisotropic bending stiffness of a gas diffusion layer (GDL) on membrane electrode assembly (MEA) degradation were investigated. We prepared \\{GDLs\\} with a fiber direction perpendicular to the major flow (i.e., “90° GDL”) and with a fiber direction parallel to the major flow (i.e., “0° GDL”). To analyze the mechanical durability as a function of GDL anisotropy, we examined cell performances such as the I–V characteristics and impedances and the hydrogen crossover characteristics during wet/dry cycles. The results showed that the 90° GDL fuel cell is superior to the 0° GDL fuel cell in terms of higher I–V performance, lower resistance at high frequency, and lower hydrogen crossover through the MEA. Mechanical degradation of the 0° GDL was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Jeong Hoon Seo; Kyung Don Baik; Dong Kyu Kim; Seonyeob Kim; Jong Won Choi; Mansu Kim; Han Ho Song; Min Soo Kim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Nanoporous polymer electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO); Nguyen, Vinh (Wheat Ridge, CO)

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

155

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

156

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Aluminum oxyhydroxide based separator/electrolyte and battery system, and a method of making the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The instant invention relates a solid-state electrochemical cell and a novel separator/electrolyte incorporated therein. The invented electrochemical cell generally comprising: a unique metal oxyhydroxide based (i.e. AlOOH) separator/electrolyte membrane sandwiched between a first electrode and a second electrode. The novel separator/electrolyte comprises a nanoparticulate metal oxyhydroxide, preferably AlOOH and a salt which are mixed and then pressed together to form a monolithic metal oxyhydroxide-salt membrane.

Gerald, II; Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Fuel cell subassemblies incorporating subgasketed thrifted membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell roll good subassembly is described that includes a plurality of individual electrolyte membranes. One or more first subgaskets are attached to the individual electrolyte membranes. Each of the first subgaskets has at least one aperture and the first subgaskets are arranged so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the first subgaskets. A second subgasket comprises a web having a plurality of apertures. The second subgasket web is attached to the one or more first subgaskets so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the second subgasket web. The second subgasket web may have little or no adhesive on the subgasket surface facing the electrolyte membrane.

Iverson, Eric J; Pierpont, Daniel M; Yandrasits, Michael A; Hamrock, Steven J; Obradovich, Stephan J; Peterson, Donald G

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

159

Novel Electrolytes and Additives  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Objectives - Relevance Performance, calendar-life, and safety characteristics of Li-ion cells are dictated by the nature and stability of the electrolyte and the...

160

Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich's solution and analysis.

Fuller, T.F.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Molecular Simulations of Electrolytes and Electrolyte/Electrode...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Simulations of Electrolytes and ElectrolyteElectrode Interfaces Grant D. Smith and Oleg Borodin Department of Materials Science & Engineering University of Utah 02182008 "This...

162

Polymer Electrolyte and Polymer Battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Generally the polymer electrolyte of the polymer battery is classified into two kinds of the electrolyte: One is a dry-type electrolyte composed of a polymer matrix and...21.1. Fig....

Toshiyuki Osawa; Michiyuki Kono

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Macroscopic Modeling of Polymer-Electrolyte Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the fuel cell, b is the Tafel slope, U ? is the standardof species i / J mol ?1 = Tafel slope / V = interstitial

Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Proton Conductivity Studies on Biopolymer Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

Proton conducting solid biopolymer electrolyte membranes consisting of methyl cellulose (MC) and different wt.% of ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) were prepared by solution cast technique. Impedance spectroscopy was carried out to study electrical characteristics of bulk materials. The ionic conductivity of the prepared samples was calculated using the bulk resistance (R{sub b}) obtained from impedance spectroscopy plot. The highest ionic conductivity obtained was 1.17x10{sup -4} Scm{sup -1} for the sample with composition ratio of MC(50): NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}(50). To enhance the ionic conductivity, propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC) plasticizers were introduced. It was found that the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte membranes increased with the increase in plasticizers concentration. The ionic conductivities of solid polymer electrolytes based on MC-NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-PC was enhanced up to 4.91x10{sup -3} Scm{sup -1} while for the MC-NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-EC system, the highest conductivity was 1.74x10{sup -2} Scm{sup -1}. The addition of more plasticizer however decreases in mechanical stability of the membranes.

Harun, N. I.; Sabri, N. S.; Rosli, N. H. A.; Taib, M. F. M.; Saaid, S. I. Y.; Kudin, T. I. T. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ali, A. M. M.; Yahya, M. Z. A. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate. 5 figs.

Kunz, H.R.; Guthrie, R.J.; Katz, M.

1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

166

Electrochemically stable electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to inorganic ionic liquids which function as electrolytes and do not crystallize at ambient temperature. More specifically, this invention is directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids which comprise the reaction product of a strong Lewis acid with an inorganic halide-donating molecule. This invention is further directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures which comprise combinations of electrolyte additives and quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids. These quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures are useful electrolytes. 16 figs.

Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

167

Electrochemically stable electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to inorganic ionic liquids which function as electrolytes and do not crystallize at ambient temperature. More specifically, this invention is directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids which comprise the reaction product of a strong Lewis acid with an inorganic halide-donating molecule. This invention is further directed to quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures which comprise combinations of electrolyte additives and quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquids. These quasi-salt inorganic ionic liquid mixtures are useful electrolytes.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Zhang, Sheng-Shui (Tucson, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4})] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF{sub 6} in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 × 10{sup ?3} S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO{sub 2} coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator.

Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Satyanarayana, N., E-mail: nallanis2011@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry-605014 (India); Venkateswarlu, M. [R and D, Amaraja batteries, Thirupathi-517501 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

169

Novel Electrolytes and Additives | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry Novel Electrolytes and Additives...

170

High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation on High Temperature/Low Humidity Polymer Electrolytes Derived from Ionic Liquids to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

171

Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich`s solution and analysis.

Fuller, T.F.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Block Copolymer Cathode Binder to Simultaneously Transport Electronic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Volume 50, pp. 9848-9851. (566 KB) Technology Marketing Summary A Berkeley Lab team led by Nitash Balsara has developed a highly efficient lithium ion battery in which a...

173

Lower Cost, Nanoporous Block Copolymer Battery Separator - Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

means.Description The Berkeley Lab team used a wet process with polystyrene-block-polyethylene-block-polystyrene (SES) copolymer mixed with an amorphous polystyrene polymer (PS)....

174

DNA Block Copolymers: Functional Materials for Nanoscience and Biomedicine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands ... Mailing address: Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Gronigen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands. ... Andreas Herrmann currently holds a chair for Polymer Chemistry and Bioengineering at the Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. ...

Tobias Schnitzler; Andreas Herrmann

2012-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

175

Designing nanostructured block copolymer surfaces to control protein adhesion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...R. Pareta, and T. J. Webster 2008 Nanotechnology for regenerative medicine. Biomed. Microdevices 12, 575-587...Lacroix, and J. A. Planell 2008 Nanotechnology in regenerative medicine: the materials side. Trends Biotechnol...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Controlled Self Assembly of Conjugated Polymer Containing Block Copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in dye/polymer blend photovoltaic cells. Advanced MaterialsA. J. , Polymer Photovoltaic Cells - Enhanced Efficiencies2-Layer Organic Photovoltaic Cell. Applied Physics Letters

McCulloch, Bryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Controlled Self Assembly of Conjugated Polymer Containing Block Copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copolymers for Organic Optoelectronics. Macromolecules 2009,Copolymers for Organic Optoelectronics. Macromolecules 2009,performance of polymer optoelectronics. Table of Contents

McCulloch, Bryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Controlled Self Assembly of Conjugated Polymer Containing Block Copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B. D. ; Segalman, R. A. , Self-assembly of rod-coil blockF. , Synthesis and Self- Assembly of Poly(diethylhexyloxy-p-I. , Three-dimensional self- assembly of rodcoil copolymer

McCulloch, Bryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Batteries using molten salt electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

Guidotti, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

180

Aluminum oxyhydroxide based separator/electrolyte and battery system, and a method making the same  

SciTech Connect

The instant invention relates a solid-state electrochemical cell and a novel separator/electrolyte incorporated therein. A preferred embodiment of the invented electrochemical cell generally comprises a unique metal oxyhydroxide based (i.e. AlOOH) separator/electrolyte membrane sandwiched between a first electrode and a second electrode. A preferred novel separator/electrolyte comprises a nanoparticulate metal oxyhydroxide, preferably AlOOH and a salt which are mixed and then pressed together to form a monolithic metal oxyhydroxide-salt membrane.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Spin coating of electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for spin coating electrolytic materials onto substrates are disclosed. More particularly, methods for depositing solid coatings of ion-conducting material onto planar substrates and onto electrodes are disclosed. These spin coating methods are employed to fabricate electrochemical sensors for use in measuring, detecting and quantifying gases and liquids.

Stetter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Maclay, G. Jordan (Maywood, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Definition: Electrolyte | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Electrolyte Electrolyte Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Electrolyte A substance that conducts charged ions from one electrode to the other in a fuel cell, battery, or electrolyzer.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition An electrolyte is a compound that ionizes when dissolved in suitable ionizing solvents such as water. This includes most soluble salts, acids, and bases. Some gases, such as hydrogen chloride, under conditions of high temperature or low pressure can also function as electrolytes. Electrolyte solutions can also result from the dissolution of some biological and synthetic polymers, termed polyelectrolytes, which contain charged functional groups. Electrolyte solutions are normally formed when a salt is placed into a solvent such as water and the individual components

183

Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes...

184

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

185

Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael Mitchell, Dilip Natarajan, Larry J. Markoski, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Letters Microfluidic Hydrogen Fuel Cell with a Liquid Electrolyte Ranga S. Jayashree, Michael and characterization of a microfluidic hydrogen fuel cell with a flowing sulfuric acid solution instead of a Nafion membrane as the electrolyte. We studied the effect of cell resistance, hydrogen and oxygen flow rates

Kenis, Paul J. A.

186

THE VITELLINE MEMBRANE OF THE UNFERTILIZED HEN'S EGG  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

membrane is charged and asymmetrical. It's directional specificity to ion transport and accompanying volumeTHE VITELLINE MEMBRANE OF THE UNFERTILIZED HEN'S EGG : ELECTROLYTE AND WATER TRANSPORT T. RYMEN J more than just the result of the membrane's ion exchange behaviour and that it may involve an enzymatic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

HTMWG, May 18, 2009, Welcome!  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PEMFC membranes are being pursued Morphology Molecular Approach Additive Approach Micronano engineering approach Conduction Mechanism Other Polymer Block Copolymer Rigid Rods...

188

Novel Phosphazene Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Phosphazene Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells Novel Phosphazene Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion...

189

Novel Phosphazene Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Novel Phosphazene Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells Novel Phosphazene Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of...

190

Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance. Coordination Chemistry in magnesium battery electrolytes: how ligands affect their performance....

191

Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); York, Cynthia A. (Newington, CT); Waszczuk, Piotr (White Bear Lake, MN); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL)

2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

192

Electrolyte paste for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The electrolyte matrix and electrolyte reservoir plates in a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant stack are filled with electrolyte by applying a paste of dry electrolyte powder entrained in a dissipatable carrier to the reactant flow channels in the current collector plate. The stack plates are preformed and solidified to final operating condition so that they are self sustaining and can be disposed one atop the other to form the power plant stack. Packing the reactant flow channels with the electrolyte paste allows the use of thinner electrode plates, particularly on the anode side of the cells. The use of the packed electrolyte paste provides sufficient electrolyte to fill the matrix and to entrain excess electrolyte in the electrode plates, which also serve as excess electrolyte reservoirs. When the stack is heated up to operating temperatures, the electrolyte in the paste melts, the carrier vaporizes, or chemically decomposes, and the melted electrolyte is absorbed into the matrix and electrode plates.

Bregoli, Lawrance J. (Southwick, MA); Pearson, Mark L. (New London, CT)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries  

SciTech Connect

A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

194

High cation transport polymer electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state ion conducting electrolyte and a battery incorporating same. The electrolyte includes a polymer matrix with an alkali metal salt dissolved therein, the salt having an anion with a long or branched chain having not less than 5 carbon or silicon atoms therein. The polymer is preferably a polyether and the salt anion is preferably an alkyl or silyl moiety of from 5 to about 150 carbon/silicon atoms.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmont, IL)

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

195

Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes 2012 DOE Hydrogen...

196

Carbonized Hemoglobin Functioning as a Cathode Catalyst for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

development, i.e., (a) transition from poly(styrenesulfonic acid) to Nafion-type membranes; (b) a 10- to 100-fold redn. in the platinum loading in electrode by using nanosize electrocatalyst particles supported on high surface area carbon and impregnation of the proton conducting electrolyte into the active layer of the electrode; (c) optimization of structure of electrode and of membrane and electrode assembly to enhance power densities to 0.5-0.7 W/cm2 at desirable efficiencies; and (d) using Nafion-type membranes for direct methanol fuel cells instead of liq. ... Preparative procedures were optimized to enhance the performance of these nanocomposites as anode electrocatalysts in direct methanol fuel cells. ... To improve the performance of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), it is necessary to optimize the structure of the interface between polymer electrolyte and catalyst particles in the electrodes of PEMFCs. ...

Jun Maruyama; Ikuo Abe

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

197

The Dynamics of Platinum Precipitation in an Ion Exchange Membrane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microscopy of polymer electrolyte membranes that have undergone operation under fuel cell conditions, have revealed a well defined band of platinum in the membrane. Here, we propose a physics based model that captures the mechanism of platinum precipitation in the polymer electrolyte membrane. While platinum is observed throughout the membrane, the preferential growth of platinum at the band of platinum is dependent on the electrochemical potential distribution in the membrane. In this paper, the location of the platinum band is calculated as a function of the gas concentration at the cathode and anode, gas diffusion coefficients and solubility constants of the gases in the membrane, which are functions of relative humidity. Under H2/N2 conditions the platinum band is located near the cathode-membrane interface, as the oxygen concentration in the cathode gas stream increases and/or the hydrogen concentration in the anode gas stream decreases, the band moves towards the anode. The model developed in this paper...

Burlatsky, S F; Atrazhev, V V; Dmitriev, D V; Kuzminyh, N Y; Erikhman, N S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications  

SciTech Connect

Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A reversible cell capacity of 90 mAh g 1 was maintained under the current density of C/10 at room temperature, which was increased to 130 mAh g 1 by using a thinner membrane and cycling at 50 C.

Liao, Chen [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

On the Possibility of Using Protonic Solid Electrolyte CsHSO4 in Hydrogen Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrochemical parameters of an H2|air fuel cell with a membrane of solid electrolyte CsHSO4 or composites (1 ? x)CsHSO4/xSiO2 (x = 0.1–0.3) and different electrodes are measured at 175 °C. The maximal power (3....

G. V. Lavrova; M. V. Russkikh; V. G. Ponomareva…

200

Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award October 15, 2014 -...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Molecular dynamics simulations: Properties of bulk electrolytes (structure, thermodynamics, transport), interfacial properties of electrolyte at electroactive interfaces,...

202

LOWER TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYTE AND ELECTRODE MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

A thorough literature survey on low-temperature electrolyte and electrode materials for SOFC is given in this report. Thermodynamic stability of selected electrolyte and its chemical compatibility with cathode substrate were evaluated. Preliminary electrochemical characterizations were conducted on symmetrical cells consisting of the selected electrolyte and various electrode materials. Feasibility of plasma spraying new electrolyte material thin-film on cathode substrate was explored.

Keqin Huang

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

203

Characterization and applications of nanofiltration membranes: State of the art  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is a voluminous literature on the determination of structural and electrical properties of a nanofiltration (NF) membrane and its separation performance. Theories used to characterize a NF membrane usually include: the non-equilibrium thermodynamic model, the pore model, the TMS model, the electrostatic and steric-hindrance pore model, and the semi-emprical model. In the article, we briefly trace the origins or the general ideas of the above-mentioned theories. From there, recent researches on the evaluation of membrane structural and electrical properties are reviewed. We then turn to research on the separation performance of a NF membrane for single component solutions of inorganic electrolytes, neutral organic solutions, and mixture solution of inorganic electrolytes or that of electrolyte and neutral organic solute. Finally, we conclude with suggestions as to the role of models in the contributions to the application of the NF technology in product separation processes.

Xiao-Lin Wang; Wei-Juan Shang; Da-Xin Wang; Ling Wu; Cong-Hui Tu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Multi-Sourced Electricity for Electrolytic Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

$/tonne (the DOE's centralized plant #12;Page 8 Electrolytic Hydrogen · Focus on low-cost electrolysis - 300 US Americas DOE Hydrogen Electrolysis-Utility Integration Workshop Boulder, Colorado 2004 September 22 & 23Multi-Sourced Electricity for Electrolytic Hydrogen Multi-Sourced Electricity for Electrolytic

205

Efficient Electrocatalyst Utilization: Electrochemical Deposition of Pt Nanoparticles Using Nafion Membrane as a Template  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the membrane on top. Introduction Nafion membranes are used as electrolytes in methanol and hydrogen fuel cells the catalyst only at the end of the hydrophilic channels that cross the membrane; no catalyst is placed under the anode to the cathode, and they must have a catalyst at both ends. Figure 1 shows a schematic description

Buratto, Steve

206

Improved Membrane Materials for PEM Fuel Cell Application  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project is to collect and integrate critical structure/property information in order to develop methods that lead to significant improvements in the durability and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) materials. This project is focused on the fundamental improvement of PEMFC membrane materials with respect to chemical, mechanical and morphological durability as well as the development of new inorganically-modified membranes.

Kenneth A. Mauritz; Robert B. Moore

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

207

Microscopic mechanisms of graphene electrolytic delamination from metal substrates  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, hydrogen bubbling delamination of graphene (Gr) from copper using a strong electrolyte (KOH) water solution was performed, focusing on the effect of the KOH concentration (C{sub KOH}) on the Gr delamination rate. A factor of ?10 decrease in the time required for the complete Gr delamination from Cu cathodes with the same geometry was found increasing C{sub KOH} from ?0.05?M to ?0.60?M. After transfer of the separated Gr membranes to SiO{sub 2} substrates by a highly reproducible thermo-compression printing method, an accurate atomic force microscopy investigation of the changes in Gr morphology as a function of C{sub KOH} was performed. Supported by these analyses, a microscopic model of the delamination process has been proposed, where a key role is played by graphene wrinkles acting as nucleation sites for H{sub 2} bubbles at the cathode perimeter. With this approach, the H{sub 2} supersaturation generated at the electrode for different electrolyte concentrations was estimated and the inverse dependence of t{sub d} on C{sub KOH} was quantitatively explained. Although developed in the case of Cu, this analysis is generally valid and can be applied to describe the electrolytic delamination of graphene from several metal substrates.

Fisichella, G. [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, 5 – 95121 Catania (Italy); Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria, 6 – 95125 Catania (Italy); Di Franco, S.; Roccaforte, F.; Giannazzo, F., E-mail: filippo.giannazzo@imm.cnr.it [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, 5 – 95121 Catania (Italy); Ravesi, S. [STMicroelectronics, Stradale Primosole, 50 – 95121 Catania (Italy)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

208

On a Pioneering Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Model  

SciTech Connect

"Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Model" is a seminal work that continues to form the basis for modern modeling efforts, especially models concerning the membrane and its behavior at the continuum level. The paper is complete with experimental data, modeling equations, model validation, and optimization scenarios. While the treatment of the underlying phenomena is limited to isothermal, single-phase conditions, and one-dimensional flow, it represents the key interactions within the membrane at the center of the PEFC. It focuses on analyzing the water balance within the cell and clearly demonstrates the complex interactions of water diffusion and electro-osmotic flux. Cell-level and system-level water balance are key to the development of efficient PEFCs going forward, particularly as researchers address the need to simplify humidification and recycle configurations while increasing the operating temperature of the stack to minimize radiator requirements.

Weber, Adam Z.; Meyers, Jeremy P.

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

209

Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives...

210

Membrane Separator for Redox Flow Batteries that Utilize Anion Radical Mediators.  

SciTech Connect

A Na + ion conducting polyethylene oxide membrane is developed for an organic electrolyte redox flow battery that utilizes anion radical mediators. To achieve high specific ionic conductivity, tetraethyleneglycol dimethylether (TEGDME) is used as a plasticizer to reduce crystallinity and increase the free volume of the gel film. This membrane is physically and chemically stable in TEGDME electrolyte that contains highly reactive biphenyl anion radical mediators.

Delnick, Frank M.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

Lucht, Brett L

2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

212

Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Hash, Mark C. (Joliet, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Advanced Lithium Batteries Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

214

Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

215

Advanced Electrolyte Model - Energy Innovation Portal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Advanced Electrolyte Model Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document...

216

Immobilized fluid membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.

Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Zhang, Jiguang

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

217

High performance electrolytes for MCFC  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbonate electrolyte of the Li/Na or CaBaLiNa system. The Li/Na carbonate has a composition displaced from the eutectic composition to diminish segregation effects in a molten carbonate fuel cell. The CaBaLiNa system includes relatively small amounts of Ca.sub.2 CO.sub.3 and BaCO.sub.3, and preferably of equimolar amounts. The presence of both Ca and BaCO.sub.3 enables lower temperature fuel cell operation.

Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL); Roche, Michael F. (Downers Gorve, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Preparation of Pt deposited nanotubular TiO{sub 2} as cathodes for enhanced photoelectrochemical hydrogen production using seawater electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to develop effective cathodes to increase the production of hydrogen and use the seawater, an abundant resource in the earth as the electrolyte in photoelectrochemical systems. In order to fabricate the Pt/TiO{sub 2} cathodes, various contents of the Pt precursor (0-0.4 wt%) deposited by the electrodeposition method were used. On the basis of the hydrogen evolution rate, 0.2 wt% Pt/TiO{sub 2} was observed to exhibit the best performance among the various Pt/TiO{sub 2} cathodes with the natural seawater and two concentrated seawater electrolytes obtained from single (nanofiltration) and combined membrane (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) processes. The surface characterizations exhibited that crystal structures and morphological properties of Pt and TiO{sub 2} found the results of XRD pattern and SEM/TEM images, respectively. - Graphical abstract: On the basis of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production, 0.2 wt% Pt/TiO{sub 2} was observed to exhibit the best performance among the various Pt/TIO{sub 2} cathodes with natural seawater. In comparison of hydrogen evolution rate with various seawater electrolytes, 0.2 wt% Pt/TiO{sub 2} was found to show the better performance as cathode with the concentrated seawater electrolytes obtained from membrane. Highlights: > Pt deposited TiO{sub 2} electrodes are used as cathode in PEC H{sub 2} production. > Natural and concentrated seawater by membranes are used as electrolytes in PEC. > Pt/TiO{sub 2} shows a good performance as cathode with seawater electrolytes. > H{sub 2} evolution rate increases with more concentrated seawater electrolyte. > Highly saline seawater is useful resource for H{sub 2} production.

Nam, Wonsik [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Korea University of Technology and Education, Department of Applied Chemical Engineering, 1800 Chungjeollo, Byeongcheon-myun, Chungnam 330-708 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seichang [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Hyunku [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jaekyung, E-mail: jyoon@kier.re.kr [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Energy Research Center, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Surface and interfacial tensions of Hofmeister electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface and interfacial tensions of Hofmeister electrolytes Alexandre P. dos Santos and Yan Levin to account quantitatively for the surface and interfacial tensions of different electrolyte solutions can also be used to calculate the surface and the interfacial tensions of acid solutions, predicting

Levin, Yan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-ion Batteries by In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy. Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for...

222

Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries. Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in...

223

Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

224

Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

225

Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

15eswise2012p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte...

226

Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

15eswise2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte...

227

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

228

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry Presentation given by Argonne...

229

Amorphous LLZO sol gel solid electrolyte  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Novel Li Conducting Solid State Novel Li Conducting Solid State Electrolyte by Sol Gel Technique Davorin Babic, Ph. D. Excellatron Solid State LLC 263 Decatur St Atlanta, GA 30312 (404) 584-2475 dbabic@excellatron.com Objective Develop novel inorganic solid state lithium ion conductor: a) high Li ion conductivity b) transport number of ~1 c) stable with Li metal d) thermally stable e) adequate electrochemical window of stability Construct and test a battery that contains the novel electrolyte Novel sol gel solid electrolyte (NSGSE) In contact with Li metal: Organic electrolytes (liquid/polymer) get reduced: HAZARDS Most oxide solid electrolytes become mixed conductor: SHORTS NSGSE by sol gel process, spin coated: an oxide & stable with Li !! -100000 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 -400000

230

Electrolyte for an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte amorphous lithium phosphorus oxynitride which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES  

SciTech Connect

This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and Testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Progress has been made in the preparation and characterization of thin electrolytes and porous LSM substrates. Both of these tasks are essentially on or ahead of schedule. In our proposal, we suggested that the ZrO{sub 2}/Sc system needed to be considered as a candidate as a thin electrolyte. This was because microcrystalline ZrO{sub 2}/Sc has a significantly higher ionic conductivity than YSZ, particularly at the lower temperatures. As a result, some 0.5 micron thick film of ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc on an alumina substrate (grain size 20nm) was prepared and the electrical conductivity measured as a function of temperature and oxygen activity. The Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} certainly has a higher conductivity that either 20nm or 2400nm YSZ, however, electronic conductivity dominates the conductivity for oxygen activities below 10{sup -15}. Whereas for YSZ, electronic conductivity is not a problem until the oxygen activity decreases below 10{sup -25}. These initial results show that the ionic conductivity of 20nm YSZ and 20nm ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc are essentially the same and the enhanced conductivity which is observed for Sc doping in microcrystalline specimens is not observed for the same composition when it is nanocrystalline. In addition they show that the electronic conductivity of Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that observed for YSZ. The conclusion one reaches is that for 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films, Sc doping of ZrO{sub 2} has no benefits compared to YSZ. As a result, electrolyte films of ZrO{sub 2}/Sc should not be considered as candidates. However, they have the potential of being useful as an interface on the anode side of the electrolyte. NexTech has focused much of its effort during the past few months on establishing tape casting methods for porous LSM substrates. This work, performed under a separate DOE-funded program, involved tape casting formulations comprising LSM powders with bi-modal particle size distributions and fugitive pore forming additives. Sintered LSM substrates with porosities in the 30 to 40 vol% range, and pore sizes of 10 {approx} 20 microns have been prepared. In addition, tape casting formulations involving composite mixtures of LSM and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) have been evaluated. The LSM/SDC cathode substrates are expected to provide better performance at low temperatures. Characterization of these materials is currently underway.

Harlan U. Anderson

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Growth of Pt nanoparticle for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at anode side of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. With a Pt loading of 25 g-Pt/cm2 , current, PEM fuel cell, Mass specific power density, Electrochemical active surface area, Oxygen reduction PEMFC Growth of Pt nanoparticle for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells

233

High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Zhang, Sheng-Shui (Tucson, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

High conductivity electrolyte solutions and rechargeable cells incorporating such solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates generally to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery polymer electrolyte solutions as are used, for example, in electrochemical devices. More specifically, this invention relates to sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solvents and sulfonyl/phospho-compound electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents. 9 figs.

Angell, C.A.; Zhang, S.S.; Xu, K.

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

235

Catalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Bruce, Richard Catlow and Peter Edwards Catalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel...durability in fuel cells is to discover catalyst supports that do not corrode, or corrode...black support. fuel cells|oxides|catalyst supports|nanoparticles|conductivity...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

A disposable, self-administered electrolyte test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis demonstrates the novel concept that it is possible to make a disposable, self-administered electrolyte test to be introduced to the general consumer market. Although ion specific electrodes have been used to ...

Prince, Ryan, 1977-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Nonaqueous electrolyte for electrical storage devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved nonaqueous electrolytes for application in electrical storage devices such as electrochemical capacitors or batteries are disclosed. The electrolytes of the invention contain salts consisting of alkyl substituted, cyclic delocalized aromatic cations, and their perfluoro derivatives, and certain polyatomic anions having a van der Waals volume less than or equal to 100 .ANG..sup.3, preferably inorganic perfluoride anions and most preferably PF.sub.6.sup.-, the salts being dissolved in organic liquids, and preferably alkyl carbonate solvents, or liquid sulfur dioxide or combinations thereof, at a concentration of greater than 0.5M and preferably greater than 1.0M. Exemplary electrolytes comprise 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate dissolved in a cyclic or acylic alkyl carbonate, or methyl formate, or a combination therof. These improved electrolytes have useful characteristics such as higher conductivity, higher concentration, higher energy storage capabilities, and higher power characteristics compared to prior art electrolytes. Stacked capacitor cells using electrolytes of the invention permit high energy, high voltage storage.

McEwen, Alan B. (Melrose, MA); Yair, Ein-Eli (Waltham, MA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a new electrolytic process and apparatus using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in an alloy or within a sodium beta or beta-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for Cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then changed to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required.

Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

1993-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

239

Wear-resistant coatings formed on Zircaloy-2 by plasma electrolytic oxidation in sodium aluminate electrolytes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Plasma electrolytic oxidation of Zircaloy-2 has been investigated in dilute and concentrated aluminate electrolytes, under a pulsed-bipolar current regime, in order to develop coatings of high wear resistance. Coating growth kinetics, cell potential-time responses and discharging behaviours depend significantly on the electrolyte concentration. The coatings formed in dilute aluminate electrolyte reveal a three-layered structure, with pancake structures at the coating surfaces. “Soft sparks” occur during PEO in dilute aluminate electrolyte, causing a relatively fast growth of the inner layer and resulting in a large amount of alumina-enriched material beneath the pancake structures, and hence an increased wear resistance of the coating. In contrast, more homogenous coatings, free of pancakes, result with the concentrated electrolyte. The main phase in the coatings is t-ZrO2, with ?-Al2O3 also present in coatings formed in the latter electrolyte. The coatings formed in the concentrated electrolyte display a high wear resistance, even for thin coatings formed for short times, which is attributed to the relatively high alumina content of the coatings.

Yingliang Cheng; Jinhui Cao; Zhaomei Peng; Qun Wang; E. Matykina; P. Skeldon; G.E. Thompson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Temperature Membrane Working Group High Temperature Membrane Working Group The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells. Description Technical Targets Meetings Contacts Description Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells typically operate at temperatures no higher than 60°C-80°C due to structural limitations of the membrane. Operating PEM fuel cell stacks at higher temperatures (120°C for transportation and 150°C for stationary applications), however, would yield significant energy benefits. For example, heat rejection is easier at higher temperatures, which would allow use of smaller heat exchangers in fuel cell power systems. In addition, for reformate fuel cell systems, carbon monoxide (CO) tolerance of the stack is less problematic at higher temperatures, which would reduce the size requirements or possibly eliminate the need for some CO clean-up beds in the fuel processor.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Active membrane having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a physicochemically-active porous membrane for electrochemical cells that purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. One dimension of the pore surface has a macroscopic length (1 nm-1000 .mu.m) and is directed parallel to the direction of an electric field, which is produced between the cathode and the anode electrodes of an electrochemical cell. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klingler, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

242

E-Print Network 3.0 - additive-free sulphamate-based electrolyte...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electrolytes reinforced by non... Composite electrolytes composed of a blend of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), poly... , the composite electrolyte has good integrity...

243

Phase diagram of selectively cross-linked block copolymers shows chemically microstructured gel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study analytically the intricate phase behavior of cross-linked $AB$ diblock copolymer melts, which can undergo two main phase transitions due to quenched random constraints: Gelation, i.e., spatially random localization of polymers forming a system-spanning cluster, is driven by increasing the number parameter $\\mu$ of irreversible, type-selective cross-links between random pairs of $A$ blocks. Self-assembly into a periodic pattern of $A$/$B$-rich microdomains (microphase separation) is controlled by the $AB$ incompatibility $\\chi$ inversely proportional to temperature. Our model aims to capture the system's essential microscopic features, including an ensemble of random networks that reflects spatial correlations at the instant of cross-linking. We identify suitable order parameters and derive a free-energy functional in the spirit of Landau theory that allows us to trace a phase diagram in the plane of $\\mu$ and $\\chi$. Selective cross-links promote microphase separation at higher critical temperatures than in uncross-linked diblock copolymer melts. Microphase separation in the liquid state facilitates gelation, giving rise to a novel gel state whose chemical composition density mirrors the periodic $AB$ pattern.

Alice von der Heydt; Annette Zippelius

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

244

Multiple Morphologies of "Crew-Cut" Aggregates of Polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid) Block Copolymers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Montreal, Quebec, H3A-2K6, Canada The observation by transmission...Montreal, Quebec, H3A-2K6, Canada. 'To whom correspondence should...Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) for continuing support...low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern (11). Confirmation...

Lifeng Zhang; Adi Eisenberg

1995-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

245

Nanostructured electrospun fibers : from superhydrophobicity to block copolymer self-assembly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electrospinning has emerged in recent years as a relatively easy, efficient and robust method to make ultrafine continuous fibers with diameter on the order of -100 nm from a variety of materials. As a result, numerous ...

Ma, Minglin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthesis of highly ordered mesoporous silica materials using sodium silicate and amphiphilic block. Pinnavaia and coworkers6 have reported the synthesis of MSU-X mesoporous materials with several non- ionic and cowork- ers7 have reported the synthesis of SBA mesoporous silica materials, which have well

Kim, Ji Man

247

Microstructured block copolymer surfaces for control of microbe capture and aggregation  

SciTech Connect

The capture and arrangement of surface-associated microbes is influenced by biochemical and physical properties of the substrate. In this report, we develop lectin-functionalized substrates containing patterned, three-dimensional polymeric structures of varied shapes and densities and use these to investigate the effects of topology and spatial confinement on lectin-mediated microbe capture. Films of poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA) were patterned on silicon surfaces into line or square grid patterns with 5 m wide features and varied edge spacing. The patterned films had three-dimensional geometries with 900 nm film thickness. After surface functionalization with wheat germ agglutinin, the size of Pseudomonas fluorescens aggregates captured was dependent on the pattern dimensions. Line patterns with edge spacing of 5 m or less led to the capture of individual microbes with minimal formation of aggregates, while grid patterns with the same spacing also captured individual microbes with further reduction in aggregation. Both geometries allowed for increases in aggregate size distribution with increased in edge spacing. These engineered surfaces combine spatial confinement with affinity-based microbe capture based on exopolysaccharide content to control the degree of microbe aggregation, and can also be used as a platform to investigate intercellular interactions and biofilm formation in microbial populations of controlled sizes.

Hansen, Ryan R [ORNL] [ORNL; Shubert, Katherine R [ORNL] [ORNL; Morrell, Jennifer L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Lokitz, Bradley S [ORNL] [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL] [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Low temperature processing of baroplastic core-shell nanoparticles and block copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Baroplastics are nanophase polymeric materials comprised of two components that can miscibilize under pressure thereby facilitating flow. The possibility of processing these materials at low temperatures was the main focus ...

González-León, Juan A. (Juan Antonio)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

A bio-inspired microstructure induced by slow injection moulding of cylindrical block copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

–11482 (2011). Acknowledgments The authors thank the British Heart Foundation for financial support for this work under Grant NH/11/4/29059; the Armstrong Fund (Cambridge University) for a studentship to support Jacob Brubert; and the Diamond Light Source...

Stasiak, Joanna; Brubert, Jacob; Serrani, Marta; Nair, Sukumaran; de Gaetano, Francesco; Costantino, Maria Laura; Moggridge, Geoff D.

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

250

Dispersion Characteristics of Organoclay in Nanocomposites Based on End-Functionalized Homopolymer and Block Copolymer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(51)?Chisholm, B. J.; Moore, R. B.; Barber, G.; Khouri, F.; Hempstead A.; Larsen, M.; Olson, E.; Kelley, J.; Balch G.; Caraher, J. Macromolecules 2002, 35, 5508. ... Chisholm, Bret J.; Moore, Robert B.; Barber, Grant; Khouri, Farid; Hempstead, Anne; Larsen, Michael; Olson, Eric; Kelley, Jim; Balch, Gary; Caraher, Joel ...

Weibin Zha; Soobum Choi; Kyung Min Lee; Chang Dae Han

2005-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

251

Nanoporous Poly(3-alkylthiophene) Thin Films Generated from Block Copolymer Templates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work was funded by the Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment (IREE) at the University of Minnesota and the Xcel Energy Renewable Development Fund. Parts of this work were carried out in the University of Minnesota IT Characterization Facility, which receives partial support from the NSF through the NNIN program. ...

Bryan W. Boudouris; C. Daniel Frisbie; Marc A. Hillmyer

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

252

Kinetics of phase transitions in weakly segregated block copolymers: Pseudostable and transient states  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the kinetics of order-disorder and order-order transitions in weakly segregated diblock copolymers using a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) approach. In particular, we investigate the microstructural change as well as the order-parameter evolution after a sudden temperature jump from one phase to another. Direct numerical simulation of the TDGL equations shows that depending on the extent of the temperature jump, these transitions often occur in several stages and can involve nontrivial intermediate states. For example, we find that transition from the lamellar phase to the hexagonal cylinder phase goes through a perforated lamellar state within a certain temperature range. The numerical results are elucidated by a multimode analysis under the single-wave-number approximation. The analysis reveals that the geometric characteristics of the free energy surface, particularly saddle points and ridgelike features, are responsible for the nontrivial intermediate states on the kinetic pathways. On the basis of this analysis, a generalized kinetic ``phase diagram'' is constructed, which is able to account for all the different scenarios observed in the numerical simulation. Our results are discussed in connection with available experimental observations. In particular, we suggest the possibility that the perforated-modulated lamellar structures obtained by Bates and co-workers [I. W. Hamley, K. A. Koppi, J. H. Rosedale, F. S. Bates, K. Almdal, and K. Mortensen, Macromolecules 26, 5959 (1993); S. Förster, A. K. Khandpur, J. Zhao, F. S. Bates, I. W. Hamley, A. J. Ryan, and W. Bras, Macromolecules 27, 6922 (1994)] may be kinetic, intermediate states rather than new equilibrium phases.

Shuyan Qi and Zhen-Gang Wang

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

The effects of polydispersity on the morphology of polystyrene-polyferrocenyldimethylsilane block copolymer thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction: As the size of electronic and magnetic devices decreases, nanoscale patterning becomes an increasingly important area of research. Two different approaches have been taken to pattern media: top-down methods ...

Perkinson, Joy C. (Joy Clare)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Self assembly of block copolymers : applicability in microelectronics and gains for patterned media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As device size decreases, conventional lithographic methods are finding it increasingly hard to keep up. Introduction of newer method such as E-beam, X-ray lithography etc. has demonstrated possibility of scaling to lower ...

Chaube, Anay

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Synthesis and Characterization of Simultaneous Electronic and Ionic Conducting Block Copolymers for Lithium Battery Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

binder material for solid-state battery electrodes. The1.10. Proposed new solid-state lithium battery design. The

Patel, Shrayesh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Physical Adsorption of Block Copolymers to SWNT and MWNT:? A Nonwrapping Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sample preparation for cryo-TEM measurements was carried out as follows:? a drop of the solution was deposited on a TEM grid (300 mesh Cu grid) coated with a holey carbon film (Lacey substrate-Ted Pella Ltd). ... (15)?Vigolo, B.; Penicaud, A.; Coulon, C.; Sauder, C.; Pailler, R.; Journet, C.; Bernier, P.; Poulin, P. Science 2000, 290, 1331. ...

Einat Nativ-Roth; Rina Shvartzman-Cohen; Céline Bounioux; Marc Florent; Dongsheng Zhang; Igal Szleifer; Rachel Yerushalmi-Rozen

2007-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

257

Non-lift-off Block Copolymer Lithography of 25 nm Magnetic Nanodot Arrays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solvent annealing chamber (SAC) is tapped into a boil-off, dry N2 line, which is split into two flow-controlled inlets. ... For instance, the magnetic moment (m, normalized to the saturation value mS), as a function of applied field (H) provides a useful, nondestructive tool for characterization of the patterning process as it allows for separation of the magnetic signatures arising from the material within the dimpled regions from that of the remaining overlayer. ... field lines for fields exceeding 30 kV/cm, after annealing at 250°in an inert atm. ...

A. Baruth; Marc D. Rodwogin; A. Shankar; M.J. Erickson; Marc A. Hillmyer; C. Leighton

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

258

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY(3-HEXYLTHIOPHENE)-b-POLYSTYRENE DI-BLOCK COPOLYMERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L) and living polystyryl lithium (Mn(GPC)=10720) in cyclohexane (a slightly excess of polystyryl lithium can employs the coupling of allyl terminated poly(3-hexylthiophene) with the living polystyryl lithium. Synthesis of polystyryl lithium. The polystyrene segment was prepared by living anionic polymerization

McCullough, Richard D.

259

Charge Transfer in Single Chains of a Donor–Acceptor Conjugated Tri-Block Copolymer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the device electrodes. Bulk heterojunction solar cells made up of blends of the donor and acceptor materials go some way to solving these problems, however careful control over the morphology of the film components is necessary.6,7 In order to impose... in solution, in films and as single chains. While an additional long-wavelength emission apparent in neat films of the copolymer is attributed to inter-chain exciplex formation, no such long-wavelength emission is apparent in solution or from single...

Hooley, Emma N.; Jones, David J.; Greenham, Neil C.

2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

260

Understanding barriers to efficient nucleic acid delivery with bioresponsive block copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The delivery of nucleic acids has the potential to revolutionize medicine by allowing previously untreatable diseases to be clinically addressed. Viral delivery systems have been held back by immunogenicity and toxicity ...

Bonner, Daniel Kenneth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Barium Titanate Nanoparticles in Block Copolymer Tu Lee,*,, Nan Yao, Hiroaki Imai,, and Ilhan A. Aksay,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is not compromised. Nanometer-sized cubic BaTiO3 particles are commonly crystallized by hydrothermal processing from)6) on the hydroxylated polybutadiene matrix, and (3) hydrothermal reduction of the organometallic complexes in an NH3/H2O °C. Lilley and Wusirika processed monosized powders of cubic BaTiO3 by dispersing TiO2 powders

Aksay, Ilhan A.

262

Molecular architectures based on pi-conjugated block copolymers for global quantum computation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a molecular setup for the physical implementation of a barrier global quantum computation scheme based on the electron-doped pi-conjugated copolymer architecture of nine blocks PPP-PDA-PPP-PA-(CCH-acene)-PA-PPP-PDA-PPP (where each block is an oligomer). The physical carriers of information are electrons coupled through the Coulomb interaction, and the building block of the computing architecture is composed by three adjacent qubit systems in a quasi-linear arrangement, each of them allowing qubit storage, but with the central qubit exhibiting a third accessible state of electronic energy far away from that of the qubits' transition energy. The third state is reached from one of the computational states by means of an on-resonance coherent laser field, and acts as a barrier mechanism for the direct control of qubit entanglement. Initial estimations of the spontaneous emission decay rates associated to the energy level structure allow us to compute a damping rate of order 10^{-7} s, which suggest a not so strong coupling to the environment. Our results offer an all-optical, scalable, proposal for global quantum computing based on semiconducting pi-conjugated polymers.

Cesar A. Mujica Martinez; Julio C. Arce; John H. Reina; Michael Thorwart

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Block copolymer-templated iron oxide nanoparticles for bimodal growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since their discovery carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have sparked great interest due to their exceptional mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. These properties make carbon nanotubes desirable for numerous applications ...

Yazzie, Kyle E

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

The design, synthesis and properties of pressure-processable biodegradable block copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, biodegradable block copolyesters were specifically designed and synthesized for their susceptibility to pressure-induced mixing. These baroplastic materials are capable of being processed and molded through ...

Lovell, Nathan Gary

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Block Copolymer Templated Chemistry for the Formation of Metallic Nanoparticle Arrays on Semiconductor Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of key ingredients for many future applications is the ability to precisely pattern nanoscale features on technologically relevant semiconductor surfaces such as silicon and germanium, as well as compound semiconductors such as gallium arsenide and indium phosphide. ... Deposition of these metals is possible presumably due to the water solubility of their oxides:? Ge oxide,14c As oxide,24 and P oxide25 are soluble in water. ...

Masato Aizawa; Jillian M. Buriak

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

266

Generation of Monolayer Gradients in Surface Energy and Surface Chemistry for Block Copolymer Thin Film Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gradients in surface energy/chemistry enable high-throughput studies because a continuous range of surface energies/chemistries can be explored on a single surface, enabling faster screening and discovery of materials and phenomena. ... Furthermore, these gradients are susceptible to degradation, having a shelf life of only a few days under atmospheric conditions or a few weeks when stored in a cool, dark desiccator. ... For example, gradients could be created with a relatively narrow surface energy range (?6 mJ/m2 in this work) for high-resolution examination of morphology changes in polymer films, or gradients with a larger surface energy range could be created for a broader survey, simply by changing the chlorosilane functionalities. ...

Julie N. L. Albert; Michael J. Baney; Christopher M. Stafford; Jennifer Y. Kelly; Thomas H. Epps; III

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Monte Carlo simulation of the electrical properties of electrolytes adsorbed in charged slit-systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the adsorption of primitive model electrolytes into a layered slit system using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The slit system contains a series of charged membranes. The ions are forbidden from the membranes, while they are allowed to be adsorbed into the slits between the membranes. We focus on the electrical properties of the slit system. We show concentration, charge, electric field, and electrical potential profiles. We show that the potential difference between the slit system and the bulk phase is mainly due to the double layers formed at the boundaries of the slit system, but polarization of external slits also contributes to the potential drop. We demonstrate that the electrical work necessary to bring an ion into the slit system can be studied only if we simulate the slit together with the bulk phases in one single simulation cell.

R. Kovács; M. Valiskó; D. Boda

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

268

Polyethylene-supported polyvinylidene fluoride–cellulose acetate butyrate blended polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The polyethylene (PE)-supported polymer membranes based on the blended polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) are prepared for gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of lithium ion battery. The performances of the prepared membranes and the resulting \\{GPEs\\} are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear potential sweep, and charge–discharge test. The effect of the ratio of PVDF to CAB on the performance of the prepared membranes is considered. It is found that the GPE based on the blended polymer with PVDF:CAB = 2:1 (in weight) has the largest ionic conductivity (2.48 × 10?3 S cm?1) and shows good compatibility with anode and cathode of lithium ion battery. The LiCoO2/graphite battery using this GPE exhibits superior cyclic stability at room temperature, storage performance at elevated temperature, and rate performance.

Jiansheng Liu; Weishan Li; Xiaoxi Zuo; Shengqi Liu; Zhao Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figures.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1991-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

271

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1989-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

274

Water Dynamics in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes: The Effects of Confinement and Structural Changes on the Hydrogen Bond Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emissions energy source is hydrogen. Hydrogen powered vehicles using polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells and hydrophilic aggregates.1-4 Hydrogen fuel cells operate through the oxidation of hydrogen gas at the anodeWater Dynamics in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes: The Effects of Confinement and Structural Changes

Fayer, Michael D.

275

Solid electrolytes strengthened by metal dispersions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in solid electrolytes of advanced secondary batteries of the sodium-sulfur, sodium-halogen, and like combinations is achieved by providing said battery with a cermet electrolyte containing a metal dispersion ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % of a substantially nonreactive metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Pt, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, their alloys, and their physical mixtures in the elemental or uncombined state, the remainder of said cermet being an ion-conductive ceramic material.

Lauf, R.J.; Morgan, C.S.

1981-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

276

Solid electrolytes strengthened by metal dispersions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in solid electrolytes of advanced secondary batteries of the sodium-sulfur, sodium-halogen, and like combinations is achieved by providing said battery with a cermet electrolyte containing a metal dispersion ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % of a substantially nonreactive metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Pt, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, their alloys, and their physical mixtures in the elemental or uncombined state, the remainder of said cermet being an ion-conductive ceramic material.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morgan, Chester S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Boundary conditions used for fuel—cell simulations. 3.12to the Problem of Cold Start 1.1 Polymer—Electrolyte Fuelin Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells — II. Parametric Study,”

Balliet, Ryan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Sandia National Laboratories: New Liquid Salt Electrolytes Could...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ClimateECEnergyNew Liquid Salt Electrolytes Could Lead to Cost-Effective Flow Batteries New Liquid Salt Electrolytes Could Lead to Cost-Effective Flow Batteries Sandia Tool...

279

High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and...

280

Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

In situ chemical probing of the electrode-electrolyte interface...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

chemical probing of the electrode-electrolyte interface by ToF-SIMS. In situ chemical probing of the electrode-electrolyte interface by ToF-SIMS. Abstract: A portable vacuum...

282

High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

in Support of 5 V Li-ion Chemistries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries...

283

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Membrane magic  

SciTech Connect

The Kansas Power and Light Co.'s La Cyne generating station has found success with membrane filtration water pretreatment technology. The article recounts the process followed in late 2004 to install a Pall Aria 4 microfilter in Unit 1 makeup water system at the plant to produce cleaner water for reverse osmosis feed. 2 figs., 2 photos.

Buecker, B. [Kansas City Power and Light Co. (United States)

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Electrode electrolyte interlayers containing cerium oxide for electrochemical fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell is made having a porous fuel electrode (16) and a porous air electrode (13), with solid oxide electrolyte (15) therebetween, where the air electrode surface opposing the electrolyte has a separate, attached, dense, continuous layer (14) of a material containing cerium oxide, and where electrolyte (16) contacts the continuous oxide layer (14), without contacting the air electrode (13).

Borglum, Brian P. (Edgewood, PA); Bessette, Norman F. (N. Huntingdon, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The research carried out under grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46371, "The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes", during the period June 1, 2008 -May 31, 2010 was comprised of three related parts. These are: 1. An examination of the state of water in classical proton conduction membranes with the use of deuterium T1 NMR spectroscopy (Allcock and Benesi groups). 2. A dielectric relaxation examination of the behavior of water in classical ionomer membranes (Macdonald program). 3. Attempts to synthesize new proton-conduction polymers and membranes derived from the polyphosphazene system. (Allcock program) All three are closely related, crucial aspects of the design and development of new and improved polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes on which the future of fuel cell technology for portable applications depends.

Allcock, Harry R., Benesi, Alan, Macdonald, Digby, D.

2010-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

289

Computationally-guided Design of Polymer Electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Polymer Electrolytes Global Significance While progress of sustainable energy- harvesting techniques is promising, tandem advancements in energy storage are required to maintain a stable energy supply be a valuable contribution to the emerging sustainable energy landscape. This project applies polymer physics

290

Interfacial Water-Transport Effects in Proton-Exchange Membranes  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that the proton-exchange membrane is perhaps the most critical component of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell. Typical membranes, such as Nafion(R), require hydration to conduct efficiently and are instrumental in cell water management. Recently, evidence has been shown that these membranes might have different interfacial morphology and transport properties than in the bulk. In this paper, experimental data combined with theoretical simulations will be presented that explore the existence and impact of interfacial resistance on water transport for Nafion(R) 21x membranes. A mass-transfer coefficient for the interfacial resistance is calculated from experimental data using different permeation cells. This coefficient is shown to depend exponentially on relative humidity or water activity. The interfacial resistance does not seem to exist for liquid/membrane or membrane/membrane interfaces. The effect of the interfacial resistance is to flatten the water-content profiles within the membrane during operation. Under typical operating conditions, the resistance is on par with the water-transport resistance of the bulk membrane. Thus, the interfacial resistance can be dominant especially in thin, dry membranes and can affect overall fuel-cell performance.

Kienitz, Brian; Yamada, Haruhiko; Nonoyama, Nobuaki; Weber, Adam

2009-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

291

Microstructure-Based Modeling of Aging Mechanisms in Catalyst Layers of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Conventional CCLs are random heterogeneous media that consist of a solid phase comprised of carbon particles or agglomerates decorated with catalyst nanoparticles (typically Pt-based) for conducting electrons and catalyzing reactions, a proton-conducting network of Nafion ionomer, and a particular water-filled porous network for gas transport. ... Polymer electrolyte membranes were catalyzed by direct application of thin film layers cast from solns. of suspended Pt/C catalyst and solubilized Nafion ionomer. ... During normal operating conditions of the fuel cell, the PEMFC lifetime tends to be limited by coarsening of the cathode's Pt-based catalyst and by corrosion of the cathode's C black support. ...

Kourosh Malek; Alejandro A. Franco

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

292

Combined uranous nitrate production consisting of undivided electrolytic cell and divided electrolytic cell (Electrolysis ? Electrolytic cell)  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate is a green, mild way to make uranous ions. Undivided electrolyzers whose maintenance is less but their conversion ratio and current efficiency are low, have been chosen. However, at the beginning of undivided electrolysis, high current efficiency can also be maintained. Divided electrolyzers' conversion ratio and current efficiency is much higher because the re-oxidation of uranous on anode is avoided, but their maintenance costs are more, because in radioactive environment the membrane has to be changed after several operations. In this paper, a combined method of uranous production is proposed which consists of 2 stages: undivided electrolysis (early stage) and divided electrolysis (late stage) to benefit from the advantages of both electrolysis modes. The performance of the combined method was tested. The results show that in combined mode, after 200 min long electrolysis (80 min undivided electrolysis and 120 min divided electrolysis), U(IV) yield can achieve 92.3% (500 ml feed, U 199 g/l, 72 cm{sup 2} cathode, 120 mA/cm{sup 2}). Compared with divided mode, about 1/3 working time in divided electrolyzer is reduced to achieve the same U(IV) yield. If 120 min long undivided electrolysis was taken, more than 1/2 working time can be reduced in divided electrolyzer, which means that about half of the maintenance cost can also be reduced. (authors)

Yuan, Zhongwei; Yan, Taihong; Zheng, Weifang; Li, Xiaodong; Yang, Hui; Xian, Liang [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O.Box 275-26, Beijing 102413 (China)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Neutron activation analysis applied to perspiration electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) Member) (Eieisber) (Hie isbn r ) (Nc, . ib": ) J iniar ! Vl R P 3STR-'. CT Neutron ';ctivatior. Imalysis iipplied to Perspiration Electrolytes. (January 1969) Robert C. N Andrew:, B. S. , Norcester Poly' echnic Institut Directed by: Dr. James B... dlX II1 last Neutron Act ivsticn Cross-Eec!iona - - - 73 J Igf 0F TABL? S TABLE 1 TABLE 2 TABLE 3 TABLE 6! Nuclear Properties of Pertinent Elec!eats - - 6 Sodium Reactions Interfering Reactions - - - - - - ~ - - - - 13 Sodium Concentrations...

McAndrew, Robert Gavin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

294

Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

Joshi, Ashok V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Balagopal, Shekar (Sandy, UT); Pendelton, Justin (Salt Lake City, UT)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

295

Dr. Ing. /PhD / Dr.techn. Students supervised by Signe Kjelstrup 1. Torleif Holt, Transport and equilibrium properties of a cation exchange membrane (1983)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, (1996) 6. Magnar Ottøy, Mass and heat transfer in ion-exchange membranes (1996) 7. Belinda Flem, Peltier in the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (2007) 17. Isabella Inzoli, Coupled transports of heat and massDr. Ing. /PhD / Dr.techn. Students supervised by Signe Kjelstrup 1. Torleif Holt, Transport

Kjelstrup, Signe

296

Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack. 6 figs.

Reiser, C.A.; Maricle, D.L.

1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

297

Electrolyte matrix in a molten carbonate fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell stack is disclosed with modified electrolyte matrices for limiting the electrolytic pumping and electrolyte migration along the stack external surfaces. Each of the matrices includes marginal portions at the stack face of substantially greater pore size than that of the central body of the matrix. Consequently, these marginal portions have insufficient electrolyte fill to support pumping or wicking of electrolyte from the center of the stack of the face surfaces in contact with the vertical seals. Various configurations of the marginal portions include a complete perimeter, opposite edge portions corresponding to the air plenums and tab size portions corresponding to the manifold seal locations. These margins will substantially limit the migration of electrolyte to and along the porous manifold seals during operation of the electrochemical cell stack.

Reiser, Carl A. (Glastonbury, CT); Maricle, Donald L. (Glastonbury, CT)

1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

298

Membrane-patch Excision  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mechanical manipulation of the cell using glass micropipettes that leads to the extraction of a narrow region of cell membrane. The excision can lead to an isolated membrane patch in which the side of the membran...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

cells with high energy anode and dual-phase electrolyte systems Partners BASF SE, Germany * Development of Li-S battery materials 3 Relevance. Project Objectives. * Develop a...

300

Long-Living Polymer Electrolytes | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Composite Electrolyte to Stabilize Metallic Lithium Anodes CarbonSulfur Nanocomposites and Additives for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid electrolytic capacitor having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects.

Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Armstrong, Pamela S. (Abingdon, MD); Panitz, Janda Kirk G. (Edgewood, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid electrolytic capacitor is described having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects. 2 figs.

Sharp, D.J.; Armstrong, P.S.; Panitz, J.K.G.

1998-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

303

Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity.

Lee, Hung-Sui (East Setauket, NY); Geng, Lin (Coram, NY); Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY)

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

304

Electrolyte materials containing highly dissociated metal ion salts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to metal ion salts which can be used in electrolytes for producing electrochemical devices, including both primary and secondary batteries, photoelectrochemical cells and electrochromic displays. The salts have a low energy of dissociation and may be dissolved in a suitable polymer to produce a polymer solid electrolyte or in a polar aprotic liquid solvent to produce a liquid electrolyte. The anion of the salts may be covalently attached to polymer backbones to produce polymer solid electrolytes with exclusive cation conductivity. 2 figs.

Lee, H.S.; Geng, L.; Skotheim, T.A.

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

305

NETL SOFC: Anode-Electrolyte-Cathode (AEC) Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Plan Project Portfolio Project Information Systems Analysis Publications Anode-Electrolyte-Cathode (AEC) Development-This key technology focuses on improving...

306

Nanoscale Thin Film Electrolytes for Clean Energy Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

systems can be used as electrolytes to develop solid oxide fuel cells for clean energy production and to prevent air pollution by developing efficient, reliable oxygen sensors....

307

Modeling Cold Start in a Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conditions used for fuel—cell simulations. 3.12 Values usedFuel Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells — II. Parametric Study,”

Balliet, Ryan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Electrolyte Properties 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C....

309

Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

* Marshal Smart (JPLABR), Brett Lucht (URI) - New Electrolyte evaluation. * DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program - New polyelectrolyte material synthesis and Applied Science...

310

Polymer Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Electrolyte Channels 10 nm For ion conduction Li cathode Hard matrix For mechanical support Dendrite (1 m) Decouple the mechanical and electrical properties...

311

Sandia National Laboratories: lithium-ion-based solid electrolyte...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lithium-ion-based solid electrolyte battery Sandia Labs, Front Edge Technology, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Lab, Univ. of California-Los Angeles: Micro Power Source On March...

312

Molecular dynamics simulation and ab intio studies of electrolytes...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

intio studies of electrolytes and electrolyteelectrode interfaces Grant D. Smith and Oleg Borodin University of Utah May 11, 2011 This presentation does not contain any...

313

Development of Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Battaglia & J. Kerr (LBNL) * M. Payne (Novolyte) * F. Puglia & B. Ravdel (Yardney) * G. Smith & O. Borodin (U. Utah) 3 3 Develop novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries that...

314

Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This report provides an overview of the current state of electrolytic hydrogen production techonologies and an economic analysis of the processes and systems available as of December 2003.

315

Development of Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

goals. * Develop understanding of the mechanism of improved capacity retention for Si nano- particle electrodes in the presence of electrolyte additives FEC andor VC. * Conduct...

316

High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

* Funding for FY12 * 250K Timeline Budget Barriers * Argonne National Laboratory * Saft Batteries * U of Texas, Austin * U of Utah * U of Maryland Partners * SOA electrolytes...

317

Membrane cleaning in membrane bioreactors: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have been widely used in wastewater treatment and reclamation. Membrane cleaning is an essential part during the operation of \\{MBRs\\} since membrane fouling is an unavoidable problem. In past decades, with the in-depth understanding on membrane fouling, significant advances in membrane cleaning have been achieved. However, a comprehensive review on membrane cleaning in \\{MBRs\\} is still lacking. This paper attempts to critically review the recent developments of membrane cleaning. Firstly, the fouling and cleaning fundamentals are addressed, and then a comprehensive review on physical, chemical, and biological/biochemical cleaning is presented. The procedures of determining proper cleaning protocols for MBR systems are also proposed. Finally, the existing challenges and future research efforts are discussed in order to ensure the development of membrane cleaning toward a more effective and sustainable way in MBRs.

Zhiwei Wang; Jinxing Ma; Chuyang Y. Tang; Katsuki Kimura; Qiaoying Wang; Xiaomeng Han

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling  

SciTech Connect

Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2.8 wt.% Si-0.7 wt.% Fe-0.8 wt.% Mn),. Purification factors (defined as the initial impurity concentration divided by the final impurity concentration) of greater than 20 were achieved for silicon, iron, copper, and manganese. Cell performance was measured using its current and voltage characteristics and composition analysis of the anode, cathode, and electrolytes. The various cells were autopsied as part of the study. Three electrolyte systems tested were: LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3, LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 and LiF-10 wt.% AlF3. An extended four-day run with the LiCl-10 wt.% AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 electrolyte system was stable for the entire duration of the experiment, running at energy requirements about one third of the Hoopes and the conventional Hall-Heroult process. Three different anode membranes were investigated with respect to their purification performance and survivability: a woven graphite cloth with 0.05 cm nominal thickness & > 90 % porosity, a drilled rigid membrane with nominal porosity of 33%, and another drilled rigid graphite membrane with increased thickness. The latter rigid drilled graphite was selected as the most promising membrane design. The economic viability of the membrane cell to purify scrap is sensitive to primary & scrap aluminum prices, and the cost of electricity. In particular, it is sensitive to the differential between scrap and primary aluminum price which is highly variable and dependent on the scrap source. In order to be economically viable, any scrap post-processing technology in the U.S. market must have a total operating cost well below the scrap price differential of $0.20-$0.40 per lb to the London Metal Exchange (LME), a margin of 65%-85% of the LME price. The cost to operate the membrane cell is estimated to be < $0.24/lb of purified aluminum. The energy cost is estimated to be $0.05/lb of purified aluminum with the remaining costs being repair and maintenance, electrolyte, labor, taxes and depreciation. The bench-scale work on membrane purification cell process has demonstrated technological advantages and subs

David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

319

Microcomposite Fuel Cell Membranes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Summary of microcomposite fuel cell membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

320

Membrane-Transistor Cable  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Membrane-Transistor Cable ... The system is the basis for a development of bioelectronic transducers and for the study of nonlinear phenomena in membrane cables. ...

Marion Rentschler; Peter Fromherz

1998-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Scientific Aspects of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Durability and Degradation  

SciTech Connect

Rod Borup is a Team Leader in the fuel cell program at Los Alamos National Lab in Los Alamos, New Mexico. He received his B.S.E. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Iowa in 1988 and his Ph.D. from the University of Washington in 1993. He has worked on fuel cell technology since 1994, working in the areas of hydrogen production and PEM fuel cell stack components. He has been awarded 12 U.S. patents, authored over 40 papers related to fuel cell technology, and presented over 50 oral papers at national meetings. His current main research area is related to water transport in PEM fuel cells and PEM fuel cell durability. Recently, he was awarded the 2005 DOE Hydrogen Program R&D Award for the most significant R&D contribution of the year for his team's work in fuel cell durability and was the Principal Investigator for the 2004 Fuel Cell Seminar (San Antonio, TX, USA) Best Poster Award. Jeremy Meyers is an Assistant Professor of materials science and engineering and mechanical engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, where his research focuses on the development of electrochemical energy systems and materials. Prior to joining the faculty at Texas, Jeremy worked as manager of the advanced transportation technology group at UTC Power, where he was responsible for developing new system designs and components for automotive PEM fuel cell power plants. While at UTC Power, Jeremy led several customer development projects and a DOE-sponsored investigation into novel catalysts and membranes for PEM fuel cells. Jeremy has coauthored several papers on key mechanisms of fuel cell degradation and is a co-inventor of several patents. In 2006, Jeremy and several colleagues received the George Mead Medal, UTC's highest award for engineering achievement, and he served as the co-chair of the Gordon Research Conference on fuel cells. Jeremy received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley and holds a Bachelor's Degree in Chemical Engineering from Stanford University. Bryan Pivovar received his B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin in 1994. He completed his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering at the University of Minnesota in 2000 under the direction of Profs. Ed Cussler and Bill Smyrl, studying transport properties in fuel cell electrolytes. He continued working in the area of polymer electrolyte fuel cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory as a post-doc (2000-2001), as a technical staff member (2001-2005), and in his current position as a team leader (2005-present). In this time, Bryan's research has expanded to include further aspects of fuel cell operation, including electrodes, subfreezing effects, alternative polymers, hydroxide conductors, fuel cell interfaces, impurities, water transport, and high-temperature membranes. Bryan has served at various levels in national and international conferences and workshops, including organizing a DOE sponsored workshop on freezing effects in fuel cells and an ARO sponsored workshop on alkaline membrane fuel cells, and he was co-chair of the 2007 Gordon Research Conference on Fuel Cells. Minoru Inaba is a Professor at the Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Doshisha University, Japan. He received his B.Sc. from the Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, in 1984 and his M.Sc. in 1986 and his Dr. Eng. in 1995 from the Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University. He has worked on electrochemical energy conversion systems including fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries at Kyoto University (1992-2002) and at Doshisha University (2002-present). His primary research interest is the durability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), in particular, membrane degradation, and he has been involved in NEDO R&D research projects on PEFC durability since 2001. He has authored over 140 technical papers and 30 review articles. Kenichiro Ota is a Professor of the Chemical Energy Laboratory at the Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Japan. He received his B.S.

Borup, Rodney [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Meyers, Jeremy [University of Texas, Austin; Pivovar, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Garland, Nancy [U.S. Department of Energy; Myers, Deborah [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wilson, Mahlon [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Garzon, Fernando [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wood, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Zelenay, Piotr [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Stroh, Ken [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Zawodzinski, Thomas [Case Western Reserve University; Boncella, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McGrath, James [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Inaba, Minoru [Doshisha University; Miyatake, Kenji [University of Yamanashi; Hori, Michio [Daido Institute of Technology; Ota, Kenchiro [Yokohama National University; Ogumi, Zempachi [Kyoto University, Japan; Miyata, Seizo [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Center, Japan; Nishikata, Atsushi [Tokyo Institute of Technology; Siroma, Zyun [AIST, Japan; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu [Kyoto University, Japan; Yasuda, Kazuaki [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Center, Japan; Kimijima, Ken-ichi [AIST, Japan; Iwashita, Norio [AIST, Japan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Composite Polymer Electrolytes Based on Poly(ethylene glycol) and Hydrophobic Fumed Silica: Dynamic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

utilized in electrolyte processing. Introduction Rechargeable lithium batteries employing solid elec electrolytes based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO).1 Solid polymer electrolytes can potentially eliminate battery* Department of Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695

Raghavan, Srinivasa

323

Method of preparing thin film polymeric gel electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

Derzon, Dora K. (Albuquerque, NM); Arnold, Jr., Charles (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Solid electrolytes for battery applications a theoretical perspective a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solid state batteries at the present time. · Several companies are involved in all solids state batterySolid electrolytes for battery applications ­ a theoretical perspective a Natalie Holzwarth ion batteries Solid electrolytes Advantages 1. Excellent chemical and physical stability. 2. Perform

Holzwarth, Natalie

325

Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The effects of three crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, and 18-crown-6, as additives and co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolytes on the cell performance of primary Li/air batteries operated in a dry air environment were investigated. Crown ethers have large effects on the discharge performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in Li/air batteries. A small amount (normally less than 10% by weight or volume in electrolytes) of 12-Crown-4 and 15-crown-5 reduces the battery performance and a minimum discharge capacity appears at the crown ether content of ca. 5% in the electrolytes. However, when the content increases to about 15%, both crown ethers improve the capacity of Li/air cells by about 28% and 16%, respectively. 15-Crown-5 based electrolytes even show a maximum discharge capacity in the crown ether content range from 10% to 15%. On the other hand, the increase of 18-crown-6 amount in the electrolytes continuously lowers of the cell performance. The different battery performances of these three crown ethers in electrolytes are explained by the combined effects from the electrolytes’ contact angle, oxygen solubility, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and the stability of complexes formed between crown ether molecules and lithium ions.

Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

326

Electrolytic production of neodymium without perfluorinated carbon compounds on the offgases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing neodymium in an electrolytic cell without formation of perfluorinated carbon gases (PFCs), the method comprising the steps of providing an electrolyte in the electrolytic cell and providing an anode in an anode region of the electrolyte and providing a cathode in a cathode region of the electrolytic cell. Dissolving an oxygen-containing neodymium compound in the electrolyte in the anode region and maintaining a more intense electrolyte circulation in the anode region than in the cathode region. Passing an electrolytic current between said anode and said cathode and depositing neodymium metal at the cathode, preventing the formation of perfluorinated carbon gases by limiting anode over voltage.

Keller, Rudolf (Export, PA); Larimer, Kirk T. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Preparation of ceramic matrix and alumina fiber composites for use as solid electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making solid electrolytes using a fibrous stabilizing dispersed second phase for enhanced conductivity of the electrolyte after deformation and annealing. 1 tab.

Dudney, N.J.

1987-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

328

FUEL CELLS – PROTON-EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS | High-Temperature PEMFC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract For various applications, higher temperature levels compared to the temperature level of classical polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with low-temperature membrane are favorable. The motivation for the development of this new type of \\{PEMFCs\\} with high-temperature membrane are easy water management and smaller, more compact cooling systems. Additionally, the electrocatalyst shows a better CO tolerance at higher temperature. In fuel cell systems with a reformer, no fine purification reactor is needed anymore. Applications with a high added value due to these criteria can be found in portable, in mobile as well as in stationary applications.

A. Heinzel; G. Bandlamudi; W. Lehnert

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Integrated inorganic membrane electrode assembly with layered double hydroxides as ionic conductors for anion exchange membrane water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this work, we report a novel integrated inorganic membrane electrode assembly (I2MEA) for anion exchange membrane (AEM) water electrolysis by using inorganic Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (Mg-Al LDHs) as an ionic conductor. Mg-Al \\{LDHs\\} synthesized by a two-step approach exhibit high hydroxide ion conductivity and superior stability. The resultant ionic conducting nanoparticles are cold-pressed to form a membrane and mixed with a non-precious electrocatalyst to form the catalyst layer onto each side of the membrane. As such, an I2MEA is formed and used in a water electrolysis setup. It is shown that the present water electrolysis results in a maximum current density of 208 mA cm?2 with 0.1 M NaOH as the electrolyte and a cutoff voltage of 2.2 V at 70 °C. More impressively, using 0.1 M Na2CO3 as the electrolyte, the \\{I2MEAs\\} can continuously electrolyze at 80 mA cm?2 for 600 hours with a decay rate of as low as 100 ?V h?1. This superior stability is attributed to the integrated structure that allows hydroxide ions to transport smoothly.

L. Zeng; T.S. Zhao

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

NREL Develops Technique to Measure Membrane Thickness and Defects in Polymer Electrode Membrane Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet), Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlights (HFCTH)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 * November 2010 4 * November 2010 2-D image of a PEM fuel cell membrane sample measured with the NREL device (corresponding optical image in inset). The image shows bubble defects and a color shift in the sample. An area of approximately three inches by three inches is shown. NREL Develops Technique to Measure Membrane Thickness and Defects in Polymer Electrode Membrane Fuel Cells Project: Fuel Cell MEA Manufacturing R&D NREL Team: Hydrogen Technologies & Systems Center and National Center for Photovoltaics Accomplishment: NREL developed a technique to measure the two-dimensional thickness of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell membranes for in-line quality control during manufacturing (first reported in May 2009). The technique is based on an NREL-developed instrument currently used in continuous manufacturing of photovoltaic cells. This

331

Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A matrix is described for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling. 5 figs.

Huang, C.M.; Yuh, C.Y.

1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

332

Electrolytic Enrichment of Tritium with Solid Polymer Electrolyte for Application to Environmental Measurements  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated electrolytic separation factors of hydrogen isotopes by SPE (Solid Polymer Electrolyte) for application to environmental tritium analysis. The apparent separation factors {alpha}{sub a} for deuterium and {beta}{sub a} for tritium were determined as 3.5 {+-} 0.1 and 6.2 {+-} 0.5, respectively. The tritium enrichment of 8.4 times was achieved, when a 1000 ml of sample water was electrolyzed to about 60 ml. The chemical composition changes before and after the electrolysis were examined, showing an increase in H{sup +} and Na{sup +} concentrations and a decrease in Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+}concentrations. F{sup -}, which was not contained in the sample water, was detected after electrolysis accompanying with a reduction of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Cl{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -}. The memory of tritium and ions in the electrolysis cell after electrolysis was possible to be eliminated by washings with de-ionized water. Tritium concentrations of rain at Kumamoto, Japan were determined with a combination of the present electrolytic enrichment system and liquid scintillation counting.

Momoshima, Noriyuki; Nagao, Yusaku; Toyoshima, Takahiro [Kumamoto University (Japan)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of electrode/electrolyte  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of electrode/electrolyte Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of electrode/electrolyte interfaces Title Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of electrode/electrolyte interfaces Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Zormpa, Vasileia, Jaroslaw Syzdek, Xianglei Mao, Richard E. Russo, and Robert Kostecki Journal Applied Physics Letters Volume 100 Issue 23 Date Published 05-2012 ISSN 0003-6951 Keywords electrochemical electrodes, graphite, high-speed optical techniques, laser beam effects, organic compounds, pyrolysis, solid electrolytes Abstract Direct chemical analysis of electrode/electrolyte interfaces can provide critical information on surface phenomena that define and control the performance of Li-based battery systems. In this work, we introduce the use of ex situ femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy to probe compositional variations within the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. Nanometer-scale depth resolution was achieved for elemental and molecular depth profiling of SEI layers formed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrodes in an organic carbonate-based electrolyte. This work demonstrates the unique ability of ultrafast laser spectroscopy as a highly versatile, light element-sensitive technique for direct chemical analysis of interfacial layers in electrochemical energy storage systems.

334

Electric current-producing device having sulfone-based electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1--SO2--R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includes a non-symmetrical, non-cyclic sulfone. The sulfone has a formula of R1--SO2--R2, wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and R2 is a linear or branched or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched oxygen containing alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms. The electrolyte can include an electrolyte co-solvent and an electrolyte additive for protective layer formation.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Sun, Xiao-Guang (Tempe, AZ)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

335

A NEW LED-LED PORTABLE CO2 GAS SENSOR BASED ON AN INTERCHANGEABLE MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A NEW LED-LED PORTABLE CO2 GAS SENSOR BASED ON AN INTERCHANGEABLE MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL instrumentation. 1. INTRODUCTION CO2 is an important industrial gas for many different uses that include electrolytes [10;11]. The most popular sensors used for CO2 gas sensing in biotechnological applications

Lee, Hyowon

336

Composite zeolite membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of composite zeolite membranes and synthesis techniques therefor has been invented. These membranes are essentially defect-free, and exhibit large levels of transmembrane flux and of chemical and isotopic selectivity.

Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM); Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Membrane Technology Workshop  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

At the Membrane Technology Workshop (held July 24, 2012, in Rosemont, IL), stakeholders from industry and academia explored the status of membrane research and development (R&D). Participants...

338

Membrane Technology Workshop  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

At the Membrane Technology Workshop (held July 24, 2012, in Rosemont, IL), stakeholders from industry and academia explored the status of membrane research and development (R&D). Participants ...

339

Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Huntington Beach, CA); Sahimi, Muhammad (Altadena, CA); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Richmond, CA); Harale, Aadesh (Los Angeles, CA); Park, Byoung-Gi (Yeosu, KR); Liu, Paul K. T. (Lafayette Hill, PA)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Supertubes and Superconducting Membranes  

SciTech Connect

We show the equivalence between configurations that arise from string theory of type IIA, called supertubes, and superconducting membranes at the bosonic level. We find equilibrium and oscillating configurations for a tubular membrane carrying a current along its axis.

Cordero, Ruben; Miguel-Pilar, Zelin [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional 'Adolfo Lopez Mateos', Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2007-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Membrane Separations Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS RESEARCH James R. Fair Chemical Engineering Department The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 ABSTRACT The use of membranes for separating gaseous and liquid mixtures has grown dramatically in the past 15... years. Applications have been dominated by light gas separations and water purification. During this pioneering period, equipment containing the membrane suIfaces has been developed to a point where failures are minimal and the membranes themselves...

Fair, J. R.

342

Membrane Technology Workshop  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation by Charles Page (Air Products & Chemicals, Inc.) for the Membrane Technology Workshop held July 24, 2012

343

Electrochemical Membrane Incinerator  

SciTech Connect

Electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone was evaluated as a model for the mineralization of carbon in toxic aromatic compounds. A Ti or Pt anode was coated with a film of the oxides of Ti, Ru, Sn and Sb. This quaternary metal oxide film was stable; elemental analysis of the electrolyzed solution indicated the concentration of these metal ions to be 3 {micro}g/L or less. The anode showed good reactivity for the electrochemical incineration of benzoquinone. The use of a dissolved salt matrix as the so-called ''supporting electrolyte'' was eliminated in favor of a solid-state electrolyte sandwiched between the anode and cathode.

Johnson, Dennis C.; Houk, Linda L.; Feng, Jianren

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

344

Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings  

SciTech Connect

Method of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electrolytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

345

Novel Electrolyte Enables Stable Graphite Anodes in Lithium Ion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(1) A194-A200 (2014). (1,716 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab researchers led by Gao Liu have developed an improved lithium ion battery electrolyte containing a...

346

Design of PHEVs and Electrolyte Properties | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Modeling with Emphasis on Low Temperature Performance High-Volume Manufacturing of LiPF6, A Critical Lithium-ion Battery Material High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries...

347

Solid-state Graft Copolymer Electrolytes for Lithium Battery Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Battery safety has been a very important research area over the past decade. Commercially available lithium ion batteries employ low flash point (<80 °C), flammable, and volatile organic electrolytes. These organic based ...

Hu, Qichao

348

In Situ Study of Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) Formation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

M. J. Bedzyk, "In Situ X-ray Study of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) Formation on Graphene as a Model Li-ion Battery Anode," Chemistry of Materials, 24(15), 3038 -3043...

349

Nonflammable perfluoropolyether-based electrolytes for lithium batteries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to power zero-emission electric vehicles, but they currently are gaining traction as backup power in aircraft and smart grid applications (3, 4). The electrolyte used in these batteries, however, hinders their use in large-scale applications...

Dominica H. C. Wong; Jacob L. Thelen; Yanbao Fu; Didier Devaux; Ashish A. Pandya; Vincent S. Battaglia; Nitash P. Balsara; Joseph M. DeSimone

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus G. E  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

371-411. Debye, P. and Huckel, E., (1923) PhysikZ., 24, 185 Pitzer, K.S. (1973) Thermodynamics of Electrolytes. I. Theoretical Basis and General Equations, J. Phys. Chem., 77,...

352

Success Stories: Solid Electrolyte Lithium Ion Batteries - Seeo, Inc.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solid Electrolyte May Usher in a New Generation of Solid Electrolyte May Usher in a New Generation of Rechargeable Lithium Batteries For Vehicles With sky rocketing gasoline prices and exploding laptops, there could not have been a better time for a new rechargeable battery breakthrough. Enter Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) nanostructured polymer electrolyte (NPE). NPE is a solid electrolyte designed for use in rechargeable lithium batteries. The unique material was developed by LBNL researchers Nitash Balsara, Hany Eitouni, Enrique Gomez, and Mohit Singh and licensed to startup company Seeo Inc. in 2007. With solid financial backing from Khosla Ventures, located in Menlo Park, California, and an impressive scientific team recruited from LBNL, University of California, Berkeley, and the battery industry, Seeo is now

353

Polyphosphazene semipermeable membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semipermeable, inorganic membrane is disclosed; the membrane is prepared from a phosphazene polymer and, by the selective substitution of the constituent groups bound to the phosphorous in the polymer structure, the selective passage of fluid from a feedstream can be controlled. Resistance to high temperatures and harsh chemical environments is observed in the use of the phosphazene polymers as semipermeable membranes.

Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); McCaffrey, Robert R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cummings, Daniel G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grey, Alan E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jessup, Janine S. (Darlington, ID); McAtee, Richard E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Proton exchange membrane water electrolysis with short-side-chain Aquivion® membrane and IrO2 anode catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A series of three membrane types has been screened for medium temperature solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis in membrane electrode assemblies coated with 2 mg cm?2 of iridium oxide as a catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction, synthesised via a hydrolysis method from the hexachloroiridic acid precursor, and deposited on the membrane either directly by spray deposition or by decal transfer. The short-side-chain perfluorosulfonic acid Aquivion® ionomer of equivalent weight 870 meq g?1, in membranes of thickness 120 ?m, gives higher water electrolysis performance at 120 °C than a composite membrane of Aquivion® with zirconium phosphate, while a sulfonated ether-linked polybenzimidazole, sulfonated poly-[(1-(4,4?-diphenylether)-5-oxybenzimidazole)-benzimidazole], shows promising performance and no transport limitations up to 2 A cm?2. The lowest cell voltage was observed at 120 °C for an MEA prepared using spray-coating directly on the Aquivion® membrane, 1.57 V at 1 A cm?2.

Anita Skulimowska; Marc Dupont; Marta Zaton; Svein Sunde; Luca Merlo; Deborah J. Jones; Jacques Rozière

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Computer Modeling of crystalline electrolytes Lithium Thiophosphates and Phophosphates a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

th ECS Meeting ­ Montr´eal 2011 1 #12;Solid vs liquid electrolytes in Li ion batteries Solid;Example of solid electrolyte ­ thin film battery technology 219th ECS Meeting ­ Montr´eal 2011 3 #12;Li/3; ceramic · Li+ conductivity 10-3 S/cm; thermal activation energies 0.1-0.3 eV. 1 Bates et al, Solid State

Holzwarth, Natalie

356

Unique battery with an active membrane separator having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels and a method making the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a unique battery having an active, porous membrane and method of making the same. More specifically the invention relates to a sealed battery system having a porous, metal oxide membrane with uniform, physicochemically functionalized ion channels capable of adjustable ionic interaction. The physicochemically-active porous membrane purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Ruscic, Katarina J. (Chicago, IL); Sears, Devin N. (Spruce Grove, CA); Smith, Luis J. (Natick, MA); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

357

Effects of Nonaqueous Electrolytes on Primary Li-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The effects of nonaqueous electrolytes on the performance of primary Li-air batteries operated in dry air environment have been investigated. Organic solvents with low volatility and low moisture absorption are necessary to minimize the change of electrolyte compositions and the reaction between Li anode and water during the discharge process. The polarity of aprotic solvents outweighs the viscosity, ion conductivity and oxygen solubility on the performance of Li-air batteries once these latter properties attain certain reasonable level, because the solvent polarity significantly affects the number of tri-phase regions formed by oxygen, electrolyte, and active carbons (with catalyst) in the air electrode. The most feasible electrolyte formulation is the system of LiTFSI in PC/EC mixtures, whose performance is relatively insensitive to PC/EC ratio and salt concentration. The quantity of such electrolyte added to a Li-air cell has notably effects on the discharge performance of the Li-air battery as well, and a maximum in capacity is observed as a function of electrolyte amount. The coordination effect from the additives or co-solvents [tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and crown ethers in this study] also greatly affects the discharge performance of a Li-air battery.

Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

358

Enhanced membrane gas separations  

SciTech Connect

An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

Prasad, R.

1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

359

Double Walled Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composites via in-situ Nitroxide Mediated Polymerisation of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

been chosen, leading respectively to a hydrophilic first block (polyacrylic acid PAA) or a hydrophobic been extensively studied [2]. The key problem for CNT/polymer composite elaboration is the dispersion-treatment or functionalization. In addition, polymerisation of hydrophilic polymers, such as acrylic acid, is possible

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

360

The design and synthesis of polymeric assemblies for materials applications : chemosensing, liquid crystal alignment and block copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conjugated polymers are an indispensable class of materials that have advanced the development of optoelectronic device architectures; in part, due to their outstanding electronic and mechanical properties. This thesis ...

Cox, Jason R. (Jason Robert)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Thermo-Induced Self-Assembly of Responsive Poly(DMAEMA-b-DEGMA) Block Copolymers into Multi- and Unilamellar Vesicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

LCST polymers are soluble below a certain temperature because of the formation of hydrogen bonds between water molecules of the hydration shell and the polymer chains. ... Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) was performed on a system comprising a Waters 590 HPLC pump and a Waters 410 refractive index detector equipped with three Waters Styragel columns (HT2, HT3, HT4, each 300 mm × 7.8 mm, providing an effective molar mass range of 100–600000 g mol–1). ... High-throughput dynamic light scattering (HT-DLS) measurements were performed on the DynaPro Plate Reader Plus (Wyatt Technology Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA) equipped with a 60 mV linearly polarized gallium arsenide (GaAs) laser of ? = 832.5 nm and operating at an angle of 156°. ...

Christian Pietsch; Ulrich Mansfeld; Carlos Guerrero-Sanchez; Stephanie Hoeppener; Antje Vollrath; Michael Wagner; Richard Hoogenboom; Simon Saubern; San H. Thang; C. Remzi Becer; John Chiefari; Ulrich S. Schubert

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

362

Chemical analysis and aqueous solution properties of Charged Amphiphilic Block Copolymers PBA-b-PAA synthesized by MADIX  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have linked the structural and dynamic properties in aqueous solution of amphiphilic charged diblock copolymers poly(butyl acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PBA-b-PAA, synthesized by controlled radical polymerization, with the physico-chemical characteristics of the samples. Despite product imperfections, the samples self-assemble in melt and aqueous solutions as predicted by monodisperse microphase separation theory. However, the PBA core are abnormally large; the swelling of PBA cores is not due to AA (the Flory parameter chiPBA/PAA, determined at 0.25, means strong segregation), but to h-PBA homopolymers (content determined by Liquid Chromatography at the Point of Exclusion and Adsorption Transition LC-PEAT). Beside the dominant population of micelles detected by scattering experiments, capillary electrophoresis CE analysis permitted detection of two other populations, one of h-PAA, and the other of free PBA-b-PAA chains, that have very short PBA blocks and never self-assemble. Despite the presence of these free unimers, the self-assembly in solution was found out of equilibrium: the aggregation state is history dependant and no unimer exchange between micelles occurs over months (time-evolution SANS). The high PBA/water interfacial tension, measured at 20 mN/m, prohibits unimer exchange between micelles. PBA-b-PAA solution systems are neither at thermal equilibrium nor completely frozen systems: internal fractionation of individual aggregates can occur.

M. Jacquin; P. Muller; R. Talingting-Pabalan; H. Cottet; J. -F. Berret; T. Futterer; O. Theodoly

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

363

Chemical Analysis and Aqueous Solution Properties of Charged Amphiphilic Block Copolymers PBA-b-PAA Synthesized by MADIX  

SciTech Connect

We have linked the structural and dynamic properties in aqueous solution of amphiphilic charged diblock copolymers poly(butyl acrylate)-b-poly(acrylic acid), PBA-b-PAA, synthesized by controlled radical polymerization, with the physico-chemical characteristics of the samples. Despite product imperfections, the samples self-assemble in melt and aqueous solutions as predicted by monodisperse microphase separation theory. However, the PBA core are abnormally large; the swelling of PBA cores is not due to AA (the Flory parameter ?PBA/PAA, determined at 0.25, means strong segregation), but to h-PBA homopolymers (content determined by liquid chromatography at the point of exclusion and adsorption transition, LC-PEAT). Beside the dominant population of micelles detected by scattering experiments, capillary electrophoresis CE analysis permitted detection of two other populations, one of h-PAA, and the other of free PBA-b-PAA chains, that have very short PBA blocks and never self-assemble. Despite the presence of these free unimers, the self-assembly in solution was found out of equilibrium: the aggregation state is history dependant and no unimer exchange between micelles occurs over months (time-evolution SANS). The high PBA/water interfacial tension, measured at 20 mN/m, prohibits unimer exchange between micelles. PBA-b-PAA solution systems are neither at thermal equilibrium nor completely frozen systems: internal fractionation of individual aggregates can occur.

Jacquin,M.; Muller, P.; Talingting-Pabalan, R.; Cottet, H.; Berret, J.; Futterer, T.; Theodoly, O.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Review of Advanced Materials for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

BASF reported on the long-term stability of its Celtec-P1100W membranes of more than 20?000 h with a 6 ?V/h voltage drop (160 °C and H2/air operation) “at optimized conditions”. ... Attempts to improve the stability of SPAEK have included optimization of the sulfonic group position (SPAEK is more stable if SO3 groups are attached to the pendant chain than to the main chain) and fluorination of the main-chain phenyl groups. ... Water management in PEFCs (polymer electrolyte fuel cells) is an important parameter to optimize for peak performance. ...

Alexander Kraytsberg; Yair Ein-Eli

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

365

Investigation of the semiconductor–oxide electrolyte interface in GaAs utilizing electrolyte electroreflectance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have investigated the electrolyte electroreflectance (EER) spectra of N–GaAs in the vicinity of the E o transition (direct gap at k?=0). A pronounced interference phenomenon sensitive to the d c b i a s e l e c t r i c f i e l d has been observed which we identify with an exciton quenching effect within the semiconductor space–charge region (SCR). We have utilized this excitonic feature to interferometrically probe the dynamic and steady?state properties of the SCR during electrochemical anodization procedures. The same EER spectra also exhibit Franz–Keldysh oscillations the period of which is explicitly dependent on the a c e l e c t r i c f i e l d. Using these phenomena we have shown that the interfacial and oxide electric fields under steady?state conditions are just sufficient to continue growing the oxide in compensation for slow dissolution. If the dc bias voltage is suddenly reduced the SCR temporarily collapses due to transient effects which we attribute to very slow interface states in the oxide. These techniques are applicable to the study of the SCR in a variety of semiconductor–electrolyte systems as well as in the Schottky barrier configuration.

R. P. Silberstein; F. H. Pollak

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low Cost and Highly Selective Composite Membrane for Redox Flow Batteries - Fei Wang, EIC Laboratories  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low Cost and Highly Selective Composite Membrane for Redox Flow Batteries Low Cost and Highly Selective Composite Membrane for Redox Flow Batteries Fei Wang, Dharmasena Peramunage, James M. Sylvia, and Monsy M. Jocob EIC Laboratories, Inc. 111 Downey Street, Norwood, MA 02062. www.eiclabs.com Identification of the Problem and Technical Approach Redox flow batteries (RFB) hold great promise for large scale electrochemical energy storage. A critical component of RFB is the membrane which separates anode and cathode compartments. The current state-of-the-art membrane, NAFION is too expensive, lacks selectivity, permitting leakage between anode and cathode electrolyte compartments. EIC is developing a novel bilayer, interpenetrating network membrane. Thin Nafion layer for anode side protection providing oxidative stability. The bulk part of the membrane consists of a block

367

SPSEBS/H3PO4 composite electrolyte membranes for application in PEMFC and DMFC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After the preparation of diffusion layer, catalyst slurry ink for anode and cathode were fabricated with the help of carbon...2 and 0.125 mg/cm2..., respectively. Then suitable amounts of double distilled water a...

Perumal Bhavani; Dharmalingam Sangeetha

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Novel Polymer Electrolyte Nano-Composite Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which have been established to lead in the transition to clean energy technology and will become the energy efficient power… (more)

Zarrin, Hadis

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Journal of Power Sources xxx (2006) xxxxxx Polymer electrolyte membrane resistance model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The solution includes the effect of the humidity of the inlet gases and the gas pressure at the anode. [28], which includes a relation- ship between water content and the microscopic structure

Weidner, John W.

370

Characterization of Self-Assembly and Charge Transport in Model Polymer Electrolyte Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

controller which uses a Honeywell HC-610 sensor to provideEurotherm X26 controller. A Honeywell HC-610 humidity sensorimportant. While the Honeywell sensors come with a general

Beers, Keith Morgan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Nanostructured carbon materials for applications in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurden nanostrukturierte Kohlenstoffmaterialen entwickelt, um den kritischsten Stabilitätsproblemen von Katalysatoren für Polymerelektrolytbrennstoffzellen (PEM) zu begegnen. Erste untersuchte Materialien waren Platin-Metall-Nanopartikel, die… (more)

Galeano Nuñez, Diana Carolina

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Gas-Crossover and Membrane-Pinhole Effects in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Newman, in Advances in Fuel Cells, Vol. 1 , T. S. Zhao, K. -and tortuosity gas phase fuel-cell inlet conditions liquidw water References Hydrogen, fuel cells & infrastructure

Weber, Adam

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

7 - Catalyst ageing and degradation in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: This chapter discusses performance degradation of low temperature fuel cell catalysts due to the influence of dynamic operation conditions. The aim is to highlight fundamental studies on the chemical degradation of the catalyst and summarize recent results. A short overview of catalyst ageing mechanisms is given, then techniques for their investigation are introduced. The chapter then focuses on the methodology and results of identical location transmission electron microscopy (IL-TEM), as originally developed in our laboratory.

K.J.J. Mayrhofer; M. Arenz

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Characterization of Self-Assembly and Charge Transport in Model Polymer Electrolyte Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chamber is affected by a Peltier device that is in thermalcontroller that controls the Peltier device. Our approach isof the specimen chamber, a Peltier device, and a heat sink.

Beers, Keith Morgan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Proton-conducting polymer electrolyte membranes based on fluoropolymers incorporating perfluorovinyl ether sulfonic acids and fluoroalkenes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

acids. A novel synthetic route describing the preparation of perfluorovinyl ether monomer containing. The radical (co) and terpolymerization of 4-[(,,-trifluorovinyl)oxy]benzene sulfonyl chloride (TFVOBSC) with 1,1-difluoroethylene (or vinylidene fluoride, VDF), hexafluoropropene (HFP), and perfluoromethyl vinyl ether (PMVE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

376

Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20���ºC to 120���ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20���ºC to 120���ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA�¢����s comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20���ºC to 120���ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA�¢����s, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year R&D Plan. In the course of this four-year program we developed a new PEM with improved proton conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical stability. We incorporated this new membrane into MEAs and evaluated performance and durability.

Hamrock, Steven J.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

377

Effects of Fabricated Gas Diffusion Layers with Different Reinforce Materials in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The anodes and cathodes both consisted of GDL substrate, and the proton exchange membrane consisted of a solid catalyst-coated electrolyte membrane (Gore three-layer CCM MEA with a thickness of 35 ?m; catalyst deposition: cathode, 0.6 mg of Pt/cm2; anode, 0.45 mg of Pt alloy/cm2) in the form of a membrane electrode assembly. ... reaction (ORR) kinetics on Pt catalysts is among the most limiting factors in the energy conversion efficiency of the state-of-the-art PEMFC. ...

Tse-Hao Ko; Yuan-Kai Liao; Ching-Han Liu

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

378

Heat and water transport in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell electrode  

SciTech Connect

In the present scenario of a global initiative toward a sustainable energy future, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) has emerged as one of the most promising alternative energy conversion devices for various applications. Despite tremendous progress in recent years, a pivotal performance limitation in the PEFC comes from liquid water transport and the resulting flooding phenomena. Liquid water blocks the open pore space in the electrode and the fibrous diffusion layer leading to hindered oxygen transport. The electrode is also the only component in the entire PEFC sandwich which produces waste heat from the electrochemical reaction. The cathode electrode, being the host to several competing transport mechanisms, plays a crucial role in the overall PEFC performance limitation. In this work, an electrode model is presented in order to elucidate the coupled heat and water transport mechanisms. Two scenarios are specifically considered: (1) conventional, Nafion{reg_sign} impregnated, three-phase electrode with the hydrated polymeric membrane phase as the conveyer of protons where local electro-neutrality prevails; and (2) ultra-thin, two-phase, nano-structured electrode without the presence of ionomeric phase where charge accumulation due to electro-statics in the vicinity of the membrane-CL interface becomes important. The electrode model includes a physical description of heat and water balance along with electrochemical performance analysis in order to study the influence of electro-statics/electro-migration and phase change on the PEFC electrode performance.

Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rod L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ranjan, Devesh [TEXAS A& M UNIV

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A separation membrane is described which is useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C{sub 2+} hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula shown in the accompanying diagram, wherein R{sub 1} is chosen from the group consisting of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R{sub 2} is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP]. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations. 4 figs.

Pinnau, I.; Morisato, Atsushi

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

380

Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A separation membrane useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is chosen from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R.sub.2 is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) ›PMP!. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations.

Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Morisato, Atsushi (Tokyo, JP)

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Model Cell Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... are being used as model systems to test particular hypotheses in membrane transport. Thus, Tosteson and his colleagues (Andreoli et al., J. Gen. PhysioL, 50, 1729; ...

A Correspondent

1968-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

382

Anion exchange membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

383

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Fuel Cell - Polymer Electrolyte  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Research Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Research Xiaoping Wang measures the stability of a platinum cathode electrocatalyst. Xiaoping Wang measures the stability of a platinum cathode electrocatalyst. One of the main barriers to the commercialization of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems, especially for automotive use, is the high cost of the platinum electrocatalysts. Aside from the cost of the precious metal, concern has also been raised over the adequacy of the world supply of platinum, if fuel cell vehicles were to make a significant penetration into the global automotive fleet. At Argonne, chemists are working toward the development of low-cost nonplatinum electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction--durable materials that would be stable in the fuel

384

Effects of proton-conducting electrolyte microstructure on the performance of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three kinds of proton-conducting electrolyte powder BaCe0.8Sm0.2O2.9 (BCS) with different microstructures are synthesized by three different methods: EDTA-citrate method EDTA-citrate and ball-milling method and hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy are used to investigate the microstructure and morphology of the BCS powders and electrochemical measurements and impedance spectroscopy are employed to analyze electrical characteristics of the electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). It is found that the performance of electrolyte-supported SOFCs strongly depends upon the electrolyte microstructure which is dominated by the synthesis methods. At the operating temperature of 650?°C the highest SOFC performance (80?mW/cm2) is obtained from the cell with nanostructured proton conducting electrolyte powder synthesized by the hydrothermal method while the lowest performance (17?mW/cm2) is the cell with the largest grain powder synthesized by the EDTA-citrate method without ball-milling treatment.

Jing Sui; Lei Cao; Qianqian Zhu; Liyan Yu; Qian Zhang; Lifeng Dong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Mixed hydrocarbon/fluoropolymer membrane/ionomer MEAs for durability studies  

SciTech Connect

The durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. Commercial viability depends on improving the durability of the fuel cell components to increase the system reliability. The aim of this work is to separate ionomer degradation from membrane degradation via mixed membrane/ionomer MEA experiments. The challenges of mixed MEA fabrication due to the incompatibility of the membrane and the electrode are addressed. OCV accelerated testing experiment (AST) were performed. Development of in situ diagnostics and unique experiments to characterize the performance and properties of the ionomer in the electrode as a function of time is reported. These measurements, along with extensive ex situ and post-mortem characterization, can delineate the degradation mechanisms in order to develop more durable fuel cells and fuel cell components.

Li, Bo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Mahlon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cynthia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fenton, James [FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

All-solid-state proton battery using gel polymer electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

A proton conducting gel polymer electrolyte system; PMMA+NH{sub 4}SCN+EC/PC, has been prepared. The highest ionic conductivity obtained from the system is 2.5 × 10?4 S cm{sup ?1}. The optimized composition of the gel electrolyte has been used to fabricate a proton battery with Zn/ZnSO{sub 4}?7H{sub 2}O anode and MnO{sub 2} cathode. The open circuit voltage of the battery is 1.4 V and the highest energy density is 5.7 W h kg?1 for low current drain.

Mishra, Kuldeep, E-mail: mishkuldeep@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, ABES Engineering College, Ghaziabad-201009, India and Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida-201307 (India); Pundir, S. S.; Rai, D. K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida-201307 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

388

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

389

Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries. Effects of electrolyte salts on the performance of Li-O2 batteries. Abstract: It is well known that the stability of...

390

Treating electrolytic manganese residue with alkaline additives for stabilizing manganese and removing ammonia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) from the electrolytic manganese industry is a solid waste containing mainly calcium sulfate dihydrate and quartzite. It is impossible to directly use the EMR as a building mat...

Changbo Zhou; Jiwei Wang; Nanfang Wang

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Electrolyte Model Helps Researchers Develop Better Batteries, Wins R&D 100 Award  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Dow Chemical, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, Argonne National Lab (ANL) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), have developed the Advanced Electrolyte Model (AEM), a powerful tool that analyzes and identifies potential electrolytes for use in battery systems.

392

Mathematical modelling of the catalyst layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......polymer electrolyte fuel cell A. A. Shah...polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The model explicitly...unwanted reactions (degradation), such as carbon...certain ranges of cell voltage). (5...performance of the fuel cell. We point......

A. A. Shah; Gwang-Soo Kim; K. Promislow

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Device for equalizing molten electrolyte content in a fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for equalizing the molten electrolyte content throughout the height of a fuel cell stack is disclosed. The device includes a passageway for electrolyte return with electrolyte wettable wicking material in the opposite end portions of the passageway. One end portion is disposed near the upper, negative end of the stack where electrolyte flooding occurs. The second end portion is placed near the lower, positive end of the stack where electrolyte is depleted. Heating means are provided at the upper portion of the passageway to increase electrolyte vapor pressure in the upper wicking material. The vapor is condensed in the lower passageway portion and conducted as molten electrolyte in the lower wick to the positive end face of the stack. An inlet is provided to inject a modifying gas into the passageway and thereby control the rate of electrolyte return.

Smith, J.L.

1985-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

394

Device for equalizing molten electrolyte content in a fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for equalizing the molten electrolyte content throughout the height of a fuel cell stack is disclosed. The device includes a passageway for electrolyte return with electrolyte wettable wicking material in the opposite end portions of the passageway. One end portion is disposed near the upper, negative end of the stack where electrolyte flooding occurs. The second end portion is placed near the lower, positive end of the stack where electrolyte is depleted. Heating means are provided at the upper portion of the passageway to increase electrolyte vapor pressure in the upper wicking material. The vapor is condensed in the lower passageway portion and conducted as molten electrolyte in the lower wick to the positive end face of the stack. An inlet is provided to inject a modifying gas into the passageway and thereby control the rate of electrolyte return.

Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ethylene Carbonate in Li-Ion Battery Electrolyte Guoyingof a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 %are an important part of Li-ion battery technology yet their

Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Membrane module assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

Kaschemekat, J.

1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF COMPRESSION AND CONSTRAINTS ON WATER UPTAKE OF FUEL-CELL MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

Accurate characterization of polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) requires understanding the impact of mechanical and electrochemical loads on cell components. An essential aspect of this relationship is the effect of compression on the polymer membrane?s water-uptake behavior and transport properties. However, there is limited information on the impact of physical constraints on membrane properties. In this paper, we investigate both theoretically and experimentally how the water uptake of Nafion membrane changes under external compression loads. The swelling of a compressed membrane is modeled by modifying the swelling pressure in the polymer backbone which relies on the changes in the microscopic volume of the polymer. The model successfully predicts the water content of the compressed membrane measured through in-situ swelling-compression tests and neutron imaging. The results show that external mechanical loads could reduce the water content and conductivity of the membrane, especially at lower temperatures, higher humidities, and in liquid water. The modeling framework and experimental data provide valuable insight for the swelling and conductivity of constrained and compressed membranes, which are of interest in electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells.

Kusoglu, Ahmet; Kienitz, Briian; Weber, Adam

2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

399

First-principles simulations of extended structures in the lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrolytes The structure of thin film battery2 Solid state electrolytes that are physically and chemically+xPO4-yNz with x = 3z -2y has been developed as a solid state electrolyte for Li ion batteries., J. of Solid State Chemistry 115, 313 (1995). 2. http://www.ms.ornl.gov/researchgroups/Functional/Battery

Holzwarth, Natalie

400

ELSEVIER Solid State Ionics 94 (1997) 17-25 Ceramic solid electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELSEVIER Solid State Ionics 94 (1997) 17-25 SOLID STATE IoMcs Ceramic solid electrolytes John B electrolytes are best suited for solid reactants, as are found in most battery systems. Ceramic solid 78712-106.3. USA Abstract Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems

Gleixner, Stacy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Carbonate fuel cell and components thereof for in-situ delayed addition of carbonate electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method in which a delayed carbonate electrolyte is stored in the storage areas of a non-electrolyte matrix fuel cell component and is of a preselected content so as to obtain a delayed time release of the electrolyte in the storage areas in the operating temperature range of the fuel cell.

Johnsen, Richard (Waterbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT); Farooque, Mohammad (Danbury, CT)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

402

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid Water Dynamics in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller in a Model Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Flow Channel by Chris Miller Bachelors of Engineering, University in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell is a critical issue in ensuring high cell performance. The water production

Victoria, University of

403

Phenyl boron-based compounds as anion receptors for non-aqueous battery electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel fluorinated boronate-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boronate-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boronate-based anion receptors include different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Qing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY); Sun, Xuehui (Middle Island, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Original article Flat ceramic membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

membranes. The orig- inal intellectual concept is protected by two international patents. Strategically of investment and functioning costs while keeping the interest of ceramics. ceramic membrane / plate / tubular

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells.

406

Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

Phosphorous Computer Modeling of Crystalline Electrolytes: Lithium Thiophosphates and Phosphates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-search algorithm · Minimum-energy migration paths were determined via the construction of a weighted graph Results: Abstract Recently, lithium thiophosphate materials suitable for usage as solid electrolytes with PAW functionals generated using atompaw, and used in pwscf and abinit) · Formation energies

Holzwarth, Natalie

408

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ELECTROLYTE DEPENDENCE OF AC ELECTROOSMOTIC PUMPS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF ELECTROLYTE DEPENDENCE OF AC ELECTROOSMOTIC PUMPS Kapil Subramanian1 , John Abstract: Recent studies indicate increased efficiency of microfluidic ac electro-osmotic pumps of ac electroosmosis in microchannels on solution chemistry for the new fast aceo stepped pumps

Bazant, Martin Z.

409

Ordered ceramic membranes  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic membranes have been formed from colloidal sols coated on porous clay supports. These supported membranes have been characterized in terms of their permeabilities and permselectivities to various aqueous test solutions. The thermal stabilities and pore structures of these membranes have been characterized by preparing unsupported membranes of the correpsonding material and performing N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and X-ray diffraction studies on these membranes. To date, membranes have been prepared from a variety of oxides, including TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as well as Zr-, Fe-, and Nb-doped TiO{sub 2}. In many of these membranes pore diameters are less than 2 nm, while in others the pore diameters are between 3 and 5 nm. Procedures for fabricating porous clay supports with reproducible permeabilities for pure water are also discussed. 30 refs., 59 figs., 22 tabs.

Anderson, M.A.; Hill, C.G. Jr.; Zeltner, W.A.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Catalytic nanoporous membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

411

CENTRIFUGAL MEMBRANE FILTRATION  

SciTech Connect

The overall project consists of several integrated research phases related to the applicability, continued development, demonstration, and commercialization of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration process. Work performed during this reporting period consisted of Phase 2 evaluation of the SpinTek centrifugal membrane filtration technology and Phase 3, Technology Partnering. During Phase 1 testing conducted at the EERC using the SpinTek ST-IIL unit operating on a surrogate tank waste, a solids cake developed on the membrane surface. The solids cake was observed where linear membrane velocities were less than 17.5 ft/s and reduced the unobstructed membrane surface area up to 25%, reducing overall filtration performance. The primary goal of the Phase 2 research effort was to enhance filtration performance through the development and testing of alternative turbulence promoter designs. The turbulence promoters were designed to generate a shear force across the entire membrane surface sufficient to maintain a self-cleaning membrane capability and improve filtration efficiency and long-term performance. Specific Phase 2 research activities included the following: System modifications to accommodate an 11-in.-diameter, two-disk rotating membrane assembly; Development and fabrication of alternative turbulence promoter designs; Testing and evaluation of the existing and alternative turbulence promoters under selected operating conditions using a statistically designed test matrix; and Data reduction and analysis; The objective of Phase 3 research was to demonstrate the effectiveness of SpinTek's centrifugal membrane filtration as a pretreatment to remove suspended solids from a liquid waste upstream of 3M's WWL cartridge technology for the selective removal of technetium (Tc).

Daniel J. Stepan; Bradley G. Stevens; Melanie D. Hetland

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Composite metal membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, Nathaniel M. (Espanola, NM); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Composite metal membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

414

Self-supported poly(methyl methacrylate–acrylonitrile–vinyl acetate)-based gel electrolyte for lithium ion battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Self-supported gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) was prepared based on copolymer, poly(methyl methacrylate–acrylonitrile–vinyl acetate) (P(MMA–AN–VAc)). The copolymer P(MMA–AN–VAc) was synthesized by emulsion polymerization and the copolymer membrane was prepared through phase inversion. The structure and the performance of the copolymer, the membrane and the GPE were characterized by FTIR, NMR, SEM, XRD, DSC/TG, LSV, CA, and EIS. It is found that the copolymer was formed through the breaking of double bond CC in each monomer. The membrane has low crystallinity and has low glass transition temperature, 39.1 °C, its thermal stability is as high as 310 °C, and its mechanical strength is improved compared with P(MMA–AN). The GPE is electrochemically stable up to 5.6 V (vs. Li/Li+) and its conductivity is 3.48 × 10?3 S cm?1 at ambient temperature. The lithium ion transference number in the GPE is 0.51 and the conductivity model of the GPE is found to obey the Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF) equation.

Y.H. Liao; D.Y. Zhou; M.M. Rao; W.S. Li; Z.P. Cai; Y. Liang; C.L. Tan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Performance analysis of short-side-chain Aquivion® perfluorosulfonic acid polymer for proton exchange membrane water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An Aquivion® E87-12 S short-side-chain perfluorosulfonic acid (SSC-PFSA) membrane with equivalent weight (EW) of 870 g/eq and 120 ?m thickness produced by Solvay Specialty Polymers was tested in a polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolyzer (PEMWE). For comparison, a benchmark Nafion® N115 membrane (EW 1100 g/eq) of similar thickness was investigated under similar operating conditions. Both membranes were tested in conjunction with in-house prepared unsupported IrO2 anode and carbon-supported Pt cathode electrocatalysts. The electrocatalysts consisted of nanosized IrO2 and Pt particles (particle size ~2–4 nm). Electrochemical tests showed better water splitting performance for the Aquivion® membrane and ionomer based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) as compared to Nafion®. Lower ohmic drop constraints and smaller polarization resistance were observed for the electrocatalyst–Aquivion® ionomer interface indicating a better catalyst–electrolyte interface. A current density of 3.2 A cm?2 for water electrolysis was recorded at 1.8 V cell voltage and 90 °C with the Aquivion® based MEA. Some performance decay with time was observed indicating that the system requires further optimization of the interface characteristics.

S. Siracusano; V. Baglio; A. Stassi; L. Merlo; E. Moukheiber; A.S. Arico?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

A membrane interferometer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...bilayer membranes from lipid monolayers. A critique . Biophys J 16 : 481 – 489 . Acknowledgments We thank Profs. Nick Melosh, Merritt Maduke, and Stephen White for useful insights and suggestions. The Cy5-DNA-lipid conjugate was synthesized...

Prasad V. Ganesan; Steven G. Boxer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Wrinkling in polygonal membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

boundary conditions of the polygons. When pressurised, the polygonal membranes naturally reach a parabolic shape towards their centre, the extent of which varies greatly depending on a large number of parameters, including most particularly pre...

Bonin, Arnaud Stephane

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

418

Reverse Osmosis Membranes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A bibliography of citations from the U.S. National Technical Information Service data base with 183 abstracts on membranes for reverse osmosis desalination, electro-dialysis desalination and other osmotic desa...

Prof. Dr. Anthony Delyannis; Dr. Euridike-Emmy Delyannis

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Membrane fusion: Ready ? aim ? fire!  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... All cells use a programme of membrane fusion and fission to assemble membranes, both internally and on their surface. Given that biological ... internally and on their surface. Given that biological membranes are essentially two-dimensional fluids, fusion must obey certain restrictions that prevent incompatible membranes from intermixing. Without such selective contact, ...

Randy Schekman

1998-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

422

Method of making membrane-electrode assemblies for electrochemical cells and assemblies made thereby  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for making a combination, unitary, membrane and electrode assembly having a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, and first and second electrodes at least partially embedded in opposed surfaces of the membrane. The electrodes each comprise a respective group of finely divided carbon particles, very finely divided catalytic particles supported on internal and external surfaces of the carbon particles and a proton conductive material intermingled with the catalytic and carbon particles. A first group of finely divided carbon particles forming the first electrode has greater water attraction and retention properties, and is more hydrophilic than a second group of carbon particles forming the second electrode. In a preferred method, the membrane electrode assembly of the invention is prepared by forming a slurry of proton conductive material and at least one group of the carbon and catalyst particles. The slurry is applied to the opposed surfaces of the membrane and heated while being pressed to the membrane for a time and at a temperature and compressive load sufficient to embed at least a portion of the particles into the membrane. 10 figs.

Swathirajan, S.; Mikhail, Y.M.

1994-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

423

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Modeling the cathode compartment of polymer electrolyte fuel cells: Dead and active reaction zones  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional model of the cathode compartment of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell has been developed. The existence of gas channels in the current collector is taken into account. The model is based on continuity equations for concentrations of the gases and Poisson's equations for potentials of membrane and carbon phase, coupled by Tafel relation for reaction kinetics. Stefan-Maxwell and Knudsen diffusion of gases are taken into account. The simulations were performed for high and low values of carbon phase conductivity. The results revealed (i) for a low value of carbon phase conductivity, a dead zone in the active layer in front of the gas channel is formed, where the reaction rate is small. The catalyst may be removed from this zone without significant loss in cell performance; (ii) For a high carbon phase conductivity value, such a zone is absent, but removal of the catalyst from the same part of the active layer forces the reaction to proceed more rapidly in the remaining parts, with only marginal losses in performance. This conclusion is valid for high diffusivity of oxygen. For low diffusivity, dead zones are formed in front of the current collector, so that catalyst can be removed from these zones. The results, thus, show the possibilities for a considerable reduction of the amount of catalyst.

Kulikovsky, A.A.; Divisek, J.; Kornyshev, A.A.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Performance modeling of the Ballard Mark IV solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell. 1: Mechanistic model development  

SciTech Connect

A parametric model predicting the performance of a solid polymer electrolyte, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed using a combination of mechanistic and empirical modeling techniques. This paper details the mechanistic model development. Mass transport properties are considered in the mechanistic development via Stefan-Maxwell equations. Thermodynamic equilibrium potentials are defined using the Nernst equation. Activation overvoltages are defined via a Tafel equation, and internal resistance are defined via the Nernst-Planck equation, leading to a definition of ohmic overvoltage via an Ohm's law equation. The mechanistic model cannot adequately model fuel cell performance, since several simplifying approximations have been used in order to facilitate model development. Additionally, certain properties likely to be observed in operational fuel cells, such as thermal gradients, have not been considered. Nonetheless, the insights gained from the mechanistic assessment of fuel cell processes were found to give the resulting empirical model a firmer theoretical basis than many of the models presently available in the literature. Correlation of the empirical model to actual experimental data was very good.

Amphlett, J.C.; Baumert, R.M.; Mann, R.F.; Peppley, B.A.; Roberge, P.R. (Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)); Harris, T.J. (Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada))

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus G. E  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus Aqueous Electrolyte Modeling in Aspen Plus G. E Bloomingburg (1)(3), J. M. Simonson (2), R C. Moore (2), I€ D. Cochran (3), and R. E. Mesmer (2) (1) Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2200 (2) Chemical and Analytical Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory* Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110 (3) Chemical Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory* Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6224 Presented at the 12th International Conference on the Properties of Water and Steam Orlando, Florida September 14, 1994 The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor o f the US. Government under contract No. DE-ACOS-84OR21400. Accordingly, the US. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty free license to

427

Electrolytic recovery of mercury enriched in isotopic abundance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method of electrolytically extracting liquid mercury from HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. Additionally there are disclosed two related techniques associated with the present invention, namely (1) a technique for selectively removing product from different regions of a long photochemical reactor (photoreactor) and (2) a method of accurately measuring the total quantity of mercury formed as either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is comprised of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb{sub x}Ta{sub y}Ce{sub 1{minus}x{minus}y}O{sub 2} where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same is also described. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell, characterized by a first electrode; an electrically conductive interlayer of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion of the first electrode; an interconnect deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode, an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode, a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy. 5 figs.

Singh, P.; Vasilow, T.R.; Richards, V.L.

1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

429

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention comprises of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb.sub.x Ta.sub.y Ce.sub.1-x-y O.sub.2 where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell (10), characterized by a first electrode (12); an electrically conductive interlayer (14) of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion (R) of the first electrode; an interconnect (16) deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte (18) deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode (20) deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer (14) is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode (12), an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer (18) is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer (16) is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode (20), a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell (10) can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Manor, PA); Richards, Von L. (Angola, IN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Strategies for Probing Nanometer-Scale Electrocatalysts: From Single Particles to Catalyst-Membrane Architectures  

SciTech Connect

The project primary objectives are to prepare and elucidate the promoting properties of materials that possess high activity for the conversion of hydrogen and related small molecules (water, oxygen, carbon monoxide and methanol) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. One area of research has focused on the study of catalyst materials. Protocols were developed for probing the structure and benchmarking the activity of Pt and Pt bimetallic nanometer-scale catalyst against Pt single crystal electrode standards. A second area has targeted fuel cell membrane and the advancement of simple methods mainly based on vibrational spectroscopy that can be applied broadly in the study of membrane structure and transport properties. Infrared and Raman methods combined with least-squares data modeling were applied to investigate and assist the design of robust, proton conductive membranes, which resist reactant crossover.

Korzeniewski, Carol

2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

431

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

In the present quarter, oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

In this quarter a systematic analysis on the decomposition behavior of the OTM membranes at air and nitrogen were initiated to understand the structural and stoichiometric changes associated with elevated temperatures. Evaluation of the flexural strengths using 4-point bend test was also started for the dual phase membranes. Initial results on the synthesis of dual phase composite materials have been obtained. The measurements have focused on the compatibility of mixed conductors with the pure ionic conductors yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinium doped ceria (GDC). The initial results obtained for three different mixed conductors suggest that (GDC) is the better choice. A new membrane permeation system has been designed and tested and sintering studies of biphasic systems are in progress.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low-Cost, High-Performance Hybrid Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries - Hongxing Hu, Amsen Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DESIGN © 2008 DESIGN © 2008 www.PosterPresentations.com Low-Cost, High-Performance Hybrid Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries Hongxing Hu, Amsen Technologies LLC DOE SBIR Project, Program Manager at DOE: Dr. Imre Gyuk Objectives and Technical Approach Objectives: This SBIR project aims to develop low-cost, high performance hybrid polymeric PEMs for redox flow batteries (RFBs). Such membranes shall have high chemical stability in RFB electrolytes, high proton conductivity, low permeability of vanadium ions, along with high dimensional stability, high mechanical strength and durability, and lower cost than Nafion membranes. Approach: * Hybrid membranes of sulfonated polymers * Balance between different types of polymers for proton conductivity and chemical stability

434

Colloidal fouling of reverse osmosis membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the rate of fouling of reverse osmosis membranes treating32, 127-135. fouling of reverse osmosis membranes." Buros,Colloidal fouling of reverse osmosis membranes." J. Colloid

Elimelech, Menachem

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Composite oxygen transport membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

436

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

This is the fifth quarterly report on a new study to develop a ceramic membrane/metal joint. Results of wetting experiments on commercially available Nickel based brazing alloys on perovskite surfaces are described. Additionally, experimental and numerical investigations on the strength of concentric ceramic/metal joints are presented.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Hydrogen-Selective Membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2.s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

Collins, John P. (Boulder, CO); Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO)

1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

439

Hydrogen-selective membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2} s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

440

Hydrogen-selective membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2}s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Membrane Scientist Los Angeles, CA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and working hands on to ensure quality and commercial viability of reverse osmosis products including hand cast and commercial reverse osmosis membrane testing and synthesis, prototype membrane testing and new

Alpay, S. Pamir

442

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties  

SciTech Connect

The research objective of this proposal was to provide a detailed analysis of how solvent and anion structure govern the solvation state of Li+ cations in solvent-LiX mixtures and how this, in turn, dictates the electrolyte physicochemical and electrochemical properties which govern (in part) battery performance. Lithium battery electrolytes remain a poorly understood and hardly studied topic relative to the research devoted to battery electrodes. This is due to the fact that it is the electrodes which determine the energy (capacity) of the battery. The electrolyte, however, plays a crucial role in the practical energy density, power, low and/or high temperature performance, lifetime, safety, etc. which is achievable. The development within this project of a "looking glass" into the molecular interactions (i.e., solution structure) in bulk electrolytes through a synergistic experimental approach involving three research thrusts complements work by other researchers to optimize multi-solvent electrolytes and efforts to understand/control the electrode-electrolyte interfaces, thereby enabling the rational design of electrolytes for a wide variety of battery chemistries and applications (electrolytes-on-demand). The three research thrusts pursued include: (1) conduction of an in-depth analysis of the thermal phase behavior of diverse solvent-LiX mixtures, (2) exploration of the ionic association/solvate formation behavior of select LiX salts with a wide variety of solvents, and (3) linking structure to properties?determination of electrolyte physicochemical and electrochemical properties for comparison with the ionic association and phase behavior.

Henderson, Wesley

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

444

Microstructure and properties of barium cerate based electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Barium cerate based ceramics have been widely reported to have high ionic conductivity and hold promise as electrolyte materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC`s). Samples of niobium-doped barium cerate have been produced with a variety of microstructures. Many parameters affecting the final microstructure of the electrolyte materials have been systematically investigated. The conductivity of the electrolyte materials produced have been studied using impedance spectroscopy to understand the effect of microstructure on the desired properties of barium cerate based electrolytes.

Rauch, W.L.; Liu, M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

445

The mechanism of HF formation in LiPF6-based organic carbonate electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lithium ion battery electrolytes upon thermal aging werethermal degradation of LiPF 6 at 50°C in a lithium ion battery

Lux, Simon

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Passivation of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOB  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

much greater thermal The passivation of aluminum in batterybattery electrolytes, LiPF 6 does have some shortcomings. In particular, the thermal

Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, Thomas M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Advances in water electrolysis technology with emphasis on use of the solid polymer electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efforts to improve water electrolysis technology are being made using three promising ... ) development of solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolysers, (b) increasing the operating temperature of alkaline...

P. W. T. Lu; S. Srinivasan

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Internal electrolyte supply system for reliable transport throughout fuel cell stacks  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved internal electrolyte supply system in a fuel cell stack employs a variety of arrangements of grooves and passages in bipolar plates of the multiplicity of repeating fuel cells to route gravity-assisted flowing electrolyte throughout the stack. The grooves route electrolyte flow along series of first paths which extend horizontally through the cells between the plates thereof. The passages route electrolyte flow along series of second paths which extend vertically through the stack so as to supply electrolyte to the first paths in order to expose the electrolyte to the matrices of the cells. Five different embodiments of the supply system are disclosed. Some embodiments employ wicks in the grooves for facilitating transfer of the electrolyte to the matrices as well as providing support for the matrices. Additionally, the passages of some embodiments by-pass certain of the grooves and supply electrolyte directly to other of the grooves. Some embodiments employ single grooves and others have dual grooves. Finally, in some embodiments the passages are connected to the grooves by a step which produces a cascading electrolyte flow.

Wright, Maynard K. (Bethel Park, PA); Downs, Robert E. (Monroeville, PA); King, Robert B. (Westlake, OH)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Automotive Perspective on Membrane Evaluation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation at the 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held June 9, 2008, in Washington, DC

450

Failure of PEM water electrolysis cells: Case study involving anode dissolution and membrane thinning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) water electrolysis is an efficient and environmental friendly method that can be used for the production of molecular hydrogen of electrolytic grade using zero-carbon power sources such as renewable and nuclear. However, market applications are asking for cost reduction and performances improvement. This can be achieved by increasing operating current density and lifetime of operation. Concerning performance, safety, reliability and durability issues, the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) is the weakest cell component. Most performance losses and most accidents occurring during PEM water electrolysis are usually due to the MEA. The purpose of this communication is to report on some specific degradation mechanisms that have been identified as a potential source of performance loss and membrane failure. An accelerated degradation test has been performed on a MEA by applying galvanostatic pulses. Platinum has been used as electrocatalyst at both anode and cathode in order to accelerate degradation rate by maintaining higher cell voltage and higher anodic potential that otherwise would have occurred if conventional Ir/IrOx catalysts had been used. Experimental evidence of degradation mechanisms have been obtained by post-mortem analysis of the MEA using microscopy and chemical analysis. Details of these degradation processes are presented and discussed.

S.A. Grigoriev; K.A. Dzhus; D.G. Bessarabov; P. Millet

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the current state of electrolytic hydrogen production technologies and an economic analysis of the processes and systems available as of December 2003. The operating specifications of commercially available electrolyzers from five manufacturers, i.e., Stuart, Teledyne, Proton, Norsk Hydro, and Avalence, are summarized. Detailed economic analyses of three systems for which cost and economic data were available were completed. The contributions of the cost of electricity, system efficiency, and capital costs to the total cost of electrolysis are discussed.

Ivy, J.

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the current state of electrolytic hydrogen production technologies and an economic analysis of the processes and systems available as of December 2003. The operating specifications of commercially available electrolyzers from five manufacturers, i.e., Stuart, Teledyne, Proton, Norsk Hydro, and Avalence, are summarized. Detailed economic analyses of three systems for which cost and economic data were available were completed. The contributions of the cost of electricity, system efficiency, and capital costs to the total cost of electrolysis are discussed.

Ivy, J.

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Cation Transport in Polymer Electrolytes: A Microscopic Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A microscopic theory for cation diffusion in polymer electrolytes is presented. Based on a thorough analysis of molecular dynamics simulations on PEO with LiBF$_4$ the mechanisms of cation dynamics are characterised. Cation jumps between polymer chains can be identified as renewal processes. This allows us to obtain an explicit expression for the lithium ion diffusion constant D_{Li} by invoking polymer specific properties such as the Rouse dynamics. This extends previous phenomenological and numerical approaches. In particular, the chain length dependence of D_{Li} can be predicted and compared with experimental data. This dependence can be fully understood without referring to entanglement effects.

A. Maitra; A. Heuer

2007-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

454

Molten salt bath circulation design for an electrolytic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolytic cell for reduction of a metal oxide to a metal and oxygen has an inert anode and an upwardly angled roof covering the inert mode. The angled roof diverts oxygen bubbles into an upcomer channel, thereby agitating a molten salt bath in the upcomer channel and improving dissolution of a metal oxide in the molten salt bath. The molten salt bath has a lower velocity adjacent the inert anode in order to minimize corrosion by substances in the bath. A particularly preferred cell produces aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in a molten salt bath containing aluminum fluoride and sodium fluoride. 4 figs.

Dawless, R.K.; LaCamera, A.F.; Troup, R.L.; Ray, S.P.; Hosler, R.B.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

455

Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation |...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation polymercompositemembranes.pdf More Documents & Publications...

456

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} to investigate oxygen deficiency ({delta}) of the sample. The TGA was performed in a controlled atmosphere using oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with adjustable gas flow rates. In this experiment, the weight loss and gain of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} was directly measured by TGA. The weight change of the sample was evaluated at between 600 and 1250 C in air or 1000 C as a function of oxygen partial pressure. The oxygen deficiencies calculated from TGA data as a function of oxygen activity and temperature will be estimated and compared with that from neutron diffraction measurement in air. The LSFT and LSFT/CGO membranes were fabricated from the powder obtained from Praxair Specialty Ceramics. The sintered membranes were subjected to microstructure analysis and hardness analysis. The LSFT membrane is composed of fine grains with two kinds of grain morphology. The grain size distribution was characterized using image analysis. In LSFT/CGO membrane a lot of grain pullout was observed from the less dense, porous phase. The hardness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes were studied at various loads. The hardness values obtained from the cross section of the membranes were also compared to that of the values obtained from the surface. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. Measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure are reported. Further analysis of the dilatometry data obtained previously is presented. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment are begun. The studies are to be in parallel with LSFCO composition to characterize the segregation of cations and slow crack growth in environmental conditions. La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} has also been characterized for paramagnetic ordering at room temperature and the evolution of magnetic moments as a function of temperature are investigated. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Solid-state membrane module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

Gordon, John Howard (Salt Lake City, UT); Taylor, Dale M. (Murray, UT)

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

459

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

This is the fourth quarterly report on a new study to develop a ceramic membrane/metal joint. The first experiments using the La-Sr-Fe-O ceramic are reported. Some of the analysis performed on the samples obtained are commented upon. A set of experiments to characterize the mechanical strength and thermal fatigue properties of the joints has been designed and begun. Finite element models of joints used to model residual stresses are described.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors  

SciTech Connect

There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

Stuart Nemser, PhD

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells with chromium nitride nanocrystals as electrocatalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells(PEMFCs) are energy conversion devices that produce electricity from a supply of fuel such as hydrogen. One of the major challenges in achieving efficient energy conversion is the development of cost-effective materials that can act as electrocatalysts for PEMFCs. In this letter we demonstrate that instead of conventional noble metals such as platinum chromium nitride nanocrystals of fcc structure exhibit attractive catalytic activity for PEMFCs. Device testing indicates good stability of nitride nanocrystals in low temperature fuel cell operational environment.

Hexiang Zhong; Xiaobo Chen; Huamin Zhang; Meiri Wang; Samuel S. Mao

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Physical properties of Li ion conducting polyphosphazene based polymer electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

We report a systematic study of the transport properties and the underlying physical chemistry of some polyphosphazene (PPhz)-based polymer electrolytes. We synthesized MEEP and variants which employed mixed combinations of different length oxyethylene side-chains. We compare the conductivity and ion-ion interactions in polymer electrolytes obtained with lithium triflate and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) salts added to the polymer. The combination of the lithium imide salt and MEEP yields a maximum conductivity of 8 x 10{sup -5} {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} at room temperature at a salt loading of 8 monomers per lithium. In one of the mixed side-chain variations, a maximum conductivity of 2 x 10{sup -4} {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1} was measured at the same molar ratio. Raman spectral analysis shows some ion aggregation and some polymer - ion interactions in the PPhz-LiTFSI case but much less than observed with Li CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}. A sharp increase in the Tg as salt is added corresponds to concentrations above which the conductivity significantly decreases and ion associations appear.

Sanderson, S.; Zawodzinski, T.; Hermes, R.; Davey, J.; Dai, Hongli

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

463

Fluoride based cathodes and electrolytes for high energy thermal batteries  

SciTech Connect

A research and development program is being conducted at the Saft Advanced Technologies Division in Hunt Valley, MD to double the energy density of a thermal battery. A study of high voltage cathodes to replace iron disulfide is in progress. Single cells are being studied with a lithium anode and either a copper(II) fluoride, silver(II) fluoride, or iron(III) fluoride cathode. Due to the high reactivity of these cathodes, conventional alkali metal chloride and bromide salt electrolytes must be replaced by alkali metal fluoride electrolytes. Parametric studies using design-of-experiments matrices will be performed so that the best cathode for an improved battery design can be selected. Titanium hardware for the design will provide a higher strength to weight ratio with lower emissivity than conventional stainless steel. The battery will consist of two power sections. The goals are battery activation in less than 0.2 s, 88 Wh/kg, 1,385 W/kg, and 179 Wh/L over an environmental temperature range of {minus}40 C to +70 C.

Briscoe, J.D.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

An Insoluble Titanium-Lead Anode for Sulfate Electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

The project is devoted to the development of novel insoluble anodes for copper electrowinning and electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) production. The anodes are made of titanium-lead composite material produced by techniques of powder metallurgy, compaction of titanium powder, sintering and subsequent lead infiltration. The titanium-lead anode combines beneficial electrochemical behavior of a lead anode with high mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of a titanium anode. In the titanium-lead anode, the titanium stabilizes the lead, preventing it from spalling, and the lead sheathes the titanium, protecting it from passivation. Interconnections between manufacturing process, structure, composition and properties of the titanium-lead composite material were investigated. The material containing 20-30 vol.% of lead had optimal combination of mechanical and electrochemical properties. Optimal process parameters to manufacture the anodes were identified. Prototypes having optimized composition and structure were produced for testing in operating conditions of copper electrowinning and EMD production. Bench-scale, mini-pilot scale and pilot scale tests were performed. The test anodes were of both a plate design and a flow-through cylindrical design. The cylindrical anodes were composed of cylinders containing titanium inner rods and fitting over titanium-lead bushings. The cylindrical design allows the electrolyte to flow through the anode, which enhances diffusion of the electrolyte reactants. The cylindrical anodes demonstrate higher mass transport capabilities and increased electrical efficiency compared to the plate anodes. Copper electrowinning represents the primary target market for the titanium-lead anode. A full-size cylindrical anode performance in copper electrowinning conditions was monitored over a year. The test anode to cathode voltage was stable in the 1.8 to 2.0 volt range. Copper cathode morphology was very smooth and uniform. There was no measurable anode weight loss during this time period. Quantitative chemical analysis of the anode surface showed that the lead content after testing remained at its initial level. No lead dissolution or transfer from the anode to the product occurred.A key benefit of the titanium-lead anode design is that cobalt additions to copper electrolyte should be eliminated. Cobalt is added to the electrolyte to help stabilize the lead oxide surface of conventional lead anodes. The presence of the titanium intimately mixed with the lead should eliminate the need for cobalt stabilization of the lead surface. The anode should last twice as long as the conventional lead anode. Energy savings should be achieved due to minimizing and stabilizing the anode-cathode distance in the electrowinning cells. The anode is easily substitutable into existing tankhouses without a rectifier change.The copper electrowinning test data indicate that the titanium-lead anode is a good candidate for further testing as a possible replacement for a conventional lead anode. A key consideration is the cost. Titanium costs have increased. One of the ways to get the anode cost down is manufacturing the anodes with fewer cylinders. Additional prototypes having different number of cylinders were constructed for a long-term commercial testing in a circuit without cobalt. The objective of the testing is to evaluate the need for cobalt, investigate the effect of decreasing the number of cylinders on the anode performance, and to optimize further the anode design in order to meet the operating requirements, minimize the voltage, maximize the life of the anode, and to balance this against a reasonable cost for the anode. It is anticipated that after testing of the additional prototypes, a whole cell commercial test will be conducted to complete evaluation of the titanium-lead anode costs/benefits.

Ferdman, Alla

2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

465

Surface tension of electrolytes: Hydrophilic and hydrophobic ions near an interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface tension of electrolytes: Hydrophilic and hydrophobic ions near an interface Akira Onukia layer. We also derive a general expression for the surface tension of electrolyte systems, which. DOI: 10.1063/1.2936992 I. INTRODUCTION It has long been known that the surface tension of a water

466

Predicting the surface tension of aqueous 1-1 electrolyte solutions at high salinity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Predicting the surface tension of aqueous 1-1 electrolyte solutions at high salinity Philippe Leroy 74, 19 (2010) p. 5427-5442" DOI : 10.1016/j.gca.2010.06.012 #12;2 ABSTRACT The surface tension to predict, under isothermal and isobaric conditions, the surface tension of 1:1 electrolytes at high

Boyer, Edmond

467

Atomistic simulations of surface segregation of defects in solid oxide electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) are widely used electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to their high ionic conductivAtomistic simulations of surface segregation of defects in solid oxide electrolytes Hark B. Lee is important in fuel cell applications because it can affect the near-surface chemical reactions and ionic

Cai, Wei

468

Hans-Heinrich Mo bius On the history of solid electrolyte fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologically orientated development of SO- FCs proceeds today. Key words Solid oxide fuel cells á SolidREVIEW Hans-Heinrich Mo� bius On the history of solid electrolyte fuel cells Received: 4 February lamps 1897) is described. The development of the fundamentals of solid electrolyte fuel cells started

Gleixner, Stacy

469

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 29 (1994) 4135-4151 Bismuth oxide-based solid electrolytes for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of investigations has been reported pertaining to the science and technology of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based as the electrolyte and are accordingly known as the molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) and the solid oxide fuelJOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 29 (1994) 4135-4151 Review Bismuth oxide-based solid electrolytes

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

470

Electrochimica Acta 50 (2005) 21252134 Single-ion conducting polymersilicate nanocomposite electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in solid-state rechargeable lithium batteries [2]. However, since the local relaxations and segmental; accepted 13 September 2004 Abstract Solid-state polymer­silicate nanocomposite electrolytes based electrolytes for lithium battery applications Mary Kuriana,1, Mary E. Galvina,, Patrick E. Trapab, Donald R

Sadoway, Donald Robert

471

Method for producing electricity from a fuel cell having solid-oxide ionic electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Stabilized quadrivalent cation oxide electrolytes are employed in fuel cells at elevated temperatures with a carbon and/or hydrogen containing fuel anode and an oxygen cathode. The fuel cell is operated at elevated temperatures with conductive metallic coatings as electrodes and desirably having the electrolyte surface blackened. Of particular interest as the quadrivalent oxide is zirconia.

Mason, David M. (Los Altos, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

473

A Techno-Economic Analysis of Decentralized Electrolytic Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Techno-Economic Analysis of Decentralized Electrolytic Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cell Vehicles-Economic Analysis of Decentralized Electrolytic Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cell Vehicles by Sébastien Prince options considered for future fuel cell vehicles. In this thesis, a model is developed to determine

Victoria, University of

474

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Organic and Inorganic Solid Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries - Nader Hagh, NEI Corporation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Organic and Inorganic Solid Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries Organic and Inorganic Solid Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries Background & Objectives * Lithium ion batteries widely used in consumer applications Solvent leakage and flammability of conventional liquid electrolytes * Current solid state electrolytes suffer from low ionic conductivity, inferior rate capability, and interfacial instability * Objective of the program is to develop solid state organic and inorganic electrolyte that has enhanced ionic conductivity * PEO based polymer electrolyte has poor room ionic conductivity due to crystallinity * The current program develops a PEO based hybrid copolymer that disrupts crystallization and at the same time provides mechanical integrity Abstract: The use of a solid polymer electrolyte instead of the conventional liquid or gel electrolyte can drastically improve the safety

475

Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part I: Acidbase equilibria and pH buffersx  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part I: Acid We review fundamental and applied acid­base equilibrium chemistry useful to microfluidic with electrolyte dynamics and electrochemistry in typical microfluidic electrokinetic systems. Introduction

Santiago, Juan G.

476

Identity of Passive Film Formed on Aluminum in Li-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiPF6  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Film on Aluminum in Li-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiPFFormed on Aluminum in Li-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiPFbattery charging. From the prospective of maintaining a functioning cathode in Li-ion

Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, T.M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

Ho, W. S. Winston

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

478

Investigations on degradation of the long-term proton exchange membrane water electrolysis stack  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A 9-cell proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis stack is developed and tested for 7800 h. The average degradation rate of 35.5 ?V h?1 per cell is measured. The 4th MEA of the stack is offline investigated and characterized. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) shows that the charge transfer resistance and ionic resistance of the cell both increase. The linear sweep scan (LSV) shows the hydrogen crossover rate of the membrane has slight increase. The electron probe X-ray microanalyze (EPMA) illustrates further that Ca, Cu and Fe elements distribute in the membrane and catalyst layers of the catalyst-coated membranes (CCMs). The cations occupy the ion exchange sites of the Nafion polymer electrolyte in the catalyst layers and membrane, which results in the increase in the anode and the cathode overpotentials. The metallic impurities originate mainly from the feed water and the components of the electrolysis unit. Fortunately, the degradation was reversible and can be almost recovered to the initial performance by using 0.5 M H2SO4. This indicates the performance degradation of the stack running 7800 h is mainly caused by a recoverable contamination.

Shucheng Sun; Zhigang Shao; Hongmei Yu; Guangfu Li; Baolian Yi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

On the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of the cathode gas diffusion layer in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...diffusion layer in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell M. Vynnycky A. Gordon e-mail...layer (GDL) of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell is investigated asymptotically and...experimentally the case. polymer electrolyte fuel cell|gas diffusion layer|hydrophobicity...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "block-copolymer electrolyte membranes" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with the results from the previous batch.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report, measurements of the chemical and thermal expansion as a function of temperature and p{sub O2} are described.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Gas Separation Using Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.133.132, May 12. 1964. 45. Kesting, R. E., Synthetic Polymeric Membranes. McGraw-Hill, N. Y. (1971). 46. Strathmann, H., Kock. K., Amar. P., and Baker, R. W., Desalination 16, 179 (1975). 47. Strathmann, H., Schel""ble, P?? and Baker. R. W?? J. Appl...?? Desalination 21. 241 (1977). 51. Cohen. C?? Tanny, G. B?? and Prager, S., J. Polym. Sci.. Polym. Phys. Ed. 17, 477 (1979). 52. Tanny, G. B., J. App], Polym. ~i. 1!. 2149 (1974). 53. Cabasso, I?? Klein, E?? and smith. J. K., "Research and Development...

Koros, W. J.; Paul, D. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Chemical degradation of fluorosulfonamide fuel cell membrane polymer model compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The durability of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane, along with high proton conductivity and mechanical performance is critical to the success of these energy conversion devices. Extending our work in perfluorinated membrane stability, aromatic trifluoromethyl sulfonamide model compounds were prepared, and their oxidative degradation was examined. The chemical structures for the models were based on mono-, di- and tri-perfluorinated sulfonamide modified phenyl rings. Durability of the model compounds was evaluated by exposure to hydroxyl radicals generated using Fenton reagent and UV irradiation of hydrogen peroxide. LC–MS results for the mono-substituted model compound indicate greater stability to radical oxidation than the di-substituted species; loss of perfluorinated fonamide side chains appears to be an important pathway, along with dimerization and aromatic ring hydroxylation. The tri-substituted model compound also shows loss of side chains, with the mono-substituted compound being a major oxidation product, along with a limited amount of hydroxylation and dimerization of the starting material.

Jamela M. Alsheheri; Hossein Ghassemi; David A. Schiraldi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE MEMBRANES AND IMPROVED CATHODE CATALYSTS; PROJECT PERIOD JANUARY 1, 2002 - DECEMBER 31, 2005  

SciTech Connect

Polymer Electrolyte Membranes (PEMs) currently available for fuel cell development work are limited to the temperature range of 60-80°C. For mass commercialization in the transportation arena, three important disadvantages that are linked with the relatively low operating temperature range need to be addressed. These three disadvantages are: (a) sluggish cathode kinetics, (b) CO poisoning at the anode and (c) inefficient thermal characteristics. All three of the above mentioned disadvantages could be solved by increasing the operating temperature range to 100-120°C. To understand the issues associated with high temperature PEMFCs operation, UTCFC has teamed with leading research groups that possess competencies in the field of polymer chemistry. The subcontractors on the program were investigating modified Nafion® and new non-Nafion® based, reinforced and non-reinforced membrane systems. Nafion® based PEMs rely on using high temperature inorganic solid conductor fillers like phosphotungstic acid. Hydrocarbon membrane systems are based on poly (arylene ether sulfone) polymers, PEEK, PAN, etc.

Lesia Protsailo

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

487

Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use By MFI Zeolite Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Desalination of brines produced from oil and gas fields is an attractive option for providing potable water in arid regions. Recent field-testing of subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide for climate management purposes provides new motivation for optimizing efficacy of oilfield brine desalination: as subsurface reservoirs become used for storing CO{sub 2}, the displaced brines must be managed somehow. However, oilfield brine desalination is not economical at this time because of high costs of synthesizing membranes and the need for sophisticated pretreatments to reduce initial high TDS and to prevent serious fouling of membranes. In addition to these barriers, oil/gas field brines typically contain high concentrations of multivalent counter cations (eg. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) that can reduce efficacy of reverse osmosis (RO). Development of inorganic membranes with typical characteristics of high strength and stability provide a valuable option to clean produced water for beneficial uses. Zeolite membranes have a well-defined subnanometer pore structure and extreme chemical and mechanical stability, thus showing promising applicability in produced water purification. For example, the MFI-type zeolite membranes with uniform pore size of {approx}0.56 nm can separate ions from aqueous solution through a mechanism of size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion (Donnan exclusion). Such a combination allows zeolite membranes to be unique in separation of both organics and electrolytes from aqueous solutions by a reverse osmosis process, which is of great interest for difficult separations, such as oil-containing produced water purification. The objectives of the project 'Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use by MFI Zeolite Membranes' are: (1) to conduct extensive fundamental investigations and understand the mechanism of the RO process on zeolite membranes and factors determining the membrane performance, (2) to improve the membranes and optimize operating conditions to enhance water flux and ion rejection, and (3) to perform long-term RO operation on tubular membranes to study membrane stability and to collect experimental data necessary for reliable evaluations of technical and economic feasibilities. Our completed research has resulted in deep understanding of the ion and organic separation mechanism by zeolite membranes. A two-step hydrothermal crystallization process resulted in a highly efficient membrane with good reproducibility. The zeolite membranes synthesized therein has an overall surface area of {approx}0.3 m{sup 2}. Multichannel vessels were designed and machined for holding the tubular zeolite membrane for water purification. A zeolite membrane RO demonstration with zeolite membranes fabricated on commercial alpha-alumina support was established in the laboratory. Good test results were obtained for both actual produced water samples and simulated samples. An overall 96.9% ion rejection and 2.23 kg/m{sup 2}.h water flux was achieved in the demonstration. In addition, a post-synthesis modification method using Al{sup 3+}-oligomers was developed for repairing the undesirable nano-scale intercrystalline pores. Considerable enhancement in ion rejection was achieved. This new method of zeolite membrane modification is particularly useful for enhancing the efficiency of ion separation from aqueous solutions because the modification does not need high temperature operation and may be carried out online during the RO operation. A long-term separation test for actual CBM produced water has indicated that the zeolite membranes show excellent ion separation and extraordinary stability at high pressure and produced water environment.

Robert Lee; Liangxiong Li

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

488

Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Electra-optical device including a nitrogen containing electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Gruzalski, Greg R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Luck, Christopher F. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Method of making an electrolyte for an electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Electrical contact structures for solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved electrical output connection means is provided for a high temperature solid oxide electrolyte type fuel cell generator. The electrical connection of the fuel cell electrodes to the electrical output bus, which is brought through the generator housing to be connected to an electrical load line maintains a highly uniform temperature distribution. The electrical connection means includes an electrode bus which is spaced parallel to the output bus with a plurality of symmetrically spaced transversely extending conductors extending between the electrode bus and the output bus, with thermal insulation means provided about the transverse conductors between the spaced apart buses. Single or plural stages of the insulated transversely extending conductors can be provided within the high temperatures regions of the fuel cell generator to provide highly homogeneous temperature distribution over the contacting surfaces.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped Ti-substituted perovskites, La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3}, with 0 {le} x {le} 0.20, were investigated by neutron diffraction, magnetization, electric resistivity, and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. All samples show a rhombohedral structure (space group R3C) from 10 K to room temperature. At room temperature, the cell parameters a, c and the unit cell volume increase with increasing Ti content. However, at 10 K, the cell parameter a has a maximum value for x = 0.10, and decreases for x > 0.10, while the unit cell volume remains nearly constant for x > 0.10. The average (Mn,Ti)-O bond length increases up to x = 0.15, and the (Mn,Ti)-O-(Mn,Ti) bond angle decreases with increasing Ti content to its minimum value at x = 0.15 at room temperature. Below the Curie temperature TC, the resistance exhibits metallic behavior for the x {le} 0.05 samples. A metal (semiconductor) to insulator transition is observed for the x {ge} 0.10 samples. A peak in resistivity appears below TC for all samples, and shifts to a lower temperature as x increases. The substitution of Mn by Ti decreases the 2p-3d hybridization between O and Mn ions, reduces the bandwidth W, and increases the electron-phonon coupling. Therefore, the TC shifts to a lower temperature and the resistivity increases with increasing Ti content. A field-induced shift of the resistivity maximum occurs at x {le} 0.10 compounds. The maximum MR effect is about 70% for La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}. The separation of TC and the resistivity maximum temperature T{sub {rho},max} enhances the MR effect in these compounds due to the weak coupling between the magnetic ordering and the resistivity as compared with La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}. The bulk densities of the membranes were determined using the Archimedes method. The bulk density was 5.029 and 5.57 g/cc for LSFT and dual phase membranes, respectively. The microstructure of the dual phase membrane was analyzed using SEM. It is evident from the micrograph that the microstructure is composed of dual phases. The dense circular regions are enclosed by the less dense, continuous phase which accommodates most of the pores. The pores are normally aggregated and found clustered along the dense regions where as the dense regions do not have pores. Upon closer observation of the micrograph it is revealed that the dense region has a clear circular cleavage or crack as their boundary. The circular cleavage clearly encompasses a dense region and which consists of no pore or any flaw that is visible. The size distribution of the dense, discontinuous regions is varying from 5 to 20 {micro}m with a D{sub 50} of 15 {micro}m. The grain size distribution was estimated from the micrographs using image analysis and a unimodal distribution of grains was observed with an average grain size of 1.99 {micro}m. The chemical compositions of the membranes were analyzed using EDS analysis and no other impurities were observed. The XRD analysis was carried out for the membranes and the phase purity was confirmed. The fracture toughness of LSFT membranes at room temperature has to be calculated using the Vickers indentation method. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the ionic conductivity by the use of blocking electrodes. Preliminary measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Modifications to the apparatus to improve the data quality have been completed. Electron microscopy studies of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been initiated. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradient

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID ELECTROLYTES: FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The intent of this project with Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to develop research infrastructure conductive to Fuel Cell research at Southern University and A and M College, Baton Route. A state of the art research laboratory (James Hall No.123 and No.114) for energy conversion and storage devices was developed during this project duration. The Solid State Ionics laboratory is now fully equipped with materials research instruments: Arbin Battery Cycling and testing (8 channel) unit, Electrochemical Analyzer (EG and G PAR Model 273 and Solartron AC impedance analyzer), Fuel Cell test station (Globe Tech), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC-10), Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA), Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), UV-VIS-NIR Absorption Spectrometer, Fluorescence Spectrometer, FT-IR Spectrometer, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) measurement capability at Center for Advanced Microstructure and Devices (CAMD- a multimillion dollar DOE facility), Glove Box, gas hood chamber, high temperature furnaces, hydraulic press and several high performance computers. IN particular, a high temperature furnace (Thermodyne 6000 furnace) and a high temperature oven were acquired through this project funds. The PI Dr. R Bobba has acquired additional funds from federal agencies include NSF-Academic Research Infrastructure program and other DOE sites. They have extensively used the multimillion dollar DOE facility ''Center'' for Advanced Microstructures and Devices (CAMD) for electrochemical research. The students were heavily involved in the experimental EXAFS measurements and made use of their DCM beamline for EXAFS research. The primary objective was to provide hands on experience to the selected African American undergraduate and graduate students in experimental energy research.The goal was to develop research skills and involve them in the Preparation and Characterization of Solid Electrolytes. Ionically conducting solid electrolytes are successfully used for battery, fuel cell and sensor applications.

Rambabu Bobba; Josef Hormes; T. Wang; Jaymes A. Baker; Donald G. Prier; Tommy Rockwood; Dinesha Hawkins; Saleem Hasan; V. Rayanki

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

494

SISGR: Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties  

SciTech Connect

The solvation and phase behavior of the model battery electrolyte salt lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) in commonly used organic solvents; ethylene carbonate (EC), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and propylene carbonate (PC) was explored. Data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were correlated to provide insight into the solvation states present within a sample mixture. Data from DSC analyses allowed the construction of phase diagrams for each solvent system. Raman spectroscopy enabled the determination of specific solvation states present within a solvent-Ã?Â?Ã?Â?salt mixture, and X-ray diffraction data provided exact information concerning the structure of a solvates that could be isolated Thermal analysis of the various solvent-salt mixtures revealed the phase behavior of the model electrolytes was strongly dependent on solvent symmetry. The point groups of the solvents were (in order from high to low symmetry): C2V for EC, CS for GBL, and C1 for PC(R). The low symmetry solvents exhibited a crystallinity gap that increased as solvent symmetry decreased; no gap was observed for EC-LiTf, while a crystallinity gap was observed spanning 0.15 to 0.3 mole fraction for GBL-LiTf, and 0.1 to 0.33 mole fraction for PC(R)-LiTf mixtures. Raman analysis demonstrated the dominance of aggregated species in almost all solvent compositions. The AGG and CIP solvates represent the majority of the species in solutions for the more concentrated mixtures, and only in very dilute compositions does the SSIP solvate exist in significant amounts. Thus, the poor charge transport characteristics of CIP and AGG account for the low conductivity and transport properties of LiTf and explain why is a poor choice as a source of Li+ ions in a Li-ion battery.

Trulove, Paul C; Foley, Matthew P

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

495

Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems  

SciTech Connect

A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

Repasky, John Michael

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

496

Pushing the Theoretical Limit of Li-CFx Batteries: A Tale of Bi-functional Electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

In a typical battery, electrodes deliver capacities less or equal the theoretical maxima of the electrode materials.1 The inert electrolyte functions solely as the ionic conductor without contribution to the cell capacity because of its distinct mono-function in the concept of conventional batteries. Here we demonstrate that the most energy-dense Li-CFx battery2 delivers a capacity exceeding the theoretical maximum of CFx with a solid electroly